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(MG'MSREV HI QMXSPSKMI TSTYPEV
8IQE EFSVHEX HI GIVGIXEVIE RSEWXV WI RWGVMI R HMVIG'ME, QEM EQTP,
E WXYHMYPYM QIRXEPMX'MPSV, EZRH GE WMWXIQ HI VIJIVMR' WSGMIX'MPI XVEHM'MSREPI.
0E S TVMQ ZIHIVI, XIQE EV TYXIE TVIE HI MQTSVXER' QMRSV, TVMR JETXYP G
HSQIRMYP MRZIWXMKEX IWXI RKYWX. "M EGIEWXE HSEV ETEVIRX, TIRXVY G, TSVRMRH
HI PE HIWGVMIVIE #M MRXIVTVIXEVIE YRSV IPIQIRXI HI QMXSPSKMI SJIVMXI HI
GVIHMR'IPI TSTYPEVI (TIVWSRENI QEPI3GI, PSG HI EG'MYRI WTIGM3G, XMQT
GSRWEGVEX IXG.) GMVGYQWGVMWI QIHMGMRIM QEKMGI, PYGVEVIE SJIV S MQEKMRI HI
ERWEQFPY EWYTVE RXVIKYPYM WMWXIQ HI VITVI^IRXVM QMXSPSKMGI HMR GEVI JEG
TEVXI #M HIQSRMM TIVWSRM3GVM EPI FSPMPSV, EPI VYPYM KIRIVEPM^EX. %Q EHYW
EVKYQIRXI TIRXVY I\MWXIR'E #M ZMEFMPMXEXIE YRYM QSH ETEVXI HI KRHMVI, GEVI
E KIRIVEX, TVMRXVI EPXIPI #M MQEKMRM HISWIFMX HI MRXIVIWERXI VIJIVMXSEVI PE
I\MWXIR'E RW#M E YRYM QSHIP EP PYQMM, QEM TVIGMW E HSY YRMZIVWYVM TEVEPIPI,
PE FE^E GVSVE WI E4 ZM^MYRIE TSTYPEV EWYTVE RS'MYRMM HI WEGVY, VIEPM^EX
TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP.
8SEXI EGIWXI GSRGITXI JYRHEQIRXEPI WI VIKWIWG R TEKMRMPI
HMG'MSREVYPYM RSWXVY. 4VMR MRXIVQIHMYP PSV WI TSX MRXIVTVIXE, R KIRIVEP, XSEXI
VITVI^IRXVMPI QMXSPSKMGI, R QWYVE R GEVI IPI WI KVYTIE^ R WMWXIQI FMRI
RGLIKEXI. 'Y XSEXI EGIWXIE, TR #M GVIHMR'I HMWTEVEXI, VITVI^IRXVM M^SPEXI,
EXMTMGI, #M VIZIRHMG, PE VRHY-PI, ETEVXIRIR'E PE EGIWX QSH HI KRHMVI.
0YQIE PYM LSQS VIPMKMSWYW R GE^YP RSWXVY GSQTSVXEQIRXYP QMXMG EP SQYPYM
WSGMIX'MPSV XVEHM'MSREPI IVE QEVGEX HI TVI^IR'E WEGVYPYM RY EXX GE
LMIVSJERMI, ETEVM'MI, GX R MTSWXE^E WE HI RWS'MXSV TIVQERIRX EP YQERYPYM. "M
EMGM, GE #M R HI3RMVIE GSRGITXYPYM HI WEGVY, ETIPQ PE TVIGM^EVIE JGYX HI
1MVGIE )PMEHI: WEGVYP I\MWX TIWXI XSX R PYQI. 9RISVM WI VIEPM^IE^
MRXVY^MYRIE PYM, EHIWIE FVYXEP, R YRMZIVWYP YQER. %PXISVM IP RYQEM WI
HIWGSTIV, WI HI^ZPYMI EFME WMQ'MX: SGYPXEVIE PYM IWXI ERMLMPEX HI YR RXVIK
WMWXIQ HI TVEGXMGM VMXYEPI GY GEVEGXIV QEKMG (R GE^YP RXPRMVMPSV ZSPYRXEVI)
WEY TVMR TXVYRHIVI (HI GIPI QEM QYPXI SVM MRZSPYRXEV, RXQTPXSEVI) RXV-YR
WTE'MY #M YR XMQT GSRWEGVEX.
%WXJIP, WMWXIQYP VITVI^IRXVMPSV QMXSPSKMGI WI HSZIHI#XI E 3 HISWIFMX HI
FSKEX, EMGM MRXVRH S WIVMI HI IPIQIRXI YRMXI TVMRXV-S XVWXYV GSQYR, GEVI
IWXI ETEVXIRIR'E PSV PE WEGVY.
:SVFMQ HIGM HI I\MWXIR'E R TVMQYP VRH E YRYM XMT ETEVXI HI KRHMVI,
RYQMX KRHMVI QMXSPSKMG/QMXMG, HMJIVMX HI GIE SFM#RYMX, TVSJER,
TVSQSZEX #M QIR'MRYX TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP MRM'ME'MPSV, EP GYRSWGXSVMPSV, EP GIPSV
GEVI #XMY. )M WYRX, R EGIWX JIP, PE GYVIRX GY I\MWXIR'E YRYM HSQIRMY TVIHMPIGX
HI QERMJIWXEVI E WEGVYPYM, PYQIE WEGVYPYM (PYQIE GIEPEPX, PYQIE TIVWSRENIPSV
QMXSPSKMGI IXG.), GSRWXVYMX, R KIRIVEP, HYT QSHIPYP PYQMM YQERYPYM, R GEVI
JYRG'MSRIE^ TVMRGMTMM HISWIFMXI, EHIWIE GSRXVEVI PSKMGMM SFM#RYMXI. 'IPI QEM
JVIGZIRXI VITVI^IRXVM ZSVFIWG HI I\MWXIR'E YRYM YRMZIVW VWXYVREX, MRZIVWEX,
R GEVI XSXYP WI TIXVIGI TI HSW JE' HI VIEPMX'MPI GSXMHMIRI. %GGIWYP R EGIEWX
PYQI WI JEGI HIWXYP HI JVIGZIRX, ZSPYRXEV WEY RY, R WIGZIR'I XIQTSVEPI
TVSTMGI (ENYRYP QEVMPSV WVFXSVM, RST'M GY PYR, EQME^E, IGPMTWI IXG.) WEY
TVMRXV-YR WTE'MY EHIGZEX EHIZVEXI TSV'M GI XI XVERWTSVX MRWXERXERIY R
GIEPEPX PYQI.
%NYR#M EMGM, XVIFYMI W VIQEVGQ S XVWXYV GEVEGXIVMWXMG E EGIWXYM XMT
HI WEGVEPMXEXI. %Q EVXEX QEM WYW G IWXI ZSVFE HI S SGYPXEVI E WEGVYPYM, HI S
QEWGEVI E EGIWXYME. RXV-EHIZV, EQFMZEPIR'E (RWY#MVI SFM#RYMX R PYQIE
WEGVYPYM) HMZIVWIPSV IPIQIRXI WI GSRXYVIE^ GE YR IPIQIRX SFPMKEXSVMY. 3VMGI
SFMIGX EVI S HYFP ZEPSVM^EVI: YRE TVSJER, HI ^M GY ^M (QEM EPIW R VIKMQ
HMYVR), E#E GYQ ETEVI IE GSRXYVEX R EGXMZMX'MPI GSXMHMIRI #M YRE WEGV
(EHIWIE RSGXYVR WEY R GEHVYP TVIWGVMT'MMSV VMXYEPI GIVYXI HI XVEHM'MI), TVMR
GEVI WI TSEXI EGGIHI PE GIEPEPX PYQI. %WXJIP, EGIPE#M SFMIGX, EPXQMRXIVM FEREP,
TSEXI WIVZM HVITX VIGMTMIRX EP WEGVYPYM, HVITX MRXIVQIHMEV EP EGIWXYME. "M R
EGIWX GE^ ZSVFMQ HI GSMRGMHIR'E GSRXVEVMMPSV: VIEPMX'MPI PE GEVI XVMQMXI SFMIGXYP
WYRX, IZMHIRX, HMJIVMXI (RY MRGSQTEXMFMPI), RW EQRHSY HI3RMRH EGIEWX
VIEPMXEXI GSQTPI\ GEVI IWXI WEGVYP.
RXVYGX EGGIWYP PE WEGVY, PE WEGVEPMXEXI, PE TYXIVI WI VIEPM^E TVMR TVEGXMGM
VMXYEPI WTIGMEPM^EXI, WI MQTYRIE SGYPXEVIE GMPSV HI EGGIW WTVI GIEPEPX
VIEPMXEXI. R EGIWX JIP, RYQVYP GIPSV HSVMXSVM W WXTRIEWG JSV'E WI
VIWXVRKIE PE YR GIVG HI MRM'ME'M, HI GYRSWGXSVM EM QSHEPMX'MPSV HI GETXEVI E
IRIVKMMPSV WEGVI #M HI TVSXINEVI QTSXVMZE TVI^IR'IM I\GIWMZI E EGIWXSVE.
6ITVI^IRXVMPI PIKEXI HI WMWXIQYP IPIQIRXIPSV WEGVYPYM TVIWYTYR QEM
QYPXI RMZIPYVM HI VIEPM^EVI:
%) PYQIE TIVWSRENIPSV QMXSPSKMGI, MTSWXE^IPI GIPI QEM IZMHIRXI,
TYVXXSEVI TIV WI EPI WEGVYPYM; F) S ^SR MRXIVQIHMEV, R GEVI TXVYRH 3MR'I
YQERI HSVMXSEVI W HSFRHIEWG ERYQMXI GEPMX'M WTIGM3GI HSEV TIVWSRENIPSV
QMXSPSKMGI. %GI#XM QYVMXSVM VIEPM^IE^ 3I TVMR RE#XIVI, 3I TVMR MRM'MIVI,
XVIGIVIE HMRXV-S PYQI R EPXE, TIRHYPRH RXVI GIPI HSY VIEPMX'M. %QFMZEPIR'E
PSV IWXI WYFPMRMEX #M HI GEVEGXIVYP EG'MYRMPSV QEPI3GI WEY FIRI3GI TI GEVI
PI RXVITVMRH (QEKMGMIRM: JIVQIGXSVM, ZVNMXSVM, WSPSQSREVM IXG); G) PYQIE
YQERYPYM, GEVI RGIEVG W HIPMQMXI^I WJIVE HI EG'MYRI E QEPI3GYPYM. (MR IE
JEG TEVXI QYVMXSVM WEY TIVWSRENI TEV'MEP WEGVEPM^EXI, GEVI ETV HI I\GIWYP HI
WEGVY TVMR I\SVGMWQI WEY TVMR TVSGIHII ETSXVSTEMGI (HIWGRXXSVM, HIW-
JGXSVM, GSRXVE-WSPSQSREVM IXG.).
8SEXI EGIWXI TVEGXMGM TVIWYTYR R QSH SFPMKEXSVMY MRM'MIVIE R XEMRIPI
PYQMM WEGVYPYM, GYRSE#XIVIE EGIWXSVE #M HSFRHMVIE GETEGMX'MM HI E I\IGYXE
HMJIVMXIPI TVEGXMGM. 6IGYRSE#XIVIE TIVWSRENIPSV QMXSPSKMGI, E WTE'MYPYM #M
XMQTYPYM WEGVY RY WI TYXIE JEGI HIGX HEG VIWTIGXMZYP SQ #XME, HEG EZIE
GYRS#XMR'IPI RIGIWEVI HIGSHVMM QIWENYPYM TVMQMX. 0E JIP R GE^YP
QERMJIWXVMPSV ZSPYRXEVI GYTVMR^RH TVEGXMGM SVEGYPEVI, GY GEVEGXIV
ETSXVSTEMG WEY TVSTM'MEXSV TXVYRHIVIE R ^SRE WEGVYPYM, GSRJSVQ YRSV VIKYPM
FMRI WXEFMPMXI HI GSQYRMXEXIE XVEHM'MSREP, WI FE^IE^ TI EGIPE#M WMWXIQ HI
VITVI^IRXVM.
-RHMJIVIRX HEG IWXI ZSVFE HI EG'MYRM, HI WIQRI GEVEGXIVMWXMGI EPI
VITVI^IRXER'MPSV HMVIG'M (TIVWSRENI QMXSPSKMGI) WEY MRXIVQIHMEVM EM WEGVYPYM
(SEQIRM R^IWXVE'M GY TYXIVM HISWIFMXI), XSEXI GVIHMR'IPI QMXSPSKMGI WEY
TVEGXMGMPI QEKMGI XVMQMX PE YR WMWXIQ GSIVIRX HI VITVI^IRXVM, RXIQIMEXI TI S
VIPE'MI WXVYGXYVEP GEVI, TSVRMRH HI PE GSWQSKSRMI, KIRI^ IXG., WI EQTPM3G
PE XSEXI RMZIPYVMPI HI VIEPM^EVI E WEGVYPYM, GSRWXMXYMRH IPIQIRXYP HI FE^ EP
WMWXIQYPYM HI KRHMVI XVEHM'MSREP. 4VMR EGIWXI HIPMQMXVM EQ EZYX R ZIHIVI
STS^M'ME, QEM TVIGMW WMWXIQYP STS^M'MMPSV FMREVI, GE QEVG KIRIVEXSEVI E
WXVYGXYVMM VIWTIGXMZIPSV VITVI^IRXVM, EPXYVM HI YR EPX TVMRGMTMY IWIR'MEP,
IZMHIR'MEX XSX HI 1MVGIE )PMEHI: GSMRGMHIRXME STTSWMXSVYQ.
%RWEQFPYP VITVI^IRXVMPSV QMXSPSKMGI IWXI HISWIFMX HI FSKEX,
GYTVMR^RH RY RYQEM TIVWSRENI QMXSPSKMGI. 4VMR WXVYGXYVEVIE GEXIKSVMEP E
YRSV 3KYVVM HIWTVI PYQIE WEGVYPYM, HIWTVI GSRWXMXYMVIE EGIWXIME, HIWTVI
IPIQIRXIPI WEPI GSQTSRIRXI, RXVIK YRMZIVWYP ENYRKI W WI SVKERM^I^I R
NYVYP YRIM HMLSXSQMM JYRHEQIRXEPI. 1EM TVIGMW, IWXI ZSVFE HI S WIVMI HI
TIVIGLM HI STS^M'MM GEVI WI GSQTPIXIE^ VIGMTVSG, GSRXYVRH QEM GPEV ZM^MYRIE
WSGMIX'MPSV XVEHM'MSREPI EWYTVE PSV. %GIWXI TIVIGLM WYRX: PYQIE RSEWXV/PYQIE
GIEPEPX, WEGVY/TVSJER, QEPI3G/FIRI3G. 4SVRMRH HI PE TVIQMWE I\MWXIR'IM E HSM
GVIEXSVM (*VXEXYP/2IJVXEXYP, (YQRI^IY/(MEZSP, YR GYTPY HI JVE'M KIQIRM IXG.),
PIKIRHIPI GSWQSKSRMGI #M IXMSPSKMGI WTYR G RG HI FYR/VY, GVIME M WI
GSRXVETYRI PYQIE GIEPEPX, E WEGVYPYM, E TIVWSRENIPSV PE SVMKMRI PYQIE W-E
TSPEVM^EX R HSY WMWXIQI HI VITVI^IRXVM ERXEKSRMGI. (IQMYVKMM EY TYVGIW PE
TSTYPEVIE YRMZIVWYPYM: IM EY GVIEX IPIQIRXI R GEVI QEVGE SVMKMREV E
ETEVXIRIR'IM PE FIRI3G WEY QEPI3G E HMRYMX. R EGIWX JIP W-EY TYW FE^IPI
GIPSV HSY YRMZIVWYVM E4EXI R STS^M'MI, GEVEGXIVM^EXI TVMR HITIRHIR'E PSV HI
TVMRGMTMMPI JYRHEQIRXEPI (QEPI3G/FIRI3G, WEGVY/TVSJER), GI VITVI^MRX RW#M
IWIR'E HMZMRMX'MPSV WYTVIQI EQMRXMXI. %GGIRXYEVIE STS^M'MIM WI JEGI TVMR
GSRXMRYEVIE MHIRXM3GVMM IPIQIRXIPSV WMWXIQYPYM, VIGSRWXMXYMXI TVMR STS^M'MI GY
SFMIGXIPI, ZMI'YMXSEVIPI, TIVWSRENIPI IXG. 'I EG'MSRIE^ R GIEPEPX PYQI. 'E
QSHIP HI WXVYGXYVEVI IWXI PYEX PYQIE YQERYPYM, QMXSPSKMGI GEVEGXIVM^EXI
TVMR EXVMFYXI HI YR GY XSXYP EPX SVHMR #M TYVXXSEVI EPI IPIQIRXIPSV IWIR'MEPI
EPI YRMZIVWYPYM MRZIVWEX. 8SX R EGIEWX GEXIKSVMI, R YVQE EG'MYRMM TVMRGMTMYPYM
GSMRGMHIRXME STTSWMXSVYQ, MRGPYHIQ HYEPMWQYP TVSTVMY JYRG'MMPSV SFMIGXIPSV HMR
QIHMYP HSQIWXMG, HI I\IQTPY, SFMIGXI QEVGEXI HI ETEVXIRIR'E PSV EXX PE
WEGVY, GX #M PE TVSJER, HISTSXVMZ RGVGEXI HI WEGVEPMXEXI (GY HISWIFMVI R
WMXYE'MM HI VYTXYV) #M FEREPI (R VIWXYP XMQTYPYM).
9RMZIVWYP VWXYVREX, RXIQIMEX TI EGIEWX STS^M'MI JYRHEQIRXEP, WEGVY/
TVSJER, TSEXI 3 VIGSRWXMXYMX #M TVMR GIVGIXEVIE TVEGXMGMPSV VMXYEPI, TVMZMXI GE
QSHEPMX'M HI EGGIHIVI PE WEGVY, HI WXEFMPMVI E YRYM GSRXEGX GY EGIWXE. -EX HI
GI RHITPMRMVIE YRYM VMXYEP XVIFYME W WI HISWIFIEWG HI XSX GI IVE TVSJER,
GSQYR, KIWXYVMPI GSQTSRIRXI 3MRH, HI VIKYP, QERMJIWXVM MRWSPMXI R PYQIE
HI ^M GY ^M (HEXYP TIWXI GET, QFVGEVIE TI HSW E LEMRIPSV, RXSEVGIVM IXG.),
MRHMJIVIRX HEG WI YVQVIE YXMPM^EVIE WEGVYPYM R WGSTYVM TS^MXMZI WEY
RIKEXMZI. )WXI MQTSVXERX W TVIGM^Q EWXJIP G, R KRHMVIE XVEHM'MSREP, EGIWX
GSRXEGX TVIGSRM^EX WI TYXIE VIEPM^E VIPEXMZ Y#SV, JV QYPXI TVIPMQMREVMM.
-RHMWTIRWEFMPI IVEY, JV RHSMEP, GYRS#XMR'IPI HI XMT MRM'MEXMG #M GEVI WIVZIEY
HVITX RHVITXEV TIRXVY XSEXI WMXYE'MMPI GI EV 3 RIGIWMXEX YXMPM^EVIE PSV TIRXVY
TVSXIG'MI WEY TIRXVY MR4YIR'EVIE WEGVYPYM. 9#YVMR'E GY GEVI TYXIEY 3 IPI
HIWGSTIVMXI I\TPMG HI GI GSRXEGXYP MRZSPYRXEV GY VIEPMXEXIE WEGV IVE YR
JIRSQIR HIWXYP HI VWTRHMX, SFMIGX EP TSZIWXMVMPSV GY GEVEGXIV QMXSPSKMG.
RXQTPEVIE GE IPIQIRX KIRIVEXSV HI WYTVEREXYVEP MQTYRI SFPMKEXMZMXEXIE
MRM'MIVMM, E VIWTIGXVMM XVEHM'MIM #M RSVQIPSV GYXYQMEPI GEVI HIWGMJVEY
WEGVEPMXEXIE, JGRH-S EGGIWMFMP #M RIS3'MPSV.
(EXSVMX GEVEGXIVYPYM I^SXIVMG EP WSGMIX'MPSV MRM'MEXMGI, GYRS#XMR'IPI
ZILMGYPEXI R GEHVYP EGIWXSVE RY EZIEY GYQ W 3I GYRSWGYXI HI QEWE
GSPIGXMZMX'MM, GEVI XVIFYME W WI GSRJSVQI^I XEFY-YPYM MQTYW HI WEGIVHS'M.
7GTVM HI MRJSVQE'MI EZIEY PSG, JV RHSMEP. 'Y ENYXSVYP EGIWXSVE,
RIMRM'ME'MM TYXIEY VIGSRWXMXYM QMXYP IWIR'MEP, I\TPMGRHY-#M EWXJIP QERMJIWXVMPI
RISFM#RYMXI, LMIVSJERMMPI, RXPRMVMPI, HMVIGXI WEY MRHMVIGXI, GY TIVWSRENI
QMXSPSKMGI, GE IQFPIQI EPI YRMZIVWYPYM VWXYVREX.
7JRXYP, 7JRXE WPSZ.
7PSZEG WTER.
7ERMSP W. R. WYFPMRMIVIE RSEWXV XVH.
8VEHYGIVI Z. -ZI^M ZW -ZIVWYW ZWP.
:IGLM-WEPZ.
%' %GYP IWXI YR MRWXVYQIRX QEKMG HIWXYP HI HIW YXMPM^EX R TVEGXMGMPI HI
EPYRKEVI E IPIQIRXIPSV QEPI3GI, QEM EPIW TIRXVY G IVE PE RHIQRE XYXYVSV
#M, HI EWIQIRIE, TIRXVY G WPYNIE GIP QEM FMRI SFMIGXMZIPSV QEKMIM
GSRXVESJIRWMZI (WTVI HISWIFMVI, HI I\IQTPY, HI GY'MX #M XSTSV, GEVI WIQRM3GEY
QEM FMRI PEXYVE RIJEWX E QEKMIM, 3MRH I\XVIQ HI YXMPM^EXI QEM EPIW R ZVNM).
)WXI JSEVXI VWTRHMX SFMGIMYP HI E TYRI RXVI LEMRIPI GSTMPYPYM YR SFMIGX HMR
3IV; GE WYGGIHERIY EP 3IVYPYM, EGYP RHITPMRIE PE JIP HI FMRI VSPYP HI
ETSXVSTIY: -R PIEKRYP GSTMPYPYM TYR YR EG, QEM EPIW WYF TIVR, YR JSEVJIGI.
6SQRGE RY PEW RMGMSHEX GSTMPYP WMRKYV R GEW, JV W TYMI PRK IP R
PIEKR 3IV SVM GY'MXYP, JSEVJIGIPI (.), SVMGI EVI PE RHIQR HI 3IV, WJVIHIP,
HEPX, JVMKEVI SVM HI RY, GIP TY'MR YR EG ('MEY#ERY, 285). (I EWIQIRIE, 3IVYP
ETVIE JVIGZIRX R TVEGXMGMPI HI TVSXIG'MI E ERMQEPIPSV HMR KSWTSHVMI EXYRGM
GRH I\MWXE TIVMGSPYP PYVMM PETXIPYM, E QERIM EGIWXYME: -R &EWEVEFME, WI ME S
GSEN HI SY, WI TYRI R IE XSX JIPYP HI WIQMR'I, ^MGRH: n'RH WI ZE PYE QERE
GQTYPYM, EXYRGM W S ME TI E ZEGMM~. 3YP WI RKVSET R SGSP, R3KRHY-WI R IP
YR F' HI EPYR R MRMQE GVYME W-E R3TX YR EG, ^MGRH: n'RH ZE XVIGI
JVRKLME GSVFMIM TVMR YVIGLMPI EGYPYM, EXYRGM W ME QERE~ (4EZIPIWGY, 1944,
41). 0E VY#M, GIP QEM VWTRHMX QMNPSG HI TVSXIG'MI QTSXVMZE JEVQIGIPSV IWXI
EGYP. 4IRXVY E ERMLMPE TYXIVIE YRYM ZVNMXSV, IWXI WY3GMIRX W-P EK'M YR EG R
LEMR; QEM QYPX, HEG, HYT GI EM WXVTYRW QFVGQMRXIE WYWTIGXYPYM, WGS'M
EGYP #M-P R3KM GY YVIGLIE R WYW R Y#E GEWIM VIWTIGXMZI, ZVNMXSVYP RY QEM
TSEXI MI#M HMR GEW EXX XMQT GX EGYP WI E4 R3TX R Y# (2SZMGMOSZE, 269). 3
TVEGXMG EWIQRXSEVI ETEVI #M PE VSQRM: 'RH 'M ZMRI YR WXVMKSM R GEW #M
HEG ZVIM W-P GIVGM HI-P WXVMKSM, TYRI YR EG JV YVIGLI R Y#SVYP Y#MM HMR EJEV,
G XSX ZE QIVKI TR PE TVEK #M W-E RXYVRE; #M TR GI RY-P ZIM PYE, RY WI ZE
TYXIE HYGI, WI XIQI (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 579). R QSH WMQMPEV TYXIEY 3 Z^YXI
#M HYLYVMPI EIVYPYM, TIVWSRM3GVM EPI YRSV JIRSQIRI QIXISVSPSKMGI (ZRX,
ZVXIN, FEPEYVM IXG.): (I QYPXI SVM RY TYXIQ #XM HEG I WEY RY FEPEYV R RSV.
'E W RI GSRZMRKIQ HIWTVI EGIEWXE, W WXQ GY JE'E GXVI RSVYP R GEVI
GVIHIQ G I FEPEYV #M W RI QTYRKIQ GY YR EG R QMNPSGYP TMITXYPYM: HI ZE 3
FEPEYV R RSV, EXYRGM ZSQ ZIHIE GYQ TPIWRI#XI VITIHI GY GSEHE R XSEXI
TV'MPI, G FEPEYVYP WMQ'I#XI R'ITXYVE EGYPYM (+LIVQER, 138). R TVEGXMGMPI
QEKMGI SJIRWMZI, QEM EPIW R ZVNMPI HI YVWMX, EGYP IVE YR MRWXVYQIRX YXMPM^EX
VMXYEP RXV-YR GSQTPI\ HI TVEGXMGM #M IPIQIRXI. %WXJIP, WI WTYRIE: -E HMR FVY
HI RSY SVM TI EG, HYT GEVI E#XIVRI FVYP GY EG GY XSX TI TVEK, FXRH TIWXI
IP RSY QXRMM, JV RW E JEGI #M GVYGI; R XMQTYP GX FEXI QXRMMPI ^MGI HMR
KYV: n9VW, YVWMXSVYP QIY/(I (YQRI^IY HEX/(I SEQIRM PWEX, /:MR-R ZMW W XI
ZMWI^, /%MIZIE W XI Z^~ (+LISVKLMY, 10). )ZMHIRX, ZVNMPI RY IVEY JGYXI
RYQEM TIRXVY E ENYXE, TIRXVY E JEZSVM^E TI GMRIZE. )VE JSEVXI VWTRHMX
GVIHMR'E GEVI WTYRIE: %GI HI ZMWI^M, WYRX NYRKLMYVM, WYRX JEVQIGI (2MGYPM'-
:SVSRGE, 579). %#E G, R EJEVE TYXIVMM HISWIFMXI, HI MR4YIR'EVI E YVWMXIM, HI
KVFMVI E QTPMRMVMM EGIWXIME TI GEVI S EZIEY SFMIGXIPI HI QIXEP, R GE^YP
RSWXVY EGIPI, EGIWXIE IVEY JSPSWMXI #M R WGSTYVM MRXIR'MSREP QEPI3GI, R
JEVQIGI HI HVEKSWXI TVMR GEVI WI VYTIEY PIKXYVM, GWXSVMM IXG.: 'Y EG WEY
FSPH WI TSEXI PIKE YR FVFEX. (EG EVI S JIQIMI GMYH G E TVWMX-S #M WI
RWSEV GY EPXE, GRH WX IP PE GYRYRMI RHSEMI YR FSPH #M RG HI-P EVYRG RXV-
S ET GE W RY-P QEM KWIEWG, I RIRSVSGMX TIRXVY XSEX ZME'E HEV HI-P
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GSTMM QMGM, TIRXVY G IM WI RIEG QEM HIW R JRXRM ('MEY#ERY, 203).
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TR GRH #M QTPMRIEY ERMM HI ZME' GEVI PI JYWIWIV WGVM#M. )M MI#IEY TI
YWGEX R RST'MPI WIRMRI. %WXJIP, W-E Z^YX S QYP'MQI HI JIQIM GEVI RXMRHIEY
TR^IPI TI QEP, TI GRH EPXIPI WTPEY GQ#M. 8SX EWXJIP W-E Z^YX YR SQ
WTPRH GEMM. 8SEXI IVEY WY4IXIPI JIQIMPSV #M FVFE'MPSV RIGE'M TI ZVIQYVM R
PSGYP EGIPE (.). 4YXIVIE VYJGXSEVI E GIPSV RIGE'M IWXI EXYRGM GRH MIW PE
PYR RSY, HEV QEM EPIW PE GIEWYP R GEVI IM W-EY RIGEX. %GIWXI HYLYVM WXVMK,
RHIEQR TI EP'MM W WI RIGI WEY WI TVIJEG R SEQIRM GEVI WYRX R TVMQINHMI
HI E WI RIGE #M-P WXVMK TI EP'MM R ENYXSV. (EG RXQTPXSV WEV HVYQI'MM W-P
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HI TMGMSEVI #M-P EJYRH R ET, YRHI #M KWIWG WJV#MXYP (4EQ3PI, 1916,
288-289). 0E JVERGI^M, KIVQERM IXG., HYLYP ETIM ETEVI WYF JSVQE YRYM GEP,
QR^ IXG. (ISWIFMX HI JVYQSW, GEVI M EXVEKI TI SEQIRM, QEM EPIW TI GSTMM.
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YRHI HMWTEVI FVYWG, PWRHY-P TI MQTVYHIRXYP GPVI' R ZSME ZEPYVMPSV
(7IFMPPSX, ---, 177-P78). 8SX R *VER'E, WI WTYRI G HMEZSPMM MEY GLMTYP YRYM
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GRH P-EY EY^MX ^MGRH: n3 W Z RIG TI XS'M!~, HYT GEVI E PYEX-S PE KSER (.)
:^RH EGIWXIE, S FXVR RKVS^MX PI-E WXVMKEX GSTMMPSV W WI RGLMRI. 'RH
EY JGYX WIQRYP GVYGMM, IM W-EY XVI^MX PE YR TEW HI PSGYP HI YRHI EY JSWX
VTM'M (7IFMPPSX, -:, 182). b :EPSEVI T V S J M P E G X M G /E T S X V S T E M G . R
HMQMRIE'E ^MPIM HI 4E#XI XMRIVMM WI WGYPEY TR E RY VWVM WSEVIPI, WI HYGIEY
YRYP GXI YRYP PE YR VY WEY PE S EPX ET HMR ETVSTMIVI, YRHI WI WGPHEY
EWXJIP GE RMQIRM W RY-P ZEH GRH, GYQ #M YRHI W-EY WGPHEX. *GRH EGIEWXE,
GVIHIEY RY RYQEM G WI GYV'IWG HI XSEXI FSEPIPI #M VYX'MPI, HI XSEXI
EVYRGXYVMPI, JGXYVMPI #M YVMGMYRMPI, GM XSXSHEX #M G ZSV 3 TIWXI XSX ERYP
WGYXM'M HI SVMGI FSEP #M G WI ZSV JEGI MY'M, WTVMRXIRM, Y#SVM, LEVRMGM, WRXS#M #M
MYFM'M (4EQ3PI, 1916, 64). 'Y EGIWX WIRW WI VIEPM^IE^ #M WTPEXYP VMXYEP HYT
RXSEVGIVIE HI PE GMQMXMV: 'IM GEVI TIXVIG TI YR QSVX TR PE QSVQRX, GRH
WI RXSVG EGEW, WI WTEP TI QRM GY ET, ETSM WXVSTIWG GY IE RETSM, W RY WI
PMTIEWG GIZE HI IM; HYT EGIIE WEV TIWXI YR JSG, WTVI WIQR HI GYV'IRMI,
EJYQEVI (+SVSZIM, 1995, 12). 'SRXEQMREVIE HIQSRMG WI TYXIE I\XMRHI #M
EWYTVE ETIM, GEVI R GE^YP EGIWXE WI WYTYRIE YRSV TVEGXMGM WTIGM3GI: %TE
GEVI I R ZEWI, HYT GI W-E RKVSTEX QSVXYP, W RY WI FIE, GGM EME I QSEVX,
GM W WI EHYG EPXE TVSEWTX (MHIQ). b :EPSEVI T V S T M ' M E X S V M I. 0YRM,
HYT 4E#XI, JIGMSVMM YHEY JIXIPI #M FMI'MM JIXM'IPI, MEV QEV'M JIXIPI YHEY JIGMSVMM
#M JIXM'IPI TI FMI'M. 9HEXYP WI JGIE TVMR WYVTVMRHIVI, GY ET RIRGITYX.
*IXIPI IVEY PYEXI TI WYW: %#E QFVGEXI #M KXMXI GYQ WYRX, PI HYG PE S
JRXR, TVY, FEPX WEY PE YR IPI#XIY HMR ETVSTMIVI #M EGSPS XSEVR ZVIS
HSY-XVIM GSJI HI ET TI HRWIPI SVM PI GYJYRH GY LEMRI GY XSX RYRXVY #M PI
YH. -EV HYT GI PI FSXIE^, PI H HVYQYP. 'Y XSEXI EGIWXIE, 3IGEVI JEX GEVI
I EWXJIP YHEX RY WI WYTV, GM HMR GSRXV, WI FYGYV, GVI^RH G RXQTPRHY-
P-WI EGIEWXE, R HIGYVWYP ERYPYM HI FYR WIEQ WI ZE QVMXE (4EQ3PI, 1916,
130). 7XVSTMXYP WEY WGPHEXYP VMXYEP WI QEM TVEGXMGE #M PE 7J. +LISVKLI, HI
EGIEWX HEX IP JGRH TEVXI HMRXV-YR GIVIQSRMEP GSQTPI\. 3EQIRMM, R
WTIGMEP JIXIPI #M 4GMM, WI WTPEY TI JE' #M WI WGPHEY WMRKYVM, HI GIPI QEM
QYPXI SVM R PSGYVM XEMRMGI, WEY WI WXVSTIEY #M WI YHEY VIGMTVSG. 9HEXYP IVE
MRXIVTVIXEX GE EGX HI TYVM3GEVI, HEV #M GE PIEG QTSXVMZE FSPMPSV, GE ZVEN
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GY VSY HI TI YR GQT GYVEX, ERYQI GE W 3I QEM HVKPE#I #M QEM
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RXVIFYMR'IE^ TIWXI XSX ERYP PE HMJIVMXI FSEPI, EPXIPI WI HYG #M WI WGEPH R
ZEHYVM, ERYQI GE W 3I GYVEXI #M Y#SEVI R HIGYVWYP ERYPYM TVIGYQ GYVWYP PMR
EP ETIM (1EVMER, 1994, --, 307). -R 1SPHSZE I\MWX GVIHMR'E G GMRI WI ZE
WTPE R HMQMRIE'E HI 7J. +LISVKLI GY VSY, EGIPE XSEX ZEVE ZE 3 WRXSW #M
RY-P ZSV MI#M TIXI TI SFVE^; MEV GMRI WI ZE WTPE RXV-S ET GYVKXSEVI R
HMQMRIE'E EGIWXIM ^MPI, TI EGIPE XSX ERYP RY-P ZSV TVMRHI JVMKYVMPI (MHIQ, 309).
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FSPREZ HI RFY#IEP, TVIGYQ FRYMI#XI FEFE, QIVGYVIE #M ZMRIVIE, HYT GI
WI WTEP ZEWIPI, ETE EGIEWXE S ME #M S XSEVR R WXVEGLMR RSY, R GEVI WI QEM
TYRI GIRY# GY PMRKYVE WEY GY TMITXIRIPI, SVM GY JYWYP, HI XVIM SVM. R YVQ WI
TYRI HIEWYTVE WXVGLMRMM S SEP RSY HI TQRX #M HEG FSPREZYP I GY
EHIZVEX FSPREZ, ETE HMR WXVEGLMR WI VMHMG R SEP #M RGITI W
FSPFSVSWIEWG, MEV HEG ETE RY WI VMHMG, FSPREZYP RY I FSPREZ HI RFY#IEP.
'IPYM GEVI I FSPREZ M WI H W FIE HMR ETE GI W-E VMHMGEX (+SVSZIM, 1990, 137).
%TE RIRGITYX NSEG YR VSP RWIQREX R QIHMGMRE QEKMG E VSQRMPSV HI
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PE S HIWGRXXSEVI PE EPXE: E) W 3I EHYW HI S JIQIMI, HI S JEX QEVI WEY
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HYGI I RG TPMR HI VSY; F) W WI EHYG TI RIQRGEXI, HI PE S JRXR, HI
PE YR M^ZSV WEY S ET GYVKXSEVI, HI YRHI R-E QEM PYEX RMQIRM ET R ^MYE
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PE VWTRXMM WEY HI PE XVIM JRXRM, HI PE XVIM LSXEVI. %PXISVM I FMRI W WI ME HI
PE XVIM M^ZSEVI WEY HI YRHI WI RXPRIWG HSY WEY XVIM TVEMI (ET RXPRMX,
ET HI PE RXPRMXYV); G) GMRI WI HYGI HYT ET RIRGITYX RY XVIFYMI W WI
YMXI RETSM, XVIFYMI W RY ZSVFIEWG GY RMQIRM, EXX PE HYW, GX #M PE RXSVW.
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I Z^YX GRH WI HYGI W-S ME. 'RH WI RXSEVGI GY ETE W ETYGI TI EPX HVYQ
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HYT SPEPX, FEXI HI XVIM SVM GXI XVIM QIXERMM #M VITIX GYZMRXIPI HI QEM WYW.
(YT GI E JGYX IE EGIEWXE (.), WI RXSEVGI EGEW (.) 7SWMX EGEW, RGITI E
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REMRXI, ME GS3'E #M WI HYGI PE S ET GYVKXSEVI, R GEVI HIWGRXXSEVIE E JSWX
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FSPREZYPYM R ETE RIRGITYX, I YRW GY IE TI JVYRXI, TI PE XQTPI IXG., M WI H
W FIE HMR IE HI XVIM SVM WEY WI WTEP VERE. %PXISVM WI 3IVF R ET RM#XI
FYVYMIRM HI PIEG WEY M WI JEG WGPHXSVM FSPREZYPYM. %TE VQEW WI EVYRG TI
TEVMM KEVHYPYM, TI YR GMRI WEY TI S TMWMG, PE ''RE Y#MM IXG.
R GE^YP MIPIPSV, WEY EP ^RIPSV (HYLYVM EPI EIVYPYM HMR 1EGIHSRME),
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E E4E GEVI IWXI WYVWE HI ET PE GEVI XVIFYMI W WI VIEPM^I^I VMXYEPYP, EVSQRMM
HMR 1EGIHSRME GLIEQ PE GEWE FSPREZYPYM XVIM-TEXVY FXVRI GE W HSEVQ
EGSPS, TIRXVY E ZMWE PE GI ET W 3I HYW FSPREZYP TIRXVY E WI WTPE. 'E #M R
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GSRXVEV, HYLYVMPI EIVYPYM WI WYTV #M QEM XEVI TI FSPREZ. 0YRH ZSGIE #M
GLMTYP YRIM TIVWSERI GYRSWGYXI #M GLIQRHY-P TI RYQI, P HMWXVEK TI TEGMIRX
HI PE HVYQYP GIP FYR, RGIVGRH W-P TMEVH: #M EMGM RVIKMWXVQ GE^YVM
JVIGZIRXI HI XVI^MVI RIE#XITXEX, TI QEVKMRIE YRIM TVTWXMM, WEY GLMEV HI
EKVEZEVI E FSPMM (ETSTPI\MI). (EG FSPREZYP, E4EX HI-EGYQ TI YR XIVMXSVMY
WXVMR, HISWIFMX HI TIVMGYPSW, RY WI WYTYRI TVIGITXIPSV WRXSEWI EPI
XVEHM'MIM RIWGVMWI #M VWTYRHI EXYRGM GRH IWXI WXVMKEX HI EGIWXI HYLYVM, IP #M
ZE TMIVHI KPEWYP WEY YRYP HMRXVI WMQ'YVM (4ETELEKM, 8SGMPIWGY, --, 233). 0E
VSQRM, TIRXVY HIWGRXIGIPI HI MIPI, ETE IWXI PYEX HMR PSGYP YRHI WI
RXPRIWG HSY M^ZSEVI: %T QEVI, /(SEQR QEVI, /(I TI 99 HI ZM ZIRMX, /
(I TI 99 HI ZM RXPRMX, /7 HEM PIEG (GYXVYME), /%QMRXI W Z-EHYGI'M,
W3RXIPSV, /&YRIPSV, /-RHYPGMXIPSV, /%QMRXI W Z EHYGI'M, /0IEGYP W-P
EHYGI'M (+SVSZIM, 1990, 161). R %VHIEP, TIRXVY HMRXVY MIPIHIWGRXIGYP WI
JEGI RXV-S SEP RSY RIWQP'YMX, GY ETE EHYW HMRXV-S ET GYVKXSEVI (.)
'RH TPIEG HYT ET, ME S 'V HI TMRI. %NYRKRH PE ET, EVYRG TMRIE,
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NSW, GY SEPE RSY RIWQP'YMX (.) (YT GI EM ENYRW EGEW, RY TYM ETE NSW, RMGM
HYT GI W-E HIWGRXEX RY WI TYRI ETE NSW. %TE WI RGP^I#XI #M ETSM WI
HIWGRX (+SVSZIM, 1990, 139-P40). %TE RIRGITYX, R EPXI VIKMYRM, WI EHYGI
HI PE M^ZSV GY XSEVXE GSJIM WEY E SEPIM RXSEVW RHVX; WI EHYGI HI PE JRXR
R ^MYE HI 7J. +LISVKLI, GY KYVE; WI EHYGI HI PE XVIM JRXRM, R ^SVMM ^MPIM, R
XVIM ZEWI RSM, HI XVIM JIXI QEVM, JV E WI 3 YMXEX RHVX GRH EY PYEX-S IXG.
(MHIQ, 140). R EPXI GE^YVM, WXVEGLMRE GY ET RIRGITYX WI TYRI TI S
JIVIEWXV HMRWTVI TEVXIE YRHI VWEVI PYRE TI GIV #M WI E#XIETX E#E TR ZMRI
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PYRE R ET #M R JYRHYP WXVGLMRMM, EXYRGM RGITI E HIWGRXE (1EVMER, 1903,
410). 'EVEGXIVYP VMXYEP EP ETIM IWXI WYFPMRMEX #M HI QSQIRXIPI GEVI RGLIMI
VMXYEPYP HIWGRXEXYPYM: (YT HIWGRXEVI, ETE RY QEM TSEXI W 3I
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KEVH, R TEVXIE HI QME^RSETXI, ^MGRH: 'YQ RY 'MRI TEVYP ETE, /%#E W RY
'MI JVMKYVMPI TI GYXEVI, /"M W VQMI GYVEX, PYQMREX, /'E 1EMGE 4VIGMWXE GI P-E
PWEX (MHIQ, 140-P41). %#EHEV, VSPYP JYRHEQIRXEP EP ETIM IVE EGIPE HI
VIWXEFMPMVI E HI^IGLMPMFVYPYM. %XYRGM GRH, HI#M MQTIVEXMZ, EPYRKEVIE FSPMM RY
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W WI EVYRGI ETE TI YR GMRI WEY TI S Q'. %GIEWXE RW TEVI G RY WI JEGI
GY MRXIR'ME HI E WI GSQYRMGE EGIWXSV ERMQEPI FSEPE (.), E#E GYQ VI^YPX #M HMR
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ZMI, HEV FSEPE (GYXVYME) W RY QEM ZMI~ (+SVSZIM, 1990, 142). (I EGIEWX
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WI ZE ZMRHIGE (XVERWJIVYP JYWIWI RGLIMEX GY WYGGIW). *EVESRM; PEYQI; VYWEPOM;
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TPERXI QEKMGI; TVEGXMGM QEKMGI; YWXYVSM.
%6+-28 'YZRXYP EVKMRXHIVMZ HMRXV-YR GYZRX WERWGVMX GEVI RWIEQR
EPF #M WXVPYGMXSV ('LIZEPMIV-+LIIVFVERX, -, 139). %PF #M PYQMRSW, EVKMRXYP IWXI
R TVMQYP VRH YR WMQFSP EP TYVMX'MM: *IXIPI, WGYPRHY-WI R ^SVMPI HMQMRI'MM HI
7J. +LISVKLI, WI WTEP GY ET R GEVI WI E4 FERM HI EVKMRX ERYQI GE W 3I
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ZMRHIG (0ISR, 113). R 3PXIRME, REMRXI HI E QFVGE GSTMPYP GY S GQ#Y'
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EGIWXI TIVWSRENI, R GEVI WYRX REVEXI SVMKMRIE HYLYVMPSV, TVMRGMTEPIPI
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EPI QERMJIWXVMM PSV, TVIGYQ #M QSHEPMX'M HI RHITVXEVI E IJIGXIPSV
TSXIR'MEPYPYM GSRXEGX (TVEGXMGM ETSXVSTEMGI #M, HEG IVE RIZSMI, GYVEXMZI). 9R
QSXMZ JVIGZIRX RXPRMX R PIKIRHIPI GEVI EY GE TIVWSRENI TI HYLYVMPI FSPMPSV
IWXI GIP EP I\TIHMIVMM FSPMM, QEM TVIGMW EPYRKEVIE (HYT GE^, HMWXVYKIVIE) YRIM
TTY#M GI S VITVI^MRX. (I I\IQTPY, PE GSVIIRM I\MWX VITVI^IRXVM ZEVMEXI EPI
WTMVMXYPYM ZVWEXYPYM (1EQE WSRRMQ, ,SWSR QEQE IXG.), GVYME M WI ETPMG YR
XVEXEQIRX WTIGMEP. R E 13-E ^M HI PE HIGPER#EVIE FSPMM, HYT GI WI EHYG
SJVERHIPI GYZIRMXI, WI HIWJ#YVE VMXYEPYP TIXVIGIVMM HYLYPYM. 4IRXVY EGIEWXE WI
VIEPM^E HMR TEMI S 3KYV GEFEPMR GI-P VITVI^IRXE TI HYL. (YT GI TTY#MM M WI
EHVIWEY VYKGMYRM, WI TIVJSVQEY I\SVGMWQI IXG., IE IVE QFVGEX, RGP'EX
GY S TIVIGLI HI WERHEPI HI TEMI, M WI HHIEY FERM, TVSZM^MM HI HVYQ #M IVE
HYW R HVYQ, HITEVXI HI WEX, TIRXVY E-P ENYXE TI HYL W-#M KWIEWG GX QEM
VITIHI HVYQYP WTVI GEW (1MJSPSKMGIWOMN WPSZEV, 330). (IWGRXIG; RXSEVGIVI
TI HSW; RKIV; PSG RIGYVEX.
&363%2 9RE HMRXVI EG'MYRMPI TIVJSVQEXI R ZIHIVIE VIEPM^VMM XVIGIVMM
VMXYEPI R EPX PYQI IVE GIE R GEVI WI JSPSWIE, R EGIWX WGST, FSVSERE. 4IRXVY
PMQFE VYW #M IXMQSPSKME GYZRXYPYM FSVSRE MRHMG ZEPIR'IPI WEPI ETSXVSTEMGI
(FSVSRE ETVEVI). 0E YGVEMRIRM, GIM GI HSVIEY W ZEH GEVI JIQIM WYRX
ZVNMXSEVI, XVIFYME W XEMI YR TPST #M W JEG, RXV-S ^M, S FSVSER, EWXJIP RGX
ZVNMXSEVIE W RY-P 3 Z^YX. (YT EGIIE IM TYXIEY W WI YMXI PE ZVNMXSEVI TVMR
VI'IEYE KVETIM, VIGYRSWGRHY-PI GY Y#YVMR' (8SPWXSM-2, 1994, 158). 'Y
FSVSERE IVE EGSTIVMX, PE WPEZM #M GMRIPI R^HVZER, GIP RWGYX R PYRE QEVXMI,
TIRXVY GE ZVNMXSEVIE W RY-P JEG RMGM YR VY (WI WTYRIE G IP EVI RWY#MVIE HI
E VIGYRSE#XI QEPI3GYP). 8SX TVMR FSVSER IVEY XVIGY'M GMRMM #M TIRXVY E 3 VM.
'RH WIQREY QIMYP, FMIPSVY#MM #XIVKIEY HI XVIM SVM FSVSERE, TIRXVY GE
VIGSPXE W RY 3I EXEGEX HI ZVFMM. 7I QEM WTYRIE, HI EWIQIRIE, G, TIRXVY
GE S MET W 3I TVSPM3G, XVIFYME W 3I LVRMX GY SZ^ E4EX R MRXIVMSVYP
FSVSERIM (+YVE-P, 1994, 7-8). "M VSQRMM GVIHIEY G FSVSERE WIVZIE GE QMNPSG
HI TVSXIG'MI QTSXVMZE WXVMKSMPSV, ZMM WEY QSV'M, HVITX TIRXVY GEVI IVE TYW R
Y#E KVENHYVMPSV (1EVMER, 1994, 264). 'MRI EVI GYVENYP W WXIE R KVENH RSETXIE
(HI 7J. +LISVKLI) WYF S KVET GY GSP'MM HI 3IV, EGIPE ZIHI TI WXVMKSM GRH ZMR
#M-P TSEXI #M ETYGE (3PMRIWGY, 394). 'IVG; SFMIGXI QEKMGI; XVIGIVI.
&3> )WXI MQTPMGEX HMVIGX R VMXYVMPI HI MRZSGEVI E TPSMM TI XMQT HI WIGIX
WEY R ERYQMXI ^MPI MQTSVXERXI HMR TYRGX HI ZIHIVI GEPIRHEVMWXMG, TIRXVY
HI^ZSPXEVIE ZIKIXE'MIM. :EVE, GRH IWXI WIGIX QEVI, WI EHYR ZVIS
HSMWTVI^IGI GSTMM HMR WEX #M QFVEG R FS^ TI YR GSTMP QEM ^HVEZR, HMR GET
TR R XPTM, EWXJIP RGX M EGSTIV XSX GETYP, XSX KXYP #M TMGMSEVIPI TR WYF
XPTM GY JVYR^I HI FS^, G RMGM RY QEM TSEXI ZIHIE, GSRHYGRHY-P GIMPEP'M GSTMM
HI QR. %WXJIP TVIKXMX, RGIT W TEVGYVK XSEXI YPM'IPI WEXYPYM. 1IVKRH HI-
E PYRKYP YPM'IM, XS'M WXVMK HMR VWTYXIVM, TI YR KPEW: n4PSEMI, (SEQRI, TPSEMI, /
'IVRI GY GMYVYP, /8SEVR GY GMYFVYP/4I JRXRE WIEG, /2I YQTPI HI ET. /
&YQFYVIP HI EVKMRX, /4PSEMI TI TQRX; /&YQFYVIP HI EYV, /4PSEMI HI FPEYV; /
7TMGYP/'X ZSMRMGYP.%XYRGM QEM HMR 3IGEVI GEW MIWI GXI S JIQIMI GY S
KPIEX HMR GEVI EVYRG ETE TI &S^ (.), ETSM M HVYMI#XI YR SY. +E^HE GEVI EVI
JRXR, EVYRG TI &S^ GXI XVIM KPI'M HI ET HMR JRXR #M-P HVYMI#XI GY
XVIM SY (2MGYPEI, 171). 2EXYVE HIQSRMG E FS^YPYM IWXI WYFPMRMEX HI
RYQIVSEWI GVIHMR'I. (VEGYP #IHI PE LEXYVM #M R FS^; FS^YP I TSEQE HVEGYPYM.
&S^YP I HI#IVX RYRXVY, R-EVI MRMQ #M E#E HI VY QMVSEWI! &S^YP RY-P WET
RMQIRM. (SEQRI JIVI#XI W HEM HI S VHGMR YRHI #IHI IP, XI-EV SQSV
EGSPS (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 476; GJ. PE TSPSRI^M: TVMQYP HMEZSP #M-E JGYX GYPGY#
RXV-S KVSET QEVI, HIEWYTVE GVYME E TYW YR FS^ TIRXVY E-P ETVE;
7PEZNERWOMI HVIZRSWXM, 1, 268). %PXISVM WI RGIEVG S HMWXMRKIVI E KVEHYPYM HI
HIQSRM^EVI E FS^YPYM #M E WSGYPYM: (VEGYP RY #IHI PE FS^, RYQEM HVGSEMGIPI,
G IPI-W QEM WPEFI, HE HVEGYP #IHI R WTMRM, R TSVYQFM, EGIME WYRX EM PYM #M
GEVTIRYP. (VEGMM WYRX RIEQ GY WSGYP; EGIPE I NYHI'YP PSV. )WXI YR WSG QEVI,
KVSW HI 99 HI #YLYVM, PE EGIPE QIVK XS'M HVEGMM HMR PYQI, 3IGEVI RGVGEX GY
WTMRM, HE IPI GY GVIRKM HI FS^ R QR. %GSPS GRH ENYRK, WSGYP PI WTYRI W
EVH WTMRM #M EGSPS EVYRG #M IPI FS^YP; HE HVEGMM XSX #M PEW GXI S GVIERK HI
WTMRM R QRE WXRK, GE W WI ETIVI HI EP'MM QEM QEVM EM PSV, FYRSEV GE #M
SQYP GRH RXPRI#XI TI EPXYP FEX, WI XIQI. (YT EGIIE WSGYP PI WTYRI PE XS'M
GI EY W JEG, YRHI EY W QIEVK (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 476-477). R EPXI
GVIHMR'I WPEZI, FS^YP ETEVI GE PSG TVIHMPIGX EP JSV'IPSV HIQSRMGI: GE #M R
GVIHMR'IPI HIWTVI WSG, FS^YP EHTSWXI#XI S WIVMI HI TIVWSRENI QEPI3GI
(HYLYVM EPI EIVYPYM, EPI THYVMM IXG.), GEVI-P TIHITWIWG TI GIP GEVI RHV^RI#XI
W ZXQI^I TPERXE. 0E WPSZEGM, R FS^ PSGYMI#XI HYLYP GEWIM, EWIQRXSV
WTMVMHY#YPYM (7PEZNERWOMI HVIZRSWXM, 1, 268). (EXSVMX WEGVEPMX'MM WEPI
HISWIFMXI, FS^YP ETEVI YXMPM^EX EWIQIRIE EPYRYPYM, R TVEGXMGM QEKMGI
XIVETIYXMGI, R HIWGRXIGI HI QY#GXYV HI #EVTI: -EX YR #EVTI VY. /'I
WXEM TI PIWTHY# /1-E JGYX QEMGE VY; /'EPYP GI-EQ QY#GEX, /0IEGY IY EQ
PWEX: /'Y'MX HI KWMX, /&S^Y HI R4SVMX (+SVSZIM, 1990, 181). 'Y XVIM FSFM HI
FS^ #M YR F' HI EPYR WI HIWGRX HI QY#GXYV HI #EVTI R ET RIRGITYX;
MEV GY FS^YP GEVI W-E HIWGRXEX WI WXVSTI#XI YQ4XYVE YRHI E QY#GEX
#EVTIPI (0ISR, 25). 4VMR MRXIVQIHMYP MRXMQMHVMM HYLYPYM TPERXIM WI TYXIE
SF'MRI HI EWIQIRIE ZMRHIGEVIE FSPREZYPYM: 4IRXVY ZMXIPI QY#GEXI HI #EVTI,
WI HIWGRX GY FS^ R ET RI-RGITYX #M GY EGIEWX ET WI WTEP PE VER; WI
TYRI GXI S TMEXV TIWXI 3 HMR FS^MM GIM QEM REP'M HMRXV-YR TPG SEVIGEVI;
ETPIGRHY-P EWXJIP PE TQRX, ETSM WI WTYRI: n(EG QM-'M WGSEXI ZMIVQMM HI PE
GYXEVI ZMX, Z HEY HVYQYP; HEG RY, RY~. (YT XVIM ^MPI ZMIVQMM JYK HMR VER;
TMIXVIPI WI EVYRG PE S TEVXI #M WI PEW FS^MM W WI VMHMGI (MHIQ; Z. #M
HIWGRXIGIPI HI PMQFVMGM GEVI-P EY GE IVSY TI WSG: n&YR ^MYE, WSGYPI~;
+SVSZIM, 1990, 182). %PXI TVEGXMGM TVIWYTYRIEY YR VMXYEP GSQTPI\, R GEVI
IWIR'MEP IVE G#XMKEVIE FYRZSMR'IM HYLYPYM TPERXIM, E#E GYQ VI^YPX HMR
JSVQYPE ZIVFEP; R EGIPE#M XMQT, WI HIWJ#YVE #M YR EGX HI GSRWXVRKIVI E PYM,
GE R I\IQTPYP YVQXSV: 7 XI HYGM PE FS^ PYRM HI HMQMRIE', HYT GI QEM
RXM JEGM EGEW 9 QXRMM #M MIM SPIEG HI QQPMK #M TY'MR WEVI #M ^MGM:
n&YR HMQMRIE'E, FS^YPI, IY XI GMRWXIWG GY TMRI #M GY WEVI #M GY 9 QXRMM,
MEV XY W Q GMRWXI#XM GY WRXEXIE ZMXIM, W RY-P WXIE ZMIVQMM R VER, GX RY
WXEY TSTMM #M TVISXIWIPI, TVMQEVMM #M HVIKXSVMM R VEM~. 4I YVQ VYTM ZVJYP
FS^YPYM EGIPYME WEY P TPIGM #M-P TYM S TMEXV TI ZVJ #M HEG RY MIW ZMIVQMM,
GYPIKM FS^ #M-P 3IVFM GY WXMVMKMI HI GIE XEVI HI TI ZVJYP GEWIM, TYM #M WEVI R
ET; MEV HYT GI WI QEM EWXQTV, SFPSNI#XM PE VER GY EGIEWX
^IEQ (MHIQ).
&63%7' 0E MXEPMIRM, FVSEWGE IVE WSGSXMX YR JIP HI KIRMY EP GEWIM, GEVI
EHYGI RSVSG. 'MRI R-EVI RSVSG XVIFYMI W TVMRH YR FVSWGSM, W-P EHYG R
GEW #M W-P LVRIEWG GY TMRI #M ZMR ('ERHVIE, 1928, 147-P48). 7MGMPMIRMM S
RYQIWG HSRRE HM GEWE. "M JVERGI^MM GSRWMHIV FVSEWGE YR KIRMY TVSXIGXSV, GEVI
M EZIVXM^IE^ TI GIM EHSVQM'M R THYVI EWYTVE ETVSTMIVMM VITXMPIPSV ZIRMRSEWI
(7IFMPPSX, :, 274). 'VIHMR'IPI GSRJSVQ GVSVE FVSEWGE IWXI YR HYL EP GEWIM
WYRX JSEVXI VWTRHMXI. 6SQRMM WTYR G 3IGEVI SQ EVI S FVSEWG-#XMQ, E
GVIM QSEVXI EXVEKI HYT WMRI QSEVXIE TIVWSERIM VIWTIGXMZI (2MGYPM'-
:SVSRGE, 984), GVIHMR' RXPRMX #M PE VY#M, GILM #M WPSZEGM (+YVE, 1984, 134). R
.ETSRME, FVSEWGE E HIZIRMX YR JIP HI TVSXIGXSV EP GPXSVMPSV. 9RIPI TIVWSERI
TSEVX GE EQYPIX GLMTYP YRIM FVSE#XI RYQMXI FVSEWG RPSGYMXSEVI, GEVI WI
TSEXI WYFWXMXYM, R GE^YP YRIM RIRSVSGMVM, SQYPYM GEVI S TSEVX ('LIZEPMIV-
+LIIVFVERX, -, 204). 6ITVI^IRXEVIE GSRJSVQ GVIME FVSEWGE IWXI YR ERMQEP
WEGVY (Z. #M GVIHMR'IPI TSTYPEVI VSQRI#XM GSRJSVQ GVIME FVSEWGE ETEVI R
GEPMXEXI HI HIQMYVK: 4QRXYP P-E JGYX FVSEWGE. --E TSVYRGMX (YQRI^IY W
GEVI ET GY KYVE #M W GEVI 'VR TI RM#XI FIPHMM HI YV^MG. )E E XSX GVEX,
TR W-E JGYX TQRX HIWXYP HI QEVI; 2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 971), GEVI EXVEKI
HYT WMRI MRWXMXYMVIE YRYM XEFY IWXI MPYWXVEX HI S EPX WIVMI HI GVIHMR'I: R
8MVSP WI GVIHI G I TGEX W SQSVM S FVSEWG ('MEY#ERY, 331); PE VSQRM,
YGMHIVIE YRIM FVSE#XI EXVEKI HYT WMRI TIHITWI ZEVMEXI: 'MRI SQSEV
FVSEWGE, M WXMVTI#XI ZEGE WEY, QEM ETVSETI HI MQEKMRIE HI WXVQS#
TVSXIGXSV: 'RH EM SQSV S FVSEWG, 'M QSEVI QEQE (+SVSZIM, 1995, 27).
4YXIVIE IM EWYTVE JIVXMPMX'MM IWXI TVSFEX #M HI GVIHMR'E TSPSRI^ TVMR GEVI WI
I\TPMG ZIRMVIE TI PYQI E GSTMMPSV. 7I WTYRI G FEV^E EVYRG TI LSVR FVSE#XI,
GEVI, TXVYR^RH R GEW, WI XVERWJSVQ R SEQIRM; R VITVI^IRXVMPI WVFMPSV
PY^EGMIRM FVSE#XIPI M WGSX HMR ET TI RSY-RWGY'M (7PEZNERWOENE QMJSPSKMNE,
270). 4YRIVIE R PIKXYV E FVSE#XIM GY YQERYP IWXI I\TPMGEX HI GVIHMR'E
VYWIEWG GSRJSVQ GVIME FVSE#XIPI EV 3 SEQIRMM GEVI EY QYVMX RIGE'M R
XMQTYP TSXSTYPYM; #M IPI, GE #M SEQIRMM, EY GMRGM HIKIXI PE QMRM #M PE TMGMSEVI
TEXVY QEM PYRKM #M YRYP WGYVX. 7I QEM WTYRI G IM #M ZSV VIGTXE HMR RSY
RJ'M#EVIE YQER, MEV SEQIRMM HI EGYQ ZSV HIZIRM, PE VRHY-PI, FVSE#XI
(+VY#OS-1IHZIHIZ, 270). %PXISVM, RJ'M#EVIE ^SSQSVJ ETEVI GE S
GEVEGXIVMWXMG E HYLYPYM ERXVSTSQSVJ EP GEWIM, HYL EP QSV'MPSV, HIZIRMX HYL
TVSXIGXSV. 8SX VY#MM WTYR G FVSE#XIPI WYRX HYLYP GSTMMPSV QSV'M RIFSXI^E'M
(7PEZNERWOENE QMJSPSKMNE, 250). 9RISVM WMQTPE TVI^IR' E FVSE#XIM EXVEKI HYT
WMRI QSHM3GVM R TPERYP GSXMHMERYPYM, R YVQE GSRXEKMYRMM GY WEGVYP, GY
WYTVEREXYVEPYP. -RG HMR WIGSPYP EP <:---PIE JVERGI^MM GVIHIEY G GIP GEVI ZIHI
TI HVYQ, HMQMRIE'E, S FVSEWG, ZE EZIE QYPXI FYGYVMM (7IFMPPSX, :, 277). 9R
RYQV JSEVXI QEVI HI GVIHMR'I IWXI TYW RW R PIKXYV GY MR4YIR'E RIJEWX
E EGIWXYM FEXVEGMER EWYTVE ZMI'MM SQYPYM, E VIWTIGXMZIM KSTSHVMM. %WXJIP,
EWIQIRIE HYLYVMPSV GEWIM R KIRIVEP, FVSEWGE RHITPMRI#XI S JYRG'MI SVEGYPEV
I\TPMGMX: 'RH MRXV FVSE#XI R GEW I WIQR VY ZE QYVM GMRIZE HMR GEW,
QEM EPIW GRH EGIWXIE GRX WYF XEPTE (TVEKYP) GEWIM (PSG WEGVY, HI XVIGIVI,
HI GSRXEGX EP PYQMM YQERYPYM GY GIE E WEGVYPYM). 6Y#MM WTYR: HEG ZI^M TIRXVY
TVMQE HEX S FVSEWG R MEVF I WIQR FYR; HEG WI E4 R ET I WIQR VY, MEV
HEG I GY FYVXE R WYW TVIZIWXI#XI QSEVXI (+VY#OS-1IHZIHIZ, 271). 8SX PE
VY#M WI GVIHI G FVSEWGE IWXI QEQE #EVTIPYM, EQFMM ETVRH R GEPMXEXI HI
HYLYVM TVSXIGXSEVI EPI GEWIM. 0E JIP, HEG S FVSEWG RY ZIHI PYQMRE WSEVIPYM
XMQT HI 7 ERM ZE HIZIRM #EVTI. "M S EPX MTSWXE^ E HYLYPYM GEWIM, VRHYRMGE,
IWXI, PE VY#M, XSX S FVSEWG: TVMQZEVE WI XVERWJSVQ R FVSE#XI VRHYRIPIPI
FXVRI (7PEZNERWOENE QMJSPSKMNE, 250-251). 8SX GE S MTSWXE^ E HYLYPYM
TVSXIGXSV EP GEWIM (R ZEVMERXE GS#QEVYPYM RSGXYVR) ETEVI FVSEWGE PE
RSVZIKMIRM #M PE JVERGI^M, GEVI GVIH G RSETXIE, EXYRGM GRH IE IWXI WYTVEX
TI PSGEXEVMM YRIM GEWI, PM WI E#E^ TI TMITX, WYJSGRHY-P ('MEY#ERY, 331;
7IFMPPSX, :, 281). (YT GYQ EQ Z^YX, MRXIVHMG'ME HI E SQSV ZVIS FVSEWG
IWXI PEVK VWTRHMX #M PE VY#M. %GI#XME EY HI^ZSPXEX YR WMWXIQ JSEVXI GSQTPI\
HI EGXI TYRMXMZI GI HIGYVK HMR EGIEWX RIVIWTIGXEVI E XEFYYPYM. %WXJIP, WI
WTYRI G HEG SQSVM S FVSEWG, QRE 'M WI YWYG, XI ZSV HYVIE SGLMM, XI ZIM
YQ4E; R EPXI GE^YVM, EPXI FVSE#XI XI ZSV SQSV WEY XI ZSV WYKVYQE; WEY, R
EGIIE#M GEPMXEXI HI TIVWSRM3GEVI E GS#QEVYPYM, GE EXVMFYX EP HYLYPYM GEWIM,
RW#M FVSEWGE YGMW ZE ZIRM RSETXIE #M XI ZE WYKVYQE WEY ZE PYE JVYQYWI'IE
JIXIM, HEG EGIEWXE W-E JGYX ZMRSZEX HI RGPGEVIE MRXIVHMG'MIM (7PEZNERWOENE
QMJSPSKMNE, 251). R EGIIE#M GEPMXEXI HI HYL EP GEWIM, FVSEWGE TSWIH S RSY
JYRG'MI WTIGM3G PYM: PYEVIE PETXIPYM ZMXIPSV. (EG PETXIPI ZMXIM IWXI EQIWXIGEX
GY WRKI, WI GVIHI G ERMQEPYP E GPGEX S FVSEWG WEY E EHSVQMX RXV-YR PSG R
GEVI #M-E JGYX GYPGY#YP YR #EVTI (7PEZNERWOENE QMJSPSKMNE, 251). (I EWIQIRIE,
FVSEWGE R ZEVMERXE HYLYPYM GEWIM IWXI RXPRMX R PIKIRHI VSQRI#XM R
GEPMXEXI HI MRWXVYQIRX EP ZVNMXSEVIPSV: (I QYPXI SVM WXVMKSEMGE ZMRI W JYVI XSX
KVYP HMR #YVE SQYPYM #M, GYQ RY TSEXI W-P HYG WMRKYV, GLIEQ FVSWGSMM R
ENYXSV #M XSX RIEQYP FVS#XIWG GY KYVE GX S #YV EPIEVK PE GLIQEVIE IM. 'Y
WYXIPI #M GY QMMPI ZMR, GE JVYR^E #M GE MEVFE #M 3IGEVI FVSEWG, R KYVE IM, GEV
GXI S KVQNSEV HMR FYGEXIPI SQYPYM, HI-P PEW WVEG PMTMX
TQRXYPYM ('ERHVIE, 1944, 152). (EV LMIVSJERME QEPI3G E FVSE#XIM GE
EKIRX EP HIWXMRYPYM RY XVIFYMI GSRJYRHEX GY GIE HI EKIRX TYVXXSV EP
QEPI3GYPYM, MRWXVYQIRX TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP GVYME WI XVMQMX JEVQIGIPI, ZVNMPI:
(I-'M MRXV FVSEWGE R GEW I WIQR G GMRIZE 'M-E XVMQMW-S GY JEVQIGM, GY
ZVEN (+SVSZIM, 1995, 27). 4R #M EGIEWX YPXMQ MTSWXE^ WI RGEHVIE^ R
MQEKMRIE HYEP E TIVWSRENYPYM QMXSPSKMG HYLYP GEWIM, R^IWXVEX WMQYPXER GY
EXVMFY'MM QEPI3GI #M FIRI3GI. )\TPMGEVIE ETEVM'MIM HYLYPYM GEWIM GE S MTSWXE^
XV^MI E YRIM HMZMRMX'M E JIVXMPMX'MM IWXI WYFPMRMEX TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP GVIHMR'IPSV
GEVI MPYWXVIE^ WXVRWE PIKXYV HMRXVI EGIWX ERMQEP #M TPSEMI, QYPXI TSTSEVI
GVI^RH G IP IWXI HITS^MXEVYP ETIM HI TPSEMI, HI TVI^IR'E WEY HI HMWTS^M'ME
PYM HITMR^RH EGIWX JIRSQIR. 'ILMM GVIH G SVGMXYP FVSE#XIPSV IWXI YR WIQR
TVIZIWXMXSV HI TPSEMI (GVIHMR' VWTRHMX #M PE EPXI TSTSEVI, GJ. %JEREWMIZ,
1869, 450). 6SQRMM, KIVQERMM #M VY#MM WTYR G FVSEWGE I WJRX #M HEG S
SQSVM, TPSY RYQEMHIGX ('MEY#ERY, 311, 331; +VY#OS-1IHZIHIZ, 270).
%GIEWX JYRG'MI E JSWX MRWXMXYMX HI GVIEXSVMM GVI#XMRM EM YRMZIVWYPYM, E#E GYQ M
GSRGITIE TSTSVYP. -RXV-S PIKIRH VSQRIEWG GMXMQ: -R RSETXIE HI 'VGMYR,
GRH *IGMSEVE 1EVME E RWGYX TI 1RXYMXSVYP, GIE HMRXM ZMIXEXI HI TVMR
QTVINYVMQM GEVI E JGYX ^KSQSX W ZIWXIEWG WJRXE RE#XIVI E PYM -WYW E JSWX
S FVSEWG, GEVI E RGITYX E SVGM. 'RH E EY^MX-S, 1EMGE 4VIGMWXE E
FMRIGYZRXEX-S W 3I FPEKSWPSZMX #M HI PYQI FKEX R WIEQ. 7 3I
XVQFM'E#YP TPSMPSV #M IE W XVMEWG #M GY XVYTYP, R ZIGMM ZIGMPSV. (-EME FVSEWGE
GRH QSEVI RY WI-QTYXI RMGMSHEX #M RMGM ZMIVQM RY JEGI, GM WI YWYG #M WI
TSQMI#XI. -EV HEG SQSVM S FVSEWG, WI QRMI (YQRI^IY, GEVI WI TSVRI#XI
TI TPSM #M TI TSXSETI, HI RY WI QEM STVI#XI. &E WI GVIHI G EGIPYME GEVI ZE
SQSV S FVSEWG M ZE QYVM S ZMX (6HYPIWGY-'SHMR, 1MLEPEGLI, 96). 'LMEV
STVMVIE TPSMM TSEXI 3 TVSZSGEX XSX TVMR VMXYEPYVM GI TVIWYTYR TVI^IR'E EGIWXYM
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ZVNMXSVMPSV, JIQIMPI W WXVSTIEWG QSVQMRXIPI KIQIRMPSV. )PI GVIH G
QSVQRXYP YRYM KIEQR XVIFYMI W 3I RXSXHIEYRE NMPEZ #M HI EGIIE KIQIRMM
WYRX RKVSTE'M HI SFMGIM R ETVSTMIVIE YRYM PEG (*VE^IV, 1980, -, 143). 0E WVFM,
GSTMMM HMR 4SVM, QSV'M RIFSXI^E'M, GRH IVEY RKVSTE'M R TQRX TVSHYGIEY
WIGIX; HEG IVE EVYRGEX R ET WEY HEG IVE RIGEX WI SF'MRIE S TPSEMI
FSKEX, HI PYRK HYVEX (8SPWXSM-8SPWXEME, 1981, 50). R EGIWX WIRW TSEXI 3
R'IPIW YRYP HMRXVI FSGIXIPI VMXYEPI: %SPIS, 'EPSMIRI, )RI! /8I GEYX Q-XE/
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FMEX, /2IYHEX HI VSY, /2ITPSYEX HI TPSEMI, /)RI-EP QEQMM, )RI! (&YXYV,
1992, 196). 3 EPX QSEVXI HIQSRM^EX, GEVI TSEXI EJIGXE FYRYP QIVW EP
REXYVMM, HIGPER#RH TPSM MRXIVQMREFMPI, IWXI QSEVXIE YRYM WXVMKSM (EXYRGM
XVIFYME W 3I HIWJ#YVEXI TVEGXMGM QEKMGI GSRXVEVI, HI STVMVI E TSPMM: 7XVMKSMM
TI TPSM WYRX RWGY'M, YVWM'M GE W TSVRIEWG WEY W STVIEWG TPSMPI. )M JEG HI
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PE IM. (EV WXVMKSMM TI TPSM TSX JEGI #M W TPSY RXVYRE. "M EGIEWXE QEM GY WIEQ
HYT QSEVXIE PSV. 'RH QSEVI YR WXVMKSM, RY QEM WXEY TPSMPI (&YXYV, 1992,
201). *) (YT HI^KVSTEVI, JIXIPI EVYRG 'EPSMERYP RXV-YR TY' WEY R ZVIS ET
GYVKXSEVI, YVRH GE ERYP W 3I TPSMSW #M TPMR HI FIP#YK. R GIPI QEM QYPXI
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(HI^KVSTEVIE IM HYT XVIM ^MPI), HMWXVYKIVIE ZMSPIRX, EFERHSREVIE WEY
WGYJYRHEVIE R ET WEY nHEX~ TI S ET GYVKXSEVI (+LMRSMY, 1997, 37). +)
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S EZIE #M HI EGIEWX HEX QEKME GYZRXYPYM: 'PYMERYP WI JEGI QEM EPIW TI
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GY QMRMPI TI TMITX. %TSM WI RXMRHI TI S WGRHYVMGI #M JIXIPI P TPRK, GYQ EV
TPRKI TI SVMGI QSVX, GY WEY JV PEGVMQM (4EQ3PI, 1906): 'EPSMIRI, MIRI/
GYQ RI GYVK PEGVMQMPI/W GYVK #M TPSMPI/^MPIPI #M RST'MPI, /W YQTPI #ER'YVMPI, /
W GVIEWG PIKYQIPI/#M XSEXI MIVFYVMPI (+LIVQER, 78). 'E #M R GE^YP
TETEVYHIM #M, HI EWIQIRIE, R WTMVMXYP REXYVMM TIVWSRENYPYM RXVYGLMTEX HI
TTY#E VMXYEP, YVGEXYP PE GIV IVE YR TVIHMGEX 3VIWG, QIRMX W VI^SPZI HMVIGX
GSR4MGXYP GEVI W-E WSPHEX GY WIGIXE RIHSVMX: 'EPSMIRI, MIRI/(Y-XI-R GIV #M
GIVI/W HIWGLM^ TSV'MPI/W WPSFSE^ TPSMPI/W GYVK GE KVPIPI/^MPIPI #M
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IP S GMYXYV HI ET #M ETSM R GIE QEM HITPMR XGIVI WI HYGI HI EGIME#M GSTMM
#M WI TYRI R FPVMM (FYVYMIRM REPXI), YRHI M WI TVTHI#XI YVQE. (I GIPI QEM
QYPXI SVM RW HYT GI E JSWX FSGMX, GSTMMM P EVYRG R TY'; GTI'IPIPI HI
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XSX R ET. %TSM GSTMMM WGSX ET GY GMYXYVE #M PYRH QS#SEMGIPI WEY SEPIPI TPMRI,
WI EPYRK #M WI YH. (I EGIEWXE RMQIRM RY XVIFYMI W WI QRMI. 0E WJV#MX
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OSFSPH; 4ETEVYHE; TPSEMI; VRHYRMG; WXVMKSM; #EVTIPI GEWIM RIZWXYMG;
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S EVI TI-E WE, MEV PE WSVSG JEGI GE W REWG GSTMPYP GY GLMXME HI
WXVMKSM (4EQ3PI, 1916, 130). 'SRXVEHMGXSVMM WYRX #M TVEGXMGMPI VIEPM^EXI R GE^YP
ETEVM'MIM EGIWXIME: 1SE#IPI, GEVI S GYRSWG, RHEX S MEY. 0ILY^E WEY
EPXGMRIZE, SFWIVZRH-S, VYT XMGLME #M GSTMPYP RY WI QEM JEGI WXVMKSM. (EG R-EV
VYTI-S VITIHI, GSTMPYP EV QRGE-S #M EV QYVM (1Y#PIE-&VPIE, 245). 4IRXVY E-P
ERYPE TYXIVIE QEPI3G, WI VIGYRSE#XI TYFPMG I\MWXIR'E IM, XSGQEM TIRXVY E WI
VIEPM^E S WGLMQFEVI HI TSPEVMXEXI E TYXIVMM WEGVYPYM. R EGIEWX WMXYE'MI, GM'E,
HMR IPIQIRX QEPI3G TVIHMPIGX, HIZMRI YR MRWXVYQIRX YXMP, FIRI3G GSTMPYPYM WEY
EP ZMMXSVYPYM EHYPX: 1SE#E WI WYMI GY XMGLME TI GEW #M WXVMK R KYVE QEVI, HI
XVIM SVM, G EMGM W-E RWGYX YR WXVMKSM #M nHI EMGM REMRXI RY QEM I
WXVMKSM~ (1Y#PIE-&VPIE, 258; GJ. #M R -WXVME: PE 1SQMERS, QSE#IPI MIW PE
JIVIEWXV WXVMKRH: 7-E RWGYX YR OVWRMO, YR OVWRMO, YR OVWRMO!, TIRXVY GE
RSY-RWGYXYP W RY HIZMR YR ZVNMXSV; +MR^FYVK, 1996, 176). 8SX GY EGIEWX
SGE^MI WI QEM WTYRI: n%Y^M'M, PYQI, G W-E RWGYX YR PYT TI TQRX! 2Y I
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E QEVGE RIKEXMZ HIWXMRYP GSTMPYPYM, GSR3VQRH TSXIR'IPI PYM HI WXVMKSM
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PI VMHMG PE VERK HYT RE#XIVI, VSWXMRH GYZMRXIPI: n8Y W 3M WXVMKSEMG HI PETXI,
XY HI JYVG, XY HI WET, HI QXYV, HI WIGIVI~ #M E#E QEM HITEVXI. "M TI GEVI
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ZE XVEKI HMR IE TI KYV, RHEX S QRRG #M WI JEGI WXVMKSM (1Y#PIE-&VPIE,
245). (EG QSE#E RY-P ME VITIHI EGIEWX XMGLMI, GSTMPYP S XVEKI GY QRMPI #M
S RKLMXI. %GIWX GSTMP WI JEGI WXVMKSM. R EPXI TV'M WI GVIHI G GSTMPYP GEVI WI
RE#XI GY GM' TI GET, EFME HYT QSEVXI WI JEGI WXVMKSM ('ERHVIE, 1944,
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WXVMKSM HYT QSEVXIE PSV; #M G EXX XMQT GX WYRX R ZME', HISEGLI nHI R-EM
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QEQE E TWXVEX-S, HYT GI E YWGEX-S), GSTMPYP TSEXI HMWTYRI HI TYXIVMPI GY
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QEVM, WXVMKSMM #M TYR GM'E GY GEVI W-EY RWGYX #M RY-P TSEXI ZIHIE
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TYXIVIE HI E WXTRM Z^HYLYP. )M ZMR TI PYQI RXV-S GQE# HI TMIPI, TI GEVI
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HI^KVSET GQE#E, WI QFVEG GY IE #M E#E GETX TYXIVIE HI E TSVYRGM
Z^HYLYPYM #M FEPEYVMPSV ('ERHVIE, 1947, 104). 2SVZIKMIRMM GVIH G HEG YR
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TI HEX ('MEY#ERY, 377). %PXISVM, ZEPSVM^EVIE GM'IM WI JEGI HYT YR VMXYEP
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HI ZEPSVM^EVIE IM HITPMR PE QEXYVMXEXI. 4YVXXSVYP GM'IM IWXI YR WXVMKSM, YR
ZVNMXSV, R GE^YP EGIWXE, YR SQ R^IWXVEX GY TYXIVM HISWIFMXI. %QFMZEPIR'E
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3 GSRZIVXMXI EXX GXVI WIQRYP QMRYW (ZEPSVM^EVI RIKEXMZ), GX #M GXVI TPYW
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GM'IPI GY GEVI WI RWGYWIV. )M PYTXEY TIVMSHMG TIRXVY VIGSPXI, GPEVI TI
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PE VWGVYGM #M GLMEV TVMR GEWI #M TVSZSEG WTEMQ WEY HEYRI; WI EHYR EHIWIE
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PE GIPIPEPXI I WIGIX (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 861). 0YTXE GEVI WI HHIE TIRXVY
JIVXMPMXEXI, TIRXVY VIGSPXI GX QEM FSKEXI MPYWXVIE^ TVMRGMTMYP HI QEM WYW.
)\MWXEY QEKMGMIRM FYRM #M QEKMGMIRM VM. (EV ZEPSEVIE XIVQIRMPSV STS^M'MIM FYR/
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JIVXMPI TI TQRXYVMPI IM) IVE, MQTPMGMX, QEPI3G, RIJEWX TIRXVY GIEPEPX
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YRKLMYP HI ZIHIVI HMR GEVI IVEY TVMZMXI PYGVYVMPI. &YRWXEVIE, JIVMGMVIE,
QTPMRMVIE GIPYM GEVI TIVJSVQE EGXYP VIWTIGXMZ RY RWIQRE RYQEM VIZIRMVIE PE
S WXEVI MRM'MEP, TIVXYVFEX HI HMPMKIR'IPI JIVQIGXSVYPYM; RXSXHIEYRE IE
QEVGE HIT#MVIE YRIM PMQMXI #M, MQTPMGMX, VYTIVIE YRYM EPX IGLMPMFVY HMR REXYV.
9RISVM, TSPEVMXEXIE TIVWSRENYPYM HIQSRMG IVE QEVGEX GVSQEXMG. (IWTVI
ZVNMXSVM (WXVMKSM) WI WTYRI G WI REWG GY GM': HEV QIQFVERE R GEVI WYRX
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PIEK HI WTEXIPI QMGY'MPSV OVWRMOM, WYF E\MPI; R MRWYPE /VO (:IKPME), EGIEWXE I
TYW PE YWGEX #M ETSM EQIWXIGEX GY EPMQIRXIPI GE W 3I QRGEX HI ZMMXSVYP
OVWRMO. 9PXIVMSV, GRH QTPMRIWG #ETXIWTVI^IGI ERM, RGIT PYTXIPI RSGXYVRI
RXVI XEFIVIPI EHZIVWI. R EGIIE#M VIKMYRI WI WTYRI G 3IGEVI 3MR' YQER #M
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EPXI TV'M, ZVNMXSVMM HY#QERM WYRX WXVMRM: MXEPMIRM R MRWYPE HEPQEX (YKM 3XSO,
ZIRI'MIRM R ETVSTMIVI HI (YFVSZRMO #M XYVGM WEY HI TIWXI QEVI R
1YRXIRIKVY. %PXI MTSWXE^I EPI ZEPIR'IPSV JEWXI EPI GM'IM QEVGLIE^, HI
EWIQIRIE, PSGEPM^EVIE TSWIWSVMPSV R MQIHMEXE ZIGMRXEXI E WEGVYPYM. R
-WPERHE, GIM RWGY'M GY GM' IVEY GSRWMHIVE'M TIVWSERI HSXEXI GY LEVYP YRIM E
HSYE ZIHIVM. %GI#XME IVEY WMRKYVMM R WXEVI W ZEH PYTXIPI GEVI, GSRJSVQ
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TVWIE XVYTYP WYF JSVQ HI ERMQEP MRZM^MFMP (+MR^FYVK, 1996, 271). R
;EPPSRME WI EXVMFYMI TIVWSERIPSV RWGYXI GY GM' TI GET TYXIVIE HI E
HIWGSTIVM GSQSVMPI GY ENYXSVYP YRIM FEKLIXI QEKMGI HI EPYR. 8SX EMGM, EGIIE#M
TYXIVI IWXI EXVMFYMX GSTMMPSV RWGY'M R ^MYE HI 'VGMYR (1IWRMP, 166). 4PERXI
QEKMGI; WXVMKSM; YWXYVSM.
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WI EHYREY R KVYTYVM HI 7, 9 WEY 11, WI XVEZIWXIEY R JIQIM #M #M TVIJGIEY
KPEWYVMPI, ZSVFMRH WYF'MVI, GE JIQIMPI; #M TYRIEY FVSFSEHI EPFI; WVIEY GE #M
GYQ EV 3 ^FYVEX, GY WFMMPI WGSEWI HMR XIEG; M PIGYMEY TI GIM FSPREZM; HEG
SQSVEY TI GMRIZE, RY IVEY TIHITWM'M. (YT 'ERXIQMV, GEPYG^IRMM XVIFYMEY W-
#M RHITPMRIEWG RHEXSVMVMPI VMXYEPI XMQT HI RSY ERM: EPXJIP IVEY TIVWIGYXE'M
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ZSVFI#XI.7I PIEK W NSEGI QTVIYR 3 ERM; GMRI RY WI 'MRI HI GYZRX,
RRIFYRI#XI GX XMQT ZE XVM (MHIQ, 38, 41). (IWGVMIVMPI PIKQRXYPYM WYRX, R
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E#E JIP RGX YRYP W ZMR R WTEXIPI GIPYMPEPX. 7I ETPIEG GY XS'MM PE TQRX.
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MRXIVHMG'MMPI PE GEVI WYRX WYTY#M. 1EM RXM, EFWXMRIR'E: *EG NYVQRX W WI
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GIM 9 GPY#EVM (W.R., %. 3.). (MR EGIWX QSQIRX WI GSRWMHIV HI3RMXMZ
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VS#MI (.), R QR TSEVX S WEFMI HI PIQR (.). R XMQTYP GRH NSEG, QYXYP #EHI
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EKPSQIVRHY-WI R NYVYP PSV, EV QTMIHMGE NSGYP GPY#EVMPSV (MHIQ, 46-47). 7
RY YMXQ, G R QYPXI GVIHMR'I MRM'MEXYP IWXI XSGQEM EGIWX TIVWSREN, E#E GYQ
VIMIWI HMR VMXYEPYP HI GSRWXMXYMVI E GIXIM: 7I R3KI WXIEKYP R TQRX, WI
GYPG QYXYP PRK IP #M-P WEV GIMPEP'M HI 3 SVM ^MGRH: n7 Q-ENYXI
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7I GVIHI G TIWXI TY'MR XMQT EGIP FSPREZ WEY WI ZMRHIG WEY QSEVI (MHIQ,
40). -I#MVIE HMR GIEX WI VIEPM^IE^ HI EWIQIRIE GY XSEXI TVIGEY'MMPI:
7QFX, R WTXQRE 6YWEPMMPSV, 4-5 GPY#EVM MIW PE QEVKMRIE WEXYPYM #M WI
HYG PE PSGYP YRHI EY HITYW NYVQRXYP. % MGM TYR QRE TI TVNMRE TI GEVI EY
TYVXEX-S XSEX WTXQRE #M, JV W WTYR ZVIYRYP ZVIYR GYZRX, S XEMI R
FYG'M #M S RKVSET. (YT GI EY RKVSTEX-S, JYK GY XS'MM JV W WI YMXI
RETSM (MHIQ, 47). 7 RY YMXQ HI TYXIVMPI QEPI3GI GSRGIRXVEXI R TVNMR:
7I GVIHI G GMRI XVIGI TI WYF YQFVE WXIEKYPYM WI QFSPRZI#XI (MHIQ, 45).
(IWGRXXSEVI; WTMVMHY#; YWXYVSM.
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YXMPM^EVI S EVI 'IWXYVE VMXYEP WYF JSVQ HI GQE#. 0E FYPKEVM #M PE WVFM S
GQE# HI EGIWX XMT IVE JGYX TIRXVY E XVIGI TVMR IE (HI VIKYP GSTMMM)
TIRXVY WRXEXI, QEM QYPX TVIZIRXMZ (8SPWXSM-4, 1994, 151, 152). 0E WVFM #M
YGVEMRIRM S GQE# EWIQRXSEVI IVE 'IWYX RY RYQEM R XMQTYP ITMHIQMMPSV.
'YQ WI EY^IE G ZE 3 V^FSM, JIQIMPI 'IWIEY RXV-S WMRKYV RSETXI, R XGIVI
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YRIPI TV'M 3IGEVI WSPHEX TVMQIE S EWXJIP HI GQE#, TI GEVI XVIFYME W S
TSEVXI R TIVQERIR', GX XMQT WI E4E TI JVSRX (8SPWXSM-4, 1994, 151). 0E
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GY ENYXSVYP GVIME GSTMPYP E4EX R TSXIR'MEP TIVMGSP IVE ETVEX QTSXVMZE QSV'MM
(MHIQ, 263-264). 6SP ETSXVSTEMG EZIE S EWIQIRIE GQE# (WEY FVY) PE
FMIPSVY#M RY HSEV R GE^YP ITMHIQMMPSV, EP TIVMGSPYPYM MQMRIRX EP QSV'MM. 4IRXVY
E-P ZIHIE TI GIM QSV'M, GEVI, WI WTYRIE, RZMEY HI 7J. 8VIMQI, XVIFYME W MIM
TY'MRI 3VI HI MR, HMR GIPI GEVI VQR TI WYF TR^ GRH WI 'IWI. (EG XI PIKM
GY IPI, M TS'M ZIHIE JSEVXI Y#SV TI QSV'M, GEVI ZMR PE FMWIVMG R EGIE ^M
(8SPWXSM-4, 1994, 153). &IWYX VMXYEP.
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TVMQIPI 3MR'I GEVI EY TSTYPEX YRMZIVWYP. 7I WTYRIE, EWXJIP, G QEM RXM
(YQRI^IY P-E JGYX TI SQ #M P-E TYW TI TQRX W-#M EHQMVI STIVE, HYT GEVI
E TPIGEX; GRH W-E RXSVW, E Z^YX G HYLYP GIP VY M-E WXVMGEX GVIE'ME. %GIWX
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ETSM TI SQ, TIRXVY GE ERMQEPYP W-P T^IEWG HI JSV'E HMWXVYGXMZ E HMEZSPYPYM
(*VE^IV, 1990, 23). R EGIWX JIP, GLMEV HI PE SVMKMRM ERMQEPYP E JSWX QIRMX W
EWMKYVI S TE^ GX QEM FYR SQYPYM, 3MRH TYW HI WXVEN PE KVERM'E HMRXVI
PYQIE YQERYPYM #M GIE E WTMVMXIPSV. (I EGIIE WI WTYRI: 9VPIXYP GMRIPYM R
XMQTYP RST'MM #M TVMZMVIE PYM RHVITXEX RWTVI S GEW WYRX WIQR G ZE VTSWE
GMRIZE HMR EGIE GEW. 'VIHMR'IPI EGIWXIE WXEY R WXVRW PIKXYV GY EPX
GVIHMR': GMRIPI WMQXI ETVSTMIVIE WTMVMXIPSV #M H WIQREP ('MEY#ERY, 119).
7PEZMM HI WYH GSRWMHIV G TSX EWMKYVE TVSXIG'MI EXX GMRIPI, GX #M TMWMGE. )PI
WYRX WSGSXMXI #M EMGM GE RM#XI ERMQEPI GEVI ZH HYLYVMPI #M PI WMQX ETVSTMIVIE.
8SX PE IM WI GVIHI G GMYQE WI XIQI HI GMRM #M HI TMWMGM. (I EGIIE WI
VIGSQERH GE EGIWXI ERMQEPI W 3I RGLMWI R GEW, TIRXVY E PI ETVE HI
GMYQ. R WTMVMXYP KRHMVMM QMXSPSKMGI, RY SVMGI SQ #M HIGM RMGM SVMGI ERMQEP RY
TYXIE EGGIHI PE GIEPEPX VIEPMXEXI #M HIGM RY TYXIE EWMKYVE TVSXIG'ME RIGIWEV.
7TERMSPMM GE #M YGVEMRMIRMM GVIHIEY G RYQEM ERMQEPIPI (GMRMM, GSGS#MM) RWGY'M
R PYRE QEVXMI FIRI3GME^ HI EGIWXI GEPMX'M. 0E VSQRM, GSRWEGVEVIE WI
VIEPM^E XSX TVMR RE#XIVI, HEV TI FE^E TVMRGMTMYPYM TVMQSKIRMXYVMM: 'MRMM IVEY
HI GIM HMRXM PE G'IE, R^HVZERM, G P-EY GYRSWGYX (TI QSVSM). 0E GEWE YRHI
WYRX GMRM HMR EGIME, HVEGYP RY-#M TSEXI JEGI QIRHVIPI PYM, HI EGIIE EWXJIP HI
GMRM RY XVMIWG QYPX; 2IGYVEXYP M SQSEV (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 494). 0YT;
QIXEQSVJS^; TVMGSPMGM.
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EJYQE WMGVMYP GY GP'M HI GRIT. (I EWIQIRIE, HEG GMRIZE QYVIE RXV-S ^M
HI QEV'M, TIRXVY E RY WI JEGI WXVMKSM, HSY-XVIM JIQIM FXVRI WI HYGIEY RXV-
S ^M HI NSM PE GMQMXMV, GY TY'MR GRIT #M GY YR GY'MX HI TPYK WEY GY YR FVMGIEK.
%GSPS VW3VEY GRITE PRK QSVQRX, RGSRNYVEY QSVQRXYP HI XVIM SVM GY
GY'MXYP, TI GEVI ETSM P EXVREY HI GVYGI, ETVMRHIEY S PYQREVI GI EVWIWI R
XMQTYP RST'MM, RGSRNYVEY HMR RSY QSVQRXYP HI-E-RHVEXIPIE, ETVMRHIEY
GRITE VW3VEX #M HIWGRXEY (2MGYPEI, 178). 0E VY#M, R ^MYE HI QEV'M HMR
WTXQRE TEXMQMPSV EZIE PSG VMXYEPYP TVIKXMVMM YRYM WYG HMR WIQMR'I HI R #M
GRIT, TI GEVI-P HHIEY ERMQEPIPSV, TVIZIRXMZ, TIRXVY E RY WI QFSPRZM
(8SPWXEME-3, 33). "M PE VSQRM HMR WIQMR'I HI GRIT 3IVXI, TMWEXI #M WXVIGYVEXI
WI SF'MRI S TEWX, RYQMX PETXIPI FSYPYM WEY NYPJ, GI WI QTEVXI ZIGMRMPSV
TIRXVY TSQIRMVIE QSV'MPSV ()ZWIIZ-P, 1994, 33). %GIEWX TVEGXMG I\TPMG
YXMPM^EVIE TVSTVMIX'MPSV REVGSXMGI EPI GRITIM TVMR SFMGIMYP TVITEVVMM HI
QYGIRMGM (9 QEVXMI) E YRSV GSPGIM GY WQR' HI GRIT WEY nPETXI~,
SF'MRYX TVMR TMWEVIE EGIWXSVE, GY WGSTYP HI E REVGSXM^E WMQFSPMG WTMVMXIPI
T^MXSEVI EPI PYQMM HI HMRGSPS, HI E PI QFYRE ()ZWIIZ-2, 1994, 105).
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7IQMR'IPI HI GRIT WEY MR, QEG IVEY EVYRGEXI R JRXR TIRXVY E MRZSGE
TPSEME, TVEGXMG VWTRHMX PE YGVEMRMIRM (8SPWXSM-8SPWXEME, 1978, 102). 6Y#MM
WTYRIEY G HEG YR GSTMP RY TYXIE W QIEVK, XVIFYME PYEX HI QR #M HYW R
GQT, 3IGEVI TEW TVIWVRHY-P-WI GY WIQMR'I HI GRIT (&EMFYVMR, 1991,
260). "M RG S GSRI\MYRI MRXIVIWERX: OMOMQSVE TIVWSREN FMRIGYRSWGYX EP
QIQSVEXIPSV VYWI#XM -IWXI PIKEX IXMQSPSKMG HI EGIEWX TPERX R PMQFE
PMXYERMER OMOM RWIQRRH GRIT (/EWXSVWOM, 179). R QMXSPSKME VYW, QYPXI
TIVWSRENI QEPI3GI WYRX TYWI R PIKXYV HMVIGX GY EGIEWX TPERX. %WXJIP, WI
WTYRIE G VYWEPOM PSGYMEY R PERYP HI GRIT (>IPIRMR, 1916, 142). %GIWXI
TIVWSRENI IVEY EHIWIE VITVI^IRXEXI GE EZRH TVYP HMR JYMSEVI HI R WEY
GRIT (MHIQ, 137). 0E FMIPSVY#M VSWSQELE YR EPX HYL YR QSRWXVY
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GRIT (7YHRMO-&MZMER, 279-280). 4VEGXMGMPI SVEGYPEVI GEVI JSPSWIEY GE
TVMRGMTEP IPIQIRX WIQMR'I HI R WEY GRIT IVEY HIW RXPRMXI PE VSQRM, VY#M,
YGVEMRIRM, WPSZEGM. 0E YGVEMRIRM, HI 7J. %RHVIM, JIXIPI PYEY YR TYQR HI WIQMR'I
HI GRIT, MI#IEY R GYVXI, TI GEVI S RGSRNYVEY HI XVIM SVM, PI WIQREY, PI
KVTEY GY GQE#E, ^MGRH: )Y, 7J. %RHVIM, /7IQR GRIT. /(, (SEQRI/7
#XMY/'Y GMRI Q ZSM QVMXE (1EVOIZMGM, 65). 0E WGYVX XMQT JEXE #M ZE ZMWE
YVWMXYP. 3 EPX TVEGXMG, YXMPM^EX XSX R ENYRYP 7J. %RHVIM, YRISVM R ENYRYP %RYPYM
2SY, TVIWYTYRIE YVQXSEVIPI: WI PYE YR TYQR HI WIQMR'I HI GRIT #M, TI
EWGYRW, TIRXVY E RY 3 Z^YX HI GMRIZE, REMRXI HI VWVMXYP WSEVIPYM, WI PIKE
RXV-YR GSP' EP GQ#MM #M WI TYVXE HI GXVI TVEGXMGERX XSEX ^MYE. 7IEVE IPI
WYRX WIQREXI, EGSTIVMXI GY TQRX, KVTEXI GY GQE#E, HYT GEVI WI
WTYRI: 'MRI-QM IWXI YVWMX W ZMR PE QMRI, W ME WIQMR'IPI HI GRIT. 9VWMXYP
ZE ZIRM GY WMKYVER' RSETXIE #M ZE HI^KVSTE GRITE (MHIQ). R ENYRYP 7J.
:EWMPI WEY EP &SFSXI^IM, VSQRGIPI MEY XSVX HI RZ'XYV WEY HMR JYMSVYP HI PE
GVYGI, P TYR R XVIM TIRXVY S JI#XMP TI GEVI RXMRH ETSM S PYQRVMG HI GIEV.
2Y QRRG RMQMG XSEX ^MYE, WIEVE REMRXI HI GYPGEVI ETVMRH PYQRVMGE, WI
RGLMR, FEX QXRMM, FYG'MGE HI PYQREVI GI E QEM VQEW S TYR WYF GET #M
ETSM GYPGRHY-WI, R WSQR #M ZH YVWMXYP (1EVMER, 1994, -, 142). 3 EPX
TVEGXMG SVEGYPEV WI HIWJ#SEV EWXJIP: n7I HYG GY SGLMM RGLM#M HMR GEW, WI
HYG EWXJIP TR PE XVYRGLM #M EGSPS WIEQR TY'MR WQR' HI GRIT. (YT
GI EY WIQREX, WI HI^FVEG HI WXVEMI #M, RGITRH E KVTE GY EGIWXIE GRITE
WIQREX, VSWXIWG YVQXSEVIPI GYZMRXI: n'YQ RY TSEXI GVI#XI/'RITE R
EGIWX PSG, /%#E W R-EMF EGIPE/'EVI W Q ME/7XEVI/"M EPMREVI, /'M W ZMI/7 Q
ME HI WS'MI!~ (1EVMER, 1994, -, 101). R +SVN, GRH GSPMRHXSVMM MRXVEY R GYVXI,
KE^HE M RXQTMRE GY S GSEN HI HSZPIEG R GEVI WYRX HMJIVMXI WIQMR'I HI
KVY, TSVYQF, GRIT, HSZPIEG, TI GEVI ZXEJYP PI ME #M PI QTV#XMI TIRXVY
WTSVYP KSWTSHVMIM ('SQRMGM, 118). 8SX GE S WYFPMRMIVI E ZMVXY'MPSV
ETSXVSTEMGI, TVSTM'MEXSVMM EPI GRITIM, QIR'MSRQ S EPX TVEGXMG RXPRMX PE
WVFM: SEQIRMM TYRIEY WIQMR'I HI GRIT RXV-YR GET HI #EVTI #M PI WIQREY.
(MR GRITE GVIWGYX, ENYRW PE QEXYVMXEXI, JGIEY YR FMGM GY ENYXSVYP GVYME
QREY ZMXIPI GRH EGIWXIE IVEY HYWI PE XVK, GVI^RHY-WI G IPI ZSV 3
ZRHYXI QEM FMRI ()ZWIIZ-2, 1994, 207). b 8SX R PIKXYV GY I\MWXIR'E YRYM
VMXYEP MRM'MEXMG EMGM R PIKXYV GY XSVWYP) TSEXI 3 TYW #M TSZIWXIE GRITIM
YR JIP HI TEVSP GY ENYXSVYP GVIME TIVWSERIPI MRM'MEXI TYXIEY HSZIHM 3MR'IPSV
QEPI3GI G WYRX PE GYVIRX GY QEVIE XEMR. 4IRXVY E WGTE HI .SMQVM'E, HI
I\IQTPY, JIQIMPI GEVI RY XIVQMREY RG XSVWYP #M WXXIEY WYF EQIRMR'EVIE
TIHITWIM GYRSWGYXI, TYXIEY WGTE WTYRRH PYRKE MWXSVMI E GRITIM: GYQ E
JSWX GYPIEW, XSTMX, QIPM'EX, XSEVW, TMITXREX, 'IWYX, EPFMX, GYWYX IXG.,
VIZIPRH EWXJIP EGIWX QMWXIV #M RY RYQEM TIRXVY E WI KVFM, IZIRXYEP R EGIWX
QSH, GRXEXYP GSGS#MPSV, TIRXVY E WI ERMLMPE EG'MYRIE TIVWSRENYPYM VIWTIGXMZ.
3 EWXJIP HI TSZIWXI IWXI RXPRMX #M PE VY#M (GE I\IQTPM3GEVI XVMQMXIQ PE YR
GRXIG, TVSFEFMP HI #I^XSEVI, R GEVI JIXIPI TSZIWXIWG GYQ EY WIQREX MRYP,
GYQ EGIWXE E GVIWGYX IXG.; 1EVMRIWGY, 145). %GIWX XMT HI VIPEXEVI IWXI JSPSWMX
GE QSHEPMXEXI HI TVSXIG'MI QTSXVMZE QYPXSV EPXSV XMTYVM HI WTMVMXI QEPI3GI:
TIVWSRM3GEVIE JIRSQIRIPSV QIXISVSPSKMGI (PE WVFM), E FSPMPSV (PE VSQRM,
MRHMIRM), WXVMKSM (VSQRM, VY#M, YGVEMRIRM IXG.). QTSXVMZE NYRKLMYPYM WI PYE YR
JYMSV HI GRIT HMR GEVI WI QTPIXIE S E', RYQMX E' HI NYRKLM. R XMQTYP
QTPIXMVMM IM HIWGRXXSEVIE TSZIWXI#XI GLMRYVMPI GRITIM, EQIRMR'RH G
NYRKLMYP ZE 3 WYTYW EGIPYME#M XVEXEQIRX (2MGYPEI, 177-P78). 0E QEGIHSRIRM,
WVFM, TIRXVY E WGTE HI HYVIVM R TMITX WEY VGIEP WI PYEY 9 JYWI, YR GY'MX,
YR ZXVEM #M EKMXRH EGIWXI SFMIGXI HIEWYTVE GETYPYM FSPREZYPYM, WI VSWXIEY
WEY WI GRXEY TSZIWXIE MRYPYM WEY E GRITIM (8SPWXSM-4, 1994, 140). 4IRXVY
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VIWTIGXMZIM TPERXI (Z. PE VY#M, WVFM, FMIPSVY#M; 8SPWXSM-4, 1994, 142-P47).
'28%890 '3'3"-036-B '3'3".
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EHIWIE RXPRMQ R HIWGRXIGI QSXMZYP WGVMM HI GIEV: 2YQEM 1EMGE
(SQRYPYM/2YQEM IE P-S EY^MX, /2YQEM IE QM P-S Z^YX/"M QMP M W-S JGYX/"M W-S
WGSFSVX/4I WGEV HI GIEV (1EVMER, 1996, 186). 1SXMZYP WGVMM HI GIEV WI
VIKWI#XI R PIKIRHI GSWQSKSRMGI GEVI EY GE IVSM 7SEVIPI #M 0YRE: -ERE
7R^MERE S WSGSXIWG WSVE 7SEVIPYM (0YRE). "M G IP, TPIGRH W WI RWSEVI, RY
E KWMX TI TSXVMZE PYM HIGX TI WSVE WE #M EWXJIP TVMR QEM QYPXI SFPMKE'MYRM TYWI
7SEVIPYM, GYQ: W JEG TSH TIWXI QEVI, WGEV PE GIV, FMWIVMG HI GIEV, GY
TST HI GIEV, GY XSX HI GIEV, TYW TIWXI QEVI, R GEVI YVQE W WI GYRYRI.
"M G XSX 3MRH KEXE, GRH E ZVYX W WI GYRYRI, W-E XSTMX FMWIVMGE GY TSTM GY XSX,
RGX IM EY VQEW R ET. %XYRGM (YQRI^IY, XEXP PSV, M-EY HIWTV'MX TIRXVY
XSXHIEYRE. 4I 7SEVI P-EY SVRHYMX W YQFPI RYQEM ^MYE, MEV TI 0YR, RSETXIE;
EWXJIP, GRH YRYP W WI REP'I, GIPPEPX W WI TSKSEVI #M R ZIGM W RY WI QEM
RXPRIEWG (&VMPP, 1994, -, 7P-72).
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JEFYPSEWI RY IWXI WMRKYPEV R QMXSPSKME YRMZIVWEP: PE SWI'M TEXVSRYP
ZVWEXYPYM, %PEVH], IVE VITVI^IRXEX EHIWIE GSFSVRH HMR GIV TI S WGEV HI EYV
WEY HI EVKMRX (1MJSPSKMGIWOMN WPSZEV, 32). %GIEWX WEGVEPM^EVI HISWIFMX E GIVMM
IWXI S HSZEH E YRIM GVIHMR'I QEM ZIGLM, GIEVE GSRWXMXYMRH WMQFSPYP
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XSEXI RIKVI, /% QIVW EVRH HYT YR WEX/8SX HIWGRXRH, /8VKRH FVE^H
RIEKV, /7 RY MRXVI EGSPS GMYQE-R WEX, /7 3I SQYP WRXSW, /'E 4VIGMWXE, /'E
WSEVIPI ('ERHVIE, 1944, 365). 'IVG; YWXYVSM.
'3%( 3 WIVMI HI GVIHMR'I PEVK VWTRHMXI, VIJIVMXSEVI PE WXVMKSM WTYRI
G IM TVSZMR HMR GSTMMM RWGY'M GY GSEH; PI GVI#XI GSEH, PE RGITYX QEM QMG,
ETSM QEM QEVI; YRISVM WI TVIGM^IE^: EY GSEH GE HI GMRI (1Y#PIE-&VPIE,
246). %PXI MRJSVQE'MM QIR'MSRIE^ ETEVM'ME GS^MM RY GE YR WIQR HI GSRWEGVEVI,
GM HI RWIQREVI (QEVGEN WEGVY), ETVYX R YVQE RGPGVMM YRIM MRXIVHMG'MM:
(EG S JIQIMI KVEZMH JYV GIZE, PSGYP YRHI WI EWGYRHI PYGVYP JYVEX VQRI
GE WIQR R EGIE TEVXI E GSVTYPYM GSTMPYPYM GI ZE RE#XI. (EG-P TYRI R WR,
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GSTMPYP RSY-RWGYX RY WI JEGI WXVMKSM HEG M HI XEMI GSEHE GY S TVPY' QMG.
%PXISVM, HEG QSEVI PE XMIVIE GS^MM, WI JEGI WXVMKSM (MHIQ, 259).
'3'3"; '28%890 '3'3"-036 (YL EP GEWIM, R QSH YRMZIVWEP
GSRWMHIVEX E 3 WMQFSP WSPEV, GSGS#YP IWXI TEWVI GVIHMRGMSEW #M R^HVZER.
'SGS#YP, WMRKYVYP HMRXVI XSEXI ZMI'YMXSEVIPI, ZIHI RSETXIE GRH WI HIWGLMHI
GIVYP #M XSX IP EYHI XSEGE HMR GIV. 'RH GRX RSETXIE HI XVIM SVM, EPYRK
HYLYVMPI RIGYVEXI, ^QIMM, WXVMKSMM; GRH GRX HIWTVI ^MY, WTIVMI HVEGMM #M
WGSVTMMPI, GEVI TMIV (6HYPIWGY-'SHMR, 1MLEPEGLI, 310). (I EWIQIRIE, HI
GEWE YRHI I GSGS#, RY WI ETVSTMI RMGM S RIGYV'IRMI (1Y#PIE-&VPIE, 289).
6Y#MM WTYR G JV GSGS# ERMQEPIPSV RY PI ZE QIVKI FMRI R KSWTSHVMI, PETXIPI
ZEGMPSV RY ZE 3 FYR, RY ZE EZIE KYWX. *IQIMM GEVI ZMRHI EWXJIP HI PETXI M WI
WTYRI: &MRI WXTRYP R GEW! ) HI TVIJIVEX GE EGIWX GSGS# W 3I RIKVY.
7PEZMM HI WYH WTYR R EGIWX WIRW: 0E GSGS# EPF WXTR RIKVY. 7PEZMM HI ETYW
GSRWMHIV RW G YR GSGS# EPF EHYGI JIVMGMVI R JEQMPMI. 6Y#MM #M YGVEMRIRMM
GVIH, HI EWIQIRIE, G YR GSGS# RIKVY EHYGI KLMRMSR; R GE^YP GRH S JEQMPMI
EVI YR GSGS# RIKVY, QIQFVMM IM WI ZSV GIVXE HIW. 8SX VY#MM WTYR G HEG RXV-S
KSWTSHVMI ZE QYVM GSGS#YP I WIQR G R GYVRH WI ZE TVSHYGI YR MRGIRHMY.
(I EWIQIRIE, HEG GSGS#YP GRX PE JIVIEWXV WEY S PSZI#XI GY EVMTE
TVIZIWXI#XI MRGIRHMY (MHIQ). 6IJIVMXSV PE GEVEGXIVYP HIQSRMG EP GSGS#YPYM
I\MWX RYQIVSEWI VITVI^IRXVM. 9GVEMRIRMM WTYR G WI RXPRI#XI YR GSGS#,
RYQMX GEVMO, GEVI RGITI W GRXI GLMEV HMR SY. 'RH ZE 3 QEVI, ZE 3 GIP QEM
TYXIVRMG #M QEM GYVENSW HMR VIKMYRI. )P IWXI TVMQYP GEVI GRX PE QMI^YP RST'MM,
HI IP WI XIQI #M HMEZSPYP. 7VFMM WTYR G YR EWXJIP HI GSGS# IWXI ^QIY. 'RH
WI ETVSTMI YR RSV HI JYVXYR IP WI EWGYRHI WYF TVEK; EGSPS #M PEW XVYTYP,
WY4IXYP PYM YVGRH TI GIV, TIRXVY E WI FEXI GY LEPIPI TIVWSRM3GEVIE JYVXYRMM;
(MHIQ). R GVIHMR'IPI QEM QYPXSV TSTSEVI, QENSVMXEXIE WTMVMXIPSV HSQIWXMGI
WYRX SF'MRYXI TVMR GPSGMVIE HI GXVI ZMMXSVYP TVSTVMIXEV, GEVI PI 'MRI PE
WYFWYSEV QEM QYPXI ^MPI. (YT RGLIMIVIE TIVMSEHIM HI MRGYFE'MI, HMR SY ZE
MI#M S JTXYV GEVI EVI RJ'M#EVI HI: E) TYM HI KMR (GIL. TPIZRO, QEKL.
0MHIVG; -SRIWGY, 81; 1MJSPSKMGIWOMN WPSZEV, 3); WTMVMHY#YP EHYGI FERM, GIVIEPI,
PYRH R WGLMQF WY4IXYP TSWIWSVYPYM. 7XTRYP TSEXI WGTE HI IP HSEV HRHY-
P W QTPMRIEWG WEVGMRM MQTSWMFMPI W EHYG ET R WMX, PYQMR R WEG IXG.
8S'M WPEZMM GVIH G YR GSGS# FXVR WI TSEXI XVERWJSVQE JSEVXI TVSFEFMP RXV-S
3MR' HIQSRMG. 'SGS#YP GEVI E XVMX 3, 5, 7 WEY GLMEV 9 ERM ZE JEGI YR SY QMG.
(MR IP ZE MI#M S JTXYV HIQSRMG (GLSZERI', SKRIRM ^QIM IXG.), GEVI TSEXI
PYE RJ'M#EVIE YRIM HVI HI JSG, WGRXIM, QSXER, SQYPI', TYM HI KMR. &) (V
HI JSG GI ^FSEV RSETXIE; EHYGI FERM, FSK'MI R GEWE GIPYM PE GEVI W-E
WXEFMPMX. 3F'MRYX TVMR EGIPE#M TVSGIHIY. )WXI RXPRMX PE TSPSRI^M WOV^EX, PE
GILM WO3XIO, PE WPSZEGM WOJ^EXSO, PE WPSZIRM VEVEWIO (-SRIWGY, 143-P44). 0E
PMXYERMIRM EMXZEVEW ETEVI GE S TEV HI JSG, GY VI4I\I HMZIVWI, R JYRG'MI HI
QEXIVMEPYP XVERWTSVXEX (GIVIEPI, FERM, PETXI IXG.). 'RH WXEY R GEW, ETEV WYF
JSVQE YRYM GSGS#. %PXI RJ'M#VM: #EVTI HI JSG, GMSEV WEY TMWMG RIEKV.
4IRXVY E-P WIVZM TI WXTR, XVIFYMI W 3I LVRMX GY SQPIX. (EG TPGIVIE RY-P
IWXI WEXMWJGYX, TVSTVMIXEVYP IWXI TIHITWMX TVMR EVHIVIE KSWTSHVMIM. (SEV GY
QEVI KVIYXEXI WI TSEXI WGTE HI IP (HEG IWXI SQSVX, TVSZSEG MRGIRHMM).
)WXI R^IWXVEX #M GY EPXI JYRG'MM, WTIGM3GI XYXYVSV TIVWSRENIPSV QMXSPSKMGI GEVI
EG'MSRIE^ R TIVMQIXVYP PSGYMR'IM YQERI: QTPIXI#XI GSEQIPI GEMPSV,
TVSZSEG GS#QEVI IXG. (1MJSPSKMGIWOMN WPSZEV, 55). *SEVXI EWIQRXSV GY
EMXZEVEW IWXI #M IWXSRYP TYYO (XSRX, OVEXX; GJ. *YRO & ;EKREPPW), PIXSRYP TYOI
(1MJSPSKMGIWOMN WPSZEV, 445). 7YF JSVQE YRIM TWVM VTMXSEVI (#SMQ, GIP QEM
EHIWIE) WEY #EVTI HI JSG ETEVI PE GILM, WPSZEGM -VEVEWIO, PE YGVEMRIRM VEVMK.
&MIPSVY#MM GSRWMHIV, TI PRK GIPI QIR'MSREXI QEM WYW, G R EWIQIRIE #IVTM
HI JSG WTMVMXI HSQIWXMGI WI XVERWJSVQ #M SEQIRMM QSV'M JV QTVX#ERMI.
)WXI GYRSWGYX #M VY#MPSV ('IVITERSZE, 48). ') 3F'MRYX TI EGIIE#M GEPI TVMR
GPSGMVIE YRYM SY (HI GIPI QEM QYPXI SVM HI PE S TYMG RIEKV), XMQT HI 9 ^MPI,
GYQTVEX HI PE XVK WEY TVMQMX HI PE HMEZSP, EGIWX TIVWSREN EVI RJ'M#EVIE
YRYM HVGY#SV, WTMVMHY# E#E GYQ ETEVI R JSPGPSVYP VSQRIWG. 4VSZIRMIR'E
WEXERMG IWXI WYFPMRMEX RG S HEX, GSRWMHIVRHY-WI G TEWVIE E JGYX
EGIWX SY R YVQE YRIM PIKXYVM GY HMEZSPYP (4EQ3PI-P, 1916, 81; 3VPSZ, 500). 0E
VSQRM, TI PRK EGIEWX RJ'M#EVI, S TSEXI EZIE #M TI EGIIE E YRYM GSGS#
(1Y#PIE-&VPIE, 290). 4SEXI 3 TWXVEX R ZEWI, R WXMGPI #M IPMFIVEX RYQEM GRH
IWXI RIZSMI HI IP. 2EXYVE HMEFSPMG IWXI VI4IGXEX #M R EG'MYRMPI WEPI: P
WPYNI#XI TI WXTR, HEV TVMQI#XI R WGLMQF YR WY4IX HI SQ; YRISVM, HEG
WXTRYP IWXI S JIQIMI, XVIFYMI W WI GYPGI GY IP #M EPXI TPGIVM W-P
JEG (MHIQ), EPXJIP ZE EZIE RYQEM RIRSVSGMVM. (IWGVMIVIE HI QEM NSW WI
TSXVMZI#XI JSEVXI FMRI #M TIRXVY OSFSPH-YP HMR GVIHMR'IPI KIVQERI: 'MRI EVI
TI HVEGYP R GEW P 'MRI R TSH WEY RXV-S GQEV HISWIFMX, M H W QRRGI
GMV HI QQPMK #M EPXI GIPI, HEV QEM GY WIEQ M TPEGI XEVI PETXIPI. 2YQEM
GX WVEX W RY-P HIMI (.). 'RH TSEXI G YMX RXV-S ^M W-P HIE HI QRGEX, RY
JEGI RMQMG EPX, HIGX VWXSEVR XSEXI SEPIPI #M XSEXI FPMHIPI HI TI TSPM', R
QMNPSGYP GEWIM, GY KYVE R NSW, JV W PI WXVMGI (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 466). 'Y
EGIPIE#M EXVMFY'MM #M EGIIE#M SVMKMRI IWXI RXPRMX PE VY#M #M PE YGVEMRIRM
RIGLMSVS#M, WZSM, LSZERI', KSHSZERI' (3VPSZ, 500) IXG. 'E #M PE VSQRM
(4EQ3PI-P, 1916, 81), SYP XVIFYMI GPSGMX REMRXI HI 4E#XI, MEV R (YQMRMGE QEVI
SEQIRMM GEVI RGIVGEY SF'MRIVIE PYM QIVKIEY GY IP PE FMWIVMG. %XYRGM GRH
TVISXYP WTYRIE: 'VMWXSW E RZMEX!, TVMRXIPI EHSTXMZ XVIFYME W WTYR
RGIXM#SV, HI XVIM SVM: "M EP QIY E RZMEX!0E WGYVX XMQT, WTMVMHY#YP MI#IE HMR
SY. b' R X E X YP G S G S # M P SV *MI G IWXI GSRHM'MSREX QEPI3G WEY FIRI3G,
GRXEXYP GSGS#MPSV (WEY EP KMRMM GI GRX GSGS#I#XI) IWXI GMVGYQWGVMW YRIM
GSRWEGVVM XIQTSVEVI. 4IRXVY KMRM, RSXE HI RI3VIWG, HIGM HI WEGVEPM^EVI, IWXI
QEM IZMHIRX, GRXEXYP GSRWXMXYMRH TIRXVY KSWTSHEV YR WIQR HMR PYQIE
GIEPEPX: +MRE GRH GRX PE GEW, RY-P FMRI, ZE 3 ZVIS FSEP QEVI WEY ZVIS
RIRSVSGMVI, ZE QYVM GMRIZE HMR JEQMPMI WEY EM ZVIS TEKYF, ZVIS ZMX EVI W
TMEV. %XYRGM W MIM KMRE #M W-S QWSVM HI PE JIVIEWXV PE TVEK #M HI ZMRI GY
GETYP PE TVEK, M XEM GETYP, HI ZMRI GY GSEHE, M XEM GSEHE. %P'MM XEMI RYQEM
TIRM'IPI HMR ZVJYP GETYPYM #M-S PEW; HEV HEG-P XEM GETYP RY-P QRRGM, WI
EVYRG (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 431). 2 MGM TIRXVY GSGS#M GSRWEGVEVIE RY IVE
RRWGYX #M TIVQERIRX. (EG R XMQTYP ^MPIM GRXEXYP GSGS#MPSV IWXI 3VIWG
TIRXVY XSEXI TWVMPI, RSETXIE GRX RYQEM GIM EPI#M (IWXI ZSVFE HI XSRYP
TI GEVI P H GSGS#YP GSRWMHIVEX R^HVZER): 'SGS# HMR SYP GIP HMRXM HI
TYMGY' HI EM, RY WI ETVSTMI RMGM YR JETX HI GEW, G WYRX JTXYVM XVMQMWI GY
2IGYVEXYP. %#E, YR GSGS# XVMI#XI 12 ERM #M RG GY WQR' HI GRIT W-P
LVRI#XM, GE W TVMRH TYXIVI (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 434). %PXISVM, QEVGENYP WEGVY
WI VIEPM^E PE RMZIP GVSQEXMG: +MR RIEKV #M GSGS# RIKVY I XEVI FMRI W 'MM PE
GEW, GGM HI EGIE GEW HMEZSPYP RY WI ETVSTMI, GGM IM ZH XSXYP; #M JYK
JEVQIGIPI #M SVMGI JETX GE #M HI GMRI #M Q' RIEKV (MHIQ, 435). R GIIE GI
TVMZI#XI GRXEXYP RSGXYVR EP GSGS#YPYM, GVIHMR'IPI VIJIVMXSEVI PE IP WYRX
HMJIVMXI: 'SGS#YP GEVI GRX RSETXIE HIZVIQI R TSMEX IWXI WIQR G WYRX
XPLEVM R WEX; IP #XMI (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 437). 9RISVM, WXVRMVIE TWVMM WI
JGIE HI WYW, IE RI3MRH HIGX YR WMQTPY MRWXVYQIRX QERMTYPEX HI HMZMRMXEXI
TVMR MRXIVQIHMEVMM IM: 'SGS#YP GRX PE QMI^YP RST'MM 3MRHG ZMRI RKIVYP #M-P
KHMP PE EVMTE HVIETX, WTYMRHY-P G XSEG R GIV ('MEY#ERY, 352). (EV RY
GRX 3IGEVI GSGS# PE GIEWYP GRH XVIFYMI. R XSX WEXYP RYQEM YRYP IWXI E#E
R^HVZER #M ETSM GRX GIMPEP'M HYT HRWYP. %GIP GSGS# HI QMG WI GYRSE#XI;
IP GRX HI E XVIME ^M HYT GI E MI#MX HMR SY. 4I EGIPE I FMRI W-P RWIQRM, GE W
RY-P XEM; W-P 'MM PE GEW, G I XEVI FYR (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 433). (EV EGIEWX
TWXVEVI RY XVIFYME W HIT#IEWG ERYQMXI PMQMXI, RY XVIFYME W HIKIRIVI^I
RXV-YR I\GIW, HISEVIGI I\GIWYP IWXI TYW MRIZMXEFMP WYF WIQRYP HIQSRMGYPYM,
EP WEGVYPYM QEPI3G: 'RH ENYRKI PE ZVWXE HI 3 ERM, GSGS#YP JEGI YR SY QMXMXIP
#M RHEX GI-P JEGI, MIWI HMR IP YR ZVGSPEG. (I EGIIE RY I FMRI W 'MM GSGS#YP
TR PE 3 ERM, G WI RQYP'IWG ZVGSPEGMM #M QRRG PYRE #M
WSEVIPI ('MEY#ERY, 352). (IQSRM^EX WEY RY, GSGS#YP WI FYGYV R QMXSPSKMI
HI YR QEVI TVIWXMKMY QEM EPIW HMR GEY^E EGXMZM^VMM PYM RSGXYVRI, EXVMFYMRHY-P-
WI JYRG'ME HI TYVM3GEXSV EP XIVMXSVMMPSV E4EXI TR QEM REMRXI R TSWIWME
QEPI3GYPYM: 'SGS#YP I QEVI TE^ HI PE (YQRI^IY. (I GEWE YRHI I GSGS# RY
WI ETVSTMI RMGM S RIGYV'IRMI. >MYE HMEZSPYP HI EGIIE RY YQFP, GGM GRX R
XSX GIEWYP GSGS#YP. (YQRI^IY E#E E HEX, G GYQ ZE GRXE IP, XSEX
RIGYV'IRME W TMEV #M W RY QEM EMF TYXIVI EWYTVE SQYPYM. 2SETXIE, HYT
GI E GRXEX GSGS#YP, TS'M QIVKI SVMYRHI #M R-EM HI GI W XI QEM XIQM, GGM I
GYVEX TI XSX TQRXYP. (EV TR PE GRXEXYP GSGS#MPSV I QEVI KVSE^ EXYRGM
RIGYV'IRMMPI YQFP, WYRX GIEWYVMPI PSV. (I GYQ W3R'I#XI WSEVIPI, 2IGYVEXYP #M
XSEXI VIPIPI MIW #M TR GI GRX GSGS#YP YQFP, EXYRGM TSX JEGI SVMGI SQYPYM.
R GIEWYVMPI GIPI KVIPI HI RSETXI #M GRH I HVITX QMI^YP RST'MM, RMGM GSGS#YP RY
TSEXI W GRXI; M EQSV'I#XI 2IGYVEXYP KPEWYP (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 433).
4EWVIE TYXIE 3 HI JSPSW #M R VIKMQ HMYVR, GE^ R GEVI TYXIQ ZSVFM HI S
GSRWEGVEVI TIVQERIRX: 2SVZIKMIRMM, GRH RY TSX KWM GEHEZVYP YRYM RIGEX
MEY S FEVG R GEVI TYR YR GSGS# #M WI TPMQF TI ETE R GEVI W-E RIGEX GIP GI
IWXI GYXEX. 7I GVIHI #M WI WTYRI G RHEX GI FEVGE E ENYRW R PSGYP R GEVI WI
E4 PI#YP RIGEXYPYM, GSGS#YP RGITI W GYGYVMKIEWG ('MEY#ERY, 352). 0E JIP,
VY#MM EXVMFYMI GSGS#YPYM TYXIVIE QMVEGYPSEW HI E KLMGM. R ^MPIPI 'VGMYRYPYM,
JIXIPI GEYX W E4I HEG WI ZSV QVMXE R GYVWYP ERYPYM GI RGITI. *EG S
KVQNSEV HI FSEFI #M R ZVJYP IM TYR YR MRIP. %TSM FEK YR GSGS# R SHEME
R GEVI W-E JGYX KVQNSEVE. 'SGS#YP WI VITIHI PE TSVYQF: MRIPYP GEHI, WI
VSWXSKSPI#XI #M ETYG WTVI YRE HMRXVI JIXIPI GI WXEY VSEX QTVINYVYP KVQI^MM.
*EXE WTVI GEVI S ETYG MRIPYP WI GVIHI G WI QVMX R GYVWYP ERYPYM GI
ZMRI (EGIWX TVSGIHIY HMZMREXSV IVE VWTRHMX #M R ERXMGLMXEXI; 'MEY#ERY,
353). 7TMVMHY#.
'30%' 9R EPX WTE'MY WEGVEPM^EX IWXI #M GSPEGYP. :MPE HYLYP EIVYPYM PE
WVFM TYXIE W 3I Z^YX HEG WI GSGIE, HI 0WEXYP WIGYPYM, YR GSPEG #M, WYMX
RXV-YR GSTEG, TVEGXMGERXYP WI YMXE TVMR IP (:MRSKVEHSZE-8SPWXEME-P, 1994, 36).
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KRH: 'YQ IWXI WJRXYP WSEVI HI PYGMSW/%#E W 3I GSTMMM QIM HI
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HEG ZVIE W-P 3I ZME'E ZIWIP, W VH WTVI QMVI TVMR GSPEGYP HI RYRX
(%ZVEQ, 179). R 3PXIRME, E HSY ^M HI 'VGMYR IWXI RYQMX >MYE QS#MPSV WEY
>MYE QS#YPYM. *IQIMPI XMRIVI HYG R EGIEWX ^M, HI HMQMRIE', GSTMMM PE QSE#,
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IVEY QMGM, WI XVIGIEY TVMRXV-YR GSPEG HI KVY #M WI VMHMGE TR-R KVMRH
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GY JSV'I RSM, WI SFWIVZ #M R EGXYP QEKMG WMFIVMER HI GSEGIVI E GSTMPYPYM
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R GYTXSV, EHYW TR PE KYVE WSFIM #M XVIGYX TVMRXV-YR GSPEG, JGYX WTIGMEP
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^MPI, HMR JMR EHYREX HI PE 9 KSWTSHVMM. 'RH IVE KEXE, TVMR IP IVEY XVIGY'M
GSTMMM FSPREZM ((SQSXSV, 195). R WXVRW PIKXYV GY TYXIVIE ETSXVSTEMG TI
GEVI S TSWIHE GSPEGYP, EQMRXMQ GSPMRHE GSPEGYPYM, GEVI MPYWXVE HI JETX QMXYP
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QYRGMPSV EKVMGSPI, HI PE EVEX, WIQREX, WIGIVEX, XVIMIVEX, QGMREX, TR PE
GSTXYP GSPEGYPYM #M SJIVMVIE PYM GSPMRHXSVMPSV ('SQRMGM, 124).
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GSQSVMPI EVH, EHMG HIEWYTVE PSGYPYM YRHI WYRX RKVSTEXI ETEV RM#XI 4GVM
VS#MIXMGI, HEG GSQSEVE EVI QEM QYPX EVEQ; KEPFIR, HEG I EYV (.)
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MRXIVZEPI HI XMQT HMR GEHVYP STS^M'MIM ^M/RSETXI, IZMHIR'MMRH GY VMKYVS^MXEXI
QSQIRXIPI R GEVI TSX 3 Z^YXI GSQSVMPI: 'SQSVMPI GYVEXI WEY FERMM GIM FYRM
EVH HYT QMI^YP RST'MM, HYT GI GRX GSGS#MM, TR GXVI ^MY #M ^MYE TR PE
EQME^, GRH HMEZSPYP #M XSEXI HYLYVMPI RIGYVEXI RY EY RMGM S TYXIVI TI PYQI.
'SQSVMPI RIGYVEXI WEY FERMM VM EVH R GIEPEPX NYQXEXI HI ^M #M HI RSETXI,
EHMG HI PE EQME^ #M TR PE QMI^YP RST'MM, 3MRH R TYXIVIE 2IGYVEXYPYM GY
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GE ETVSTMIVIE HI EGIWXE W WI JEG HM3GMP. R EGIWX WIRW TSEXI 3 R'IPIEW
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MRWXVYQIRXI TYRMXMZI, TI TVMQ TPER XVIG EGXIPI QEPI3GI TI GEVI PI TSX
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IWXI PEVK VWTRHMX. R QYPXI EPXI TV'M R PYQI I\MWX SFMGIMYP WHMVMM YRYM
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HSM EVFSVM (EG EVFSVIPI QSEVI WEY IWXI HSFSVX, GSTMPYP ZE QYVM R GYVRH
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GIPIFVEXI WVFXSVM R TVIENQE WSPWXM'MYPYM HI MEVR, EPI GVIM VIQMRMWGIR'I
WYRX RXPRMXI #M PE EPXI TSTSEVI (VSQ. GVGMYR WVFXSEVI, GSPEG; TSP. OVEGMYR
GSPEG; FYPK. /VEGMYR, OVEGMYRI' ^MYE 'VGMYRYPYM; WPSZEGM HIRYQMVIE
WVFXSVMM 'VGMYRYPYM; QEKLMEVM /SVSGWSR] IXG.; 8SOEVIZ, 1957, 105).
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GSRWXMXYMVIE PIKMPSV WMQMPMXYHMRMM. (EG JSVQE, HMQIRWMYRIE, RYQVYP SFMIGXIPSV
TYXIE ZEVME R ERYQMXI GE^YVM, 3MRH TVEGXMG MRWIWM^EFMPI R ERWEQFPYP VMXYPYM,
GYPSEVIE IVE IPIQIRXYP GEVI RWYQE I\TVIWMZ GIP QEM FMRI XVWXYVE WEY
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VRH XVERWJIVYP GI WI VIEPM^E HI PE YR SFMIGX PE EPXYP, HI PE YR SFMIGX PE
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TVMRGMTMYPYM GSRXEKMYRMM): 9RMM SEQIRM RY QRRG KPFRY#, G P M-P JVMG W
RY WI QFSPRZIEWG HI KPFREVI (+SVSZIM, 1995, 101). *IQIME
RWVGMREX W RY YQFPI GY GIEV R WR, GGM GSTMPYP GI WI ZE RE#XI ZE 3
KEPFIR PE JE' XSEX ZME'E ('ERHVIE, 1944, 297). 'Y XSEXI EGIWXIE,
VITVI^IRXVMPI PIKEXI HI IPIQIRXIPI GEVI TEVXMGMTEY RIQMNPSGMX PE EGXYP QEKMG
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#M TYXIE TYRI EQTVIRXE RIKEXMZ TI I\TSRIR'MM YQERM, QEM EPIW R ERYQMXI
QSQIRXI RGVGEXI HI WEGVEPMXEXI, IE TYXIE 3 RXPRMX, 3VIWG #M R TVEGXMGMPI
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YR KEPFIR (MHIQ, 297). 4IRXVY E XVEXE TI GMRIZE HI KPFMREVI (EQ Z^YX G
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GYPSEVI KEPFIR), WI ETPMGE, IZMHIRX, TVMRGMTMYP WMQMPME WMQMPMFYW GYVERXYV: 7I
PIEK GSTMPYPYM QEV'M WIEVE YR 3V HI QXEWI RIEKV R NYVYP KXYPYM; EPX 3V HI
QXEWI, HI EGIIE#XM GYPSEVI, WI PIEK R NYVYP YRIM XYJI HI XVERHE3VM HMR
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WI ZMRHIGI ('ERHVIE, 1944, 297). R GE^YP R GEVI WI HSVI#XI IZMXEVIE SVMGVIM
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(EMGM, GYPSEVIE VS#MI): -R YRIPI TV'M, FSPREZYP (HI KPFMREVI) TSEVX PE KX S
WTXQR YR 3V KEPFIR #M ETSM P WGLMQF GY YR 3V VS#Y; FIE ET HI TI YR
KEPFIR #M P TSEVX PE KX (0ISR, 133). %PXISVM, EGXYP QEKMG WI GEVEGXIVM^E
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MRXIVQIHMYP JSV'IM TVMZMVMM, FSPREZYP RWY#M EG'MSRE EWYTVE FSPMM, I\TYP^RH-S R
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GVSQEXMG): 7I ^MGI G HEG YR SQ GEVI EVI KPFMREVI ZE TYRI S QVIER RXV-
YR PMKLIER HI EVEQ GY ET #M WI ZE YMXE HVITX R SGLMM IM, QVIERE VIWTIGXMZ
RHEX TMIVI #M HYT EGIIE HIZMRI EXX HI ZIRMRSEW, G RYQEMHIGX XVIFYMI
W WI RKVSETI R TQRX, GE W RY WI EXMRK GMRIZE GY QRE HI HRWE; GGM
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QYPX HYT EGIIE, WI ZMRHIG HI KPFMREVI (1EVMER, 1903, 56).
'96'9&)9 3 EPX VITVI^IRXEVI WTE'MEP WEGV IWXI PIKEX HI GYVGYFIY.
R QMXSPSKME RSVHMG, QTV'ME PYM 3HMR GSQYRMG GY TQRXYP TVMR TYRXIE
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YVME# RXMRW HI YR WTMVMX TYXIVRMG #M VY TIRXVY E PI TYXIE TVMRHI WY4IXIPI
(9PMY, 22). -RHMIRMM WYH-EQIVMGERM HMR FE^MRYP %QE^SRYPYM GSRWMHIV G ^MYE,
WYF EWTIGXYP GYVGYFIYPYM, WI ZIHI YR FEPEYV, RSETXIE ETVRH GE S KEYV
RIEKV R 'EPIE 0EGXII (8SOEVIZ, 199P-P992, -, 469). 4IVYZMIRMM TVMQMXMZM
TVMZIEY GY EXXE ZIRIVE'MI GYVGYFIYP, RGX VQRIEY XGY'M TR GRH
JIRSQIRYP HMWTVIE GSQTPIX HI TI GIV (9PMY, 22). R YRIPI PIKIRHI VSQRI#XM,
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WI EHTE (9PMY, 19). 0E VSQRM, TI GYVGYFIY WI WGSFSEV FEPEYVMM HMR GIV W
FIE ETE HMR ME^YVM ('LM'MQME, 109). 7XVRWE PIKXYV E GYVGYFIYPYM GY
TVSHYGIVIE TPSMM, IP 3MRH MRXIVTVIXEX GE S MTSWXE^MIVI E HMZIVWIPSV JIRSQIRI
QIXISVSPSKMGI PIKEXI HI EGIEWXE IWXI WYVTVMRW #M R S WIVMI HI GVIHMR'I HMR
%WME 'IRXVEP #M HI 2SVH. %WXJIP, WI WTYRI G SVMGI GYVGYFIY IWXI S GQMP
QEVI, TI GEVI S GPVIWG 3 TIVWSERI; TVMQE FEXI S XSF (XYRIXYP), E HSYE
4YXYV S I#EVJ (JYPKIVYP), MEV GIE HI-E XVIME XVEKI GQMPE HI GTWXVY, JGRH
TPSEME W GYVK #MVSEMI HMR KYVE IM (9PMY, 20). 0E 3RPERHI^M #M PETSRM, WI
GSRWMHIV G HYLYP THYVMPSV WP#PYMI#XI TVMR GSTEGM, MEV >IYP XYRIXYPYM, EVGE#
RIRXVIGYX, P GEYX TIRXVY E-P SQSV. 'YVGYFIYP VITVI^MRX HVE WKI'MPSV TI
GEVI PI EVYRG ^IYP, MEV, R YRIPI ZEVMERXI, WYRX TYV #M WMQTPY JYPKIVIPI (HI EMGM
#M MQEKMRIE PIKEX HI WKI'MPI HI TMEXV!EVQIPI TVMQMXMZI). R %YWXVEPME
'IRXVEP, EFSVMKIRMM HMR XVMFYP /EMXMWL GVIHIEY G 3YP TPSMM GYVGYFIYP WI
E#E^ GY WTEXIPI WTVI GIV #M, GY VIWTIGX 3PMEP, P WTVMNMR TI XEXP WY TIRXVY E
RY GHIE TI TQRX. (I EGIIE, HEG ZVIQIE IVE WIGIXSEW #M TPSEME IVE,
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TIRXVY GE IP W TPIGI #M TPSEME W GEH EFYRHIRX (MHIQ). 0E MRHMIRMM WLSWLSRM,
3VQEQIRXYP IVE S GYTSP KMKERXMG HI KLIE' HI GEVI GYVGYFIYP YR #EVTI
YVME# WI JVIEG GY WTMREVIE. 4EVXMGYPIPI QMGM HI KLIE' RHITVXEXI TVMR
JVIGEVI GEH TI TQRX WYF JSVQ HI RMRWSEVI MEVRE, WEY WYF JSVQ HI
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GYVGYFIYP (+SVSZIM, 1995, 71) WEY XVIGI TI WYF IP (7IFMPPSX, -, 110) #M TSEXI
WGLMQFE WI\YP, 3MRH S PYR FVFEX, EPXE JIQIMI. R YRIPI GE^YVM, XVERWJSVQEVIE
IWXI EGGMHIRXEP: 'YVGYFIYP I SQ, IP XVEKI ETE R GIV HI TPSY. 'YVGYFIYP
FIE ET TVMR MRIP. (I IWXI ZVIYR SQ ETVSETI GRH FIE, P XVEKI #M-P WPSFSEHI
HI GIPPEPX GETX; EXYRGM EGIP SQ I S PYR FVFEX #M S PYR JIQIMI #M GYRSE#XI
SVMGI R WXIPI (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 868). 'Y XSEXI EGIWXIE, SEQIRMM JYK HI
ETVSTMIVIE GYVGYFIYPYM, GGM STIVE'ME ^MW I PIKEX GY QEVI HYVIVI (1Y#PIE-
&VPIE, 154). 6ITVI^IRXVM PIKEXI HI EGIEWX GVIHMR' WI RXPRIWG #M PE
FYPKEVM, WVFM, YGVEMRIRM, KVIGM, KIVQERM, MRHMIRM (:EOEVIPWOM, 488; 8SPWXSM,
1976, 60). 0E FYPKEVM, HEG S JIQIMI GEVI TR EXYRGM RWGYWI HSEV JIXI FIE
ET HMR PSGYP HI YRHI FIE ET GYVGYFIYP, HYT EGIIE ZE TYXIE RE#XI HSEV
FMI'M (8SPWXSM, 1976, 61). R &SIQME, WI WTYRI G EGIEWX STIVE'MYRI S TSX
JEGI HSEV JIXM'IPI TR PE ZVWXE HI #ETXI ERM (9PMY, 26). 1SHM3GVMPI TVSHYWI
R GE^YP XVIGIVMM TI WYF WEY TVMR GYVGYFIY WYRX ZEVMEXI: TI PRK WGLMQFEVIE
WI\YPYM, XVERWJIVYP TVIWYTYRIE #M HSFRHMVIE YRSV GEPMX'M HISWIFMXI: 3 JEX
WTPE GQI#MPI PE TVY #M GYVGYFIYP E XVEW-S #M E WPSFS^MX-S XSGQEM HI GIE
TEVXI. *EXE RY #XME EPX PMQF HIGX MXEPMIRI#XI; GY QEVI KVIY W-E KWMX YR
MXEPMER #M E R'IPIW-S #M EY XVMQMW-S R 'EVE IM.
2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 868). 7GLMQFEVIE WI\YPYM IWXI RWS'MX #M HI TVMQMVIE
YRSV TYXIVM WYTVERXYVEPI: 'IP GI-#M WGLMQF WI\YP EV 3 #M R^HVZER (#XMYXSV
EP ZMMXSVYPYM). %PXISVM, WI GVIHI G EGIPIE#M IJIGXI WI SF'MR #M HEG XVIGM TI WYF
GYVGYFIY (PE JVERGI^M, QEKLMEVM 7IFMPPSX, -:, 110; (SQSXSV, 228). 1YP'M GVIH
G EGIWX KIWX QEKMG RY IWXI WY3GMIRX, XVIFYMI W XI HEM #M TIWXI GET S HEX
WEY HI XVIM SVM. R EPXI GE^YVM, TVEGXMGE QEKMG TVMR GEVI IVE TSWMFMP
QIXEQSVJS^EVIE GYRS#XIE YR EHIZVEX VMXYEP: 'MRI QIVKI GPEVI TI TSVG
YRHI FIE GYVGYFIYP ET #M WI H HI XVIM SVM TIWXI GET, WI JEGI S PYR FMEX #M
S PYR JEX. "M GEVI JIQIMI RKVIYREX ZE QIVKI R KIRYRGLM TR YRHI FIE
ET GYVGYFIYP W ^MG 8EXP RSWXVY HI XVIM SVM #M W FIE ET QEM PE ZEPI; GSTMPYP
EGIPE GI-P ZE JEGI EVI W 3I S PYR JEX #M S PYR FMEX #M EVI W #XMI XSX GI-P TI
PYQI, EVI W 3I R^HVZER (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 868). R WXVRW PIKXYV GY
TVI^IR'E YRYM TIVWSREN QMXSPSKMG, FYPKEVMM GVIH G EGIWX JIRSQIR EXQSWJIVMG,
GYVGYFIYP, IWXI FVYP WEQSZMPIPSV (8SPWXSM, 1976, 69). 8SX GE EXVMFYX EP YRYM ^IY
WEY TIVWSREN HIQSRMG IWXI TVMZMX GYVGYFIYP #M R EPXI GVIHMR'I: PE KEPI^MM HMR
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PEX #M TSPMGVSQ EP LEMRIM 1EVIPYM >IY (9PMY, 20). 0E WPEZM, GYVGYFIYP IWXI
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(R TEVXMGYPEV TI EPI RSY-RWGYXYPYM, HEG ETEVI R QSQIRXYP RE#XIVMM EGIWXYME
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ETEVI TI GIV GYVGYFIYP, EGIEWXE IWXI S GMVGYQWXER' JEZSVEFMP; WI ^MGI GLMEV
G HMR EGIP GSTMP ZE GVI#XI YR SQ RWIQREX (MHIQ). 7VFMM WTYR HIWTVI
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FMRI W XI WGEP^M R EGIPI PSGYVM. 4IRXVY E RY XI GSRXEQMRE HI WEGVEPMXEXI, WI
WTYRI G RY IWXI FMRI W EV'M GY QRE WEY GY HIKIXYP WTVI GYVGYFIY. 7I
WTYRI G GIP GEVI EVEX WTVI GYVGYFIY TSEXI 3 PSZMX HI XVWRIX, TSEXI W-#M
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WTYR EXYRGM GRH ZH YR GYVGYFIY TI YR GIV RWSVMX G YRHIZE WI RIEG WEY
W-E RIGEX GMRIZE. 7PSZIRMM WTYR, PE ETEVM'ME GYVGYFIYPYM #M E TPSMM GY WSEVI, G
WI JEGI S RYRX HI 'MKERM WEY, HYT GVIHMR'IPI TSPSRI^I, S ZVNMXSEVI JEGI YRX
(8SPWXSM, 1976, 60, 61; %^MQ-^EHI, 78). 0E XVMFYVMPI RIKVMXS WIQERK, GYVGYFIYP
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ET I\XVIQ HI TIVMGYPSEW TIRXVY TQRXIRM. 8SX RIJEWX #M PE MRGE#M,
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IVE HIGX YR ZMIVQM#SV, IP E GTXEX, XSX QRGRH, TVSTSV'MM YVME#I. 3EQIRMM
EY JSWX RIZSM'M W-P YGMH, TIRXVY G IP TVIXMRHIE W WI LVRIEWG GY MRMQMPI
PSV ('LIZEPMIV-+LIIVFVERX, -, 422).
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G IP ETEVI HIEWYTVE GEWIM YRIM TIVWSERI HIGIHEXI; GRH IP IWXI ZMWEX, MEV
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GEW, JEQMPME VIWTIGXMZ (WEY RYQEM YRYP HMRXVI QIQFVMM IM) ZE WYJIVM S
RIRSVSGMVI. R IZYP QIHMY KIVQER, WI GVIHIE G, GY 40 HI ERM REMRXI HI
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1Y#PIE-&VPIE, 152), WEY WI YWYG EVFSVMM (PE JVERGI^M 7IFMPPSX, -, 110).
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TI SFMIGXIPI HI EYV HI PE TMGMSEVIPI PYM. 7I QEM WTYRI G RKIVMM, GEVI WI YVG
TI GYVGYFIY WTVI GIV, PEW W PI GEH (WEY TMIVH TI HVYQ) QMGM JEVJYVMSEVI WEY
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3 TIHITWMX #M ZE VQRI QYX TIRXVY XSX VIWXYP ZMI'MM (9PMY, 27). %P'MM WTYR G
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XVERWJSVQ R EYV GRH GMRIZE KWI#XI PSGYP PSV. %PXI GVIHMR'I PIEK I\MWXIR'E
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TI PYQIE GIEPEPX (8SPWXSM, 1976, 64). (MQTSXVMZ, VSQRMM WTYR: 'RH
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PE FMWIVMG) EVI S MQTSVXER' HISWIFMX R VMXYEPYP HIWGRXIGIPSV. -RXV-YR
HIWGRXIG HI TYW GY'MXYP WYRX EGXMZEXI GMVGYQWXER'IPI GSRWEGVVMM
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GYRYREX, /(I RSY SEQIRM XMEX, /'YQTVEX HMR &EV MKVEH (+SVSZIM, 1990,
144). R EPXI GE^YVM, GY'MXYP JYVEX WEY KWMX IVE ZEPSVM^EX TS^MXMZ: (I YVWMX WI
JEGI GY GSEW HI JYVEX, GY WIGIVI HI JYVEX, GY GY'MX HI JYVEX, GY EGI HI JYVEX,
G EXYRGM I XEVI HI PIEG (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 531). 7EY: 'E W WGETI HI JVMKYVM,
FSPREZYP WI HYGI HYQMRMG HMQMRIE' PE JRXR, GY S SEP RSY #M GY YR GY'MX
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Q YR TMG, HVITX W WTYR QEM QYPX HI TEKYF HIGX HI XVIGIVIE EGIIE (.)
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G FSPREZYP RY WI ZE ZMRHIGE. 'IM GEVI WI XIQ G TSX 3 ZMGXMQIPI YRSV ZVNM
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ETVSETI #M JYK (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 578). 'Y'MXYP #M HI^ZPYME ZEPIR'IPI
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R GE^YP R GEVI IPIQIRXYP HIQSRMG IWXI QEXIVMEPM^EX WYF JSVQE FSPMM #M
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HI WTMVMXI, WYRX YR VI^YPXEX EP KRHMVMM ERMQMWXI. 'E IXET E KRHMVMM
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MRZIWXMVIE PSV GY EXVMFYXI EPI 3MR'IM YQERI E KIRIVEX YR WMWXIQ HI
VITVI^IRXVM, HMR HSVMR'E SQYPYM HI E-#M I\TPMGE JIRSQIRIPI IRMKQEXMGI HMR
REXYV, HMR ZME'. 4SXVMZMX GSRGIT'MIM ERMQMWXI, PYQIE IVE TSTYPEX HI S
TY^HIVMI HI 3MR'I WYTVEREXYVEPI, QEM QYPX WEY QEM TY'MR FMRIZSMXSEVI, GVSVE
PM WI EXVMFYME XSX GIIE GI WI TIXVIGIE R REXYV. 'Y XMQTYP, MQEKMRIE EWYTVE
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GSRWMHIVE'M, R VIPMKMMPI TVMQMXMZI, HYLYVM, HI SFMGIM VIPI, GEY^ E XYXYVSV
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TEXVSREP, RXIQIMEXI TI GYPXYP WXVQS#MPSV, VITVI^IRXVMPI QMXSPSKMGI EY
HIT#MX WXEHMYP ERMQMWQYPYM, TVMR GSRXYVEVIE I\MWXIR'IM HIQSRMPSV. (IQSRMM
QEM TVIGMW HEMQSRMM (EZRH YR WIRW QEM PEVK, RIEJIGXEX HI EGGIT'ME GVI#XMR)
IVEY VITVI^IRXEVIE KIRIVEP E EVLIXMTYPYM RI3MRH RMGM ^IM, RMGM ERXM^IM, GM
YR TVI^IY, S JSVQ MRJIVMSEV, RIIZSPYEX, PEXIRX, E RYQIRYPYM, HMR GEVI WI
ZE MZM, XVITXEX, GE S RXVYGLMTEVI WYTIVMSEV, ^IYP (3XXS, 96).
()3',- (ISGLMYP TSEXI 3 TVSZSGEX HI SEQIRMM GEVI R TVYRGMI EY JSWX
RXSV#M HI PE TMITX EPTXEVIE E JSWX RXVIVYTX, HYT GEVI W-E VIPYEX. 'VIHMR'E
IWXI VWTRHMX R RXVIEKE EVMI WYH-IWX IYVSTIER PE VSQRM, FYPKEVM, WVFM,
WPSZIRM, VY#M, YGVEMRIRM, HEV #M PE KVIGM, VSQERM, PMXYERMIRM, KIVQERM, WYIHI^M.
(I EWIQIRIE, TSX HISGLIE TIVWSERIPI RWIQREXI: SEQIRM JV YR SGLM,
TSGM'M, WE#MM, WTRM (PE VSQERM, VSQRM, EVEFM), GY TV VS#Y (PE VSQRM, EVSQRM,
JVERGI^M, KIVQERM, WGS'MIRM, PMXYERMIRM), GY SGLM ZIV^M WEY EPFE#XVM (PE VSQRM,
JVERGI^M, XYVGM, EVEFM), RIKVM (PE VSQRM, KIVQERM, WPEZM, KVIGM) WEY TIVWSERIPI
GY WTVRGIRIPI QFMREXI (PE VSQERM, KVIGM, VSQRM, WPSZEGM, WPSZIRM, FYPKEVM,
KIVQERM, QEKLMEVM). 4PMRMYW GIP &XVR, ZSVFMRH HIWTVI HISGLM, WTYRIE G EY
EGIEWX RWY#MVI EGIM SEQIRM GEVI EY GXI HSY TYTMPI R 3IGEVI SGLM (1EVMER,
1995-P, 223; 'MEY#ERY, 266). 4YXIVIE HISWIFMX GSRGIRXVEX R SGLM IWXI YRE
HMRXVI QERMJIWXVMPI GIPI QEM TVIKRERXI EPI WEGVYPYM. 0E YRIPI TSTSEVI SGLMM
WYRX, QEM QYPX, GLMEV VIGMTMIRXYP ZMI'MM. 2KEREWERMM WTYR G SQYP #M ERMQEPIPI
XVMIWG EXXE XMQT GX WYRX ZMM #M SGLMM (8SOEVIZ, 199P-P992, -, 306). 3GLMYP QEM
IVE TVMZMX #M GE WIHMY EP ZMI'MM, EP TIVWSREPMX'MM, EP WY4IXYPYM. %WXJIP, WI WTYRI G
HYT QSEVXI, WY4IXYP PYM 3WMVMW W-E VIJYKMEX RXV-YR SGLM EP PYM ,SVYW, WSEVIPI
(-WTEW, 154). %GIWX 4YMH QEKMG TSEXI 3 TIVMGYPSW #M WI TSEXI QERMJIWXE PE
WMQTPE TVMZMVI E TSWIWSVYPYM. 8IQE QMXSPSKMG E TVMZMVMM GEVI YGMHI IWXI
EXVMFYMX HMZMRMX'MPSV (#M HIWTVI %XLIRE WI QIR'MSRE EGIWX PYGVY )ZWIIZ-P,
1994, 123). 9R ^IY EP QMXSPSKMIM WGERHMREZI, 3HMR, E TMIVHYX #M IP YR SGLM, HEV
E HSFRHMX GETEGMXEXIE HI E HMWXMRKI MRZM^MFMPYP; HI EWIQIRIE, R V^FSM #M
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('LIZEPMIV-+LIIVFVERX, -, 303). 9RE HMRXVI GIPI #EWI 3MR'I WYTVEREXYVEPI EPI
MRHMIRMPSV RSVH-EQIVMGERM SHNMF[I, MI#MRH HMR ET TIRXVY E WI EQIWXIGE
TVMRXVI SEQIRM #M-E HIWJGYX FIRXM'E GEVI M EGSTIVIE SGLMM. 3QYP EWYTVE
GVYME M-E G^YX TVMZMVIE W-E TVFY#MX GE PSZMX HI XVWRIX (8SOEVIZ, 199P-P992, -,
306). 6SQRMM WTYR G TQRXYP WI GYXVIQYV EXYRGM GRH WI YMX (YQRI^IY
R NSW. (EG (YQRI^IY WI YMX RYQEM GY GSEHE SGLMYPYM, TQRXYP WI
GYXVIQYV RGIX, MEV HEG WI YMX HVITX, EXYRGM TQRXYP WI GYXVIQYV XEVI
(&VMPP, 1994, -, 220). 6SQRMM QEM WTYR G TMXMGS'MM, WXVMKSMM #M TIVWSERIPI
RWGYXI GY XMGLMI (GM') EY SGLM VM #M TVMR YVQEVI GIP GI-P ZH WI HISEGLI
(1EVMER-P, 1880, 34). 9R EPX TIVWSREN QEPI3G, ZMPE, PE WPEZMM HI WYH, M TSEXI
SQSV TI SEQIRM GY TVMZMVIE (:MRSKVEHSZE-8SPWXEME-2, 32). 9R TIVWSREN
JERXEWXMG, ZEWMPMWGYP, TYXIE SQSV HEG IP IVE GIP GEVI P ^VIE TVMQYP TI SQ.
(EG IP IVE GIP Z^YX, XVIFYME W QSEV. 7I GVIHIE G TYXIE 3 SQSVX
TYRRHY-P-WI R JE' S SKPMRH R GEVI WI VI4IGXE 4YMHYP QSVXEP. 'MRI TVMZIE
GETYP 1IHY^IM QTMIXVIE. (I EGIIE, TIRXVY E WGTE HI IE, 4IVWIY W-E ETVEX
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'MRXYMX HI TVSTVME WE MQEKMRI. %XVMFYMVIE YRIM TYXIVM, EHIWIE PIXEPI, TVMZMVMM
HMZMRMX'MPSV, GLMEV MQEKMRMPSV EGIWXSVE (GE R GE^YP WXEXYMPSV PYM %VXIQMW) IWXI
YR JIRSQIR JVIGZIRX RXPRMX R ERXMGLMXEXI. 'IE HI PE 4EPPIRI, XMRYMX TI XSX
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WI TYXIE YMXE PE IE: WI WTYRIE G SGLMM ^IM'IM JGIEY W WI YWYGI JVYGXIPI HMR
TSQM, PWRHY-P PMTWM'M HI VSH TIRXVY XSXHIEYRE (+MR^FYVK, 1996, 139). "M
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PE JIVIWXVIPI YRIM GEWI TYXIEY W-P WTEVK KIEQYVMPI ('MEY#ERY, 254). (I
EWIQIRIE, FIV^IM M WI EXVMFYMI GETEGMXEXIE HI E RPIWRM ^QMWPMVIE HSEV TVMR
JSV'E TVMZMVMM. R 'LMRE WI WTYRIE EGIPE#M PYGVY HIWTVI FXPER ('LIZEPMIV-
+LIIVFVERX, -, 181). 1EM QYPXI TSTSEVI GVIHIEY G VGIEPE ETVIE HISEVIGI
YR PYT P-E ^VMX TI SQYP VIWTIGXMZ (PE VSQRM, JVERGI^M, MXEPMIRM; 4ETELEKM, 130).
(I TYXIVIE SGLMPSV WI XIQ #M IKMTXIRGIPI: GRH WI TVMZIWG R SKPMRH, IPI
VSWXIWG ERYQMXI GYZMRXI GY RGVGXYV QEKMG, TIRXVY E RY WI HISGLIE
WMRKYVI ('MEY#ERY, 252). (ISGLMYP GE IJIGX EP TVMZMVMM TVSTVMIM MQEKMRM,
EWIQIRIE ERXMGYPYM 2EVGMW, IWXI RXPRMX R GVIHMR'IPI QEM QYPXSV TSTSEVI, GE
VI^YPXEX EP RGPGVMM MRXIVHMG'MIM HI E WI TVMZM R SKPMRH WEY R SKPMRHE ETIM (PE
VSQRM, JVERGI^M, WTERMSPM, VY#M, KVIGM, KIVQERM). (EV IJIGXYP QEM QEVI IWXI
EWYTVE GSTMMPSV: GSTMPYP TR PE YR ER, HEG WI YMX R SKPMRH, WI HISEGLI
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(+SVSZIM, 1995, 74). 8SX EMGM, R PIKXYV GY MRXIVHMG'ME HI E RY 3 Z^YX,
EQMRXMQ #M SFPMKEXMZMXEXIE VIWTIGXVMM YRIM TIVMSEHI HI VIGPY^MYRI JSV'EX E
YRSV TIVWSRENI, 4Y\YP HYRXSV EP TVMZMVMM QERMJIWXRHY-WI TVMR TIVXYVFEVIE
RGIVGVMM HI XVIGIVI RXV-S EPX WXEVI. %WXJIP, WSPSQSREVMM TIXVIG #ETXI ERM PE
RXYRIVMG, WYF TQRX, JV W ZEH VE^IPI WSEVIPYM (1EVMER-2, 1878, 54). R
EGIIE#M GEXIKSVMI HI TIVWSRENI QMXSPSKMGI GEVI EG'MSRIE^ EWYTVE
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WXIE ERM HI ^MPI WYF TQRX, JIVM'M HI PYQMRE WSEVIPYM #M HI SGLMM EPXSV
ZMI'YMXSEVI. 0E RGLIMIVIE TIVMSEHIM HI VIGPY^MYRI PI GVIWG EVMTM, IM
XVERWJSVQRHY-WI R FEPEYVM (PE VSQRM, EPFERI^M IXG.; 1EVMER-P, 1878, 42, 23;
&MZMER, 80). -RXIVHMG'ME HI E ZIHIE, HI E TVMZM, HI E TXVYRHI GY TVMZMVIE YR
XIVMXSVMY MRXIV^MW IXG. )WXI EGXMZ R QYPXI WMXYE'MM. %WXJIP, WI WTYRI HIWTVI
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GEVI WI YMX GRH WI SY KMRE. RGPGEVIE EGIWXYM XEFY WI TIHITWI#XI,
GSRJSVQ KRHMVMM QMXSPSKMGI, TVMR XVERWJSVQEVIE ZMRSZEXYPYM RXV-S WXER HI
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QSEVI #M RY WI RE#XI RMQIRM. 4Y'MRMM SEQIRM GEVI RGEPG EGIP XIVMXSVMY RY WI
QEM RXSVG, RXVYGX WYRX TVIJGY'M WEY R ERMQEPI, WEY R WXERI HI
TMEXV (/IQFEGL, 1994, 331). R QMXSPSKME KVIEG, 'SV]HSR, TIRXVY G S ZIHI
TI %VXIQMW WGPHRHY-WI, IWXI XVERWJSVQEX R WXRG; 0]GS #M 3VJIY, GEVI-P
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TSEXI ZIHIE SQYP JE'E 1IE #M W XVMEWG (-I#MVIE, 33, 20). 0E JIP, WI WTYRI
G JIQIME PYM 0SX WI TVIJEGI R WXPT HI WEVI, GGM WI YMX RETSM #M ZIHI TPSEME
HI JSG #M HI TYGMSEW G^RH TIWXI 7SHSQE #M +SQSVE (*EGIVIE, 19, 26;
'LIZEPMIV-+LIIVFVERX, --, 167, 37, 166).
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MHIQ, 362). 3EQIRMM SFM#RYM'M TSX EXMRKI EGIEWX TIVJSVQER' HSEV R WSQR,
GVIH 3RPERHI^MM. 6SQRMM WTYR G YVWMXSEVIPI TSX 3 EY^MXI HSEV R WXEVI HI
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GTXEX: R TVEGXMGMPI QEKMGI VSQRI#XM, GSTMPYP, MQIHMEX GI W-E RWGYX, IWXI
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WMRKYVMM R WXEVI W ZEH PYTXIPI GEVI, GSRJSVQ PIKIRHIPSV MWPERHI^I, IVEY
HYWI R WTMVMXS HI GXVI J]PKME, WY4IXYP I\XIVR, GEVI TVWIE XVYTYP WYF JSVQ
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1990, 129). 7EY, QEM HITEVXI: %GIEWXE IWXI HSWIFMVIE RXVI HIWGRXIG, TI HI
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M-E TSVYRGMX (YQRI^IY W XVMEWG (4SQIVER'IZE, 1975, 33). 'SWQSKSRMI
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HI E-#M HIT#M PMQMXIPI #M HI E #XM GX QEM QYPX, QEM QYPX MRJSVQE'MI JE' HI
GX HMWTYRI R WXEVI RSVQEP, R PIKXYV GY HIWXMRYP WY (&PSGL, 6).
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GRXIGYP #M ^FSVYP TWVMPSV, PMRMMPI QMRMPSV, JE^IPI PYRMM, GSQIXIPI, JYVXYRMPI #M
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RW MQTSVXERX, 3I G ZSVFMQ HIWTVI HMZMRE'ME EVXM3GMEP, 3I HIWTVI GIE
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340-342). )E HIWIQRIE^ MRWTMVE'ME HI SVMKMRI HMZMR, QERMJIWXEX TVMR ZMWI
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RXVI WTMVMXI #M WY4IXYP EPIW (WEY GEVI TVI^MRX ETXMXYHMRM TIRXVY EGIWX VETSVX).
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4I PRK WXEVIE HI WSQR, GEVI XVERWQMXI TVSJI'MMPI TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP ZMWIPSV,
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I G HMRXVI FYRYVM, GIPI QEM HI TVI' WI REWG HMR RIFYRME GIE HEX RSY R HEV
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GMRI NMKVMX, #SEVIGI, #STVP, TI GRH RSVSGYP IVE YR YVW, YR FSY. 7YRX
WMXYE'MM GRH MRJSVQE'ME WI FE^IE^ TI I\MWXIR'E GSRXVEVMMPSV: WSEVXE IWXI S
JIQIMI YVX, ^HVIR'VSEW, RITMITXREX, WSQRSVSEW (4. :. -ZERSZ-P,
350-353). )E TSEXI 3 MRZSGEX GRH SQYP HSVI#XI W-#M E4I YVWMXE. (EG IE
IWXI Z^YX RXV-S VSGLMI VS#MI I WIQR HI RSVSG, HEG EVI S XVEMWX I WIQR HI
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HI SVMKMRI PMZVIWG: -R QEVI WI E4 YR WSM HI TI#XM, JIQIM TI NYQXEXI, RYQM'M
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3I MYFMX (#M EMGM ETEVI S QERMJIWXEVI YRMPEXIVEP E HSVMR'IM: FMRIPI TI GEVI P
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JEVQIGI RI TYXIQ ETVE TVMR HIWGRXIGI SVM TVMR VYKGMYRM PE FMWIVMG, TPXMRH
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QXYV TI JIVIEWXV (:MRSKVEHSZE-8SPWXEME, 1993, 19). 'E S Y# HIWGLMW RXV-
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117). 6SQRMM GVIHIEY G RY IWXI FMRI W XI YM'M TI JIVIEWXV HMR I\XIVMSV;
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FMRI W FIM ET HEX TI JIVIEWXV. %G'MYRIE RIJEWX WI ETPMGE MRGPYWMZ
ERMQEPIPSV WI WTYRIE G ZSV XYVFE GMRMM GEVI ZSV FIE EGIE ET (MHIQ, 143).
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JIVIEWXVE #M R TVEGXMGMPI SVEGYPEVI. %WXJIP, WI WTYRIE G XSX GI WI EY^IE PE
JIVIEWXV WI RHITPMRIE (MHIQ, 144). R ENYRYP %RYPYM 2SY WI TYRIEY PE
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#M E4I YVWMXYP IVEY. 4MRIE IVE PWEX EGSPS XSEX RSETXIE. % HSYE ^M WI YMXEY
W ZEH E GYM FYGEX HI TMRI IVE RXVIEK EGIWX PYGVY WIQRM3GRH JETXYP G
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KWMX TMRIE QTY'MREX (7XVELSZ, 59). )PIQIRX GSQTSRIRX EP PYQMM WEGVYPYM,
JIVIEWXVE IVE #M YRYP HMRXVI PSGYVMPI XMTMGI HI ETEVM'MI E TIVWSRENIPSV
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(&EMFYVMR, 1983, 143). &SKMROM, HMR QMXSPSKME TSPSR, WI STVIEY PE JIVIWXVIPI
GEWIPSV, HI YRHI RGIVGEY EXVEKIVIE HMR PSGYMR' E JIQIMPSV RWVGMREXI,
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VIEPM^IE^ XSGQEM TVMR TXVYRHIVIE WTMVMXYPYM QEPI3G TI JIVIEWXV: 8EVXEGSX, /
&EVFE HI-YR GSX, /'Y SGLMM WXIPM'M, /'Y HMR'MM VRNM'M, /'Y GPGMIPI GVTEXI, /'Y
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TI JIVIEWXV FK/4I GYXEVI HI #EPI P-ETYG. /-P XVRXIE, /-P WRSTIE (0ISR, 10).
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:IWXMXSVMM QSV'MM MRXVEY RXSXHIEYRE R GEW TVMR JIVIEWXV GYQ IWXI
GE^YP VRHYRMGMM (PE VSQRM, VY#M; )ZWIIZ-P, 1994, 156; 8STSVSZ, 170). (EG S
TEWVI HI RSETXI (R WTIGMEP FYJRM'E) EXMRKIE JIVIEWXVE GY EVMTE, WI GVIHIE G
EGIE GEW ZE EVHI WEY WXTRYP IM ZE QYVM (7YQ'SZ, 91). 0E VY#M WI MRXIVTVIXE
R EGIIE#M GLIMI TVI^IR'E MITYVIPYM QIWEKIV GLXSRMER MRGSRXIWXEFMP: HEG YR
EWIQIRIE ERMQEP IVE Z^YX EPIVKRH TI WYF JIVIEWXV IVE WIQR GPEV HI
QSEVXI (+YVE, 1984, 142). R WSGMIX'MPI XVEHM'MSREPI WMGVMYP IVE WGSW HMR GEW
TI JIVIEWXV, RY TI Y#, WEY XVIGYX TIWXI KEVH WEY TVMRXV-S WTVXYV R TIVIXI
WEY R XEZER (&EMFYVMR, 1993, 113). 8SX TI JIVIEWXV IVEY WGS#M, PE VY#M, TVMQE
TIVWSER GEVI E HIGIHEX R EGIE GEW, GSTMMM QSV'M RIFSXI^E'M (&EMFYVMR,
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JIVIWXVIM, TIRXVY GE WY4IXYP, ZIRMRH EGSPS, W WI TSEX WTPE. 8SX PE JIVIEWXV
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PYQIE RSEWXV, R ^MPIPI R GEVI WI JGIEY TSQIRMVM (&EMFYVMR, 1983, 141;
1993, 166). "M QEM QYPX, R ZMVXYXIE EQFMZEPIR'IM WEGVYPYM, QIR'MSRQ #M
I\MWXIR'E TVEGXMGMPSV ETSXVSTEMGI GEVI EY GE TVMRGMTEP IPIQIRX JIVIEWXVE.
4IRXVY E JIVM RSY-RWGY'MM, R KIRIVEP GSTMMM, HI TIVMGSPYP QSV'MM, QEM EPIW R
JEQMPMMPI R GEVI IE #M-E JGYX WMQ'MX TVI^IR'E RXV-YR VMXQ RKVMNSVXSV, EGI#XME
IVEY WGS#M VMXYEP TI JIVIEWXV, RXV-YR WMQYPEGVY EP QSV'MM. R EGIPIE#M WGSTYVM,
GRH WI RXSVGIEY HI PE FSXI^, HI PE FMWIVMG, RE#MM XVERWQMXIEY GSTMPYP TI
JIVIEWXV (SFMGIMYP IWXI VWTRHMX PE VSQRM, VY#M IXG.; &EMFYVMR, 1993, 50). "M
R GE^YP QYXVMM RXV-S GEW RSY GSTMMM IVEY FKE'M R GEW XSX TI JIVIEWXV
(8STSVSZ, 1984, 170): 'RH GSTMMM RY XVMIWG, TVMR'MM ZRH GSTMPYP GI PI-E QEM
VQEW, WGLMQFRHY-P RYQIPI. :R^EVIE WI JEGI EWXJIP: S ZIGMR ZMRI PE
JIVIEWXV TI HMREJEV #M PI GIVI GSTMPYP, TVMR'MM MRXV PE XSGQIEP, TVMQIWG YR
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3IGEVI ER RYQEM R RSETXIE HI 7R^MIRI, RXVI GIEWYVMPI 10 #M 12 #M 'MRI
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WI TVI^MRX GEHVYP EG'MYRMM (RSETXI, RSETXI GY PYR, ENYRYP YRIM WVFXSVM 7J.
+LISVKLI, 7J. %RHVIM, %RYP 2SY IXG.
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1954), R GEVI E EVXEX G RYQEM GXIZE MHIM JYRHEQIRXEPI, JSEVXI TY'MR
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TSWMFMP I\MWXIR'E YRSV PSGYVM GSQYRI, TVSTVMM RYQEM EGIPIME#M GEXIKSVMM HI
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QMXSPSKMGI EGIWX JIRSQIR RY IWXI HIPSG WIQRM3GEXMZ (WMG!), HEXSVMX, TVSFEFMP,
REXYVMM QEM QTMIXVMXI E EGIWXSV PIKIRHI, GEVI TWXVIE^ QEM WXVMGX GEVEGXIVYP
XVEHM'MSREP (1981, 35, 38, 37). *SPGPSVMWXE QEM VIQEVGE, R HMVIG'ME MRXIVIWYPYM
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IVE YMXEXYP TVMR JVY. 4IRXVY EGIEWXE XVIFYME W HIWGLM^M Y#E, W-'M HIWJEGM
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SKPMRH, R GEVI XVIFYME W ETEV GLMTYP YVWMXYPYM (-SRKSZEXSZE-4E#MRE, 51).
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(EG QMVIEWE, GRH MRXV R GEWE QMVIPYM, WI YMX PE LSVR, M QSEVI
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YR PIQR YQIH GEVI EVHI R WSF, ^KSQSXYP IWXI TVSHYW HI ^QSVE, GEVI WI
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1983, 164-P65). 8SX VSQRMM GVIHIEY G QMVIEWE, GRH ZIRIE R GEWE QMVIPYM,
XVIFYME W EXMRK LSVRYP GY QRE WEY W HITYR TI ZEXV WEY TI LSVR S
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,90(%.
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TQRX HMR FYVMGYP XMEX EP TVYRGYPYM -WYW (/IQFEGL, 1994, 305). 'EVEGXIVYP
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#M GY SGE^ME HSRE'MMPSV JGYXI PSV, HSRE'MM GSRWXRH R MRWXVYQIRXEV GSRWEGVEX
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R ZME' RY WI TYXIEY YMXE PE XVYTYP PYM, WI RXSVGIE YR YPGMSV GY WYWYP R NSW,
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TI NEV. %GIEWX QSHEPMXEXI HI TIHIETW TSEXI 3 S GSRXEQMREVI E EGIWXIM
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RXVI [MXGLGVEJX #M WSVGIV]. ). ). ) Z E R W -4 V M X G L E VH (1937), GEVI E STYW
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HI PE E^ERHI (TSTYPE'MI HMR VWVMXYP %JVMGMM). (YT )ZERW-4VMXGLEVH #M 1 E V[ M
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*MI G WYRX I\IVGMXEXI HI WTIGMEPM#XM WEY RY, IPI RGIEVG W GSRXVSPI^I JSV'IPI
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HI PE ZVWXE GIE QEM JVEKIH. R 3RI, WI I\TPMG TVMR [MXGLGVEJX RIRSVSGMVMPI
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(1EXIVMEPW XS[EVH E ,MWXSV] SJ ;MXGLGVEJX; ETYH 'YPMERY, 353). 9R GSRXMRYEXSV
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TYRI R EHIZVEXE PYQMR TI VITVI^IRXER'MM ZIGLMPSV GYPXI EPI JIVXMPMX'MM IWXI,
JV RHSMEP, 'EVPS + M R ^ F Y VK (/&IRERHERXM, 1966). )P EXIWX, HYT S QMI
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WTYRI IP, IVEY JIQIM #M FVFE'M RWGY'M GY QIQFVERE EQRMSXMG TI GEVI S
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G ZMXIPI ZSV TMIVHI PETXIPI WEY G RY WI ZSV QEM RQYP'M IVE EXX HI TYXIVRMG,
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TIPMRYPYM, E PIY#XIERYPYM, FS^YPYM #M PWEVIE PSV R KVENHYVMPI #M WXEYPIPI ZMXIPSV;
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QSQIRXYP IWIR'MEP, QEM EPIW TIRXVY HSFRHMVIE QERIM GQTYVMPSV. R
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+LISVKLI, IWXI Y#SV HI R'IPIW XIEQE WXIRMPSV HI E RY TMIVHI HIWGVGEVIE HI
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3I GIE HMR 4VEZMPE QMG HI PE +SZSVE (1640), YRHI WI TVIGM^IE^ GERSRYP
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MEX #XMI PYGVYP HVEGYPYM, SVM HIR ZMR, SVM HIR TRI, SVM HMRXV-EPX GI, HI WI ZE
PWE HI EGIWXIE, W EMF TSGERMI TEXVY ERM, QIXERMM GXI S WYX (4EZIPIWGY,
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QERE R EGGIT'MYRIE IM HI FSEP E TPERXIPSV: 1ERE GQTYPYM WI VMHMG
YRISVM R WYW GE YR RSV SXVZMX WEY WI XYVXI#XI GE YR FPEYV HI EFYV TI PER. 7I
EWGYRHI HI SQ #M GRH SQYP WI HYGI R PSGYP YRHI WI ZIHIE G I, RY KWI#XI
HIGX TMGXYVM GPIMSEWI, TI WTMGI WEY TI MIVFYVM. 4MGXYVMPI WYRX HMR KY#E PYM GY
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W 3I WRXS#M #M GYVE'M GE EVKMRXYP IXG.
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QFV'M#EXI, TR PE PSGYP YRHI WI E4 QXVKYRE. *MIGEVI 'MRI R KYV GXI
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EGXMZ EP QMXYPYM RHVITXEX WTVI SFMIGXMZI GSRGVIXI IWXI WYFR'IPIW TVMR RW#M
SVMKMRIE PYM: 1MXYP TSZIWXI#XI S MWXSVMI WEGV, EHMG YR IZIRMQIRX TVMQSVHMEP,
GEVI E EZYX PSG PE RGITYXYP 8MQTYPYM, EF MRMXMS. % TSZIWXM S MWXSVMI WEGV
IGLMZEPIE^ RW GY VIZIPEVIE YRYM QMWXIV, HISEVIGI TIVWSRENIPI QMXYPYM RY
WYRX 3MR'I YQERI: WYRX ^IM WEY IVSM GMZMPM^EXSVM #M, HMR EGIWX QSXMZ, KIWXIPI PSV
GSRWXMXYMI QMWXIVI SQYP RY PI-EV 3 TYXYX GYRSE#XI HEG RY M-EV 3 JSWX
VIZIPEXI ()PMEHI-P, 1992, 88). %WIQIRIE VIPEXVMPSV XMT TSZIWXIE GRITIM,
MWXSVMMPI WEGVI HI^ZPYMI MRM'ME'MPSV #M, TVMR IM, RSZMGMPSV, EGXI MRWXMXYXSVMM,
SVMKMRIE #M QSXMZE'ME YRSV TVEGXMGM EGYQ TVSJERI, EPI YRSV VMXYVM: 2MGM YR ^IY,
RMGM YR IVSY GMZMPM^EXSV R-E VIZIPEX ZVISHEX YR EGX TVSJER. 8SX GI-EY JGYX ^IMM
WEY WXVQS#MM, HIGM XSX GI TSZIWXIWG QMXYVMPI HIWTVI EGXMZMXEXIE PSV GVIEXSEVI,
ETEV'MRI WJIVIM WEGVYPYM #M, TVMR YVQEVI, TEVXMGMT PE *MMR'. 'IIE GI JEG
SEQIRMM HMR TVSTVMI MRM'MEXMZ, JV YR QSHIP QMXMG, ETEV'MRI, HMQTSXVMZ, WJIVIM
TVSJERYPYM (MHIQ, 89-90). R EGGIT'ME HEX HI RSM, QMXYP IWXI S MWXSVMI WEGV,
S VITVI^IRXEVI GSIVIRX, WXVYGXYVEX, E YRIM EPXI VIEPMX'M, TEVEPIP GY PYQIE
YQER WEY ERXIVMSEV EGIWXIME, EZRH ZEPSEVI MRWXMXY'MSREP, 3MRH EWXJIP YR
WIQR EP TYXIVMM GI GEVEGXIVM^IE^, R ERWEQFPY, PYQIE WEGVYPYM. %GGIWYP PE
EGIEWX VIEPMXEXI QMXMG XVERWGIRHIRX WI TSEXI JEGI TI HSY GM: E) MRHMVIGX,
TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP MWXSVMMPSV WEGVI TVSTVMY-^MWI R KIRIVEP, R GEHVYP VMXYEPYVMPSV
HI MRM'MIVI, GEVI TVIWYTYRIEY EHYGIVIE PE GYRS#XMR'E RIS3XYPYM E QEVMPSV XEMRI
WEY, RXV-YR TPER HMJIVMX, TVSJER, TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP TSZIWXMVMPSV WYTIVWXM'MSEWI
HIWTVI TIVWSRENI QMXSPSKMGI: EGIWXIE WYRX QEM TY'MR I\TPMGMXI, HI^ZPYMVIE
WEGVYPYM GEVEGXIVM^RHY-WI TVMR SGYPXEVIE QIWENYPYM, EHIZVEXYP WIRW TYXRH
3 VIPIZEX HSEV HI MRM'ME'M; F) HMVIGX, TVMR GSRXEGXYP RIQMNPSGMX GY PYQIE WEGVYPYM
GY IPIQIRXI HMWTEVEXI EPI EGIWXIME (LMIVSJERMM) WEY TVMR XVIGIVIE
WYFMIGXYPYM R EGIEWX PYQI, XVIGIVI QMNPSGMX HI TVEGXMGM QEKMGI. %QFIPI
VIEPM^VM TVIWYTYR GE SFPMKEXSVMI TVI^IR'E MRM'MEXYPYM, E GIPYM GEVI XVERWQMXI
GYRS#XMR'I WEGVI, XVEHYGI, XPGYMI#XI, I\TPMG QERMJIWXVMPI WEGVI. 3 HEX
WTYW, EHMG VIZIPEX, QMXYP HIZMRI EHIZV ETSHMGXMG: IP RXIQIME^ EHIZVYP
EFWSPYX. (EV GIIE GI EVI R ZIHIVI QMXYP IWXI WEGVYP. 8SX GIIE GI EVI S
ERYQMX RWIQRXEXI TIRXVY ZME'E SEQIRMPSV E JSWX GRHZE RXIQIMEX
SRXSPSKMG HI QMX, I\MWXRH YR QSHIP I\IQTPEV, I\XIVMSV R QSH IZMHIRX WJIVIM
TVSJERYPYM. R YPXMQ MRWXER', 1MVGIE )PMEHI WYFPMRME^ YR EWTIGX MQTSVXERX EP
JYRG'MIM QMXYPYM R WSGMIX'MPI XVEHM'MSREPI: 1MXYP HIWGVMI HMJIVMXIPI #M YRISVM
HVEQEXMGIPI MVYT'MM EPI WEGVYPYM R PYQI, GY ZEPSEVI HI RXIQIMIVI ()PMEHI-2,
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RY IWXI YRMGYP. R KIRIVEP, TR R TVI^IRX, RY I\MWX S HI3RMVI YRMXEV E
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MQEKMRIE TI GEVI IP RWY#M #M-S JEGI R VETSVX GY QEXIVMEPYP VIWTIGXMZ. R EGIWX
WIRW, IWXI TIVJIGX ZEPEFMP GSRWXEXEVIE PYM +L. :PHY'IWGY: 1MXYP ZSVFI#XI
EPXJIP MWXSVMGYPYM VIPMKMMPSV #M EPXJIP MWXSVMGYPYM 3PS^S3IM; ERXVSTSPSKYP HIWPY#I#XI
WIRWYVM GY QEVI RGVGXYV HI MRJSVQE'MI EGSPS YRHI GIP HMRXM RY ZIHI
RMQMG; JSPGPSVMWXYP EVI #M IP PMQFENYP WY #M PYQMRIE^ JE'IXIPI PWEXI HI EP'MM R
YQFV (.). 1MXYP RY TSEXI 3 GIVGIXEX EPXJIP HIGX MRXIVHMWGMTPMREV, GIIE GI
TVIWYTYRI MRXIKVEVIE VI^YPXEXIPSV HYT MRZIWXMKE'MMPI TEVXMGYPEVI. -EX
TVMRGMTEPIPI HMVIG'MM HI MRXIVTVIXEVI E QMXYPYM, E#E GYQ W-EY GSRXYVEX R TPER
HMEGVSRMG. b R ERXMGLMXEXI: E) HMVIG'ME R E X Y V E P M W X ^IMM IVEY GSRWMHIVE'M
TIVWSRM3GVM EPI JSV'IPSV REXYVMM; F) HMVIG'ME I X M G S E P I K S V M G QMXYVMPI
IVEY RXVYTVM EPI YRSV EXVMFYXI QSVEPI (HI I\IQTPY, 4EPPEW %XLIRE VITVI^IRXE
R'IPITGMYRIE, %VIW MVE'MSREPYP, %JVSHMXE HSVMR'E, ,IVQIW GYZRXYP
#.E.Q.H.); G) HMVIG'ME M W X S V M G ^IMM JYWIWIV SEQIRM HI WIEQ, GEVI
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HMVIG'ME Q M W X M G -WYW'MRYX HI SV3WQ #M RISTPEXSRMWQ WI WTVMNMRIE TI
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WYF HMJIVMXI RYQI, HI TSTSEVIPI TQRXYPYM; I) IT M GY V I M WQYP XKHYME
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E#E GYQ IVEY HIWGVM#M R QMXYVM; J) W XS M G M WQYP GSRWMHIVE G TVIS'MM EY JSWX
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TSZIWXMVM GVSVE RY XVIFYMI W PM WI RKHYMI EGGIWYP R 'IXEXI, RMGM HEG YR
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ETVSTMI TI HEMQSR HI HEIQSR WMQ'MXSV, R'IPITX, HIHYGI GLMEV G YR SQ
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PI TVIGM^I^I REXYVE. 6SPYP HIQSRMPSV IWXI, R ZM^MYRIE PYM 4PYXEVL, HI E
XVEHYGI #M E XVERWQMXI ^IMPSV GIIE GI ZMRI HI PE SEQIRM #M SEQIRMPSV GIIE GI
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HIQSRMM, 3MR'I IXIVMGI #M EIVMIRI, WYRX HMEJERM, GVIHMR' GEVI W-E TIVTIXYEX
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ERXMGLMXEXI. %WXJIP, +MSZERRM &SGGEGG MS (1313-P375) VIME S GSRGIT'MI ERXMG
WMQTPM3GEX #M, MRZIWXMKRH KIRIEPSKMMPI ^IMPSV TKRM, GSRWMHIVE QMXYVMPI S
EPIKSVMI E GIVYPYM RWXIPEX ((I KIRIEPSKMMW HISVYQ KIRXMPMYQ). 1YPX QEM XV^MY,
+MEQFEXXMWXE :M G S (1668-P744) ETVSJYRHIE^ TVSFPIQE, WXEFMPMRH TEXVY IXETI
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WMQFSPM^EVIE GYGIVMVMM #M XVERWJSVQVMM REXYVMM; 3) R^IWXVEVIE ^IMPSV GY
WIQRM3GE'MM WSGMEPI #M TSPMXMGI; 4) YQERM^EVIE ^IMPSV TR PE KSPMVIE PSV HI
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SQIRI#XM (QEM EPIW JVMGE #M WTIVER'E), TI GEVI SQYP PI XVERWJIV EWYTVE
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VH IV (1744-P803) TYRI FE^IPI QMXSKVE3IM REXYVMM. R ZM^MYRIE WE, SQYP VIPMKMSW
EVLEMG IWXI YR GSTMP HYFPEX HI YR TSIX. 1MXYVMPI GSRWXMXYMI PMQFE PYM QEXIVR.
R QMXSPSKMI, ,IVHIV ZIHI EVLMZIPI GVIE'MIM PYQMM GSRWIVZEXI HI TSTSEVIPI HMR
%WME, +VIGME #M )KMTX. 3QYP EVLEMG IWXI GEVEGXIVM^EX HI S 3PS^S3I E TVMZMXYPYM.
*EWGMREX HI VWVMXYP WSEVIPYM, HI IJIGXIPI GVITYWGYPYPYM, HI HMJIVMXIPI
JIRSQIRI EPI REXYVMM, SQYP VIPMKMSW HIWGSTIV R IPI WIQRIPI TVI^IR'IM
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QMXYVMPI GSRWXMXYMI S HIWGMJVEVI E GSWQSWYPYM, GE #M I\TVIWME ZM^MYRMM GSWQMGI
VIEPM^EXI HI LSQS VIPMKMSWYW EVLEMG. 3 SVMIRXEVI RSY E JSWX WYW'MRYX HI # G
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MRWXVYMRH TSTSVYP, HIWMKYV RXV-S ITSG JSEVXI ZIGLI, EY HEX MHIMPSV 3PS^S3GI,
VIPMKMSEWI #M QSVEPI S EPX RJ'M#EVI TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP TSZIWXMVMPSV QMXMGI, GY
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RYQIPI GEVI HIZMR HMZMRMX'M). %TEVM'ME QMXYVMPSV W-E HEXSVEX YRIM FSPM E
PMQFMM: SQYP TVMQMXMZ, EVMIRMM EVLEMGM #M VITVI^IRXEY RS'MYRMPI EFWXVEGXI TVMR
WIQRI GSRGVIXI GY ENYXSVYP ITMXIXIPSV QIXEJSVMGI. 'RH WIRWYP TVMQSVHMEP EP
GIPSV HMR YVQ E JSWX YMXEX WEY SGYPXEX, GE YVQEVI E YRYM WEPX WIQERXMG E
ETVYX QMXYP, RYQIPI 3MRH GIPI GEVI M GVIIE^ TI ^IM. 3TIVE GSRWMHIVEFMP E
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HSQIRMYP ^IMPSV: RSQMRE WYRX RYQMRE. R QMXYVM, QEIWXVYP HI PE 3\JSVH RY
ZIHI HIGX YR EGGMHIRX EP PMQFMM, EPI GVYM YVQI PI VIKWI#XI R :IHE. 4SVRMRH
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TVMQYP TPER EY JSWX TVSQSZEXI QMXYVMPI EWXVEPI #M PYREVI, GEVI TYR EGGIRX TI
VSPYP ERMQEPIPSV R JSVQEVIE QMXYVMPSV. %GIWXSV QEVM XISVMM PM WI STYRI /. 3XJVMIH
1 M M P P IV (1797-P840). *MMRH GSRZMRW G QMXYP IWXI I\TVIWME WIRXMQIRXYPYM
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QMXSPSKME MWXSVMG. " G S E PE E R X V S T S P S K M G ()H[EVH 8]PSV, %RHVI[ 0ERK)
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EKVEV. &E^EX TI KVEQEXMGE GSQTEVEX, QMXSKVE3E GSQTEVEX WI E4 R
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R ZM^MYRIE PYM, XSEXI GVIHMR'IPI VIPMKMSEWI TVIWYTYR S GPEWM3GEVI E PYGVYVMPSV, VIEPI WEY MHIEPI, R HSY GPEWI STYWI: TVSJERYP #M WEGVYP. -QTV'MVIE PYQMM R HSY HSQIRMM, GEVI TVIWYTYR, YRYP, XSX GIIE GI IWXI WEGVY, GIPPEPX XSX GIIE GI IWXI TVSJER, IWXI XVWXYVE HMWXMRGXMZ E KRHMVMM VIPMKMSEWI. -EX E3VQEX HMLSXSQME GEVI ZE VQRI R GIRXVYP HMWGY'MMPSV VIJIVMXSEVI PE WEGVY. 4IRXVY E GSRXYVE QEM FMRI JIRSQIRYP VIPMKMSW, IP IPEFSVIE^ S HI3RM'MI E VIPMKMIM, JYRHEQIRXEX TI WEGVY: 3 VIPMKMI IWXI YR WMWXIQ WSPMHEV HI GVIHMR'I #M HI TVEGXMGM VIJIVMXSEVI PE PYGVYVMPI WEGVI, EHMG M^SPEXI, MRXIV^MWI, GVIHMR'I #M TVEGXMGM GEVI-P YRI#XI RXV-S GSQYRMXEXI QSVEP, RYQMX &MWIVMG, TI XS'M GIM GEVI EHIV PE IE. (MR EGIWX TYRGX HI ZIHIVI, VIPMKME IWXI YR JIRSQIR WSGMEP MRXIKVEP. )E IWXI WSGMEP PE SVMKMRIE IM, R GSR'MRYXYP #M 3REPMXEXIE IM. 'EY^E SFMIGXMZ, YRMZIVWEP #M IXIVR E I\TIVMIR'IPSV VIPMKMSEWI IWXI WSGMIXEXIE. )QERE'MI E GSR#XMMR'IM GSPIGXMZI, VIPMKME IWXI YR JETX YRMZIVWEP: IE IWXI #M YR EFWSPYX E TVMSVM #M YR JIRSQIR RIGIWEV EP ZMI'MM GSPIGXMZI. 6IPMKME EVI GE WGST EHQMRMWXVEVIE WEGVYPYM. 4IRXVY E R'IPIKI QEM FMRI VIPMKME #M TIRXVY E I\TPMGE RE#XIVIE HMZIVWIPSV VIPMKMM, (YVOLIMQ RGIEVG W KWIEWG VIPMKME GIE QEM TVMQMXMZ, GEVI, R ZM^MYRIE PYM, IWXI #M GIE QEM IPIQIRXEV. )P HIWGSTIV R XSXIQMWQ VIPMKME GPERYPYM R GEHVYP GVYME XSXIQYP VITVI^MRX WEGVYP TVMR I\GIPIR'. (I JETX, GVIHMR'IPI XSXIQMGI MQTPMG S GPEWM3GEVI E PYGVYVMPSV R WEGVI #M TVSJERI. )WXI ZSVFE HI S VIPMKMI JSRHEX TI S JSV' ERSRMQ #M MQTIVWSREP, TVI^IRX R 3IGEVI HMRXVI 3MR'IPI GPERYPYM, JV E WI GSRJYRHE XSXY#M GY IP. %GIEWX JSV', GEVI GSRWXMXYMI GIRXVYP SVMGVYM JIRSQIR VIPMKMSW #M GEVI E JSWX HIWGVMW HISWIFMX HI FMRI HI 'SHVMRKXSR R GIVGIXEVIE PYM EWYTVE QIPERI^MIRMPSV, IWXI QERE, GEVI WI WMXYIE^ PE SVMKMRIE VIPMKMIM: %GIEWXE IWXI QEXIVME TVMQ HMR GEVI EY JSWX EPGXYMXI 3MR'IPI HI XSX JIPYP, TI GEVI VIPMKMMPI HMR XSEXI XMQTYVMPI EY WEGVEPM^EX-S #M EY ZIRIVEX-S. 7TMVMXIPI, HIQSRMM, KIRMMPI, ^IMM HI SVMGI VERK RY WYRX HIGX JSVQIPI GSRGVIXI TI GEVI PI-E PYEX EGIEWX IRIVKMI. 1ERE XSXIQMG IWXI WEGVYP TVMR I\GIPIR': IE GSRWXMXYMI S JSV' VIPMKMSEW GSPIGXMZ #M ERSRMQ E GPERYPYM, XVERWGIRHIRX #M MQERIRX. 1ERE IWXI ^IYP MQTIVWSREP, TVMRGMTMYP WEGVYPYM, GIRXVYP VIPMKMIM XSXIQMGI. R EGIEWX VIPMKMI E SVMKMRMPSV RY I\MWX RMGM S TIVWSREPMXEXI VIPMKMSEW, RXVYGX QERE M 'MRI PSGYP. -RXV-YR EP HSMPIE WXEHMY WI ZSV KWM WTMVMXI, HIQSRM, KIRMM, ^IM, GEVI WYRX JSVQI GSRGVIXI, GEVI TVSZMR HMR QERE. % MGM XVIFYMI GYXEX SVMKMRIE ^IMPSV GIVYPYM, E GYPXYPYM QSV'MPSV, E VMXYVMPSV #M E I3GMIR'IM PSV. (ISEVIGI XSXIQYP I\TVMQ #M WMQFSPM^IE^ QERE, HISEVIGI ^IYP XSXIQ IWXI #M ^IYP GPERYPYM, XVIFYMI W ZIHIQ R XSXIQMWQ MTSWXE^E GPERYPYM. %WXJIP, VIMIWI G, HI JETX, GPERYP WX PE SVMKMRIE WEGVYPYM. 4IRXVY (YVOLIMQ, WSGMIXEXIE IWXI GETEFMP W TVSHYG WIR^E'ME HMZMRYPYM, HISEVIGI IE IWXI TIRXVY QIQFVMM WM GIIE GI YR ^IY IWXI TIRXVY GVIHMRGMS#MM PYM. 7SGMIXEXIE GVIEWI WEGVYP TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP YRYM XVERWJIV HI TYXIVI. %GIEWX STIVE'MI #M-E KWMX PSGYP TVMZMPIKMEX R WVFXSVMPI XVMFEPI. %G'MYRIE GSPIGXMZ E GPERYPYM WYWGMXE EXYRGM WIR^E'ME WEGVYPYM. 'VIEX HI WSGMIXEXI ETSM XVERWJIVEX EWYTVE XSXIQYPYM, GEVI IWXI XVYTYP ZM^MFMP EP ^IYPYM, WEGVYP H RE#XIVI VIPMKMIM. )P WX PE SVMKMRIE MRXIVHMG'MMPSV, HISEVIGI RY XSPIVIE^ R TVIENQE PYM TVSJERYP. %PGXYMX HMR JSV'I WYTVETYWI VIEPYPYM, IP IWXI GSRXEKMSW. *MHIP HYFPIM HSGXVMRI E PYM (YVOLIMQ VIJIVMXSEVI PE HMWXMRG'ME WEGVY/TVSJER, GE #M PE XSXIQMWQ, GSRWMHIVEX HVITX VIPMKMI SVMKMREV, 1. 1 EY WW (1872-P950) ZIHI R XSXIQ YR VIGMTMIRX EP WEGVYPYM, WEGVYP TVMR I\GIPIR'. 7MQFSP EP GPERYPYM, XSXIQYP IWXI WEGVY HISEVIGI EHYR #M GSRGVIXM^IE^ WIRXMQIRXIPI GSPIGXMZMX'MM TIRXVY E-P GSRJIVM 3IGVYM QIQFVY JSV'IPI GEVI-P TIVQMX W QIEVK QEM HITEVXI. (ISEVIGI XSXIQYP IWXI WEGVY, IP IWXI VIWTIGXEX, IWXI RGSRNYVEX HI MRXIVHMG'MM, M WI EXVMFYMI ZMVXY'M TS^MXMZI. 1EM QYPX HIGX (YVOLIMQ, 1EYWW MRWMWX EWYTVE MQTSVXER'IM WMQFSPMWQYPYM. R ZM^MYRIE WE, WEGVYP WI GSRGIRXVIE^ R WMQFSPYP WY. %#E IWXI #M XSXIQYP, WMQFSP EP KVYTYPYM, HITS^MXEVYP WEGVYPYM. 1SXMZYP IWXI WMQTPY: WEGVYP IWXI KIRIVEX HI WIRXMQIRXIPI KVYTYPYM, IWXI GSRWXMXYMX HMR ERWEQFPYP EGIWXSV WIRXMQIRXI GEVI WI VWJVRK EWYTVE XSXIQYPYM. *SV' TVSZIRMX HMR GSR#XMMR'E GSPIGXMZ E KVYTYPYM, WEGVYP WMQFSPM^EX HI XSXIQ IWXI EXX IPIQIRX HI GYPX, GX #M IPIQIRX GIRXVEP EP GSI^MYRMM WSGMEPI. 7EGVYP GLMEV EVI YR RYQI PE QIPERI^MIRM #M TSPMRI^MIRM, QERE. *SV' ERSRMQ #M MQTIVWSREP, QERE IWXI S WYFWXER', S IWIR', S JSV', WYVWE EHIZVEXIM I3GMIR'I E 3MR'IPSV #M PYGVYVMPSV. 1ERE RY IWXI HSEV S GEXIKSVMI WSGMEP E KRHMVMM TVMQMXMZI, EWX^M TI GEPI HI HMWTEVM'MI, IE IWXI #M JSVQE TVMQEV TI GEVI EY PYEX-S EPXI GEXIKSVMM GEVI JYRG'MSRIE^ RXSXHIEYRE R WTMVMXIPI RSEWXVI: E WYFWXER'IM #M E GEY^IM (6MIW, 36-39). %J PEX WYF MRJ PYIR 'E PYM (YVOLI MQ, 0YG MIR 0 I Z ] & V Y LP (1857-P939) GVIHI, PE VRHYP WY, G QSHEPMX'MPI HI E WYVTVMRHI VIEPYP WYRX VITVI^IRXVM GSPIGXMZI GSQYRI QIQFVMPSV YRYM KVYT WSGMEP. )P RGIEVG W HI3RIEWG KRHMVIE TVMQMXMZ TI GEVI S RYQI#XI TVIPSKMG #M GEVI, R ZM^MYRIE PYM, WI GEVEGXIVM^IE^ TVMR GVIHMR'E RXV-S PYQI HYFP, YRE ZM^MFMP, EPXE MRZM^MFMP, YRE REXYVEP, EPXE WYTVEREXYVEP. R ZME'E #M R GSQTSVXEQIRXYP WY, SQYP XVMFEP EZIE WIRXMQIRXYP TIVQERIRX EP GSRXEGXYPYM GY PYQIE MRZM^MFMP #M WYTVEREXYVEP, E GVIM TVI^IR' S WMQ'IE PE XSX TEWYP. )WXI ZSVFE HI S I\TIVMIR' EJIGXMZ HI TEVXMGMTEVI, FE^EX TI WXVYGXYVE QIRXEP E TVMQMXMZYPYM. % MGM MRXIVZMRI JYRG'ME WMQFSPYPYM, GEVI GSRWX R E JEGI TVI^IRXI EGIWXI 3MR'I MRZM^MFMPI. 7MQFSPYP RY IWXI HSEV S MQEKMRI E 3MR'IM WYTVEREXYVEPI: IP EWMKYV S ZIVMXEFMP TEVXMGMTEVI PE ZME'E EGIWXIM 3MR'I. 4IRXVY 0IZ]-&VYLP, WEGVYP SGYT YR PSG GLMEV R GIRXVYP JYRG'MIM WMQFSPMGI: IP MRXIVZMRI R VIPE'MMPI SQYPYM XVMFEP GY 3MR'IPI WYTVEREXYVEPI. 7TE'MMPI WEGVI WYRX PSGYVM GEVI HSFRHMWIV YR GEVEGXIV WEGVY, TIRXVY G IPI GSRWXMXYMEY VI#IHMR'E 3MR'IPSV WYTVEREXYVEPI. %GIWX JETX I\TPMG TIVQERIR'E PSGYVMPSV WEGVI R HMZIVWI VIPMKMM. 4IRXVY 0IZ]-&VYLP WEGVYP RY IWXI WYFWXER'MEP, GM VIPE'MSREP, IWXI MRIVIRX JYRG'MIM HI TEVXMGMTEVI TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP GVIME SQYP ZMRI R GSRXEGX GY PYQIE WYTVEREXYVEP #M MRZM^MFMP. 9R EPX VITVI^IRXERX HI QEVG EP EGIWXIM #GSPM E VIEPM^EX S RGIVGEVI HI WSGMSPSKMI E WEGVYPYM. 4IRXVY 6SKIV ' E M P P S MW (1913-P978), TVSFPIQE GIE QEM MQTSVXERX IWXI VMHMGEX HI EQFMKYMXEXIE WEGVYPYM, GSRXYVEX R STS^M'ME TYV/MQTYV. 'EMPPSMW GSRWMHIV G PYQIE WEGVYPYM WI STYRI PYQMM TVSJERYPYM EWIQIRIEPYQMM IRIVKMMPSV, YRIM PYQM E WYFWXER'IPSV. 7EGVYP IWXI PYQIE JSV'IPSV, FYRI WEY VIPI, R JYRG'MI HI HMVIG'ME PYEX. 7EGVYP WI QTEVXI EWXJIP R HSM TSPM: W3R'IRME #M MQTYVMXEXIE. 73R'IRME IWXI WEGVYP FIRI3G, MQTYVMXEXIE IWXI WEGVYP QEPI3G. R JYRG'MI HI JIPYP R GEVI HIWJ#SEV S EG'MYRI, JEWX WEY RIJEWX, WEGVYP IWXI GEPM3GEX HVITX TYV WEY MQTYV. R ZMVXYXIE EGIWXIM HMWXMRG'MM RXVI GIPI XVIM GSRGITXI, TYV, TVSJER #M MQTYV, GIM HSM TSPM EM WEGVYPYM (TYV #M MQTYV) WI STYR TVSJERYPYM. 'EMPPSMW GVIHI G HI'MRI JSVQYPE JYRHEQIRXEP E YRMZIVWYPYM VIPMKMSW #M G TSEXI I\TPMGE EWXJIP MQTSVXER'E VIPMKMIM R SVKERM^EVIE PYQMM, E#E GYQ IVE IE GSRGITYX HI SQYP VIPMKMSW. % GSRWEGVEX S WIVMI HI GSRWMHIVE'MM TSPEVMX'MM WEGVYPYM, HMEPIGXMGMM, EQFMZEPIR'IM, XIQIM W3R'IRMIM #M E MQTYVMX'MM, GSI^MYRMM #M HMWSPY'MIM TIRXVY E ENYRKI W HIQSRWXVI^I G WEGVYP IWXI WXVRW PIKEX HI SVHMRIE PYQMM, E GVIM I\TVIWMI MQIHMEX #M GSRWIGMR' HMVIGX IVE (6MIW, 54). 8 IS V M M PI W MQFS P M GI WYRX VITVI^IRXEXI HI )QIWX 'EWWMVIV (4LMPSWSTLMI HIW W]QFSPMWGLIR *SVQIR, --0-, 1923-P929), ;. 1. 9VFER, 7YWER 0ERKIV IXG., GEVI R'IPIKIEY QMXSPSKME GE TI S JSVQ WMQFSPMG HI KRHMVI, JV HMJIVIR'MIVIE IPIQIRXIPSV MRXIVRI HI GIPI I\XIVRI, STS^M'ME GVSVE WI JSVQIE^ RGIX, QMXYP EZRH EWXJIP S JSV' EXSXGYTVMR^XSEVI, JE' HI GEVI GIPIPEPXI GEXIKSVMM EPI GSR#XMMR'IM #M GYRSE#XIVMM YQERI WYRX WIGYRHEVI #M EFWXVEGXI. +RHMVIE QMXMG, HYT 'EWWMVIV, I KIRIVEX HI MRGPYHIVIE R WTMVMXYP YQER E MHIMM HI JSV' QEKMG. "GSEPE TWMLEREPMXMG (7MKQYRH *VIYH, 1856-P939; 'EVP +YWXEZ .YRK, 18751961; %PJVIH %HPIV, 1870-P937) GSRWMHIVE G QMXYP IWXI WMQFSPYP YRIM WXVM WY4IXI#XM WYFGSR#XMIRXI, E GVIM ETEVM'MI PE PYQMR I RFY#MX. R QMXYVM #M-EV KWM YR IGSY WMQFSPMG WXVJYRHYVMPI MRGSR#XMIRXYPYM GSPIGXMZ, IPI 3MRH ZMWIPI GSPIGXMZI EPI TSTSEVIPSV, TVSHYWI HI RIZVS^E EZRH GE WYVW RITYXMR'E WEXMWJEG'MIM WI\YEPI. R WJV#MX, H M V I G ' ME W X V Y G X Y V E P M W X R QMXSPSKMI IWXI VITVI^IRXEX HI 'PEYHI 0IZM-7XVEYWW (R. 1908) #M +ISVKIW (YQI^MP (1898-P986). ' P. 0 IZ M -7 X V EY WW EFSVHIE^ QMXYP TVMR QIXSHE WXVYGXYVEPMWX R GSRXI\XYP ERXVSTSPSKMIM KIRIVEPI #M R GSRHM'MMPI KRHMVMM WPFEXMGI (0E TIRWII WEYZEKI, 1962; %RXLVSTSPSKMI WXVYGXYVEPI, 1958), HI3RMRHY-P GE QEXVMGI E VITVI^IRXVMPSV #M EVMI E WSPY'MSRVMM YRSV TVSFPIQI EPI PSKMGMM TVMQMXMZI. 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WEY ETEV R TSWXYVE HI WTMVMXI TEXVSREPI, KIRMM XYXIPEVI, GSRGIRXVVM EPI
WEGVYPYM, MTSWXE^MIVM EPI EGIWXYME, E#E GYQ WI TVI^MRX PYGVYVMPI R QMXSPSKME
TSTYPEV. (R PYGVEVIE RSEWXV RI PMQMXQ PE HIQSRSPSKMI #M, HEXSVMX
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7MWXIQIPI QMXSPSKMGI VSQERMG #M WPEZ, GE WMWXIQI EVLIXMTEPI, WYRX
GEVEGXIVM^EXI HI TVI^IR'E EQFIPSV GEXIKSVMM HI VITVI^IRXVM QMXSPSKMI
WYTIVMSEV #M QMXSPSKMI MRJIVMSEV GYTVMR^RH MRJSVQE'MM VIJIVMXSEVI PE ^IM,
IVSM, HIQSRM. 9VQE#IPI EGIWXSV QMXSPSKMM EY TWXVEX WTSVEHMG, RIWMWXIQEXM^EX
VITVI^IRXVM EPI YRSV ^IM WEY IVSM. %WXJIP HI VIQMRMWGIR'I ETEV HSEV R
QMXSPSKME VYW, TI GRH GIPIPEPXI QMXSPSKMM WXYHMEXI VSQR, JVERGI^,
MXEPMER, YGVEMRIER, FMIPSVYW, TSPSR, GIL, WPSZEG, WVF, GVSEX, WPSZIR,
FYPKEV, QEGIHSRIER TWXVIE^ R TVMRGMTEP HSEV MQEKMRM PIKEXI HI
TIVWSRENI HIQSRMGI. %GIEWX VIWXVMG'MI RY E HYW PE WVGMVIE VITVI^IRXVMPSV
QMXSPSKMGI EPI TSTSEVIPSV VIWTIGXMZI, WMWXIQYP GVIHMR'IPSV QMXSPSKMGI 3MRH
FSKEX VITVI^IRXEX TVMR GYTVMRHIVIE YRSV TIVWSRENI QMXSPSKMGI GEVI EGSTIV
QYPXI EWTIGXI EPI EGIWXIM VIEPMX'M. (3 TVIGM^EVI: TIRXVY XIVQIRYP
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(TYRRH EGGIRX TI PEXYVE QEPI3G E HIQSRMPSV, GEVI IWXI HSQMRERX R
WMWXIQYP VITVI^IRXVMPSV QMXSPSKMGI EREPM^EXI), TIVWSRENI QMXSPSKMGI.) 'E S
GSRWIGMR' E HI^ZSPXVMM PEXYVMM MRJIVMSEVI E QMXSPSKMIM, QEXIVMEPYP MRJSVQE'MSREP
IWXI GYTVMRW R KIRYVM RIWTIGM3GI. (EG QMXSPSKME GPEWMG IVE EPGXYMX HMRXV-
YR WMWXIQ GSIVIRX HI QMXYVM, QMXSPSKMMPI XVEHM'MSREPI WI GEVEGXIVM^EY TVMR
RIWMWXIQEXM^EVIE QEXIVMEPYPYM WEY TVMRXV-S WMWXIQEXM^EVI VIPEXMZ.
7MWXIQEXM^EVIE VIPEXMZ IWXI GEVEGXIVMWXMG VITVI^IRXVMPSV GYTVMRWI R
PIKIRHIPI QMXSPSKMGI. 2IWMWXIQEXM^EVIE TVIWYTYRI VIGSRWXMXYMVIE WMWXIQYPYM
QMXSPSKMG HI VITVI^IRXVM TI FE^E TSZIWXMVMPSV WYTIVWXM'MSEWI (QIQSVEXI WEY
JEFYPEXI) WEY E GVIHMR'IPSV QMXSPSKMGI (VITVI^IRXVM QMXSPSKMGI QMRMQEPI).
%GIWXI WYVWI JYVRM^IE^ S MRJSVQE'MI HI KVEHYP -, VITVI^IRXRH QEXIVMEP
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3 RXPRMX #M R EPXI WTIGMM JSPGPSVMGI (FEWQI, EPXI XMTYVM HI PIKIRHI, TSZIWXMVM,
WRSEZI, GRXIGI ITMGI, TVSZIVFI IXG.), GEVEGXIVM^EXI RW HI YR KVEH QEM QMG
HI EYXIRXMGMXEXI QMXSPSKMG, HMR GEY^E XVERWJSVQVMPSV WYJIVMXI GE YVQEVI, R
TVMRGMTEP, E TMIVHIVMM GVIHMR'IM, E HIWEGVEPM^VMM, E EHETXVMM PSV PE S WTIGMI
EXMTMG. 2YQMQ MRJSVQE'MMPI VIWTIGXMZI GE 3MRH HI KVEHYP EP ---PIE.
3 TPEWXMG MPYWXVEVI E QIXSHSPSKMIM EHSTXEXI HI RSM EQ KWMX PE 3ZMHMY
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(1942). )P TPIHIE^ TIRXVY S ZM^MYRI VSQRIEWG E PYQMM, WTYRRH RW: 2Y
IWXI I\GPYWMZ E RSEWXV, 3MRHG WI EWIEQR R YRIPI HMRXVI PMRMMPI IM GY EPI
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IWIR' HEGS-PEXMR #M ETPMGEX R JSVQI XISPSKMGI-FMKSXI, GEVI QEM QYPX M
VIWTMRKIEY TI GVIHMRGMS#M HIGX M GETXEY (XVEHM'MSREPE MYFMVI TIRXVY ,VMWXSW
RPSGYMX R TVIHMGE SVXSHS\MIM WPEZSRI GY JVMGE HI (YQRI^IY, GE HI YR
EYXSGVEX EWMEXMG), WTVI E RY QEM ZSVFM HI EFWIR'E TVI'MSWYPYM ZILMGYP GYPXYVEP EP
PMQFMM PEXMRI, GI EV 3 RWIQREX EGGIWYP PE 3PS^S3E #M PMXIVEXYVE IZYPYM QIHMY
IYVSTIER, GE #M PE KRHMVIE #M EVXE ERXMGLMX'MM. (MR GEY^E EGIWXIM PMQFM HI
EQZSR #M GERGIPEVMI, GYQ E HIZIRMX PE RSM WPEZSRE, VSQRMM RY QEM
JVIGZIRXIE^ GY MRXIVIW FMWIVMGMPI (.); HMQTSXVMZ, WI VIJYKME^ RXV-S VIPMKMI
TSTYPEV, R EGIP GVI#XMRMWQ TSTYPEV GEVI, EMGM, W-E RVHGMREX QEM QYPX HIGX
PE EPXI TSTSEVI GVI#XMRI, RXVYGX GVI#XMRMWQYP TSTYPEV HIZMRI YR WSM HI
TEVEGVI#XMRMWQ, TI WGLIPIX TKR, GY EPYV GVI#XMR, EHIWIE GSRZIR'MSREP, RY
S WMRXI^ HI QTVYQYXYVM TKRI VIIPEFSVEXI HI GVI#XMRMWQ (/IQFEGL, 1994,
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QEVIE QENSVMXEXI E TSTYPE'MIM; HI EWIQIRIE #M R EVIEPYP FEPGERMG, HI
I\IQTPY, ZM^MYRIE GVI#XMR E PYQMM IWXI RXPRMX PE QYPXI TSTSEVI (WVFM,
FYPKEVM IXG.), E#E GYQ WI TSEXI ZIHIE HMR GVIHMR'IPI PSV QMXSPSKMGI. R GIIE
GI-P TVMZI#XI TI 7J. 4IXVY, R MTSWXE^E WE HI TEXVSR EP PYTMPSV, VITVI^IRXEVIE
VSQRIEWG RY IWXI WMRKYPEV (GVIHMR'I EWIQRXSEVI 3MRH RXPRMXI PE
TSTSEVIPI GEYGE^MIRI, PE YGVEMRIRM, FMIPSVY#M, TSTSEVI FEPGERMGI #M,
FMRIR'IPIW, R QENSVMXEXIE EVIEPIPSV QMXSPSKMGI GEVEGXIVM^EXI HI I\MWXIR'E
YRSV EWXJIP HI WXVQS#M/TEXVSRM) #M RY TSEXI 3 R RMGM YR GE^ GSRWMHIVEX YR
VI^YPXEX EP ZM^MYRMM XMTMG VSQRI#XM EWYTVE GVI#XMRMWQYPYM TSTYPEV. -RXIVIWYP
GIVGIXXSVMPSV TIRXVY GYPXYVE TSTYPEV IWXI, R YPXMQE ZVIQI, VIQEVGEFMP, RY
EXX R GI TVMZI#XI RXMRHIVIE EVMIM PSV HI TVISGYTVM, QIXSHIPI ZEVMEXI HI
MRXIVTVIXEVI E YVME#YPYM ZSPYQ HI MRJSVQE'MM VIJIVMXSEVI PE ZME'E WTMVMXYEP E
WSGMIX'MPSV XVEHM'MSREPI, GX, QEM EPIW, HEXSVMX XIRHMR'IPSV HI EGGIHIVI PE
IWIR', HI VIPIZEVI E WMWXIQIPSV HI WXVYGXYVEVI E VIEPMX'MM, E#E GYQ IVEY
EGIWXIE 3KYVEXI HI QIQFVMM GSQYRMX'MPSV R GEY^. 7I TSEXI HMWXMRKI EWXJIP
XIRHMR'E HI WYVTVMRHIVI E 3PS^S3IM, E TVMRGMTMMPSV IWIR'MEPI GI KYZIVRIE^
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R GEHVYP EGIWXIME, QEM QEVIE EXIR'MI EGSVHEX PEXYVMM TVEGXMGI E PYGVYVMPSV, E#E
GYQ VIMIWI HMR GSR'MRYXYP GVIHMR'IPSV QMXSPSKMGI, VMXYVMPSV #M VMXYEPYVMPSV GEVI
RWS'IWG ZME'E WSGMIX'MPSV XVEHM'MSREPI #M GEVI WI HSZIHIWG MRHMWTIRWEFMPI R
HIT#MVIE YRSV WMXYE'MM-PMQMX ("XIJERME 'VMWXIWGY-+SPSTIR'ME, +SWTSHVME R
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'. +. .YRK #.E.), R XMQT GI QMXSPSKME MRJIVMSEV XVEXIE^ EWTIGXI GI 'MR HI
GSXMHMER, HI SVKERM^EVIE EGIWXYME, HI ZEPIR'IPI HIQMYVKMGI EPI SQYPYM (HI
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IXRSKVE3I, ERXVSTSPSKMI, 3PS^S3I IXG. 7MRGVIXMWQYP GI GEVEGXIVM^IE^
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HI GIVGIXEVI R 3IGEVI HMR #XMMR'IPI WYW-QIR'MSREXI. %GIIE#M MRJSVQE'MI TSEXI
3 MRXIVTVIXEX R GLIMI JSPGPSVMG, IXRSKVE3G WEY, QEM PEVK, GE VI^YPXEX EP YRSV
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R SVKERM^EVIE #M WXVYGXYVEVIE EGIWXYME #M E VIEPMX'MM RGSRNYVXSEVI, E#E GYQ
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IKMTXIER, KVIEG #M VSQER, WEY QSHIVRI QEM EPIW R YRIPI GYPIKIVM HMR
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LSXVXSEVI WTVI TVEKQEXMWQ #M HEXSVIE^ ZMXEPMXEXIE QMXSPSKME MRJIVMSEV.
'GM, WTVI HISWIFMVI HI QMXSPSKME GPEWMG SVMIRXEX WTVI XVERWGIRHIRX, WTVI
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GYTVMR^RH RY RYQEM TIVWSRENI QMXSPSKMGI. 4VMR WXVYGXYVEVIE GEXIKSVMEP E
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EV 3 QYVMX. 7I WTYRIE G EGI#XM QSV'M RIGYVE'M FRXYMEY TVMR QPE#XMRM, THYVM,
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WI WTEVK JETXYP/"M PMTMXYVE/"M ^FYVXSVYP. /'YQ WI VWTRHIWG VWTRXMMPI, /%#E
W WI VWMTIEWG JEVQIGIPI/"M PMTMXYVE/"M ^FYVXSVYP~. (YT EGIEWXE TYRI
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E 3IVX HI-ENYRW #M ERYQI TI XMQTYP GRH nWI WTEVKI XVKYP~, FSPREZE WI
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9R TIVMGSP HISWIFMX HI QEVI IVE GIP EP WGLMQFVMM TSXIR'MEPI E GSTMMPSV
HI GXVI HYLYVMPI THYVMM WEY HI GXVI EPXI WTMVMXI RIJEWXI, GEVI HSVIEY
SF'MRIVIE YRSV GSTMM YQERM, QYPX QEM EXVEGXMZM. 4SZIWXMVMPI TSTYPEVI GYTVMRH
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TVSXIGXSV E QSE#IM: 3 QSE# E JSWX PE S RE#XIVI. % WGPHEX GSTMPYP, P-E RJ#EX
#M EGYQ TSVRIE W WI HYG EGEW. -EX G ZMRI YR SQ GY YR WYQER EPF #M S
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HRWYP. (ISHEX WI JEGI YR ZRX QEVI, RXYRIGEX, S ME TI WYW #M S HYGI. RXV-S
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W 'MI TSEPE #M M-E YQTPYX TSEPE GY NIVEXIG HVITX VWTPEX. %GIME IVEY KEPFIRM.
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WEVI, G EXYRGM WI GLIEQ G PYGVYP IM W-E TPXMX (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 515-516).
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EHYW TI PYQI. (YT GI P-E ERGSVEX R PYQIE EGIEWXE, TYRRH XSEXI TMIHMGMPI
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WSEVXE TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP FMM VMXYEPI WGPHXSEVIE PE GEVI IVE WYTYW GSTMPYP:
7I TYRI R TVMQE WGPHXSEVI E GSTMPYPYM QSPMJX, EHMG EKLMEWQ WEY ET
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3I GYVEX #M GE W RY WI TVMRH HI HRWYP JEVQIGIPI, ZVNMPI #M
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W RY WI TSEX HISGLIE ('VMWXIWGY-+SPSTIR'ME, 48). R EPXI WMXYE'MM, QSE#E
IWXI RYQEM YR QIHMEXSV RXVI GIPI HSY PYQM, IE 3MRH GIE GEVI XPQGI#XI
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(4EQ3PI-P, 1916, 4); R EPXI GE^YVM, QEQE GSTMPYPYM #M QSE#E (EPXISVM RYQEM
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XPQGIEWG EGIPI ZMWI, TYRRHY-PI R PIKXYV GY ZMMXSVYP TVYRGYPYM (MHIQ, 5):
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&VPIE, 428). (YT QSQIRXYP RE#XIVMM, SFWIVZQ G TVI^IR'E QSE#IM IWXI PE
JIP HI MRHMWTIRWEFMP R GEHVYP EPXSV SFMGIMYVM GEVI-P EY R GIRXVY TI RSY-
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QSE#E EHYGI GSTMPYP (GEVI E JSWX TR EGYQ 'MRYX R FVE'I HI RE#M). 1SE#E
YVIE^, ENYRW EGEW (IWXI HMR RSY S EHIZVEX YVWMXSEVI): 4SJXMQ, GYQXV,
TVYRGYP EGIWXE/4I GEVI P-EQ FSXI^EX, /"M-RGVI#XMREX/"M-R PIKI P-EQ FKEX, /&M-P
HVYMQ HYQMXEPI/'Y TMRI #M GY WEVI, /'Y HEVYP W3R'MIM WEPI. /'VI#XI-P Y#SV #M
WRXSW (MHIQ, 229). "M TVEGXMGMPI QEKMGI RY WI RGLIMI EMGM. 2 MGM QGEV
QSQIRXYP FSXI^YPYM RY IWXI LSXVXSV TIRXVY WMKYVER'E RSY-RWGYXYPYM.
1SE#E #M GSRXMRY VSPYP HI TIVWSREN EXSXTYXIVRMG, VWTYR^XSV TIRXVY (WEY,
QEM FMRI WTYW, GEVI TSEXI MR4YIR'E) ZME'E GSTMPYPYM. "M R EGIWX QSQIRX
EHIZVEXYP TVSTVMIXEV EP GSTMPYPYM IWXI QSE#E: (YT FSXI^, QSE#E ME
GSTMPYP #M EGEW P H TI JIVIEWXV nGE W XVMEWG~, MEV QSE#E RY-P WTYRI
RYQIPI TR GIM HMR GEW RY-P HEY 2-3 GVYGIVM (1Y#PIE-&VPIE, 429). *ETXYP
G TYXIVIE HISWIFMX E QSE#IM RY IVE PMQMXEX PE QSQIRXYP RE#XIVMM WEY PE
ITMWSEHIPI E4EXI R HMVIGX PIKXYV GY EGIEWXE IWXI WYFPMRMEX HI EPXI VMXYVM
ETSXVSTEMGI, GIRXVEXI TI WGLMQFEVIE RYQIPYM GSTMPYPYM, HIWJ#YVEXI PE WGYVX
XMQT HYT RE#XIVI WEY QYPX QEM XV^MY: 'RH YRSV TVMR'M PI QSV RIGSRXIRMX
TVYRGMM, QSE#E TYRI TI TVYRGYP HI GYVRH RWGYX RXV-YR PIEKR R GEVI QEM
TYRI RG #M YR PER' HI 3IV; ETSM P WGSEXI TI JIVIEWXV EJEV #M-P HYGI R
HVYQYP QEVI, YRHI, T^MRHY-P, P PEW W WXIE TR GI ZMRI YR SQ HI-P E4.
3QYP GI P-E E4EX WI TVMZI#XI ETSM HI RE# EP GSTMPYPYM E4EX. 4VYRGYP WI WGSEXI
TI JIVIEWXV, MEV RY TI Y#, TIRXVY G TI Y# EY JSWX JVE'MM WM GEVI EY
QYVMX (1EVMER-P, 1995, 69; IWXI ZSVFE, HI JETX, HI S QSEVXI WMQFSPMG,
HIWXMREX R#IPVMM HYLYPYM QSV'MM WEY EP FSPMPSV, GEVI #M-EY TVSTYW W-P TMEVH
TI GSTMP). (EXSVMX SQRMTVI^IR'IM QSE#IM R ZME'E GSTMPYPYM, PE WVFXSVM IE RY
IVE YMXEX: GSTMMM TI GEVI M-E EHYW TI PYQI, RWS'M'M HI QEQIPI PSV (TI GEVI HI
EWIQIRIE PI-E ENYXEX), S ZM^MXEY, M JGIEY YVVM #M-P HVYMEY YR GSPEG. "M
EGIEWX RXPRMVI WI XVERWJSVQE EHIWIE RXV-S RSY TVEGXMG ETSXVSTEMG TI
GEVI S HIWJ#YVE QSE#E. R 3PXIRME, E HSY ^M HI 'VGMYR IWXI RYQMX ^MYE
QS#MPSV WEY ^MYE QS#YPYM. *IQIMPI XMRIVI HYG R EGIEWX ^ M, HI HMQMRIE',
GSTMMM PE QSE#, TIRXVY GE EGIEWXE W PI JEG YRIPI YVVM HI FMRI #M WRXEXI.
(EG EGI#XME IVEY QMGM, IVEY XVIGY'M TVMRXV-YR GSPEG HI KVY #M VMHMGE'M TR-R
KVMRH ()ZWIIZ-2, 1994, 24).
13-6) 1SMVIPI KVIGMPSV EY JSWX, TVSFEFMP, PE SVMKMRI, XSX HMZMRMX'M EPI
RE#XIVMM, GEVI, R QSQIRXYP ZIRMVMM TI PYQI E GSTMPYPYM, WXXIEY PE GTXMYP
QEQIM. )\MWXIR'E EGIWXYM XMT HI HMZMRMX'M IWXI WYW'MRYX #M HI GYPXYP ^IM'IM
RE#XIVMM, )MPIMXL]E, RJ'M#EX GY S PYQREVI R QR, WMQFSPM^RH ZIRMVIE
GSTMPYPYM TI PYQI, GPY^MVIE EGIWXYME, MI#MVIE PE PYQMR (1EVMER-P, 1995, 102).
1MXYVMPI WTYR G %REROI, QEQE QSMVIPSV, IWXI TIVWSRM3GEVIE MRIZMXEFMPYPYM, E
MQMRIR'IM. 4I KIRYRGLMM IM WI RZVXI YR JYW, TI GEVI, GE YR E\MW QYRHM, P
HMVMNIE^ HMR GRH R GRH #M QSMVIPI. (YT YRIPI ZEVMERXI, QSMVIPI WYRX
RWGYXI HI PE >IYW HI 8LIQMW, PIKIE, RIGIWMXEXIE. 'IPI XVIM WYVSVM XSVG (E'E)
3VYP ZMI'MM: /PSXLS RE#XIVIE P XSEVGI, 0ELIWMW ^MPIPI ZMI'MM P HIETR, MEV
%XLVSTSW QSEVXIE P XEMI. 4PEXSR, R 6ITYFPMGE, WTYRI G JYWYP WI VSXIE TI
KIRYRGLMM PYM 8LIQMW: 1EM I\MWXEY RG XVIM JIQIM, E#I^EXI HI NYV-QTVINYV, PE
HMWXER'I IKEPI, 3IGEVI TI YR XVSR. )PI IVEY QSMVIPI, 3MGIPI 2IGIWMX'MM,
QFVGEXI R EPF, TYVXRH GYRYRM TI GVI#XIX 0EGLIWMW, 'PSXLS #M %XVSTSW. "M
IPI GRXEY, EHYKRH EVQSRMIM TVSHYWI HI WMVIRI 0EGLIWMW XVIGYXYP, 'PSXLS
TVI^IRXYP #M %XVSTSW ZMMXSVYP (4PEXSR, 440). 1SMVIPI WYRX WPEF MRHMZMHYEPM^EXI,
HEV GEVEGXIVMWXMGMPI XSVWYP, YVWMXE, LEMRIPI EPFI PI WYFPMRME^ ETEVXIRIR'E PE
EGIEWX GEXIKSVMI HI WTMVMXI. %XLVSTSW GIE HI-E XVIME QSMV, GIE GEVI XEMI
3VYP ZMI'MM, E HI^ZSPXEX QEM XV^MY YR EPX TIVWSREN, 1SEVXIE, GEVI IWXI S
TIVWSRM3GEVI E EGIWXIM JYRG'MM E HIWXMRYPYM. %XLVSTSW IWXI HIWGVMW HI ,IWMSH
GE 3MRH JSEVXI GVYH. )E TYVXE YR ZI#QRX RIKVY, EZIE JE'E VMHEX #M IVE
RJVMGS#XSEVI. -RM'MEP, R GVIHMR'IPI KVIGI#XM 3IGVYM SQ M WI EXVMFYME YR EWXJIP
HI HYL. 3EQIRMM RSVSGS#M #M TVMQIEY WSEVXE HMR QRE HVIETX E QSMVIM, R
XMQT GI RIJIVMGM'MM, HMR GIE WXRK (7IHEOSZE, 49). 1EM XV^MY, GRH SQYP WI
GWXSVIE, XVIFYME W PI MRZSGI TI QSMVI R QSQIRXYP RYR'MM, TIRXVY GE
QEVMENYP W WI HIWJ#SEVI WYF EYWTMGMM JEZSVEFMPI (+YMVERH, 160). 8SX PE KVIGMM
ZIGLM, HMR EGIIE#M GEXIKSVMI JGIEY TEVXI OIVIPI, RWS'MXSEVIPI R3SVXSEVI EPI
PYM %VIW. )PI ETVIEY TI GQTYP HI PYTX, R ZI#QMRXI VS#MM, TPMRI HI WRKI.
'IPSV GVSVE PI IVE WSVXMX W TMEV HI QSEVXI ZMSPIRX, GLMEV HI PE RE#XIVI PM WI
HIWXMRE GXI S OIVE, GEVI-P ZE VTYRI R GPMTE LSXVX (%JEREWMIZ, 1869,
366-367). +VIGMM EZIEY #M EPXI HMZMRMX'M GEVI TYXIEY MR4YIR'E HIWXMRYP
QYVMXSVMPSV: 8]GLI ^IM'E RSVSGYPYM, E RXQTPVMM RJ'M#EX WXRH TI YR KPSF
WEY TI S VSEX, HMWTYRRH HI S GVQ #M EZRH R QR YR GSVR EP
EFYRHIR'IM; %XI S HMZMRMXEXI QEPI3G IVE GIE GEVI TVSZSGE EGXIPI
MVIWTSRWEFMPI EPI SEQIRMPSV, TVMR ETEVM'ME IM HRH RE#XIVI YRSV QERMJIWXVM
JYRIWXI (+YMVERH, 161). (I EWIQIRIE, IVMRMMPI IVEY PE SVMKMRI T^MXSEVI EPI
PIKMPSV REXYVMM #M SVHMRMM (3^MGI #M QSVEPI) EPI PYGVYVMPSV, TIHITWMRHY-P TI XS'M GIM
GEVI PI RGPGEY. >IMX'M KVIGI#XM, VITVI^IRXVM EPI >IM'IM-QEQ (%JVSHMXE,
,IVE, %VXIQMW, 'MVGI, 'EPMTWS, 4IRIPSTE, %VELRI, %XLIRE) WYRX RJ'M#EXI
XSVGRH WEY 'IWRH (/MRNEPSZ, 83). 'LMEV RYQIPI YRSVE HMRXVI IPI VI4IGX
EGIEWX PIKXYV. (YT YRMM WTIGMEPM#XM, 'MVGI, HI I\IQTPY, EV RWIQRE
'IWXSEVIE (MHIQ, 84).
13/3" 1SOS# IWXI WMRKYVE HMZMRMXEXI JIQMRMR WPEZ E GVIM XVEHM'MI W-E
TWXVEX QEM EPIW R GVIHMR'IPI WPEZMPSV VWVMXIRM. )XMQSPSKME RYQIPYM IWXI
MRGIVX: QE-OS# QEQE VIGSPXIM FYRI, QEQE JIVMGMVMM (6FEOSZ, 1981, 386).
"M HIWTVI 7J. :MRIVM WI WTYRI G M WI RGLMRE TVMQYP WRST (MHIQ, 388). 9RIPI
I\TPMGE'MM S TYR R PIKXYV GY XSVWYP IGLMZEPIRXI EPI EGIWXYM GYZRX WYRX
E4EXI R PMQFMPI FEPXS-WPEZI: QEOWX]XM E QTPIXM, QEOWXM E QTPIXM IXG.
(8SOEVIZ, 1957, 120). 1SOS# EG'MSRIE^ R 4SWXYP QEVI, ZIKLMRH W RY WI
XSEVG R EGIEWX TIVMSEH (6FEOSZ, 1981, 367). 4IVWSRENYP TIWXI GEVI, QEM
XV^MY, W-E WYTVETYW MQEKMRIE 7J. :MRIVM EVI YR RYQV HI ^MPI GSRWEGVEXI (12
^MPI TI ER), GIPI QEM MQTSVXERXI 3MRH ^MPIPI HI ZMRIVM HMR TIVMSEHE 25
SGXSQFVMI -7 RSMIQFVMI. (EV TYRGXYP GYPQMRERX EP EGIWXSV WTXQRM,
QSQIRXYP GEVI QEVGLIE^ RGLIMIVIE QYRGMPSV HI TVIPYGVEVI E MRYPYM, IWXI,
^MYE 7J. /Y^QE #M (IQMER (1 RSMIQFVMI), GRH RGITIE XSVWYP PE #I^XSVM
(6FEOSZ, 1987, 508). 8SX R PIKXYV GY QSOS# 7J. :MRIVM IWXI #M VMXYEPYP
QSOVMHE GE NIVXJ M WI EVYRG R JRXR XSVX, GEMIVI IXG. (1MJSPSKMGIWOMN
WPSZEV, 357). (I PE EGIIE#M VHGMR, QSOV, WI JSVQIE^ #M YR EPX RYQI EP
EGIWXYM TIVWSREN, QSOVY#E, GEVI, EGSPS YRHI W-E E#I^EX, PEW GE WIQR EP
TVI^IR'IM WEPI PSGYP YQIH ('IVITERSZE, 26). (EV QSOS# WI RYQI#XI, R QYPXI
PIKIRHI VYWI#XM, YR JIP HI WTMVMX EP GEWIM (OMOMQSVE) S JIQIMI GY YR GET QEVI
#M QMRM PYRKM, GEVI, RSETXIE, XSEVGI GEMIVYP PWEX JV FMRIGYZRXEVI. (I
EWIQIRIE, XYRHI SMPI #M XSEVGI PRE PSV. 'RH IWXI WYTVEX, XEMI TY'MR TV #M
HI PE GIM GEVI PSGYMIWG R GEWE R GEVI IE #M JEGI ETEVM'ME. R EGIWX WIRW GLMEV
I\MWX SFMGIMYP HI E M WI EHYGI GE NIVXJ YR WQSG HI PR EXYRGM GRH WI XYRH
SMPI (8SOEVIZ, 1957, 120).
1363- 'YRSWGY'M RHISWIFM WYF RYQIPI HI QSVSM, S GEXIKSVMI ETEVXI S
JSVQIE^ WXVMKSMM GSTMMPSV GEVI EY QYVMX RIFSXI^E'M, HEV QEM EPIW EM GIPSV
RWGY'M HI S XRV RIQVMXEX #M YGM#M WEY RKVSTE'M HI Z M M. 'SRJSVQ
GVIHMR'IPSV TSTYPEVI, HEXSVMX WXEXYXYPYM PSV HI 3MR'I PMQMREPI RMGM SEQIRM,
RMGM HMEZSPM QSVSMM WYRX HIQSRM I\XVIQ HI TYXIVRMGM: ) QEM VY GE HVEGYP, G
HVEGYP HI GVYGI JYKI, HEV QSVSMYP RY, GGM IP I HMR GVI#XMR (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE,
495). 1SVSMM WI RQSVQRXIE^ HI VIKYP WITEVEX, RXV-YR GSP' EP GMQMXMVYPYM.
(IWTVI IM WI GVIHI G WI TVIJEG R WTMVMXI RIGYVEXI #M VYXGMSEWI GEVI MIW
RSETXIE HMR QSVQRX, JEG SEQIRMPSV, GY HISWIFMVI QEQIPSV PSV, HMJIVMXI
RITPGIVM #M HEYRI #M TR PE EP #ETXIPIE ER WXVMK R 3IGEVI RSETXI
FSXI^ (1EVMER-P, 1995, 53). %G'MYRIE QEPI3G E QSVSMYPYM VITVI^IRXEX GE
S GSRXEQMREVI E TVIHMGEXIPSV WTIGM3GI WXVMKSMYPYM, HYLYVMPSV GEWIM, HYLYVMPSV
EIVYPYM IXG.
)WXI RJ'M#EX JSEVXI I\TVIWMZ R MQEKMRIE HI QEM NSW: -IWI WY4IXYP
GSTMPYPYM HMR QSVQRX R GLMT HI WYP HI JSG, GE HI HSM TE#M HI PYRK #M RGITI E
GYXVIMIVE PYQIE WTVI RIRSVSGMVIE SEQIRMPSV, ^FYVRH TVMR EIV #M YQFPRH TI
TQRX. )P WI HYGI XSX HVITX REMRXI, RY H R RMGM RXV-S PEXYV #M, HI WI EXMRKI
HI GMRIZE, TI PSG P WKIEX, P RNYRKLMI WEY P SQSEV. 'RH ^FSEV TVMR EIV,
QEM EPIW GRH RRSVIE^ #M WI WXVRIWG JYVXYRM, WI #M ^VI#XI WGRXIMRH GE
JYPKIVYP #M WI M^FI#XI R SEQIRM, R ZMXI, R GSTEGM, R FMWIVMGM, R GEWI, HI
YGMHI, WJEVQ #M ETVMRHI (2MGYPEI, 55). *MMRH S ZEVMERX QEPI3G E HYLYVMPSV
QSV'MPSV, WTVI HISWIFMVI HI WXVQS#M, GY GEVI QTEVXI SEVIGYQ WTE'MYP R GEVI
EG'MSRIE^, IP IWXI YR QSVX RIQYP'YQMX, GEVI HIZMRI EKVIWMZ, RGIVGRH W-P
TIHITWIEWG TI GIM GEVI P-EY I\GPYW HMR ZME' #M GLMEV HMR QSEVXI. 4IRXVY G
EHIWIE IVE RKVSTEX R TVIENQE GEWIM, TVMR TVIHMGEXIPI GEVEGXIVMWXMGI WI
ETVSTMI QYPX HI WXE3I: )M MIW PE #ETXI ERM HYT GI W-EY RKVSTEX #M WI EVEX R
ZIHIRMM, QEM EPIW GRH I PYR #M EXYRGM MRXV TI JIVIEWXV R GEWIPI SQIRI#XM #M
WYK VVYRGLMM GSTMMPSV GIPSV QMGM. (I EGIIE, SQYP PE GEWE GVYME WI EVEX
XVIFYMI RIRGIXEX W WXIMI GY JIVIWXVIPI EWXYTEXI. (EG IM WI EVEX SEQIRMPSV
#M-P WYTV EXX TI EGI#XME GX #M TI ZMXIPI PSV, RY RYQEM EXYRGM GRH WYRX
RKVSTE'M PRK GEW, GM #M GRH M WYTV #M TI HR#MM GMRIZE. (EG WYRX
RKVSTE'M R 'MRXIVMQ, WI ^MGI G EXYRGM RY WI EVEX RMGM PE S GEW (1EVMER-P,
1995, 53). %PXI TSZIWXMVM P RJ'M#IE^ TI QSVSM GE S RXVYTEVI E RXYRIVMGYPYM,
E RIHI3RMXYPYM RSGXYVR: 1SVSMYP I HYL VY, HYL HI GY WIEV #M TR REMRXI
HI QMI^YP RST'MM, WI E'MRI PE HVYQYVM HI FI^QIXMGI#XI TI SEQIRM, M HYGI PE
ET W WI RIGI, M WTEVMI, M ZV TI WYF TSHYVM. (EG I RKVSTEX PRK GEW,
WI JEGI G'IP; ZMRI R GEW RSETXIE #M HI M HEM TEGI #M HI M HEM HI QRGEVI, RY
JEGI RMQMGE; MEV HI RY, JEGI TEKYFI #M #SXMM PE GEW (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 493).
"SXMMPI PE GEW IPIQIRXYP GEVEGXIVMWXMG TVMR I\GIPIR' EP EG'MYRMM HYLYVMPSV
GEWIM (WTMVMHY#M, HSQSZSM, FVS[RMI, OSFSP^M) IXG.
%TEV QIR'MSREXI JVIGZIRX R REVE'MYRMPI HIWTVI QSVSM: (EG WYRX
RKVSTE'M WYF XEPTE ZVIYRIM GEWI, QSVSMM, MI#MRH HMR QSVQMRXIPI PSV, WI WYMI R
TSHYP GEWIM, EPIEVK RGSPS #M RGSEGI, VWXSEVR XSX GI PI ZMRI REMRXI,
LSHSVSKIWG, WXVMK, 'MT, WI ZEMX (.), RY PI HEY TEGI W HSEVQ, M EPYRK NSW
HMR TEXYVM, M RKLMSRXIWG, PM WI TYR TI TMITX #M ZVIY W-P RHY#IEWG, EVYRG
XSEXI SFMIGXIPI R QMNPSGYP GEWIM (1EVMER-3, 1878, 88). 'Y XSEXI EGIWXIE,
JETXYP G EG'MSRIE^ R TVIENQE GEWIM RY IWXI HIGMWMZ TIRXVY TVIGM^EVIE
REXYVMM HIQSRMGI E TIVWSRENYPYM. R EGIPE#M WTE'MY EGXMZIE^ #M, HI I\IQTPY,
WXVMKSMYP; HEV, HEG TIRXVY EGIWXE WI GYRSWG RYQIVSEWI TVEGXMGM HI
HIWXVMKSMVI, QSVSMYP RY TSEXI 3 TSXSPMX HIGX HEG IWXI FSXI^EX, MRGPYW R
VRHYP QSV'MPSV SFM#RYM'M. 'YQ HI VIKYP WXVMKXYP PYM HMWTIVEX VQRI JV
YVQVM, WMRKYVE QSHEPMXEXI HI E WGTE HI MR4YIR'E PYM RIJEWX IWXI HI E
TVWM KVEFRMG PSGYMR'E: 0E PYR RSY, QSVSMYP MIWI HI WXVMK #M HI RY-P EYHI
RMQIRM WI JEGI RIGYVEX #M GLMRYMI#XI TI SQYP E GYM I GEWE YRHI I RKVSTEX, G
SQYP R-EVI GLMT W WXIMI, I RIGSRXIRMX FSPREZ, M TMIV ZMXIPI, QSV GSTMMM #M
XVIFYMI W WI HYG HI EGSPS, GGM EV QYVM #M IM. 7I ^MGI G RY-P JGYX GEWE TI
PSG GYVEX (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 495).
191% 4(96-- 3 3MR' QMXSPSKMG HI GEVI WI XIQ XSEXI QEQIPI GEVI
EY GSTMM QMGM IWXI 1YQE THYVMM, RYQMX #M :MHQE THYVMM, :PZE THYVMM, *EXE
THYVMM, 7YVEXE-HMR-THYVI, 1EQE LYGMYPYM, 4HYVIERGE WEY 4HYVSEMGE IXG.
)WXI VITVI^IRXEX GE S JIQIMI FXVR, RIEKV PE JE' #M JSEVXI YVX, REPX
GX GEWE, GY XVYTYP TVSW, GY YR TV PYRK TR PE GPGMI #M HIWTPIXMX, ETVSETI
GX S GPEMI HI JR, GY KYVE GX S #YV, GY HMR'MM GE PSTI'MPI, GY YRKLMMPI GE
JYVGMPI #M GY GSTMXI HI GEP PE TMGMSEVI, GEVI YQFP HIWTYMEX, GRXRH WEY
FSGMRHY-WI TVMR THYVI. 9RISVM ME GLMT HI GPYKVM', EPXISVM ETEVI GE
NYQXEXI JIQIMI #M NYQXEXI FVFEX WEY NYQXEXI XVYT SQIRIWG #M NYQXEXI
XVYRGLM HI GSTEG, WEY GLMEV R RXVIKMQI GE YR GSTEG GY RYQIVSEWI GVIRKM.
%GIEWX 3MR' QSRWXVYSEW I HIWGVMW EWXJIP RXV-YR HIWGRXIG HMR NYHI'YP
1ILIHMR'M: 'Y QMRMPI GX V#GLMXSEVIPI, /'Y TMGMSEVIPI GX TVNMRMPI, /'Y SGLMM
GX WMXIPI, /'Y HMR'MM GX XIWPIPI, /'Y YRKLMMPI GX WIGIVMPI ('ERHVIE, 1944,
165). 4SZIWXMVMPI VSQRI#XM S HIWGVMY TI 1YQE-THYVMM EZRH EHIWIE S
RJ'M#EVI XIVMSQSVJ: IE WIEQR GY YR GSTEG GMSXYVSW #M TPMR HI GVGM
YWGEXI, #YZM'IPI HI TV EXVRRH GE RM#XI #IVTM R NYVYP IM. )WXI PYRK #M EHYW
HI WTEXI, QIVKI TVMR THYVM FSGMRHY-WI, WTVMNMRMX RXV-S GVN. 0SGYMR'E IM I
RXV-S GSPMF HI PIQR R EHRGYP GSHVMPSV. 'RH S ETYG RSETXIE WEY SFSWIEPE
TI YRHIZE, WI #XMI EGMYE #M R WGSVFYVM HI GSTEG #M GLMEV WI YVG R GSTEGMM
REP'M PE ZVIQI HI TVMQINHMI (.). %VI S QYP'MQI HI GSTMM JGY'M GY HVEGYP WEY GY
1S#Y THYVMM. 'STMMM EGI#XME S RIGNIWG QIVIY, HI EGIIE IE JYV WSQRYP
GSTMMPSV SEQIRMPSV #M-P EHYGI GSTMMPSV IM, GE W HSEVQ GX QEM QYPX. )E
GYRSE#XI XS'M GSTEGMM HMR THYVI, M RKVMNI#XI HI GRH WYRX QMGM. 7I ^MGI GLMEV
G-P EPTXIE^, HRHY-PI TMITX, GE PE GSTMMM SEQIRMPSV. M HSNIRI#XI, HEG GVIWG
WXVQFM, PI TYRI RYQI #M TSVIGPI #M GRH WI WYTV TI ZVIYRYP, P FPIWXIQ W
3I XMEX WEY XVWRMX (.). 4I SEQIRM RY-P TSEXI WYJIVM, G-W JVYQS#M #M IE I YVX
GE GMYQE. 'RH M KWI#XI VXGM'M TVMR THYVI M RWTMQRX HI VQR TSGM'M
WEY GLMEV QSV HI WTEMQ. 3EQIRMM WI TSX ETVE HI IE JGRHY-#M WIQRYP
GVYGMM. %XYRGM IE WI RGSZVMK RXV-YR TSQ #M WGRGI#XI. (EG S RXVIEF
GMRIZE: n(SEQR QEVI, HI GI TPRKM#~, IE 'M VWTYRHI: n1M-I JSEQI, G R-
EQ QRGEX HI-S WTXQR~, RXSGQEM GE S FEF GIV#IXSEVI. (EG-P HEM YR
GSHVY HI TMRI, EXYRGM 'M H TEGI #M-#M GEYX HI XVIEF (3PMRIWGY, 435-436).
'VIHMR'E GIE QEM VWTRHMX IWXI G 1YQE THYVMM JYV GSTMMM SEQIRMPSV HMR
PIEKR, QEM EPIW TI GIM JVYQS#M #M PMRM#XM'M #M TYRI R PSGYP PSV GSTMM HI-EM IM,
TMTIVRMGM'M, YV'M #M TPRKGMS#M. 'STMMM EHY#M HI 1YQE THYVMM XVIWEV R WSQR,
'MT #M YRISVM TPRK XSEX RSETXIE, JV W EHSEVQ GX HI TY'MR. 1YQE
THYVMM EVI GSTMMM JSEVXI PMRM#XM'M. 'STMMM WM HSVQ, GGM HRWE JYV WSQRYP
GSTMMPSV SEQIRMPSV #M-P H GSTMMPSV WM, HISEVIGI IE RYQEM JSEVXI VEVI SVM WX TI
EGEW. (EG RY PI-EV EHYGI WSQR WXVMR, EGI#XM GSTMM EV 3 RIWYJIVM'M (4EQ3PI-
P, 1916, 213). 1EQE THYVMM JYV GSTMMM SEQIRMPSV HMR PIEKR, QEM EPIW TI GIM
GI WYRX JVYQS#M #M PMRM#XM'M #M R PSG TYRI GSTMM HI EM IM, TPRKGMS#M #M
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E JEZSVM^EX QMKVE'ME 3MRH GVYGMEHIPI. 7I TEVI G ,MRGQEV HMR 6IMQW (WIG. EP -<-
PIE) E JSWX TVMQYP EYXSV GEVI E MRGPYW R :ME'E 7JRXYPYM :EWMPI TSZIWXMVIE
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(6SFFMRW, 142). 7TVI WJV#MXYP WIGSPYPYM EP <-:-PIE (1398), 9RMZIVWMXEXIE HMR
4EVMW E GSR3VQEX S3GMEP XISVME GSRJSVQ GVIME ZVNMXSVME TVIWYTYRI TEGXYP GY
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EQRYR'MX HIWGVMIVI E VMXYEPYPYM RGLIMIVMM TEGXYPYM GY HMEZSPYP IWXI GYTVMRW
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EWIQIRIE NYVQRX: P RIK TI GVIEXSVYP GIVYPYM #M EP TQRXYPYM; Q HI^MG HI
FSXI^YP QIY; RIK WIVZMGMYP HMZMR TI GEVI P RJTXYMEQ REMRXIE PYM (YQRI^IY.
.YV GVIHMR' HMEZSPYPYM #M GVIH RYQEM R I P. 'PGEVIE R TMGMSEVI E GVYGMM GEVI
RWS'IE EGIWX NYVQRX IVE GIE QEM MQTSVXERX TEVXI E EGIWXYM VMXYEP. 2) 2SYP
FSXI^, VIEPM^EX HI HMEZSP #M TVMQMVIE RSYPYM RYQI. 3) 9RKIVIE WMQFSPMG GY QMV.
4) 2IKEVIE RE#MPSV GVI#XMRM #M NYVQRXYP HI WYTYRIVI JE' HI RSMM RHVYQXSVM.
5) RQREVIE WMQFSPMG GXVI HMEZSP E YRIM FYG'M HI QFVGQMRXI. 6)
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HITPMR RGVIHIVI. 11) 3FPMKEXMZMXEXIE, TI XMQTYP WPYNMVMM HMEZSPYPYM, HI E RY WI
QTVX#M, HI E HMWXVYKI W3RXIPI VIPMGXI, HI E RY JSPSWM ET WEY PYQRVM
W3R'MXI IXG. (MHIQ, 144). R GIIE GI TVMZI#XI TVI^IR'E TEGXYPYM R GVIHMR'IPI
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EVSQRM, TITIVYHE, TITIVYKE PE FYPKEVM, TITIVYHE, TEVTEPYHE, HSHSPE PE
WVFS-GVSE'M #M FYPKEVM, TITIVSRE PE EPFERI^M. 4VEGXMGM EWIQRXSEVI WI
HIWJ#YVEY #M R EPXI VIKMYRM EPI 'VMM. 'LMEV HEG RYQIPI IVE HMJIVMX, WI TWXVE
IWIR'E SFMGIMYPYM MRZSGEVIE YRIM ^IMX'M GY EWGIRHIRX ZIKIXEP, GI TYXIE
MR4YIR'E JIVXMPMXEXIE: 0E TSEPIPI QYR'MPSV (R ZEPIE WYTIVMSEV E %VMI#YPYM), R
^MYE HI 7RKMSV^ JIGMSVMM XSGQIWG YR PYXEV, WI HYG GY XS'MM R THYVI YRHI
QFVEG TI YRYP HMRXVI IM R JVYR^ HI JEK #M P TYR GPEVI TI YR GEP, MEV GIMPEP'M
WI R#MV R YVQE PYM #M WI RXSVG GLMYMRH #M NYGRH. R WEX NSEG REMRXIE 3IGVIM
GEWI, MEV WXTRYP GEWIM PI H FERM #M GXI S HSRM' HI ZMR. %GIWX SFMGIM QEM I
#M TI PE &EME %VMI#, GY HISWIFMVI RYQEM G JIGMSVYP WI QFVEG R JVYR^ HI
QIWXIEGR #M RY I RWS'MX HIGX RYQEM HI YR PYXEV GEVI GRX #M 7RKMSV^YP
NSEG REMRXIE GEWIPSV, MEV GIM HMR NYVYP PYM P YH GY ET (4EZIPIWGY, 1945,
38). )WXI MRXIVIWERX HI VIQEVGEX, GLMEV HI PE RGITYX, TVI^IR'E YRSV TIVWSRENI
PMQMREPI R HIWJ#YVEVIE EGIWXYM SFMGIM. R TVMQYP VRH, RWI#M TETEVYHIPI TSX
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ZVIQI), MEV GSRXEGXYP GY IPI TSEXI 3 JEXEP TIRXVY ERYQM'M VITVI^IRXER'M EM
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GVI^RH G, HEG ZSV 3 YHEXI, #M ZSV TMIVHI TVYRGYP (*SGLM, 226). 4I HI EPX
TEVXI, 4ETEVYHIPI RW RY PI PEW RIWXVSTMXI (TI JIQIMPI RWVGMREXI) #M
YRISVM, HEG WYRX ETVSETI HI KVP, PI QFVRGIWG R ET, GVI^RH G ZE
XVIFYM W TPSY (MHIQ; R EGIWX GE^, JIQIME RWVGMREX EHIZVEX WMQFSP EP
JIVXMPMX'MM MPYWXVE PEXYVE JEWX E WEGVEPMX'MM). (I EGIIE, EZRH R ZIHIVI
TYXIVIE HISWIFMX HI GEVI HMWTYRIE 3MRH R EGIEWX WXEVI, JIQIME WMRKYV
(JV ENYXSVYP GSRW3R'MX HI VMXYEPYP R HMWGY'MI) TYXIE TVSZSGE, R QSQIRXIPI
HI GYQTR, TPSEME QYPX-E#XITXEX, VIWXEFMPMRH IGLMPMFVYP REXYVEP: 0E WIGIX,
WI GEYX S JIQIMI XRV, RWVGMREX TIRXVY RXME HEX, IWXI YHEX GY S GSJ
HI ET JV HI ZIWXI #M I GVIHMR'E G MQIHMEX TPSY (*SGLM, 255). %#E GYQ WI
TSEXI SFWIVZE HMR EREPM^E EPXSV TVEGXMGM QEKMGI, JIQIME RWVGMREX IVE HI
JETX S QIHMEXSEVI, 3MRH RYQEM QTYXIVRMGMX W TIVJSVQI^I YR EGX WEGVY
(RYQEM JIQIME GEVI E RWGYX KIQIRM TSEXI HIWGRXE HI WGVRXMX); IWIR'MEP
RY IVE WXEVIE R GEVI WI E4E (EGIEWXE M GSRJIVIE RYQEM GEPMXEXIE HI EGXERX,
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E QEKMIM WMQTEXIXMGI:
7I QEM TYRI R ET S JIQIMI FMRIGYZRXEX, KSEP #M GY S WIGIV XEMI
ETE HI TVMQTVINYV. )E ^MGI: n4I GYQ XEM MS-R ETE PYM -SVHER, E#E W WI XEMI
XSEXI QTMIHMGXYVMPI #M PIKXYVMPI, STVIPM#XMPI, W ZMR W TPSY. 2Y XEM ETE, GM
XEM FSWGSERIPI JGYXI HI 'MKERM GE W RY TPSY~ (MHIQ, 257). 7MRXIXM^RH, WI
TSEXI WTYRI G TETEVYHE GYTVMRHI XVIM WIGZIR'I GIVIQSRMEPI MQTSVXERXI:
GSRWXMXYMVIE EPEMYPYM VMXYEP, HERWYP #M TVEGXMGMPI QEKMGI TVSTVMY-^MWI; QSEVXIE
VMXYEP. 4VMQYP ITMWSH GEVI TSEXI 3 GSRWMHIVEX HVITX RE#XIVI E HMZMRMX'MM HI
GEVI ZSVFMQ GYTVMRHI HI JETX QSQIRXIPI HI GSRWXMXYMVI E EPEMYPYM TETEVYHIM
HMR TIVWSERI TYVI, HI SFMGIM JIXM'I #M JIXI RIQVMXEXI. 7I EPIKIE QEM ETSM
TIVWSERE GEVI ZE NYGE VSPYP TIVWSRENYPYM WEGVY, HYT GEVI YVQE
GSRJIG'MSREVIE Q#XMM WEY E GSWXYQYPYM ZIKIXEP #M QFVGEVIE TETEVYHIM
(QTSHSFMVIE GY 4SVM WEY GSVSRM'I HI 4SVM, JVYR^I IXG.). )PIQIRXYP GIRXVEP, GI
TSEXI 3 EWMQMPEX ZMI'MM HYWI TI TQRX HI TIVWSRENYP VITVI^IRXEX, IWXI WMXYEX
WYF WIQRYP FYGYVMIM, EP ZIWIPMIM, EP TPGIVMM HI E XVM (EP ZMI'MM, R YPXMQ
MRWXER'). %PEMYP EPGXYMX HMR TETEVYH/TETEVYHI #M GIEXE WE HMZMR TSVRIE TI
YPM'IPI WEXYPYM TIRXVY E-#M MRWTIGXE TSWIWMYRMPI (JRXRMPI). 4I JYRHEPYP
HERWYPYM I\IGYXEX HI TIVWSREN, WI VIEPM^E YHEVIE GY ET E TETEVYHIM #M E
EPEMYPYM EGIWXIME. R XMQTYP HERWYPYM (ITMWSHYP TSEXI 3 VIPYEX QEM XV^MY, R
WIGZIR'E GIVIQSRMEP YVQXSEVI), TEVXMGMTER'MM PE VMXYEP HIWGVMY EXX EG'MYRIE
HIQSRYPYM, GX QEM EPIW YVQVMPI EGXYPYM VMXYEP. 8I\XYP IZSG TPSEME #M, YRISVM,
IJIGXYP TVEGXMG E#XITXEX (VSEHI FSKEXI) #M I3GMIR'E ETSXVSTEMG E TPSMPSV, YVVM
HI WRXEXI #M VIJIVMVM PE HEVYVMPI GI ZSV 3 TVMQMXI: 4ETEVYH, VYH/:MRS HI XI
YH, /'E W GE^ TPSMPI/'Y KPI'MPI/4ETEVYHIPI; /7 HIE TSVYQFYVMPI/'X
KEVHYVMPI/4ETEVYHIPI; /"M W GVIEWG WTMGIPI/'X ZVFMMPI/4ETEVYHIPI; /7
WTSVIEWG KVRIPI, /7 YQTPI TXYPIPI/4ETEVYHIPI; /7 HIWGLM^M GIVYVMPI/
4ETEVYHIPI, /7 TSVRIEWG TPSMPI, /4ETEVYHIPI, /"M W JIVI#XM LSPHIPI/
4ETEVYHIPI, /(I XSEXI QPYVMPI/4ETEVYHIPI; /7 KSRI#XM XGMYRIPI, /
4ETEVYHIPI, /(MR XSEXI SKSEVIPI/4ETEVYHIPI! (+LIVQER, 69). 9PXMQYP QSQIRX
HIWGVMI QSEVXIE #M VMXYP JYRIVEV WTIGM3G: IPIQIRXYP GIRXVEP EP VMXYEPYPYM IVE
HI^FVGEVIE Q#XMM ZIKIXEPI, GEVI IGLMZEPE GY QSEVXIE TIVWSRENYPYM (EGIWX
PYGVY WI JGIE HI SFMGIM TI EGIPE#M PSG YRHI E JSWX QFVGEX VY, TVY, PEG,
JRXR IXG.). 6MXYP JYRIVEV IVE WMQFSPM^EX HI HITYRIVIE R ET E Q#XMM
ZIKIXEPI (E QSVXYPYM); VMXYEPYP TYXIE 3 GSQTPIXEX HI TIXVIGIVIE GY TVMZMVIE #M
GRXIGI HI TETEVYH E QSVXYPYM HYW HI ETE GYVKXSEVI; WGEPHE VMXYEP E
QIQFVMPSV GIXIM; QTV'MVIE HEVYVMPSV #M, YRISVM, SWT'YP JYRIVEV (+LMRSMY,
1997, 147). RXV-YR GRXIG VMXYEP VSQRIWG, HIRYQMVIE TETEVYHIM GYRSE#XI S
ZEVMERX GMYHEX, GEVI RI XVMQMXI GY KRHYP PE VITVI^IRXEVIE EGIWXYM TIVWSREN
R QMXSPSKMMPI WYHMGI TIVTIVYRE 3MRH, WI TEVI #M RYQIPI KVKVM'IM, EP
FYFYVY^IM. &YFYVY^E IWXI VITVI^IRXEVIE ^SSQSVJ E 7SEVIPYM, 3MRH EWSGMEX
TVMQZIVMM, GPHYVMM, FSK'MIM #M JIVXMPMX'MM. 9RIPI JVEKQIRXI VIGSRWXMXYMXI EPI
QMXYPYM GIRXVEP MRHS-IYVSTIER, RJ'M#RH PYTXE ^IYPYM JYPKIVIPSV GY YR ERMQEP
LXSRMER, RI EVEX G FYFYVY^E TEVI W 3KYVI^I QIXEQSVJS^E WS'MIM HMZMRI,
TIHITWMX HI ^IYP GIPIWX TIRXVY RIGVIHMR'E WE ()ZWIIZ, 1997, 61). %WXJIP, WYF
RYQIPI HI TTPYK, S TSWMFMP HIRYQMVI E EGIWXIM MRWIGXI, IWXI JSEVXI GPEV
I\TVMQEX MQEKMRIE EWGIRWMYRMM PE GIV E TIVWSRENYPYM: 4ETEPYK, PYK/
4ETEPYK, PYK, /4R PE GIV XI WYMI/4SV'MPI-P HIWGYMI, /4PSEME W TSVRIEWG, /
,SPHI W WXVSTIEWG, /1EVI W RI GVIEWG/3V^YP #M GY KVYP, /7IGEVE #M QIMYP, /
0IKYQIPI XSEXI/"M SVMGI FYGEXI (+LIVQER, 70). %PXI QSQIRXI EPI VMXYEPYPYM,
FE^EX R GIE QEM QEVI TEVXI TI QEKME MQMXEXMZ, WI VIJIV PE EGXYP QEKMG EP
EWTIVWMYRMM: R XMQT GI NSEG, TETEVYHE WI WGYXYV GE W GEH ETE HI TI IE #M
EXYRGM XS'M ^MG: %#E W GEH ETE TI TQRX (1Y#PIE-&VPIE, 368). %PXISVM, R
XMQTYP HERWYPYM TIVWSRENYP IWXI YHEX HI GIM EM GEWIM, nYRISVM #M HI RWS'MXSVMM
GEVI TSEVX KPI'M WEY YPGIPI GY IM~. 7I WTYRI GRH I YHEX: n%#E W GYVK
TPSEME, HYT GYQ GYVKI ETE HMR GPHEVI~ (MHIQ). 3 EPX 3KYVEVI E TPSMM WI
VIEPM^IE^ TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP YRYM SFMIGX QEKMG, WMXE: +E^HE PI XSEVR ET #M PI
GIVRI R GET JMR TVMR WMX, WTVI WIQR GE TPSEME W TMGI HIEW, GYQ GEHI
JMRE TVMR WMX (1Y#PIE-&VPIE, 368). R WJV#MX, WYRX GE^YVM R GEVI WXVSTMXYP RY
IWXI GSRHM'MSREX HI HIWJ#YVEVIE EGIWXYM VMXYEP (#M RMGM HI YR EKIRX WTIGMEPM^EX,
E#E GYQ TEVI E 3 JIQIME RWVGMREX). )P WI TVEGXMG RSETXIE, EWIQIRIE
EVEXYPYM VMXYEP R XMQT HI ITMHIQMI #M, YRHI #XMY TI GMRIZE G HSEVQI EJEV,
R GYVXI WEY R KVHMR, P YH GY ET TIWXI XSX, JV ZIWXI (MHIQ, 370).
3FMGIMYP YHVMM TVMR PYEVI TVMR WYVTVMRHIVI IWXI YXMPM^EX R KIRIVEP GE S
QSHEPMXEXI WMKYV HI EPYRKEVI E SEWTI'MPSV RITSJXM'M, E#E GYQ WI RXQTPE #M R
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'EPSMERYP; TPSEMI; WIGIX.
4%6') 0E IXVYWGM, W-EY TWXVEX HEXI HIWTVI HSY XMTYVM HI HMZMRMX'M:
^IM'E HIWXMRYPYM, 2SVXME #M ^IM'E QEXIVRMX'MM, TVSXIGXSEVIE RE#XIVMPSV, E
JIQIMPSV RWVGMREXI, 1IRVZE, QEM XV^MY HMZMRM^EX GE TVSXIGXSEVI E
QI#XI#YKEVMPSV, QI#XI#YKYVMPSV, HEV #M GE EHIZVEX PYTXXSEVI (1MJSPSKMGIWOMN
WPSZEV, 396; 8SOEVIZ, 199P-P992, --, 139). 6SQERMM, TI JSRHYP GVIHMR'IPSV
IXVYWGI #M E MR4YIR'IPSV KVIGI#XM, EY HI^ZSPXEX R QSH HISWIFMX GIE HI E HSYE
GEXIKSVMI HI HMZMRMX'M, TIVWSRM3GRH EWXJIP XSEXI EGXIPI RXVITVMRWI TIRXVY S
FYR IZSPY'MI E RE#XIVMM #M GVI#XIVMM GSTMPYPYM. %WXJIP, 1EXYXE IVE S ZIGLI
^IMXEXI MXEPMG. )E IVE R EGIPE#M XMQT #M ^IM'E HMQMRI'MM, HEV #M E RE#XIVMM.
'EVQIRXE TVSXINE, HI EWIQIRIE, RE#XIVIE GSTMMPSV #M PI TVIZIWXIE ZMMXSVYP.
0IZERE IVE SGVSXMXSEVIE TVYRGMPSV RSY-RWGY'M (/IQFEGL, 1989, 297);
%PIQSRE/%PMQSRE WYTVEZIKLIE HI^ZSPXEVIE GSTMPYPYM REMRXI HI RE#XIVI
(.EGSFM, 23), MEV 'ERHIPMJIVE ENYXE PE RE#XIVI (R GMRWXIE IM WI ETVMRHIE S
PYQREVI; 1EVMER-P, 1995, 100); 7XEXER IVE GIP GI TVSXINE TVMQMM TE#M EM
GSTMPYPYM, 2YRHMRE IVE ^IM'E GEVI HHIE RYQI RSY-RWGYXYPYM. (EV PE RE#XIVI
ZIRIEY #M EPXI HMZMRMX'M GEVI WXEFMPIEY WSEVXE RSY-RWGYXYPYM. )PI *EXE
7GVMFYRHE IVEY MRZSGEXI R YPXMQE ^M E WTXQRMM, GRH ETVIEY GRXRH,
TIRXVY E WGVMI WSEVXE GSTMPYPYM RXV-S GEVXI R GEVI IVEY GYTVMRWI WSV'MPI XYXYVSV
SEQIRMPSV (1EVMER-P, 1995, 102). 'IPI QEM GYRSWGYXI HMZMRMX'M WYRX, JV
RHSMEP, TEVGIPI 2SRE, (IGYQE #M 1SVXE. 3VMKMRIE PSV IWXI I\TPMGEX HMJIVMX
TIVWSRM3GVM EPI WSV'MM, HMZMRMX'M EPI RE#XIVMM, ^IMX'M EPI ZMI'MM, JIVXMPMX'MM. R
PYGVEVIE WE 'MZMPM^E'MI #M GYPXYV, 1EVMNE +MQFYXEW PI MRXIVTVIXIE^ GE 3MRH
MTSWXE^I EPI ^IM'IM QSV'MM: %WTIGXIPI HVYMVMM #M GYVQVMM ZMI'MM WI QFMR R
^IM'E QSV'MM. (MR XMQTYVMPI RISPMXMGI IE E HIZIRMX T^MXSEVIE XSVWYPYM #M E
'IWYXYPYM (.). 1IXEJSVMG, IE HIZMRI nXSVGXSEVIE #M 'IWXSEVIE ZMI'MM~ YQERI.
'YTVMR^RH GIPI XVIM EWTIGXI EPI QSV'MM RE#XIVIE, ZME'E #M QSEVXIE IE
ETEVI GE S ^IM' XVMTP, GSVTYP WY 3MRH RWIQREX GY XVIM TYRGXI WEY GY XVIM
PMRMM. %GIEWXE IWXI SVMKMRIE ^IM'IM XVMTPI HMR XMQTYVMPI MWXSVMGI #M E GIPSV XVIM
TEVGI (+MQFYXEW, 98). 4I PRK EGIWX EWTIGX XVIFYMI EZYX R ZIHIVI #M
JYRG'ME TVIHSQMRERX E TEVGIPSV, HI ZIKLIVI E RE#XIVMPSV, TIWXI GEVI W-E
WYTVETYW, TVSFEFMP, MR4YIR'E KVIEG E TIVWSRM3GVMM HIWXMRYPYM TVMR 1SMVI.
(EV EGIEWX MR4YIR' W-E KVIJEX TI YR WYFWXVEX EYXSLXSR, GVIHMR'E R JEXYQ
WSEVX. *EXE IVEY HMZMRMX'M EWIQRXSEVI QSMVIPSV, RY RIETVEX JIQMRMRI.
2Y EY EZYX YR GYPX S3GMEP (8SOEVIZ, 199P-P992, --, 559). *SVXYRE IVE ^IM'E
VSQER E JIVMGMVMM, E RXQTPVMM #M E RSVSGYPYM. 0E RGITYX IVE GSRWMHIVEX S
^IMXEXI E JIVXMPMX'MM, E RE#XIVMM, E QEXIVRMX'MM, E JIQIMPSV #M VIGSPXIPSV. 1YPX XMQT
E JSWX ZIRIVEX GE ^IMXEXIE GVIME M WI RGVIHMR'EY RSY-RWGY'MM (*SVXYRE
4VMQMKIRME; %KFYRSZ, 329). *SVXYRE VITVI^MRX, HI JETX, YR WMRGVIXMWQ TVSHYW
HI-E PYRKYP XMQTYPYM, HMR HSY HMZMRMX'M STYWI: &SRE *SVXYRE #M 1EPE *SVXYRE
(/IQFEGL, 1995, 203). %PXI PEXYVM EPI EGIWXIM HMZMRMX'M IVEY VITVI^IRXEXI HI
&SRE (IE HMZMRMXEXI E JIVXMPMX'MM, TVSXIGXSEVI E JIQIMPSV (E EZYX YR GYPX
S3GMEP, PE GEVI TYXIEY TEVXMGMTE HSEV ZIWXEPIPI #M JIQIMPI GWXSVMXI) #M
*IPMGMXEW/*IPMGME JIVMGMVI- TIVWSRM3GEVI E WYGGIWYPYM #M JIVMGMVMM. >IMX'M
QEWGYPMRI GY EGIPIE#M JYRG'MM IVEY &SRYW )ZIRXYW ^IY EP VIGSPXIPSV, EP
WYGGIWYPYM #M 4MGYW ^IY WMPZIWXVY, GEVI TYXIE TVI^MGI ZMMXSVYP (MHIQ, 258). 4I
PRK EGIWXI HMZMRMX'M, VSQERMM QEM GVIHIEY R I\MWXIR'E KIRMMPSV HYLYVM
FYRI WEY VIPI, MTSWXE^I EPI TVSXIGXSVMPSV HMZMRM, FYRM WEY VM, GEVI MR4YIR'EY
TIVWSREPMXEXIE GSTMPYPYM R JYRG'MI HI TYXIVIE HI GEVI IPI RWI#M HMWTYRIEY.
)VEY RJ'M#E'M GE RM#XI GSTMM KSM, GY EVMTM (0^VIWGY, 194). 'YPXYP PSV RY
TVIWYTYRIE YR VMXYEP GSQTPI\: PE RE#XIVI PM HI EHYGIE S SJVERH GSRWXRH R
ZMR #M 4SVM, HYT GEVI WI I\IGYXEY HERWYVM. 9RE HMRXVI TVMQIPI VITVI^IRXVM EPI
KIRMMPSV IVE #EVTIPI (W RY YMXQ GVIHMR'IPI R #EVTIPI GEWIM, GE RXVYTEVI E
WTMVMXIPSV WXVQS#MPSV; +YMVERH, 196). :MVXY'M TVSJIXMGI PM WI EXVMFYMEY #M
RMQJIPSV. 'EQIRIPI IVEY EWXJIP HI RMQJI-TVSJIX: %RXIZSVXE GYRS#XIE XVIGYXYP,
MEV 4SWXZSVXE ZMMXSVYP, TYXRH, R EGIWX JIP, W TVI^MG WSEVXE RSY-RWGY'MPSV
(MHIQ, 191).
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WY4IXYPYM, VXGMXSV WEY RY, EY HYW PE KIRIVEVIE RS'MYRMM HI WTMVMX, WY4IX GEVI
TSTYPE, WXTRIE YR ERYQMX WTE'MY (8]PSV). ,. 9WIRIV, R PYGVEVIE
+SXXIVREQIR (1896), IZMHIR'ME GVIHMR'E TVMQMXMZYPYM RXV-S MR3RMXEXI HI ^IMX'M,
HI WTMVMXI, 3IGEVI TEXVSRRH S ERYQMX EGXMZMXEXI, YR ERYQMX QSQIRX HMR
ZME'E SQYPYM, EFME QEM XV^MY, TVMR EFWXVEGXM^VM WYGGIWMZI, XVIGRHY-WI HI PE
WIR^E'MM PE VITVI^IRXVM. R QSH EWIQRXSV PE ;. 1ERRLEVHX, R ;EPH YRH
*IPHOYPXI (&IVPMR, 1875-P877), HYLYP EVFSVIPYM E HEX RE#XIVI YRYM HYL EP THYVMM
(TSQMRHY-WI HI PE YR EVFSVI GSRGVIX PE MHIIE HI EVFSVI R KIRIVEP), GEVI, PE
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ZIKIXE'MIM, RY HI TY'MRI SVM 3MRH RW#M TIVWSRM3GEVIE TVMQZIVMM, E ZIVMM.
4STYPE'ME QMRXMVE HMR TIRMRWYPE 1EPEGGE WI XIQI HI TVIWYTYWI HYLYVM EPI
GSTEGMPSV, GEVI XVMQMX SEQIRMPSV XSX JIPYP HI FSPM. 9RIPI XVMFYVM HMR 7YQEXVE
GVIHIEY G R GSTEGMM FXVRM PSGYMEY WTMVMXIPI THYVMM, GEVI RY XVIFYMEY W 3I
HIVERNEXI. (IQSRMM WMPZI#XVM EYWXVEPMIRM JS#RIEY, 4YMIVEY #M WI WXVHYMEY W-P
TVMRH TI GPXSVMM RXV^ME'M, GEVI XVIGIEY TVMRXVI GSTEGMM VIWTIGXMZM (8]PSV,
372-376). 0E WPEZMM HI WYH, WI GVIHIE G 3IGEVI GSTEG EZIE HYLYP PYM. )VE
MRXIV^MW XMIVIE GSTEGMPSV FXVRM, R GEVI PSGYMEY EWXJIP HI YQFVI, HISEVIGI
RGPGEVIE MRXIVHMG'MIM HYGIE PE QSEVXIE MQIHMEX E ZMRSZEXYPYM WEY PE
QFSPRZMVIE PYM. 4IRXVY E QFYRE WTMVMXIPI, GRH IVE RIZSMI W WI HSFSEVI YR
EWXJIP HI GSTEG, WI XME, TI FYXYVYK, GE NIVXJ, GETYP YRIM KMRM ('MEY#ERY,
260-261). 4IRXVY E QFYRE WTMVMXYP THYVMM VQEW EWGYRW R KVMR^M HYT
XIVQMREVIE PSGYMR'IM, TSTYPE'ME XSVEHNE, HMR 'IPIFIW, YGMHIE S GETV, YR TSVG
WEY YR FMZSP, WXVSTMRH XSEX PIQRVME GY WRKIPI PSV (*VE^IV, 1980, -, 246). R
GVIHMR'IPI GEQFSHKMIRI, EVEO IVE YRYP HMRXVI WTMVMXIPI FIRI3GI, TVSXIGXSEVI
EPI JEQMPMIM. )P PSGYME RXV-YR GSTEG WEY R GEW, 3MRH, PE SVMKMRI, TVSFEFMP YR
WXVQS# YQER, HIZIRMX WTMVMX TVSXIGXSV (*YRO & ;EKREPPW). R (ELSQI],
KIQIRMM QERMJIWXEVI XMTMG E WEGVYPYM IVEY GSRWMHIVE'M GSTMMM HYLYVMPSV
THYVMM, PE GEVI WI RXSVGIEY HYT QSEVXI (MHIQ, -, 175). (YLYVMPI THYVMM, GIPI
GEVI TSTYPIE^ TVMR I\GIPIR' EGIWX WTE'MY E4EX WYF WIQRYPYM
RIGYRSWGYXYPYM, WI TSX QTV'M R XVIM GEXIKSVMM (JYRG'MMPI TI GEVI PI RHITPMRIWG
WYRX EWIQRXSEVI): E) WTMVMX TEXVSREP, HMZMRMXEXI TVSXIGXSEVI E THYVMM, E
ZREXYPYM, YR EHIZVEX WTMVMXYW PSGM, GEVI EZIE R KVMN WTE'MYP VIWTIGXMZ,
TVIGYQ #M XSX GI WI E4E R TIVMQIXVYP PYM. 0YM M WI EHVIWEY ZRXSVMM, M EHYGIEY
SJVERHI EXYRGM GRH TPIGEY PE ZRXSEVI TIRXVY GE EG'MYRIE RXVITVMRW W WI
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IXG.); F) MTSWXE^MIVIE THYVMM HIQSRMGI, E RIGYRSWGYXYPYM GI WXTRIE
XIVMXSVMYP E4EX HITEVXI HI WTE'MYP WIGYVM^EX R GEVI XVMEY SEQIRMM; HMEGVSRMG,
EV 3 S ZEVMERX HIWEGVEPM^EX E TVMQYPYM XMT, HSZEH VITVI^IRXVMPI
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PI TSEXI RJTXYM (ENYX GPXSVMM RXV^ME'M EVXRHY-PI GEPIE GIE FYR; PI GIVI
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IM WYRX S VITVI^IRXEVI XMTMG E PYQMM WYTVEREXYVEPI EXX TVMR GEVEGXIVMWXMGMPI
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VXGIWG, VTIWG GSTMMM SEQIRMPSV, M EXVEK TI FVFE'M R PIKXYVM WI\YEPI GY
JIXIPI PSV RGLIMI GWXSVMM IXG.; G) HYLYVM GSQTPI\I, EPI EIVYPYM, EPI ETIM #M
THYVMM, GEVEGXIVM^EXI TVMRXV-S RWYQEVI E XVWXYVMPSV WTIGM3GI XYXYVSV EGIWXSV
GPEWI (VYWEPOM, WEQSZMPI, ZMPI IXG.). 'IPI QEM RHVITX'MXI W 3I V^FYRXSEVI #M
W EG'MSRI^I GSVIWTYR^XSV IVEY WY4IXIPI GIPSV QSV'M/SQSV'M R THYVI.
'SRJSVQ VITVI^IRXVMPSV HMJIVMXIPSV TSTSEVI, IM IVEY JEXEPQIRXI SFPMKE'M W
FRXYMI PSGYVMPI R GEVI #M-EY TMIVHYX ZME'E, TYXRH, R WGLMQF, W-P WTIVMI, W-P
JEG TI SEQIRM W WI VXGIEWG. (I QYPXI SVM IJIGXYP WI PMQMXE PE YR WTE'MY
HIWXYP HI VIHYW: 4VMR THYVI HI QIVKM RSETXIE, XI VXGI#XI WY4IXYP GIPSV
QSV'M R THYVI HEG GEPGM TI PSGYP EGIPE, YRHI E QYVMX GMRIZE QTY#GEX WEY
WTR^YVEX (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 492). 3 GVIHMR' EWIQRXSEVI IWXI RXPRMX PE
VY#MM HMR &EWEVEFME: HEG R THYVI E JSWX RKVSTEX YR GSTMP, QSVX RIFSXI^EX #M
TI PSGYP EGIPE ZE GPGE GMRIZE, SQYP WI ZE VXGM WEY ZE EZIE TEVXI HI EPXI
RITPGIVM (/E^MQMV, 208). 1YPXI EWIQIRIE HYLYVM IVEY HISWIFMX HI EWMHYI R
VEGSPEVIE HI RSM ZMGXMQI. 'IVIQM#MM GVIHIEY G HYLYVM EPI THYVMM HIZIRIEY
SEQIRMM QSV'M R THYVI. 'E W WGETI HI FPIWXIQ, IM EXEGEY EP'M SEQIRM,
TIRXVY G TVSEWTXE ZMGXMQ HIZIRIE RPSGYMXSVYP EGIWXYME, RSYP HYL EP
THYVMM, VIWTIGXMZ EP ETIM (1ERWMOOE, 227). 0EYQI; PI#MM; QSEVXI; RIFSXI^EX.
46; 4637 4VI^IR'E TVYPYM (R ERXMXI^ GY PMTWE PYM WTRMM WEY
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TS^MXMZ WEY RIKEXMZ. 0E VSQRM WI GVIHI G WYRX RSVSGS#M GIM GEVI EPFIWG HI
XMRIVM WEY EY ZVXINYVM HI TV TI GET. (I EWIQIRIE, HEG TI S EPYRMG HI TI
SFVE^ GVI#XI TV I WIQR HI RSVSG; W RY XEM TVYP EGSPS, GGM 'M TMIVI
RSVSGYP (+SVSZIM, 1995, 8). 7I TSX QIR'MSRE RG HSY GVIHMR'I VIJIVMXSEVI PE
EGIWXI VITVI^IRXVM: 3QYP GY QMRMPI TVSEWI WI GVIHI G EVI RSVSG #M ZE PYE
RIZEWX FSKEX (.). 7I SFM#RYMI#XI GE PE QSEVXIE YRYM SQ RSVSGSW W WI XEMI
GXIZE 3VI HI TV, GE RSVSGYP W RY TPIGI GY IP HMR GEW (MHIQ, 234). 8SX
TVSW IVE HIWGVMW PE VY#M HSQSZSM, HYLYP GEWIM: 3EQIRMM GVIH G HSQSZSM
IWXI EGSTIVMX HI TV HIW #M QSEPI; GLMEV #M TEPQIPI, GPGMIPI M WYRX TPMRI HI
TV, RYQEM TI JE', R NYVYP REWYPYM #M EP SGLMPSV RY GVI#XI TV. 'PGMIPI PYM
TVSEWI WI GSRXYVIE^ MEVRE TI ^TEH, MEV GY TEPQE M QRKMI RSETXIE TI
GIM EHSVQM'M. (EG IM WMQX QRE QSEPI, GEPH, I WIQR HI JIVMGMVI #M FSK'MI,
MEV HEG I VIGI #M TVSEW I WIQR VY ("YQSZ-4VINIR'IZE, RV. 97, 51).
1IQFVMM YRYM GPER QEWEM, HIWTVI GEVI WI GVIHI G TSWIH EVXE HI E EHYGI
TPSEME, RY-#M XYRH FEVFE, GE W RY-#M TMEVH EGIEWX TYXIVI (*VE^IV, 1980, --,
204). 0E JIP WI WTYRI #M HIWTVI ZVNMXSVM. *SV'E QEPI3G E EGIWXSVE IVE
GSRGIRXVEX R TVYP PSV #M IM RY TYXIEY 3 ERMLMPE'M HEG TVYP PI IVE MRXEGX. R
EGIEWX WMXYE'MI, GIM GEVI IVEY FRYM'M HI ZVNMXSVMI IVEY XSVXYVE'M TVMR
WQYPKIVIE TVYPYM, TIRXVY E I\TYP^E XSEX TYXIVIE QEPI3G (*VE^IV, 1990,
323). R EGIWX WIRW R'IPIKIQ #M GVIHMR'IPI VSQRI#XM: 7 RY PE#M TI GMRIZE
W-'M XEMI S #YZM' HI TV HMR GET SVM S FYGEX HI QFVGQMRXI #M RMGM W-'M
QWSEVI YQFVE SVM W-'M ME TQRX HMR YVQE TMGMSVYPYM (%ZVEQ, 178). R
TSZIWXMVMPI VYWI#XM HIWTVI HYLYP GEWIM, WIQRYP TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP GVYME WI
VIEPM^EY TVIZIWXMVMPI IVE TVYP EGIWXYME: 3HEX P-EQ ZMWEX TI HSQSZSM: WI
JGIE G EZIE RM#XI PEFI QEVM, TVSEWI, Q ETWE RXVYRE. 0E RGITYX EQ
RGITYX W Q VSK, HEV QEM ETSM EQ RNYVEX, HI IP RYQEM E#E TS'M W WGETM.
%ZIE S QR PYRK, PYRK, TVSEW %WXE E JSWX WIQR VY. 4I ZVIQIE EGIIE W-
E WTR^YVEX #M KMRIVIPI QIY ("YQSZ-4VINIR'IZE, RV. 92, 49-50). 3 SFWIVZE'MI
MRXIVIWERX: TIRXVY G R TVYP TIVWSRENYPYM HIQSRMG IWXI GSRGIRXVEX
TYXIVIE EGIWXYME, WYRX 3VI#XM EG'MYRMPI PSV GEVI ZM^IE^ QERMTYPEVIE TVYPYM,
HIGM IGLMPMFVEVIE WEGVEPMX'MM EGIWXYME. (YLYVMPI ETIM R MTSWXE^ JIQMRMR WYRX
HIWGVMWI EHIWIE TMITXRRHY-#M JVYQSWYP TV PYRK, EYVMY WEY ZIVHI EGX GI
TSEXI 3 MRXIVTVIXEX GE S EYKQIRXEVI E TYXIVMM WTMVMXYPYM. 8SX R WTMVMXYP
HIQSRMWQYPYM TMPS^MX'MM EHYGIQ GE I\IQTPY YR EPX IPIQIRX. 3 PIKIRH
FVIXSR WTYRI G TVYP ZVNMXSEVIPSV WI XVERWJSVQ R #IVTM. R EPXI TV'M, HEG
WI RKVSET TVYP WQYPW HI PE S JIQIMI GI WI E4 WYF MR4YIR'E PYRMM, IP WI
XVERWJSVQ R #IVTM ()PMEHI-2, 1992, 166).
4637-"46.
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4)6732%.) 1%0)*-') 'PEWM3GEVIE TIVWSRENIPSV QMXSPSKMGI IWXI S
TVSFPIQ GSQTPI\, GEVI E TVMQMX HMZIVWI EFSVHVM EPI WTIGMEPM#XMPSV. %WXJIP, R
WIGSPYP EP <--PIE, 1MLEMP 4WIPPSW MHIRXM3G 6 ZEVMIX'M EPI HMEZSPMPSV, RYQM'M #M
HIQSRM MKRMGM, EIVMIRM, XIVI#XVM, EGZEXMGM, WYFXIVERM, MRJIVREPM (/IQFEGL,
1989, 142). (I EWIQIRIE, HIQSRMM, QTV'M'M EHIWIE HI QMXSPSKM R KIRMM
JEQMPMEPI, WY4IXI EPI HIJYRG'MPSV #M HYLYVM RIJEWXI, WYRX GPEWM3GE'M R QEM QYPXI
GEXIKSVMM: E) HYLYVMPI ERGIWXVEPI, GEVI SGVSXIWG JEQMPME, XVMFYP, KMRXE R GEVI EY
XVMX; EFERHSREVIE GYPXYPYM PSV EXVKIE HYT WMRI RIQYP'YQMVIE HYLYVMPSV #M
HIGM, RIRSVSGMVM; F) WY4IXIPI QSV'MPSV GEVI #M GSRXMRY I\MWXIR'E, TWXVRH
GSRXEGXYP GY SEQIRMM ZMM; G) TE^RMGM TIVWSREPM EM SQYPYM, IGLMZEPIR'M GY RKIVMM
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WIQM^IM SGVSXMXSVM, WXTRM EM M^ZSEVIPSV, PEGYVMPSV, VYVMPSV, GSTEGMPSV WEY
TPERXIPSV GYPXMZEXI; K) ZEQTMVMM (HYLYVM RIJEWXI GEVI WI LVRIWG GY WRKI); L)
WXE3MPI; M) HIQSRMM QSV'MM, EM FSPMPSV, EM EGGMHIRXIPSV #M EM MRWYGGIWIPSV YQERI;
N) QEVMM HIQSRM WEXERMGM (/IQFEGL, 1989, 137). R KIRIVEP, GIE QEM JVIGZIRX
QSHEPMXEXI HI SVHSREVI E TIVWSRENIPSV EVI R ZIHIVI TVIQMWE WTE'MEP, QEM
IZMHIRX, TIRXVY G, HI VIKYP, TIVWSRENYP EVI YR PSG HI EG'MYRI WTIGM3G, XMTMG.
R PYGVEVIE WE HI QMXSPSKMI GSRWEGVEX 3MR'IPSV WYTVEREXYVEPI, 8YHSV 4EQ3PI
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TI 3IGEVI R JYRG'MI HI PSGYP R GEVI WI QERMJIWX (GEWE, R EJEVE GEWIM
THYVI, ET, Z^HYL IXG.). 'PEWM3GEVIE TVSTYW HI RSM, TI GEVI S TVI^IRXQ
R GSRXMRYEVI, HSVI#XI W VI^SPZI GX QEM QYPXI HMRXVI TVSFPIQIPI ETVYXI
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TIVWSRENIPSV IWXI PEFMP, 3MRH JVIGZIRXI GSRXSTMVMPI RXVI HMZIVWI XMTYVM HI
TIVWSRENI, GEVI HYG PE I\MWXIR'E YRSV TIVWSRENI LMFVMHI WEY PE EQIWXIGYP
JYRG'MMPSV, EXVMFY'MMPSV, EPXHEX GEVEGXIVMWXMGI, HMWXMRGXMZI. (YT GYQ EQ
EVXEX, QIXSHE HI PYGVY EPIEW HI RSM IWXI KVYTEVIE TIVWSRENIPSV HYT
JYRG'MMPI WTIGM3GI, HSQMRERXI. %GIWXI HSQMRERXI WYRX HEXI HI JYRG'MM #M RY HI
RYQI, GEVI WYRX QYPX QEM PEFMPI #M RY VI4IGX RXSXHIEYRE IWIR'E
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QMXSPSKMGI, VIPIZRHY-WI EWXJIP GY Y#YVMR' HSQMRERXI WEY XMTYVM WPEF
VITVI^IRXEXI RXV-YR WMWXIQ HI GVIHMR'I WEY EPXYP. b (YT K IR I ^ :1)
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HYLYVMPSV ETIM, EPI THYVMM, EPI GEWIM IXG., ETVYXI GE YVQEVI E YRIM QSV'M
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(IQSRSPSKM^EVIE YRSV SEQIRM ZMM: ZPZI, WSPSQSREVM, QEVE (TIVWSRM3GEVIE
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VI:1) 7TMVMXI EPI GEWIM: #EVTIPI GEWIM, WTMVMHY#M, HSQSZSM; 2) 7TMVMXI EPI THYVMM:
1YQE THYVMM, PI#MM; 3) 7TMVMXI EPI ETIM: #XMQE ETIM, ZSHMERSM, VYWEPOM; 4) 7TMVMXI
EPI GQTYPYM/EPI VIGSPXIPSV: TSPIZSM, WTMVMXYP KVYPYM; 5) 7TMVMXI EPI QYR'MPSV:
ZPZI, GPYKVYP QYRXIPYM; 6) 7TMVMXI EPI QMRIPSV: ZPZE FMM; 7) 7TMVMXI EPI
GSQSVMPSV: #XMQE GSQSVMPSV; 8) 7TMVMXI EPI EIVYPYM: MIPI, ZMPI, ZRXYVM,
WSPSQSREVM, EPXI TIVWSRM3GVM EPI JIRSQIRIPSV QIXISVSPSKMGI. b X MQ T YP R
GE VI E G ' M S R I E ^ : 1) 4IVWSRM3GVM EPI RST'MM: SQY RST'MM, RSGMRM'; 2)
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QMXSPSKME WSV'MM: YVWMXSEVI, TME^E FYR, TME^E VIE; 2) 4IVWSRM3GVM EPI FSPMPSV:
GMYQE, LSPIVE; 3) 4IVWSRM3GEVIE HSVMR'IM WI\YEPI: ^FYVXSVYP; 4) 0IKEXI HI YR
GYPX EP XSVWYPYM: QEV'SPIE, .SMQVM'E, 7J. :MRIVM; 5) 7TIVMIXSEVIE: FEYFEY; 6)
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R SQ, R GMRI RIKVY WEY R KMR GEVI GRX GSGS#I#XI (3PMRIWGY, 422). "M
SEQIRMM RWIQRE'M WYRX GSRWMHIVE'M E 3 XSX TME^ VIE, EHMG EHYGXSVM HI
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YRIM TIVWSERI, ETEV JVIGZIRX MQEKMRM R GEVI TIVWSRM3GEVIE KLMRMSRYPYM RY
IWXI PIKEX RIETVEX HI S ERYQMX TIVWSER: HI JETX, SQYP R TVIENQE GVYME
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TIVWSER EPIEW HI HIQSR TIRXVY E-#M XVERWQMXI MRXIR'MMPI TI GEVI PI EVI
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G RHEX GI P-E JGYX Q-WE, IP E TVMRW E KVM. "-E ^MW: n7 RY Q FSXI^E'M, G
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W 3I HI-EVI W JEG FYVI'M #M R-EY W TSEX GVE SEQIRMM; HIGX, PE XSEQR,
RMGM TI HR#MM R-EY W-P TSEX GVE PE KVSET!~ (4EQ3PI-P, 1916, 100). 7YF
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HIWXMRYPYM): 9R GMRI TVMT#MX PE GEWE GYMZE EHYGI RSVSG #M RY XVIFYMI
EPYRKEX. (EV #M TME^E VIE HI QYPXI SVM XVMI#XI R GLMT HI GMRI GI ZMRI HI
GMRI #XMI YRHI WEY WI RE#XI PE GEWE YRYM SQ S HEX GY RGITYXYP YRYM #MVIEK
HI RIRSVSGMVM QVYRXI HISGEQHEX; HYT S ZVIQI, WIEVE, RGITI W YVPI, W
WI YHI TI TIVI'M #M W WI QYVHVIEWG TVMR SKVEH. 9R EWXJIP HI GMRI XVIFYMI
RHEX M^KSRMX WEY YGMW (4EQ3PI-P, 1916, 95). R WGLMQF, GRH TME^E VIE WI
RGYMF RXV-S KMR, I SFMGIMYP GE W M WI XEMI KXYP MQIHMEX, GE TVMR QSEVXIE IM
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:SVSRGE, 894). %XYRGM GRH TPERXIPI IVEY HINE GYRSWGYXI TIRXVY ZMVXY'MPI PSV,
GYPIWYP EGIWXSVE WI VIEPM^E XSX WYF WIQRYP HIQSRMGYPYM (R ERYQMXI TIVMSEHI,
GY VIWTIGXEVIE YRYM VMXYEP JSEVXI WXVMGX). -EX GYQ HIWGVMI -SR +LMRSMY GYPIWYP
VMXYEP: %Q TPIGEX HMR WEX TI PE SVE XVIM RSETXIE (.). 4R PE TENM#XMPI R4SVMXI (.)
RY W-E WGSW RMGM YR GYZRX; JYWIWIQ TVIZIRMX, HI PE FYR RGITYX, G RY XVIFYMI
W RI PEXVI GMRMM. 1M-EQ HEX WIEQE G QSXMZYP TIRXVY GEVI IVEQ HYW nTI
QY'I#XI~ JGIE TEVXI HMR RWY#M VMXYEPYP GYPIKIVMM TPERXIPSV HI PIEG. REMRXI HI
MZMVIE ^SVMPSV EQ ENYRW RXV-S MQIRW TENM#XI (.). (MRXV-S XVEMWX EY JSWX WGSEWI
S RJVEQ #M YR ZEW HI GIVEQMG, RIJSPSWMX TR EXYRGM. 9RE HMR FXVRI E
RGITYX W XVEK RJVEQE TI HIEWYTVE 4SVMPSV R XMQT GI WTYRIE GYZMRXI
RIMRXIPMKMFMPI. 'RH RJVEQE WI YHE HI VSY, IVE WXSEVW R SEPE HI PYX (.).
&XVRIPI EY RGITYX ETSM W GYPIEK TPERXI HI PIEG (.) #M HMJIVMXI TPERXI
QEKMGI (.). (I PE YRIPI TPERXI WI VIGSPXEY 4SVMPI, HI PE EPXIPI JVYR^IPI,
XYPTMRMPI, FYPFMM WEY VM^SQMM. R QSQIRXYP GYPIKIVMM TPERXIPSV WI TVSRYR'EY
GXIZE GYZMRXI R #SETX, GE YR WGYVX HIWGRXIG~ (+LMRSMY, 1988, 214-215).
R WQFXE 6YWEPMMPSV, JIGMSVMM HMR WEXIPI QSPHSZIRI EHYGIEY HMR LSXEV VEQYVM
HI XIM GY GEVI WI QTSHSFIEY JIVIWXVIPI #M Y#MPI GEWIPSV, WXPTMM TVMWTIPSV #M EM
TSV'MPSV. R 3PXIRME, VEQYVMPI TYXIEY 3 #M HI TPST WEY WXINEV. 7I GSRWMHIVE G
EGIWXI GVIRKM EZIEY TYXIVM RIFRYMXI QTSXVMZE JSV'IPSV QEPI3GI, I\XVIQ HI
ZMVYPIRXI HI 6YWEPMM #M PE .SME RITSQIRMX, GRH RGIVGEY W MRXVI R
KSWTSHVMI, R GEW, R KVENHYVM TIRXVY E HYRE SEQIRMPSV #M ERMQEPIPSV. R
1SPHSZE, GY EGIWXI VEQYVM WI EQIRMR'EY RSVMM EHYGXSVM HI KVMRHMR, MEV R
:PGIE, GY JVYR^IPI HI XIM, QYV, WSG, NEPI# #M EPXIPI, WI ZMRHIGEY HMJIVMXI FSPM
HI-E PYRKYP ERYPYM (MHIQ, 277).
&YWYMSG; JIVMK; QEG; QXVKYR; YWXYVSM.
403%-) :IGLMPI QMXYVM MRHS-IYVSTIRI EXVMFYMI TPSEME HMZMRMX'MM WYTVIQI,
WMRKYVE R QWYV W GSSVHSRI^I EXX QIVWYP REMRXI EP YRMZIVWYPYM, GX #M,
QEM GSRGVIX (QEM EPIW TIRXVY SEQIRM), JIRSQIRIPI QIXISVSPSKMGI. 1MXSPSKME
VSQR GYRSE#XI TVIE TY'MRI VITVI^IRXVM GEVI EV TYXIE SJIVM S MQEKMRI GPEV
EWYTVE ZIGLMYPYM TERXISR EP HMZMRMX'MPSV GSRHYGXSEVI EPI YRMZIVWYPYM
(GVIEXSVM, WXTRM IM IPIQIRXIPSV IXG.), E#E GYQ EY JGYX-S QMXSPSKMMPI
GPEWMGI. "M PE VSQRM, HEV #M PE WPEZM (GEVI EY TWXVEX XSXY#M VYHMQIRXI HI
QMXSPSKMI REPX, R TS3HE RYQVYPYM QEVI HI VITVI^IRXVM ERMQMWXI),
GVIHMR'IPI TSTYPEVI JEG HMR WSEVI ^IYP WYTVIQ, GIP GEVI, TVMR W3R'IRME PYM, IWXI
R QWYV W KYZIVRI^I YRMZIVWYP, 3MRH HMVIGX VWTYR^XSV HI XSEXI JSVQIPI
TI GEVI PI TSEXI PYE ZME'E (E WI ZIHIE #M GVIHMR'IPI VIJIVMXSEVI PE 8EXP
WSEVIPYM, WYVTVMRWI R GEHVYP SFMGIMYPYM 'EPSMERYPYM). %WXJIP, E#E GYQ WI
RXQTP R XSEXI QMXSPSKMMPI TSTSEVIPSV EKVMGSPI, TPSEME VITVI^MRX GIE QEM
TPEWXMG JSVQ E MRXIVZIR'MIM HMZMRI EWYTVE GSRXVSPYPYM ZMI'MM TI TQRX. (I
EGIIE, RYQIVSEWI GVIHMR'I GSRWMHIV G TPSEME RY GEHI TI TQRX
RXQTPXSV, GM 3MRH HMVIGX MR4YIR'EX HI HMWTS^M'ME WSEVIPYM (GEVI, YRISVM, EVI
GLMEV #M YR #IJ, TVSFEFMP VIQMRMWGIR' E ^IYPYM WYTVIQ, E GVYM JYRG'MI R
GVI#XMRMWQ IWXI RHITPMRMX HI (YQRI^IY: &XVRMM TSZIWXIWG G PE-RGITYXYP
RGITYXYPYM RSVMM IVEY FSMM WSEVIPYM. )M XVKIEY GEVYP GY ET PE GYVXIE WSEVIPYM.
'RH WSEVIPI RY WI YMXE PE IM, WI QEM PWEY TI XRNIEP #M EXYRGM ETE WI
WPSFS^IE TIWXI QEVKMRMPI JRXRMM #M EXYRGM GHIE TPSEME TI TQRX. 4IWIQRI
RY-#M JGIEY QYRGE E#E GYQ XVIFYME WEY PYGVEY TVIE RGIX #M EXYRGM
(YQRI^IY M-E M^KSRMX PE QEVKMRIE TQRXYPYM, YRHI WXEY EWGYR#M RXV-YR XY
QEVI. )M FIEY ET HMR XY #M GLMEV HMR QVMPI RZIGMREXI, TR WI YQTPY GE
RM#XI FYVHYJYVM, HI WXEY W TPIWRIEWG. %XYRGM ZMR FEPEYVMM, QTMRKRHY-P GY
GSEVRIPI, MEV WSPSQSREVMM M TPIWRIWG GY FMGMYVMPI. 2SVMM S MEY PE JYK, RZPIWG
R Z^HYL #M JYK TI WYF GIVYVM. (EV FEPEYVMM RY-P WPFIWG; M KSRIWG HMR YVQ #M
GRH WSPSQSREVMM PI JEG WIQR, WPSFSH XSEX ETE GY GEVI W-E YQ4EX (3PMRIWGY,
323). )WXI MRXIVIWERX HI VIQEVGEX R EGIWX QMX JYRG'ME JEWX E WSPSQSREVMPSV,
GLMEV #M E FEPEYVMPSV, GEVI RY WYRX HIGX RM#XI MRWXVYQIRXI HSGMPI EPI TYXIVMM
HMZMRI, RXVY XSXYP JEZSVEFMPI SEQIRMPSV. 9RIPI GVIHMR'I I\TPMG TPSEME GE YR JIP
HI WYHSEVI E EGIWXSV ERMQEPI YVME#I: &EPEYVMM GEVI TSEVX RSVMM EY YR TMITXEV,
GEVI PI 'MRI GPHYV. (I SFSWM'M GI WYRX EWYH #M WYHSEVIE EGIEWXE TMG NSW, MEV
RSM S RYQMQ TPSEMI (+LIVQER, 61). 1EM XV^MY, TIRXVY G PMTWE TPSMM WEY
I\GIWYP TPYZMSQIXVMG RY TYXIE 3 TYW TI WIEQE PYM (YQRI^IY, E ETVYX
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WPSFSEHI RYQEM TPSMPI GIPI QMGM #M JSPSWMXSEVI, ^MGRH nWPSFSEHI-XI TPSEMI~, MEV
TPSMPI QEVM GY JYVXYRM #M KVMRHMR PI XVMQMX WSPSQSREVMM WEY: 'RH TPSY QYPX
ZVIQI WI GVIHI G W-E RIGEX GMRIZE #M EXYRGM XSX TPSY TR P E4 TI GIP
RIGEX (MHIQ, 60; 65). 'ERXMXEXIE QEVI HI ET G^YX R XMQTYP TPSMPSV IWXI
GSRWMHIVEX E 3 S VYTIVI HI RSVM: 'RH I VYTIVI HI RSV WI ^MGI G I TSXST.
6YTIVIE HI RSVM WI RXQTP GRH FEPEYVYP I TVIE KVIY; EXYRGM RSVYP,
RIQEMTYXRH WYTSVXE EXXE KVIYXEXI, WI WTEVKI #M XSEX ETE HMR IP WI ZEVW.
%WIQIRIE I VYTIVI HI RSVM GRH WSPSQSREVYP RY TSEXI RZMRKI GY FPEYVYP #M
P XVRXI#XI NSW GY RSV GY XSX (+LIVQER, 63). 9R EPX EWTIGX EP HIQSRMWQYPYM
TPSMM P GSRWXMXYMI TPSEME GY WSEVI. (EG R GE^YP EZIVWIPSV WEY EP GHIVMM
KVMRHMRIM GEVEGXIVYP RIJEWX IVE QEM Y#SV HI Z^YX, RI3VIWGYP YRIM TPSM GY
WSEVI E HI^ZSPXEX PE VRHYP PYM VITVI^IRXVMPI HI VMKSEVI: 4PSEME GY WSEVI
XSXHIEYRE I WXVMGGMSEW TIRXVY TPERXI, 3MRHG PI TXIE^ #M PI ZI#XINI#XI (.).
*MMRHG TPSEME GY WSEVI I WXVMGGMSEW, TIRXVY EGIIE RY GVIH G I XVMQMW HI
(YQRI^IY, GM HI 2IGYVEXYP WEY, RXVYGX I XVMQMW HI (YQRI^IY, I XVMQMW GE
TIHIETW TIRXVY JVHIPIKMPI SEQIRMPSV. 'RH I TPSEMI GY WSEVI WI GVIHI G
#M FEXI HVEGY RIZEWXE #M (YQRI^IY VHI. (VEGY TIRXVY EGIIE #M FEXI
RIZEWXE, 3MRHG I RIGNMX G #M-E TMIVHYX GETVIPI. 7I QEM GVIHI G WI WJHI#XI
HVEGY GY HVGSEMGE, EGIEWXE P nHSZIHI#XI~ #M HVEGY, HI QRMSW GI I, #M
V^FYR EWYTVE SEQIRMPSV, XVMQM'RH TPSEMI GY WSEVI (.). R EPXI TV'M WI GVIHI
G (YQRI^IY TPRKI #M HVEGY VHI. R :IGLMYP 6IKEX WI GVIHI G TI ZVIQI HI
TPSEMI GY WSEVI I RYRXE HVEGYPYM WEY G #M 'MR SWT' WXVMKSMM (+LIVQER, 64,
65). (EG EFWIR'E RHIPYRKEX E TPSMM GSRWXMXYME HMRXSXHIEYRE S GEPEQMXEXI #M
WI GSRXVEGEVE GSVIWTYR^XSV, PE VRHYP IM, S TPSEMI TVIE EFYRHIRX WEY HI
PYRK HYVEX TYXIE W HYRI^I IGLMPMFVYPYM VIGSPXIPSV, XVERWJSVQRHY-WI PE
VRHYP IM RXV-YR TIVMGSP TIRXVY GSQYRMXEXI. (I I\IQTPY, GSRXVSPSVM EM TPSMM TSX
3 #M WXVMKSMM ZMM (ZVNMXSVMM). (I EXMXYHMRIE PSV HITMRHI HIGPER#EVIE WEY STVMVIE
TPSMM; GYRSWGRH JETXYP G HMWTYR HI EGIEWX TYXIVI, IM TSX HYRE GSPIGXMZMX'MM
TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP TVEGXMGMM WGPHEXYPYM VMXYEP: 7XVMKSEMGIPI MEY VSYE HI TI MIVFYVM
#M STVIWG GLMEV TPSMPI. 4IRXVY EWXE WI JIVIWG HI E WI WGPHE, GGM HI RHEX GI-
EV MRXVE R ET TPSMPI EV RGITI W GYVK, MEV HEG ZVIEY W RIGI SKSEVIPI WEY
GQTYVMPI HMRXV-YR ERYQMX PSG, WI WGEPH QEM EPIW R EGIE TEVXI, SVMGX HI
EHRG EV 3 ETE, GGM IPI RY WI RIEG (3PMRIWGY, 496). (I EGIIE W-EY
HI^ZSPXEX TVEGXMGMPI HI STVMVI E TPSMM, EXYRGM GRH EGIEWXE WI RGEHVE R
GEXIKSVME I\GIWYPYM: 'E W RGIXI^I TPSMPI I HEXMRE GE W QTPRXI R TQRX
YR GY'MX, MEV R EPXI TV'M 'MKERMM EVH GVQM^M #M EVYRG R ET S GVQMH EVW,
GE WSPSQSREVMM W PIKI TPSMPI (TIRXVY EGIIE I WIGIX, G 'MKERMM 'MKPEVM nEY
PIKEX TPSMPI~, GGM PSV RY PI JSPSWIWG TPSMPI, GM, HMR GSRXV, PI WXVMG; +LIVQER,
65-66). -RW, HEG MRWXVYQIRXIPI QEKMGI WI HSZIHIEY E 3 MRWY3GMIRXI, EGXYP
QEKMG VQRRH JV VI^YPXEX, WI JGIE ETIP PE YR VMXYEP GSQTPI\ HI MRZSGEVI
E HMZMRMX'MM VWTYR^XSEVI HI ZSPYQYP TVIGMTMXE'MMPSV IWXI ZSVFE HI
SQSVVIE WMQFSPMG E ^IYPYM TPSMM #M HI GLIQEVIE/RZMIVIE E WSEVIPYM: 'RH
TPSMPI GYVK KVP #M ETE I KEXE W MRYRHI SKSEVIPI, EXYRGM I\MWX YR EPX SFMGIM.
*IQIMPI #M JIXIPI WI HYG PE JRXR, MEY PYX KEPFIR #M JEG HMR IP HSY GLMTYVM HI
SQ: TI YRYP P QFVEG R LEMRI FVFXI#XM, MEV TI GIPPEPX R LEMRI JIQIMI#XM.
(I SFMGIM E#E WI TSXVMZI#XI GE FVFEXYP W 3I R LEMRI EPFI, MEV JIQIME GY
XIWXIQIP RIKVY #M GY GVTI RIKVI QFVGEX, HEG RY M WI KWIWG JYWXI RIKVI.
&VFEXYP I 8EXP WSEVIPYM, MEV JIQIME 1YQE TPSMM. 'Y YR ERYQMX GIVIQSRMEP
8EXP WSEVIPYM IWXI YVGEX TI GETYP YRIM XVSM'I GI WXVNYMI#XI ZVIS JRXR (.). 4I
1YQE TPSMM, R WGLMQF, S RKVSET HYT XSX XMTMGYP YRIM EHIZVEXI
RQSVQRXVM. ) nFSGMX~, M WI JEG TSQIRM #M GLMEV M WI H #M S KMR RIEKV
TIWXI KVSET HI TSQER. R EGIWX JIP TPSMPI EY JSWX RKVSTEXI #M WSEVIPI
VQRI WMRKYV ZMGXSVMSW (3PMRIWGY, 323).
&S^; FVSEWG; 'EPSMERYP; #STVP.
4ETEVYHE; KVMRHMR; WIGIX; #EVTI;
43'-6) 0E WVFMM FSWRMIGM, OIZVI WYRX EVXVM GSGS#EXI, R3SVXSEVI, GY
HMR'M YVME#M, GI EXMRK TQRXYP. (YT RXPRMVIE GY IPI, SQYP IWXI GYTVMRW HI
HYVIVM R SEWI, WI GSRXSVWMSRIE^ HI HYVIVI #M IWXI WXTRMX HI JVMKYVM. 7I QEM
WTYRI, HI EWIQIRIE, G TVMQZEVE RY IWXI FMRI W HSVQM EJEV, GGM EXYRGM
YQFP QEM GY RHINHI ZRXSEWIPI #M Y#SV XI TS'M FSPRZM, FE 'M TMIV^M #M KVEMYP
#M YRISVM GETI'M FSEP HMR GEVI RY QEM WGETM GY ZME' (1EVMER, 1994, -, 268).
-IPIPI, WI QEM WTYRI, FIEY RSETXIE ET HI TVMR JRXRM #M SVMGMRI ZE FIE
HYT HRWIPI, P TSGIWG. (I EGIIE, GRH GMRIZE FIE ET HMQMRIE'E HMR ZVIS
JRXR, PEW R IE ZVIYR WIQR HI PE WMRI TIRXVY GE TSGIEPE W GEH TI EGIP
WIQR (+SVSZIM, 1995, 111).
430):3- (IQSR EP ZIKIXE'MIM PE VY#M, TEXVSR EP GQTYPYM GYPXMZEX (TSPI
GQT, SKSV). 7PEZMM GYRSWG JVIGZIRX EWXJIP HI VITVI^IRXVM, 3IGEVI PER
EZRHY-#M WXTRYP: VNERM'E HYLYP PERYPYM HI WIGEV M VXGI#XI TI GSTMM R
GQT WEY M TIHITWI#XI TI PYGVXSVMM GEVI RY WI SHMLRIWG PE SVE EQMI^MM,
HRHY-PI HYVIVM HI GET (GSRXEQMREVIE GY WTMVMXYP QIVMHMER IWXI HIWXYP HI
JVIGZIRX). 4SPIZSM IWXI Z^YX EHIWIE HI SEQIRM TPMQFRHY-WI TVMR PERYVM,
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WI EVEX RYQEM R XMQTYP ^MPIM #M M ENYX TI WIGIVXSVM, M RHVYQ TI GI VXGM'M
R THYVI, EVXRHY-PI HVYQYP FYR. RJ'M#EVIE JVIGZIRX IWXI GIE GYRSWGYX
(TWXVRH, IZMHIRX, TEVXMGYPEVMX'MPI MQTYWI HI IPIQIRXYP E GVYM TIVWSRM3GEVI
IWXI), RXPRMX #M PE HYLYVMPI GEWIM, EPI ETIM, EPI THYVMM IXG.: TMXMG GY FEVF
PYRK EPF (EPXISVM HMR WTMGI), EZRH R PSG HI TV MEVF #M WTMGI; GEVEGXIVMWXMG
IWXI GYPSEVIE EPF (GVIHMR'IPI YGVEMRIRI HIWTVI NMXRM HMHOS P RJ'M#IE^ EZRH
XVIM GETIXI #M XVIM PMQFM HI JSG 3MRH HMR RSY S QEXIVMEPM^EVI E GPHYVMM WSPEVI,
HIGM E JSV'IM HMWXVYGXMZI E EQMI^MM), RIEKV (GE TQRXYP) WEY VS#MIXMG E TMIPMM
WEY E TVYPYM GEVI P EGSTIV (GEVI, R ^MPIPI 3IVFMR'M HI ZEV, M H ETEVIR'E HI
4EGV NYGY# R QMNPSGYP TPERXIPSV). REMRXI HI WIGIVM# IWXI QEM REPX HIGX
WTMGIPI, MEV HYT WIGIVM# VQRI QMG GX QMVM#XIE. 9RIPI TSZIWXMVM P TVI^MRX
R GEPMXEXI HI WTMVMX ISPMER IWXI GIP GEVI TVSHYGI ZRXYVMPI, ZVXINYVMPI,
ZSPFYVMPI, 3I GY KSERE PYM RIFYRIEWG TVMR PERYVM (WI WTYRI, HI EWIQIRIE, G
EVI TMGMSEVI PYRKM, S GSEH GY YR TQXYJ R ZVJ GY GEVI QXYV R NYV TIRXVY
E VMHMGE TVEJYP R WTEXIPI GVYME WI EWGYRHI), 3I YR WIQR EFME TIVGITYX EP
TVI^IR'IM PYM MRZM^MFMPI TVMR PER (PE KIVQERM, TVMQZEVE, GRH KVYP WI PIEKR
R ZRX, 'VERMM WTYR: -EX, ZMRI QYQE KVYPYM!; *VE^IV, 1984, ---, 222). 7I
GVIHI G PSGYVMPI TVIJIVEXI, R GEVI HSEVQI WEY #M JEGI PSGYMR'E, WYRX LSXEVIPI
(I\MWX GLMEV YR RYQI EP WTMVMXYPYM GEVI IWXI JSVQEX HI PE EGIWX GYZRX
QINIZMO QINE LSXEV. %WXJIP, IWXI MRXIV^MW W HSVQM PE LSXEV, TIRXVY G
EGSPS EPIEVK GSTMMM HYLYPYM; HEG IM E4 EGSPS YR SQ EHSVQMX, EXYRGM WI
RTYWXIWG EWYTVE PYM #M P TVIWIE^/WYKVYQ TR P SQSEV (1EOWMQSZ, 79).
R GXIZE GE^YVM WI TWXVIE^ MRJSVQE'MM VIJIVMXSEVI PE YRIPI SJVERHI GI
TSX 3 EHYWI HYLYPYM. 2SETXIE XV^MY, R EJEVE WEXYPYM, SEQIRMM TPIEG WTVI
GQT, HYGRHY-P HIQSRYPYM YRYP, HSY SY JYVEXI HI PE ZIGMRM. "M SYPI WYRX
GSRWEGVEXI: IWXI ZSVFE HI VSHYP YRYM GSGS# FXVR, VQEW JV KPEW. 6MXYEP WI
JEGI VIWTIGXRH TVIWGVMT'MMPI VIJIVMXSEVI PE PYQIE QEPI3GYPYM: SEQIRMM RY
XVIFYMI W 3I Z^Y'M HI RMQIRM, TIRXVY G EPXJIP TSPIZMO WI WYTV #M ZE
HMWXVYKI PERYP (MHIQ). 0E QSVHZMRM, RSVSZ-EZE WXTRE GQTYPYM, IVE
R^IWXVEX GY EGIPIE#M EXVMFY'MM: IM M WI VYKEY TIRXVY S FYR VIGSPX (GE SJVERH
M WI EHYGIEY YPXMQIPI WTMGI WIGIVEXI, TMRI IXG.). 'E PE VY#M, IE M TIHITWIE TI
SEQIRM HMWXVYKRH VIGSPXE, TVSZSGRH MRWSPE'MI (1MJSPSKMGIWOMN WPSZEV, 396).
'E TIVWSRM3GEVI E RSVSGYPYM PERYPYM VIWTIGXMZ, PE ZMIXREQI^M XLIR PYE ^IYP
SVI^YPYM TVIZIWXIE VIGSPXE ZMMXSEVI. %WIQIRIE VITVI^IRXVMPSV PIKEXI HI
TME^E FYR WEY TME^E VIE, RJ'M#EVIE TI GEVI S PYE IVE HI3RMXSVMI TIRXVY
IWIR'E QIWENYPYM XVERWQMW: HEG IVE Z^YX R ^HVIR'I, IVE YR WIQR HI VIGSPXI
FYRI; HEG EVXE JSEVXI RKVMNMX, TVISGYTEX RYQEM HI TVSTVME TIVWSER, VIGSPXE
ZE 3 TVSEWX (MHIQ, 542). 6ITVI^IRXVMPI IYVSTIRI PIKEXI HI YR EWXJIP HI
HIQSR EP ZIKIXE'MIM WYRX SEVIGYQ HMJIVMXI. 'SRGIRXVEVIE TYXIVMM, E
IPIQIRXIPSV JIVXMPI IXG. R YPXMQYP WRST WIGIVEX EVI S ZEPSVM^EVI JEWX, TI GRH
MQEKMRIE #M JYRG'MMPI RHITPMRMXI HI HYLYP GQTYPYM WYRX TVMR I\GIPIR'
QEPI3GI: M TSEXI JEGI TI SEQIRM W TMEVH HVYQYP, M EXVEKI R FP'M YRHI M
RIEG. 0E VSQRM, VITVI^IRXVM WTSVEHMGI JEG VIJIVMVI PE ZPZE LSPHIM: :PZE
LSPHIM I GVIWGYX HMRXV-YR WTMG HI KVY. ) FPRH #M FYR. %VI TV HI EYV #M
GRH ^I3VYP EXMRKI WTMGIPI, IE WI PIEKR TI ZEPYVMPI LSPHIM. 'MRI I GY JVMGE PYM
(YQRI^IY S TSEXI ZIHIE R ^MYE WIGIVM#YPYM, GRH WI VMHMG GY EPXI ^RI
RIZ^YXI #M ^FSEV R EPX PYQI (&SXM#-'MSFERY, 6-7).
4308)6+)-78-B/3&30(.
437)(%6) )\MWX YRIPI WMWXIQI QMXSPSKMGI R GEVI E 3 TSWIHEX IWXI
GLMEV GSRHM'ME EGXMZMX'MM QEKMGI. R 7MFIVME WEY R 1IPERI^ME, WXEVIE HI
#EQERMWQ IWXI SFPMKEXSVMI. 'E #EQER, ZVNMXSVYP RY RYQEM G WMQXI R IP
TVI^IR'E YRIM TIVWSERI WXVMRI HI IP, HEV GLMEV TVSTVME TIVWSREPMXEXI HMWTEVI
GY XSXYP, HIQSRYP 3MRH R VIEPMXEXI GIP GEVI ZSVFI#XI TVMR KYVE PYM. (I EPXJIP,
EGIWXI QYPXMTPI JSVQI HI VITVI^IRXEVI TSX W GSMRGMH: EWXJIP, YR #EQER WMSY\
WEY SNMF[E] EG'MSRIE^ RYQEM HEG IWXI TSWIHEX #M, HYT GYQ WI WTYRI, #M
HSFRHI#XI ^IMM ERMQEPMIVM R GYVWYP YRIM GPXSVMM E WY4IXYPYM. 0E NYQXEXIE
ERMPSV 1600, GPYKVYP JVERGMWGER 1EVGS &ERHMRM M-E HIWGVMW EQRYR'MX TI
QEKMGMIRMM HMR 1SPHSZE MRGERXEXSVIW. 3EQIRMM PM WI EHVIWEY EGIWXSVE TIRXVY
E-#M GYRSE#XI ZMMXSVYP, TIRXVY E WI ZMRHIGE HI FSPMPI HI GEVI WYJIVIEY WEY
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XVIM PE RYQV VSNERM', YHIPRM', GEVI LSXVEY WSEVXE 3IGVYM SQ R TEVXI.
1YPXI GVIHMR'I QIR'MSRIE^ I\MWXIR'E 3IGVIM VSNERM'E R TVIENQE SQYPYM,
EWIQIRIE YRYM HYL T^MXSV. )PI ZIRIEY R ^MYE R GEVI WI R#XIE GSTMPYP #M-P
VSWXIEY WSEVXE, YWYH, RSVSZ. R GMRWXIE PSV JIQIMPI TVIKXIEY S QEW, KXIEY
OE#E, 3IVXYVE VMXYEP #M XMEY TVYP GSTMPYPYM (PYEY QS'YP; /SWXSQEVSZ, 272).
'VIHMR'I XV^MM EXVMFYMI RKIVMPSV VSPYP HI E VSWXM WEY E EHYGI ZME'E, YVWMXE RSY-
RWGYXYPYM (>MRSZMIZ, 303; 7MRS^IVWOM, 143). 6Y#MM PMTSZIRM GVIH R I\MWXIR'E
YRYM RKIV T^MXSV GEVI-#M EPIKI GXI YR GSTMP, TI GEVI-P ZE RWS'M XSEX ZME'E.
8SX IM TSZIWXIWG #M HI YR TIVWSREN WTIGMEPM^EX, VSHRMLE, GEVI YVWIE WSEVXE
3IGVYM SQ. 6SMIRM', WYMIRM' WYRX TIVWSRENI JIQMRMRI, WYVSVM, XVIM PE RYQV,
GEVI QIRIWG HIWXMRYP RSY-RWGYXYPYM. -RZM^MFMPI, IPI ZMR R E XVIME RSETXI (QEM
VEV, TVMQE WEY E #ETXIE) HI PE RE#XIVI/WEY YVWIWG R TVMQIPI XVIM WIVM YPXMQE
YVWMVI 3MRH GIE LSXVXSEVI. (I VIKYP GIE QEM R ZVWX M YVWI#XI GSTMPYPYM
QSEVXIE, QMNPSGME HIJIGXIPI 3^MGI, MEV YPXMQE, GIE QEM XRV, IWXI QEM
RKHYMXSEVI #M M LSXV#XI G'M ERM ZE XVM SQYP, GI ZE T'M R ZME', HEG ZE 3
JIVMGMX WEY RY. 'E HI SFMGIM, WIRXMR'E RY TSEXI 3 WGLMQFEX. 7TVI HISWIFMVI HI
GVIHMR'IPI EPXSV TSTSEVI, VSMIRM' RY MRXV R GEW, GM WI STVIWG TI EGSTIVM#,
PRK LSVR. 7YRX QFVGEXI R EPF, EY TVYP PYRK, HIWTPIXMX. 4IRXVY E 3
QFYREXI, R GMRWXIE PSV WI TVIKXI#XI S QEW (TMRI, ZMR, XVIM FYGLI'IPI HI
4SVM), MEV GSTMPYP IWXI QFVGEX GY LEMRI GYVEXI (1MJSPSKMGIWOMN WPSZEV, 503;
%JEREWMIZ, 1869, 339; 'IEMOERSZMGM, 176).
3VMWRM'; YVWMXSEVI.
63,1%2--" 4-8-'-.
63"9 %RSVQEPMXEXIE TSEXI EZIE QYPXI MTSWXE^I. 'YPSEVIE VS#MI E
TVYPYM, HIWXYP HI VEV, E JGYX GE SEQIRM GI S TSWIHEY W 3I GSRWMHIVE'M
3MR'I HIQSRMGI, TMI^I VIPI WEY GLMEV RXVYTVM EPI HIQSRMPSV ZEVME'M. 0E
VSQRM WI VIGSQERH W JYKM GE HI HVEGY HI SEQIRMM VS#MM. "M PE KIVQERM
TVYP #M FEVFE VS#MI WYRX GSRWMHIVEXI HI VY EYKYV. %WXJIP, WI WTYRI: FEVF
VS#MI: GLMT HI HVEG ('MEY#ERY, 388). 0E TIVWSRENIPI QEPI3GI, VS#YP IVE,
EPXYVM HI RIKVY, YRE HMRXVI GYPSVMPI TVIJIVEXI HI HYLYVM, 3MRH S QEVG
HMWXMRGXMZ E PYQMM HMR GEVI TVSZIRIEY. 3EQIRMM #M I\TPMGEY GYQ TYXIEY
TVI^IR'E IM PE VITVI^IRXER'MM WYTVEREXYVEPYPYM. 4VSFEFMP GE YR IGSY EP QEKMIM
GSRXEKMSEWI, WI WTYRIE: 9RHI VWEVI WSEVIPI, WYRX SEQIRM VS#MM (GY TVYP
VS#Y) (1Y#PIE-&VPIE, 503). %PXI QMXSPSKMM MRWMWXEY I\TPMGMX TI ETEVXIRIR'E
3MR'IPSV GY TVYP VS#Y PE PYQIE HIQSRMG, GSRWXMXYMRH YR JIP HI TIGIXI GY
GEVI HMEZSPYP IKMTXIER #M-E QEVGEX WYTY#MM: -R ZIGLMYP )KMTX WI GVIHIE G
SEQIRMM #M ZMXIPI GY TVYP VS#Y WYRX TEVXM^ERMM PYM 7MX, GEVI SQSV TI 3WMVMW #M TI
GEVI P YV#XI XSEX PYQIE, GE TI HYLYP VY ('MEY#ERY, 388). 4I PRK
TEVXMGYPEVMX'MPI EREXSQMGI #M ZIWXMQIRXEVI, QMXSPSKME VSQR QEM GYRSE#XI
YR XMT HI SQ VS#Y: IWXI ZSVFE HI WXVMKSM, TI GEVI ETIXIR'E TIRXVY WRKI P-E
JGYX I\TSRIRXYP GYPSVMM HIQSRMGI.
639 0IKIRHIPI GSWQSKSRMGI QIR'MSRIE^ #M MRJSVQE'MM MRXIVIWERXI
VIJIVMXSEVI PE VSY. *V E WI FYGYVE HI S SVMKMRI HMZMR EFWSPYX, VSYE ETEVI
GE YR TVSHYW WIGYRHEV, GSRHM'MSREX HI IJSVXYP 3MR'IPSV WYTVEREXYVEPI HI
WYW'MRIVI E TQRXYPYM (EWIQRXSEVI WYRX #M YRIPI GVIHMR'I TVMR GEVI WI
I\TPMG ETEVM'ME TPSMM): 3 GVIHMR' WTYRI G TQRXYP P 'MR 4 YVMI#M TI YQIVI,
GXI YRYP PE GIPI TEXVY GSP'YVM EPI TQRXYPYM; EGI#XME GY TMGMSEVIPI WI VE^MQ
TI JYRHYP QVMM, MEV ETE PI ENYRKI TR-R FVY. (I KVIYXEXIE TQRXYPYM GIM
TEXVY YVMI#M EWYH #M WYHSEVIE EGIWXSV YVMI#M I VSYE TQRXYPYM (+LIVQER,
116). 7EY: 4QRXYP P 'MR R WTEXI TEXVY TI#XM YVME#M GEVI WYRX TI JYRHYP
QVMM. 'RH PM-I KVIY TQRXYP, EXYRGM WGLMQF TI GIEPEPX TEVXI #M FEX HMR
GSEH. %TE PSZMX HI GSEHE TI#XMPSV QTVSE#G R XSEXI TV'MPI #M TMG PE RSM GE
VSY (MHIQ). 'VIHMR'IPI TSTYPEVI VSQRI#XM W-EY STVMX #M EWYTVE I\TPMGVMM
SVMKMRMM EGIWXYM IPIQIRX, GEVI JVETE EXX TVMR MRGSRWMWXIR', GX #M TVMR
TIVMSEHE VIHYW HI ZME'. R TS3HE EGIWXIM MQEXIVMEPMX'M ETEVIRXI, VSYE E JSWX
EWMQMPEX YRYM TVMRGMTMY ZMXEP: -R GVIHMR'E TSTSVYPYM (.), WRKIPI SQIRIWG E
JSWX JGYX HMR VSY (+LIVQER, 115). 0E JIP, E#E GYQ R GE^YP RE#XIVMM WEY EP
QSV'MM YRSV TIVWSRENI HIQSRMGI WI SFWIVZE S HI^PR'YMVI E JSV'IPSV REXYVMM
(TPSM GY KVMRHMR, JYVXYRM IXG.), RE#XIVIE JEWX IVE S SGE^MI TSXVMZMX TIRXVY
QEVGEVIE WEGV, FIRI3G, E WTE'MYPYM: 'RH WI RE#XI YR GSTMP GY RSVSG #M HMR
GMRWXI, GEHI VSY QYPX (4EQ3PI-3, 1916, 68). R EGIEWX GEPMXEXI HI
TVMRGMTMY ZMXEP, GSRXVSPSV EP ZMI'MM #M WRX'MM, EP FYRWXVMM SEQIRMPSV, VSYE IVE
JSPSWMX R TVEGXMGMPI TVSTM'MEXSVMM IJIGXYEXI R HMQMRIE'E ^MPIM HI 7J. +LISVKLI
(GEVI GSRWXMXYME, R GEPIRHEVYP EKVMGSP, S ^M HI QE\MQ WEGVEPMXEXI, HI ETSKIY
EP JSV'IPSV JEWXI GI SJIVIEY IRIVKME RIGIWEV SEQIRMPSV, ERMQEPIPSV #M
TPERXIPSV; E#E WI I\TPMG #M HI^PR'YMVIE, R EGIEWX ^M, E EXEGYVMPSV
ZVNMXSEVIPSV #M WXVMKSMPSV): 0YQIE WI WTEP HMQMRIE' GY VSY WEY WI
XZPI#XI, REMRXI HI VWVMVIE WSEVIPYM, TVMR VSYE HI TI GQT, WTVI E WI
XQHYM HI SVMGI FSEP. 7I WXVRKI VSYE RXV-YR ZEW #M WI TWXVIE^ WTVI E 3
RXVIFYMR'EX TIWXI ER PE HMJIVMXI FSEPI ('ERHVIE, 1928, 109). 0E KIVQERM, R
RSETXIE ;EPTYVKMIM, REMRXI HI VWVMXYP WSEVIPYM, JIQIMPI WI HYG #M EHYR VSY
HI TI WTMGIPI HI KVY, ETSM QIVK XGRH EGEW #M JV E WI YMXE QTVINYV,
WTEP GY IE GETYP ZEGMM TIRXVY E 3 JIVMX HI ZVNM #M TIRXVY GE PETXIPI W 3I
QRSW (4EZIPIWGY, 1944, 2P-22). 4VEGXMGE YHVMM GY VSY E TPERXIPSV QEKMGI
IWXI GYRSWGYX #M HI VSQRM: 8SX JIPYP HI FYVYMIRM HIWGRXEXI WYRX TYWI R
KPI'MPI HI QYPW YQTPYXI GY ET #M PWEXI EJEV TIWXI RSETXI, GE W GEH VSYE
TI IPI. % HSYE ^M EGIWXI FYVYMIRM WYRX XMEXI QVYRX, WI EQIWXIG GY XV'I #M
GY WEVI #M WI HEY ZMXIPSV W PI QRRGI ('ERHVIE, 1928, 104). (MR GEY^E
MHIRXM3GVMM EGIWXYM IPIQIRX GY IWIR'E ZIKIXEP, GY TYXIVIE TPERXIPSV, E
GQTYPYM #M HIGM GY ZMMXSEVIPI FYRI VIGSPXI, PYEVIE QERIM GQTYVMPSV, R
EGIEWX TIVMSEH, WI VIHYGIE R TVMRGMTEP PE E EHYRE VSYE HI TI TPERXI.
4VEGXMGMPI TVMR GEVI IVE PYEX QERE GQTYVMPSV IVEY HMJIVMXI: 7I HYG
QMIVGYVIE #M ZMRIVIE HMQMRIE'E, REMRXI HI VWVMXYP WSEVIPYM, HMR 4E#XM TR R
6YWEPMM, GY S JE' HI QEW R GQTYP GY LSPHI. %GSPS HEY GY JE'E HI QEW
TIWXI LSPHIPI QEM JVYQSEWI EPI ZIGMRMPSV TR WI YH JE'E HI QEW HI VSY.
7XSVG ETSM VSYE RXV-YR ZEW #M S HYG EGEW. 'RH JEG TMRI R GYTXSV, TYR R
GSZEX HSY TMGXYVM HI VSY #M EXYRGM TMRIE GVI#XI HI ^IGI SVM TI GX JMR
E TYW (4EZIPIWGY, 1945, 70-71). (EV VSYE JYVEX RY IWXI RYQEM YR
MRWXVYQIRX QEKMG TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP GVYME WI TSEXI EWMKYVE YR VI^YPXEX
JEZSVEFMP EP GVI#XIVMM/WTSVMVMM TMRMM. )E IVE YXMPM^EX PE TVSTVMY, GE QMNPSG HI
XVERWJIV EP TYXIVMM QEKMGI E YRYM PER WEY GQT EWYTVE EPXYME, ZM^EX HI
JIVQIGXSV, E#E GYQ WI RXQTP #M R EPXI GE^YVM HI PYEVI E QERIM GQTYPYM:
6SYE S JSPSWIWG #M PE JEVQIGI. 3EQIRMM QI#XIVM, WXVMKSMM, S JSPSWIWG GE W
WXVMGI WIQRXYVMPI LSPHE EPXSVE #M nW PI HMVIEK~ TI EPI PSV. R HMQMRIE'E
^MPIM HI 7R +MSVKMY, nQI#XIVY~ QIVKI R ^SVM HI ^M PE LSPH, EGSPS WI
HI^FVEG HI LEMRI TR RY E VWVMX WSEVIPI, VIGMXIE^ YR HIWGRXIG, MEV GY
EFVSW, EHMG JE' HI QEW, EHYR VSYE HI TI LSPHE ZIGMRYPYM WEY E EPXYME #M S
WGYXYV TI LSPHE WE; TVMR EGIEWXE ME QERE HI PE FYGEXI #M S H PE LSPHE PYM,
E#E G LSPHE PYM ZE 3 RIEWIQREX QEM VSHMX HIGX EPI EPXSVE (+LIVQER,
119). 6SYE EG'MSRE JEZSVEFMP RY RYQEM EWYTVE SEQIRMPSV #M E VIGSPXIPSV
RKVMNMXI HI EGI#XME, GM #M EWYTVE ERMQEPIPSV. (EG VSYE TYXIE W PI JIVIEWG TI
ZMXI HI FSPM #M W 3I YR EHIZVEX WXMQYPIRX EP JIVXMPMX'MM, IWXI HI PE WMRI R'IPIW
G IE TYXIE 3 YXMPM^EX #M R TVEGXMGMPI SJIRWMZI EPI ZVNMXSEVIPSV, TVMR GEVI IVE
PYEX QERE ZMXIPSV: %PXIPI WI HYG GY S WMX TI GQT, PYRM HMQMRIE'E, REMRXI
HI VWVMXYP WSEVIPYM #M EHYR R IE MEVF #M XSX JIPYP HI 4SVM ^MGRH: n)Y RY
WXVRK 4SVMPI, HEV WXVRK QERE ZEGMPSV~. :MR HYT EGIIE EGEW #M #I^RH GY
WMXE TI ZEXV MEY S WIGIV, S 'MR HIEWYTVE 4SVMPSV #M ^MG: n'YQ E TYW 'MKERYP
^MQ'YP PE WIGIV, E#E TYR IY QERE PE ZEGE QIE~. 4I YVQ HEY 4SVMPI
EQIWXIGEXI GY XV'I #M GY TYGMSEW W PI QRRGI ZEGE (4EZIPIWGY, 1944,
61). (EV TVEGXMGE QEKMG RY IVE QIVIY E#E HI WMQTP. 4I PRK VIWTIGXEVIE
GEHVYPYM XIQTSVEP, MRHMWTIRWEFMP YRYM VI^YPXEX E#XITXEX #M R EJEVE JSPSWMVMM YRSV
SFMIGXI QEKMGI, PE JIP HI MRHMWTIRWEFMPI, WI MQTYRIE VSWXMVIE YRYM XI\X GEVI
EZIE YR ETSVX IWIR'MEP R GEHVYP VMXYEPYPYM (JSVQYPE GSQTPI\ YXMPM^EX IVE GY
EXX QEM TVSPM3G). :VNMXSEVIE WI HYGI HIWGYP', HI^FVGEX #M GY TVYP
HIWTPIXMX, GY WXVIGYVXSEVIE PIKEX HI HIKIXYP GIP QEVI HI PE TMGMSVYP WXRK
WEY GY GVTI PE TMGMSEVI #M EHYR VSYE, VIGMXRH: 4PIGEM HMQMRIE'/4I VSY, TI
GIE', /4I VSY RITWGYX, /'Y VSYE R TMGMSEVI, /'Y GIE'E R WTMREVI, /'Y
WIRMGYP PIKEX/0E TMGMSVYP WXRK. /&YV, TYV, /0E QMRI, PE 3TVMX, /&YVI, TYVI, /'-P
WXVRWIM GY WIRMGYP/"M PETXIPI-P EHYREM. /2Y PYEM VSYE TI WIRMG, /'M PYEM PETXIPI
(GYXVYME). /0E IE ETSW #M ^IVSW, /0E QMRI YRXSW #M KVSW (MHIQ, 62-63).
697%0/- R EJEV HI GVIHMR'IPI KIRIVEPI GEVI I\TPMG HYLYVMPI ETIM GE
3MRH S VITVI^IRXEVI ERMQMWX, S TIVWSRM3GEVI E EGIWXYM IPIQIRX, MTSWXE^MIVIE
YRSV JYRG'MM WTIGM3GI EGIWXIME WI TSEXI VIEPM^E GY EGIIE#M JVIGZIR'. *MI G
IWXI ZSVFE HI ERXVSTSQSV3^EVIE TYXIVMM HIQSRMGI TVSTVMY-^MWI, HI
QEXIVMEPM^EVIE JSV'IM RIGYRSWGYXI TI GEVI S TVIWYTYRI WXMLME EGZEXMG
(RIGE'MM, RM\, ZSHMERSM HYLYVM EGZEXMGI GY RJ'M#EVI QEWGYPMR) WEY HI S
TEXVSER EHIWIE FMRIZSMXSEVI, HI RYQIPI GVIME WYRX PIKEXI QY^MGE #M
HERWYP, RWY#MVIE YRSV QI#XI#YKYVM XVEHM'MSREPI (XSVWYP, 'IWYXYP, FVSHEXYP IXG.)
WEY EXVMFYMVIE YRSV GEPMX'M WYTVEYQERI (GYRSE#XIVIE TPERXIPSV QEKMGI, HI
I\IQTPY), XSEXI EGIWXI TIVWSRENI WYRX, TVMR RW#M XIVMXSVMYP TI GEVI P
WXTRIWG, EHIZVE'M WXTRM EM EGIWXIM JSV'I. 7TMVMXIPI EGZEXMGI WTIGM3GI
QMXSPSKMIM VYWI WYRX VYWEPOM HIQSRM^EVI E QSV'MPSV RIGE'M, GI WTSVIWG, PE
VRHYP PSV, EVQEXE HYLYVMPSV GEVI M-EY JGYX W-#M TMEVH ZME'E (VITVI^IRXVM
JSEVXI ETVSTMEXI HI EGIWXIE WI RXPRIWG #M PE XYVGM, XXEVM: EPFEWXM, EP, EP-ERE).
4VMR I\GIPIR' JIQMRMRI (ZEVMERXE QEWGYPMR, RIGM^IPEX, E HYLYPYM ETIM PE
WPEZM IWXI MPYWXVEX HI ZSHMERSM), IPI WYRX S MTSWXE^MIVI E VI4I\IPSV PYQMRSEWI
EPI YRHIPSV EGZEXMGI GI WI GSRXYVIE^ TI WYTVEJE'E ETIM R RST'MPI GY PYR (HI
EMGM TMKQIRXYP EPF-EPFWXVYM EP TMIPMM, FPSRHYP WXVPYGMXSV EP TVYPYM PYRK TR R
TQRX, ZI#QMRXIPI EPFI, EPF-WXVPYGMXSEVI IXG.). R GEPMXEXI HI HYLYVM
EGZEXMGI, IPI WYRX RJ'M#EXI EHIWIE R ET, RSXRH, WGPHRHY-WI, WTPRHY-#M
ZI#QMRXIPI TI QEPYP ETIM WEY TI S TMEXV, TMITXRRHY-#M TVYP EYVMY WEY
ZIVHI. R EGIPE#M XMQT, SGYTRH S TS^M'MI HI KVERM', PE PMQMXE HMRXVI HYLYVMPI
ETIM, HYLYVMPI THYVMM #M EPI EIVYPYM, VYWEPOM WYRX Z^YXI EHIWIE PIKRRHY-WI
R GSTEGM, JYVRH GSTMMM SEQIRMPSV WEY RPSGYMRHY-P GY EHIZVE'M QSR#XVM,
EXEGRH JIQIM RWVGMREXI WEY PILY^I, TVSZSGRH GS#QEVYVM, FSPM IXG. 9R
TVIHMGEX WTIGM3G EGIWXSV HYLYVM IWXI KHMPEXYP: GRH WI RXPRIWG GY SEQIRMM,
M KHMP TR GI EGI#XME QSV. 3 ETVSTMIVI HI TIVWSRENIPI HMR QMXSPSKME
VSQR HI MIPI S TYXIQ JEGI GRH IZMHIR'MIQ EXVEG'ME PSV TIRXVY QY^MG
#M HERW (GEVI IWXI, HI JETX, WTIGM3G TIRXVY EGIEWX GPEW HI HYLYVM). 'E S
WYFPMRMIVI E ETEVXIRIR'IM PSV PE PYQIE QSV'MPSV (E QSV'MPSV RIFSXI^E'M: I\MWX
S ZEVMIXEXI HI WTMVMXI EGZEXMGI, REZOM, QEZOM, GEVI WYRX, HYT GVIHMR'IPI
YGVEMRIRI, GSTMM QSV'M RIFSXI^E'M), R GEHVYP WVFXSVMPSV GSRWEGVEXI WTMVMXIPSV
QSV'MPSV PM WI EHYGIEY SJVERHI: GEMIVI, #XIVKEVI, 3VI HI E', GYRYRM.
-RXIVHMG'MMPI I\XVIQ HI VWTRHMXI R TIVMSEHE WVFXSVMPSV GSRWEGVEXI EGIWXSV
HYLYVM (QEM EPIW R WTXQRE 6YWEPMMPSV), VIJIVMXSEVI QEM EPIW PE SGYTE'MMPI
GEWRMGI E4EXI R WXVRW PIKXYV GY XSVWYP ('IWYXYP, GYWYXYP IXG.), WYRX #M IPI
S RSY HSZEH HI ETVSTMIVI HI PYQIE QSV'MPSV. R KIRIVEP, JYRG'ME HI GSRXVSP
E VIWTIGXVMM XEFYYVMPSV GI ZM^EY EGIWXI EGXMZMX'M IWXI EXVMFYMX, R QYPXI
QMXSPSKMM, QSV'MPSV, GEVI-#M QERMJIWX ZHMX RIQYP'YQMVIE, HISEVIGI TVEJYP,
WGEQIPI GI WI TVSHYG R XMQTYP EGIWXSV EGXMZMX'M PI MRXV R SGLM IXG. (R EGIWX
WIRW XVIFYMI W 3I MRGPYWI #M TPRKIVMPI 7J. :MRIVM PE EHVIWE JIQIMPSV GEVI
PYGVIE^ R ^MYE GSRWEGVEX IM). 0E RGLIMIVIE WVFXSVMM, WTMVMXIPI IVEY
EPYRKEXI R THYVM (YRISVM GLMEV S XRV NYGE VSPYP VYWEPOM, 3MRH HIWTPIXMX,
GY GYRYRE WTIGM3G TI GET). 'Y EGIWX TVMPIN WI JGIE S TTY# HMR TEMI,
QFVGEX GE S XRV JEX, IVE HYW TI GQT, R PERYP HI WIGEV (YR PSGYW
WTIGM3G), PWEX TI LSXEV WEY VYTX R FYG'M #M ETSM EVYRGEX TI GQT. (I
EGIEWX HEX VYWEPOM WMQFSPM^IE^ 3I YRIPI HMZMRMX'M EKVMGSPI, EPI GQTYPYM,
EPI VIGSPXIM, 3I RXVYGLMTEY JSV'IPI RIJEWXI EPI WI^SRYPYM, GY MR4YIR' EWYTVE
ZIKIXE'MIM (PE WPEZMM HI ETYW, FSKMRM, FSKMROM).
7%&%8 %WIQIRIE ZVNMXSEVIPSV HMR 3GGMHIRX #M ZVNMXSEVIPI VSQRI WI
RXPRIEY, GI-P HVITX QEM VEV, PE TIXVIGIVM ^KSQSXSEWI, R ZVJYP QYR'MPSV.
%WXJIP, R RSETXIE HI 7J. +LISVKLI WI SVKERM^EY EHIZVEXI WEFEXYVM EPI
WXVMKSMPSV ZMM R QYR'MM 6IXI^EX, +SHIERYP, 'IELPY, &MLSV #.E. (YRISVM, WI
WTYRI, HIWXYP HI VEV, S HEX PE #ETXI ERM). 6ITVI^IRXVMPI VSQRI#XM
VIJIVMXSEVI PE WEFEX WYRX HMJIVMXI. )\MWXE, R TVMQYP VRH, S ZM^MYRI XVEHM'MSREP-
HIQSRMG E WEFEXYPYM: 7EFEXYP PSV WI JEGI RYQEM S HEX TI ER, TIRXVY G
(YQRI^IY EV 3 JSWX RKHYMXSV GY 7GEVES'GLM #M M-EV 3 WTYW: n-EX, 3I #M ^MYE
XE!~ "M EXYRGM WI EHYR XS'M HVEGMM HMR QTVINYVMQM RXV-YR WMRKYV PSG, E#E GYQ
WI EHYR GVIHMRGMS#MM PE LVEQ. %GSPS ZMR HVEGMM, HYLYVMPI RIGYVEXI #M XS'M GIM
GEVI #M-EY ZRHYX WY4IXYP HVEGMPSV, EHMG ZVNMXSVMM, FEFIPI JIVQIGXSEVI,
SEQIRMM GY WTMVMHY#M #M RXMRH YR GLMSPLER HI ZYMI TQRXYP. R RSETXIE EGIIE,
E 7J. %RHVIM, TYR PE GEPI XSEXI VYX'MPI HI TIWXI ER #M #M QTEVX SEQIRMM,
WEXIPI #M PSGYVMPI. 4I YVQ WI HEY PE TIXVIGIVI #M PE HERWYVM HI#R'EXI, TR
GRH GSGS#MM GRX E XVIME SEV. %XYRGM XS'M WI-QTV#XMI #M WI HYG PE PSGYVMPI
PSV (3PMRIWGY, 40). 1EM I\MWXEY, HI EWIQIRIE, GVIHMR'I VIJIVMXSEVI PE YRIPI
RGMIVVM, EHIZVEXI PYTXI RXVI TIVWSRENI HMJIVMXI, E#E GYQ EQ Z^YX G WI
RXQTPE R )YVSTE 1IVMHMSREP. 7I GVIHIE G R RST'MPI GSRWEGVEXI (QEM EPIW
HI 7J. %RHVIM), WTMVMXIPI QSV'MPSV MIW HMR QSVQMRXI #M, QTVIYR GY WXVMKSMM ZMM,
GEVI R EGIEWX RSETXI #M TVWIWG GYPGY#YVMPI PSV JV W EMF ZVIS #XMMR'
HIWTVI EGIEWXE (4EQ3PI-P, 1916, 127), WI MEY PE FXEMI TI PE LSXEVI, VWTRXMM
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GSQTEGX. 9RIPI GVIHMR'I TSTYPEVI EZIEY R ZIHIVI MHIIE HI EVLIXMT, TVMR
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PSGYMEY R ETVSTMIVIE GSTEGMPSV, IVEY HISWIFMX HI VIPI #M YVWY^I, R XMQT GI
WYVSVMPI PSV HMR ETVSTMIVIE ETIPSV WEY GEVI #M HIWJ#YVEY EGXMZMXEXIE R
TSMIRM'I IVEY ZIWIPI #M FIRMKRI (:MRSKVEHSZE-8SPWXEME-2, 30). "M TSPSRI^MM
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THYVM (/V^]^ERS[WOM, 45). 8SX PE TSPSRI^M, OVEWRSPYHOM WTMVMXI HI XMTYP IP3PSV
#M WTMVMHY#MPSV ETVIEY ^MYE R THYVI, MEV RSETXIE ZIRIEY R GEWIPI
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ZMPIPI TSX EZIE R WXTRMVI TSQM, ETI. (EG YR VY IWXI PRK YR TSQ, ZMPE
TSQYPYM IWXI #M ZMPE VYPYM, HI EGIIE XVIFYMI W HEM S ZEQ TIRXVY E TYXIE W
FIM ET HMR EGIP VY (.). 'IP GI E WYJIVMX TSGIPM TI YVQE PSV, WI GVIHI G E T'MX-
S 3MRHG E XYPFYVEX, GRH E PYEX ET, GSTMMM ZMPIPSV GEVI WI WGPHEY ('MEY#ERY,
233). 0E WVFM, ZMPIPI TSX TVSZSGE JYVXYRM, TPSM #M KVMRHMR; GRH WXVRIWG
ZRXYVM TYXIVRMGI, IPI VYT GSTEGMM GEVI GVIWG R QYR'M, EKMX ETIPI #M VWXSEVR
FVGMPI, M RIEG TI RSXXSVM; R XMQTYP JYVXYRMPSV PI TS'M ZIHIE TI QEVI,
EPIVKRH TI GSEQIPI ZEPYVMPSV, EKMXRH GY TMGMSEVIPI PSV ZEPYVMPI RWTYQEXI.
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TMGMSEVI HI GETV #M GSTMXI HI GEP. 'IM GEVI PI WYTV WYRX PSZM'M R MRMQ, R
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KVIE, ITYM^ERX. %VYRGRH GIZE R ET WEY WTPRHY-#M R M^ZSEVI GSTMMM, IPI
SXVZIWG ETE #M GIP GI ZE FIE HMR EGIE ET ZE QYVM RIRXV^MEX. -R KIRIVEP, WI
GVIHI G ZMPIPI WYRX HI S JVYQYWI'I SVFMXSEVI; WYRX TEVXI JIQIMEWG,
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GE HI QMVIEW, QEM HIW EGSTIVMXI GY JVYR^I HI GSTEGM ('MEY#ERY, 233). 0SV PI
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REPX WEY TI QEVKMRIE YRIM VTI (+LISVKLMIZE, 115).
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VY. 'RH HIWGR'M GYMZE HI S FSEP #M IWXI #M YR GSTMP QMG R GEW, XVIFYMI W
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QRRGI GMV HI QQPMK #M EPXI GIPI, HEV QEM GY WIEQ M TPEGI XEVI PETXIPI.
2YQEM GX WVEX W RY-P HIMI, (SEQRI JIVI#XI! 'XISHEX XVMQMXI TSEXI
KSWTSHMRE GEWIM TI WPYK W-P HIMI HI QRGEVI #M WPYKE GE WPYKE, M TYRI
ERYQI WEVI, HEV WXTRE #XMI RHEX, G-P JEGI HVEGYP #SXMM. 'RH TSEXI G YMX
RXV-S ^M W-P HIE HI QRGEX, RY JEGI RMQMG EPXE, HIGX VWXSEVR XSEXI SEPIPI
#M XSEXI FPMHIPI HI TI TSPM', R QMNPSGYP GEWIM, GY KYVE R NSW, JV W PI WXVMGI.
(EG KSWTSHEVYP HMR GEW JYQIE^ PYPIE, M H #M PYM. 'MRI P EVI, XVIFYMI W WI
TSEVXI XEVI FMRI GY HRWYP, GGM EPXJIP I VY, TIRXVY G I PIKEX TI ZME' #M TI
QSEVXI GY IP (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 466). 8SX R GEPMXEXI HI IPIQIRX HI GSRXEGX,
HI QMNPSG HI GSQYRMGEVI RXVI GIPI HSY PYQM ETEVI WEVIE R TVEGXMGMPI
SVEGYPEVI. 'E W-#M ZEH YVWMXYP, JIXIPI W JEG S XYVX WVEX XEVI #M GSETX
RXVI JSGYVM, WTVI %RYP 2SY WEY WTVI 7J. %RHVIM #M GRH WI GYPG W-S QRRGI.
4I GMRI ZE ZMWE G-P H ET, EGIPE M-P YVWMXSVYP (MHIQ, 187). 7EY: 'E W-#M
ZMWI^I JEXE YVWMXSVYP, W TPQHIEWG ZMRIVM RSETXIE #M WQFX RSETXIE
TR R ^MY W GSEG TMRIE. "M HMR GIE HMRXM TMRI GI S ZE WGSEXI, W QY#XI
S QFYGXYV #M W-S TYMI R FVY, MEV VIWXYP W-P QTV'IEWG PE SEQIRM. 7IEVE
W TYMI FVYP NSW #M W FEX QXRMM #M W ^MG: n(EG RY XI-E EHYGI FVYP, XI-E
EHYGI WEVIE, HEG RY WEVIE TMRIE, R ZMW W XI ZMWI^ #M W ZMM W XI
ZH~ (MHIQ).
71&8-B8-14 7%'69.
7283%()6-; '%-- 09- 7283%()6; *)'-36--.
1%6&30--; 74-6-(9"-- 63"-- (EG, R KIRIVEP, TIVWSRENIPI QEPI3GI
GMVGYQWGVMWI XSVWYPYM VITVI^MRX TIVWSRM3GVM EPI ^MPIPSV WTXQRMM (PE SVMKMRI
ERYQMXI ^MPI EPI WTXQRMM, GERSRM^EXI), GEVI EG'MSRIE^ MRHMZMHYEP EXX R
TVMZMR'E WYFMIGXYPYM (I\MWX YR WMRKYV EWIQIRIE EGXERX), GX #M E SFMIGXYPYM
IWXI EXEGEX GXI S JIQIMI, EGEW PE EGIEWXE, 3MRH WYVTVMRW RGPGRH
MRXIVHMG'ME, *IGMSVMM 1EV'SPMM #M 'EMM PYM 7YRXSEHIV VITVI^MRX I\EGX STYWYP PSV. )M
WYRX PIKE'M R QSH WTIGMEP HI XSVW, EG'MYRIE PSV HI TIHITWMVI 3MRH KIRIVEX HI
RIVIWTIGXEVIE ^MPIPSV HI HIWJ#YVEVI E #I^XSVMPSV, E TIXVIGIVMPSV XMRIVMPSV.
%G'MSRIE^ R KVYT, MR3PXVRHY-WI R QMNPSGYP GSPIGXMZMX'MM VIWTIGXMZI HMR GEVI,
XSX WYF TVIXI\XYP WYW'MRIVMM VIWTIGXMZIM EG'MYRM, EXVEK S XRV, TI GEVI
MRXIR'MSRIE^ W-S SQSEVI, HI#M RY TY'MRI WYRX QIR'MYRMPI R GEVI TIHIETWE
IWXI VIEPM^EX WYF JSVQE YRYM QEWEGVY GSPIGXMZ, ETVSETI XS'M TEVXMGMTER'MM PE
TIXVIGIVI 3MRH YGM#M. 'IPI HMRXM ZM^EXI IVEY #I^XSVMPI, GY HIWZV#MVI
MRXIV^MWI R ^MPIPI GSRWEGVEXI 7J. 8SEHIV, GIP GEVI, TVMR MRWXVYQIRXIPI WEPI, 'EMM
PYM 7YRXSEHIV, 7YRXSEHIVMM, GLIQE XSXYP PE SVHMRI. 4IHITWIPI GIPSV GEVI RY
VIWTIGXEY EGIWXI TVIWGVMT'MM IVEY HMZIVWI: (EG ZVIS JEX QEVI RIGMRWXI#XI
TVMR ZVIYR PYGVY JIQIMIWG RITSXVMZMX EGIEWXE, EXYRGM 7YRXSEHIV XVMQMXI TI GEMM
WM, GEVI, TVIJGY'M R GIM QEM ZSMRMGM #M QEM JVYQS#M JIGMSVM, S TRHIWG #M, WYF
TVIXI\X G ZSV W-S TIXVIEG PE NSG, S VTIWG (.) WEY XEMI GETYP XYXYVSV GIPSV
GEVI W-EV E4E R #I^XSEVI SVM PE EPX TIXVIGIVI (1EVMER, 1994, -, 241, 245).
1SXMZYP IWXI RXPRMX #M R PIKIRHI GEVI EY GE TIVWSRENI WXVMKSMM, HVEGMM PE
VSQRM WEY PE WPEZM. %G'MYRIE PSV QEPI3G WI I\XMRHI EWYTVE XYXYVSV
SEQIRMPSV: HEG RXPRIWG SEQIRM RSETXIE, EJEV, M GEPG R TMGMSEVI TR M
PEW QSV'M, M TSGIWG (*SGLM, 308-316). R EPXI VIKMYRM IVEY TIHITWM'M, TI PRK
JIQIMPI #M JIXIPI GEVI XSVGIEY, 'IWIEY, GSWIEY R TIVMSEHE GSRWEGVEX
(7YRXSEHIV TVMQE HYQMRMG HMR 4SWXYP 4E#XIPYM; ^MPIPI 7YRXSEHIVMPSV HI
QEV'M HMREMRXIE WVFXSVMM TR NSM HMR WTXQRE YVQXSEVI) #M FVFE'MM GEVI
YQFPEY GY GY'MXYP, GY WIGYVIE. 7I WTYRIE HIWTVI EGI#XME G IVEY PIKE'M HI
7YRXSEHIV GY PER'YVMPI WEPI, GEVI PI TVSZSGEY HYVIVM R QMRM, R TMGMSEVI #M PE
RGLIMIXYVMPI SEWIPSV.
7YRXSEHIVMM, GY ZEVMERXIPI PSV 7TMVMHY#MM VS#MM, *IGMSVMM 1EV'SPMM IXG. (-SRM',
61, 92), WYRX TVMZM'M HI 1MVGIE )PMEHI GE VQ#M'I EPI YRIM ZIGLM GSRJVIVMM,
WSGMIX'M WIGVIXI FVFXI#XM, EM GVSV QIQFVM, QEWGE'M (TIVWSRENIPI IVEY, GYQ
EQ QEM EQMRXMX, NYQXEXI-SEQIRM NYQXEXI-GEM), XIVSVM^EY JIQIMPI (R
PIKXYV GY XSVGXSEVIPI GJ. #M )PMEHI, 1976, 82-83).
7)')8% *IRSQIRIPI QIXISVSPSKMGI (KVMRHMR, TPSEMI) WYRX EHIWIE TYWI
R WIEQE GSQTSVXEQIRXYPYM (RI) JEWX EP YRSV GSRXVSPSVM WTIGMEPM^E'M, HMRXVI
GEVI GIM QEM GYRSWGY'M WYRX FEPEYVMM. %WXJIP, RY RI WYVTVMRHI W ZIHIQ G
I\MWX #M FEPEYVM VWTYR^XSVM HI PMTWE TPSMM, EHMG HI WIGIX: 7YRX R GIV RM#XI
^QIM, TYXIVM EPI PYM (YQRI^IY. )M WYRX HSM: YRYP PE VWVMX #M EPXYP PE EW3R'MX.
'IP HI PE VWVMX I HI TPSEMI, HI QER, GIP HI PE EW3R'MX HI WIGIX. "M GRH WI
JEGI JYVXYR, WI EYHI XYRRH #M WI ZIHI JYPKIVRH, IM WI FEX. %XYRGM WPSFSEHI
WKI'MPI GIP HI PE VWVMX WTVI GIP HI PE ETYW #M ZI^M TI GIV GYQ YRYP H R
EPXYP. (EG HSZIHI#XI GIP HI TPSEMI, I ERYP QRSW; HEG HSZIHI#XI GIP HI
WIGIX, I WIGIXSW (4EQ3PI-3, 1916, 85). 4IVMGSPYP WIGIXIM IWXI E#E HI QEVI,
RGX RMGM YR 'VER RY HSVI#XI W-#M ZEH EVWI HI WSEVIPI RIQMPSW VIGSPXIPI (S
ZEVMERX E EGIWXIM TYXIVM HMWXVYGXMZI, PE WGEV QMG, IZMHIRX, IWXI MPYWXVEX HI
EG'MYRIE HIQSRMG E WSEVIPYM HI EQME^, QEXIVMEPM^EX PE WPEZM R TIVWSRENYP
TSPYHMR'E). 4IRXVY E WIQREPE TYXIVMPSV GIVI#XM TIVMGSPYP GEVI TPERIE^ EWYTVE
HIWXMRYPYM VSEHIPSV GQTYPYM, VSQRMM EY EPIW S GEPI QEM TY'MR SFM#RYMX: TVMR
MRXIVQIHMYP YRIM ETEVIRXI JSVQYPI E MQTSWMFMPYPYM, IWXI MPYWXVEX TPEWXMG
RIZSME MQTIVMSEW HI ET: 9RMM XMTE TI ET TEMI ETVMRWI #M WXVMK R KYVE
QEVI: n8YPEM, QM, G EVHI ETE!~ %P'MM VWTYRH: n(, (SEQRI, W TPSY, W WI
WXMRK!~ (*SGLM, 257). (MRGSPS HI WMXYE'ME R GEVI WIGIXE I TVSHYW HI
RIKPMNIR'E WEY MRXIR'ME JSV'IPSV HMZMRI #M TQRXIRMM, GYRSWGXSVMM, TYXIEY W
EG'MSRI^I HYT TPEG EWYTVE VIKMQYPYM TVIGMTMXE'MMPSV. (EG SEQIRMM TYXIEY
STVM, R GE^ HI RIZSMI, TPSEME, IWXI HI E#XITXEX GE IM W TSEX VIEPM^E #M EGXYP
STYW HI STVMVI E IM. 'E HI SFMGIM, ZVNMXSEVIPI HI'MRIEY #M R EGIWX GE^
GYRS#XMR'IPI RIGIWEVI, TI GEVI PI ETPMGEY R TVEGXMG: 'E W STVIEWG TPSMPI,
WXVMKSEMGIPI TYR RXV-S WXVEGLMR XSX JIP HI KVYR'I, MEV HIEWYTVE TYR WQR'
HI GRIT #M YR SY #M PI EQIWXIG XSX TR JEG S XYVX. 'X ZSV 'MRI XYVXE
EGIEWXE TI GYTXSV ZE 3 WIGIX, MEV HEG S 'MR PE VIZIRIEP ZE
TPSYE (3PMRIWGY, 496). %P'M WTIGMEPM#XM, GSRWMHIVE'M RZIWXM'M GY TYXIVM QEKMGI
R ZMVXYXIE TVSJIWMIM TI GEVI S TVEGXMGEY, IVEY GVQMHEVMM. 4IRXVY G IM RY
EZIEY RIZSMI HI YQMHMXEXI, RGIVGEY W-S 'MR R JVY, IPMFIVRH TPSEME HSEV
GRH #M RGLIMEY EGXMZMXEXIE: 'VQMHEVMM MEY YR FYVHYJ, P YQTPY GY ET #M P
FEK R TQRX, JGRH JSG HIEWYTVE. %XYRGM TSVRI#XI WIGIXE. 'E W HI^PIKI
TPSEME, WGSX FYVHYJYP #M P R'IET GY YR TMVSR; ETE GYVKI GY RGIXYP, GGM HEG
EV ZVWE XSX FYVHYJYP, EV RIGE PYQIE TPSMPI (4EQ3PI-3, 1916, 125). 3EQIRMM,
EJIGXE'M HI TVEGXMGE QEKMGMIRMPSV, TYXIEY XVIGI PE GSRXVESJIRWMZ TVMR
QERMTYPEVIE YRSV SFMIGXI GSRWMHIVEXI E EZIE S ERYQMX RGVGXYV QEKMG,
HEXSVMX GSRXEGXYPYM TI GEVI P-EY EZYX GY EGI#XME: 4IRXVY GE W WI TSVRIEWG
TPSMPI, GMRIZE JYV HI PE 'MKERMM GVQMHEVM S GVQMH RIEVW #M S EVYRG R
ET #M TPSMPI WI HI^PIEK (+LIVQER, 66). R EPXI GE^YVM, PMTWE TPSMM IVE
GSRWMHIVEX S TIHIETW HMZMR, KIRIVEX HI RGPGEVIE YRIM MRXIVHMG'MM GEVI-P
TVMZIE R KIRIVEP TI QSV'MM RIGYVE'M, QSV'MM REMRXI HI ZVIQI: (EG 'MRIQ
S GVYGI R ET GIP TY'MR S ^M, XVIFYMI W TPSEMI. R 1YR'MM %TYWIRM WI HYG
RSETXIE R GMQMXMV #M JYV GVYGIE HI PE GETYP YRYM FI'MZ #M S EVYRG TI ET PE
ZEPI (MHIQ, 67; EGIWX QSXMZ WX PE FE^E VMXYEPYPYM 'EPSMERYPYM). (EG ZVIE
GMRIZE W TPSEMI, ME S GVYGI HI PE YR QSVQRX HMR 'MRXMVMQ, S TYRI R VY, ME^
WEY PEG, MEV TIWXI HRWE TYRI G'MZE FSPSZERM #-S PEW EGSPS. 'XI ^MPI ZE WXE
GVYGIE EGSPS, EXXIE ^MPI ZE TPSYE. (EG ZVIE W RGIXI^I TPSEME, ME GVYGIE HMR
ET #-S TYRI PE PSGYP IM R 'MRXMVMQ (4EQ3PI-3, 1916, 128). %PXI TVEGXMGM VMXYEPI
EY R ZIHIVI EQIRMR'EVIE HIQSRMPSV WIGIXIM, EG'MSREVIE, TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP
SFMIGXIPSV QEKMGI GSRWEGVEXI (HI TMPH FSVSERE), EWYTVE GIPSV VWTYR^XSVM
HI XYPFYVEVIE IGLMPMFVYPYM TPYZMSQIXVMG. (I EGIIE, WI JYV S KVET #M S EVYRG
R SVMGI ET GYVKXSEVI; -R EPXI TV'M, TI ZVIQI HI WIGIX QEVI, JYV XSEGE
FMWIVMGMM #M S EVYRG R JRXRM WEY VYVM; GE W TSVRIEWG TPSMPI VYT MEVF,
WXVMK ZRXYVMPI #M TPSMPI WIEVE TI GS# (+LIVQER, 68). R GE^YP R GEVI TPSEME
E JSWX PIKEX TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP JEVQIGIPSV, IWXI HI PE WMRI R'IPIW G XSX R
EGIWX QSH TYXIE 3 HI^PIKEX: 3 EPX HEXMR R &MLSV, GRH I WIGIX QEVI, I
G S QYMIVI FMRIGYZRXEX WI HYGI R ET GY S GSEW WEY WIGIVI R QR #M
XEMI R HVIETXE #M R WXRKE, VSWXMRH GYZMRXIPI: 2Y XEM ETE, /'M XEM PIKEXY TPSMM/
'E W TPSEMI TQRXYP/7 QM-P QSEMI, /4QRXYP W RI VSHIEWG, /0YQIE W
WI ZIWIPIEWG (MHIQ, 78).
'EPSMERYP; 4ETEVYHE; TPSEMI; WMX.
7*. :-2)6-; :-2)6- -RXIVHMG'MMPI PIKEXI HI ZMRIVM GE ^M E WTXQRMM WEY R
GEHVYP YRIM WVFXSVM GEPIRHEVMWXMGI WYRX RYQIVSEWI, IPI ZM^RH QENSVMXEXIE
EGXMZMX'MPSV GEWRMGI. 4VMRXVI EGIWXIE 3KYVIE^, IZMHIRX #M XSVWYP, 7J. :MRIVM
TIHITWMRHY-PI GY EWMHYMXEXI TI JIQIMPI GEVI R WIEVE ^MPIM HI NSM WTVI ZMRIVM
WEY ZMRIVM WTVI WQFX RG QEM EY HI XSVW. 1SXMZIPI PIKIRHIPSV TVMZMXSEVI PE
EGIWX TIVWSREN WYRX MHIRXMGI GY GIPI HIWTVI 1EV'SPIE, .SMQVM'E IXG.:
TIVWSRENYP ZMRI TI PE GEWIPI KSWTSHMRIPSV #M #M SJIV WTVMNMRYP TIRXVY
XIVQMREVIE GX QEM KVEFRMG E EGXMZMX'MM (XSVW, ^SPMX IXG.). *IQIME RI#XMYXSEVI
IWXI WEPZEX HI SFMGIM HI RE# (IE EVI VSPYP LSXVXSV R MRM'MIVIE XMRIVIM JIXI,
3MRH GIE GEVI #XMI) WEY HI S ZIGMR. 8SX HIWTVI 7J. :MRIVM QIR'MSRQ S EPX
GVIHMR', GEVI IZMHIR'ME^ PIKXYVE IM GY XEFYYVMPI GEVI ZM^IE^ VIEPM^EVIE
I\GIWYPYM. %WXJIP, WI WTYRI G IE PI TIHITWI#XI TI JIXIPI PIRI#I, TVIJGRHY-
PI R RIZWXYMGM (/IQFEGL, 1983, 631). 0E VY#M, 7J. :MRIVM IWXI GSRXMRYEXSEVIE
EGXMZMX'MM YRIM QEM ZIGLM ^IMX'M, QSOS#. 'E PE VSQRM, MRXIVHMG'MMPI GYTVMRHIEY
S KEQ PEVK HI SGYTE'MM. R TVMRGMTEP WI MRXIV^MGIE XSVWYP, TIRXVY E RY WXVRM
TVEJ #M E S HIVERNE EWXJIP TI ^IM' (&YWPEIZ, 247). %GIWX QSXMZ XIEQE HI E RY
VMHMGE TVEJYP TVSHYW R YVQE XSVWYPYM #M HI E RY WYTVE EWXJIP HMZMRMXEXIE IWXI
RXPRMX #M PE FEPXS-WPEZM: ^IM'E >MZE/*VINE, YR JIP HI QIWEKIV EP WSEVIPYM.
'VIHMR'IPI VYWI ZIGLM WTYRIEY G, EXYRGM GRH IE YQFPE TI TQRX, XVIFYMEY
W WI IZMXI XSEXI EGXMZMX'MPI GEVI WXVRIEY TVEJ: WGVQREX, XSVW, WGYXYVEXYP
SFMIGXIPSV, EVEX, KVTEX IXG. (EG GMRIZE IVE KWMX GSRXMRYRH W PYGVI^I,
TIHIETWE IVE MRIZMXEFMP (/EPMRWOM, 46). %PXISVM, 7J. :MRIVM IVE VITVI^IRXEX GE
S JIQIMI REPX, WPEF, GY TVYP HIWTPIXMX, HMR MR. )E IVE TVSXIGXSEVIE
XSVGXSEVIPSV, 'IWXSEVIPSV TYVXE, HI EPXJIP #M RYQIPI HI 7J. :MRIVM E MRYPYM
('MGIVSZ, 57). (EV TIHITWM'M IVEY RY RYQEM GIM GEVI RGPGEY MRXIVHMG'MMPI
PYGVRH. 9RISVM XS'M GIM GEVI RY IVEY KWM'M HSVQMRH ZMRIVM WIEVE IVEY R'ITE'M
WEY TVIJGY'M R FVSE#XI (%JEREWMIZ, 1865, 233; 6FEOSZ, 1981, 387).
9GVEMRIRMM EY TWXVEX, HI EWIQIRIE, GVIHMR'I VIJIVMXSEVI PE 4MEXRM'E/ 7J.
:MRIVM, WTSVEHMG 2IHMPME/ 7J. (YQMRMG. %QRHSY PI TIHITWIWG TI JIQIMPI
GEVI XSVG HYQMRMG/WQFX WIEVE, VIWTIGXMZ ZMRIVM. 0I ENYXEY W-#M HYG
QYRGE TR PE GETX, HYT GEVI PI TEVEPM^EY, PI XSVGIEY TVYP WEY GLMEV PI
SQSVEY. 7J. :MRIVM IVE RJ'M#EX GE S FXVR WEY, EHIWIE, GE S JIQIMI WEY
JEX JVYQSEW, GEVI #M JGIE ETEVM'ME R WIVMPI HI ZMRIVM WEY R ENYRYP PSV, TPMR
HI R'ITXYVMPI EGIPSV #M JYWIPSV GIPSV GEVI PYGVEY R ^MYE GSRWEGVEX IM
(/EPMRWOM, 43). 4IHITWIPI IVEY ZEVMEXI: TEVEPM^ME HIKIXIPSV GIPSV GEVI XSVGIEY,
NYTYMVIE TMIPMM, GEVI QEM ETSM IVE EK'EX HI V^FSMYP HI 'IWYX IXG. 4IRXVY E
WGTE HI IE, EXYRGM GRH WI SJIVIE W XI ENYXI TIRXVY E XI TIHITWM YPXIVMSV,
GIP QEM MRHMGEX IVE W-P VIJY^M WTVMNMRYP #M W EVYRGM EJEV, TI KIEQ, GIPI 20-P00
HI JYWI GEVI 'M WI RXMRHIEY WTVI XSVW (1MPSVEHSZMGM-P, 377). 'E W S QFYRI^M,
XVIFYME W JEGM GYV'IRMI R ENYR #M W-P TVIKXI#XM S QEW: TMRI, WEVI, TY'MR
GMSVF HI TI#XI WEY 3IVXYV VMXYEP HI GIVIEPI (OE#E). R ENYRYP QEVMM WVFXSVM
7J. 4EVEWGLMZE-4MEXRMGE (28 SGXSQFVMI WXMP ZIGLM), SJVERHE GSRWXE R QMIVI
HMPYEX (MHIQ).
1EV'M; XMQT WEGVY.
7-8% 6IWTIGXYP HISWIFMX GEVI M WI EVEX EGIWXYM SFMIGX HI Y^ GEWRMG SJIV
MRHMGMM WIQRM3GEXMZI R PIKXYV GY WEGVEPMXEXIE PYM. R EGIWX WIRW, RY XVIFYMI
W RI QEM QMVI YXMPM^EVIE WMXIM R ZEVMEXI TVEGXMGM GY GEVEGXIV QEKMG, EPXYVM HI
EPXI TMIWI HI MRZIRXEV GEWRMG: 7MXE GRH S GYQTIVM RY GIVRM HISHEX GY IE,
HEV S WYM R TSH W WXIMI S ^M, ETSM S WTIPM GY FYWYMSG #M ^MGM: n'YQ M^ZSV#XI
ETE, E#E W M^ZSVEWG TMRIE R GEWE QIE #M XSXHIEYRE W 3M GMRWXMX, GYVEX #M
PYQMREX~. "M HYT GI W-E YWGEX, S EHYGI R GEW #M S TYRI R GYM; MEV GRH WI
RZIGLI#XI, WI TYRI W WXIE R TSH; S RXVIFYMR'I^M XYQRH R IE GIZE: JEWSPI
IXG. (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 226). 0MTWE VIWTIGXYPYM JE' HI WMX WI WERG'MSRIE^:
7MXE W R-S TYM R GET, G JEGM FYFI; (MR WMX WEY GMYV RY WI H HI QRGEVI
PE KMRM, G JEG GSFI; 4VMR WMX W RY XI YM'M, G SVFI#XM (MHIQ, 227). 'Y S
JYRG'MI QEM TY'MR QEVGEX, R GEHVYP TVEGXMGMPSV SVEGYPEVI, WMXE ETEVI QEM
HIKVEF GE VIGMTMIRX, EZRH I\GPYWMZ JYRG'ME HI E HITS^MXE TMIWIPI GEVI JEG
SFMIGXYP VMXYEPYPYM. (MR GEY^E EFWIR'IM MRJSVQE'MMPSV R GEVI PSGYP IM EV 3 JSWX
NYGEX HI EPXI SFMIGXI, R EGIEWX WMXYE'MI TYXIQ WTYRI G WMXE EZIE EMGM YR VSP
QYPX QEM RWIQREX: (I 'VGMYR, GRH WGS'M TPGMRXIPI, YQTPM WMXE HI TPGMRXI
#M PI EGSTIVM ^MGRH: n' E#E GYQ I EXYRGM, TPMR HI XSEXI W 3I XSX ERYP~.
(YT GI W-EY PYEX TPGMRXIPI, TYM HI XSEXI QRGVMPI R WMX #M PE#M TIWXI
RSETXI #M E HSYE ^M WI H PE KMRM (MHIQ). R EGIEWX GEPMXEXI E IM HI
HITS^MXEV E IRIVKMMPSV JEWXI EPI GEWIM, IE ETEVI R QYPXI GVIHMR'I: 7MXE RY-P
FMRI W-S QTVYQY'M TVMR WEX G-'M ME XSEX QERE; 7MXE RY WI H WIEVE HMR GEW
YRHI IWXI GSTMP QMG, G-P ME WSQRYP GSTMPYPYM IXG. (MHIQ). 4VEGXMGMPI QEKMGI
EGXMZI GEVI EZIEY GE SFMIGX TVMRGMTEP WMXE IVEY GYRSWGYXI HI QYPXI TSTSEVI.
(I I\IQTPY, TIRXVY E GSRXVE^MGI WTMVMXYP YRIM JSVQYPI E MQTSWMFMPYPYM E GVE
ET GY WMXE/GY GMYVYP EHMG MQTSWMFMPMXEXIE HI E HYGI PE FYR WJV#MX EG'MYRIE
VIWTIGXMZ (EGIEWXE IVE S WEVGMR HEX JVIGZIRX TIVWSRENIPSV RIJEWXI GEVI
ZIRIEY W-P XYPFYVI TI SEQIRM), EGIWX EGX QEKMG WI HIWJ#YVE GRHZE R
VIEPMXEXI: 3MRH YR EGX GSRWEGVEX, YXMPM^EVIE SFMIGXYPYM XVIFYME W WI JEG R QSH
HMJIVMX JE' HI GIE GSXMHMER. 6Y#MM WTYR G R ZVIQI HI WIGIX S JIQIMI
ZHYZ XVIFYME W GEVI ET HMRXV-YR #ER' WEY HMRXV-YR SGLM HI ET TI GQT
WEY R TVIENQE IM GY S WMX #M W S HYG R VY; TIRXVY GE ETE W RY WI WGYVK
HMR WMX, EGIEWXE IVE EGSTIVMX GY PYX. R QIHMGMRE TSTYPEV ETE WXVIGYVEX
TVMR WMX EZIE ZMVXY'MPI ETIM HI TPSEMI, EPI ETIM XQHYMXSEVI TVMR I\GIPIR': R
XMQTYP ITMHIQMMPSV, HI I\IQTPY, GY S EWXJIP HI ET IVEY WXVSTM'M SEQIRMM,
ERMQEPIPI, GEWIPI (7PEZNERWOENE QMJSPSKMNE, 334). %FSVHEX XSX GE YR SFMIGX
WEGVY #M RY GE YRYP SFM#RYMX, WMXE VWXYVREX (HSWYP WMXIM) IVE JSPSWMX
JVIGZIRX R PYTXE GY QEPI3GYP: 4I HSWYP WMXIM GY QRMPI RHVX, WI GIVRI
GIRY# TIRXVY FSEPE GSTMMPSV, FEFM'I. 'IM HMR GEW WYRX TY#M W XVIEG TI WYF
WMXE HI HIEWYTVE Y#MM TIRXVY E-P YMXE TI QSVX (&MP'MY, 157). 4IRXVY E-P MHIRXM3GE
TI HY#QERM, TI TSXIR'MEPMM XVMQM'XSVM EM JEVQIGIPSV, WI HIWJ#YVE YR VMXYEP
EWIQRXSV: 7 GIVRM JMR TI HSWYP WMXIM NSM, QEV'M #M WQFX TR E RY
VWVM WSEVIPI #M GRH 'M-E ZIRM YR HY#QER, W JEGM QQPMKY', GGM GYQ ZE
PYE S HEX R KYV, ZE XY#M #M EXYRGM ZIM #XM FMRI G 'M-I HY#QER (2MGYPM'-
:SVSRGE, 227). 9XMPM^EVIE EGIWXYM SFMIGX #M R GE^YP HMWTEVM'MIM YRSV PYGVYVM HMR
KSWTSHVMI, GSRWMHIVEXI JYVEXI, HHIE FYRI VI^YPXEXI: 'RH WI JYV GIZE,
R3KM JSEVJIGIPI R WMX #M HSM 'MR JSEVJIGIPI HI WYF YVIGLM MEV EPXYP ^MGI: n7MX,
WMX, HI E PYEX GYXEVI W XI RZVXI#XM~ #M WTYR QEM QYPXI RYQI #M PE GMRI WMXE
WI RZVXI#XI, EGIPE E PYEX (MHIQ). )ZMHIRX, HEG TVMR MRXIVQIHMYP WMXIM IVEY
RHITVXEXI JEVQIGIPI, IVE TVSFEFMP GE #M ZVNMXSEVIE W S JSPSWIEWG, W
HMWTYR HI WEGVEPMXEXIE IM TIRXVY TYRIVIE R TVEGXMG E QEPI3GMMPSV (E#E GYQ
WI RXQTPE #M R GE^YP EPXSV SFMIGXI): 7 MIM WMXE #M W RZVXI#XM KZERYP
PMRKYVIM RYRXVY #M HIWGR'M G GYXEVI TI GEVI EM GMYH W WVGIEWG, W
WI QFSPRZIEWG. 6E^M GY PMRKYVE JMR HI TI JYRHYP WMXIM HMR EJEV #M XSVRM
RYRXVY. (YT EGIIE S TYM R GYM #M WX S WTXQR. %TSM MIM #M XSVRM JMR R
FSVXMGMG #M PE#M W WXIMI TR RSETXIE. 2SETXIE XI YM'M TVMR FSVXMGMG #M ZI^M TI
EGIPE GVYME M HSVI#XM VY (MHIQ, 227-228). R QSH EWIQRXSV, WMXE IVE
TEVXI GSQTSRIRX E MRWXVYQIRXEVYPYM QEPI3G EP ZVNMPSV TIRXVY PYEVIE QERIM
WEY E PETXIPYM: 7I HYG GY S WMX TI GQT, PYRM HMQMRIE'E, REMRXI HI VWVMXYP
WSEVIPYM #M EHYR R IE MEVF #M XSX JIPYP HI 4SVM ^MGRH: n)Y RY WXVRK 4SVMPI,
HEV WXVRK QERE ZEGMPSV~. :MR HYT EGIIE EGEW #M #I^RH GY WMXE TI ZEXV MEY
S WIGIV, S 'MR HIEWYTVE 4SVMPSV #M ^MG: n'YQ E TYW 'MKERYP ^MQ'YP PE WIGIV,
E#E TYR IY QERE PE ZEGE QIE~. 4I YVQ HEY 4SVMPI EQIWXIGEXI GY XV'I #M
GY TYGMSEW W PI QRRGI ZEGE (4EZIPIWGY, 1944, 61).
1XYV; SFMIGXI QEKMGI.
73&-":%86.
73%68-"13-6); 36-72-&; 4%6'); 967-83%6).
73' *SGYP TI PYQI RXM (YQRI^IY P-E JGYX, GE W W3R'IEWG S
FMWIVMG. % EHYW S THYVI HI PIQRI #M E E#I^EX-S R NYVYP FMWIVMGMM #M M-E HEX JSG
W EVH. (VEGYP EXYRGM E ZIRMX GY YR F' HI WSG #M E JYVEX HI PE (YQRI^IY JSG.
(I EGIIE WSGYP RY WI TYRI TI JSG, G I PIQRYP 2IGYVEXYPYM, R GEVI E JYVEX IP
JSG (WEY: -R &SXS#ERM WI ^MGI G JYQYP W-E JGYX GRH E TYW HMEZSPYP WSGYP, GE
W JYVI JSG HI PE (YQRI^IY; 2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 1198). R YRIPI TV'M EPI
8VERWMPZERMIM WI GVIHIE R I\MWXIR'E YRYM WTMVMX VY, GEVI M SQSVE TI GSTMMM
RIFSXI^E'M, RYQMX &EFE 'SENE #M GEVI PI RGLMHIE WY4IXIPI R XY3#YVM HI WSG,
YRHI VQRIEY TR PI TYXVI^IE GSVTYP. (I EWIQIRIE, WI WTYRIE G WYF WSG
PSGYMI#XI YR HYL ZVNQE# GEVI T^I#XI GSQSVMPI RKVSTEXI WYF IP, RIPWRH TI
RMQIRM W WI ETVSTMI HI IPI: 7SGYP I PIQRYP HVEGYPYM; IP PE VHGMRE WSGYPYM
#IHI. 7SGYP RY TS'M W-P WGS'M HMR TQRX GE W-P QY'M, G WEY QSVM, WEY
RIFYRI#XM; HEV M TYR SEQIRMM JSG PE VHGMR, GE W-P WXVTIEWG, G JSGYPYM
RY-P TSEXI JEGI RMQMG (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 1194). %PXISVM, WI RGIVGE S VIHYGIVI
E I\XIRWMYRMM QEPI3GI E TPERXIM: 7SGYP EVI VHGMRE GE YR GET HI SQ, GY SGLM
IXG.; IP I GET #M ZVIE GET; QSVM HEG RY-P HEM TEGI. 7EY: 7SGYP R WYW I GYVEX,
GGM HMR IP WI JEG 4YMIVI, 'IZM IXG., RYQEM VHGMRE PYM I E 2IGYVEXYPYM (MHIQ).
'IE QEM JVIGZIRX TIHIETW TIRXVY GIP GEVI EXMRKIE WEY ZXQE EGIEWX
TPERX IVE TEVEPM^ME. (EV WI QEM WTYRIE G 2Y IWXI FMRI W GEPGI GMRIZE WYF
YR WSG, GGM P TRHIWG RIRSVSGMVMPI. 7I WTYRI G HEG WI RXQTP W XVIEG
EXYRGM nHYLYVMPI RIGYVEXI~ TVMR EGIP PSG, SQYP GYPGEX TSEXI GLMEV W
RRIFYRIEWG (2MGYPEI, 158). 0IQRYP HI WSG RY WI TYRI TI JSG, GGM EGIWX
KIWX EXVEKI HYVIVM HI QWIPI, TVSHYGRH XYXYVSV GIPSV HMR GEW RITPGIVM. 2MGM
HEG YR WSG IWXI TVIE ETVSETI HI GEW, RGYVGRH KSWTSHVME, RY IWXI WTEX
TIRXVY E 3 QYXEX HMR PSG, GGM GIP GEVI P WET #M P WGSEXI HMR TQRX WI
QFSPRZI#XI GYVRH. 9R EWIQIRIE WTMVMX IWXI RXPRMX #M PE HERI^M JIQIME-
WSG, GIE GEVI V^FYRE SVMGI VY JGYX WSGYPYM. 7I TSZIWXI#XI G YR SQ GEVI EV
3 XMEX YR WSG E QYVMX R WGYVX ZVIQI. 7I QEM WTYRIE, HI EWIQIRIE, G YR
WSG E4EX R GYVXIE YRIM GEWI WI TPMQFE QIVIY TI PE ETYWYP WSEVIPYM, WI YMXE TI
JIVIEWXV, TRHMRH HEG IVEY GSTMMM WMRKYVM R GEW. 4IHITWIE, HI EWIQIRIE,
KSWTSHVMMPI R GEVI WI KWIEY QSFMPI HMR PIQR HI WSG (+SVSZIM, 1990, 182-
P83). R %RKPME, 7YIHME SEQIRMM WI JIVIEY W XEMI WSG JV E GIVI TIVQMWMYRIE
FXVRIM HSEQRI, R GE^ GSRXVEV XMIXSVYP QFSPRZMRHY-WI (6YRRIFIVK, 125;
7TIRGI, 108). 'SRJSVQ YRSV PIKIRHI IXMSPSKMGI, WSGYP EV 3 JSWX YR YGIRMG EP
HMEZSPYPYM RXV-EPI ZVNMXSVMIM. (MR GEY^ G P-E XVHEX, TYRRHY-P R KEVH
QTSXVMZE PYM TI SEQIRMM WMQTPM, HVEGYP P-E SQSVX. %XYRGM 4IXVI, RHYMS#RHY-
WI TR PE PEGVMQM HI EGIEWX I\MWXIR' YMXEX, M GIVY (SQRYPYM W-P RZMI^I.
n%Q W JEG GIZE TIRXVY IP, 4IXVI #M ^MGRH EGIEWXE, #M RXMRWI QRE EWYTVE
TVWMXYPYM QSVQRX #M ^MWI: 6WEM HMR RIKYVE ZVIQYVMPSV #M E YMXVMM, FYRYPI
WSG, RIEQYP XY IWXI MIVXEX HMR RIKYVE XVIGYXYPYM #M GVI#XM HI-E TYVYVM TVMRXVI
GIM GEVI 'M-EY JSWX HVEKM! * M XYJERYP EHYGXSV HI PIEGYVM, GE #M TI ZVIQYVM,
V^FYR-XI RIGSRXIRMX TI EGIP GEVI XI-E SQSVX TI RIHVITX!~ (&VMPP, 1994, --,
51).
R QIHMGMRE QEKMG, WSGYP WI JSPSWI#XI QTSXVMZE XYWIM, E VKY#IPMM, E
ZVWEXYPYM HI ZRX (4SEVI HI WSG MRJY^MI). 4IRXVY GIM GI EY ZVWEX HI ZRX WI
3IVF 4SVM HI WSG RXV-S SEP GY ET TVSEWTX, RIRGITYX. *MIVXYVE EVI
TYXIVIE HI E ^ZVPM VYXEXIE EJEV. :VWEXYP MIWI GYVRH TI XVYT, RGITI W
WI YWYGI #M TIWXI TY'MR XMQT FSPREZYP IWXI ZMRHIGEX (2MGYPEI, 158). 4PERXE QEM
TYXIE 3 YXMPM^EX R YRIPI VMXYVM TVSTM'MEXSVMM, EXYRGM GRH WI HSVIE MR4YIR'EVIE
VI^YPXEXYPYM YRIM EG'MYRM MQTSVXERXI: 7SGYP I SQ. 4IRXVY NYHIGEX W MIM WSG,
GY TMRI #M GY WEVI #M W ^MGM: n7SGYPI, FMVYMXSVYPI: /%M FMVYMX TI XEXP XY, /%M
FMVYMX TI QEQE XE, /%M FMVYMX TI JVEXIPI XY, /%M FMVYMX TI WSVE XE, /&MVYMI#XI #M
TI HY#QERYP QIY/"M J GE W-P FMVYMIWG IY!~ -P TYM R ET #M XI WTIPM TI JE', TI
GET, MEV GVIRKY'IPI PI MIM GY WMRI GRH QIVKM PE NYHIGEX #M RYQEMHIGX
G#XMKM (2MGYPM'-:SVSRGE, 1194-P195). 7SGYP IWXI YXMPM^EX, GE XSEXI GIPIPEPXI
TPERXI QEKMGI #M R TVEGXMGMPI SVEGYPEVI. R ERYQMXI VIKMYRM, R XMQTYP
#I^XSVMPSV, YRIPI JIXI MIW HMR GEW #M RYQV TEVMM HMR KEVH. %TSM WI HYG PE YR
WSG #M HIWGRX GE W EXVEK JIGMSVMM PE IPI. 0E WSG WX 2IGYVEXYP #M HEG
KVI#IWG HIWGRXIGYP, EY RIGE^YVM GY IP. (YT HIWGRXIG VYTI 3IGEVI GXI S
GVIERK HI WSG #M S HYGI EGEW, S TYRI TI JSG #M S EVHI (1SVEVY, 51). (EXSVMX
TVI^IR'IM WTMVMXYPYM QEPI3G R MRIVMSVYP TPERXIM, WSGYP IWXI YR IPIQIRX TVIJIVEX,
YXMPM^EX #M PE ZVNM: 8SEXI JEVQIGIPI PE WSG WI JEG; HI EGIIE WYF WSG W RY XI
GYPGM. 0E WSG QIVK JIXIPI RSETXIE R TMIPIE KSEP #M-P WSVSGIWG GY TMRI #M WEVI
#M GY ^ELV, W-#M ZEH YVWMXSVYP. (I MIWI GEP I FMRI; HI MIWI SQ I FMRI; HI MIWI
WXE3I I FMRI; HEV HI MIWI YR WYP HI JYQ, EXYRGM JEXE R-EVI TEVXI (2MGYPM'-
:SVSRGE, 1195). 9RISVM P WSVSGIWG TIRXVY NSG, TIRXVY HVEKSWXI, TIRXVY RXSVW
TI GMRIZE. 1IVK HYT ETYWYP WSEVIPYM, GY TMRI #M ^ELV, VEGLMY #M ^MG, JV W
MIMI JVYR^I: 7SGYPI RXSVGXSVYPI, /RXSVGM TSGLM/TSTM/HI PE TSGLMI/(SQRM HI PE
HSQRMI, /&SMIVM HI PE FSMIVMI, /RXSEVGI #M TI YVWMXSVYP QIY/ (7EY TI GYXEVI), /
4R PE QMRI R-E KRHM/7 WGSEX W-E TPIWRM (MHIQ). 7EY RXV-YR HIWGRXIG-
JEVQIG HI HVEKSWXI #M HI YVWMX: (IWGRXIG PE WSG, EPYR #M PE QV HYPGI. 1IKM
#M XEM XVIM QPEHI HI WSG, XVIM HI EPYR #M XVIM HI QV HYPGI. (IWGR'M PE 3IGEVI
GSTEG #M FI'IPI PI TYM WYF GET #M ZMWI^M YVWMXSVYP #M ZMRI: n7SG 7SPSQSR! 7SG
7SPSQSR! /)Y GY WSG XI WSPSQSRIWG/'Y MRMQ FYR #M QEVI HVEKSWXI/0E QMRI XI
RHSMIWG. /)Y GY EPYR EHYR/3QYP GIP FYR. /)Y GY EPYR XI-EHYR/"M GY QV HYPGI
XI-RHYPGIWG/"M PE QMRI XI TSVRIWG/0E QMRI XI WSWIWG~ (MHIQ, 1195-P196).
7303132%6.
7I ^MGI WSPSQSREV YRYM ZVNMXSV GEVI, HYT GVIHMR'E VSQRYPYM, EVI
TYXIVIE HI E PIKE TPSMPI #M HI E JEGI W GEH KVMRHMRE YRHI ZVIE IP, JIVMRH
LSPHIPI #M ZMMPI GIPSV GI-P TPXIWG TIRXVY EGIEWXE ('ERHVIE, 1947, 104).
7GIREVMYP GPEWMG EP PIKIRHIPSV GY WSPSQSREVM GYTVMRHIE YVQXSEVIPI IPIQIRXI:
MRM'MIVIE PE #GSEPE FEPEYVYPYM; RZ'EVIE PMQFMPSV ERMQEPIPSV #M E XYXYVSV
JSVQYPIPSV QEKMGI; R #GSEP MRXV ^IGI YGIRMGM, HEV MIW RYQEM RSY; I\MWXIR'E
YRYM MRWXVYQIRX MRIHMX GEVXIE WSPSQSREVYPYM, HI GEVI EGIWXE WI JSPSWIE
TIRXVY E-#M EXMRKI WGSTYP; WGSEXIVIE FEPEYVYPYM HMR PEG; ^FSVYP R RSVM GPEVI TI
FEPEYV; WXTRMVIE WXMLMMPSV EXQSWJIVMGI IXG. 'SRJSVQ GVIHMR'IPSV TSTYPEVI,
WSPSQSREVMM WYRX GSRWMHIVE'M E 3 GPYKVM, SEQIRM W3R'M, SEQIRM TMS#M #M
RZ'E'M IXG., SEQIRM TVIHIWXMRE'M W EMF TYXIVM WYTVEREXYVEPI (WSPSQSREVYP
IWXI R^IWXVEX HMR RE#XIVI GY S GQE# QMVEGYPSEW, GEVI M H TYXIVI TIWXI
FEPEYVM), HEV GEVI WI WYTYR YRIM TVIPYRKMXI #M SFPMKEXSVMM VIGPY^MYRM MRM'MEXMGI
(3M#XIERY, 184). (YT YRMM, EGI#XM WSPSQSREVM RY WYRX SEQIRM GYVE'M, GM
FPIWXIQE'M HI (YQRI^IY, GEVI #M-EY ZRHYX WY4IXYP 2IGYVEXYPYM, GE W EMF
TYXIVI EWYTVE Z^HYLYPYM ('ERHVIE, 1947, 104). R GVIHMR'IPI TSPSRI^I,
TPERIXRMO IWXI YR HYL HI WSVKMRXI HIQSRMGS-HMZMR. 3 PIKIRH TSPSRI^
VIPEXIE^ G HYT GI (YQRI^IY M-E JGYX TI %HEQ #M TI )ZE, HVEGYP E ZVYX W
GVII^I #M IP GIZE. (EV, 3MRH TVSWX, E JGYX HMR PYX RYQEM 3MR'I HI TEVXI
FVFXIEWG #M PI-E PWEX W WI YWYGI PE WSEVI. -RXVI XMQT, M^FYGRMRH VIZSPXE
RKIVMPSV, (YQRI^IY P-E M^KSRMX HMR VEM QTVIYR GY GIMPEP'M HMEZSPM. -RW PYM
(YQRI^IY M-E TVYX VY HI QYRGE HMEZSPYPYM #M, TIRXVY GE EGIEWXE W RY
VQR R ^EHEV, E WY4EX, HRH ZME' 3MR'IPSV QSHIPEXI HI IP. %GI#XME EY
HIZIRMX TPERIXRMOM; TIRXVY G (YQRI^IY RY QEM EZIE YRHI W-P TYR, GIVYP #M
TQRXYP 3MRH SGYTEXI, M-E TYW R RSVM (-SRIWGY, 129). -HIIE TVIHIWXMRVMM
ETEVI GPEV QIR'MSREX #M TIRXVY EGIWX XMT HI TIVJSVQIVM EM EGXIPSV QEKMGI:
9RMM WTYR G WSPSQSREVMM ERYQI WI REWG GY TYXIVIE EGIEWXE #M HIWXMRE'M HI
E TYVXE ZVIQMPI. )M WI REWG QFVGE'M R S GQE# HI TMIPI. 'QE#E EGIEWXE
TVMR'MM S RKVSET R TQRX, EGSPS GVI#XI EPXYVIE GY IM. 'RH W QEVM S
HI^KVSET #M QFVGRH-S EY TYXIVI TIWXI FEPEYVM (+LIVQER, 143). 3 EPX
GVIHMR' WTYRI G WSPSQSREVMM WYRX 3MR'I RIZ^YXI, GEVI WXTRIWG Z^HYLYP
#M GEVI WYRX WY4IXIPI SEQIRMPSV GEVI EY S QSEVXI WMPRMG. R 1EVEQYVI# WI
GVIHI G GIM GI MRXV R #GSEPE HI WSPSQSRVMI RY ENYRK EGSPS HI FYRZSMI, GM
YR WSPSQSREV QEM FXVR JYV FMI'MM HI TI TQRX #M M HYGI PE #GSEPE HI
WSPSQSRVMX, YRHI M 'MRI RGLM#M 7 ERM WYF TQRX JV W ZEH VE^IPI WSEVIPYM
(+LIVQER, 146). %GSPS WI E4 S #GSEP HMEZSPIEWG, YRHI HEWGP I HMEZSPYP
RWY#M. 8MQTYP HI RZ'XYV IWXI HI 3 ERM WEY GLMEV 7 ERM. (ISHEX MRXV PE
#GSEP 7 MR#M YRMM WTYR G 7 JVE'M EGSPS RZE' HMR GV'M TI GEVI EP'M SEQIRM
RY PI TVMGIT #M RY PI #XMY GIXM: RZE' GYQ W GPVIEWG TI FEPEYVM, GYQ W M
GLIQI, GYQ W TSEVXI ZVIQYVMPI #M XSX JIPYP HI HIWGRXIGI, JEVQIGI HI-E PIKE
#M HI^PIKE TPSMPI; HI-E PYE QERE HI PE FYGEXI; HI-E WGSEXI PETXI HMR MRMQE
GEVYPYM. (YT 7 ERM HI RZ'XYV MIW HMR #GSEP RZPYM'M R RIKYVM #M 'MRRHY-
WI GY QMRMPI HI YR JYMSV PYRK HI YR YR RSV, GEVI M WGSEXI R PYQIE RSEWXV
HMR GIPPEPX XVQ QFVGE'M XSX GY ZI#QMRXIPI GY GEVI EY MRXVEX, MEV HMR #GSEP
GETX S GEVXI, YR XSMEK WEY YR GVPMK #M YR JVY HMR WGSEV' HI QIWXIEGR, TI
GEVI XSXHIEYRE PI TSEVX GY IM. (MRXVI IM RW YRYP XSXHIEYRE TMIVI EGSPS, E#E
G RYQEM 6 WI VIRXSVG (+LIVQER, 145).
'SRXVEWSPSQSREV; KVMRHMR; WEGVY.
74%&-9 7%'69 7TE'MYP WEGVY QMXSPSKMG IWXI HIWGVMW R WMWXIQYP
STS^M'MMPSV WIQMSXMGI FMREVI: WXRKE/HVIETXE, WYW/NSW, GIV/TQRX, TQRX/
WTE'MY WYFXIVER, RSVH/WYH, IWX/ZIWX, QEVI/YWGEX, YQER/RSRYQER, GEW/THYVI
IXG. 4SEXI GIE QEM IZMHIRX VIEPM^EVI E WTE'MYPYM WEGVY IWXI PYQIE
VWXYVREX, S MQEKMRI R SKPMRH E PYQMM RSEWXVI, TQRXIRI. 'SSVHSREXE
XIQTSVEP E EGIWXIM PYQM IWXI QEVGEX RIKEXMZ GRH PE RSM I RSETXI, TI
PYQIE GIEPEPX I ^M (PE EJVMGERM, QI\MGERM, E^XIGM, OEVIRM 8SOEVIZ, 199P-P992, -,
453; IWGLMQS#M 1IVGMIV, 87; IKMTXIRM +IRIWGY, 24; VSQRM 3XIWGY, 508),
VWVMXYP IWXI PE QMI^YP RST'MM (KIVQERM), GRH PE RSM I MEVR, EGSPS I ZEV
(3GIERME, WMFIVMIRM, MRHMIRM RSVH-EQIVMGERM 8SOEVIZ, 199P-P992, -, 453), MEV
SEQIRMM QIVK GY TMGMSEVIPI R WYW (MHIQ, 453; (YVERH, 268). 6Y#MM WTYR G
HYLYP THYVMM YQFP GY WTEXIPI RETSM (8SOEVIZ, 199P-P992, --, 49); EWXJIP HI
HYLYVM WYRX GYRSWGYXI #M HI IKMTXIRM (+IRIWGY, 167). 0E FYPKEVM GMYQE
QIVKI RYQEM REMRXI. %GSPS, TI PYQIE GIEPEPX, E QSV'MPSV #M E WTMVMXIPSV,
SEQIRMM EY TMGMSEVIPI VWYGMXI MRZIVW (PE GLMRI^M), PE JIP #M PMQFMPI (EGIEWXE
3MRH I\TPMGE'ME KVEMYPYM EXX HI HMJIVMX HI EP RSWXVY). ,VERE TIVWSRENIPSV
QEPI3GI I VITVI^IRXEX HI RIGYV'IRMM (!ERXMLVER; 8SOEVIZ, 199P-P992, --,
235); W RY YMXQ RMGM GEHSYVMPI JGYXI TQRXIRMPSV GVFYRM, I\GVIQIRXI
HI ERMQEPI, GEVI, SHEX ENYRWI R EGIEWX PYQI, WI XVERWJSVQ R EYV, EVKMRX,
LVER HI S GEPMXEXI HISWIFMX. R FEWQIPI VYWI#XM GRH WI MRXV TI XVQYP
QSV'MPSV, GSTMXIPI GEPYPYM WYRX RXSEVWI, VWYGMXI IXG. (MHIQ).
(VYQ; JIVIEWXV; KVERM'; LSVR; LSXEV; QEVGEN WEGVY; XVWRIX; ZEXV.
74-6-(9".
7TMVMHY#MM WYRX, HYT GVIHMR'E TSTSVYPYM RSWXVY, RM#XI HVGY#SVM QMGM, TI
GEVI M EY GY IPI YRIPI FEFI #M ZVNMXSEVI #M WI WIVZIWG HI IM PE JEGIVIE ZVNMPSV.
'Y WTMVMHY#YP WI JEG XSEXI JEVQIGIPI, WI EHYG GPEVI MFSZRMGMM PE MYFMXIPI PSV #M
WI XQHYMIWG FSEPIPI. 1EM HIQYPX, XSEXI FEFIPI EZIEY TI WTMVMHY#M; E^M QEM
VEV M EY (&