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COLEGIUL GRIGORE ANTIPA BACU

PROFESOR CONSTANTIN CIOFU


Combinatorica
Calculul unor sume
1. S se calculeze sumele:
a)
n
n
3
n
2
n
1
n
nC ... C 3 C 2 C + + + +
b) ( )
1 n
C
1 ....
3
C
2
C
1
C
n
n n
2
n
1
n
0
n
+
+ + + + .
Rezolvare.
a) Metoda 1 Utiliznd formula
k k 1
n n 1
k
C
n
n
C nC
k 1
k
C
n 1
k

= =

i aplicnd-o fiecrui termen


n parte obinem:
1 n
2 n
1 n
1 n
C ....
1
1 n
C
0
1 n
C n
n
nC ....
n
C 2
1
n
C
1 n
1 n
nC
n
nC
..... .......... ..........
1 n
nC
n
C 3
1 n
nC
n
C 2
1 n
nC
1
n
C 1
n 2
n
2 3
1 2
0

= |
.
|

\
|

+ +

= + + +

=

=

=
.
Metoda 2 Notm
n
n
nC .....
3
n
C 3
2
n
C 2
1
n
C
n
S + + + + = . Rescriem suma
n
S , utiliznd
formula combinrilor complementare ,
k n
n
k
n
C C

= :
( )
0 1 3 n 2 n 1 n
n
nC
n
C 1 n .....
n
C 3
n
C 2
n
C
n
S + + + + + =

. Adunnd aceast sum cu suma iniial
vom obine:
1 n
2 n
n
S
n
2 n
n
S 2
n
n
C .....
1
n
C
0
n
C n
n
S 2

= = |
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
b) Folosind formula
k 1
k k 1 n 1
n n 1
k
n
n 1 C 1
C C
n 1 C k 1 k 1
1
+
+ +
+
+
= =
+
+ +
i aplicnd-o fiecrui termen n
parte obinem:
1 n
1
1
n
2
n
2
1 n
1
.....
4
n
C
3
2
n
C
2
1
n
C
1
0
n
C
.... .......... ..........
1 n
C
1 n
1
n
C
3
1
1 n
C
1 n
1
n
C
2
1
1 n
C
1 n
1
n
C
1
1
3
3 2
2 1
1 0
+
= |
.
|

\
|
+
+
= + +
+
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
Am inut cont c:
n
2 ....
2
1 n
C
0
1 n
C ....
3
1 n
C
1
1 n
C = +
+
+
+
= +
+
+
+
.
2. S se deduc egalitile:
a) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
| t
= + +
4
n
cos
n
2 .....
n
C
n
C
n
C
n
C
6 4 2 0
;
b) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
| t
= + +
4
n
sin
n
2 .....
n
C
n
C
n
C
n
C
7 5 3 1
.
COLEGIUL GRIGORE ANTIPA BACU
PROFESOR CONSTANTIN CIOFU
Rezolvare.
Plecm de la numrul complex i 1 z + = , care scris sub form trigonometric devine:
( )
z 1 i 2 cos isin
4 4
t t
= + = + .
Formula lui Moivre d ( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
| t
+
t
= + =
4
n
sin i
4
n
cos
n
2
n
i 1
n
z (1).
Aplicnd pentru acelai numr complex formula lui Newton i innd seama de
puterile lui i, avem: ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + = + .....
7
n
C
5
n
C
3
n
C
1
n
C i .....
n
C
n
C
n
C
n
C
n
i 1
6 4 2 0
(2).
Din (1) i (2) prin identificarea prilor reale i imaginare, rezult egalitile cerute.
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + = |
.
|

\
| t
+
t
.....
7
n
C
5
n
C
3
n
C
1
n
C i .....
6
n
C
4
n
C
2
n
C
0
n
C
4
n
sin i
4
n
cos
n
2
( ) ( )
n n
n n 1 3 0 2
2 cos i 2 sin C C ..... i C C .....
n n
n n
4 4
t t | |
+ = + + +
|
\ .
( )
|
|
.
|

\
| t
= +
4
n
cos
n
2 .....
2
n
C
0
n
C i ( )
|
|
.
|

\
| t
= +
4
n
sin
n
2 .....
3
n
C
1
n
C .
3. S se arate c
0 3 6
1 n
n
C C C ..... 2 2cos
n n n
3 3
| |
|
\ .
t
+ + + = +
Rezolvare.
Fie
1 i 3 1 i 3 2 2
cos i sin
2 2 2 3 3
+ t t
c = = + = + , o rdcina cubic a unitii (
3
1 c =
i
2
1 0 c + c + = ). n dezvoltarea ( )
n
0 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
n n n n n
1 k C kC k C k C k C .... + = + + + + + lum
pe rnd
2
k 1, k , k = = c = c i obinem:
n 0 1 2 3 4
n n n n n
2 C C C C C .... = + + + + +
( )
n
0 1 2 2 3 4
n n n n n
1 C C C C C .... + c = + c + c + + c +
( )
n
2 0 2 1 2 3 2 4
n n n n n
1 C C C C C .... + c = + c + c + + c +
Adunnd membru cu membru cele 3 egaliti vom obine
( ) ( )
n
n
n 2 0 3 6
n n n
2 1 1 3 C C C ...... ( + + c + + c = + + +

(3). Deoarece
1 i 3
1 cos i sin
2 2 3 3
t t
+ c = + = + ,
2
1 i 3
1 cos i sin
2 2 3 3
t t | | | |
+ c = = +
| |
\ . \ .
, din
egalitatea (3) obinem egalitatea din enun.
4. S se calculeze sumele:
a) ( )
n
n
2
n
1
n
0
n
C 1 n .... C 3 C 2 C + + + + + ;
b) ( )
n
n
2
n
1
n
0
n
C 1 n 2 .... C 5 C 3 C + + + + + ;
c) ( )
n
n
2
n
1
n
0
n
C 1 n 4 .... C 9 C 5 C + + + + + ;
d) ( )
n
n
2
n
1
n
0
n
C 3 n 4 .... C 11 C 7 C 3 + + + + + ;
e) ( ) ( ) ( )
n
n
1
n
0
n
C 1 k n 4 .... C 5 k C 1 k + + + + + + + .
Indicaii.
a) Notm ( )
n
n
C 1 n .....
n
C 3
n
C 2
n
C
n
S
2 1 0
+ + + + + = . Rescriem suma
n
S , utiliznd
formula combinrilor complementare ,
k n
n
k
n
C C

= :
COLEGIUL GRIGORE ANTIPA BACU
PROFESOR CONSTANTIN CIOFU
( )
0 1 2 n 1 n n
n
C 1 n
n
nC .....
n
C 3
n
C 2
n
C
n
S + + + + + + =

. Adunnd aceast sum cu suma iniial
vom obine: ( ) ( ) + = |
.
|

\
|
+ + + + =
n
2 2 n
n
S 2
n
n
C .....
1
n
C
0
n
C 2 n
n
S 2 ( )
n 1
S n 2 2
n

= + .
5. S se calculeze sumele:
a)
1 n
C
....
3
C
2
C
C
n
n
2
n
1
n 0
n
+
+ + + + ;
b)
( )( ) 2 n 1 n
C
....
4 3
C
3 2
C
2 1
C
n
n
2
n
1
n
0
n
+ +
+ +

;
c)
2 n
C
....
4
C
3
C
2
C
n
n
2
n
1
n
0
n
+
+ + + + ;
d) ( )
1 n
C
1 ....
4
C
3
C
2
C
n
n n
3
n
2
n
1
n
+
+ + .
Indicaii.
a) Utiliznd formula
k k 1
n n 1
1
C C
n 1
1
k 1
+
+
=
+
+
, se obine:
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
+
+ + + + =

=
+
+
=
+
+
=
n
0 k
1 k
1 n
n
0 k
1 k
1 n
n
0 k
n
n
n
n
2
n
1
n
0
n
n
C
1 n
1
1 n
C
1 k
C
1 n
C
....
3
C
2
C
1
C
S
( ) ( ) | |= + + +
+
= + + +
+
=
+
+
+ + +
+
+ + +
0
1 n
1 n
1 n
1
1 n
0
1 n
1 n
1 n
2
1 n
1
1 n
C C .... C C
1 n
1
C .... C C
1 n
1
( )
1 n
1 2
C 2
1 n
1
1 n
0
1 n
1 n
+

=
+
=
+
+
+
.
6. S se calculeze
n
1 i 3
2 2
| |
+ |
|
\ .
n dou moduri (aplicnd formula lui Moivre i
formula binomului lui Newton), apoi s se deduc egalitile:
a) ( )
3
n 2
cos 2 1 ..... C 27 C 9 C 3 C
n n 6
n
4
n
2
n
0
n
t
= + + ;
b)
( )
3
n 2
sin
3
2 1
..... C 9 C 3 C
1 n 1 n
5
n
3
n
1
n
t
= +
+ +
.
Indicaii.
n
n
1 i 3 2 2 2n 2n
cos i sin cos i sin
2 2 3 3 3 3
| |
t t t t | |
+ = + = + |
|
|
\ .
\ .
;
n
n n 1
0 1
n n
1 i 3 1 1 i 3
C C .....
2 2 2 2 2

| |
| | | |
+ = + + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .
etc.
7. Demonstrai identitile:
a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+ = + + +

4
n
cos 2 2
2
1
..... C C C
2
n
1 n 8
n
4
n
0
n
;
b)
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+ = + + +

4
n
sin 2 2
2
1
..... C C C
2
n
1 n 9
n
5
n
1
n
.
8. Fie ..... C C C C S
6
n
4
n
2
n
0
n 1
+ + = i ..... C C C C S
7
n
5
n
3
n
1
n 2
+ + = . S se arate c:
a) ( )
n
1 2
S iS 1 i + = +
COLEGIUL GRIGORE ANTIPA BACU
PROFESOR CONSTANTIN CIOFU
b)
n 2
2
2
1
2 S S = + .
Indicaii.
Se dezvolt ( )
n
1 i + dup formula binomului lui Newton;
b) ( ) ( )
n
n n
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 i S iS S iS 1 i S S 2 + = + + = + + =
n 2
2
2
1
2 S S = + .