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ACADEMIA ROMN Institutul de arheologie "Vasile Prvan" Bucureti

Ruxandra Alaiba

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut

Traducere n englez: Coralia Costa

Editura Junimea, Iai 2008

Coperile I i IV: Banca Gar - apte case. Atelier de olrie. 1st and 4th covers: Banca Gar - apte case. The pottery workshop

Editura Junimea, Iai - ROMNIA Bd. Carol I, nr. 3-5, cod. 700506, tel./fax: 0232-410427 e: mail: junimeais@yahoo.com S.C. "IRIMPEX" S.R.L. Brlad Str. C-tin Hamangiu nr. 15 Ionel Irimia: tel. / fax 0742040097 / 40235 415669 E-mail: scirimpex@yahoo.com Editura rspunde la comenzi n limita tirajului disponibil The publishing house takes orders according to the available stock.

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei


ALAIBA, RUXANDRA ELENA

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut / Ruxandra Alaiba Iai, Junimea, 2008. ISBN 978-973-37-1325-8 666.64(498)01/04

Reproducerea n orice form, inclusiv prin fotocopiere, fr acordul scris al editurii, intr sub incidena legii drepturilor de autor. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission of the publishing house, or as expressly permitted by law or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographic rights organization.

Tehnoredactare computerizat / Computer typewriting by Vasile V. Alaiba

ROMANIAN ACADEMY "Vasile Prvan" Archaeology Institute Bucharest

Ruxandra Alaiba

The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries Throughout the Space Between the Carpathians and the Prut
Translated by Coralia Costa

Junimea Publishing House Iai 2008 CNCSIS Grant no. 517

Dedicm aceast carte celor care s-au ostenit s scrie


despre vechile cuptoare de olrie.

We dedicate this book to all those who ever wrote about the old pottery kilns.

Sumar
Cuvnt nainte / Forward ...................................................................................................................................................9 Introducere / Introduction ................................................................................................................................................11 I. Cadrul geografic i resursele naturale n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut / Geographic framework and natural resources in space between the Carpathians and the Prut........................................................................16 Evoluia climei n prima jumtate a mileniului I/Evolution of the Climate During the First Half of the First Millennium.....18 II. Istoricul cercetrilor / History of the Research .....................................................................................................23 III. Tehnici de pregtire a vaselor / Preparatory Techniques of Pot Making .....................................................37 Unelte pentru modelat i ornamentat ceramica/Tools for modeling and ornamenting the pottery .......................37 Surse de materii prime/Sources of raw materials. Extragerea i prepararea argilei/Clay extraction and preparation 38 Frmntarea / Working the clay; Dospirea / The maturing; Incluziuni / Aggregates .............................................39 Modelarea ceramicii / The modeling ...................................................................................................................... 40 Finisarea ceramicii i ornamentarea / The Finishing of the pottery and the ornaments ..........................................40 mbierea - acoperirea cu angob / The Immersion - Covering in slip. Uscarea / The drying ..........................41 Ateliere / Workshops ..............................................................................................................................................41 Atelierul de olrit de la Banca Gar - apte case / The pottery workshop of Banca Gar - apte case ................42 IV. Tehnici de ardere a vaselor / IV. Techniques of pot firing ...................................................................................49 Instalaii de ars ceramica / Installations for firing ceramic ware ...............................................................................50 Gropi de ars ceramica p.Hr. / Pits for firing ceramic ware AD...................................................................................50 Cuptoare cu o camer din secolele II-IV / One chamber - kilns of the 2nd4th centuries AD .....................................51 Cuptoare cu dou camere din secolele III a.Hr.-V. p.Hr./Two chamber kilns of the 3th century BC5th century AD . 51 Capacitatea cuptoarelor / Capacity of the kilns .........................................................................................................51 Specificul cuptoarelor performante ............................................................................................................................52 V. Sistemului de construcie i tehnica de funcionare a cuptoarelor performante / Construction system and functioning technique of the highly efficient kilns .................................................................................................56 - Structura cuptoarelor performante /Structure of the highly efficient kilns ..............................................................56 - Focria / The firing place. Gura de alimentare / The feeding mouth ......................................................................57 - Camera de ardere a vaselor / The pot firing chamber. Grtarul / The perforated plate.............................................57 - ncperea de acces la cuptor / The Access room of the kiln ....................................................................................58 - Poziia social a olarului ? Cine realiza ceramica ? /The potters social position? Who created the ceramic ware? VI.Tipologia cuptoarelor performante / Typology of the highly efficient kilns ........................................................66 Cuptoare n focar cu pilon central / Kilns with a central pillar in the fireplace ....................................................66 Cuptoare n focar cu perete median / Kilns with a median wall in the fireplace ................................................66 Cuptoare cu focria liber / Kilns with open fireplace ....................................................................................67 VII. Consideraii generale / General considerations .................................................................................................70 Anexe /Anexes Anexa/Anexe I. Gropi de ars ceramica / Pits for firing ceramics 1. Arpau de Sus - Cetuia, jud. Sibiu, secolele I a.Hr.-I. p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Mihai Macrea ....................86 Arpau de Sus - Cetuia, Sibiu county, 1th century BC-1th century AD, archaeological researches Mihai Macrea 86 2. Poiana - Cetate, jud. Galai, secolul al III-lea a.Hr., cercetri arheologice Radu Vulpe, Ecaterina Vulpe ...........87 Poiana - Cetate, Galai county, 3th century BC, archaeological researches Radu Vulpe, Ecaterina Vulpe ...........87 3. Dumbrava - Cprrie, jud. Iai, secolele I-II p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Silviu Sanie, eiva Sanie ...................87 Dumbrava - Cprrie, Iai county, 1rd2th centuries AD, archaeological researches Silviu Sanie, eiva Sanie ..87 4. Poiana - Varni, Dulceti, jud. Neam, secolele II-III p.Hr., cercetri Gheorghe Bichir ......................................87 Poiana - Varni, Dulceti, Neam county, 2rd3th centuries AD, archaeological researches Gheorghe Bichir ...87 5. Brlad - Valea Seac, jud. Vaslui, secolele IV-V p.Hr., cercetri arhelogice Vasile Palade ................................88 Brlad - Valea Seac, Vaslui county, 4rd-5th century AD, archaeological researches Vasile Palade ....................88 Anexa/Anexe II. Cuptoare contemporane de ars ceramica / Contemporary pottery kilns, Marginea, Suceava ...89 1. Vleni - La Moar, jud. Bacu, secolele II-III p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Vasile Ursache ................................89 Vleni - La Moar, Bacu county, 2rd3th centuries AD, archaeological researches Vasile Ursache ..................89 2. Biharea - Grdina CAP Baraj, jud. Bihor, secolele II-III, cercetri arheologice Sever Dumitracu ....................89 Biharea - Grdina CAP Baraj, Bihor county, 2rd3th centuries AD, archaeological researches Sever Dumitracu. 89 3. Blteni - Grla Strmbu, jud. Buzu, secolul al III-lea p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Ion T. Dragomir .................89 Blteni - Grla Strmbu, Buzu county, 3th century AD, archaeological researches Ion T. Dragomir ...............89 4. Voetin - La curte, jud. Vrancea, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Anton Paragin, Victor Bobi .....90 Voetin - La curte, Vrancea county, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Anton Paragin, Victor Bobi ....90 5. Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, jud. Galai, secolele III-IV p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Ion T. Dragomir .............91 Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, Galai county, 3rd4th centuries AD, archaeological researches Ion T. Dragomir 91

6 6. Iai - Nicolina, jud. Iai, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Ion Ioni ................................................92 Iai - Nicolina, Iai county, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Ion Ioni ..............................................92 Anexa/Anexe III.Cuptoare de olrie cu o camer secolele II-III p.Hr/One-chamber pottery kilns 2rd3th centuries .93 Anexa/Anexe IV. Ateliere i cuptoare de olrie cu dou camere suprapuse, secolele III a.Hr.-I p. Hr. Workshops and pottery firing kilns with two overlapped chambers, 3rd century BC- 1st century AD .............94 1. Poiana - Cetate, jud. Galai, sec. III a.Hr., cercetri arheologice Radu Vulpe i Ecaterina Vulpe ........................94 Poiana - Cetate, Galati county, 3th century BC, archaeological researches Radu Vulpe and Ecaterina Vulpe ....94 2. Tometi, sec. III-II a.Hr., perioada geto-dacic, semnalare Vasile Chirica, Marcel Tanasachi ............................95 Tometi, 3rd-2th centuries, Geto-Dacian period, signaled Vasile Chirica, Marcel Tanasachi ...............................95 3. Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, jud. Vrancea, sec. I a.Hr.-I p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Victor Bobi, Ion Cernat .....95 Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, 1rdcentury BC1th century AD, archaeological researches Victor Bobi, Ion Cernat . .95 4. Poiana - Silite, jud. Neam, secolul I p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Gheorghe Bichir ...........................................97 Poiana - Silite, Neam county, 1th century AD, archaeological researches Gheorghe Bichir .............................97 5. Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, sec. I a.Hr.-I p.Hr., cercetri Constantin Matas, Ioana i Mihai Zamoteanu ...98 Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, 1rdBC1thAD centuries, researches C. Matas, I. and M. Zamoteanu .............98 Anexa/Anexe V. Ateliere i cuptoare de olrie cu dou camere suprapuse, secolele II-III Workshops and pottery firing kilns with two overlapped chambers, 2rd3th centuries AD................................99 Judeul / County Buzu 1. Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, sec. II-III p.Hr., cercetri arheologice M. Em. Constantinescu ...................................99 Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, 2rd3th centuries AD, archaeological researches M. Em. Constantinescu ..................99 2. Blteni - Grla Strmbu, sec. III- IV, cercetri arheologice Ion T. Dragomir ....................................................103 Blteni - Grla Strmbu, 3rd4th centuries AD, archaeological researches Ion T. Dragomir .............................105 Judeul / County Vrancea 3. ifeti - La Grigoreti, sec. III, cercetri arheologice Sebastian Morintz, Nicolae Haruchi ..............................107 ifeti - La Grigoreti, 3th century AD, archaeological researches Sebastian Morintz, Nicolae Haruchi ........108 Judeul / County Neam 4. Vleni - La Moar, jud. Bacu, secolele II-III p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Vasile Ursache ..............................108 Vleni - La Moar, Bacu county, 2rd3th centuries AD, archaeological researches Vasile Ursache ................108 5. Cucoeni - Butnreti, secolele II-III p.Hr., cercetri Gheorghe Bichir ..............................................................109 Cucoeni - Butnreti, 2rd3th centuries AD, archaeological researches Gheorghe Bichir ................................113 6. Piatra Neam-Drmneti, secolul III p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Constantin Matas, Ioana i Mihai Zamoteanu 115 Piatra Neam - Drmneti, 3th century AD, researches Constantin Matas, Ioana and Mihai Zamoteanu .....116 Judeul / County Suceava 7. cheia - Silitea, secolul al III-lea p. Hr., cercetri arheologice Gr. Foit ............................................................117 cheia - Silitea, 3th century AD, archaeological researches Gr. Foit ................................................................119 Ateliere i cuptoare de olrie cu dou camere suprapuse, secolele III-V Workshops and pottery firing kilns with two overlapped chambers, 3rd5th centuries AD..............................121 Judeul / County Buzu 8. Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., menionat Gheorghe Diaconu .........................................121 Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, 4th century AD, signaled Gheorghe Diaconu ......................................................121 Judeul / County Vrancea 9. Dumbrveni, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Maria Coma ..........................................................121 Dumbrveni, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Maria Coma .............................................................122 Judeul / County Galai 10. Stoicani - Poarta arinii, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Ionel Bauman ....................................122 Stoicani - Poarta arinii, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Ionel Bauman ........................................123 Judeul / County Vaslui 11. Silitea - Muncelu, prima jumtate a secolului al IV-lea p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Ion Ioni ......................123 Silitea - Muncelu, the first half of the 4th century AD, archaeological researches Ion Ioni ..........................124 12. Brlad - Valea Seac, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Vasile Palade ..........................................125 Brlad - Valea Seac, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Vasile Palade ..............................................126 13. Zorleni - Fntnele, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Vasile Palade ............................................127 Zorleni - Fntnele, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Vasile Palade .................................................132 14. Banca - Sat, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Vasile Palade, Nicoleta Ciuc ........................................133 Banca - Sat, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Vasile Palade, Nicoleta Ciuc ....................................134 15. Banca Gar - apte case, secolele IV-V, cercetri arheologice Ruxandra Alaiba .............................................134 Banca Gar - apte case, 4rd-5th centuries AD, archaeological researches Ruxandra Alaiba ............................151 16. uletea, Fedeti, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Vasile Palade ...........................................................155 uletea, Fedeti, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Vasile Palade .......................................................155

7 17. Berezeni - Vicoleni, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Ghenu Coman ..................................................155 Berezeni - Vicoleni, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Ghenu Coman .............................................155 18. Fereti, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Ghenu Coman ............................................................155 Fereti, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Ghenu Coman .................................................................156 19. Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Dan G. Teodor i Ctlina Bloiu . .156 Dodeti - ipot and Clugreasca, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Dan G. Teodor and Ctlina Bloiu. 156 20. Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri Radu Vulpe, Mircea Babe, C. Cihodaru i colaboratori156 Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, 4th century AD, researches Radu Vulpe, Mircea Babe, C. Cihodaru and collaborators 157 Judeul / County Iai 21. Isaiia - Satu Nou, secolele III-IV, cercetri arheologice Constantin Iconomu ..................................................158 Isaiia - Satu Nou, 3rd4th centuries AD, archaeological researches Constantin Iconomu ...................................158 22. Srca - Pe linia ferat, secolul al IV- prima jumtate a secolului V p.Hr, cercetri arheologice Ctlina Bloiu 158 Srca - Pe linia ferat, 4rd the first half of the 5th century AD, archaeological researches Ctlina Bloiu ....158 23. Biceni - Laiu II, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice, coordonator Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia ..............158 Biceni - Laiu II, 4th century, archaeological researches, coordonate Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia ..................158 24. Biceni - Silite, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Ion Ioni, Vasile Palade, Virgil-Mihilescu Brliba ....158 Biceni - Silite, 4th century AD, researches Ion Ioni, Vasile Palade and Virgil-Mihilescu Brliba ............159 25. Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Ion Nestor i colaboratori ...........159 Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, 4th century AD, archaeological researches I. Nestor and collaborators .....160 26. Iai - Nicolina, secolele IV-V p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Ion Ioni ...............................................................160 Iai - Nicolina, 4rd5th centuries AD, archaeological researches Ion Ioni .......................................................160 Judeul / County Bacu 27. tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, secolele III-IV, cercetri arheologice Constantin Eminovici, Ionel Bauman . . .162 tefan cel Mare-Dealul Viorica, 3rd4th centuries, archaeological researches C. Eminovici, I. Bauman ............162 28. Gutina, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Ionel Bauman ........................................................................162 Gutina, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Ionel Bauman ...................................................................162 29. Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, secolele IV- V p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Ioan Mitrea, Alexandru Artimon ....163 Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, 4rd5th centuries AD, archaeological researches Ioan Mitrea, Alexandru Artimon164 Judeul / County Neam 30. Costia - Mnoaia, secolele IV-V p.Hr., cercetri Dan Gh. Teodor, Ion Mitrea, Mihai Zamoteanu ...............165 Costia - Mnoaia, 4rd5th centuries AD, researches Dan Gh. Teodor, Ion Mitrea, Mihai Zamoteanu ............165 Judeul / County Suceava 31. Liteni, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Emil Emandi ............................................................................166 Liteni, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Emil Emandi .......................................................................166 Judeul / County Botoani 32. Trueti - Pe Cuha, secolele III-IV p.Hr., coord. Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia, Dan G. Teodor, Anton Niu ...166 Trueti - Pe Cuha, 3rd4th centuries AD, coord. Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia, Dan G. Teodor, Anton Niu ....167 33. Ioneni - intirim, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., cercetri arheologice Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia ......................169 Ioneni - intirim, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia ........................169 34. Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Nicolae i Emilia Zaharia, Simion Ra..169 Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, 4th century AD, researches Nicolae and Emilia Zaharia, Simion Ra .........170 35. Huanu - Saivan, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Mariana Marcu, Napoleon Ungureanu .....................171 Huanu - Saivan, 4th century AD, archaeological researches Mariana Marcu, Napoleon Ungureanu ..............172 36. Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, secolele III-IV p.Hr., semnalare Maria Diaconescu ...............................................173 Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, 3rd4th centuries AD, signaled by Maria Diaconescu ..............................................173 Republica Moldova / Republic of Moldov 37.Pruteni-Sub Dealul Babei, sec.III, spturi Vl. Vornic, N. Telnov, V. Bubulici, L.Ciobanu, S. Kurciatov, publicare E. Nicolae ............................................................................................................................................173 Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, 4th century, researches Vl. Vornic, N. Telnov, V. Bubulici, L. Ciobanu, S. Kurciatov, publicare E. Nicolae..............................................................................................................................................177 Anexa / Anexe VI. Analogii cu inuturile de la sud de Carpai / Analogies with regions of the south Carpathians . 180 Judeul Ilfov / County Ilfov 1. Bucureti - Celu Nou, secolele II-I a.Hr., cercetri arheologice Valeriu Leahu .........................................180 Bucharest - Celu Nou, 2nd1st centuries BC, archaeological researches Valeriu Leahu ...............................180 2. Bucureti - Crngai, secolul al IV-lea, spturi Vlad Zirra, Margareta Tudor .............................................181 Bucharest - Crngai, 4th century, excavations by Vlad Zirra, Margareta Tudor .............................................181 3. Bucureti - Fundenii Doamnei, secolul al IV-lea, spturi arheologice MIB, inedit .....................................182 Bucharest - Fundenii Doamnei, 4th century, archaeological excavations by MIB, novelty ...........................182 4. Bucureti, Struleti - Micneti,- La Nuci, sec. III, spturi Margareta Constantiniu, Panait I. Panait .....183 Bucharest, Struleti - Micneti,- La Nuci, 3th c., excavations by Margareta Constantiniu, Panait I. Panait ....184

8 5. Bucureti - Dmroaia, secolele VI-VII, spturi Dinu V. Rosetti ...............................................................185 Bucharest - Dmroaia, 6rd7th centuries, excavations by Dinu V. Rosetti ...................................................185 6. indrilia, cultura Sntana de Mure, semnalare ............................................................................................186 indrilia, Sntana de Mure culture, reported ................................................................................................186 Judeul / County Dmbovia 7. Trgovite, Bucani, secolele IV-V, spturi arheologice Luciana Oancea ..................................................186 Trgovite, Bucani, 3nd4rd centuries AD, archaeological excavations by Luciana Oancea .........................186 8. Mtsaru, la sud-est de satul Pneti, secolele III-IV, spturi Gh. Bichir, E. Popescu.................................186 Mtsaru, la sud-est de satul Pneti, 3rd-4th centuries, excavations Gh. Bichir, E. Popescu............................186 Judeul / County Ialomia 9. Crsanii de Jos - Piscu Crsani, secolele II-I a.Hr., spturi Nicolae Conovici i colaboratori ...................186 Crsanii de Jos - Piscu Crsani, 2nd1st centuries BC, the excavations by Nicolae Conovici and colaborators . 186 10. Rduleti, jud. Ialomia, secolele II-III p.Hr., spturi arheologice Radu Vulpe ........................................186 Rduleti, Ialomia county, 2nd3rd centuries AD, archaeological excavations by Radu Vulpe ......................187 Judeul / County Clrai 11. Independena - Vatra satului, secolele III-IV, semnalare Bucur Mitrea, Nicolae Anghelescu ...................187 Independena - Vatra satului, 3nd4rd centuries AD, specified by Bucur Mitrea, Nicolae Anghelescu ..........187 12. Ileana - Podari, investigaii de teren D. V. Rosetti ......................................................................................187 Ileana Podari, discovered by the survey of D. V. Rosetti ............................................................................188 Judeul / County Giurgiu 13. Popeti - Nucet, secolele II-I a.Hr.-I p.Hr., cercetri Radu Vulpe ...............................................................188 Popeti - Nucet, 2nd1st centuries BC 1st century AD, researches Radu Vulpe .............................................188 14. Adunaii Copceni - La Porcrie, secolele III-IV p.Hr., spturi arheologice Vasile Barbu ......................188 Adunaii Copceni - La Porcrie, 3rd4th centuries AD, archaeological excavations by Vasile Barbu ...........189 15. Mironeti - Giurgiu, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., spturi arheologice Vasile Barbu ........................................190 Mironeti - Giurgiu, 4th century AD, archaeological excavations by Vasile Barbu ........................................191 Judeul Olt / County Olt 16. Romula - Reca, secolele II-III, spturi Dumitru Tudor, Gheorghe Popilian i colaboratori ....................192 Romula - Reca, 2nd3rd century AD, excavations by Dumitru Tudor, Gheorghe Popilian and colaborators . 192 17. Sucidava - Celeiu, secolele II-IV, spturi Vasile Christescu, Dumitru Tudor i colaboratori ...................193 Sucidava - Celeiu, 3rd4th centuries AD, excavations by Vasile Christescu, Dumitru Tudor and collaborators . 195 18. Slveni - Castrul roman, 250-251-sf.sec. III p.Hr., spturi Dumitru Tudor, Gheorghe Popilian i colab...196 Slveni - Roman castrum, 250-251-end of 3rdcentury, excavations D. Tudor, Gh. Popilian and collab.............197 Judeul Vlcea / Vlcea County 19. Buridava, secolele II-III, coordonatori Dumitru Berciu, Petre Bardau, Gheorghe Bichir, Gh. I. Petre .....198 Buridava, 2nd3rd centuries, coord. By Dumitru Berciu, Petre Bardau, Gheorghe Bichir, Gh. I. Petre .........201 Judeul Gorj / Gorj County 20. Bumbeti - Jiu, prima jumtate a secolului III, spturi Expectatus Bujor ..................................................202 Bumbeti - Jiu, first half of the 3rd century, excavations by Expectatus Bujor ...............................................202 21. Ctunele, secolele I-III, spturi realizate de Dumitru Tudor, Miu Davidescu .........................................202 Ctunele, 1st half of the 3rd century, excavations by Dumitru Tudor, Miu Davidescu ...................................202 Judeul Mehedini / Mehedini County 22. Turnu Severin - Ostrovul imian, secolul I p.Hr., cercetri Dumitru Berciu ..............................................203 Turnu Severin - Ostrovul imian, 1st century AD, researched by Dumitru Berciu .........................................203 23. Drobeta - Turnu Severin, secolele III-IV, spturi Grigore Tocilescu, Alexandru Brccil, Miu Davidescu. .204 Drobeta - Turnu Severin, 3rd4th centuries, excavations by Grigore Tocilescu, Al. Brccil, Miu Davidescu....205 24. Ostrovul Banului, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri arheologice Miu Davidescu ...............................................206 Ostrovul Banului, 4th century, excavations by Miu Davidescu ......................................................................207 Judeul Cara-Severin / Cara-Severin county 25. Gornea - Cunia de Sus, secolul al III-lea, spturi Nicolae Gudea ...........................................................208 Gornea - Cunia de Sus, 3rd century, excavations by Nicolae Gudea ............................................................208 26. Tibiscum, Satul Jupa - Cetate, sec. II, spturi M. Moga 1964, D. Benea, Fl. Medele, P. Bona, R. Petrovsky 208 Tibiscum, Village Jupa-Cetate, 2nd c., excavations by M. Moga, D. Benea, Fl. Medele, P. Bona, R. Petrovsky...210 27. Ramna, informaii Octavian Rut, participant la spturile efectuate n 1961 ...........................................212 Ramna, information from Octavian Rut, participant in the excavations carried out in 1961 ........................212 Abrevieri / Abbreviations ..............................................................................................................................................213 Bibliografie / Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................214 Indice de culturi / Culture index ....................................................................................................................................231 Indice onomastic / Names index .....................................................................................................................................231 Indice toponimic / Toponymical index ..........................................................................................................................234

Cuvnt nainte
Lucrarea, Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V, n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut, a ncercat s prezinte o parte din problematica legat de acest vechi i dificil meteug, aa cum a fost practicat n prima jumtate a mileniului nti. Redactarea volumului nu ar fi fost posibil fr substanialele contribuii realizate de cercettorii perioadei, ale cror descoperiri au fost prezentate i ale cror contribuii au fost menionate n sumar i bibliografie. Pentru cunoaterea specificului atelierelor de olrie cu toate spaiile necesare realizrii produciei ceramice 1, din care, de cele mai multe ori cercetrile arheologice au recuperat cuptoarele pentru ars ceramica i pentru a realiza o prezentare ct mai convingtoare cu privire la acestea, s-a valorificat aproape ntregul fond de informaii referitor la tehnicile i tehnologiile de producie ceramic din publicaii, cercetri de suprafa sau descoperiri fortuite, sondaje sau spturi arheologice de anvergur. Analiza sistematic a siturilor arheologice i a ceramicii perioadei, au constituit principalul izvor documentar de care ne-am folosit. Pentru nelegerea anumitor etape din desfurarea meteugului, n paralel cu argumentarea importanei vestigiilor arheologice, am recurs la analogiile etnografice, fr a avea intenia de a le detalia, doar pentru a explica anumite situaii surprinse n teren de arheolog. Analogiile realizate cu meteugul practicat de olarii contemporani, ne-au ngduit o structurare a etapelor parcurse pn la obinerea produselor finite a diferitelor forme de recipiente, la relevarea ctorva din vechile taine ale meseriei. Despre multiplele aspecte legate de instalaiile performante de ars ceramica am purtat discuii cu Dr. Dan Gh. Teodor, descoperitor al cuptoarelor de la Trueti - Pe Cuha, Dodeti ipot i Clugreasca i din aezarea feudal timpurie de la Epureni - oldneti, cu Dr. Ion Ioni, descoperitor al cunoscutei i importantei staiuni de la Iai - Nicolina, n care s-au descoperit i patru cuptoare prevzute cu dou camere, de asemenea al atelierului de la Silitea - Muncelu, Vaslui, cu bine cunoscuta cercettoare de la Bucureti, Dr. Maria Coma, n perioada cnd cu deosebit acribie s-a preocupat de acest meteug i prin investigarea staiunii de la Radovanu, Ilfov, unde a descoperit un cuptor getic de ars oale i altele din secolele VI-VII, de asemenea, cu Dr. Liviu Mrghitan, unul dintre descoperitorii cuptoarelor de la Micia. Mulumim i pe aceast cale pentru ndrumrile primite. Ele ne-au cluzit n aceast ntreprindere. Intenia noastr de a aduna date legate de confecionarea ceramicii este veche. Ea a nceput n 1986, cu investigarea atelierului de olrie dotat cu dou grupuri de cte patru, respectiv trei cuptoare din tipul cu o camer, din staiunea Dumeti - ntre praie, cultura Cucuteni (2007b). Am avut din nou ocazia de a cerceta alte cuptoare, n 1996-1997, ale atelierului de olrie de la Banca Gar - apte case, datat n secolele IV-V, de asemenea, i a atelierului prevzut cu un cuptor cu dou camere suprapuse de la Trinca - Izvorul lui Luca, raionul Dondueni, Republica Moldova, folosit de o comunitate din cadrul grupului cultural Horoditea Gordineti, n 1995, dup ce un altul fusese investigat n 1990, de Dr. Oleg Leviki. Mulumim restauratorilor Cornel Hobincu i Cristian Pntea i desenatoarelor Ileana Plugariu i Georgeta Vrnceanu - pentru prelucrarea materialelor de pe antier. inem s exprimm i pe aceast cale ntreaga noastr gratitudine Editurii Junimea, Iai ROMNIA i S.C. "IRIMPEX" S.R.L. Brlad, care au nlesnit publicarea acestei lucrri, ntre volumele de nalt inut tiinific i editorial. Finanarea publicrii acestui volum s-a realizat prin aprobarea unui binevenit Grant CNCSIS, numrul 517, fapt pentru care mulumim celor care au favorizat realizarea lui, cu deosebire doamnei Mihaela Fril, din cadrul Ministerului Educaiei,
1 Atelierul de olrie cuprinde spaii amenajate pentru desfurarea unei activiti meteugreti, o ncpere n care funcionau cuptoarele de ars ceramica i spaii utilate cu instalaii tehnice necesare, - roata olarului -, realizrii unei producii, cu unelte pentru pregtit argila, modelat recipiente sau alte piese de lut, respectnd tehnologiile tradiionale.

10

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Cercetrii i Tineretului, responsabil Comisie Specialitate UEFISCSU-CNCSIS, tiine SocioUmane i Economice.

Foreword
In order to know more about the world of the potters of the first half of the 1st millennium and to provide a more convincing image of the pottery of the period, almost the whole body of information was used, including publications, surveys and fortuitous discoveries, explorations and systematic excavations, information regarding the technology and methods of pottery production in the first half of the 1st millennium, in the area between the Carpathians and River Prut. The systematic analysis of this type of archeological complexes and the pottery of the period forms the basic information for our research. The structure of our study was designed in such a way as to cover the subject of the potters workshops and the pottery kilns found through archeological excavation. The elaboration of this book would have been impossible without the significant contributions made by the scientists in the domain, whose finds are presented here, and whose works are listed in the References. At the same time, we brought to attention information on the shapes and volumes of certain jars found on the site of Banca Gar - apte case. Paralleling the argumentation on the importance of the archeological finds, some of the secrets of pottery were unveiled, by analogy to the craft of the present-day potters. By multiple ethnographical analogies we tried to achieve the closest reconstruction of the stages that were to be undertaken in order to obtain the final products the various shapes of pots. Discussions on the multiple aspects of the high efficiency pottery kilns were carried out with professor Dan Gh. Teodor (who discovered the kilns of Trusesti - Pe Cuha, Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca and Epureni - Soldanesti), with professor Ion Ionita (who discovered the important and well-known site Iasi - Nicolina where four high-kilns were found and Silitea - Muncelu), as well as with the well-known researcher of Bucharest, Maria Comsa, during the period when she studied the pottery with intense dedication (who discovered the important kilns of Radovanu-Ilfov). Their works, as well as the advice received from them guided us in our project. Our intention of gathering the data concerning the making of the ceramicware is old. It started in 1986, together with the investigation of the potters workshop with two groups of four and three kilns, respectively of the type one-chamber, of the settlement of Dumeti - ntre praie, Cucuteni culture, of 1996-1997, and there followed the research of the potters workshop of Banca Gar - apte case, dated to the 4th5th centuries, and also of the potters workshop with a two chamber-kiln of Trinca - Izvorul lui Luca, Dondueni district, Republic of Moldova, dated to the cultural group Horoditea Gordineti, in 1995, after the investigation of another one in 1990, by Oleg Leviki PhD. I would like to acknowledge the contribution of restorers Cornel Hobincu and Cristian Pantea of drawing artist Ileana Plugariu and Georgeta Vranceanu, for processing the materials identified within the site of Banca Gara - apte case. I would also like to express my gratitude to Editurii Junimea, Iai ROMNIA and SC IRIMPEX SRL Barlad, which supported the printing of this work, as a high class scholarly and quality publication. The publication of the present monograph became possible by the approval of the very useful CNCSIS Grant no. 517. For this reason we thank all those who were in favor of the implementation of such project, especially Mrs. Mihaela Fril, within the Ministry of Education, Research and Youth, responsible of the Specialized Commission Socio-Humanistic and Economic Sciences of UEFISCSU-CNCSIS.

11

Introducere
n volumul, Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V p.Hr., n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut, prin sistematizarea numeroaselor date cu privire la atelierele sau la cuptoarele de ars ceramica, ncercm o prezentare a practicrii unei ocupaii n spaiul cuprins ntre Carpai, Prut i Dunre, din secolele II-V p.Hr., dar menionnd i primele ateliere cunoscute ntre secolele III a.Hr. - I p.Hr., inclusiv atelierele descoperite n judeele aflate n estul Munteniei i din Republica Moldova importantul centru de olrie de la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei. De asemenea, am prezentat i atelierele i cuptoarele de ars ceramica formate din dou camere suprapuse, din secolele II a.Hr.-VI p.Hr., semnalate pentru inuturile de la sud de Carpai, ca prime analogii pentru a ntregii aspectul acestui meteug. Volumul s-a realizat n cadrul unei teme largi legate de, Cunoaterea prin cercetri interdisciplinare a vechilor aezri rurale din spaiul carpato-dunrean. Cele 61 de cuptoare, descoperite prin cercetrile arheologice realizate n 41 de staiuni, mai ales n a doua jumtate a secolului trecut o perioad de acumulri, care, probabil, nu va fi depit n noul secol, dei s-a pstrat interesul pentru ceea ce Vasile Prvan numea lucruri ce nu putrezesc niciodat , confirm stadiul avansat al rspndirii i stpnirii unor tehnici i tehnologii de lucru productive. Subliniem i faptul c, ntre meteugurile practicate n cadrul comunitilor steti, prelucrarea lutului a avut un loc aparte, nu numai pentru realizarea ceramicii, dar i a altor piese cu utiliti diverse i pentru realizarea caselor sau a altor construcii. Dei, nu n toate staiunile cercetate sistematic s-au semnalat astfel de ateliere, aceasta nu nseamn c ele nu au existat. Instalaiile de ars ceramica trebuie s fi fost amplasate, de cele mai multe ori, undeva la marginea aezrilor mai ntinse sau n afara acestora, pentru a se evita, astfel, izbucnirea incendiilor, n locuri n care, ades, cercetrile arheologice nu ajung. "Numai o ntmplare fericit, care nu ne-a fost nc favorabil, ar fi permis identificarea cuptoarelor de ars vasele" (1996, p. 40), remarca bine cunoscutul arheolog Valeriu Srbu, n monografia consacrat davei getice de la Grditea - Popin, datat n a doua jumtate a secolului al II-lea a.Hr. primele decenii ale secolului I p.Hr. Datele cumulate au fost structurate n cinci pri. Dup un scurt Cuvnt nainte i o Introducere, s-a trecut la primul capitol - I, Cadrul geografic i resursele naturale, n care s-au discutat i cteva probleme legate de Evoluia climei n prima jumtate a mileniului I, dar mai ales de amplasarea staiunilor n apropierea surselor de materii prime. n al doilea capitol II, Istoricul cercetrilor, s-au menionat lucrrile legate problematica aceasta, publicate n Romnia i n rile vecine, n monografii sau n diverse studii de specialitate. Pentru fiecare descoperire s-a menionat arheologul care a investigat staiunea, respectiv instalaia de ars ceramica i s-a dat specificul acesteia, cu deosebire al focriei. S-a subliniat interesul pentru aceast problem n istoriografia european. n urmtorul capitol III, Tehnici de pregtire a vaselor, au fost cumulate informaii legate de etapele parcurse de meter pn la arderea vaselor. Diferitele Tehnici de ardere a vaselor s-au discutat n alt capitol IV, n care au fost analizate tipurile de instalaii cunoscute pentru realizarea arderii, fie n gropi de ars ceramica vezi Anexa I, fie n cuptoare cu o camer, pentru care s-au stabilit analogii etnografice date n Anexele II-III sau n cuptoare cu dou camere suprapuse Anexele IV-VI, specifice pentru prima jumtate a mileniului nti, n spaiul dintre Dunre i Carpai. Ne-am oprit mai amnunit asupra sistemului de mnuire a unei astfel de instalaii, urmrind atelierul de olrie investigat de noi n aezarea de la Banca Gar, punctul apte case, prevzut cu dou cuptoare cu focarul desprit de un perete median. Totodat, s-au adus cteva date legate de forma i capacitile unor recipiente din staiune. i alte piese descoperite au ngduit discutarea diverselor probleme legate de acest meteug. Avem n vedere uneltele folosite pentru confecionarea vaselor, netezirea sau lustruirea

12

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

pereilor, pentru ornamentarea lor, piese din piatr sau lut, toarte de amfore care au cptat alte trsturi i care au urme de la folosirea n acest scop, unelte de os sau corn, diferite tipare pentru realizarea motivelor n relief. Din nou subliniem prezena preponderent a ceramicii ntre materialele descoperite n timpul spturilor arheologice, mult mai numeroase n raport cu urmele rmase de la practicarea metalurgiei fierului sau a prelucrrii lemnului, osului, chiar a cornului folosit pentru confecionarea pieptenilor (V. Palade 1966, p. 261 i urm; Idem 1969b, p. 233 i urm.; Idem, 1981, p. 179 i urm.). Subliniem nu numai numrul, dar mai ales fineea formelor ceramice de cult (Idem, 1978, p. 282 i urm.), a vaselor modelate din past fin n raport cu recipientele uzuale, cu deosebire vasele mari, ntre care chiupurile folosite pentru pstrarea proviziilor. Ele ngduie observarea naltului grad de stpnire a meteugului, n multe privine comparabil cu acela practicat n centrele oreneti din lumea roman. n ultimul capitol V, Consideraii finale, s-au formulat cteva concluzii date de stadiul actual al cercetrilor, desprinse mai ales din cumularea informaiilor legate de acest meteug. n a doua parte a lucrrii am anexat un repertoriu al celor 41 de staiuni cercetate arheologic, n care s-au spat 61 de cuptoare, semnalate n publicaiile de specialitate sau n monografii, la care se adaug cteva despre care avem informaii de la descoperitorii lor, care confirm existena frecvent n aezrile de dimensiuni mai mari a unor ateliere specializate. Din bogia descoperirilor de acest fel am detaliat pe cele legate de atelierele i cuptoarele de ars ceramica, din secolele II-V p.Hr., dar pentru nelegerea lor am prezentat i pe cele cunoscute ntre secolele III a.Hr. - I p.Hr., n spaiul aflat ntre Prut i Carpai, n vecintatea acestuia, n zona de curbur, n actualele judee Vrancea i Buzu i n inuturile dintre Carpai i Dunre. n vechile aezri tehnica olritului a atins, precum n tot spaiul din nordul Dunrii de Jos, un nalt grad de dezvoltare iar practicarea acestuia a fost bine ilustrat i de gama variat a ceramicii. Pentru cunoaterea sistemului de ardere n gropi special amenajate s-a exemplificat cu o groap descoperit n Transilvania, la Arpau de Sus - Cetuia, jud. Sibiu, datat n secolele I a.Hr. - I. p.Hr., de forma a dou trunchiuri de con unite la deschiderile mici. De asemenea, cu altele din Moldova, pentru secolul al III-lea a.Hr., groapa de la Poiana - Cetate; pentru secolele I-II, o groap folosit pentru ars ceramica lucrat cu mna de la Dumbrava - Cprrie; pentru secolele II-III p.Hr., complexul de la Poiana - Varni, Dulceti i pentru secolul al IV-lea, groapa de la Brlad Valea Seac, jud. Vaslui. Explicarea sistemul de ardere n gropi s-a realizat fcndu-se apropieri cu instalaiile moderne de ars ceramica, precum cuptoarele de la Marginea, jud. Suceava. n prima parte a repertoriului am inclus cuptoarele de olrie cu o singur camer, din secolele II-III de la Vleni - La Moar, jud. Bacu dar am menionat i instalaia de la Biharea Grdina CAP Baraj, jud. Bihor, din secolul al III-lea de la Blteni - Grla Strmbu, din secolele III-IV de la Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, jud. Galai, din secolul al IV-lea de la Voetin - La curte, jud. Vrancea i din secolele IV-V p.Hr., de la Iai - Nicolina, jud. Iai. Cel mai mare spaiu s-a acordat repertoriului legat de Cuptoarele performante de ars ceramica formate din dou camere suprapuse, pe de o parte a celor din secolul al III-lea a.Hr. de la Poiana - Cetate, jud. Galai; din secolele I a.Hr.-I p.Hr., de la Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, jud. Vrancea i din secolul I p.Hr., de la Poiana - Silite, jud. Neam. De asemenea, din secolele II-III, de la Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni - Grla Strmbu, jud. Buzu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, jud. Vrancea, Vleni - La Moar, jud. Bacu, Cucoeni - Butnreti i Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, jud. Neam i cheia - Silitea, jud. Suceava, pe de alt parte a celor din secolele III-V, de la Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, jud. Buzu, Dumbrveni, jud. Vrancea, Stoicani - Poarta arinii, jud. Galai, Brlad - Valea Seac, Silite - Muncelu, Zorleni - Fntnele, Banca - Sat i Banca Gar - apte case, uletea, Fedeti, Dodeti, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, jud. Vaslui, Isaiia - Satu Nou, Srca - Pe linia ferat, Biceni - Laiu II i Biceni - Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, Iai - Nicolina, jud. Iai, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, jud. Bacu, Costia - Mnoaia, jud. Neam, Liteni, jud. Suceava, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Ioneni - intirim i Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, jud. Botoani.

Introducere / Introduction

13

Categoriile de izvoare utilizate i metodologia au fost cele specifice arheologiei, n raport cu datele oferite de sistemul de sptur, stratigrafia staiunilor, tipurile de aezri, specificul gospodriilor, locuinelor, gropilor, i desigur, a cuptoarelor de olrie i a bogatului inventar ceramic. S-a avut n vedere diversitatea formelor, frumuseea i varietatea ceramicii descoperite n staiunile cercetate n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut. Uniformitatea terminologiei folosite pentru descrierea obiectivelor arheologice publicate, pentru remarcarea particularitilor unor complexe sau punctarea fiecrui element de construcie a acestora, a creat posibilitatea de ordonare i de selectare a diverselor informaii. Datele obinute au permis o ncadrare cronologic relativ sau absolut, mai puin stabilirea unor atribuiri etnice referitoare la ansamblul descoperirilor din secolele IV-V p.Hr. Prin folosirea unor termeni specifici am ncercat s evitm unele aprecieri mai largi cu privire la realitile culturii materiale de tradiie daco-roman sau romanic din nordul Dunrii de Jos.

Introduction
The volume, The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries. Throughout the Space Between the Carpathians and the Prut, s-a realizat n cadrul temei largi, The knowledge by means of interdisciplinary researches about the ancient rural sites throughout the Carpathian Danubian space. In this volume, by systematizing numerous data concerning the workshops or kilns for firing ceramics, we try to elaborate a presentation of the cr aft of pottery as practiced during 2nd4th centuries AD, but mentioning also the first workshops acknowledged for the period contained between the 3rd century AD and 1 century BC, for the spaces delimited by the Carpathians and the Prut. The 31 complexes uncovered by archeological research especially during the second half of the 20th century a period of accumulations which probably shall not be exceeded during this new century, in spite of the maintained interest for what Vasile Prvan would designate as never perishable things , confirms the advanced degree of dissemination and mastering of productive work techniques and technologies. At the same time, mention should be made of the fact that among the crafts practiced within village communities, clay processing has a special place in the process of pottery making but also in the process of creating other items of various purposes. Although such complexes were not pointed out in all sites systematically investigated, this does not mean they did not exist. The installations must have been placed, most of the times, somewhere at the extremity of wider sites or outside them, in order to avoid the causing of fires, that is in places which in most cases are not the object of the archeological investigations. "Only a happy circumstance which has not been favorable yet, would have allowed the identification of kilns for firing ceramics" (1996, p. 40), remarked the famous archeologist Valeriu Srbu, in the monograph dedicated to the Getic dava of Grditea - Popin, Buzu county, dated to the second half of the 2nd century BC the first decades of the 1st century AD. The work was structured in five chapters. The introductory part consists in a short Forward and the Introduction, followed by the first chapter I, Geographic Framework and Natural Resources, where certain aspects pertaining to the Climate Evolution During the First Half of the First Millennium were also tackled. The work was based on the knowledge of the discoveries published during the previous century, in monographs or in various other specialized works, pointed out in the second chapter, History of the Research II. The next chapter, the third, Techniques of pottery making III, cumulated information pertaining to the phases undertaken by the craftsman until the firing of the pots, that is the search of sources of raw material, the extraction and preparation of clay, the working followed by the maturing of clay and the addition of other After the clay was prepared, the

14

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

ceramic ware was then modeled, finished and decorated, dried, immersed in the slip, operations sustained most of the time by the identification of the tools necessary for carrying them out. The various Techniques of Pot Firing IV, were discussed in the fourth chapter where there were differentiated the types of installations necessary for creating the ware, be them pits Anexe I, or kilns with one Anexes II-III or two chambers Anexes IV-VI. We mainly focused on the pottery workshop uncovered in the settlement of Banca Gar, locatin apte case, which had two kilns for pottery firing, both with the fireplace separated by a median wall. Other items identified on the way allowed the presentation and discussion of other aspects pertaining to this craft. We refer to the tools used for wall smoothing, polishing of pots or their ornamentation, items of tough stone or clay, amphora handles which acquired other features and traces from their usage in this regard bone or horn tools, various moulds for creating the area motifs in relief. At the same time we point out the prevalent presence of ceramics in the archeological report with the traces left from practicing the iron metallurgy or wood, bone or horn processing, the latter used for making combs (V. Palade 1966, p. 261 sq.; Idem 1969b, p. 233 sq.). Especially according to the number and beauty of ceramic shapes, from cult pots and fine pottery items, to those for daily usage, especially the large pots, used at storing food, we can notice the high degree of craft mastering, comparable from many points of view to the one practiced in the Roman world. The last chapter, the fifth, Final Considerations V, includes several conclusions which are possible at the present phase of the scientific research. The second part of the works includes a repertoire of 31 archeological features pointed out in specialized publications or in monographs, and few other such features on which we have information as provided by the authors of their discovery, and which confirm the frequent existence of specialized workshops in the large sites. Out of the wide variety of such finds, we have mainly focused on workshops and kilns for firing pottery dated to the 2nd4th centuries AD, but in order to better comprehend them we also included the presentation of those in use during the 3rd century BC2nd century AD, throughout the space between the Prut and the Carpathians, inclusively the area of the Carpathian Bend and its vicinity that is the nowadays counties of Vrancea and Buzu, where the technique of pottery making reached, as it did throughout the whole area north of the Lower Danube, a high degree of development and its practice was well illustrated also by the wide variety of the pottery items. In order to comprehensively present the system firing in pits especially arranged, we exemplified by a pit discovered in Transylvania, at Arpau de Sus - Cetuia, Sibiu county, dated to the 1st century BC1st century AD, shaped as two truncated cons with smaller bases united, as well as with others throughout Moldavia, for the 3 rd century BC, with a pit of Poiana - Cetate; for the 1st2nd centuries with a pit for firing hand-made ceramics of Dumbrava - Cprrie; for the 2nd3rd centuries AD with one of Poiana - Varni, Dulceti and for the 4th century with another one of Brlad - Valea Seac, Vaslui county. The explanation of the pit firing system was done by similarity to the modern installations for firing ceramics, such as the kilns of Marginea, Suceava county. In the first half of the repertoire we include the one chamber- kilns for firing ceramic ware, dated to the 2nd3rd centuries of Vleni - La Moar, Bacu county but we also mentioned the installation of Biharea - Grdina CAP Baraj, Bihor county, dated to the 3rd century of Blteni Grla Strmbu, dated to the 3rd4th centuries of Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, Galai county, of the 4th century of Voetin - La curte, Vrancea county and 4rd5th centuries AD of Iai - Nicolina, Iai county. The largest space was given to the repertoire of the two superimposed chamber- kilns of high efficiency, referring on the one side to those dated to the 3rd century BC of Poiana - Cetate, Galati county; of the 1st century BC - 1st century AD of Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, Vrancea county and the 1st century AD of Poiana - Silite, Neam county, also to those of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of

Introducere / Introduction

15

Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni - Grla Strmbu, Buzu county, ifeti - La Grigoreti, Vrancea county, Cucoeni - Butnreti and Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, Neam county and cheia - Silitea, Suceava county, pe de alt parte a celor din secolele III-V, de la Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, Buzu county, Dumbrveni, Vrancea county, Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Galai county, Brlad - Valea Seac, Vaslui county, Zorleni - Fntnele, Banca - Sat i Banca - apte case, uletea, Fedeti, Dodeti, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Vaslui county, Isaiia - Satu Nou, Srca - Pe linia ferat, Biceni - Laiu II and Biceni - Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, Iai Nicolina, jud. Iai, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, Bacu county, Costia - Mnoaia, Neam county, Liteni, Suceava county, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani Dealul Crmidriei, Ioneni - intirim and Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, Botoani county. The categories of sources used and the methodology are those specific to archeology, in relation to the data provided by the excavation system, the stratigraphy of the settlements, the types of sites, the specificity of the households, dwellings, pits and of course of the pottery kilns and the rich ceramic inventory. The variety of forms was taken into account the beauty and variety of the ceramics ware discovered more than one century ago, throughout the spaces between the Carpathians and River Prut. The uniformity of the terminology used for describing the known archeological sites, for pointing out the peculiarities of some features or focusing on each construction element thereof created the possibility of ordering and selecting the various pieces of information available. The data obtained allowed a relative or absolute chronological sequence, the determination of some ethnic attributes concerning the ensemble of the discoveries of the 4 th5th centuries AD. By the use of specific terms we tried to avoid wider appreciations concerning the realities of the material cultural of Dacian-Roman tradition to the north of the Lower Danube.

16

Capitolul I. Cadrul geografic i resursele naturale n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut


Prezentarea descoperirilor arheologice s-a realizat n raport cu subunitile geografice de la est de Carpai. Cele mai multe puncte s-au localizat n Podiul Moldovei, situat la extremitatea de sud-vest a Platformei Europei Orientale, continuat spre nord-est de Podiul Wolhyno - Podolian i Podiul Niprului i strbtut de la nord la sud de dou artere hidrografice principale, Siret i Prut. n cadrul Podiului Moldovei, cel mai ntins i mai reprezentativ podi al rii (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 9), n straturile superioare cu importante depozite cuaternare i cuprins ntre nord-estul Cmpiei Romne, Subcarpaii Moldovei, Obcinele Bucovinei, valea Prutului i Dunre (Ibidem), au fost detaate cteva subuniti geografice: la sud Podiul i Cmpia Covurluiului, continuate de Cmpia Siretului inferior, dup care se ntinde stepa Bugeacului i Cmpia Romn, la est avnd Cmpia Tecuciului; spre nord, Podiul Brladului, cu subunitile acestuia, Podiul Central Moldovenesc, Colinele Tutovei i Dealurile Flciului (Ibidem, p. 321, fig. 42); la nord-est Cmpia Moldovei, format din Cmpia Svenilor, Dealurile Coplu Cozancea i Cmpia Iailor; Podiul Sucevei (Al. Rou 1980, p. 403 i urm.). n subunitile geografice de la est de Carpai, n straturile superioare apar depozite de gresii, marne i nisipuri, dar i depozite cuaternare loessoide, cu grosimi de peste 10 m. Alte resurse au fost generate de procese geologice secundare, care au dus la formarea unor depozite de sruri, oxizi de fier sau mangan, fr importan economic. ntre micile depozite lentile feruginoase de provenien sedimentar - aluvionare, aa numitele mineralizaii sedimentare, cele mai importante erau cele de limonit oxizii de fier de vrst cuaternar. Aceste sedimentele, astzi fr valoare economic, care se gseau frecvent n malurile unor ruri, lacuri, turbrii sau mlatini, sub forma unor minereuri de balt (D. Gh. Teodor 1996, p. 101-102; G. Coman 1980, passim), au fost utilizate de vechile comuniti umane, ntre care i cele care s-au stabilit n secolele I-V la rsrit de Carpai. Lucrrile de ndiguire att de necesare vii Brladului, Siretului i Prutului, afectate de mbtrnirea prematur a reelei hidrografice (M. Filipescu 1950), s-au realizat pentru nlturarea consecinelor acestui fenomen. Coborrea repetat i discontinu a vii Siretului, prin aciunea de subzisten din zona Siretului Inferior, a dus la adncirea rurilor consecvente i implicit i a vii Brladului, care i-a stabilit cursul mijlociu, pe linia de ngemnare a conului de legtur dintre Prut i Siret (Al. Rou 1980, p. 412-416). De asemenea, a dus la modificarea cursului Brladului n aval de Crasna, prin continuarea acestuia spre vest, pentru a forma o asimetrie interfluvial de mari proporii. Totodat, versantul su de stnga a primit caracter de cuest fragmentat de numeroase bazine toreniale. Subunitile geografice n care s-au amplasat aezrile din secolele IIIV, pot constitui i diviziuni pentru urmrirea formelor geografice folosite de comunitile acestei perioade. Cercetrile arheologice sistematice efectuate n sudul Moldovei i la curbura Carpailor au dus la descoperirea mai multor staiuni n care s-au semnalat i aezri din secolele II-V p.Hr., n care funcionau ateliere de ars ceramica, precum cele din secolele II-III p.Hr., de la Izvoru Dulce Borcnia, Blteni - Grla Strmbu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, Cucoeni - Butnreti, Piatra Neam Drmneti pe Cuejdi, cheia - Silitea. De asemenea, n secolele III-V p. Hr., n sudul Moldovei i la curbura Carpailor, s-au descoperit cuptoarele de la Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, Dumbrveni i n Cmpia Covurluiului, la Stoicani - Poarta arinii. Vile mici subsecvente, de pe latura de sudvest a Dealurilor Flciului au i ele versanii sub forma unor cueste secundare, ceea ce a dus la formarea unui aspect morfologic specific, modelat n timp mai ales de alunecri i de procese active

Cap. I. Cadrul geografic / Chapter I. Geographic Framework

17

de eroziune (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 297-301). n apropierea acestor vi, spre vrsarea lor n Brlad, la limita de vest a Dealurilor Flciului i la limita de est a colinelor Tutovei s-au amplasat staiunile de la Zorleni - Fntnele, uletea, Fedeti i Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca. La sud de acestea au fost situate i staiunile de la Brlad - Valea Seac i Banca - Sat sau Banca Gar - apte case, prima pe un afluent situat pe dreapta Brladului i ultimele dou pe stnga cursului vechi al Brladului, n subgrupa dealurilor Banca - Grivia, cu nlimi de 150-200 m, n perimetrul ocupat de Dealurile Iapa, Uneti i Seaca. Ambele aveau vetrele situate la mic distan de rul Brlad, ce traverseaz Podiul Brladului (Ibidem, p. 321, fig. 42). De asemenea, n unele din subunitile de ordinul trei ale Podiului Central Moldovenesc, sub forma unor dealuri sau platouri cu spinarea larg boltit de culmi separate de vi largi, dar adnci, cu diferene de nivel ce ating pn la 200 m (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 313-314), n prezent se cunosc cteva din vechile aezri mai importante, n care, spturile arheologice au dus i la descoperirea unor cuptoare de ars ceramica. n Dealurile Racova - Stemnic, staiunea de la Poieneti - Mgura Dealul Teilor, apoi, n Dealurile Comarna - Rducneni (Faa Prutului), aezarea de la Isaiia - Satu Nou, n Cmpia Jijiei Inferioare i a Bahluiului, la Iai - Nicolina, dar i la Srca - Pe linia ferat, Cucuteni, Biceni - Laiu II i Silite sau Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare. Mai la nord, din marea unitate a Cmpiei Moldovei, n Cmpia Jijiei Superioare i a Baeului, n subunitatea acesteia Cmpia Deluroas a Svenilor i n Cmpia Dorohoi Botoani, s-au semnalat cuptoare de ars ceramica la Trueti - Pe Cuha, dar i la Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Ioneni - intirim, Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, Huanu - Saivan (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, fig. 42). La vest descoperirile arheologice s-au extins pn n zona Subcarpailor, cu diviziunile acestei regiuni, Subcarpaii Moldovei, ai Neamului, cu Depresiunea Ozana Topolia, Cracu Bistria, Rca, apoi Subcarpaii Trotuului sau Subcarpaii Tazlu Cain, cu zonele depresionare ale Tazlului, Oituz - Cain, Trebi i Capta. Aici limita geografic nu s-a marcat cu exactitate, dar ea este dat de un numr de localiti n care se practica i meteugul olriei, precum tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina i Bacu - Curtea Domneasc iar pe malul stng al Bistriei, Costia - Mnoaia i n Podiul Sucevei la Liteni. Ele se continu la curbura Carpailor, n Subcarpaii Vrancei, cu alte staiuni, precum ifeti, unul dintre satele n care s-a cercetat o aezare specific secolelor II-III, din care s-a dezvelit i un cuptor cu dou camere de ars ceramica, n punctul La Grigoreti, jud. Vrancea. * Staiunea de la Banca Gar, punctul apte case, care se ntinde pe grindurile de pe malul stng al rului Brlad i al oselei Iai - Bucureti, la 12 km nord de municipiul Brlad, din punct de vedere geografic se ncadreaz n zona colinar din interfluviul Siret i Prut. Astzi staiunea ocup cele dou terase inferioare ale noului curs al rului Brlad, din dreapta i stnga, o zon de lunc n parte inundabil, de localnici numit cu un toponim mai vechi, apte case, pe care l-am preluat i noi pentru localizarea acesteia. Recent zona se mai numete La Sltioara, dup numele podului ce trece peste Brlad, la sud de staiune. Relieful zonei cu altitudinea absolut de 75 m, dar i cu acumularea de vrst holocen, formeaz o micro morfologie caracteristic, nscut din procese de eroziune, transport i depozitare (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 62). Lunca Brladului este acum folosit pentru cultivarea viei de vie, a cerealelor i ca islaz. Cert este prezena n albia major a rului, cu o lime medie de 2 km, cea mai joas form de relief, a dou urme de vechi trasee ale Brladului, ce se mai vd i astzi, una mult mai la vest i alta mai apropiat, la est, n marginea oselei Vaslui - Brlad. Brladul reprezenta i un mijloc de aprare natural. Din punctul apte case valea se putea supraveghea spre sud i nord, pn la o distan de peste 10 km. Accesul spre aezare era probabil ngreunat de terenul mltinos dinspre sud-vest, vest i nord-vest. n mileniul nti rul curgea, probabil, pe albia dinspre vest, situat mai aproape de aezare dect albia dinspre est. Revrsrile repetate au distrus mult, de-a lungul anilor, complexele aflate pe

18

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

nivelul antic de clcare. Pe stnga Brladului lunca prezint ridicturi mai mici sau mai nalte, grinduri, separate de vi. Presupunem c unele dintre ele au fost vi de priae secate. Acum zona de grinduri este traversat de mai multe cursuri de ape, de la nord la sud: Petrioara, cu Ghermnetiul, Valea Luavei, priaele Bncii i al Bujorenilor. Toate se vars n valea Brladului2, ce strbate teritoriul comunei pe aproximativ 14 km. La est i vest de acestea, cum am mai precizat, erau dealurile Flciului i ale Tutovei, n parte acoperite astzi cu vi de vie sau pomi fructiferi. La nceputul secolului nostru, dup cum spun btrnii, acestea mai erau mpdurite. Structura biologic. Flora i fauna au suferit cele mai mari modificri. Podiul Brladului constituie locul de interferen, de la nord-vest la sud-est, a zonei forestiere cu aceea de silvostep i step, caracterizate prin soluri, vegetaie i faun specifice. n zona deluroas a Brladului elementele arboricole i florale central-europene se interfereaz cu acelea est-europene i euroasiatice. Estimrile paleofaunistice au precizat faptul c suprafaa arealului forestier s-a extins n anumite perioade din postglaciar. Ponderea pdurilor n perioada geto-dacic a fost evaluat la un procent apropiat de proporia de 3/4 (C. C. Giurescu 1976, p. 11). Ele acopereau zonele de vest i nord ale podiului, dar i luncile rurilor (V. Spinei 1985, 18 vezi i bibliografia). Clima continental cunoate influene de aer euro-asiatic, dat de contrastul temperaturii, - 4 n ianuarie, + 21 n iulie, cu media anual de 9, cu precipitaii medii mai slabe i vnturi ce bat dinspre nord / nord-vest i sud (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 297-301). Studiul faunei i analizele sporopolinice dovedesc existena la Banca Gar, n preajma vii Brladului, a pdurilor dese cu luminiuri. n timp pdurile au fost defriate excesiv, fapt ce a modificat i climatul, astzi foarte uscat (S. Haimovici 1985-1986, p. 171-185). Vegetaia specific zonei este de silvostep, cu elemente de trecere spre step. Aceste particulariti ale reliefului au fcut ca zona dintre colinele Tutovei i subgrupa dealurilor Banca - Grivia s fie prielnic practicrii agriculturii i mai ales creterii animalelor. Pn n mileniul I, n zona Dealurilor Banca - Grivia, nu s-au semnalat importante aezri (R. Alaiba [Maxim], Gh. Gherghe 1987-89, p. 247-248). Tocmai terenul instabil din preajma vii Brladului, afectat n anii ploioi de inundaii, a fcut ca terasele joase ale acestuia s nu fi fost preferate de comunitile umane din interfluviul Brlad - Prut. Dei s-au descoperit trei complexe specifice pentru perioada de tranziie la bronz sau pentru bronzul timpuriu, unul hallstattian i ase getice, grindurile nu au fost locuite intens. Situaia s-a modificat n ultimele decenii ale secolului al III-lea p.Hr., cnd aici s-a ntins un sat dispersat Satul rsfirat se gsete de obicei n regiunea colinelor Acest tip este cel specific romnesc, el se gsete nu numai n nordul Transilvaniei, dar i n zona periferic i subcarpatic din Moldova i Muntenia (R. Vuia 1975, p. 78-79). Locuitorii staiunii apte case i-au stabilit vatra aezrilor lor, nu pe platoul mai nalt de la vest, ci pe cel mai scund, din stnga vechii albii a rului Brlad. Pentru desfurarea diferitelor activiti umane sau economice, au avut astfel la ndemn bogate resurse de ap, posibilitatea de a pescui, pmnt foarte bun pentru practicarea agriculturii, terenuri ntinse de punat i, cu siguran, lemn din pdurile din apropiere, locuri bune pentru cules, vntoare. Multe din descoperirile de suprafa din primul mileniu, se pot caracteriza, cum indic spturile arheologice sistematice de la Banca Gar - apte case, nu prin locuiri de scurt durat, ci prin aezri suprapuse stratigrafic cum este i cazul binecunoscutelor staiuni cercetate de profesorul ieean Dan Gh. Teodor, de la Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca, situate la mai puin de 15 km nord de Banca Gar (1984). Evoluia climei n prima jumtate a mileniului I i pentru perioada de trecere de la culturile getice la cele geto-dace, Marin Crciumaru a stabilit anumite faze de vegetaie i perioade climatice. Evoluia climei n prima jumtate a
2 Sub aspect morfometric terasele Brladului au altitudini relative ntre 10-20 m, 40-70 m i peste 100 m, iar cele din mprejurimi au altitudini de 250-300 m, cu o medie ponderal hipsometric de aproape 200 m (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 297-323).

Cap. I. Cadrul geografic / Chapter I. Geographic Framework

19

mileniului I s-a desfurat n perioada Atlanticului, caracterizat n arealul vestic prin faza stejriului amestecat i a molidului cu alun, n raport cu zilele noastre cu un climat mai umed i mai cald (1982, 468 i urm.; Idem, 1996, p. 20). Spre exemplu n staiunea de la Trpeti - Rpa lui Bodai se constat o reducere a suprafeei pdurii i o cretere a produselor de Cerealia (12,5 %), n baza datelor observate n diagrama polinic realizat pentru secolele II-III, situaie care a caracterizat, din nou, secolele VI-VII (Ibidem, p. 121; D. Gh. Teodor 1988, p. 133). Pe parcursul prezentrii cadrului natural vom preciza cteva date desprinse din analizele de paleofaun sau palinologice sau din datele C14. Modificrile de ordin general ale paleoclimei, dintre 2400-450 a.Hr. i 900 p.Hr., reprezint un interval de nclzire care a cuprins Imperiul Roman i Evul mediu, n primul rnd datorate factorilor geologici i geofizici, cu o pondere mai mare n raport cu cei antropici (M. Crciumaru 1996, p. 25). Se constat schimbrile succesive ale paleoclimei din perioada postglaciar, din Holocen, n care se ncadreaz i locuirea n discuie. Spre sfritul secolului al IV-lea p.Hr., n perioada marilor migraii, cu deosebire a sarmailor i a goilor, s-a produs o rcire a temperaturii n sud-estul Europei, fapt ce a dus la rspndirea unor instalaii de foc pentru uz gospodresc mai complexe. Ca urmare a rcirii vremii s-au amenajat cuptoare construite din piatr i lut, cu sau fr bolt, mai ales din veacul al V-lea (D. Gh. Teodor 1996, p. 77).

Chapter I. Geographic Framework and natural resources in space between the Carpathians and the Prut
The archeozoological paleoanthropological analyses of the settlements throughout Moldavia, except for those in the Brlad Plateau, allowed a general presentation of the environment and for the area between the Carpathians and the Prut. In the volume, for the presentation of the archeological finds, we took into account the geographic subdivisions east of the Carpathians. Most of the discoveries were located in the Moldavian Plateau, situated at the southwest extremity of the Eastern Europe Platform, from north to south crossed by two main hydrographic arteries, the Siret and the Prut. Within the Moldavian Plateau, the widest and most representative plateau of the country (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 9), contained between Obcinele Bucovinei, the Moldavian Subcarpathians, northeast of the Romanian Plain, the valley of Prut River and the valley of the Danube (Ibidem), the Suceava Plateau was pointed out, to the northeast of the Moldavian Plains, including Svenilor Plain, Coplu Cozancea Hills and Iai Plain. To the south it continues with the Brlad Plateau, with its sub-divisions, the Central Moldavian Plateau, Tutova Hills and Flciu Hills (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 321, fig. 42), and then to the northeast there lies the Wolhyno - Podolian Plateau and the Dnieper Plateau. To the southeast and the southwest there are the Covurluiului Plateau and Plain, followed by Lower Siret Plain, Tecuci Plain and Rmnic Plain, just like in the upper layers with important quaternary deposits, and further there lies the Bugeacului steppe and the Romanian Plain, as western limits of the Euro-Asian Steppes (Al. Rou 1980, p. 403 sq.). In the geographic subdivisions east of the Carpathians, in the upper layers there appear deposits of sandstones, slates and sands, but also quaternary deposits of loess, with width of more than 10 m. Other resources were generated by secondary geological processes, which led to the creation of deposits of salts, iron or manganese oxides, without an economical impact. Among the small deposits ferruginous lens-shaped deposits of sedimentary alluvial origin -, the so-called mineralized sediments, the most important were those of limonite iron oxides of quaternary age. The sediments used by the various human communities established during the 1 st5th centuries east of the Carpathians were frequently encountered in the banks of rivers, lakes, peat bogs or marshes, as swamp ores (D. Gh. Teodor 1996, p. 101-102; G. Coman 1980, passim; R. Maxim, Gh. Gherghe 1987-1989, p. 247 et sq.).

20

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

The damming works, so necessary for the valleys of Rivers Brlad, Siret and Prut, affected by the early ageing of the hydrographic network (M. Filipescu 1950), imposed the removal of the consequences of this phenomenon. The repeated and discontinuous descent of the valley of River Siret, by its subsidence action in the area of the Lower Siret, led to the deepening of the consequent rivers and implicitly of the valley of Brlad River, which established its middle course, on the twinning line of the liaison cone of the Prut and the Siret (Al. Rou 1980, p. 412-416). It also led to the modification of the course of Brlad River downstream from Crasna, by the continuation of the latter to the west, creating thus a large interfluvial asymmetry. At the same time, its left shore acquired the specificity of a cuesta fragmented by numerous torrential basins. The subdivisions where the communities of the 2nd4th centuries founded their settlements can also serve for following the geographic forms used by the communities of this period. The systematic archeological researches carried out in the southern part of Moldavia and by the Carpathian Bend led to the discovery of several settlements among which sites dated to the 2 nd 5th centuries AD were also identified. Such sites had kilns for firing ceramics such as those of the 2nd3rd centuries AD of Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni - Grla Strmbu and in the north of Moldavia of ifeti - La Grigoreti, Cucoeni - Butnreti, Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, cheia - Silitea. Dated to the 3rd5th centuries AD, in the south of Moldavia and by the Carpathian Bend, mention should be made of the kilns of Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, Dumbrveni and in Covurluiului Plain, of Stoicani - Poarta arinii. The sites of Zorleni - Fntnele, uletea, Fedeti and Dodeti - ipot and Clugreasca are situated at the western limit of the Flciu Hills and the eastern limit of the Tutova Hills. The small subsequent valleys on the southeast side of the Flciu Hills also have their slopes as secondary cuestas, and this also led to the creation of a specific morphological aspect, and created in time especially land slides and active erosion processes (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 297-301). The same for the settlements of Brlad - Valea Seac and Banca - Sat or Banca Gar - apte case, the first on the right side of Brlad River and the last two on the left side, in the subgroup of hills Banca - Grivia, with heights of 150-200 m, within the perimeter occupied by Hills Iapa, Uneti and Seaca. Both had the nuclei at a short distance from River Brlad, which crosses Brlad plateau, a composing part of the Moldavian Plateau (Ibidem, p. 321, fig. 42). Also, in some of the third order subdivisions of the Central Moldavian Plateau, represented by hills of slightly vaulted plateaus with crests separated by wide yet deep valleys, with differences of level of up to 200 m (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 313-314), there have been identified important settlements which also revealed kilns for firing ceramic ware. This is the case of Racova Stemnic Hills, with the settlement of Poieneti - Mgura Dealul Teilor, of Comarna - Rducneni Hills (Faa Prutului), with the settlement of Isaiia - Satu Nou, in Lower Jijia and Bahlui Plain, in Iai Nicolina, but also in Srca - Pe linia ferat, Cucuteni, Biceni - Laiu II and Silite or Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare. Further north, out of the large unit of the Moldavian Plain, in the Upper Jijia and Baeului Plain, in the subdivision of the latter, that is the Svenilor Hilly Plain and the Dorohoi Botoani Plain, there were pointed out highly efficient kilns for firing ceramic ware in Trueti - Pe Cuha, but also in Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Ioneni - intirim, Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, fig. 42). To the west, the archeological discoveries extended up to the area of the Subcarpathians, with their subdivisions, that is the Moldavian Subcarpathians, Neam Subcarpathians, with the Depression Ozana Topolia, Cracu Bistria, Rca, and then Trotu Subcarpathians or Tazlu Cain Subcarpathians, with the depression areas of Tazlu, Oituz Cain, Trebi and Capta, continuing at the Carpathian Bend with the Vrancea Subcarpathians. There, the geographic limit was not precisely marked, but it consists in a number of localities among which there is also ifeti, one of the villages where a site of the 2nd3rd centuries was

Cap. I. Cadrul geografic / Chapter I. Geographic Framework

21

researched and where a two chamber kiln for firing ceramic ware was identified in the location referred to as La Grigoreti, Vrancea county. In the Moldova Subcarpathians, other settlements have been acknowledged as well. These are dated to the 3rd4th centuries, and they revealed that the craft of pottery was being practiced. This is the case of tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina and Bacu - Curtea Domneasc and on the left bank of the Bistria, Costia - Mnoaia and in Suceava Plateau at Liteni. * The settlement of Banca Gar, point apte case, spreads over the rises on the left bank of River Brlad and the Iai Bucharest road, 12 km north of the city of Brlad, geographically belonging to the hilly area of the interfluvium of the Siret and the Prut. Nowadays the site occupies the two lower terraces of the new course of the Brlad, from the right and left sides, a partly floodable river meadow, referred to by the inhabitants with an older toponym, apte case, which we took over for locating the settlement. The area has been recently designated as La Sltioara, according to the name of the bridge crossing River Brlad, south the settlement. The relief of the area, with the absolute altitude of 75 m, but also with the Holocene accumulation, forms a characteristic micromorphology, resulting from the processes of erosion, transportation and depositing (V. Bcuanu et alii, 1980, p. 62). During the first millennium, the river would probably run on the westward riverbed closer to the settlement. The repeated flooding considerably destroyed along the years the features on the ancient treading level. It was down there that one of the better preserved pottery workshops with two highly efficient kilns was identified by the archeological excavations (R. Alaiba 2007a, p. 18 sq.). On the left bank of the Brlad, the river meadow shows smaller or higher rises, separated by valleys. The area with rises is crossed by several water courses from north to south: Petrioara, with Ghermneti, Luavei valley, creeks Bncii and Bujorenilor. They all flow into Brlad valley3, which crosses the territory of the commune for about 14 km. River Brlad also represented a natural means of defense. From the point apte case the valley could be watched over to the south and north for a distance of more than 10 km. The access to the site was probably made more difficult by the marshy land towards southwest, west and northwest. Brlad river meadow is now used for vine and cereal growing and pasturing land. It is hard to suppose that some of them are valleys of dried creeks. It is though sure that in the major river bed, of an average width of 2 km, the lowermost form of relief, there are two traces of older itineraries of the Brlad, which are still visible nowadays, one more to the west, and one closer, to the east, near Vaslui Brlad road. To the east and west of there, as we already pointed out, there were hills Flciu and Tutova, covered nowadays with vines or fruit trees. At the beginning of the 20th century, according to the old mens words, these hills were still forested. Biological Structure. The flora and fauna suffered the most considerable modifications. Brlad Plateau represents a place of interference, from northwest to southeast, of the forested zone to the one of silvo-steppe and steppe, characterized by specific soils, vegetation and fauna. In the hilly area of Brlad the central European trees and flowers interfere with those of Eastern Europe and Euro-Asia. The paleofaunistic assessments pointed out that the surface of the forested areas also lasted during certain periods of the post-glacial era. The percentage of forests during the GetoDacian period was estimated at a percentage close to three quarters (C. C. Giurescu 1976, p. 11). They would cover the western and northern areas of the plateau as well as the river meadows (V. Spinei 1985, 18 see also the bibliography). Climate. The continental climate registered influences of Euro-Asian air, given by the contrast of temperature, - 4 in January, + 21 in July, with the yearly average of 9, with weaker
3

The Settlement of Banca Gar - apte case

From the morphometric point of view, the terraces of River Brlad have relative altitudes between 10-20 m, 40-70 m and more than 100 m, and those in the surroundings have altitudes of 250-300 m, with a weighted hypsometric average of almost 200 m (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 297-323).

22

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

average rainfalls and winds falling from north / north-west and south (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 297-301). The study of the fauna and the sporopolinic analyses prove the existence at Banca Gar, near Brlad valley, of thick forests with clearings. In time woods were excessively deforested and this led to the climate medication, turning it very dry nowadays (S. Haimovici, 1985-1986, p. 171185). The specific vegetation of the area is the silvo-steppe, with elements of transition to the steppe. These peculiarities of the relief turned the area between Flciu and Tutova hills and the subgroup of Banca Grivia hills into an area favorable to practicing agriculture and animal husbandry. Until the 1st millennium, in the area of Banca Grivia hills, no important settlements were pointed out (R. Maxim, G. Gherghe 1987-1989, p. 247-248). It was precisely due to the rather unstable land in the area of Brlad valley, affected during the rainy years by floods, that the lower terraces were not preferred by the human communities of the interfluvium Brlad - Prut. The situation changed starting with the last decades of the 3rd century AD, when a dispersed village is founded down there. The dispersed village is usually settled in the hilly areas This type is specifically Romanian, it is found not only in north Transylvania but also in the peripheral and Subcarpathian area of Moldavia and Walachia (R. Vuia 1975, p. 78-79). The distanced positioning of the dwellings, sometimes at more than ten meters away from each other resulted in the lack of identification of any feature within the trenches of the excavations. In spite of such situations, we continued digging the terrace hoping always that the next trench shall reveal a new archeological dwelling. The inhabitants of the settlement apte case settled the nucleus of their site not on the highest plateau to the west, but on the lowest one, to the left of the old bed of Brlad River. For carrying out the various domestic or economic activities, they had at their disposal rich sources of water, the possibility of fishing, very good land for practicing agriculture, wide lands for pasturing and for sure wood form the nearby forests, good places for foraging and hunting. Many of the surface discoveries of the first millennium are characterized, as shown the systematic archeological excavations of Banca Gar - apte case, not by short-term locations but by stratigraphically overlapped settlements as it happened in the case of the well known sites researched by the Iasi professor Dan Gh. Teodor, that is the sites of Dodeti - ipot and Clugreasca, situated at less than 15 km to the north of Banca Gar (1984). Evolution of the Climate During the First Half of the First Millennium Marin Crciumaru established also for the 1rd5th centuries AD certain phases of vegetation and climatic periods. The climate evolution during the first half of the 1 st millennium took place during the Atlantic period, characterized in the western zone by the phase of the oak forests mixed with hazel tree and spruce tree, in comparison to the contemporary times with a more humid and warmer climate (1982, 468 et sq.; Idem, 1996, p. 20). For instance, in the settlement of Trpeti Rpa lui Bodai the diminution of the forested surface and the increase of the Cerealia products (12,5 %) were noticed on the basis of the data included in the pollen analysis prepared for the 2nd and 3rd centuries and also for the 6th and 7th (Ibidem, p. 121; D. Gh. Teodor 1988, p. 133). Throughout the presentation of the natural framework we shall point out few data selected from the paleofauna or palinological analyses or from the C14 data. The general modifications of the paleoclimate, between 2400 B.P. - 450 BC and 900 AD, represent a warming interval spreading over the period of the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages, first of all due to the geological and geophysical factors, with a larger proportion in comparison to the man-made ones (M. Crciumaru 1996, p. 25). There are noticed successive modifications of the paleoclimate of the postglacial period, of the Holocene and among them the period under discussion. Towards the end of the 4th century AD, on period of the Sarmatians and Goths migrations, the temperature in Southeastern Europe decreased and this resulted into the dissemination of more complex domestic fire installations, made of stone and clay, with or without vault. This was especially the case during the 5th century, also as a consequence of the cooler weather (D. Gh. Teodor 1996, p. 77).

23

Capitolul II. Istoricul cercetrilor


Meteugul olriei, pentru perioada cuprins ntre secolele II-V p.Hr., reprezint una dintre ndeletnicirile cel mai bine conturate prin cercetrile arheologice realizate n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut, prin publicarea lor. Baza documentar legat de acest meteug, permanent s-a completat prin prelucrarea numeroaselor loturi ceramice descoperite n aezrile i necropolele acestei perioade. Totui, pentru cunoaterea acestuia pe primul loc se situeaz investigarea atelierelor de olrie semnalate i prezentate amnunit, dotate cu diferite cuptoare de ars ceramica. Ordonarea acestor complexe din aria menionat a pornit de la specificul centrelor meteugreti ale dacilor liberi - carpilor. Pe primul loc, ca prim grupare a lor dup importan, au fost atelierele de olrie prevzute cu dou cuptoare, precum cel de la Cucoeni - Butnreti, dintre care unul era mai mic, dar ambele aveau n focrie un perete median pentru sprijinirea grtarului. Cuptoarele aflate n acest tip de atelier erau mnuite de olar dintr-o singur ncpere. Pentru secolul urmtor acest sistem de atelier s-a semnalat i la Trueti - Pe Cuha, n interior prevzut tot cu dou cuptoare, dintre care unul cu perete median i altul cu pilon central i la Banca Gar - apte case, cu dou cuptoare cu perete median n focar. A doua grupare, majoritar, o reprezint cuptoarele descoperite izolat, care, fie c fceau parte dintr-un atelier mai mare neconservat n ntregime, precum cele de la cheia - Silitea, fie erau instalaii construite n malurile din marginea apelor, precum cele de la ifeti - Panciu, Poiana - Dulceti, Blteni - Grla Strmbu sau Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 58). Dup Gheorghe Bichir s-au folosit dou tipuri de cuptoare, date de specificul focarului, n care era pentru sprijinirea grtarului, fie un perete median, fie un pilon central, de obicei realizat din pmnt cruat. Cuptoarele se difereniau i prin adncimea la care au fost spate, aproape complet n pmnt precum cuptorul mare de la Cuconeti - Butnreti sau cu platforma grtarului aproximativ la nivelul antic de clcare. Sunt dou detalii de construcie care funcionau pe baza acelorai principii i care nu au influenat prea mult sistemul de ardere al vaselor. Dar ambele aveau partea superioar aproximativ tronconic, format din lut amestecat cu pleav i paie, terminat cu o deschidere pentru alimentare i tiraj (1973a, p. 57-61). n continuare vom meniona pe zone geografice, staiunile n care s-au descoperit cuptoare de ars ceramica, cu precizarea unor detalii legate de forma de sprijinire a grtarului. Moldova. Cuptoare prevzute cu dou camere suprapuse, cu grtarul susinut de un stlp central sau de un peretele median, au fost semnalate pe teritoriul Moldovei nc din perioada interbelic. Poiana - Cetate, jud. Galai, din La Tne-ul geto-dacic, reprezint una dintre primele staiuni descoperite n Moldova, n care se afla i un astfel de cuptor, datat n secolul al III-lea a.Hr., prevzut n focar cu perete median, cercetat de Radu i Ecaterina Vulpe (1933, p. 253-351; R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 50; Idem 1951, p. 203; Idem 1952, p. 191 i urm.), precum i Poiana Silite, Dulceti, jud. Neam, unde s-a semnalat un cuptor n focar cu perete median, datat de Maria Coma n secolul I p.Hr. (Gh. Bichir 1973b, p. 103; M. Coma 1985, p. 171, nota 3; Al. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, p. 336). Staiunea de la Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, cercetat amplu de Radu Vulpe i Ecaterina Vulpe, a fost semnalat de profesorul Constantin Cihodaru, care a i investigat un cuptor cu dou camere, prevzut n focrie cu pilon central, romboidal n seciune, continuat spre spate cu un perete subire (1938, p. 35-37, fig. 14-15), republicat ulterior de Maria Coma, care l-a ncadrat n cultura Sntana de Mure, n funcie de amplasarea lui n marginea aezrii din aceast perioad i dup specificul ceramicii existente aici (1985, p. 173, fig. 4). Tot n Moldova, din bogia descoperirilor semnalate n revistele de specialitate, legate de secolele III-IV, pentru cteva localiti am detaat i informaiile legate de astfel de instalaii. La Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, n 1949, s-a gsit primul cuptor de acest tip, datat mai trziu, n

24

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

secolele III-IV, de un colectiv coordonat de Ion Nestor (~ et alii 1951, p. 51-76), apoi, la Trueti Pe Cuha, n 1954, s-a investigat un atelier cu dou cuptoare, din secolul al IV-lea, unul n focar cu stlp central, altul cu perete median, de un colectiv coordonat de profesorul Mircea PetrescuDmbovia (1955, p. 165-194) i un altul la Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, jud. Neam, un cuptor geto-dacic, n focar cu stlp central, descoperit prin spturile realizate de preotul Constantin Matas, Ioana i Mihai Zamoteanu (1961, p. 340), cercetri arheologice ncepute n colaborare cu Anton Niu (1959, p. 363-369). n perioada anilor '60, printre numeroasele materiale publicate din spturile arheologice erau i cteva cuptoare datate n secolele II-III p.Hr., unul cu perete median n focar, la ifeti - La Grigoreti, jud. Vrancea, complex cercetat de Sebastian Morintz i Nicolae Haruchi, n 1959 (1962, p. 521-526, fig. 2), altul tot cu perete median, la Blteni - Grla Strmbu, jud. Galai, investigat de Ion T. Dragomir (1962, p. 11-23), de asemenea, trei cuptoare la cheia - Silitea, din care dou n focar cu perete median i unul cu pilon central, spate de Grigore Foit, n 1959 (1969, p. 25-28) i cuptorul de la Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, tot cu pilon central n focar, publicat de Constantin Matas, Ioana i Mihai Zamoteanu (1961, p. 345-346, pl. 5). Importantul complex de cuptoare de la Cucoeni - Butnreti, jud. Neam, din care trei aveau grtarul sprijinit pe un perete median i unul pe un pilon central, a fost investigat n urma unor ample cercetri ntreprinse de Gheorghe Bichir (1976, p. 489 i urm.). Este primul studiu care aduce numeroase analogii cu privire la cuptoarele de ars ceramica, ntre ele multe inedite, dar prezentate la manifestrile tiinifice ale arheologilor, precum cuptoarele de la cheia - Silitea, Bneasa Struleti, Biceni - Silite, Medieu Aurit, Arad - Ceala i Mugeni - Vzlok (1966, p. 489-509). De asemenea, n aceast perioad s-au semnalat i cuptoare datate n secolul al IV-lea, unele i n prima parte a secolului al V-lea, precum cel cu perete median de la Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, cercetat de Nicolae i Emilia Zaharia, mpreun cu Simion Ra (1961, p. 461-471) i cu stlp central n prima camer, de la Zorleni - Fntnele, jud. Vaslui, descoperit i publicat de Vasile Palade, care a evideniat importana deosebit a acestuia prin pstrarea arjei n cuptor (1969a, p. 339-361; Idem, 1970, p. 45). n deceniile urmtoare s-au publicat i instalaiile de ars ceramica de la Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, jud. Bacu, de Ioan Mitrea i Alexandru Artimon, un cuptor cu focria liber (1971, p. 225-252), Brlad - Valea Seac, jud. Vaslui, cuptor n focar cu perete median, semnalat n 1973 i spat n anul 1988 de Vasile Palade (2004, p. 83-84), atelierele de la Iai - Nicolina, jud. Iai, spate ntre 1975-1978, de Ion Ioni, n care dou instalaii de ars ceramica aveau stlp central, C1 i C4 i unul perete median C3, la care se adaug un cuptor cu o singur camer (1985, p. 30-49) i atelierul de la Banca Gar - apte case, prevzut cu dou cuptoare n prima camer cu perete median, spat ntre 1987-1988, de Ruxandra Alaiba (1990, p. 221-224; Eadem, 2007a, p. 18-36). Ultimul publicat este atelierul de la Silitea - Muncelu, jud. Vaslui, prevzut cu un singur cuptor cu perete median n focrie, datat cu acribie de cercettorul acestuia, Ion Ioni, n prima jumtate a secolului al IV-lea, spturi 1965 (2010, p. 191 i urm.). S menionm i prezena acestui tip de cuptor n Moldova, n aezarea specific culturii Dridu de la ucani - ipote, jud. Vaslui, complex descoperit n anul 1961, prin cercetrile de suprafa realizate de Ghenu Coman (1970, p. 168). De asemenea, pe cele de la Epureni oldneti, jud. Vaslui, cercetate de Dan Gh. Teodor, cu grtarul realizat din pmnt cruat, fr a se fi folosit un suport, din secolele X-XI (G. Coman 1980, p. 127, XXVIII.8). Aceste ultime descoperiri au fost considerate de o importan deosebit, pe baza lor s-a analizat specificul instalaiilor pentru ars ceramica ntlnite n aezrile culturii materiale de tip Dridu, ca fiind de veche tradiie roman local (Ibidem). La curbura Carpailor primele cuptoare cu dou camere suprapuse, datate n secolele II-III, s-au semnalat la Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, jud. Buzu, cuptor n focar cu perete median (M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 124-132), la fel ca i cel de la Dumbrveni, jud. Vrancea (M. Coma 1981a, p. 89-95), pentru ca altul, n focar prevzut cu pilon tronconic, s fi fost semnalat la Pdureni - Jaritea, jud. Vrancea, datat mai timpuriu, n perioada cuprins ntre secolele I a.Hr. - I

Cap. II. Istoricul cercetrilor / Chapter II. The history of the research

25

p.Hr. (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, p. 351-356). S amintim aici i cuptorul cu o singur camer, din secolul al IV-lea, de la Voetin - La curte, jud. Vrancea, aprut n urma spturilor ntreprinse de Anton Paragin i Victor Bobi (1983, fig. 12/1, 2; 15). Ele au aparinut dacilor liberi carpilor de la est de Carpai, din nord-estul Munteniei, care, precum i cele de la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova, se integreaz ariei acestei culturi, dup cum dovedesc siturile arheologice, datate n secolele II-III/IV, aflate n diferite stadii de conservare. Republica Moldova Cum am menionat deja, deosebit de important a fost publicarea celor patru cuptoare, prevzute n focar cu perete median, de la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova, datate n secolul al III-lea, cu probabilitate i n secolul al II-lea p.Hr., aflate n spturile realizate n 2001 i 2003 de Vlad Vornic, Nicolai Telnov, Valeriu Bubulici i Larisa Ciobanu (fig. 1A/10-13) i ordonate ntr-un volum mpreun cu Eugen Nicolae (Vl. Vornic et alii 2007, p. 38-74, pl. 14-15, 17-18, 20-21, 23). Pentru perioada urmtoare, menionm pentru Republica Moldova i cunoscutele atelierele de ars ceramica de la Solonceni (A. Levinschi 1996, p. 61 i urm.). Muntenia Oltenia ntre primele cuptoare publicate la sud de Carpai sunt cele din aezarea roman de la Celeiu - Sucidava, jud. Olt, semnalate nc din spturile perioadei interbelice de Vasile Christescu (1929, p. 76; Idem, 2004, p. 144 i urm.). n nivelul din secolul al III-lea era un mic cuptor cu plan rotunjit, n camera de foc prevzut cu stlp central, considerat a fi fost folosit pentru ars ceramica, opaie, igle tampilate (D. Tudor 1965, p. 44-45). Acestuia se adaug altele cinci. Dou, din secolele II-III p.Hr. i unul din secolul al VI-lea, ce aveau n focrie tot un pilon central; un altul din secolele II-III, cu grtarul sprijinit pe trei pilatri din crmizi de chirpici, lipii de pereii camerei de foc; unul de secol IV, cu profil de cas, acoperiul n dou ape i cu pereii, camera de alimentare i gura de foc zidite din piatr, crmizi i igle legate cu lut (O. Toropu, C. Ttulea 1987, p. 115, fig. 29). Un al aselea, nedatat, n plan dreptunghiular, a fost realizat tot din crmid, n interior avnd pilonii legai ntre ei prin arcade zidite, precum cele destinate pentru arderea materialelor de construcie (Ibidem). n urma cercetrilor realizate de Radu Vulpe, la Rduleti, jud. Ialomia, s-au investigat patru cuptoare de ars ceramica, datate n secolele II-III p.Hr., unul avea perete median (1931, p. 156-158; M. Coma 1985, p. 172, fig. 3). De asemenea, cu ocazia spturilor din centrul roman de la Turnu Severin - Drobeta, jud. Mehedini, ntre descoperirile perioadei trzii, de la sfritul secolului al III-lea i din secolul al IV-lea, Grigore Tocilescu a semnalat i un cuptor pentru ars olria local (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 212, nota 206, mss., 5135, fila 13), pentru ca tot aici, n zona cimitirului roman, Miu Davidescu, n anul 1964, s semnaleze alt cuptor de ars ceramica i nc unul de ars oale i crmid, datat n secolele IV-V (Ibidem, p. 113; R. Florescu 1967, p. 148). ntre materialele de la Turnu Severin - Drobeta, Al. Brccil menioneaz un fragment de terra sigilatta, care avea tampila olarului EBVRRVS (1938, p. 43, fig. 62-63, cf. M. Davidescu 1980, p. 115). n 1968 s-au publicat crmidriile de la Ctunele, jud. Gorj, din prima jumtate a secolului al III-lea, n urma cercetrilor realizate de Dumitru Tudor i Miu Davidescu (D. Tudor 1968, p. 226, 273) i complexele din centrul economic i comercial roman de la Stolniceni - Buridava, com. Ocnia, astzi localitate component a municipiului Rm. Vlcea, jud. Vlcea, unde Gheorghe I. Petre, a spat un cuptor de olari prevzut n focrie cu pilon central, datat n prima jumtate a secolului al III-lea p.Hr. (Ibidem, p. 147, fig. 1, 6), cuptoarele de ars ceramic i igle de aici au fost publicate de Gh. Bichir (1989, p. 45 i urm.). n 1973, n urma spturilor arheologice realizate de Expectatus Bujor, s-au publicat descoperirile de la Bumbeti - Jiu, jud. Gorj, ntre care i un cuptor n plan circular, ce a aparinut unui meter productor de olane, din prima jumtate a secolului al III-lea (1973, p. 108, fig. 2; 1983, p. 351). La Ostrovul Banului, jud. Mehedini, dintre construciile realizate n afara fortificaiei, la nceputul secolului al IV-lea, s-au detaat dou erau cuptoare dreptunghiulare pentru ars crmida (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 115; D. Tudor 1970, p. 67-83).

26

Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Prin spturile ntreprinse de Gheorghe Popilian, ntre 1962 1969, s-a cercetat castrul roman de la Slveni, jud. Olt, unde, n perioada 250-251 p.Hr. - sfritul sec. III p. Hr., s-au datat patru cuptoare de tip nalt, C1-4, dintre care dou, prevzute n focar cu pilon central, s-au pstrat mai bine, C2,4 (1971, p. 627 i urm., fig. 5, 7). Deosebit de importante au fost cercetrile de la Reca - Romula, jud. Olt, mai ales cele din locuirea datat n a doua jumtate a secolului al II-lea i n prima jumtate a secolului al III-lea. Prin spturile realizate de Dumitru Tudor, Gheorghe Popilian i colaboratorii acestora, s-a cercetat "unul dintre cele mai nfloritoare centre meteugreti din ntreaga provincie roman Dacia", din care s-au dezvelit apte cuptoare de ars ceramica i alte crmidrii construite n tehnica roman, - ordonate n grupuri de cte dou sau patru -, n forma unor instalaii care puteau fi dirijate de meteri specializai, pentru ca producia s fie n serie (D. Tudor 1976b, p. 510; Gh. Popilian 1976a, p. 222 i urm.; Idem 1984, p. 46). n zona central a Cmpiei Munteniei, cuptoarele din zona Bucureti, ncep s intre n circuitul informaional prin lucrrile semnate de Vlad Zirra i Margareta Tudor, mai nti complexele din secolul al IV-lea de la Crngai (1954, p. 312-315) i de la Fundenii Doamnei (1954, p. 315 i urm.). Prin studiile semnate tot de Margareta Constantiniu, n urma spturilor ntreprinse n aezrile geto-dacice, n colaborare cu Panait I. Panait, ntre 1964-1966, se public complexele de la Bneasa - Struleti, sectorul Micneti, datat n secolele III-IV, i punctul - La Nuci, datat n secolul al III-lea, unde s-au dezvelit, n fiecare, cte un cuptor cu pilon central n focrie (1968, p. 43-64, fig. 4). De asemenea, Vlad Zirra semnaleaz cuptorul cu stlp central sub platform de la Ileana Podari (1959a, p. 501-509), Bucur Mitrea i N. Anghelescu, pe cel de la Independena - Vatra satului, n focrie cu stlp central (1962, p. 609-614) i Maria Coma, cuptoarele de la Radovanu La fraii Dinc, unul getic n focrie cu perete median (1986, p. 143-161) i un atelier cu dou amenajri necesare arderii vaselor, fr grtar, tot la Radovanu, dar n punctul Pe Neguleasa, datat n secolele V-VI (1981b, p. 241-248. Spturile de salvare de la Trgovite, realizate de Luciana Oancea, n 1972, au consemnat un alt cuptor cu pilon central n prima camer (1976, p. 56-60). Vasile Barbu, pe teritoriul comunei Adunaii - Copceni, n satul cu acelai nume, pe terasa nalt din dreapta rului Arge, n punctul La Porcrie, n cadrul unei locuiri Sntana de Mure a investigat un cuptor de ars ceramica n focar cu pilon central (1989, p. 379-380; Idem 1999-2000, p. 231; Cristian Schuster 2007, p. 43-44, pl. I/4). Totodat, pentru aceeai perioad, n satul Mironeti Giurgiu, a cercetat un alt cuptor de ars oale, tot cu pilon central (V. Barbu 1999-2000, fig. 10-11, 13-14). Banat. Pentru zona de astzi a Banatului, ne oprim mai nti asupra complexelor de la Tibiscum, satul Jupa - Cetate, jud. Cara-Severin. Aici, pentru secolele II-III, spre nord de castru, n imediata apropiere, Ion Glodariu a spat un cuptor de ars oale (1976, p. 572). n 1978 s-a descoperit cuptorul de olar datat la nceputul secolului al II-lea (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 301, fig. 5). Un altul a aprut n anul 1979, datat n a doua jumtate a secolului III, n plan circular i n focar cu pilon central, format din fragmente de crmizi, igle, olane legate cu lut (Ibidem, p. 301-302, fig. 6; Eadem 1983, p. 310, fig. 6). Cuptorul distrus n mare parte, nu depete veacul al III-lea (Ibidem, p. 310). n spturile efectuate n 1961 la Ramna, jud. Cara-Severin, Doina Benea a investigat alte cuptoare (1992, p. 251). Totodat, n aezarea rural roman de la Gornea - Cunia de Sus, jud. Cara-Severin, n spturile realizate de Nicolae Gudea, n nivelul din secolul al III-lea, s-au descoperit dou cuptoare pentru ars materiale de construcie, igle, crmizi, n preajm i cu fragmente de vase (1977, p. 13-14). i n situl daco-roman de la Grdinari - Slite, jud. CaraSeverin, cercetat n perioada 1983-1992, de Ovidiu Bozu, situat n apropierea drumului Lederata Tibiscum, n jurul cruia au gravitat majoritatea aezrilor din Valea Cainului sau de mai departe, cercetrile sistematice au dus la dezvelirea a apte locuine de suprafa i a unui centru de ars ceramica. Atelierul, datat ntre prima jumtate a secolului al III-lea i sfritul secolului al IV-lea dup retragerea administraiei romane, era prevzut cu trei cuptoare cu inventar ceramic, ce

Cap. II. Istoricul cercetrilor / Chapter II. The history of the research

27

prezint caracteristicile olriei provinciale romane i romane trzii (1996, p. 55-56). Ovidiu Bozu apreciaz perioada ca fiind una de nflorire, ce se va deteriora dup anii 356-369 (Ibidem, p. 56; Idem, 1990, p. 147 i urm.). Transilvania. n Transilvania, n perioada de dinaintea primului rzboi mondial, la ClujNapoca - Cartierul Mntur, n spturile realizate de Istvn Kovcs, n 1911, s-a descoperit un atelier ceramic, datat n secolele III-IV, nepublicat. Pn n prezent din aceast staiune s-au semnalat dou cuptoare (V. Christescu 1929, p. 67, nota 1; Idem, 2004, p. 63, pl. V, fig. 1-2; A. Filimon 1940, p. 92, nota 1). La nord i est de fortificaia din Colonia Nova Apulensis, Alba Iulia Nord vest, jud. Alba, n actualul cartier Parto, pe malul Mureului, ntre anii 1910-1912, n spturile realizate de A. Cserny, s-au descoperit trei cuptoare mari cu pereii din crmid, construite dup sistemul roman (1912, p. 112; I. Berciu 1958, p. 180 i urm., fig. 1-3), tipuri specifice lumii romane, prezentate de Ren Majurel (1965, 1-2, p. 95-114, fig. 3-9). n acelai jude, n perioada interbelic, la Blandiana, prin 1935-1936, s-a investigat un mare cuptor de olrie roman, din sec. II-III, destinat cu deosebire pentru ars opaie i alte tipuri de vase (I. Berciu 1958, p. 180, nota 3). Unul dintre primele cuptoare semnalate n perioada interbelic, pentru ars igle i crmizi, din secolele II-III p.Hr., se afla ntre complexele investigate la Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, jud. Hunedoara, pe Dealul Grditii, n Munii Ortiei (O. Floca 1937; Idem 1945, p. 431 i urm., pl. I; R. Ardevan 1978, p. 169). Aici s-au construit i instalaii prevzute cu mai multe canale, unul central i altele secundare (Ibidem, p. 434) i grtar cu apte iruri a cte 21 de perforri, corespunznd canalelor secundare ale focarului (Ibidem, p. 441 i urm., pl. I; R. Florescu et alii 1980, p. 126). n 1959, Zoltan Szkely, publicnd cercetrile de la Sf. Gheorghe Eprestet, din anul 1956, consemneaz i dou cuptoare, dintre care unul nu era distrus i altul avea prima camer desprit de un perete median (1959, p. 240, pl. I/5). i n Transilvania cele mai multe cuptoare s-au descoperit n anii '60, precum cuptorul de ars crmizi de la Orheiu Bistriei, jud. Bistria Nsud, aflat n apropiere de castru (D. Protase, t. Dnil 1965, p. 557 i urm.; I. Glodariu 2000, p. 240) sau cuptorul, n focar cu perete median, aprut la Arad - Ceala, datat n secolul al III-lea, n spturile realizate de Ion H. Crian i Egon Drner. Deosebit de altele, acesta mai avea i o camer intermediar, nchis ntre focar i camera de ardere a vaselor, care izola complet arja de foc (E. Drner 1968, p. 12 i urm.) iar altele la Aque azi Cioroiul Nou (D. Tudor, E. Bujor 1962, p. 547; D. Tudor, I. Diaconescu, Gh. Popilian 1967, p. 593; Gh. Popilian 1967; Gh. Poenaru Bordea 1994 , p. 84-85). La Medieul Aurit - uculeu, jud. Satu Mare, Sever Dumitracu i Tiberiu Bader au cercetat cartierul meteugarilor aflat n apropierea aezrii i necropolei, datate n secolele II-IV p.Hr. Din puternicul centru de olari aflat aici s-au investigat 13 cuptoare de ars ceramic, cu grtarele sprijinite fie pe un perete median, fie pe un pilon central (1967a, p. 20-31; Ibidem, 1967b, p. 107111; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 61). n studiul din 1981, publicat numai de Sever Dumitracu, privind aezrile de la Medieul Aurit i Biharea, jud. Satu Mare (p. 237, 240, fig. 4-5), se aduce n discuie un alt centru de olrie, Biharea - Grdina CAP Baraj, unde, n suprafaa A2, spat ntre 19771978, s-a descoperit un atelier, groapa de deservire i cuptoarele acestuia de ars ceramica, C 1-3, cu dou camere suprapuse, aveau n focrie cu perete median. Descoperirile justific existena aici a unui important centru antic de olrie ale crui produse ajungeau i la alte triburi. Ele continu pn n aceast epoc tradiia ceramicii dacice de culoare cenuie, de calitate superioar, cu decor lustruit (S. Dumitracu 1979, p. 297, fig. 4). Cuptoarele au fost considerate a fi aparinut dacilor liberi din nord-vestul Daciei (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 507; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 70, 95, nota 63, tabel sinoptic 31). n 1974, Ioan Nmeti public dou cuptoare de ars oale, dispuse alturat, n focar cu perete median, cu o singur ncpere de deservire, din epoca La Tne de la Andrid, jud. Satu Mare (1974, p. 579-584). ntre descoperirile legate de nfloritorul pagus Miciensis, pentru secolele II-III, s-a cercetat i un centru de cuptoare de ars ceramica, prin spturile realizate de Octavian Floca, tefan

28

Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Ferenczi, Liviu Mrghitan (1970, p. 92). Cele zece instalaii de la Micia, ntre care au fost diferene de detalii - gura de foc prelungit sau nu, numrul de culoare laterale pentru dirijarea cldurii, pot argumenta situarea Miciei pe aceeai treapt cu oficinile din celelalte provincii ale imperiului (L. Mrghitan 1971, p. 534; Idem 1995-1996, p. 319-324). n judeul Satu Mare, n partea de nord a municipiului Satu Mare, Gheorghe Lazin a cercetat, n 1979, dou cuptoare cu perete median deservite din aceeai ncpere (1980, p. 133, fig. 1-3). De asemenea i n staiunea Lazuri, n 1978, n aezarea din secolele III-IV p.Hr., a spat un alt cuptor de ars vase i ncperea de deservire a acestuia (Gh. Lazin 1981-1982, p. 77). Aici, n timp, s-au cercetat 10 cuptoare (M. Bitiri-Ciortescu 1996, p. 301). Remarcm faptul c, n judeul Satu Mare s-a consemnat arheologic, pe o arie relativ restrns, existena a trei centre cu ateliere de olrie din veacurile II i III-IV p.Hr., n ordinea descoperirii, Medieu Aurit i Lazuri aflate la 9-10 km, respectiv 4 km, de centrul de la Satu Mare. De asemenea, s-a publicat n 1984, cuptorul de ars ceramica din aezarea dacilor liberi de pe Valea Mei (Al. V. Matei 1984, p. 237-246). Un loc aparte a avut i investigarea centrului de producie ceramic de la Micsasa, de Ioan Mitrofan, prin publicarea grupului mare de cuptoare i a altora din spturile realizate ntre 19911992, cte dou cuptoare n fiecare an, pentru ca n anul 1993 s fie investigate altele cinci (1990, p. 129 i urm.; Idem 1994a, p. 524-527, fig. 1-3; Idem 1994b, p. 529-530; Idem 1994c, p. 533-535, fig. 1) i a monografiei staiunii n 1995. De asemenea, important a fost i publicarea celor de la Ampelum, astzi Zlatna, jud. Alba, unde, n spturile realizate de I. T. Lipovan, s-a semnalat nc un cuptor de ars ceramica, datat la mijlocul secolului al II-lea p.Hr., n interior cu vase rebutate i ceramic crmizie i alb, decorat cu barbotin, pstrat fragmentar (1996, p. 203; M. Zahariade 1994, p. 65-66). n Transilvania i Banat cercetrile arheologice s-au orientat, cu deosebire, spre perioada privind istoria provinciei Dacia i mai puin spre perioada primelor migraii, a sarmailor i goilor. S-au realizat spturi organizate n oraele romane de la Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, Porolissum, Potaissa, Napoca, Apulum (E. Nicolae 1994, p. 82-84), Dierna, Drobeta, Romula - Reca, centrul de olari de la Sucidava sau Micsasa (I. Mitrofan 1995) iar n Banat, Tibiscum (D. Benea 1982, p. 22-40; Eadem 1995, p. 59-62), Ramna (D. Benea 1992, p. 251), Gornea - Cunia de Sus (N. Gudea 1977, p. 13-14) sau Grdinari - Slite, jud. Cara-Severin (O. Bozu 1996, p. 55-56, fig. 127). Atelierele din zona Sighioarei au fost publicate de Gheorghe Baltag (1979, p. 75 i urm) mpreun cu Radu Harhoiu (2006-2007). Dobrogea. D. M. Pippidi a publicat printre primele cuptoare din Dobrogea, din cea mai veche colonie milesian de pe rmul vestic al Mrii Negre, Histria, patru cuptoare cu vetrele focarelor plane, aprute n spturile coordonate de el n sectorul Z2, n nivelul corespunztor secolelor V-IV a.Hr., cu analogii n Ucraina de sud (M. M. Hudeak 1952, p. 257) i un altul n sectorul X, n stratul de cultur elenistic din secolele II-I a.Hr., cu focarul cilindric cu vatra albiat, n mijloc cu un pilon central realizat din pmnt cruat i camerele de ardere a vaselor fcute din chirpici (D. M. Pippidi et alii, 1959, p. 283-328; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 59; M. Coja, P. Dupont 1979). La scurt timp Gheorghe tefan public, de la Garvn, un alt cuptor de ars igle, de data aceasta din perioada roman (1957, p. 340 i urm.; ~ et alii 1959, p. 565 i urm.) i Adrian Rdulescu, pe cele din nordul Dobrogei, de la Telia - Amza, unde se afla un depozit de igle (1965, p. 437-438; Idem 1971, p. 333 i urm.; Idem 1972). Unul dintre cuptoarele cu plan dreptunghiular, avea la baz camera de foc nemprit iar grtarul sprijinit pe arcurile de susinere ale focriei (Idem, 1965, p. 437). De la ferma roman trzie de la Telia - La Pod, jud. Tulcea, V. H. Baumann, menioneaz un nou cuptor de ars material tegular (1991, p. 105-108) i subliniaz rolul aezrilor rurale antice n zona Gurilor Dunrii (1993; 1995), iar recent, Maria Brbulescu, specificul vieii rurale n Dobrogea roman, n secolele I-III p.Hr. (2001). n urma spturilor realizate la Mangalia - Nord, fosta halt CFR Neptun, din territorium callatianense, de Constantin Iconomu, din locuirea de epoc roman s-a publicat un cuptor n plan dreptunghiular (1968, p. 235 i urm., fig. 1). n acelai an vd lumina tiparului i descoperirile de la

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Oltina - La dinamit, vechiul Altina (Altinum), unde, n aezarea roman situat pe malul de est al lacului Oltina, Mihai Irimia a cercetat trei cuptoare, semnalate n 1964 i spate n 1967 (Ibidem, p. 379-408). Andrei Opai, a realizat o tipologie a celor din Dobrogea cunoscute atunci. El a stabilit patru tipuri de cuptoare cu dou camere, exemplificate prin cuptoarele de la Dinogetia tip 1, de form rectangular n focar cu perei intermediari strbtui de canale, Neptun tip 2, Tomis tip 3, cu varianta Telia i Ostrov tip 4 (1996, p. 24-28, pl. 1/1-4 i pentru tip 3, pl. 2). Tehnica olritului Menionm i cteva din lucrrile care s-au ocupat numai de tehnica olritului. n acest sens, cteva contribuii ale autorilor romni se refer la cuptoarele de olrie dintr-o perioad mai larg. Astfel, pentru secolele III a.Hr. - I a.Hr., menionm studiul semnat de Ion H. Crian, legat de cuptoarele de ars ceramic la geto-dacii din epoca La Tne (1967, p. 111-118). Gheorghe Bichir, prin analiza spturilor de la Butnreti, realizeaz i o ampl prezentare a descoperirilor din acel moment (1973a, p. 57-61). Cel mai reprezentativ, ns, este studiul semnat de Maria Coma, care, n 1985, public prima sintez, cuprinznd descoperirile din secolele I a.Hr. - IV p.Hr., de la est i sud de Carpai (1985, p. 171-185). i Andrei Opai, n sinteza sa asupra ceramicii, n capitolul II s-a oprit asupra olriei romane, urmrind, fie A. Consideraii privind producia ceramicii romane, fie B. Modalitile de producie a ceramicii romane n provincia Scythia (1996, p. 17-35, pl. 1-2). Menionm i cunoaterea rspndirii acestui tip de instalaii de-a lungul unei ape, Cuptoare de ars ceramica pe cursul inferior al Argeului, semnat de Vasile Barbu (1989, p. 379380; Idem 1999-2000, p. 231-233). Numai la secolul al IV-lea se refer sinteza publicat de Mariana Marcu (1988, p. 43-49). Pentru spaiul aflat n zona Dunrii de Jos i Centrale, J. Henning, n 1977, a realizat una dintre cele mai ample sinteze. De asemenea, pentru inuturile Tisei superioare n veacurile III a.Hr.- IV p.Hr., o analiz a acestor cuptoare a semnat V. Kotigoroko (1995, p. 35-41, 57-61, 117-122, 135-151). Date legate de selitile din secolele I-V, dar i de acest meteug, n istoriografia romneasc s-au consemnat n repertoriile arheologice publicate: pentru Moldova de Nicolae Zaharia, Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia i Emilia Zaharia (1970), pentru judeul Vaslui de Ghenu Coman (1980), pentru judeul Iai de Vasile Chirica i Marcel Tanasachi (I/1984, II/1985), pentru judeul Cluj de Ion Horaiu Crian, Mihai Brbulescu, Eugen Chiril, Valentin Vasiliev, Iudita Winkler (1992) i pentru judeul Braov de Florea Costea (1995), n dicionarele de arheologie, DIV, 1976 i EAIVR, I/1994, II/1996, III/2000, cu o referire special la cuptoare (N. Conovici 1994, p. 393-395). Dintre studiile de sintez cu privire la istoria dacilor liberi, care pornesc de la descoperirile din acel moment, cteva date generale au fost semnate de Gh. Bichir, n 1966 i 1967a, amplificate n sinteza cu privire la Cultura carpic (1973a), precum i n volumul aprut la Oxford n 1976, n care meteugul olritului s-a discutat pe larg. De asemenea, dintre studiile de sintez cu privire la cultura Sntana de Mure Cerneahov, n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut, n Moldova, trebuie menionat sinteza semnat de Ion Ioni (1966, p. 189-261), date legate de problema rspndirii culturii, de Kurt Horedt (1967, p. 575-592) iar cele privind datarea culturii, de Ion Horaiu Crian (1983, p. 235-242), A. Kokowski (1999, p. 179 i urm.), . . , 1960, p. 199-202; Idem 1964 and 1975. Etno-arheologie - Etnografie i n secolele II-V ceramica a deinut o pondere nsemnat ntre descoperirile arheologice, fapt pentru care cum a menionat A. Shepard cunoaterea tehnicilor de realizare a acesteia a rmas constant (1965, p. 49-94). Preocuprile legate de tehnicile i tehnologiile de realizare a acesteia au rmas constante (E. V. Saiko, 1982, 32 i urm.; R. L. Rands 1988, p. 165 i urm.), de termenii utilizai pentru denumirea diferitelor componente (I. I. Russu 1981). Din domeniul etnografiei, sinteze asupra ceramicii primului mileniu au realizat Barbu Sltineanu (1938; 1972), Corina Nicolescu i Paul Petrescu (1974). Totodat, asupra dezvoltrii n timp a tehnicilor olritului s-au oprit Ion Vlduiu (1973; Idem 1981, p. 190-228) i Valer Butur

30

Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

(1978, p. 381-392) i pentru perioada medieval Mrioara Nicorescu (1965, p. 97 i urm.) i n Republica Moldova . . (1969). Etnografii, preocupai fiind de istoricul meteugului olritului n ateliere dotate cu instalaii performante, au publicat sinteze asupra acestuia n care au inclus i prima jumtate a mileniului nti. ntre primii a fost Florian Bobu Florescu (1958; 1965) iar mai recent, un studiu bine documentat a semnat de Gheorghe Iordache, n care olria ocup un loc important (1996, p. 15198). n primul capitol, numit sugestiv Perspectiva istoric, se oprete la perioada ce ne preocup, att asupra formelor ceramice, ntre care menioneaz persistena cetii dacice, ct i asupra cuptoarelor de ars ceramica (Ibidem, p. 35-53). Tot el aduce n discuie i terminologia legat de practicarea olriei n Romnia (Ibidem, p. 54-55). Ioan Godea, n 1995, ntr-un cadru mai larg - La cramique -, s-a referit i la tehnicile de olrie din primul mileniu. Pentru instalaiile din perioada contemporan menionm lucrarea semnat de Narcisa Uc (1981, p. 249-253). Studiile publicate pn n prezent ngduie conturarea arealului de rspndire al atelierelor de acest fel din nordul Dunrii de Jos i relev importana i specificul fiecrei staiuni. De asemenea scot n evident importana meteugului olritului, nelegerea acestuia n general, a modului de construcie i de funcionare a cuptoarelor n particular.

Chapter II. The history of the research


The potters craft is archeologically one of the best studied and published occupations for the 2 4th centuries AD. The foremost is the interest given to the presentation and detailed study of the pottery workshops, equipped with various types of kilns. The available information during the 20th century was also completed with the publication of many newly discovered ceramic complexes. According to Gh. Bichir another potters workshop was operational in a hut, where there existed two kilns to which the access was provided from inside the dwelling. The kilns with two chambers, one on top of the other, with the perforated plate supported by a central column or a median wall, were identified in the Moldavian territory since the period between the two World Wars. Poiana - Cetate (Galati County), dated to the Geto-Dacian La Tne, is one of the first sites discovered in Moldavia and here it was found one kiln of this type, dated to the 3rd century BC, with a median wall in the fire chamber and studied by Radu and Ecaterina Vulpe (1933, p. 253-351; R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 50; Idem 1951, p. 203; Idem 1952, p. 191 et sq.). A similar kiln, with a median wall in the fire chamber, was discovered at Poiana - Siliste, Dulcesti village, Neamt County, dated by Maria Comsa to the 1st century AD (Gh. Bichir 1973b, p. 103; M. Coma 1985, p. 171, note 3; R. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, p. 336). Radu and Ecaterina Vulpe are also the authors of the ample excavations of Poienesti - Dealul Teilor, where Constantin Cihodaru excavated and studied a two-chamber kiln, with a central column in the fire chamber, diamond-shaped in section, continued with a thin division toward the back wall (1938, p. 35-37, fig. 14-15), further republished by Maria Comsa, who assigned it to the Santana de Mures Culture, following its location in the settlement outskirts as well as the pottery finds on the site (1985, p. 173, fig. 4). Taking into account the volume of pottery finds, as published in the archeology journals, the existence of pottery kilns was inferred for several sites in Moldavia. The first kiln of this type, which was dated to the 3rd4th centuries AD, was discovered at Glavnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare in 1949 by a team led by Ion Nestor (~ et alii 1951, p. 51-76). At Trueti - Pe Cuha another two potter kilns were excavated and studied in 1954, dated to the same period, one with a central column and the other with a median wall, by a team led by M. Petrescu-Dmbovia (1955, p. 165-194). At Piatra Neamt - Batca Doamnei, the excavations of Ioana Zamoteanu and Mihai Zamoteanu with Anton Niu (1959, p. 363-369), continued by Constantin Matas, Ioana Zamoteanu and Mihai Zamoteanu (1961, p. 340), unearthed a Geto-Dacian pottery kiln, with a central column in the fire chamber.
nd

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31

During the archeological campaigns of the 1960s, among other finds, several kilns dated to the 2 3rd centuries AD were published, one of them with a median wall in the fire chamber, at Tifesti - La Grigoreti, Vrancea County, a site excavated by Sebastian Morintz and Nicolae Haruchi, n 1959 (1962, p. 521-526, fig. 2). A similar kiln, also with a median wall, was discovered at Blteni - Grla Strmbu, Galai County, by Ion T. Dragomir (1962, p. 11-23); other three kilns at cheia - Silitea, two of which had median walls, were unearthed by Grigore Foit, in 1959 (1969, p. 25-28), and a kiln discovered at Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, was published by Constantin Matas, Ioana Zamoteanu and Mihai Zamoteanu (1961, p. 345-346, pl. 5). The important complex of kilns of Cucoeni - Butnreti, Neamt County, with three kilns having the perforated plate supported by a central column, was excavated and extensively studied by Gheorghe Bichir. It was the first research that brought forward numerous analogies as for the ceramic firing kilns, many of them unpublished but presented in the circuit of archeology conferences, such as the kilns of cheia - Silitea, Bneasa - Struleti, Biceni - Silite, Medieu Aurit, Arad - Ceala and Mugeni - Vzlok (Al. Ferenczi, p. 216-217; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 489-509). Also in the 1960s, several kilns dated to the 4 th and some to the 5th centuries AD were discovered, like the one with a median wall of Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Botoani County, excavated by Nicolae and Emilia Zaharia, together with Simion Ra (1961, p. 461-471) or the one with a central column in the fire chamber, from Zorleni - Fntnele, Vaslui County, excavated and published by Vasile Palade (1969a, p. 339-361; Idem, 1970b, p. 45). During the following decades, there were also published the ceramic firing installation of Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, Bacu County, consisting in a kiln with a free fire chamber was published by Ioan Mitrea i Alexandru Artimon (1971, p. 225-252), the kiln with a median wall in the fire chamber of Brlad - Valea Seac, Vaslui County, which was identified in 1973 and excavated in 1988 by Vasile Palade (2004, p. 83-84), atelierele de la Iai - Nicolina, jud. Iai, spate ntre 1975-1978, de Ion Ioni, the potters workshop of Iasi Nicolina, Iasi County, excavated between 1975 and 1978 by Ion Ionita, with two of the kilns having a central column (C1 and C4), one with a median wall (C3) and one with a single-chamber kiln (1985, p. 30-49), as well as the potters workshop with two kilns having a median wall in the first chamber, excavated between 1987 and 1988 by Ruxandra Alaiba (1990, p. 221-224; Eadem, 2007a, p. 18-36) and Silite - Muncelu, ifu, was published by I. Ioni (2010, p. 191 et sq.). It is worth mentioning the presence of this type of kiln in the settlements of ucani ipote, Vaslui County (Dridu culture) and Epureni - oldneti, Vaslui County, excavated by D. Gh. Teodor dated to the 10rd11th centuries, with the perforated plate made of the natural ground clay, without any support. These latter discoveries are very significant, as they serve as the basis of the theory that this type of firing installations are the result of an ancient local Roman tradition (G. Coman 1980, p. 127, XXVIII.8; Dan Gh. Teodor 1987, p. 145-146, fig. 5). In the area of the Carpathians Bend the first double-chamber kilns, dated to the 2rd3th centuries AD, were discovered at Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Buzu County, with a median wall in the fire chamber (M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 124-132), as well as at Dumbraveni, Vrancea County (M. Coma 1981a, p. 89-95) and Pdureni - Jaritea, Vrancea County, which was a kiln with a tapering central column in the fire chamber, dated between the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, p. 351-356). It is worth mentioning here the single-room kiln, dated in the 4th century, from Voetin La curte, Vrancea County, found during the excavations carried out by Anton Paragina and Victor Bobi (1983, fig. 12/1, 2; 15). Muntenia Oltenia. Among the first kilns discovered south of the Carpathians that have been published mention should be made of those in the Roman site of Celeiu - Sucidava, Olt county, pointed out already during the excavations carried out down there during the period between the two World Wars (V. Christescu 1929, p. 76; 2004, p. 144 et sq.). In the level of the 3 rd century, there was a small kiln with a rounded plan, the fire chamber being equipped with a central column; it is considered it was used for firing ceramics, clay lamps, stamped tiles (D. Tudor 1965,
nd

32

Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

p. 44-45). There are other five kilns, out of which two are dated to the 2 nd-3rd centuries AD and one to the 6th century, which also had a central column in the fire chamber; another one, dated to the 2 nd and 3rd centuries, with the perforated plated sustained by three pilasters of adobe blocks, abutted to the walls of the fire chamber; one of the 4th century, with a house outline, with a gabled roof and the walls, the feeding chamber and fire opening built with stones, bricks and tiles bound with clay (O. Toropu, C. Ttulea 1987, p. 115, fig. 29). A sixth kiln, undated, with a rectangular plan, was achieved also of bricks, with columns inside, bound together with walled-up arcades, like the ones for burning construction materials (Ibidem). Following the researches carried out by Radu Vulpe, at Rduleti, Ialomia county, there were investigated four kilns for firing ceramics, dated to the 2 nd3rd centuries AD, out of which onle one is acknowledged to have had a median wall (1931, p. 156-158; M. Coma 1985, p. 172, fig. 3). With the occasion of the excavations carried out in the Roman centre of Turnu Severin - Drobeta, Mehedini county, among the finds of the late period, of the end of the 3 rd century, Grigore Tocilescu found a kiln for firing the local pottery (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 212, note 206, manuscript, 5135, sheet 13), and also there, in the area of the Roman cemetery, in 1964, Miu Davidescu identified another kiln for firing pots and bricks, dated to the 4th5th centuries (Ibidem, p. 113; R. Florescu 1967, p. 148). Among the materials of Turnu Severin - Drobeta, Al. Brccil mentions a fragment of terra sigillata, which had the stamp of the potter EBVRRVS (1938, p. 43, fig. 62-63; M. Davidescu 1980, p. 115). In 1968, there were published the brick workshops of Ctunele, Gorj county, of the first half of the 3rd century, as a result of the researches undertaken by Dumitru Tudor and Miu Davidescu (D. Tudor 1968, p. 226, 273), as well as the complexes of the Roman economic and trade centre of Stolniceni - Buridava, Ocnia commune, nowadays a site part of the city of Rm. Vlcea, Vlcea county, where in the excavations, Gheorghe I. Petre identified a potters kiln whose fire chamber has a central column, dated to the first half of the 3rd century AD (1968, p. 147, fig. 1, 6) and in 1989 to the works signed by Gh. Bichir (1989, p. 45 i urm). In 1973, as a result of the archaeological excavations achieved by Expectatus Bujor, there were published the discoveries of Bumbeti - Jiu, Gorj county, and among these a circular plan kiln which belonged to a craftsman producing tiles, dated to the first half of the 3rd century (1973, p. 108, fig. 2). At Ostrovul Banului, Mehedini county, among the constructions built out of the fortified precinct, at the beginning of the 4th century, two were rectangular kilns for firing bricks (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 115; D. Tudor 1970, p. 67-83). The excavations undertaken by Gheorghe Popilian, between 1962 1969, allowed the research of the Roman castrum of Slveni, Olt county, where there were uncovered four high kilns (C1-4) dated to the period 250-251 AD end of the 3 rd century AD. Out of these four kilns, two, which were equipped with a fire chamber with a high column, are better preserved, C2,4 (1971, p. 627 et sq., fig. 5, 7). The researches of Reca - Romula, Olt county, are particularly important by the inhabitance dated to the second half of the 2nd century and the first half of the 3rd. By the excavations carried out by Dumitru Tudor, Gheorghe Popilian and their collaborators, it was possible to research one of the most flourishing craftsmen centers of the whole Roman province of Dacia". This site revealed seven kilns for firing ceramics and other brick making workshops in the Roman technique, - ordered in groups of twos or fours -, in the shape of installations that could be directed by the specialized craftsmen, so to create a serial production (D. Tudor 1976, p. 510; Gh. Popilian 1976a, p. 222 et sq.; Idem 1984, p. 46). The kilns in the area of Bucharest have started being known thanks to the works signed by Vlad Zirra and Margareta Tudor, first the compound of Crngai (1954, p. 312-315) and by those signed also by Margareta Constantiniu, consequent to the excavations carried out in collaboration with Panait I. Panait, between 1964-1966, at Bneasa - Struleti, sector Micneti, where a kiln with a central column in the fire chamber was identified (1968, p. 43-64, fig. 4).

Cap. II. Istoricul cercetrilor / Chapter II. The history of the research

33

Vlad Zirra also pointed out the kiln with a central column under the platform found at Ileana - Podari (1959, p. 501-509), Bucur Mitrea and N. Anghelescu, the one of Independena - Vatra satului, having a central column in the fire chamber (1962, p. 609-614) and Maria Coma, the kilns of Radovanu - La fraii Dinc, one dated to the times of the Getae, having a median wall in the fire chamber (1986, p. 143-161) and a workshop with two structures necessary for firing the pots, without the perforated grill, also in Radovanu, but in the place named Pe Neguleasa, dated to the 5th6th centuries (1981b, p. 241-248. The safeguarding excavations of Trgovite, carried out by Luciana Oancea, in 1972, shall lead to the publication of another kiln with a central column in the first chamber (1976, p. 56-60). On the territory of the commune Adunaii - Copceni, in the village with the same name, on the high terrace to the right of river Arge, in the placed called La Porcrie, within the inhabitance of Sntana de Mure there was investigated a kiln for firing ceramics (V. Barbu 1989, p. 379-380; Idem 1999-2000, p. 231;C. Schuster 2007, p. 43-44, pl. I/4). Within Banat, mention should be made of the complexes of Tibiscum, nowadays the village of Jupa - Cetate, Cara-Severin county. Ion Glodariu carried out the excavation in this site and found out a kiln for firing ceramics dated to the 2nd3rd centuries, north of the castrum (1976, p. 572). In 1978 the potters kiln was discovered, and it was dated to the beginning of the 2nd century (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 301, fig. 5). Another one appeared in 1979, dated to the second half of the 3rd century, with a circular plan and the fire chamber with a central column, made of fragments of bricks, tiles, clay bound tiles (Ibidem, p. 301-302, fig. 6; Eadem 1983, p. 310, fig. 6). The oven mostly destroyed is dated to the 3rd century (Ibidem, p. 310). The excavations of 1961 at Ramna, Cara-Severin county, revealed also some other kilns (D. Benea 1992, p. 251). At the same time, in the rural Roman site of Gornea - Cunia de Sus, Cara-Severin county, the excavations carried out by Nicolae Gudea, in the level of the 3 rd century, led to the identification of two kilns for firing construction materials, tiles, bricks, having also fragments of pots around them (1977, p. 13-14). In the case of the Dacian-Roman site of Grdinari - Slite, Cara-Severin county, investigated by Ovidiu Bozu during the period 1983-1992, situated close to the Lederata Tibiscum road, around which there gravitate most of the sites along the Valley of Cain River or even further ones, systematic researches led to the discovery of seven surface dwellings and one centre for firing ceramics. The workshop, dated to the first half of the 3 rd century and end of the 4th century, after the retreat of the Roman administration, included three kilns with ceramic inventory, displaying the features of the provincial Roman and late Roman pottery (1996, p. 55-56). Ovidiu Bozu considers this period as being one of flourishing which was to deteriorate after 356-369 (1996, p. 56; Idem, 1990, p. 147 et. sq.). In Transilvania, during the period before the first World War, at Cluj-Napoca, Mntur quarter, the excavations undertaken by Istvn Kovcs, in 1911 revealed a ceramic workshop dated to the 3rd4th centuries, left unpublished. Until now, two kilns were pointed out as for this site (V. Christescu 1929, p. 67, note 1; Idem, 2004, p. 63, pl. V, fig. 1-2; A. Filimon 1940, p. 92, note 1). To the north and east of the fortification in the Nova Apulensis Colony, Alba Iulia northwest, Alba county, in the nowadays Parto quarter, on the bank of Mure river, between 1910-1912, in the excavations undertaken by A. Cserny, there were discovered three large kilns with brick walls, constructed according to the Roman system (1912, p. 112; I. Berciu 1958, p. 180 et sq., fig. 1-3), and the types specific to the Roman world, as presented by Ren Majurel (1965, 1-2, p. 95-114, fig. 3-9). In the same county, during the period between the two World Wards, at Blandiana, in 19351936, there was identified a large kiln of Roman pottery, dated to the 2 nd-3rd centuries, mainly for firing clay lamps and other types of pots (Ibidem, p. 180, note 3). One of the first kilns discovered and pointed out during the period between the two World Wars, used for firing tiles and bricks, dated to the 2nd3rd centuries AD, was situated between the complexes investigated by Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, Hunedoara county, on Grdite Hill, in Ortie Mountains (O. Floca 1937; Idem 1945, p. 431 et sq., pl. I; R. Ardevan 1978, p. 169). Here were also built installations with several ducts one central and the

34

Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

others secondary (Ibidem, p. 434) and a perforated plate with seven ranges of 21 perforations each, corresponding to the secondary ducts of the fire chamber (Ibidem, p. 441 et sq., pl. I; R. Florescu et alii 1980, p. 126). In 1959, Zoltan Szkely publishes the researches of Sf. Gheorghe - Eprestet, undertaken in 1956, among which there were also two kilns, out of which only one was not destroyed, in the first room with a median wall (1959, p. 240, pl. I/5). Most kilns were uncovered in the 1960s, such as the kiln for firing bricks of Orheiu Bistriei, Bistria Nsud county, situated close to the castrum (D. Protase, t. Dnil 1965, p. 557 et sq.; I. Glodariu 2000, p. 240) or the kiln, whose fire chamber has a median wall, identified at Arad - Ceala, dated to the 3rd century, within the excavations carried out by Ion H. Crian and Egon Drner. Unlike others, this one also had an intermediary closed chamber, between the fire chamber and the pot firing chamber, which fully isolated the batch from the fire (1968, p. 12 et sq.) and others in the Roman sites of Aque Cioroiul Nou (D. Tudor, E. Bujor 1962, p. 547; D. Tudor, I. Diaconescu, Gh. Popilian 1967, p. 593; Gh. Popilian 1967; Gh. Poenaru Bordea 1994 , p. 84-85). The site of Medieul Aurit - uculeu, Satu Mare county, was researched by Sever Dumitracu and Tiberiu Bader, who studied the craftsmen quarter close to the site and the necropolis, dated to the 2nd4th centuries AD. Out of this powerful pottery centre, 13 kilns for firing ceramics were investigated. They had the perforated plates sustained either by a median wall, or by a central column (S. Dumitracu, T. Bader 1967a, p. 20-31; Ibidem, 1967b, p. 107-111; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 61). In the study of 1981, published by S. Dumitracu only, concerning the sites of Medieul Aurit and Biharea, Satu Mare county (p. 237, 240, fig. 4-5), another pottery center is discussed, more precisely the one of Biharea - Grdina CAP Baraj, where within surface A2, excavated between 1977-1978, there was discovered a workshop, the access pit and its kilns for firing the ceramics, C1-3, with two overlapped chambers, and a median column in the fire chamber. These discoveries justify the existence here of an important ancient center of pottery, whose products were also reaching other tribes as well. They continued until this epoch the tradition of the grey Dacian ceramics, of higher quality, with a polished ornament (S. Dumitracu 1979, p. 297, fig. 4). It is considered that the kilns belonged to the free Dacians to the northwest of Dacia (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 507; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 70, 95, note 63, synopsis table 31). In 1974, I. Nmeti published the information as for two kilns of firing pots, disposed side by side, whose fire chamber had a median wall, with a single access chamber, dated to the La Tne period, identified in Andrid, Satu Mare county (p. 579-584). Out of the flourishing Pagus Miciensis, a center of kilns for firing ceramics dated to the 2 nd 3rd centuries was also investigated by means of the excavations undertaken by O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan (1970, p. 92). The ten kilns of Micia, differentiated from each other by means of details the fuel loading opening extended or not, the number of side ducts for directing the heat, can sustain the positioning of Micia on the same level with the other officinae of the Empire (L. Mrghitan 1971, p. 534; Idem 1995-1996, p. 319-324). In Satu Mare county, in the north side of Satu Mare city, Gh. Lazin studied in 1979 two kilns with a median wall, having both the same access chamber (1980, p. 133, fig. 1-3). The same researcher studied in 1978, in the site of Lazuri, the inhabitance dated to the 3rd4th centuries AD, another kiln for firing ceramics and its access chamber (Gh. Lazin 1981-1982, p. 77). In time, here were investigated 10 kilns (Maria Bitiri-Ciortescu 1996, p. 301). In Satu Mare county, over a rather small area, there was pointed out with archaeological means the existence of three centers with pottery workshops, dated to the 2nd and 3rd4th centuries AD in the order of their discovery, Medieu Aurit and Lazuri situated at 9-10 km, respectively 4 km, from the centre of Satu Mare. Also, in 1984, published the information as for kilns of Zalu - Valea Mei (Al.V. Matei 1984, p. 237-246). The investigation carried out by I. Mitrofan pertaining to the centre for the production of pottery of Micsasa, who published the information as for the large group of kilns and other isolated kilns resulting from the excavations undertaken in 1991-1992 two kilns each and in 1993 five other kilns (I. Mitrofan 1990, p. 129 et sq.; Idem 1994a, p. 524-527, fig. 1-3; Idem

Cap. II. Istoricul cercetrilor / Chapter II. The history of the research

35

1994b, p. 529-530; Idem 1994c, p. 533-535, fig. 1), as well as the site monograph study in 1995, was particularly important. So was also the publication of the kilns of Ampelum, nowadays Zlatna, Alba county, where the excavations by I. T. Lipovan allowed the identification of another kiln for firing ceramics, dated to mid-2nd century AD, with aborted pots inside and reddish and white ceramics, decorated with partially preserved slip (1996, p. 203; M. Zahariade 1994, p. 65-66). In Transylvania and Banat the archaeological researches were mainly focused on the history of province Dacia and less on the period of the first migrations, the Sarmatians and Goths. Excavation campaigns were organized in the Roman sites of Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, Porolissum, Potaissa, Napoca, Apulum (E. Nicolae 1994, p. 82-84), Dierna, Drobeta, Romula Reca, the potters center of Sucidava or Micsasa (I. Mitrofan 1995) and in Banat, Tibiscum (D. Benea 1982, p. 22-40; Eadem 1995, p. 59-62), Ramna (D. Benea 1992, p. 251), Gornea - Cunia de Sus (N. Gudea 1977, p. 13-14) or Grdinari - Slite, Cara-Severin county (O. Bozu 1996, p. 55-56, fig. 127). Dobrogea. D. M. Pippidi published some of the first kilns in Dobrodgea, of the oldest Milesian colony on the west coast of the Black Sea, Histria, more precisely four kilns with flat hearths of the fire chambers, which appeared in the excavations he coordinated in sector Z2, in the layer corresponding to the 5th4th centuries BC, with analogies in southern Ukraine (M. M. Hudeak 1952, p. 257) and another one in sector X, in the Hellenistic layer dated to the 2 nd1st centuries BC, with a cylindrical fire room with a hallowed hearth, having in the middle a central column made of naturally standing earth and the fire chambers of the pots made of adobe (D. M. Pippidi et alii, 1959, p. 283-328; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 59). Shortly after this moment, Gheorghe tefan published another kiln, identified at Garvn, this time a Roman kiln for firing tiles (1957, p. 340 et sq.; ~ et alii 1959, p. 565 et sq.) while A. Rdulescu published the kilns in northern Dobrodge, more precisely those of Telia, where a storage of tiles was found (1965, p. 437-438; Idem 1971, p. 333 et sq.; Idem 1972). One of the kilns had a rectangular plan, and the fire chamber at its basis was not split, while the perforated plate was sustained by the arches of the fire chamber (1965, p. 437). Following the excavations carried out by Constantin Iconomu in Mangalia - North, the former train stop of Neptun, in the territorium callatianense, in the inhabitance of the Roman epoch, there was published a kiln with rectangular plan (1968, p. 235 et sq., fig. 1). The same year, there were also published the discoveries of Oltina - La dinamit, the former Altina (Altinum), where in the Roman site on the east bank of Lake Oltina, Mihai Irimia studied three kilns pointed out in 1964 and excavated in 1967 (1968, p. 379-408). Andrei Opai, it is analysed and completed A. Rdulescu's typology of kilns used at Dobrogea. The type of kilns used for firing building materials are larger and have a rectangular formwhich are small and have a round plan: kiln was discovered at Dinogetia tip I, Neptun tip II, Tomis tip III, III-1 this variant was discovered at Tomi with rectangular form and the oven floor is supported by a central pilar and a ledge; III-2 this variant was discovered at Telia, Mamaia and castelu, the former beign rectangular, and has a circular central pillar; III-3 this variant was discovered at i Ostrov tip IV (1996, p. 24-28, pl. 1/14 and for type 3, pl. 2). Victor H. Baumann, more precisely kilns at Telia - La Pod, jud. Tulcea (1991, p. 105-108; 1993; 1995), and Maria Brbulescu, to mention the pottery kilns used at Dobrogea (2001). Technique of pottery We would also like to mention few of the works presenting exclusively the technique of pottery. In this regard, few contributions of the Romanian authors pertain to the pottery kilns of a wider period. Thus, for the 3rd1st centuries BC, we should specify the study signed I. H. Crian, concerning the kilns for firing ceramics of the Geto-Dacians of the La Tne period (1967, p. 111118). By his analysis of the excavations of Butnreti, Gh. Bichir also achieves a wide presentation of the discoveries of that moment (1973a, p. 57-61). Yet, the most representative is the study signed by Maria Coma, who in 1985, published the first synthesis containing the finds dated to the 1st century BC 4th century AD, from east and south of the Carpathians (1985, p. 171-185) and

36

Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Andrei Opai, it is analysed the ceramic in chapter II, A-B, The consideration regarding the ceramic production in the province of Scythia (1996, p. 17-35, pl. 1-2). We would also like to point out the study of this type of installations along a water course, Kilns for Firing Ceramics on the Lower Course of Arge River (original title: Cuptoare de ars ceramica pe cursul inferior al Argeului), signed by Vasile Barbu (1989, p. 379-380; Idem 1999-2000, p. 231-233). The synthesis published by Mariana Marcu pertains only to the 4th century (1988, p. 43-49). As for the space situated in the area of the Lower and Central Danube, in 1977, J. Henning achieved one of the widest syntheses. As for the lands of Upper Tissa during the 3 rd century BC- 4th century AD, an analysis of the kilns of this period was published by V. Kotigoroko (1995, p. 3541, 57-61, 117-122, 135-151). Data concerning the hamlets of the 1 st4th centuries, and also this craft, in the Romanian historiography, were published within the pages of the archaeological repertories: for Moldavia by Nicolae Zaharia, Mircea Petrescu-Dmbovia and Emilia Zaharia (1970), for the Vaslui county by Ghenu Coman (1980), for Iai county by Vasile Chirica and Marcel Tanasachi (I/1984, II/1985), for Cluj county by Ion Horaiu Crian, Mihai Brbulescu, Eugen Chiril, Valentin Vasiliev, Iudita Winkler (1992) and for Braov county by Florea Costea (1995), but also in the archaeology dictionaries, EAIVR, I/1994, II/1996, III/2000, with regarding specify of kilns (N. Conovici 1994, p. 393-395). Among the synthetic studies concerning the history of the free Dacians, starting from the finds of that moment, some general data were published by Gh. Bichir, in 1966 and 1967a, amplified in the synthesis concerning the Carpian Culture (1973a), as well as in the volume published by Oxford in 1976, where the craft of pottery was discussed in details. Also, among the synthetic studies concerning Sntana de Mure Cerneahov culture, throughout the space between the Carpathians and the Prut, in Moldavia, mention should be made of the synthesis signed by Ion Ioni (1966, p. 189-261), data concerning the dissemination of the culture, published by Kurt Horedt (1967, p. 575-592) and those concerning the dating of the culture elaborated by Ion Horaiu Crian (1983, p. 235-242), A. Kokowski (1999, p. 179 i urm.), . . , 1960, p. 199-202; Idem 1964 and 1975. Ethnography From the field of ethnography, synthesis on the pottery of the first millennium were elaborated by Barbu Sltineanu (1938; 1972), Corina Nicolescu and Paul Petrescu (1974). At the same time, the development in time of the pottery techniques was treated by Ion Vlduiu (1973; Idem 1981, p. 190-228) and Valer Butur (1978, p. 381-392), in the medieval site revealed also (M. Nicorescu 1965, p. 97 et sq.) and in Republic of Moldova, . . (1969). Ethnographers, preoccupied by the history of the pottery craft in the workshops with advanced installations, published syntheses on this matter and included therein the first half of the first millennium. Among the first ones to do so mention should be made of Florian Bobu Florescu (1965, p. 137-140) and more recently, a well documented study signed by Gheorghe Iordache, in which pottery is assigned an important part (1996, p. 15-198). In the first chapter, suggestively named the Historic Perspective (original title Perspectiva istoric), the author insists on the period which concerns us, both with regards to the ceramic shapes, among which he specifies the persistence of the Dacian cup, and on the kilns for firing ceramics (Ibidem, p. 35-53). He also brings in discussion the terminology related to the practice of pottery in Romania (Ibidem, p. 5455). Ioan Godea, in 1995, in a wider context - La cramique -, also referred to the pottery techniques in the first millennium. For installations of the contemporary period, we would like to specify the work signed by Narcisa Uc (1981, p. 249-253), or the studies in the linguistic field (I. I. Russu 1981). Studies published so far allow the depiction of the area of dissemination of such workshops along the Lower Danube and point out the importance and the specificity of each site. They also point out the importance of the pottery craft, its understanding in general, of the construction and functioning system of the kilns in particular.

37

Capitolul III. Tehnici i tehnologii de confecionare a vaselor


Informaiile acumulate cu privire la investigarea cuptoarelor performante, ne-au ngduit discutarea unor diverse probleme legate de meteugul olriei, sub multiplele lui aspecte4, cunoaterea etapelor care se cereau parcurse pn la obinerea produselor finite: gsirea celor mai bune surse de materii prime, ndeosebi argila, frmntarea, dospirea, alegerea anumitor degresani, colorani, prepararea lor folosind anumite reete, modelarea ceramicii cu roata olarului, finisarea, fixarea toartelor, a benzilor n relief, mbierea sau aplicarea angobei cenuii, brune sau roii, mai rar negre, ornamentarea, uscarea i n final, desvrirea vaselor i a altor piese de lut prin arderea n cuptoare, tipurile de instalaii folosite, cu una sau dou camere, rcirea vaselor, funcionalitatea formelor confecionate i valorificarea lor, desigur i specificul uneltelor folosite. Unelte pentru modelat i ornamentat ceramica Alturi de existena cuptoarelor i a numeroase pri de vase modelate din argila din preajma aezrilor, argumentarea existenei unor ateliere de olari se poate ntregi prin descoperirea uneltelor specifice acestui meteug. Totalitatea lor, a mijloacelor necesare pentru realizarea meteugului olriei, definesc tehnica folosit n fiecare atelier iar procesele i procedeele cunoscute de olari, deprinderile de prelucrare a argilei, dau specificul tehnologiilor folosite n atelier. Meterul olar le stpnete pe amndou, el este acela care are grij de cuptor n timpul arderii. Uneltele descoperite prin investigaii arheologice, folosite pentru netezirea pereilor, lustruirea vaselor sau pentru ornamentarea lor, au fost realizate din materiale diferite, erau piese din piatr dur, poate i de silex, dar cel mai frecvent s-au folosit galeii, piesele de lut ars, toarte de amfore care au cptat trsturi i urme de la folosirea n acest scop, diferite piese de os sau corn din care s-au realizat spatule, cuitoaie, rzuitoare, dar i diferitele tipare pentru motive n relief, ultimele au fost mai puin utilizate n zona de care ne ocupm, dar erau frecvente n atelierele romane, precum i medalioanele de ceramic, cele descoperite n Banat au fost publicate de D. Benea (1977, p. 161-168). Folosirea acestor unelte se poate deduce urmrind urmele lsate de ele n exteriorul dar mai ales n interiorul unora dintre recipiente, cum indic detaliile observate n timpul studierii lor: amprente de spatule de diferite limi, alveolri sau benzi canelate. Ele dovedesc c i ceramitii acelor vremuri foloseau unelte realizate din piatr, os sau lut ars, desigur i din lemn. Lustruitoarele folosite pentru finisat i lustruit, realizate din galei (M. Babe 1980, p. 23 i urm.), confirm presupunerea c n aceste centre erau meteugari care produceau ceramica, desigur mai ales pentru nevoile locale, dar i pentru schimb. Spatulele de os, corn sau lemn, prevzute la un capt cu o muchie mai ascuit, s-au folosit pentru modelarea vaselor pe roata olarului. Unele se apropiau de forma lopelelor de lemn ntrebuinate astzi de olari, pentru a da form vasului (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 85, fig. 23/a). O unealt pentru ornamentat ceramica s-a descoperit la Stoicani, com. Folteti, jud. Galai, un corn cu vrfurile ascuite i rotunjite, care a fost ntrebuinat pentru adncirea liniilor vlurite (I. Bauman 1974, p. 43-45). n atelierele ceramice din zona Dunrii de Jos s-au folosit anumite poansoane de lut ars, precum cele de la Romula - Reca i Micsasa (Gh. Popilian 1976a, p. 59, pl. 23/261-262; I. Mitrofan 1990, p. 137, fig. 33/1) sau cele nicopolitane (B. Sultov 1976, p. 19, pl. 45-48). ntre ele, un ac fragmentar de os s-a descoperit la Durostorum, n 1997, n groapa 33, de p SII / C3 b, la -1,23 m, care s-a ncadrat cu o moned de la Traian, n prima parte a veacului al II-lea. Acul era format dintr-o tij cilindric i un cap ataat compus din trei trunchiuri de con (L tij=55; Lcap=12; =10
Necesitatea respectrii tehnologiei tradiionale n producerea ceramicii populare s-a consemnat frecvent n literatura etnografic (B. Sltineanu et alii 1958, p. 39-51; C. Nicolescu, P. Petrescu 1981, p. 255; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 78-147).
4

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Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

mm), pe faa superioar avea traforat o rozet din cinci petale (C. Mueeanu 1999, p. 83-84, fig. 1). Compunerea piesei din dou pri, tij i cap detaabil, permitea schimbarea motivului (Ibidem, p. 83-84). n diverse alte variante rozeta apare, la Durostorum, pe vasele reprezentnd imitaii locale de terra sigillata, ct i pe alte feluri de ceramic ornamentat n tehnica tampilrii (Idem 1997, p. 351, pl. 3/22-24), pe vasele de tip terra sigillata, realizate fie prin tehnica tampilrii, fie aplicate n relief (G. B. Rogers 1974, p. 56; Gh. Popilian 1976, pl. 31/307, 79/71-84; E. Ciocea 1983, p. 200 i urm.; A. Ctina 1997, p. 29-30). Dup autorul descoperirii rozeta s-a folosit n atelierele din Europa occidental (V. G. Swan 1984), n primul rnd n Galia, n secolele I-II p.Hr. (H. Mikler 1997, p. 51, pl. 38/2) iar exemplarul are analogii ntre piesele de os din castrul Aislingen, n Germania sau cu descoperirile de la Gorsium, n Pannonia (G. Ulbert 1959, pl. 26/31; M. T. Bir 1987, p. 36). La Ulpia Traiana, n Dacia, tipul II, au fost catalogat drept ace de pr, subliniindu-se astfel dubla utilizare a piesei (D. Alicu, E. Neme 1982, p. 347, nr. 18, 20-21). n provinciile mai apropiate de noi au fost semnalate unelte de os la Porolissum i Micsasa, n Dacia (I. Mitrofan 1995, p. 186, pl. 5/3; N. Gudea 1989, p. 829, nr. 4-5, pl. 257/4-5) i la Pavlikeni, la sud de Dunare (B. Sultov 1985, p. 49, pl. 13/2; V. Natcheva 1987, p. 113). Surse de materii prime Cunotinele necesare pentru aflarea celor mai bune surse de materii prime pentru modelat ceramica trebuie s fi fost transmise din generaie n generaie, ca o permanent confirmare a legturilor permanente ntre membrii comunitilor locale i mediul nconjurtor. De la alegerea argilei, la prelucrarea acesteia pentru a fi ntrebuinat, fie pentru realizarea unor construcii, locuine, cuptoare, vetre, fie pentru modelarea materialelor ceramice, materia prim trebuia prelucrat. n multe cazuri calitatea argilei, una dintre cele mai la ndemn resurse ale naturii i posibilitatea de a o procura din apropierea aezrii sau chiar din perimetrul acesteia, a condiionat stabilirea vetrelor vechilor siliti5. Numeroasele gropi cu profile asimetrice, cotlonite, existente n majoritatea staiunilor cercetate pentru secolele II-V p. Hr., reprezint o dovad a procurrii argilei din perimetrul locuibil sau din imediata vecintate. Amplasarea staiunilor n locuri cu lut bun pentru construirea caselor sau pentru olrit, se reflect i n toponimele date astzi acestora. Spre exemplu, ntre aezrile discutate, ntlnim toponime care sugereaz prezena n apropiere a unor izvoare, praie, n genere a unor surse de ap, precum Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni - Grla Strmbu, Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, Zorleni - Fntnele, Dodeti - ipot, dar i Biharea - Grdina CAP Baraj sau Vleni - La Moar i altele. ntre ele sunt i staiuni situate pe nlimi: Poiana - Cetate, Arpau de Sus - Cetuia sau altele cu nume de silite sau legate de o activitate uman: Poiana Silite, cheia - Silitea, Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Voetin - La curte, Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi .a. Extragerea i prepararea argilei Meterii alegeau6 i preparau lutul7, ca principal materie prim pentru modelat ceramica n raport de sursele locale. n aproape toate formele de relief, cu excepia celor montane nalte, se afl
Pentru neo-eneolitic, Eugen Coma a ntrevzut legtura ntre formarea, n sud-estul Europei, a numeroaselor aezri i zonele de cernoziom i loess, necesare agriculturii i pentru olrit (1981, p. 227 i urm.). n mare, arealul de rspndire a culturii Cucuteni Tripolie, sublinia L. Ellis, se suprapune cu Platforma Scitic i o parte din scutul Ucrainei, partea vestic fiind numit Platforma Moldoveneasc, cu formaiuni de roci sedimentare, ntre care predomin argilele i marnele, mpreun cu lentilele de nisip i gresie puin cimentificat i oxizii de fier (1984, p. 81). 6 Olarul Burlan Tnase din Maramure, Scel, relata, lut bun se afl numai ntr-un loc, umblnd cu tata am nvat s-l gsesc, gras, curat. 7 Argil, produs rezultat prin descompunerea natural, total sau parial, a mineralelor silico - aluminoase care reprezint silicaii naturali (feldspai, nefeliene, leucite etc.), din rocile magnetice (granite, pegmatite), metamorfice (gnaisuri, micaisturi) i, mai rar, prin sedimentare sub aciunea apei i a CO2 din natur. Cele mai rspndite minerale n argil sunt caolinul (Al2O3. 2SiO2. 2H2O), montmorillonitul {Al2 [Si4O10]) (OH)2 nH2O} i micele hidratate (hidromic, hidromuscovit, illit etc.). Componenii si principali sunt: 30-70% SiO2, 10-40% Al2O3 i 5-10% H2O iar cei secundari: TiO2, Fe2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, CaO, K2O, Na2O. n afara acestora mai conine impuriti de minerale neargiloase, pri nedescompuse de la vegetale sau de la vieuitoare i de minerale nou formate cum sunt: carbonai, gips, oxizi de fier etc. (MEM 1980, p. 42).
5

Cap. III. Tehnici i tehnologii / Chapter III. Techniques and technology

39

depozite de less fin, n structura lui natural i cu alte incluziuni, oxizi de fier, nisip, mic, astfel c majoritatea staiunilor asigurau materia prim necesar. Diversitatea compoziiei mineralogice i granulometice a materialelor litologice folosite pentru modelarea ceramicii nu a necesitat ntotdeauna degresarea pastei n vederea modelarii vaselor. Linda Ellis, pornind de la rezultatele analizelor petrografice, a precizat frecventa folosire a argilei fr degresani adugai, doar cu incluziunile naturale, un procent ridicat de mic i de alte componente (1984, p. 93). i ntre secolele II-IV s-au folosit frecvent argilele cu adausuri naturale, care preveneau contractarea i deformarea vaselor n timpul uscrii i mai ales arderii. Mai timpuriu, la Borduani i Vldiceasca, analizele cristalografice realizate pe unele fragmente ceramice lucrate la roat au relevat o alegere foarte bun a argilei i uneori a prezenei n argile a unui anumit degresant natural (G. Trohani 2001-2002, p. 246). n genere cuptoarele se aflau la marginea aezrii i n apropierea unor ape de unde se putea evita pericolul unor incendii, dar se i aprovizionau cu ap pentru diferitele operaii, sau cu argil gata preparat. Mediile aluviale, cu resursele dar i cu pericolele lor, au fost analizate de A. G. Brown (2001, p. 3 i urm.). Asupra avantajelor utilizrii sedimentelor argiloase de loess iluvial, formate i astzi prin revrsrile rurilor Prut, Nistru i a afluenilor lor, sedimente din care se obineau uor zeci de metri cubi de materie prim cu puine impuriti, au atras atenia arheologilor care au spat n aezrile cucuteniene din Romnia, ncepnd cu H. Schmidt (1932, p. 29), Ucraina sau Republica Moldova (T. S. Passek 1949, p. 110). Cum remarca Vsevolod I. Marchevici, Obiectele fcute din argilele acestea, cu masa de structur mrunt, au dup ardere suprafaa neted i o nuan roie strlucitoare (1981, p. 121). Analizele petrografice au stabilit, de asemenea, calitatea, rafinamentul vaselor modelate din argile levigate (L. Ellis 1984, p. 93, 115). Colorani. n satul Sarafineti, n punctul numit Cetuia Corni, jud. Botoani, Nicolae Zaharia, n peregrinrile lui de teren, a semnalat o astfel de surs de colorani minerali, n zona cetii nu a aprut ceramic, dar solul, pn la adncimea de un metru, era amestecat cu pietre i pmnt ars. Cuiburile de argile sunt exploatate de ctre gospodinele satelor vecine, din ele preparndu-se culori roii, galbene, pentru vopsitul pereilor (~, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 294, nr. 252a). Nu se exclude nici posibilitatea procurrii anumitor materii prime i prin schimb, din zone mai ndeprtate. Frmntarea O argil omogen trebuie s se fi obinut aproape ca i astzi: lutul se mrunea, se frmia cu sapa. Argila sfrmat i udat cu ap se frmnta pn se modela uor, pn avea proprietile plastice adecvate, timp n care se realiza i curirea8. Astfel, se obinea o past care s se lege, s aibe plasticitate i s nu crape prin uscare la temperatura ambiant. Argila tiat n turte se uda, se btea cu maiul de lemn i abia dup aceea se aducea n atelier, unde era aezat n lad, pe o piele de vit (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 80). n procesul tehnic complicata operaie a dospirii i frmntrii era decisiv pentru calitatea i fineea pastei i, n final, pentru calitatea vaselor de pmnt (G. Stoica et alii 1972, p. 203). Astfel de turte pregtite pentru modelarea vaselor s-au descoperit la Grditea - Popin, jud. Buzu (V. Srbu 1996, p. 41). La fel trebuie s fi fost i cele din groapa nr. 3 de la Banca Gar - apte case, n momentul descoperirii nu i-au mai pstrat forma. De asemenea, la Colonia Nova Apulensis, Alba Iulia - Nord-vest, jud. Alba, secolele II-III p.Hr., cum ne informeaz Vasile Christescu, "n Muzeul din Alba Iulia se mai pstreaz o parte din lutul, care, fasonat pentru vase, a fost surprins de foc i ars aa" (2004, p. 59). Dospirea Dup ce lutul era bine frmntat se lsa o vreme la dospit, cteva sptmni pn la un an, dup care se adugau diferite incluziuni, pentru a se da vaselor o rezisten i o impermeabilitate mai mare, n funcie de destinaia recipientelor, de funcionalitatea stabilit. Astzi, din argila pregtit se fac 50 - 60 de turte. La Banca Gar - apte case, n umplutura gropii laterale din atelier
8 Se clca roat, ca la hor, naintndu-se de la margine spre mijloc. Prin clcarea spre dreapta i spre stnga, pmntul se-ntinde asemenea coci (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 82), apoi se frmnta cu minile pentru ca pasta s fie unsuroas, E bun de lucru cnd devine precum ceara sau ca aluatul, cnd i d voie la ntins i nu plesnete (Ibidem, p. 83).

40

Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

s-au surprins astfel de buci de lut, n profilul stratigrafiei verticale, sub forma unor lupe ngroate, de culoare galben, cu limi de circa 20 cm, uor de separat de solul brun. Incluziuni Pentru a micora n timpul uscrii comprimarea i a evita formarea craclurilor n procesul arderii, n argila preparat pentru modelarea vaselor se adugau diferii ingredieni. Alegerea materialelor litologice de degresare a pastei depindea de incluziunile deja existente, dar i de inteniile meterilor olari de pregtire a pastei pentru diverse tipuri de vase. n reproducerea reetei, fiecare olar i ngduia o anumit toleran9 de preparare a argilei, n funcie de sursele avute dar i avnd n vedere experiena dobndit. Reeta de pregtire a argilei i modificrile sale eventuale se transmiteau din generaie n generaie, producnd n timp modificri ale tehnologiei. Pentru ceramica fin cu pereii subiri, dintre ingrediente cel mai frecvent s-a folosit cuarul, cuaritul - nisipul cu diferite granulaii. Nisipul din pasta vaselor mici, medii sau mari, influena procesul de ardere. Folosirea nisipului era caracteristic pentru olria secolelor II-V p.Hr., modelat la roata cu turaie rapid, se aduga n proporii diferite, de cele mai multe ori completnd pe cel coninut natural. Pentru vasele cu perei subiri s-au ales surse pe ct posibil fr nisip grosier, pentru cele aspre la pipit, cantitatea de nisip era mai mare. Depozitele argiloase de la Banca Gar - apte case aveau n coninut incluziuni naturale, situaie ntlnit i n alte staiuni. Pentru ceramica poroas de uz gospodresc, cu un aspect zgrunuros, modelat la roat s-au folosit mai ales degresani cu structur mare, nisip cu granulaie mare, cioburi pisate i microprundiuri, din cauza crora vasele aveau la suprafa asperiti. Aceti degresani menineau mai mult cldura, fapt pentru care s-au utilizat mai ales pentru modelarea ceramicii necesare pentru pregtitul mncrii n gospodrie. Pentru ceramica lucrat cu mna s-au folosit mai ales cioburile pisate i microprundiurile cu bob mrunt. Modelarea vaselor Olritul trebuie s fi ocupat un loc important, ntre meteugurile practicate n sate. Recipientele modelate cu mna se realizau, n funcie de necesiti, n fiecare gospodrie. ncepnd cu lucrarea ceramicii cu roata olarului, meteugul a ajuns la un nalt grad de dezvoltare. Suportul trebuie s fi fost, ca i astzi, un disc de lemn ce se rotete discontinu pe un ax. O generalizare a folosirii roii olarului o d raportul cantitativ dintre ceramica lucrat la roat i aceea realizat cu mna. Confecionarea vaselor, de la pregtirea mesei olarului, modelarea pentru obinerea formei dorite n funcie de necesiti, finisarea suprafeelor, adugarea torilor, picioarelor, butonilor, brurilor n relief sau realizarea unui alt decor, reprezenta - cum a subliniat Gh. Iordache - dintre toate fazele prin care trece lutul pn ajunge s fie vas, cea mai impresionant (1996, p. 87). La modelarea diferitelor pri ale vaselor s-a insistat pe formarea gurilor, a buzelor, a nuirilor pentru capac, dar i a bazelor sau a picioarelor de vas. Toartele se lipeau prin presare, pentru cele mari peretele se perfora. Unele vase aveau i cioc, ca s aibe pe unde s curg lichidul. Dac tipurile ceramice s-au modificat lent, variantele acestora au cunoscut o mare diversitate, n acord cu ndemnarea meterilor, obinut printr-o ndelungat practic. Olarul obinea forma i mrimea dorit, cum indic experimentele ntreprinse n acest sens, prin cteva gesturi bine stpnite (D. Gheorghiu 2004, p. 11 i urm.). O obinuin a meterilor olari din satele de astzi, care probabil era respectat i n atelierele descoperite n aezrile din secolele II-V p.Hr., se leag de modelarea i arderea ceramicii mai ales vara i toamna, dei nu se exclude nici posibilitatea ca meterul olar s fi lucrat n atelier tot anul. Finisarea ceramicii i ornamentarea Polisajul - lustruirea mecanic a vaselor, a unor registre sau doar a unor motive, se realiza nu numai pentru finisarea vaselor, dar i pentru micorarea porozitii ntregii suprafee sau doar a unei pri a acesteia, pentru obinerea unor motive ornamentale. Lustruirea se fcea dup angobarea
Fiecare reet rezolv parial cte un proces n tehnologia de obinere a ceramicii, pentru pregtirea argilei erau mai multe reete de past etc.
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Cap. III. Tehnici i tehnologii / Chapter III. Techniques and technology

41

vaselor, cu unelte de piatr, galei, i nu era uniform, cum indic urmele pstrate. S-au semnalat frecvent lustruitoare din galei, cu suprafeele bombate i contururile alungite uzate. Prin utilizare feele lor deveneau deosebit de fine. Piese de acest fel s-au descoperit n toate aezrile cercetate. Prin lustruire meterul reauea s obin diferite forme ornamentale, linii paralele, fascicole verticale, n zigzag sau n reea. Vasele ntregi, ntregite i multe din fragmentele descoperite la Banca Gar, au fost netezite i lustruite cu atenie la exterior, de cele mai multe ori i la interior, n funcie de funcionalitatea dorit. Astfel vasul capt un aspect deosebit, n comparaie cu prile nelustruite. mbierea - acoperirea cu angob Aplicarea unui slip sau a unei angobe, tot din argil, se realiza n funcie de funcionalitatea dorit, folosind o past diluat pentru a avea o mai bun aderen i un acelai coeficient de contracie cu masa ceramic. De multe ori s-a folosit un slip realizat dintr-o soluie mai fin n raport cu pasta vaselor, ntr-o nuan deosebit de aceasta, roie, cenuie, neagr. Astfel vasul cpta un aspect deosebit, n comparaie cu prile nelustruite. Producia de olrie s-a modificat treptat n tot secolul al IV-lea, dar ncepnd cu ultima parte a acestuia s-a produs un reviriment tehnologic, datorat decderii economice ncepnd cu dispariia oraelor din Dacia, dup retragerea autoritii romane i a crizei economice a Imperiului. Cu toate acestea n secolul al IV-lea, epoca de nflorire a culturii Sntana de Mure, predomin net ceramica lucrat la roata rapid din past fin, care, n mic parte va fi utilizat i n secolul al V-lea p.Hr. (I. Ioni 2001, p. 619 i urm.). Ornamente n relief i adncite Prinderea toartelor, mai rar a unor reprezentri zoomorfe, tehnic se realiza n diferite modaliti. De cele mai multe ori toartele modelate din lut se fixau cu un cep. Altele, ca i briele, se aplicau simplu pe vas, ntr-o manier rudimentar, prin presarea cu degetele a lutului moale sau prin mrirea suprafeei de prindere, prin tierea oblic, n acelai sistem de montare cu al protomelor. Uscarea Dup modelare, finisare i ornamentare, urma aciunea de uscare a vaselor, care dura cel puin 48 de ore, cteva zile, prin care se reduceau dimensiunile vaselor cu o ptrime, conform datelor publicate de Horst Klusch (1981, p. 258). Investigaiile arheologice au surprins diferite modaliti de uscare a vaselor n atelier sau pe suporturi speciale sau simplu, n aer liber. n ultimul caz se efectua la umbr, la temperatur constant i n locuri ferite de vnt, pentru a preveni contractrile, crparea pereilor sau chiar spargerea lor. Prin uscare se evapora apa de amestec, adugat n timpul frmntrii argilei. Procentajul ridicat de incluziuni naturale din argila folosit de olarii de la Banca Gar - apte case, i din alte staiuni, a favorizat uscarea ceramicii fine. Aici, aceast operaie a uscrii vaselor trebuie s se fi realizat n preajma atelierului, probabil pe platoul de la nord, uor mai nalt. La Grditea - Popin, jud. Buzu, s-au mai pstrat i cteva pri de la vasele uscate la soare, nearse (V. Srbu 1996, p. 41) iar la Alba Iulia - Nord-vest, n muzeul de istorie de aici, din atelierul din secolele II-III p.Hr. se mai pstreaz i cteva suporturi pe care se aezau vasele pentru a fi uscate (V. Christescu 2004, p. 59). Ateliere - amplasarea cuptoarelor Pentru amplasarea cuptoarelor de obicei se alegeau locuri aflate n apropierea surselor de ap, de argil. Se avea n vedere direcia de deplasare a vnturilor, cum sugereaz preferina pentru construirea cuptoarelor spre sudul sau nordul aezrii, fapt care a devenit aproape o regul n cazul cuptoarelor semi-ngropate n pmnt, cu dou camere suprapuse. n cazurile n care a fost semnalat doar un cuptor, s-a menionat posibilitatea existenei i a altora, nespate sau a distrugerii lor de alunecrile de teren. Dup cum s-a afirmat frecvent este posibil ca n punctele n care s-a descoperit un cuptor s fi funcionat un atelier. Pentru staiunea de la Romula - Reca, s-au menionat cartiere ale olarilor (Gh. Popilian 1976b, p. 140 i urm.).

42

Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Staiunile arheologice din sudul Podiului Central Moldovenesc prezint condiii de depunere apropiate (C. D. Chiri, C. Punescu, D. Teaci 1967, p. 37 i urm, pl. 10-14). Profilele dau, difereniat, cteva tipuri de sol: de la nivelul de clcare un sol negru - cenuiu, dup care urmeaz solul negru - brun, brun nchis, deschis sau glbui i stratificrile argiloase cu diferite aspecte de culoare, constituie, structur. Existena unei producii autohtone, n perioada n discuie, s-a argumentat prin descoperirea unor centre de producie pentru comunitate i pentru schimb, prin larga circulaie a diverselor bunuri, a existenei unei largi piee de desfacere, pe msura extinderii punctelor de schimb (N. Dunre 1967, p. 541). M. Constantiniu se oprete la cele n care erau dou cuptoare n aceeai aezare, la Struleti, Butnreti, unde olarii furnizau marfa lor i altor aezri similare (1966, p. 497). n inuturile Dunrii de jos, ntre secolele II-V p.Hr., meteugul olriei s-a practicat intens, mai ales n mediul urban (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970; A. Opai 1996, p. 17-23; A. A. 1991, p. 70), dar i n cel stesc, n atelierele specializate existente n numeroasele localiti neconsemnate prin documente scrise, de obicei mai puin bogate. n primul caz, al atelierelor din mediul urban (P. M. Rice 1987), menionm pentru Moesia Inferior cercetrile legate de villa de la Romula - Reca, una dintre fermele deschise, unde funcionau, n apropierea pavilionului de locuit, un atelier pentru materiale de construcie, prevzut cu dou cuptoare de ardere i un atelier de olrit, prevzut cu trei cuptoare (Gh. Popilian 1976a, p. 221 i urm., fig. 2-4). n al doilea caz, al atelierelor din mediul stesc, subliniem larga difuziune a elementelor de civilizaie roman i n mediul rural de la est i sud de Carpai, relevant prin circulaia mrfurilor de factur roman, cu deosebire a ceramicii, majoritar n aceast perioad n toate localitile aflate n afara provinciei Dacia (Al. Suceveanu, Al. Barnea 1991). Consecina acestei circulaii a mrfurilor, cu deosebire a ceramicii, a dus la standardizarea produciei artizanale, dei majoritatea satelor i-au asigurat produsele necesare consumului local (Al. Suceveanu 2001-2002, p. 166). n atelierul de olrie de la Banca Gar - apte case, unul dintre multele ateliere descoperite n mediul stesc, se realiza mai ales ceramica pentru comunitate. Numrul mare de fragmente descoperite n aezare este o dovad a modelrii ei aici, folosindu-se ca materii prime sursele locale din imediata vecintate a aezrii, din locul aflat astzi n dreapta oselei Iai Brlad, mai exact argila din versantul estic al dealului, n componena creia era nisip fin. Astfel, meterii olari aveau la ndemn o past cu textur mai fin, adugnd i alte incluziuni i o past mai aspr. Ceramica ars n atelierul aflat nu departe de rul Brlad, se modela n apropierea acestuia, pe partea nsorit dinspre grindurile din nord i vest, poate i n atelier. Masa pe care se lucra trebuie s fi fost de lemn, modelarea acestora se fcea folosindu-se spatule de lemn sau os iar vasele frecvent se ridicau cu sfoara sau cu o lopic (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 88). Cum indic formele ceramicii pstrate se poate spune c olarii de aici stpneau bine acest meteug, la fel ca i ali ceramiti ai perioadei, din centrul sau vestul Europei (N. Cuomo di Caprio 1985; D. Rhodes 1968). Dei cercetrile arheologice de la Banca Gar - apte case au acoperit aproximativ dou treimi din suprafaa locuit, pe baza acestora, n linii generale, au fost reconstituite unele aspecte ale vieii economice de aici, din perioada dintre mijlocul secolului al III-lea prima parte a secolului al V-lea p.Hr. Condiiile de mediu ale aezrii de la Banca Gar, amplasate pe grindurile din preajma Brladului, au fost prielnice pentru practicarea agriculturii i, dei aceasta avea ponderea principal n cadrul economiei prin existena n apropierea satului a unor ntinse terenuri fertile, au existat i condiii necesare practicrii meteugului olriei. Stabilirea comunitii n aceste locuri a depins, desigur, i de aceste bogate surse de argil. Cum a remarcat Linda Ellis, pentru practicarea olritului aezrile au fost amplasate n apropierea unor depuneri de argil curat sau a unor resurse minerale necesare preparrii pigmenilor pentru obinerea culorilor (1984, p. 83, 119).

43

Chapter III. Techniques and technology of pot making


The gathered information allowed us to tackle various issues pertaining the craft of pottery, under its various aspects10, a better knowledge of the phases necessary to follow for obtaining the final products: identification of the best sources of raw materials, especially the clay, working it, maturation, choice of degreasers, coloring agents, their preparation using certain recipes, modeling the ware on the potters wheel, finishing the ware, attaching the handles, the stripes in relief, the immersion into or the application of the grayish, brown or red or more rarely black slip, the ornamentation, drying and finally, the finishing of the pots and other clay items by firing them into very efficient kilns, the types of installations in use, with one or two chambers, the drying of the pots, the repertory of shapes and their capitalization, but also the tools used. Tools for modeling and ornamenting the pottery Other identified materials allowed to discuss the various problems pertaining to this craft. We refer here to the tools discovered by archeological investigations, used for polishing the walls, or for ornamenting them, items made of flint stone but especially of hard stone, or items made of clay, amphora handles which acquired features and traces from their usage as such, bone or hone items, various moulds for creating motifs in relief, spatulas, large knives, scrapers. The traces of these tools were preserved to the exterior but especially on the interior side of some recipients, as shown by the details observed during their study: the prints of spatulas of various widths, alveoli or grooved stripes. They show that the craftsmen of those times used tools made of wood, bone or fired clay. A bone, horn or wooden spatula with a sharp edge was used for modeling the pots on the potters wheel. Among the tools, some were quite close to the shape of the small wooden shovels used by the contemporary potters for shaping the pot (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 85, fig. 23/a). The same purpose must have had the flint stone scrapers. A tool for ornamenting the pottery was identified in Stoicani, com. Folteti, Galai county (I. Bauman 1974, p. 43-45). Within the pottery workshops in the area of the Lower Danube, there were used certain punches made of fired clay such as those of Romula - Reca and Micsasa (Gh. Popilian 1976a, p. 59, pl. 23/261-262; I. Mitrofan 1990, p. 137, fig. 33/1) or the Nicopolitan ones (B. Sultov 1976, p. 19, pl. 45-48). A fragmentary bone needle was discovered at, in 1997, in pit 33 of trench SII / C3 b, at -1,23 m, which was dated by means of a Traian coin, to the first half of the 2nd century. The needle was formed of a cylindrical rod and a lid attached to it made of three truncated cones (Lrod=55 mm; Lhead=12 mm; =10 mm), on the upper part it had a fretted five petal-rosette (C. Mueeanu 1999, p. 83-84, fig. 1). The composition of the item of two parts, rod and detachable head, allowed the changing of the decorative motifs, between themselves and the rosette (Ibidem, p. 83-84). In various other variants, the rosette appears in Durostorum, on the pots representing local imitations of terra sigillata, as well as on other types of stamp-ornamented ceramics (Idem 1997, p. 351, pl. 3/22-24), on the pots of the terra sigillata type decorated either by stamping, or in relief (G. B. Rogers 1974, p. 56; Gh. Popilian 1976a, pl. 31/307, 79/71-84; A. Ctina 1997, p. 29-30). According to the author of the discovery, the rosette was used in the workshops of Western Europe (V. G. Swan 1984), first of all in Gallia, during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD (H. Mikler 1997, p. 51, pl. 38/2) and this item has analogies among the bone items of the Aislingen fortification, of Germany or the finds of Gorsium, in Pannonia (G. Ulbert 1959, pl. 26/31; M. T. Bir 1987, p. 36). At Ulpia Traiana, in Dacia, type II, they were catalogued as hair needles, pointing out the double usage of the item (D. Alicu, E. Neme 1982, p. 347, nr. 18, 20-21). In the provinces closer to us, bone tools were signaled at Porolissum and Micsasa, in Dacia (I. Mitrofan 1995, p. 186, pl. 5/3; N. Gudea 1989, p. 829, nr. 4-5, pl. 257/4-5) and in Pavlikeni, south the Danube (B. Sultov 1985, p. 49, pl. 13/2; V. Natcheva 1987, p. 113).
10

The necessity of complying with the traditional technology in producing the folk ceramic ware was frequently specified in the specialized ethnographic literature (C. Nicolescu, P. Petrescu 1981, p. 255).

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Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Sources of raw materials The necessary knowledge for the choice of the raw materials must have been transmitted from generation to generation, outlining the permanent connection between the agricultural and craft-based communities to nature. From the choice of the lithologic material to its processing for being further used, either by creating constructions, dwellings, hearths or for by modeling ceramic materials, the raw material had to be processed. In most cases, the quality of the clay and the possibility of getting it from the vicinity of the settlement or from within its very perimeter conditioned the creation of the village cores. Clay, one of the most commonly available natural resources, conditioned the establishment of the cores of the old villages and the local resources11. The numerous pits with asymmetric profiles, cornered, existing in most of the investigated sites dated to the 2nd5th centuries AD, are a proof of the presence of clay in the habitable perimeter or in its near vicinity. The positioning of the settlements in location with good clay for building houses or for pottery, is also reflected in the toponyms given nowadays to such sites. For instance, among the discussed sites, we encounter toponyms suggesting in the neighborhood the presence of springs, creeks, generally of water sources such as Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni - Grla Strmbu, Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, Zorleni - Fntnele, Dodeti - ipot, but also Biharea - Grdina CAP Baraj or Vleni - La Moar and others. There are also sites situated on heights: Poiana - Cetate, Arpau de Sus - Cetuia or others with the name of old village, or referring to a certain human activity: Poiana - Silite, cheia - Silitea, Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Voetin - La curte, Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi .a. Clay extraction and preparation The craftsmen would choose and prepare the clay, as main raw material for modeling ceramics in relation to the local sources12. Almost all forms of relief, except for the high mountain ones, contain deposits of fine loess, containing in its natural structure some other inclusions, iron oxides, sand, mica, so that most of the sites provided the necessary raw material. The variety of the mineralogical and granulometric of the lithologic materials used at modeling the ceramic ware has always required the degreasing of the paste in order to model the ware. Linda Ellis, starting from the results of the petrography analyses, pointed out the frequent usage of clay without additions, but with natural inclusions, a high percentage of mica and other composing elements (1984, p. 93). During the 2nd4th centuries, clays with natural additions were frequently used as well. Such additions were meant to prevent the contraction and deformation of the pots while drying and especially while being fired. Slightly earlier, at Borduani and Vldiceasca, the crystallographic analyses made on certain wheelthrown pottery fragments showed a very good choice of the clay and sometimes of the presence in the clays of a certain natural degreasing agent (G. Trohani 2001-2002, p. 246). The riverine environments, with both their resources and their dangers, were analyzed by G. Brown (2001, p. 3 sq.). The archeologists who, starting with Hubert Schmidt (1932, p. 29), excavated the settlements of the Cucuteni culture in Romania emphasized the advantages of using
For the neo-Eneolitic, Eugen Coma perceived the relation between the creation in the southeast of Europe of numerous sites and the chernozem and loess necessary to agriculture, but also for the identification of the raw materials for pottery (1981, p. 227 sq.). In general, the area of dissemination of Cucuteni Trypillia, according to L. Ellis, would be superimposed to the Scythian Platform and part of the Ukrainian Shield, the western part being referred to as the Moldavian Platform, with formations of sedimentary rocks among which the clays and marnes are prevalent together with the sand and slightly cemented flint stone and iron oxides (1984, p. 81). 12 Clay, a product resulting from the total or partial natural decomposition of silico aluminous minerals, which are natural silicates (feldspars, nefeliens, leucites etc.), of magnetic rocks (granites, pegmatites), metamorphic rocks (gneisses, micaschists) and, more rarely, by sedimentation under the activity of water and CO2 from nature. The minerals most present in clay are kaolin (Al2O3. 2SiO2. 2H2O), montmorillonite {Al2 [Si4O10]) (OH)2 nH2O} and hydrated micas (hydromica, hydromuscovite, illite etc.). Its main components are: 30-70% SiO2, 10-40% Al2O3 and 510% H2O and the secondary ones: TiO2, Fe2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, CaO, K2O, Na2O. Apart from these, it also contains impurities of non-clayish minerals, non-decomposed elements from vegetation or from living bodies and newly created minerals such as: carbonates, gypsum, iron oxides etc. (MEM 1980, p. 42).
11

Cap. III. Tehnici i tehnologii / Chapter III. Techniques and technology

45

the riverine clay deposits, which are continuously produced, even today, by the floods of the Prut, Dniester and their tributaries. These deposits could easily produce tens of cubic meters of raw materials with relatively low impurities, a fact which was remarked upon also by the archeologists excavating in Ukraine or in Republic of Moldova (T. S. Passek 1949, p. 110). As presented by Vsevolod I. Marchevici, The artifacts made out if these clays of fine grain possess, following their firing, a smooth, brilliant red surface (1981, p. 121). The petrography analyses confirmed also the quality and the refinement of the pottery made form levigated clays (L. Ellis 1984, p. 93, 115). The surveys of Nicolae Zaharia revealed, in the village of Sarafineti, at the point known as Cetuia Corni, Botoani county, a source of such mineral pigments: There were no potsherds fount on the territory of the fort but its soil, to a depth of one meter, is rich in baked and clay stones. The housewives from the neighboring villages are using these clay deposits to prepare red and yellow paints for plastering the walls (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 294, nr. 252a). The possibility of acquiring certain raw materials by exchange, from remote locations, cannot be excluded. Working the clay A homogenous clay should have been prepared almost as in modern times: the clay lumps were minced down by means of a hoe and then soaked with water. The wet minced clay was then trodden until it was easily modeled and it acquired the desired plasticity: during this operation the clay was cleaned out of impurities13. In this way, the potter was achieving a paste that was plastic, stackable and not cracking under drying at room temperature. The worked clay was cut into slabs that were soaked and then beaten with a wooden mallet. The slabs were brought in the workshop, where they were stored in a box, on top of a cowhide (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 80). During the production flow, the complex operation of maturing and kneading was decisive towards the quality and fineness of the paste and ultimately to quality of the pottery (G. Stoica et alii 1972, p. 203). Such slabs, made ready for the modeling, were discovered at Grditea - Popin, Buzu county (V. Srbu 1996, p. 41). In this regard, it is relevant the find of Colonia Nova Apulensis, Alba Iulia - Nord-vest, Alba county, 2rd3th centuries AD, as reported by Vasile Christescu: The Museum of Alba Iulia still preserves a part of the clay that was cut for modeling and was burned in place by the fire (2004, p. 59). The maturing. After the clay was thoroughly worked (kneaded), it was left to mature, from several weeks to a year, and then various aggregates were added, in order to confer higher strength and impermeability to the vessels, according to their destination and use. Nowadays, a batch of worked clay is made into 50-60 slabs. On the site of Banca Gar - apte case, the filling of the side pit of the potters workshop included such slabs, caught in the vertical profile as thick lentils of yellow clay, 20 cm wide, easy to distinguish from the brown soil. Aggregates In order to reduce to minimum the shrinking of the vessels upon drying and avoid the cracking during firing, in the prepared clay there were inserted various aggregates. The choice of aggregates depended on the composition of the prepared material, as well as on the intentions of the potters in regards to the various types of vessels to be made. There was a certain tolerance in the reproduction of the recipe, as applied by each potter14 according to the available resources and the experience acquired. These recipes and their alterations were passed on from generation to generation, the transmitted technologies being thus modified over time. To produce the thin-walled, fine-paste pottery, the most used aggregate was the quartzite sand of various grains. The sand from the paste used for vessels of various sizes influences the firing
The clay was trodden as in the round-dance, in an inward movement. By left-right steps, the clay was stretched like the dough (Iordache 1996, p. 82), then it was kneaded barehanded for a few hours to smooth the paste: It is ready to work when it is like the beeswax or like the dough, when it allows to be stretched and it does not snap (Ibidem, p. 83). 14 Each recipe solves partially one process within the ceramics technology and it can be one or a group of paste compositions, a firing procedure, etc.
13

46

Meteugul olrie n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

process. The use of sand is characteristic to the 2nd5th century AD wheel-thrown pottery. The clay used for the thin-walled pottery was taken from sources selected for their fine sand content, while the medium-coarse pottery used clay with a higher sand content. The clay deposits from Banca Gar apte case included aggregates naturally present, a situation present as well on other sites. The wheel-thrown domestic-use porous ware, with coarse surfaces used mainly large-grained aggregates, coarse sands, ground ceramic and micro-gravel, resulting in surfaces with a rough feel to the touch. These aggregates are more thermal-efficient, an advantage put to use mainly in cooking pots. The hand-modeled pottery used mostly ground ceramic and gravel as aggregates. The modelling The potters craft had an important role in the daily life of the villagers even in the period of mainly hand-modeled pottery. Following the advent of the potters wheel, the craft reaches a high degree of development. As in todays traditional workshops, the equipments should have been a wooden disk, rotating on a vertical axle. The general spread of this technology is given by the quantitative ratio between wheel-thrown and hand-modeled pottery. One tradition of the modern craftsmen, the making of pottery mainly during the summer and fall, was probably observed also in the workshops of the 2nd5th century settlements, although one cannot exclude the possibility that the workshops were operational in-door all year long. The preparation of the potters worktable, the modeling of the vessel to the desired shape, the surface finishing, the application of the ears, stems, buttons or relief ribbons and then the decoration, make the stage referred to by Gh. Iordache as from all the phases underwent by the natural clay to become a vessel, this is the most impressive (1996, p. 87). A special emphasis was given, during the modeling phase, to the forming of the rims, as well as the stems and bases of the vessels. The potter achieves the desired shape and size, as indicated by the dedicated experiments, by a few expert moves (D. Gheorghiu 2004, p. 11 sq.). If the ceramic type took a long time to evolve, their variants exploded in a wide range of forms, according to the skills of the craftsmen, achieved by a long practice. The finishing of the pottery and the ornaments The whole vessels, the reconstructed ones and many of the fragments found at the site of Banca were carefully smoothed and polished on the exterior, and often on the interior as well, according to their shapes. The mechanical polishing of the vessel, of some of its registers or just of some motifs, takes an important place in the sequence of finishing/ornamenting actions of the potter. In this way, the vessel is given a special appearance, compared to the unpolished ones. The polishing/burnishing is carried out after the covering in slip of the vessels, in order to reduce the porosity of the whole surface or of a part of it. The polishing was made by means of a bone, stone or, more rare, ceramic implement and unevenly, as indicated by the preserved traces. The polishing produced decoration in form of parallel lines, vertical sheaves, zigzags or meshes. There were often reported finds of burnishers in form of flat pebbles, with convex faces and wear-eroded edges, present in all the excavated sites relevant to the subject. Their used areas were extremely smooth. The ornaments The attachment of the ears, and more rarely of some zoomorphic representations, was made by several technical means. Most of the cases, the ears modeled in clay were affixed with a small rod. In other cases, the ears were attached by sticking the wet clay to the wall of the vessel and pressing with the fingers or by making a diagonal slash, in the same way as for the application of the protomae. The drying Following the modeling, the finishing and the ornamenting, the vessels were lined up for drying, a procedure taking several days, which reduced the size of the vessels by , according to the data published by Horst Klusch (1981, p. 258). The archeological excavations revealed various methods of drying the batch, indoors, in the workshop on special supports, or outdoors, in plain air.

Cap. III. Tehnici i tehnologii / Chapter III. Techniques and technology

47

In the latter case, the vessels were not exposed to direct sunlight, but left in shadow, at constant temperature and protected from the wind, to avoid the contraction, the cracking of the walls or even the shattering of the vessel. During the drying process, the water added in the paste during the working of the clay evaporates. The high percentage of natural aggregates in the clay used by the ancient potters of Banca Gar - apte case, as well as from other sites, helped the uniform drying of the fine pottery. In the case of Banca Gar the drying operation was carried out probably indoors, in the space between the two kilns, which was higher. On the site of Grditea - Popin, Buzu county, there were preserved several parts of openair dried vessels, not fired (V. Srbu 1996, p. 41) while from the site of Alba Iulia - Nord-vest, the local history museum preserves several drying supports, from the 2rd3th centuries AD potters workshop (V. Christescu 2004, p. 59). The immersion Covering in slip The application of a layer of thin clay slurry slip, was carried out by diluting the paste, to preserve the adherence and to match the contraction ratio of the walls. Quite often the slip was made from a finer clay than the paste of the vessels and a different color (red or black). The pottery production gradually evolved after the economical collapse following the withdrawal of the Roman administration from Dacia, the downfall of the urban economy and the general crisis of the Empire; consequently, at the end of the 4 th century AD a technological recovery is evident. However, the 4th century, which is the flourishing time for Sntana de Mure culture, is dominated by the fine-paste, wheel-thrown pottery, which is also used well into the 5th century, but to a much lesser extent (I. Ioni 2001, p. 619 et sq.). Location of the kilns - workshops Between the 2nd and the 4th centuries AD, the potters craft was intensively practiced in specialized workshops mainly of the urban areas, and also of numerous villages overlooked by the written documents, as these were usually not so rich. The existence of a local production in all the historical provinces was linked to the identification of such pottery production centers for creating ware to be used for the community and for the exchange, and to the circulation of the recipients made by the potters (P. M. Rice 1987). In the first case, mention should be made that for Moesia Inferior, the researches concerning the villa of Romula - Reca, one of the open type farmsteads, where there functioned, close to the living premises, a workshop for construction materials, foreseen with two firing kilns and one pottery workshop, with three kilns (Gh. Popilian 1976a, p. 221 sq., fig. 2-4). Kilns were usually located near the sources of water and clay, taking into account also the wind direction as suggested by the preference for constructing the kilns south or north the settlement, situation which became almost a rule in the case of the half-buried kilns with two superimposed chambers. In the cases where a single kiln was pointed out, there was specified the possibility that others kilns might have been present, which were either left unexcavated or destroyed by the land sliding. As frequently stated, it is possible that in the points where one kiln was discovered, a workshop might have functioned. For the settlement of Romula - Reca, potters quarters were pointed out (Gh. Popilian 1976b, p. 140 sq.). The archaeological sites in the south of the Central Moldavian Plateau display rather similar depositing conditions (C. D. Chiri, C. Punescu, D. Teaci 1967, p. 37 sq., pl. 10-14). The profiles indicated, in a differentiated way, several types of soil: from the treading level a grayish black soil, followed by the brown-black soil, the dark brown soil, light brown or yellowish soil, and the argillaceous stratifications with various aspects of color, composition, structure. The role of the various workshops increased while the exchange points and the circulation of the various goods becoming more and more vivid, and the demand on the market was more and more accrued (N. Dunre 1979). The wide dissemination of the elements of Roman civilization to the rural environment east of the Carpathians, relevant for the circulation of the goods of Roman influence, is specific for the Romanization period outside the province of Dacia (Al. Suceveanu,

48

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Alexandru Barnea 1991). The consequence of such circulation of goods especially of ceramics, led to the standardization of craftsmens production, although most of the villages assured the products necessary for the local consumption (Al. Suceveanu 2001-2002, p. 166). Although the archaeological researches covered only about half of the living premises, they served as a basis for recreating, in general lines certain aspects of the economical life of those places, for the period between mid 3rd5th centuries. The paleo-environment conditions of the settlement of Banca Gar placed on the rises around River Brlad were favorable to practicing agriculture, which explains the role it played within the economy, and by the existence near the village of wide fertile lands, they offered the necessary conditions for practicing the craft of pottery. The settling of the community in these places depended, for sure, also on such rich sources of clay, as proven by the two kilns for firing ceramics arranged in this area. For practicing the craft of pottery the sites were located near deposits of clean clay and necessary mineral resources for preparing the pigments for obtaining the colors (L. Ellis 1984, p. 83, 119), in the workshops of Centre and Western Europe (N. Cuomo di Caprio 1985; D. Rhodes 1968). At Banca Gar, the workshop was situated not far from River Brlad, and the modeling was done close to the watercourse, on the sunny side toward the west rises, but also in the workshop. The same modeling procedures were used as in the case of the potters wheel, by means of wooden, bone or horn spatulae, and the table on which the ceramic ware was shaped must have been made of wood, the vessels being taken of with a rope or a wooden spatula, the same way as still practiced nowadays (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 88). As indicated by the shapes of the preserved ceramic ware, one can tell that the potters down there were real masters of this craft, and so were other ceramists of that period. Pending on the number of chambers, the kilns for firing ceramic ware can be grouped in two categories: installations for firing ceramic ware made of one chamber, the hearth and the dome of the latter, opened in the upper part, most of the times with a feeding opening towards the feeding chamber and the installations for firing ceramic ware made of two vertically disposed chambers. The large number of potsherds discovered in the settlement suggest the creation of the ware on the spot, by means of local sources that were to be found in the very close vicinity of the settlement, more precisely in the eastern versant of the hill to the right of the Iai Brlad road. Using a different percentage of sand as degreasing agent, the potters obtained both finer and rougher clay. Thus, as shown by the preserved fragments, fissures or incomplete firing were avoided.

49

Capitolul IV. Tehnici de ardere a vaselor


Nu exist o origine, ci o multitudine de valori tehnice care au dus la formarea acestui sistem de ardere a vaselor...

Culoarea cenuie a majoritii recipientelor descoperite n atelierele de olrie, n aezri sau necropole, lipsa sau raritatea deformrilor, petelor de alt culoare, craclurilor, impregnarea uniform a slipului, miezul de obicei apropiat de nuana exterioar a vasului sau uor mai nchis, sunt indici privind buna cunoatere a tehnicilor de ardere, respectate de meterii olari n realizarea fiecrei arje. Au fost arse uniform mai ales vasele mici i medii, din past fin, cu pereii subiri. Temperatura de ardere Reglarea temperaturii avea un rol esenial15, dac era prea sczut nu se obineau transformrile fizico-chimice ale pastei iar dac era prea ridicat vasele se deformau. Pentru aceasta se lsa deschis gura de sus a cuptorului, dup care se acoperea treptat. Dup Horst Klusch, vasele arse la temperaturi de peste 870o C, prin rcire nu i mai modific volumul i devin rezistente16. Viciile tehnice aprute n timpul arderilor la temperaturi insuficient de ridicate se reduc la manifestri superficiale de ardere. Astfel, recipientele perioadei prezint pete brun cenuii, flecuri formate prin atingerile dintre vase sau datorate variaiilor de temperatur, perei rmai negri n sprtur, mici deformri. Cu ajutorul acestui tip de cuptoare, construite pentru o utilizare ndelungat, se obineau temperaturi suficient de ridicate (M. Coma 1976a, p. 21, 30; Idem 1976b, p. 353 i urm.), fapt pentru care au fost considerate cele mai perfecionate. Culoarea cenuie a majoritii recipientelor descoperite la Banca Gar, miezul de obicei tot cenuiu, sunt indici privind buna cunoatere a tehnicilor de ardere reductoare, tehnici respectate de meterii olari n realizarea fiecrei arje17. Au fost arse uniform mai ales vasele mici i medii, realizate din past fin, cu pereii subiri. La fel s-au ars vasele categoriei fine de la Brlad - Valea Seac, ndeosebi cele cu pereii subiri, practicndu-se tehnici asemntoare de ardere, n cuptoare speciale n care se atingeau temperaturi cu valori ntre 700 i 1000o C, pn spre 1050o C. Nerealizarea unor standarde minime de ardere au favorizat apariia deformrilor, craclurilor, a petelor cu nuane cenuii diferite de ale vaselor, n genere la slbirea rezistenei angobei, au favorizat, n anumite cazuri, fragmentarea, fisurarea, deformarea vaselor. Multe dintre vasele de uz gospodresc, aveau marginea netezit bine lustruit, cu un galet (M. Babe 1980, p. 28 i urm.), de factura celor descoperite n aezare. n secolele II-IV, fr ndoial ceramica modelat la roat i arderea ei reductoare sau oxidant, se realiza numai de ctre meteri specializai, dup o tehnologie bine cunoscut, folosind cuptoare etajate, n care temperatura putea s depeasc 1000o C. Vasele lucrate cu mna au fost arse pe vetre sau n gropi, la temperaturi de 200o400o C, conform analizelor fizico-chimice efectuate de fizicieni i geologi (G. Trohani 2001-2002, p. 246). La Vldiceasca i Borduani, ceramica de bun calitate era ars n cuptoare, la temperaturi de peste 700o C, dar nu peste 900o C (Ibidem, p. 246). La fel s-a ars i categoria ceramicii poroase de uz gospodresc, de cele mai multe ori de culoare brun-cenuie, dar i brun-crmizie.
Arderea dura 5 - 10 ore iar rcirea - 12 (G. Stoica et alii 1972, p. 204). Pentru a se obine o arj bun ea nu trebuia s ajung la 3500 C nainte ca vasele s fie deshidratate, uscate n masa lor prin evaporarea apei de absorpie sau coloidale din pori. Evaporarea ducea la creterea porozitii lor, dup Horst Klusch era a doua etap de eliminare a apei. Conform datelor publicate de el la: 300o C se carbonizeaz humusul, elibernd CO2; ntre 450-600o C se elimin apa chimic din argile (> 14%), la 700o C vasul devine rou - crmiziu, dac are n componena chimic cel puin 5% oxid de fier (Fe 2O3) i oxid de aluminiu (Al2O3), pentru ca ntre 850-9000 C, s se oxideze carbonul rezultat din arderea humusului i s se elimine sub from de sulf (SO2), al crui miros avertizeaz olarii apropierea de sfrit a procesului arderii (1981, p. 258; vezi i Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 144). 17 Arderea dura 5 - 10 ore, iar rcirea - 12 (G. Stoica et alii 1972, p. 204).
15 16

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Pentru arderea ceramicii lucrate la roat din past fin, bine amestecat, ades fr impuriti, cu deosebire a castroanelor sau a vaselor fructier, se cerea o bun stpnire a tehnicii, pentru ca ele s ajung la o culoare uniform cenuie sau brun. Soluia evitrii defectelor de ardere ca fisurarea pereilor sau detaarea culorilor de fond sau a celor pictate, consta n modelarea unor vase cu perei subiri i de dimensiuni mai reduse. Arderea parial a slipurilor a fost principala cauz a tergerii acestuia n timp, prin reacia acizilor, bazelor i srurilor din sol. Nerealizarea unor standarde minime de ardere ducea la slbirea rezistenei pereilor n faa agenilor fizico - chimici ai mediului, ce au favorizat, n anumite cazuri, fragmentarea, fisurarea sau deformarea. Erau i situaii n care olarul nu izbutea arderea arjei. nc din 1940, A. Filimon, ne informa c la Cristeti s-au gsit aproape dou vagoane de cioburi dintre acelea care n-au reuit la ars (1940, p. 89 i urm.). Dup ardere, vasele erau lsate n cuptor, pn la rcire. Instalaii de ars ceramica Arderea se realiza n cuptoare construite special pentru aceasta i n gropi. Tehnologia de ardere a vaselor n cuptoare performante a ngduit realizarea unei ceramici de bun calitate. Gropi de ars ceramica Nu s-a pierdut din vedere nici posibilitatea arderii vaselor n gropi (G. Trohani 2001-2002, p. 246), de obicei adnci sau n gropi mai puin adnci, prevzute la nivelul solului cu bolt deschis la partea superioar. Astfel de gropi de olrie s-au consemnat destul de rar, att n perioada anterioar, ct i n ntinsul spaiu al complexului cultural Sntana de Mure Cerneahov. Dup I. H. Crian, i dacii au folosit drept cuptoare unele gropi special amenajate n acest scop, care, conform construciei lor erau adaptate pentru ars ceramica. El menioneaz pentru La Tnul geto-dacic cteva gropi cu forme tronconice, bitronconice sau cilindrice, cu pereii ari, spre baza lor cu mult cenu i crbune, dar fr ncpere de acces (1967, p. 111 i urm.). Pentru arderea ceramicii geto-dacii au folosit gropi sau cuptoare simple, lipite cu lut amestecat cu diferite incluziuni organice sau anorganice. n gropi vasele se ardeau la temperaturi mici, ntre 500-700o C. Ele au fost amplasate fie n gospodrie, fie n locuri special amenajate, n marginea aezrilor, fapt pentru care sunt puine informaii cu privire la folosirea gropilor de ars ceramica ntre secolele III a.Hr. i V p.Hr. Dintre acestea am menionat o descoperire din Transilvania, din spturile arheologice realizate de M. Macrea, n 1955, la Arpau de Sus - Cetuia, din secolele I a.Hr. - I. p.Hr. (1967, p. 116-117, fig. 3), pe care am reprodus-o i noi (fig. 1). n Moldova mai cunoscute au fost cele de la Poiana - Cetate, jud. Galai (R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 50; Idem 1951, p. 196-197), Piatra oimului (Calu) - Horoditea, jud. Neam (R. Vulpe 1941, p. 24), Popeti - Nucet, jud. Giurgiu (R. Vulpe et alii 1955, p. 245-247), Sighioara, jud. Mure sau Sf. Gheorghe Eprestet, jud. Covasna (K. Horedt 1956, p. 19-21), Pecica - anul Mare, jud. Arad (I. H. Crian 1965a, p. 133) Anexa I. Anumite gropi amenajate special, cu pereii ari i cu urme de crbuni sau cenu, precum cele semnalate de I. H. Crian, au fost probabil instalaii de ars ceramica, dei M. Coma a considerat c, utilizarea lor n acest scop ar trebui mai mult argumentat (1985, p. 174, notele 5455). Analiznd ceramica din cetuia dacic de la Barboi, din punctul de vedere al tehnicilor de ardere preponderent reductoare, nbuite, Silviu Sanie opiniaz pentru folosirea gropilor special amenajate. Dup el, n staiunile spate metodic, unde nu au fost descoperite cuptoare pentru arderea ceramicii reductoare, precum la Barboi, se foloseau gropi cu o anumit form i care prezentau o crust de arsur considerabil (1976, p. 62). Alte gropi, precum cele de la Poiana - Varni, Dulceti, nr. 7, 11, 16, 52 i 64, ntre ele n groapa 11 se afla i o reprezentare zoomorf (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 136, pl. CL/1), posibil un cel de vatr, conineau multe resturi de la instalaiile de foc, fragmente de crust de vatr, buci de lipitur de la carcasa camerei de ardere, pietre de ru arse de la baza vetrelor sau din marginea acestora, crbuni i cenu, dar foarte puin ceramic. n aceast mic grupare, Gh. Bichir a inclus i groapa din mediul getic de la Poiana - Cetate, jud. Galai (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 181 i urm.),

Cap. IV. Tehnici de ardere a vaselor / Chapter IV. Techniques of pot firing

51

gropile arse i cu un inventar anumit din mediu carpic de la ifeti - La Grigoreti, jud. Vrancea i din Muntenia, de la Militari - Mtsaru, cultura Chilia Militari, jud. Dmbovia (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 136). Cuptoare de ars ceramica n studiul cuptoarelor s-a folosit aceeai ordonare a lor, n cuptoarele cu o camer i cu dou camere suprapuse (E. Coma 1977, p. 173; V. Kotigoroko, p. 70) Cuptoare cu o camer secolele II-IV p.Hr. Amenajrile termice simple, cu o singur camer de ardere pentru pregtirea alimentelor, mai rar cu vatra pe substrat de pietri sau cioburi formnd un spaiu de pstrare i degajare a cldurii, n cazuri izolate i cu vatra nuit, au fost folosite i pentru ars ceramica din neolitic pn n epoca modern. Aceste cuptoare cu o singur camer aveau fie form de calot sferic spat n maluri, fie bolt apareiat, precum cele din epoca roman de la Histria (R. Florescu et alii 1980, p. 127). Vasele se ordonau de la gura cuptorului spre peretele din spate, lsndu-se drumuri n cuptor. n spatele lor rmnea un loc liber, n care se puneau cioburi de oale. Se ardea punnduse pe intervale lemne. Cuptoarele cu o camer se utilizau constant mai ales pentru ars ceramica modelat la mn. Acestea erau prevzute cu dou deschideri, una pentru alimentare la baza camerei de foc i de ardere a vaselor i alta la partea superioar a bolii, prin care se asigura umplerea cu vase, reglarea tirajului i a temperaturii n timpul arderii n atmosfer oxidant, la care se adaug sau nu groapa - ncperea de acces. Separarea combustibilului de arj se putea realiza prin nuirea longitudinal a vetrei. Astfel se detaa spaiul necesar arderii combustibilului i se proteja ceramica din cuptor. Prin aceste procedee mai simple vasele se ardeau incomplet, pereii neavnd o nuan egal, precum ceramica geto-dacic din faza numit de C. Daicoviciu clasic, sec. I a.Hr. - I p.Hr. (1941), care rar era ars i n cuptoare cu dou camere. Acestea au fost cunoscute mai trziu la dacii liberi, n aezrile din secolele II-III p.Hr. sau n cele ale complexului cultural Sntana de Mure Cerneahov. Prezena mai multor cuptoare n anumite bordeie datate n secolele II-III i IV, precum la Vleni - La Moar, Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului sau Blteni - Grla Strmbu, nu exclude folosirea unora dintre ele i pentru ars ceramica de uz gospodresc. Cuptoare cu dou camere - secolele III a.Hr.-V. p.Hr. Problematica instalaiilor de ars ceramica prevzute cu dou camere suprapuse, de la primele descoperiri i pn n zilele noastre, a fost discutat i de arheologi, Maria Coma, n 1985, dar i de etnologi, Fl. Bobu Florescu, n 1965 i Gheorghe Iordache, n 1996. O privire general asupra numrului cuptoarelor performante de ars ceramica descoperite la est i sud-est de Carpai, n secolele II-III i IV-V, relev ptrunderea lent dar constant a lor, importana produciei locale i extinderea ei n perioada de timp menionat. Una dintre aceste probleme se leag de continuitatea transmiterii acestor complexe, prin influene venite din mediul elenistic, apoi din mediu celtic i ulterior din cel roman. Capacitatea cuptoarelor Astfel de descoperiri au favorizat msurarea capacitii lor. Etnografii, evalueaz mrimea cuptoarelor n funcie de numrul i de volumul vaselor cuprinse la ardere18. Capacitatea acestora, dup cum a observat E. Coma, studiind cuptorul de la Vrti (=1,50 m), era n raport direct i cu mrimea vetrei i nlimea pe care o avea bolta (1976b, p. 361). Pentru folosirea maxim a spaiului din interior, cuptorul se umplea cu vase de mrimi diferite, suprapuse n piramid, cele mari la baz, pentru a se sfri cu vasele de mrimi medii i mici, unele introduse n altele. Complexele n care s-a pstrat arja pot sugera o anumit ordonare a lor n cuptoare. Ceramica trebuie s fi fost stivuit pe vatr, ca i astzi Pentru realizarea crrilor (gangurilor) prin care ptrunde focul, olria mare se fixeaz pe vatr i pe marginea cuptorului, iar aceea mic se aaz
18

Evaluarea mrimii cuptoarelor contemporane: ieti, Mehedini, 50-100 vase; n Vlcea, la Deti, 150 vase mari i 200 mici, la Horezu de 800-1000 strchini; 400-500 la Mlureni, Stroeti, Vlsneti, Arge; 200-300 n Bini, CaraSeverin; 100 vase mari sau 150 mici n Baru Mare, Hunedoara (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 142-143).

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

spre mijlocul construciei (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 143). n timpul modelrii diverselor forme ceramice s-au avut n vedere i dimensiunile cuptoarelor n care urmau s fie arse. Acest fapt s-a legat de tipizarea formelor, n toate etapele. La Banca Gar, n nici unul dintre cuptoare nu s-a pstrat arja, dei, din practicarea meteugului a rmas mult ceramic. Pentru vasele ntregite s-a calculat capacitatea (V. V. Alaiba, p. 107 i urm). n raport cu aceste descoperiri, urmrind i analogiile etnografice ncercm s facem o evaluare a numrului i a modului n care au fost ordonate. Cuptorul de la Zorleni - Fntnele s-a descoperit cu toat arja n el i pare s aparin sfritul secolului al IV-lea p.Hr., poate i nceputul secolului al V-lea. Vasele rmase n cuptorul descoperit i cele recuperate din prejma acestuia, s-au ntregit n majoritate, numai cele din care s-a pstrat doar o parte nu au fost reconstituite. Vasile Palade, experimental, dup restaurarea vaselor a i ncercat s reconstituie poziia acestora pe grtar, ordonndu-le pe vertical, n rnduri suprapuse, pe o nlime ce nu a depit 76 cm. Astfel, dup el, pe primul rnd au ncput 35 de vase din cele mari (h=20 cm) iar pe ultimul rnd nc 15-20 cu diferite dimensiuni (h=7-13 cm), de la mici la mijlocii (1969a, p. 343). Specificul cuptoarelor performante - sistemul de funcionare La baza sistemului de funcionare a cuptoarelor cu tiraj vertical, stau o multitudine de valori tehnice, pstrate i adaptate de meterii olari n raport de posibilitile fiecrui atelier. Culoarea pereilor vaselor n diferite nuane de cenuiu, mai rar roii, crmizii sau brune, uneori uor diferit n interior fa de exterior, a depins de tehnica de ardere, oxidant sau reductoare, calitatea argilei, felul arderii, dar i de dispoziia vaselor n cuptor. Cuptoarele care aveau grtarul ars cenuiu au fost folosite mai ales pentru arderea reductoare a ceramicii, iar cuptoarele cu grtarul ars crmiziu pentru ceramica roie (Eugen Nicolae 2007, p. 64). Practicarea olritului folosind ateliere dotate cu mai multe cuptoare, relev o extindere a meteugului respectiv, fiind depit faza modestei olrii casnice, de productivitate restrns. Cunoaterea atelierelor de olrit, ce aveau cuptoarele ordonate n grupuri, dou - patru, mai rar mai multe, pentru realizarea unor condiii propice de obinere n serie a ceramicii, se fcea dup un sistem cunoscut i n atelierele din Galia, n secolele I-II, cum ne informeaz Gh. Popilian (1984, p. 46). Ordonarea lor in "baterii" - numit astfel tot de arheologul craiovean -, la acea vreme a permis desfurarea specializat a lucrului n patru faze: prima, pentru pregtirea i ncrcarea arjei; a doua pentru arderea propriu-zis a acesteia; a treia necesar rcirii cuptoarelor cu materialele arse; i ultima, a patra pentru scoaterea ncrcturii arse din cuptor. Arderea diferit a recipientelor, n cuptoarele cu tiraj vertical, cerea mnuirea special a instalaiilor n funcie de categoria ceramic pe care o realizau, mai dificil fiind obinerea ceramicii rocat-crmizii, dup Gh. Diaconu necunoscut de gepizii din Dacia intracarpatic, care reclama procedee tehnice dificile, cunoscute de populaia btina (2003, p. 334).

Chapter IV. Techniques of Pot Firing


Pots are being finalized by firing. Pot Firing. The grey color of most of the recipients discovered at Banca Gar, the absence or rarity of deformations, stains of other color, stains, the uniform impregnation of the slip, the core usually close to the external color or slightly darker, are signs of the good knowledge of the firing techniques, complied with by the potters in the achievement of each batch. Especially the small and average pots of fine paste, with thin walls and grayish core were uniformly fired. Firing Temperature The tuning of the temperature was essential19, if it was too low, the physical-chemical transformations of the paste would not take place and if it was too high the pots would get deformed. In order to avoid such inconveniences, the upper feeding opening of the kiln was left
19

Strong firing for 5 - 10 hours and cooling 12 h (G. Stoica et alii 1972, p. 204).

Cap. IV. Tehnici de ardere a vaselor / Chapter IV. Techniques of pot firing

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open, and then gradually covered. According to Horst Klusch, the pots fired at temperature values beyond 870o C, do not modify the volume when cooling and become resistant20. The technical vices appeared during the firing at not high enough temperature values are limited to superficial signs. It is only rarely that the vessels show brown grayish stains, traces left by the pots leaning against one another or due to the temperature variations, the walls remain black or are deformed as shown by the potsherds. The hand-made pots were fired in hearths or pits, at temperature values of 200o 400o C, in accordance with the physdcal chemical analyses carried out by physicists and geologists (G. Trohani 2001-2002, p. 246). At Borduani and Vldiceasca the qualitative ceramic ware was fired in kilns at temperature values of more than 700o C, but not beyond 900o C (Ibidem, p. 246). The ceramic items made of porous paste, of domestic usage were fired the same way, most of the times their color being grayish - brown, but also brick brown. For firing the ceramic ware made of fine paste, well kneaded, often with impurities, the fruit vessels, the wheel-made bowls, required a good mastering of the technique so that the vessels get a grayish or brown color. For their firing temperature values between 700o C, and 900o C were necessary. In order to avoid the firing-caused defects, such as the fissuring of the walls or the detaching of the background or painted colors, the solution was to shape pots with thin walls and of smaller size. After firing, the pots were left cooling in the kiln. The failure to comply with such minimal standards resulted into the weakening of the resistance of the walls to the action of the physical-chemical agents in the environment mi determined in certain cases the fragmentation, fissuring or deformation. The partial firing of the slips was the of main cause of its erasure by the reaction of acids, bases and salts in the soil. Installations for firing ceramic ware The firing was done in specialized kilns, arranged for such purposes and in pits. The technology of firing the vessels in highly efficient kilns allowed the achievement of a very qualitative ceramic ware, with one chamber kilns and two chamber-kilns (E. Coma 1977, p. 173; V. Kotigoroko, p. 70). Pits for firing the ceramic ware The possibility of firing the vessels in pits was also taken into account (G. Trohani 20012002, p. 246). These were rather deep or less deep and foreseen at the level of the ground with a vault. Such pottery pits were rather rare identified both for the period prior to, and for the wide territory of Sntana de Mure Cerneahov cultural complex. The Geto-Dacians used pits or simple kilns for firing ceramic ware, lined with clay mixed to various organic or inorganic inclusions. In pits the vessels were preponderantly fired at rather low temperatures of 500-700o C. Such pits were placed either within the homestead or in special, arranged for the purpose on the sides of the sites, reason why there is little information concerning the usage of pits for firing ceramic ware between 3rd century BC and the 5th century AD. According I. H. Crian, the Dacians also used as kilns some pits especially arranged for this purpose. He specifies for the Geto-Dacian La Tne several pits with conical, biconical or cylindrical shapes and fired walls, with a lot of ash and charcoal, but without an access room (1967, p. 111 sq.), which, given their construction, would have been used for firing ceramic ware: Poiana Cetate, Galai county (R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 50; Idem 1951, p. 196-197), Piatra oimului (Calu) - Horoditea, Neam county (R. Vulpe 1941, p. 24), Popeti - Nucet, Giurgiu county (R. Vulpe et alii 1955, p. 245-247), Sighioara, Mure county or Sf. Gheorghe - Eprestet, Covasna county (K.
20 In order to obtain a good batch, it should not reach 3500 C before the pots were dehydrated, thoroughly dried by evaporation of the absorption water or colloidal from the pores. Evaporation resulted into the increase of porosity, according to Horst Klusch it was a second phase of water elimination. In accordance with the data he published at: 300 o C the humus gets carbonized, issuing CO2; between 450-600o C, the chemical water from the clays is eliminated (> 14%), at 700o C the pot becomes brick- red, if it contains at least 5% iron oxide (Fe2O3) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and between 850-9000 C, the carbon resulting from the firing of the humus is oxidized and eliminated as sulfur (SO2), whose odor tells any potter the that the firing is close to its end (1981, p. 258; see also Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 144).

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Horedt 1956, p. 19-21), Pecica - anul Mare, Arad county (I. H. Crian 1965a, p. 133). Among these, an example would be a discovery of Transylvania, within the archaeological excavations of M. Macrea, in 1955, of Arpau de Sus - Cetuia, of the 1st century BC 1st century AD (1967, p. 116-117, fig. 3), that we also present here (fig. 1). The especially arranged pits, with fired walls and traces of charcoal or ash, such as those pointed out by I. H. Crian, can be considered installations for firing ceramic ware, although M. Coma showed that their usage for such purpose should be better sustained (1985, p. 174, notele 54-55). Analyzing the ceramic ware of the Dacian fortress of Barboi, from the point of view of the firing techniques mainly based on a reducing obstructed atmosphere, Silviu Sanie is also of the same opinion. According to him, in the methodically investigated sites, where no kilns for the firing of ceramic ware in reducing atmosphere were found, such as in Barboi, pits of a certain shape were used for such purpose as these were showing a considerable crust (1976, p. 62). Pits containing remains of the firing installations, fragments of hearth crust, pieces of adobe from the casing of kilns, fired river stones from the basis of hearths, charcoal and ash, but only a too little number of ceramic items were discovered in Poiana - Varni, Dulceti, no. 7, 11, 16, 52 and 64, and among these pit 11 also contained a zoomorphic representation (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 136, pl. CL/1). In the small group of the discoveries containing such inventory, Gh. Bichir pointed out the kiln of the Getic environment of Poiana - Cetate, Galai county (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 181 et sq.), those of the Carpic environment of ifeti, Vrancea county and from Walachia, of Militari - Mtsaru, Chilia-Militari culture, Dmbovia county (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 136). One chamber kilns 2nd4th centuries AD The simple, thermal installations with one firing chamber for the preparation of food items, rather rarely with the hearth on an underlayer of gravel or potsherds creating a space for maintaining and releasing heat, in isolated cases also with a grooved hearths, were used starting with the Neolithic until the modern times. Such one chamber kilns were shaped either as a spherical calotte, hollowed out from the pit wall, or as an above-ground dome, such as those of the Roman period in Histria (R. Florescu et alii 1980, p. 127). The one chamber kilns were constantly used also for productive purposes, for firing hand-made ceramic ware. Such kilns had two openings, one for feeding at the basis of the fireplace/ pot firing chamber and another one in the upper part of the dome, in order to assure the loading of the batch, the tuning of the venting and temperature during firing in oxidizing atmosphere, with or without a pit access chamber. The separation of the fuel from the batch could be done by the longitudinal grooving of the hearth. Thus the space necessary for the combustion of the fuel was delimited and the ceramic ware in the southern side of the kiln was being protected. By these rather simple procedures, the vessels were not fully fired, and the walls did not have a uniform as the Geto-Dacian ceramic ware eastern of the Carpathians, of the phase referred to by C. Daicoviciu as classical one, 1st century BC 1st century AD (1941), which was rarely fired in highly efficient kilns, familiar later on to the free Dacians, as resulting from the 2nd 3rd century AD sites, or from those of Sntana de Mure Cerneahov cultural complex. The presence of several kilns in certain huts dated to the 2nd3rd centuries and to the 4th century AD, such as those of Vleni - La Moar, Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului or Blteni - Grla Strmbu, do not exclude their usage also for firing domestic ceramic ware. Two chamber-kilns 3th century BC 5th century AD The issue of the two superimposed chamber- installations for firing ceramic ware, from the first discoveries until the contemporary times, has been discovered both by archaeologists, such as Maria Coma, in 1985, and by ethnologists, such as Fl. Bobu Florescu, in 1965 and Gheorghe Iordache, in 1996. A general consideration of the number of highly efficient kilns for firing ceramic ware to the east and southeast of the Carpathians, during the 2nd3rd and 4th5th centuries, respectively, indicates their slow but constant dissemination, the importance of the local production and its extension within the specified time period. One of the problems concerns the continuity of

Cap. IV. Tehnici de ardere a vaselor / Chapter IV. Techniques of pot firing

55

the transmission of such complexes, by influences coming from the Hellenistic environment, and then from the Celtic one and later on from the Roman one. Capacity of the kilns Such discoveries favored the measuring of their capacity. Ethnographers evaluate the size of the kilns pending on the number and volume of the vessels contained for firing 21. Yet, as remarked by E. Coma, studying the kiln of Vrti (=1,50 m), their capacity was proportional to the size of the fireplace and the height of the dome (1976b, p. 361). For the maximal usage of the inner space, the kiln was filled up with pots of various sizes, superimposed in a pyramidal shape, the large ones at the basis, and ending up with the average size vessels, some of the pots being contained by the larger ones. The features where the batch was preserved may suggest a certain ordering of the pots inside the kilns. The ceramic ware must have been arranged on the fireplace, just like it happens nowadays. For the elaboration of the corridors through which the fire would spread, the large vessels were embedded on the fireplace and on the side of the kiln, while the small ones were placed in the middle of the construction (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 143). During the modeling of the various shapes, probably the size of the kilns in which the vessels were to be baked was also taken into consideration. This favored a certain standardization of the shapes, during all the phases. In the settlement of Banca, the batch has not been preserved in any of the kilns, although, a lot of ceramic ware was left from the practicing of this craft. In relation to these discoveries, following also the ethnographic analogies, we try to achieve an evaluation of the number and manner in which they were arranged. The kiln of Zorleni Fntnele was identified with its whole batch inside it and it seems to belong to the end of the 4th century AD, maybe the beginning of the 5th century. The vessels preserved inside the kiln and those recuperated from around it, allowed in most cases, their complete reconstruction and only the partly preserved pots were left without a complete reconstruction. Experimentally, after the restoration, Vasile Palade also attempted to recreate their position on the perforated plate, ordering them vertically, in overlapped ranges, on a height which did not exceed 76 cm. Thus, according to him, the first range contained 35 large vessels (h=20 cm) and the last range another 15-20 vessels of various sizes (h=7-13 cm), ranging from the small ones to the ones of average size (1969a, p. 343). There was also attempted a statistic analysis of the inventories obtained in the settlement of Banca Gar. Thus, Vasile V. Alaiba, calculated the volumes of the various ceramic shapes, this operation pertaining naturally to the vessels whose shape could be established (V. V. Alaiba, p. 107 i urm).

21 The assessment of the size of the contemporary kilns: ieti, Mehedini, 50-100 vessels; in Vlcea, at Deti, 150 large vessels and 200 small ones, at Horezu 800-1000 dishes; 400-500 at Mlureni, Stroeti, Vlsneti, Arge; 200-300 in Bini, Cara-Severin; 100 large vessels or 150 small ones in Baru Mare, Hunedoara (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 142-143).

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Capitolul V. Sistemul de construcie i tehnica de funcionare a cuptoarelor cu dou camere


Sub influena elenistic, celtic sau roman (P. Duhamel 1973; C. O. Opreanu 1998), nc din perioada dacic, dar mai ales n perioada daco-roman sau a culturii Sntana de Mure s-au rspndit cuptoarele cu dou camere suprapuse. Arderea n aceste cuptoare speciale s-a extins mult n spaiul carpato-danubiano-pontic n prima parte a mileniului nti iar utilizarea lor reprezint o important etap n realizarea ceramicii fine. Cuprinderea cuptoarelor n dou mari categorii, a celor simple, prevzute cu o singur camer, pentru combustibil i vase i a cuptoarelor prevzute cu dou camere suprapuse, a rmas criteriul principal de ordonare a lor. Ultima categorie a fost la rndul ei desprit n dou mari grupuri, a cuptoarelor n plan circulare, mai rar ovale sau n form de potcoav, prevzute n focar cu perete median sau cu pilon central, utilizate n principal pentru ars ceramica i a celor n plan patrulatere, prevzute i cu arcade de susinere a grtarului, construite cu deosebire pentru ars diferitele materiale de construcie. Pentru perioada secolelor II-V, n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut, cuptoarele nalte pentru ars ceramica au fost reprezentative, n comparaie cu descoperirile din Dacia roman i din perioada imediat ulterioar, unde apar n numr mare mpreun cu instalaiile pentru ars materiale de construcii. Sistemul de construcie a depins de scopul pentru care au fost amenajate, pentru ars diferitele forme de recipiente sau pentru ars materialele de construcie. Cuptoarele nalte, prevzute cu dou camere etajate s-au construit folosind aceiai parametrii tehnici i au funcionat urmnd aceleai principii tehnologice din eneolitic pn n antichitatea clasic i trzie i din evul mediu timpuriu pn n epoca modern. Tipurile nu s-au stabilit n funcie de dimensiuni, dei mrimea lor era important. Structura cuptoarelor performante nelegerea acestui tip de cuptoare s-a bazat pe cunoaterea unor elemente tehnice i tehnologice, legate de modul lor de construcie i de funcionare. Realizarea lor dovedete priceperea vechilor meteri ai antichitii iar buna funcionare reprezent condiia necesar pentru evitarea arderilor incomplete, pentru obinerea randamentului dorit. Sistemul de construcie era cunoscut la Histria (D. M. Pippidi et alii 1959, p. 302; Em. Condurachi et alii 1959, p. 284; 1954; M. Coja 1962, p. 26; M. M. Hudeak 1952, p. 257, fig. 8; Maria Coja, P. Dupont 1979). Aici, n sectorul Z2 s-au descoperit patru cuptoare, n stratul de cultur din secolele V-IV a.Hr. i un cuptor din sectorul X, din stratul elenistic din secolele II-I a.Hr. Au fost construite la fel, n focarul cruat n solul viu erau prevzute cu pilon central pentru susinerea grtarului iar camera de ardere a vaselor era amenajat din chirpici, doar vatra camerei de foc a cuptorul elenistic era albiat (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 59). n Dacia roman, la dacii liberi, dar i n secolul al IV-lea, cuptoarele de olrie au avut frecvent o form cilindric sau uor tronconic, n seciune circular i mai rar oval sau n form de potcoav, cu diametre apropiate, frecvent situate ntre 1,5-2, rar mai mari. n perioada postroman s-au folosit aceleai construcii, dar prevzute cu mari guri de alimentare. Reproducem scurta prezentare a lor, realizat de profesorul D. Gh. Teodor, Un astfel de cuptor avea de obicei o form de calot sferic, cu baza circular situat pe un grtar din lut, prevzut cu perforri, conice, cilindrice sau ptrate, aezat la rndul su deasupra unei camere de foc amenajat pentru furnizarea cldurii. Gura de alimentare a cuptorului corespundea prin intermediul unui grlici sau chiar direct ntr-o groap de acces, avnd forme i mrimi diferite, de la caz la caz (1996, p. 53). Arderea uniform a recipientelor s-a obinut prin separarea camerei de ardere a combustibilului de aceea de ardere a vaselor. Realizarea focului sub grtarul pe care se aezau vasele a fost specific cuptoarelor cu dou camere, una la baz, pentru arderea combustibilului,

Cap. V. Sistemul de construcie i funcionare a cuptoarelor cu dou camere / Chapter V. Construction system and functioning of the highly kilns 57

camera de foc, focria, de obicei n interior cu un pilon sau cu un perete despritor i gura de alimentare i alta deasupra, pentru arderea vaselor. Camera de ardere a combustibilului - focria n Dacia roman sau la dacii liberi, n arealul complexului Sntana de Mure - Cerneahov, cuptoarele de olrie cel mai frecvent aveau focria n plan circular sau uor oval. Focria se spa n pmntul viu i avea dimensiuni diferite: h=0,50-1 m i grtar=1,45-2 m, mai mare era la Suceava cheia - Silitea, de 2,40 m, avnd gura de alimentare cu o lungime de 65 cm, nalt de 70 cm (Gr. Foit 1969, p. 44, fig. 15). Dup realizarea camerei de ardere a combustibilului, vatra i pereii acesteia se lutuiau cu un strat de 3-10 cm. Mai rar vatra s-a amenajat pe un strat de pietre de ru. Cuptoarele dacice de ars ceramica aveau un diametru mai mic, n jur de un metru (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 497; O. Floca 1971, p. 266). Prezena n focar a unui picior central sau a unui perete median, pentru sprijinirea grtarului, indic anumite diferene n modul lor de amenajare. n prima form se asigura o circulaie mai bun a cldurii, care cuprindea egal toate vasele, dar nu i o rezisten suficient. n al doilea caz se asigura o mai bun stabilitate grtarului pe care erau stivuite vasele, dar o circulaie a aerului cald mai puin uniform. Peretele mprea focarul n dou pri cu dimensiuni uor inegale i ades era prevzut cu deschizturi cu forme diferite, pentru a nlesni circulatia aerului cald i uniformizarea temperaturii. Refolosirea a dus la pietrificarea, vitrifierea pe o grosime de 18-22 cm, a piciorului central sau a peretelui median i a celor periferici i la arderea roie a pereilor pe o grosime de 1216 cm, precum la Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia (M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 2). Pe unele se mai vd urmele unor reparaii, amintim tot cuptorul de la Izvoru Dulce, care, dup o perioad de folosire a fost reparat, prin aplicarea unui strat de lut bine frmntat, fr ingrediente, ntre ncheietura dintre placa perforat, pereii camerei inferioare i peretele median. n momentul refacerii s-au astupat accidental i patru perforri (M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 125, fig. 3/1, 4). Gura de alimentare n prelungirea focarului se afla gura de alimentare, culoarul de foc - praefurniumul folosit pentru ncrcarea cu diferii combustibili, de obicei cu lemne, care avea uneori dimensiuni mai mici la cuptoarele de secol II-III, l=50-60 cm i h=60-65 cm iar la cele din arealul Sntana de Mure mai mari. Cldura degajat de focul ntreinut continuu n focar sau n gurile de alimentare nclzea aerul. n secolul al IV-lea, spre deosebire de cele anterioare, gura de alimentare era mai nalt i mai alungit spre ncperea de acces, precum la Trueti - Pe Cuha sau Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare (Fl. B. Florescu 1965, p. 151-153). Dup Gh. Iordache, n cuptoarele construite astfel focul se fcea numai n gura de alimentare i doar cldura ptrundea prin perforrile grtarului, din focar n camera de ardere. Acest mod de alimentare asigura o ardere uniform prin izolarea vaselor de foc (1996, p. 51, fig. 18). Peretele median de cele mai multe ori se termina n deschiderea gurii de foc. Dar erau i cuptoarele care aveau gura de foc desprit de peretele median, care se prelungea formnd dou galerii de foc. La Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova, secolul al III-lea, din cele patru cuptoare mari din centrul de olrie de aici, la primele, nr. 1-2 peretele median nu nainta n gura de alimentare, dar la cuptoarele nr. 3-4, peretele median se prelungea n gura de alimentare (Vl. Vornic 2007, p. 39 i urm.). Camera de ardere a vaselor, grtarul La acest tip de cuptoare s-a observat c, n majoritatea cazurilor n pmnt s-a spat numai camera de foc i ncperea din care se fcea accesul la camera de foc i prin care se dirija funcionarea, camera de ardere a vaselor fiind amenajat special, fie pe nivelului vechi de clcare, fie numai cu deschiderea superioar deasupra acestuia. Camera de ardere a vaselor se separa de focar prin grtarul amenajat cel mai frecvent pe un suport de nuiele mpletite, acoperit cu lut amestecat cu paie i pleav, pn avea o anumit grosime, cuprins ntre 17 - 20 cm. Dup uscarea pereilor se fuia cu un strat subire de lut fin. arja se aranja prin deschiderea de deasupra (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 45). Cuptoarele cu pilon central aveau grtarul format pe un suport de nuiele mai groase, aezate radial, cu un capt sprijinit pe pilonul central i cu cellalt pe marginea gropii,

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

precum la Glvnetii Vechi, jud. Iai, la Bucureti - Fundenii Doamnei, jud. Ilfov sau la Cucoeni - Butnreti. La Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, mpletitura pe care s-a format grtarul se sprijinea pe peretele median i pe marginea focarului (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60). Pentru tiraj grtarul era prevzut cu perforri cu diametre ntre 6-15 cm (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 44). Mrimea platformei i distanele dintre perforri erau determinate de dimensiunile recipientelor care urmau s fie arse. Nu totdeauna s-a reuit s se precizeze numrul perforrilor, de cele mai multe ori din cauza conservrii pariale a grtarelor. La Cucoeni - Butnreti, n atelierul cu dou cuptoare, cel mare cu un diametru de 2,25 x 2,15 m, avea 38 de perforri, cel mic 29 (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 54, fig. 9. pl. XXXIII, XXXVI) iar grtarul cuptorului de la Alba Iulia, 27 (I. Berciu 1958, p. 180-188, fig. 13). Gh. Popilian menioneaz pentru unul dintre cuptoarele de la Romula - Reca, ordonarea lor n trei cercuri concentrice, cu 12, 6 i 1 perforri (1976b, p. 141), cuptorul nr. 5 de la Micia - Veel, avea 15, 9 i 4 perforri (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 41). Mai rar perforrile au fost dispuse n 3-4 iruri paralele (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 44; S. Dumitracu, T. Bader 1967, p. 107109). Deasupra grtarului se ridica bolta, cel mai frecvent la nivelului solului, de form tronconic, mai mic spre deschiderea de la partea superioar. Se realiza pe o mpletitur de nuiele acoperit cu un strat de lut amestecat cu paie i pleav, de 17 - 20 cm iar dup uscarea pereilor se fuia cu un strat de lut curat. Folosirea frecvent a unei carcase de nuiele este indicat de prezena pe marginea grtarului a unor adncituri oblice, de 2-3 cm, nfipte i mpletite precum la Cucoeni Butnreti, la cuptorul mare, la 15 cm una de alta (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 54). Ordonarea vaselor n camera de ardere, n spaiul de deasupra grtarului, se fcea prin deschiztura din partea superioar a instalaiei. Spaiul din interiorul camerei servea pentru cldirea n form de piramid, dup o anumit regul, a diferitelor materiale destinate arderii, cu deosebire a vaselor, unele n interiorul altora, n rnduri suprapuse, cele mai mari la baz i cele mai mici n ultimele etaje (O. Floca 1971, p. 266). Tot prin deschiderea din partea superioar a bolii se realiza tirajul (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 45), prin circulaia aerului prin perforrile grtarului ntre gura de alimentare, focar i obiectele de lut (Fl. B. Florescu 1965, p. 137-140). n timpul arderii deschiderea de la partea superioar a camerei de ardere a vaselor se acoperea treptat cu fragmente ceramice i se lipea cu lut. Gradul de ardere al fragmentelor ceramice nlesnea meterului verificarea temperaturii i uniformitatea coacerii. Acest fel de verificare a temperaturii s-a transmis n timp, ea fiind ntrebuinat i de olarii din zilele noastre, din satele din Moldova, n care se mai practic olritul tradiional. Prin controlarea aerului din cuptoare se realiza fie o ardere oxidant, caz n care n cuptor circula aerul, poate i prin folosirea foalelor, fie o ardere reductoare, cnd n cuptor nu mai era permis ptrunderea aerului din afar. n primul caz fierul coninut n argil se oxida, fapt ce ddea ceramicii o culoare roie, n funcie de temperatura din cuptor (I. H. Crian 1969, p. 31), spre deosebire de arderea reductoare, unde n lipsa aerului, neoxidndu-se fierul, ceramica dobndea o culoare neagr sau cenuie. ncperea de acces la cuptor ncperea de acces din marginea creia se construia cuptorul i din care olarul mnuia instalaia, era uneori de dimensiuni mai mari, precum la atelierele cu cte dou cuptoare de la Cucoeni - Butnreti sau de la Banca Gar - apte case. n faa gurii de alimentare se afla groapa de evacuare pentru reziduri. Majoritatea cuptoarelor au fost amplasate la marginea aezri, n apropierea surselor de ap i a diferitelor materii prime, lut, nisip, dar i pentru a avea gura de alimentare orientat n direcia principalilor cureni de aer, a vnturilor care ades nteeau arderea. Mnuirea cuptoarelor amplasate la marginea unor ape, a unor grinduri nalte, n malul crora se spa prima camer, eventual se construia i o parte din a doua, se realiza din pant sau se amenaja o camer de acces, precum la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei (Vornic et alii 2007, p. 38 i urm.). Pentru prima jumtate a primului mileniu s-au publicat multe cuptoare, ntre ele atelierele de la Pruteni completeaz cu noi informaii modul de practicare a meteugului olriei. S reamintim observaia realizat de Eugen Nicolae Se cuvine de subliniat c marginea nord-vestic a gropii

Cap. V. Sistemul de construcie i funcionare a cuptoarelor cu dou camere / Chapter V. Construction system and functioning of the highly kilns 59

(cuptorul nr. 1) era la limita, dac nu chiar lipit de corpul unui alt cuptor de olrie, notat cu nr. 3 (2007, p. 43). Acest sistem de realizare a cuptoarelor l-am ntlnit i la Dumeti - ntre praie, dar n cazul a dou grupuri de cuptoare cu o camer datate Cucuteni A 3-4, n care fiecare cuptor era rnduit la fel, n dreptul gurii de alimentare i a gropii de evacuare a rezidurilor a celui din urm, la circa 30 cm unul de altul (R. Alaiba 2007, p. 67 i urm., pl. 16-17/1). Aceeai trebuie s fi fost amplasarea lor la Ariud - Dealul Tiyszk (Z. Szkly, B. Bartk 1979, p. 55 i urm.). S menionm i faptul c la Dumeti - ntre praie s-a descoperit un atelier n care au fost surprinse majoritatea etapelor parcurse de meterii olari pn la obinerea produselor finite, inclusiv a dus la descoperirea coloranilor minerali pentru pictur i a camerei n care au fost depozitate numeroasele vase realizate aici (R. Alaiba 2007, passim). La Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, dei locul atelierelor era n apropierea prului, pentru punerea n funciune a cuptoarelor s-au amenajat ncperi speciale, aproape n direcia opus vii (Vl. Vornic et alii 2007, p. 38 i urm.), desigur din considerente legate de meteugul olriei, aflat precum i alte ndeletniciri sub protecia divinitii (pl. II). Poziia social a olarului ? Cine realiza ceramica ? ntre vestigiile pstrate de la diferitele ramuri ale activitilor meteugreti, cu deosebire olritul i metalurgia dein un loc aparte n ntreg spaiu carpato-danubiano-pontic. nc din primul secol al mileniului nti s-a generalizat producerea ceramicii n ateliere specializate, prevzute cu instalaii de ardere iar olritul a devenit o activitate necesar, care nu a fost niciodat la ndemna oricui. n astfel de ateliere se realiza o producie tot mai sporit pentru necesitile comunitii i pentru schimb, olarii lucrau probabil permanent. Gama att de bogat i divers a produselor acestui meteug argumenteaz iscusina meterilor olari care realizau n ateliere diferite categorii de vase, fapt ce presupune o economie ajuns la un anumit grad de dezvoltare i organizare. n aezrile romane s-au descoperit vase sau crmizi cu nsemne, tampile ale unor meteri particulari (D. Tudor 1968, p. 102, fig. 24), consemnate de noi n repertoriul cuptoarelor. Astfel, n secolul al IV-lea, pe un fragment de farfurie descoperit la Socetu, com. Stejaur, jud. Teleorman, s-a pstrat o inscripie n latinete trasat n pasta crud Aurelius Silvanus a fcut (aceast) farfurie bun. S-a considerat c era vorba de un meseria local, un urma al populaiei romanizate, care a continuat s triasc n cmpia muntean i dup ce armatele romane s-au retras la sud de Dunre. La fel trebuie s fi fost i meterul care a scris cuvntul Mitis, pe vasul de la Curcani (Em. Popescu 1976, p. 32, nr. 440-441; Idem 1980, p. 398). Culte practicate de vechile comuniti. ntreg acest proces de producie trebuie s se fi desfurat n direct raport cu divinitatea, care proteja activitatea olarului. Cteva situri sau piese pstrate n ateliere confirm existena unor practici rituale, a unor vase de cult rituale. n primul rnd activitatea olarului s-a legat de un cult al focului, consemnat pentru aceast perioad, n cadrul comunitilor dacilor liberi, a sarmailor, dat de perfeciunea vaselor descoperite, cu deosebire n depozite sau morminte. Frumuseea vaselor i capacitatea specific fiecrui tip, ngduie discutarea existenei i a unui cult al apei, al nemuririi sufletului (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 278). . . (1948, p. 215), dar i ali arheologi, M. . (1972), au ntrevzut practicarea unor astfel de culte, avnd n vedere inventarul unor morminte de nhumaie, n genere preponderent ceramic. Cuptoarele de olrie par s fi fost i locuri legate de prezena unor animale. De exemplu, un cuptor de ars oale se afla pe terasa inferioar a Trnavei Mari, la Mugeni - Vzlok, n aezarea unei comuniti de daci liberi puternic influenai de cultura roman, cum indic prezena pe vatra acestuia a dou cranii de mistre (Al. Ferenczi 1929, p. 216-217; G. i t. Ferenczi 1976, p. 242). De aceste culte se pot lega i gropile ce aveau n inventar pri de cuptoare de olrie sau doar crust de vatr, crbuni, cenu, care nu erau aruncate ntmpltor. La fel ca i vetrele pe care ardea focul, s-au asociat cultelor solare. R. Vulpe, pornind de la astfel de situri, a discutat scopul ritualreligios al acestora, specific cultelor legate de foc, vetre, de sacrificiile oficiate n anumite srbtori (R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 50). Astfel de gropi s-au consemnat i pentru aezrile carpice, precum cele de

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

la Chilia Militari, Poiana Dulceti, Butnreti, Mndrica, Boneti, Mtsaru, Udeni, Maldr, Scorniceti. De semnificaia magico-cultual a pietrei de ascuit (St. Dumistrcel 1990, p. 225 i urm.), credem, se leag i prezena unor cute de gresie sau doar a unor buci nefolosite, n cuptorul nr. 1 de la Butnreti (fig. 25/1) (Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXV/1a), a unor plci groase de gresie n cuptorul 1, de la cheia - Silitea (apud Gr. Foit 1969, p. 93), a unei gresii la Banca Gar (R. Alaiba 2009, fig. 102/9) i a altora la Pruteni, cuptoarele nr. 3-4 (Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, p. 48, 52).

Pl. II. Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei.

Atelierele 1-4, plan general (apud Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, pl. 2. Meterul, faurul, trebuie s fi fost un personaj important al ntregii comuniti. Existena meterilor itinerani, care, strbtnd anumite distane i legnd comunitile ntre ele, au contribuit la uniformizarea meteugului lor, se poate presupune i dup numrul mare de vase lucrate n aceeai tehnic i cu forme apropiate. Atelierul su prevzut cu instalaiile necesare modelrii i arderii ceramicii i cu uneltele specifice, ocupa un spaiu bine delimitat n cadrul aezrii. n atelierele mari este posibil s fi lucrat mai muli olari, ajutai i de ali membrii ai familiei sau ai comunitii, ntre care cei care nvau meteugul, poate i strini, acceptai pentru executarea anumitor munci. Permanenta mbuntire a tehnologiei producerii ceramicii a favorizat dezvoltarea aezrilor, a locuinelor, sporirea rezervelor de hran, creterea populaiei, schimbri n

Cap.V. Sistemul de construcie i funcionare a cuptoarelor cu dou camere / Chapter V. Construction system and functioning of the highly kilns 61

structura social-economic, chiar diferenieri sociale. Din aceste centre se aprovizionau cu toate tipurile de recipiente aezrile din zonele apropiate, dar i mai ndeprtate.

Pl. I. Banca Gar - apte case. Fragmente ceramice decorate cu motive imprimate i lustruite.

Fragments ceramic decorated with of impressed and polished motifs.

Motivele ornamentale realizate pe ceramica fin, dar i pe vasele din past zgrunuroas sau nisipoas, erau ncrcate de semnificaii magico-cultuale (J. Chevalier, A. Gheerbrant 1995, p. 92-93, 428). Pe marginea buzei, pe umrul dar mai ales pe gtul sau corpul vaselor se succed benzi liniare, drepte, vlurite sau dispuse n zigzag, uneori formnd triunghiuri sau romburi, realizate fie prin lustruite, fie adncite n pasta vasului nainte de ardere. Motive ornamentale folosite de olarii acestei perioade pentru toate categoriile ceramice, analizate pentru descoperirile de la irna (t. Olteanu, N. Grigore, V. Nicolae 2007, p. 75-76, cu bibliografia). Precum meterii fierari i olarii aveau o anumit poziie social, la fel meterul trebuie s fi fost privit ca un erou (G. Charachidz 1988, p. 180-181). i olarul putea fi eroul unor povestiri mitice, legate de explicarea originii olriei, a instalaiilor i a uneltelor, a vaselor furite, a noilor forme sau a decorului folosit (Pl. I), a provenienei vechilor motive decorative. Pentru c, neavnd suflarea divin, olarii desvreau vasele prin arderea lor n cuptoare, acestora le erau atribuite trsturi supranaturale, cunotine tainice, puteri magice, caliti minunate (C. . 1964, p. 297).

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Olarul pstra formele i simbolurile vechii etape, realiza noile creaii n acord cu normele anterioare, dar se ocupa i de formarea ucenicilor. Privilegiile rezervate olarilor n viaa social, datorit ndemnrii lor de a prepara i modela argila, de a pregti culorile, a picta i a mnui cuptoarele, trebuie s fi fost apropiate de cele ale meterilor ce prelucrau minereuri, chemai la ndeplinirea acestui meteug prin voina divin. Atitudinea comunitii fa de olari trebuie s fi fost de admiraie fa de creaiile lor, dar i de team, pentru c el stpnea focul, cum menioneaz G. Charachidz discutnd miturile Caucazului, meterul era hrzit mnuirii focului din nalturi, a crui natur eterogen ine deopotriv de focul din soare i de fulger (1988, p. 201).

Chapter V. Construction system and functioning technique of the highly efficient kilns
The highly efficient kilns with superimposed chambers were constructed using the same technical parameters and functioned on the basis of the same technological principles starting with the Eneolithic until the classical and late Antiquity (P. Duhamel 1973; C. O. Opreanu 1998) and from the Middle Ages until the modern times. Under the Hellenistic or Roman influence, already during the Dacian period, but especially during the Dacian-Roman period, or the one of Sntana de Mure culture, the two superimposed chamber-kilns became widely spread within the Carpathian Danubian space during the first half of the first millennium and they represent an important phase in the production of fine ceramics. Structure of the highly efficient kilns The understanding of this type of kilns is based on the knowledge of technical elements, connected to their construction and functioning system. A certain experience was necessary for their construction, so to obtain during the firing of the batch the efficiency aimed at and avoid incomplete firing and failures. The construction system depended on the aim for which they were arranged, that is for firing various shapes of vessels or for firing construction materials. In the Roman province of Dacia, in the territory inhabited by the free Dacians but also during the following century, the shape of potters kilns was frequently cylindrical or slightly conical, of circular cross-section and only rarely oval or horse shoe-like, and the diameter was more or less 2 m, only rarely larger. During the post-Roman period the same constructions were used, but they had larger feeding openings. According to D. Gh. Teodor Such a kiln was usually shaped as a spherical calotte, with a circular basis placed on a perforated clay plate with conical, cylindrical or square orifices, placed in its turn on top of a firing chamber arranged so to provide heat. The feeding opening of the kiln was connected either directly or by means of a channel to the access pit whose shapes and sizes were different from one case to another (1996, p. 53). The fire put under the perforated plate sustaining the vessels was specific to the highly efficient kilns with two chambers, one at the basis, for the combustion of the fuel, the fire chamber or fireplace, usually having inside a pillar or median separating wall and the feeding opening, and another one above, for firing the vessels. The firing place The fireplace was dug out of the natural soil, and had various sizes: h=0,50-1 m and perforated plate =1,45-2 m, larger in Suceava, cheia - Silitea, of 2,40 m. The Dacian kilns for firing ceramic ware had a smaller diameter, of about one meter (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 497; O. Floca 1971, p. 266). In the Roman province of Dacia or in the territory inhabited by the free, in the area of Sntana de Mure Cerneahov complex, the potters kilns had in most cases the fireplace of circular or slightly oval plan. After the fire chamber was made, its hearth and walls were lined with a layer of 3-10 cm. It was only rarely that the hearth was arranged on top of a layer of river stones. The presence of a central pillar or median wall in the fireplace, for sustaining the perforated grill, indicates certain differences as for how these functioned. In the first case a better circulation

Cap. V. Sistemul de construcie i funcionare a cuptoarelor cu dou camere / Chapter V. Construction system and functioning of the highly kilns 63

of the heat was provided and all vessels were equally heated while the whole structure was not very resistant. The latter case provided a better stability of the perforated plate on which the vessels were arranged, but the circulation of the air was not so uniform. The median wall separated the fireplace in two chambers with slightly unequal dimensions and it often had different openings so to allow the circulation of the heated air and the same temperature within the firing chamber. The repeated use of the kiln resulted in the petrification and vitrification throughout a 18-22 cm width, of the central pillar or median wall and of the peripheral ones and the red baking of the walls throughout a 12-16 cm width as it was the case of Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia (M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 2). The Feeding Mouth As an extension of the fireplace there was the feeding opening, the fire channel for loading in the various fuels, usually wood, and whose dimensions were frequently l=50-60 cm and h=60-65 cm. The heat generated by the fire continuously maintained in the fireplace or in the feeding openings heated the air. During the 4th century, unlike the previous ones, the feeding opening was higher and longer towards the access chamber, such as in the case of Trueti - Pe Cuha or Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare (Fl. B. Florescu 1965, p. 151-153). According to Gh. Iordache, in such ovens the fire was made only in the feeding opening and the heat penetrated only through the perforations of the plate, from the fireplace in the firing chamber. Such feeding system allowed a homogenous firing by isolating the vessels from the fire (1996, p. 51, fig. 18). The pot firing chamber, the perforated plate The fireplace was separated through perforated plate most frequently arrange on top of a support of wattle, lined with clay mixed with straw and chaff, until a certain width was reached, between 13 and 20 cm. The kilns with central pillar had the perforated plate placed on a support made of thicker branches, radially arranged, with one end supported on the pillar and the other on the edge of the pit, such as in Glvnetii Vechi, Iai county, Bucureti - Fundenii Doamnei, Ilfov county or in Cucoeni - Butnreti. In the case of Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, the wattle on which the perforated clay was placed was sustained by the median wall and the edge of the fireplace (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60). For the venting, the plate had perforations whose diameter was between 6 and 15 cm (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 44). The size of the platform and the distances between the perforations were determined by the sizes of the recipients that were to be fired. The number of such perforations could not always be exactly specified most of the times due to the partial preservation of such plates. Gh. Popilian mentions for one of the kilns of Romula - Reca, their ordering in three concentric circles, with 12, 6 and 1 perforations (1976b, p. 141) or kiln no. 5 of Micia - Veel, with 15, 9 and 4 perforations (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 41). It was only rarely that such perforations were disposed in 3-4 parallel ranges (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 44; S. Dumitracu, T. Bader 1967, p. 107-109). In Cucoeni - Butnreti, in the workshop with two kilns, the large one had 38 perforations and the small one 29 perforations (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 54, fig. 9. pl. XXXIII, XXXVI) while the plate of the kiln of Alba Iulia, 27 perforations (I. Berciu 1958, p. 180-188, fig. 1-3). Above the perforated plate, there was the dome, most frequently at the level of the ground, of conical shape, smaller towards the opening in the upper part. A wattle was made and then covered with a layer of clay mixed with straw and chaff, of 17-20 cm, and after drying a layer of fine clay. The frequent use of a wattle casing is indicated by the presence on the side of the perforated frill of oblique traces, 2-3 cm deep, pressed and plaited like in the case of the large kiln of Cucoeni - Butnreti, 15 cm one from the other (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 54). This type of kiln showed that in most cases only the fireplace and the pit the room providing the access to the fireplace and from where its functioning was being directed that were dug out into the ground, while the vessel firing chamber was especially arranged either on the ancient treading level or only with the upper opening above such level. Their ordering in the firing chamber, in the space above the perforated plate, was done through the opening in the upper part of the installation. The space

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

inside the chamber served for building up in a pyramid-like structure the various materials meant for being fired, especially vessels, sometimes some inside others, in overlapped ranges, the larger one at the basis, the smaller ones on top, in the upper ranges (O. Floca 1971, p. 266). It was also through the opening in the upper part of the dome that the venting was achieved (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 45), by the circulation of the air between the feeding opening and the clay items (Fl. B. Florescu 1965, p. 137-140). When the firing was almost complete the opening in the dome was gradually filled with potsherds and filled up with clay. Their degree of firing allowed the craftsman to check the temperature and the uniformity of the firing. Such temperature checking was transmitted in time, being also used by the contemporary potters, in the villages of Moldavia, where the traditional pottery is still practiced. By controlling the air in the kiln there was obtained either an oxidizing firing, in which case the air was circulating within the kiln, maybe also by means of bellows, or a reducing firing when the air penetration into the kiln was not allowed any more. In the first case the iron contained by the clay was getting oxidized, and this determined the red color of the ceramic ware, pending on the temperature in the kiln (I. H. Crian 1969, p. 31), unlike the reducing firing, wherefrom the air was absent and therefore the iron was not oxidized and the color of the ceramic ware was black or gray. The access room of the kiln The access room from whose side the kiln was constructed and from where the potter would manipulate the installation, was sometimes of large dimensions, as it was the case of the workshops with two kilns of Cucoeni - Butnreti or Banca Gar - apte case. In front of the feeding opening there was the evacuation for the residues. Most of the kilns were situated at the extremities of the settlements, close to the sources of water and raw material (clay, sand), but also for assuring a feeding opening oriented on the direction of the main air currents, of the winds which often intensified firing. The kilns situated at the sides of water courses, of high rises, in whose bank the first chamber was dug out, eventually with a second chamber, were manipulated from the slope. Therefore knowledge and experience were necessary starting with the preparation of the fuel and charging of the batch to the regulation of the temperature during firing, starting with the gradual heating, then with the reaching of the optimal temperature such as in the case of the kiln of Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, which, after a period of usage, was repaired by the application of a well kneaded layer of clay, without ingredients, between the joining between the perforated plate, the walls of the lower chamber and the median wall. When remade, four perforations were accidentally filled up (M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 125, fig. 3/1, 4). By means of such kilns, designed to have a long life, high enough temperatures were reached Eugen Coma (1976a, p. 21, 30; Idem 1976b, p. 353 sq.), reason why they were considered the most perfected ones. The potters social position? Who created the ceramic ware? Among the vestiges preserved from the various branches of the craftsmanship activities, the pottery and ironmongery have a special place. Already during the first century of the first millennium the production of ceramic ware in specialized workshops with highly efficient firing installations was generalized and pottery became a necessary activity which has never been practicable by whomever. Such potters workshops with an increased production meant to answer the communities needs and for exchange, in which potters would work permanently, existed throughout the whole Carpathian Danubian Pontic space. During the 2nd4th centuries, the wheelshaped ceramic ware and its reducing or oxidizing firing was undoubtedly produced exclusively by specialized craftsmen, according to a well-known technology, by means of multi-level kilns, were temperature values could exceed 1000o C. The craftsman, the maker, must have been an important personage of the whole community. The existence of the traveling craftsmen who, by crossing distances and linking communities

Cap.V. Sistemul de construcie i funcionare a cuptoarelor cu dou camere / Chapter V. Construction system and functioning of the highly kilns 65

between them, contributed to the homogenization of their craft, is also indicated by the large number of pots created by means of the same technique and in similar shapes. The workshop, equipped with the installations necessary for modeling and firing the ceramic ware and with the specific tools, occupied a well delimited space within the site. In the large workshops it is possible that several potters worked together with other members of the community, helping them and at the same time learning the craft, maybe also foreigners, accepted by the community for carrying out certain works. The permanent improvement of the technology of the production of ceramic ware favored the development of the settlements, of the dwellings, the increase of the population, changes in the social-economical structure, even social differentiations. It was in such centers that the communities in the nearby areas but also from further distances would find all the types of vessels that they needed. Like in the case of the ironmongers, the potter was probably also considered as a hero (G. Charachidz 1988, p. 180-181). The potter too could be the hero of mythical stories which were meant to explain the origin of pottery, of the firing installations and tools, but also the origin of the created pots, of justifying the continuation in new shapes of the old decorative motifs. The potters were assigned supernatural characteristics, secrete knowledge, magic powers, wonder-making qualities (C. . , 1964, p. 297), he preserved the shapes and symbols of the old phase, achieved the new creations in accordance with the prior norms, but was also occupied with the training of the disciples. The privileges reserved to the potters in the social life, due to their skill in preparing and modeling clay, in preparing colors, painting the vessels and handling them in the kiln, must have been close to those of the craftsmen specialized in the processing of ores, called to implement such craft by divine will. The attitude of the community toward potters must have been of admiration toward their creations, but also of fear, because they mastered the fire, As G. Charachidz pointed out while discussing the myths of the Caucasus, he was meant by higher powers to manipulate fire and his heterogeneous nature is connected to both the fire in the sun and the fire in the lightning (1988, p. 201).

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Capitolul VI. Tipologia cuptoarelor performante


Pentru realizarea unei tipologii a cuptoarelor nalte prevzute cu grtar perforat, necesar pentru a desprii cele dou camere cu funcii diferite, s-a avut n vedere fiecare instalaie descoperit prin cercetri arheologice, fiecare particularitate a structurii lor, originea, caracteristicile tehnice de construcie i repartiia lor geografic. ntre descoperirile cunoscute pn n prezent la est de Carpai, cuptoarele difer prin dimensiuni i mai puin prin form, majoritatea fiind cilindrice spre baz i tronconice n partea superioar, mai rar n plan ovale, apoi prin sistemul de sprijinire al grtarului din focar sau prin forma gurii de alimentare. Cuptoarele nalte aveau grtarul sprijinit fie pe un pilon central, o coloan cilindric sau paralelipipedic sau pe un perete median, rezervat din pmntul spat pentru construirea camerei de ardere, fie numai pe marginea superioar a focarului. Foarte rar apar i forme de tranziie de la un tip la altul. Pornind de la aceste elemente tehnice s-au stabilit trei tipuri i variantele acestor cuptoare: n focar cu pilon central, cu perete median i cuptoare cu focarul liber. A. Cuptoare n focar cu pilon central De obicei stlpul din focar - piciorul central al cuptoarelor din perioada geto-dacic sau carpic i a culturii Sntana de Mure, era din pmnt, n plan rotund, oval sau patrat (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 45). Primele cuptoare construite astfel s-au datat n secolele I a.Hr. - I p.Hr., i provin din cercetrile arheologice de la Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, fig. 3) i Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei. Practica folosirii acestui tip de cuptoare s-a extins mult n secolele II-III, cum indic descoperirile de la Drmneti pe Cuejdi (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 33-34, pl. 1; 5), Cucoeni - Butnreti, C4, jud. Neam (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 500), iar n secolele III-IV sau prima parte a secolului al V-lea p.Hr., la Stoicani - Poarta arinii, jud. Galai (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 44, 46), Zorleni - Fntnele, jud. Vaslui (V. Palade 1969a, p. 339, 341, 343), Srca - Pe linia ferat, C1-2 (C. Bloiu 1975, p. 203 i urm.), Biceni - Laiu II (M. PetrescuDmbovia 1966, p. 36), Biceni - Silite (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p 115), Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, jud. Iai (I. Nestor et alii 1951, p. 67-68), tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica (M. Coma 1985, nota 26), Gutina (I. Bauman 1974, p. 44, nota 7), Trueti - Pe Cuha, jud. Botoani, C1 (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 174, fig. 6) i Iai - Nicolina, C3. Dintre aceste localiti n care s-au descoperit cuptoare cu pilon central, au fost deja semnalate de Maria Coma, cele de la Poiana - Cetate i Btca Doamnei apoi de la Drmneti pe Cuejdi, Butnreti, C4, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, Biceni - Silite, Trueti - Pe Cuha, C1, Srca - Pe linia ferat, C1-2, Zorleni - Fntnele. Formele au fost apropiate de cele de la Bucureti, Micneti - La Nuci, C1-2 i Struleti (1986, p. 92). Totodat, i cercetrile arheologice din Transilvania relev, la fel, folosirea cuptoarelor cu pilon central. Prima, datat cel mai timpuriu, urmeaz cronologic perioadei n care, n coloniile nord- pontice funcionau astfel de ateliere de olrie care producea ceramic cenuie, precum cele de la Olbia, cu focarul prevzut cu o gur de alimentare, precum cuptorul 86 din locuina 98, datat n secolul al IV-lea a.Hr. Sau cel prevzut n camera de ardere a vaselor cu horn, din secolele V- IV a.Hr. (N. A. 1986, p. 39- 40). A-B. Variantele de tranziie se apropiate mai mult sau mai puin de unul din tipuri, prin caracteristicile lor. O form intermediar ntre cele cu pilon i perete median a fost considerat cuptorul de la Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, jud. Vaslui, reconstituit de Maria Coma, datat n secolele III-IV p.Hr., prevzut cu pilon central romboidal n seciune i continuat spre spatele cuptorului cu un perete subire, arcuit pe ambele pri (1985, p. 173, fig. 4). B. Cuptoare n focar cu perete median, de cele mai multe ori rezervat din solul argilos, care mprea focarul n dou camere inegale, la unele cuptoare era prelungit parial sau pe toat lungimea gurii de foc, uneori desprind-o n dou. Cuptoare n focar cu perete median s-au descoperit nc din secolul al III-lea a.Hr., la Poiana - Cetate (Al. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000,

Cap. VI. Tipologia cuptoarelor performante / Chapter VI. Typology of the highly efficient kilns

67

p. 335), i n secolele I a.Hr. - I p.Hr. la Poiana - Silite (Ibidem, p. 336), ultimul datat de M. Coma n secolul I p.Hr. (1985, p. 171, nota 3), din secolul al II-lea se cunosc cuptoarele de la cheia Silitea, C1, 3 (Gr. Foit 1969, p. 28), din secolul al III-lea cele de la Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia (M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 124, 127, fig. 1), Blteni - Grla Strmbu, obinut prin cruarea lutului (I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 2), ifeti - La Grigoreti (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, fig. 1), pentru ca la Cucoeni - Butnreti ambele cuptoare din atelierul de olrie i cel mai mic i cel mare s fie cu perete median, precum i C3 (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 489, fig. 2-3; Idem 1973a, p. 53) iar din secolele III-IV, la Dumbrveni (M. Coma 1981, fig. 1), Trueti - Pe Cuha, C2 cu perete median, prin care se formau dou crri n care focul ardea separat (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 174) i din secolele IV-V p.Hr., de la Brlad - Valea Seac (V. Palade 2004, p. 83-84), Banca Gar - apte case, C1-2, com. Banca, jud. Vaslui (R. Alaiba 2005, p. 153-160, Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca, jud. Vaslui (G. Coman 1980, p. 265-266, fig. 133/7; 142/23), Iai - Nicolina, C1-2 i C4 (I. Ioni 1985, p. 30-49). Cuptoarele cu perete median au fost folosite mai ales de dacii liberi, cu deosebire de carpi (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 47). n 1981 i n 1985, Maria Coma remarca faptul c, cele mai multe cuptoare de olar cu perete median se aflau pe teritoriul Moldovei, o parte dintre ele fiind n nordul provinciei (1981, p. 91; Eadem 1985, p. 171-172). La acea dat pentru sud-estul Transilvaniei se cunoteau trei cuptoare de ars oale, toate cu perete median. Ea a semnalat n Moldova i Muntenia 17 cuptoare n plan circulare, cu grtarul sprijinit pe un perete median, la Poiana Dulceti Broteanu, Poiana - Cetate, Tecuci, Bucureti - Celu Nou, Radovanu - La fraii Dinc, Suceava Silitea cheii, C2-3, Butnreti, C1-3, Poiana Dulceti - Silite, ifeti - La Grigoreti, Blteni Grla Strmbu, Rduleti, Trueti - Cuha, C2, Ioneni - intirim, Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Cucuteni, Biceni - Laiu, Gutina, Dumbrveni, Bucureti - Crngai (M. Coma 1985, p. 171 i urm.). Menionm din nou cuptorul de la Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, din secolele I a.Hr. - I p.Hr., cu grtarul sprijinit i pe pilonul central i pe marginea camerei de foc, dar nu direct pe acesta, ci pe o treapt realizat special (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, p. 352). Dei influenele exercitate au fost diferite, att cele din coloniile greceti, unde funcionau mai ales cuptoare cu pilon central, ct i cele din aezrile romane, unde s-au folosit mai ales cuptoare cu perete median, n secolele II-IV se ntlnesc ambele tipuri, dar ncep s fie mai numeroase cele din urm, care asigurau o mai bun susinere a grtarului ncrcat cu arja pentru ardere i astfel asigurau o producie mai mare. A-B. Prezena ambelor tipuri n unele staiuni s-au descoperit ambele tipuri de cuptoare, n atelierele culturii Sntana de Mure, la Trueti - Pe Cuha, jud. Botoani, la Dumbrveni, jud. Vrancea, precum i la Bucureti Crngai, jud. Ilfov .a. (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 46). C. Cuptoare cu focarul liber Cuptoare cu focria liber, lipsit de peretele median sau de pilonul central pe care s se sprijine grtarul, au ptruns la noi din sudul Dunrii, tot datorit influenei romane. Un astfel de cuptor cu grtarul fixat pe marginea superioar a focarului nu prea mare, rmas liber, a fost descoperit la Bacu - Curtea Domneasc (I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, p. 228-229, fig. 8/1). M. Coma a stabilit durata de funcionare a cuptoarelor din cadrul culturii Sntana de Mure, n raport cu datarea nceputului i sfritului acestei culturi, n secolul IV, dup anul 320 i pn la nceputul secolului V, pn n preajma anului 420 (M. Coma 1977, p. 215-227; Idem 1985, p. 173). n mediu Sntana de Mure, n Romnia i Ucraina (M. A. 1957, p. 181; A. T. 1960, p. 125, fig. 16, pl. 23/1-3; E. A. Rikman 1960, p. 202, fig. 6-7; . . 1967, p. 112-117, fig. 37-38) s-au descoperit ambele tipuri de cuptoare, ntre ele menionm pe cele de la Lepesovka ( M. A. 1963, p. 178; Eadem 1973, p. 133).

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Chapter VI. Typology of the highly efficient kilns For the elaboration of a typology of the high kilns with a horizontal plate, in order to separate the two chambers with distinct functions, we took into account each installation uncovered by archaeological excavations, each peculiarity of their structure, origin, technical construction characteristics and their geographic distribution. Between the discoveries identified so far east of the Carpathians, the kilns are different by dimensions and less by shape, most of them being cylindrical toward the basis and conical in the upper part, rarely of oval plan, by the supporting system of perforated place in the fireplace or by the shape of the feeding opening. The high kilns had the perforated plated supported by a central pillar, a cylindrical or parallelipipedic column or a median wall, spared from the earth dug out for the construction of the firing chamber, or only on the upper side of the fireplace. The transition shapes from one type to another were only very rare. Starting from this technical element three types, as well as their variants were established, that is kilns having in the fireplace a central pillar, a median wall and kilns with open fireplace. A. Kilns with a central pillar in the fireplace. The pillar in the fireplace - the sustaining foot of the kilns of the Geto-Dacian or Carpic period and of Sntana de Mure culture, was made of earth, had a round, oval or square plan (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 45). The first kilns constructed in this manner were dated to the 1st century BC1st century AD and resulted from the archaeological excavations of Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, fig. 3) and Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei. The practice of using such type of kilns was much extended during the 2nd3rd centuries, as shown by the discoveries of Drmneti pe Cuejdi (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 33-34, pl. 1; 5), Cucoeni - Butnreti, C4, Neam county (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 500), and during the 3rd4th centuries or the first half of the 5th century AD in Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Galai county (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 44, 46), Zorleni - Fntnele, Vaslui county (V. Palade 1969a, p. 339, 341, 343), Srca - Pe linia ferat, C1-2 (C. Bloiu 1975, p. 203 sq.), Biceni - Laiu II (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1966, p. 36), Biceni - Silite (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p 115), Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, Iai county (I. Nestor et alii 1951, p. 67-68), tefan cel Mare Dealul Viorica (M. Coma 1985, note 26), Gutina (I. Bauman 1974, p. 44, note 7), Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani county, C1 (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 174, fig. 6) and Iai - Nicolina, C3. Among the localities where kilns with central pillar were discovered, mention should be made of those already pointed out by Maria Coma, that is those of Poiana - Cetate and Btca Doamnei then of Drmneti pe Cuejdi, Butnreti, C4, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, Biceni Silite, Trueti - Pe Cuha, C1, Srca - Pe linia ferat, C1-2, Zorleni - Fntnele. The shapes were similar to those of Bucharest, Micneti - La Nuci, C1-2 and Struleti (1986, p. 92). The archaeological researches of Transylvania also point out the usage of the kilns with central pillar. Also, in the the vessel firing chamber of an air intake flue, with 5rd-4th centuries (N. A. 1986, p. 39- 40). A-B. The transition variants, by their characteristics, are more or less similar to one of the types. An intermediary shape between the kilns with the central pillar and the kilns with median wall was considered to be the kiln of Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Vaslui, reconstructed by M. Coma, dated to the 3rd4th centuries AD, equipped with a central pillar of rhomboid cross-section and continuing towards the back of the kiln with a thin wall, curved on both sides (1985, p. 173, fig. 4). B. Kilns with a median wall in the fireplace, most of the times spared from the clayish soil, which split the fireplace in two chambers of unequal size, in some cases extended partly or completely along the fire opening, sometimes splitting it in two. Kilns with a median wall in the fireplace were discovered as dating already from the 3rd century BC such as the one of Poiana Cetate (R. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, p. 335), and the 1st century BC - 1st century AD in Poiana - Silite (Ibidem, p. 336), the latter dated by M. Coma to the 1st century AD (M. Coma 1985, p. 171, nota 3), from the 2nd century AD mention should be made of the kilns of cheia -

Cap. VI. Tipologia cuptoarelor performante / Chapter VI. Typology of the highly efficient kilns

69

Silitea, C1, 3 (Gr. Foit 1969, p. 28), and from the 3rd century those of Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia (M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 124, 127, fig. 1), Blteni - Grla Strmbu, obtained by the sparing the clay (I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 2), ifeti - La Grigoreti (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, fig. 1), while in the case of Cucoeni - Butnreti both kilns of the potters workshop, that is both the large one and the small one, had a median wall, as well as C3 (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 489, fig. 2-3; Idem 1973a, p. 53) and from the 3rd4th centuries those of Dumbrveni (M. Coma 1981, fig. 1), Trueti - Pe Cuha, C2 with a median wall, by which two pathways were created in the fire burning separately (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 174) and from the 4th 5th centuries AD those of Brlad Valea Seac (V. Palade 2004, p. 83-84), Banca Gar - apte case, C1-2, com. Banca, Vaslui county (R. Alaiba 2005, p. 153-160, Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca, Vaslui county (G. Coman 1980, p. 265-266, fig. 133/7; 142/23), Iai - Nicolina, C1-2 and C4 (I. Ioni 1985, p. 39-40). The kilns with a median wall were especially used by the free Dacians, especially by the Carpians (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 47). In 1981 and 1985, Maria Coma remarked the fact that most of the potters kilns with a median wall were on the territory of Moldavia, part of them being found to the north of the province (1981, p. 91; Eadem 1985, p. 171-172). At that date, for the southeast of Transylvania three kilns for baking vessels were acknowledged, all of them with a median wall. She also pointed out in Moldavia and Walachia 17 kilns with circular plans, with the perforated grill supported on the median wall, at Poiana Dulceti - Broteanu, Poiana - Cetate, Tecuci, Bucureti - Celu Nou, Radovanu - La fraii Dinc, Suceava - Silitea cheii, C2-3, Butnreti, C1-3, Poiana Dulceti - Silite, ifeti - La Grigoreti, Blteni - Grla Strmbu, Rduleti, Trueti Cuha, C2, Ioneni - intirim, Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Cucuteni, Biceni - Laiu, Gutina, Dumbrveni, Bucureti - Crngai (M. Coma 1985, p. 171 sq.). A-B. Presence of both types of kilns In some settlements both types of kilns were identified, more precisely in the workshops of Sntana de Mure culture, in Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani county, but also in Dumbrveni, Vrancea county, as well as in Bucharest - Crngai, Ilfov county etc. (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 46). B-C. The transition variants mention should be made again of the kiln of Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, dated to the 1st century BC - 1st century AD, with perforated plate sustained both by the central pillar and the side of the fireplace, yet not directly on the latter, but on a step especially designed for such purpose (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, p. 352). Although the influences were different, both from the Greek colonies where especially kilns with central pillar were in use, and from the Roman settlements where mainly kilns with median wall were used, during the 2nd4th centuries, both types are encountered but this latter type started being more present, as such kilns provided a better sustaining system for the perforated plate loaded with the batch for firing and therefore a wider production. C. Kilns with open fireplace It was also under the Roman influence penetrated from south the Danube that kiln s with open fireplace were built. Such kilns did not have either a median wall or a central pillar which might sustain the perforated plate. Such a kiln with the perforated plate embedded on the upper side of the not too large open fireplace was discovered in Bacu - Curtea Domneasc (I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, p. 228-229, fig. 8/1). The kilns with were especially used by the Sntana de Mure culture, in Romania and Ucraina (M. A. 1957, p. 181; A. T. 1960, p. 125, fig. 16, pl. 23/1-3; E. A. Rikman 1960, p. 202, fig. 6-7; . . 1967, p. 112-117, fig. 37-38) by their characteristics, are more or less similar to one of the types, mention should the kiln of Lepesovka ( M. A. 1963, p. 178; Eadem 1973, p. 133).

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Capitolul VII. Consideraii generale


Cunoaterea unor comuniti locale de la est i sud de Carpai, din secolele II-III i din secolele IV-V, prezint o nsemntate deosebit, avnd n vedere evenimentele petrecute n acest interval, de ordin social - economic, cultural sau politic, precum nflorirea i transformarea culturii geto-dacice, romanizarea i ptrunderea n cadrul comunitilor locale a primelor elemente ale cretinismului, continuarea marilor migraii, cu deosebire ale triburilor de neam germanic, mai ales a sarmailor i a goilor. Stabilirea de contacte durabile ntre comunitile locale i etniile strine, a contribuit la nmulirea i dezvoltarea aezrilor steti. Cercetrile arheologice au adus numeroase informaii cu privire la viaa social-economic, specificul ocupaiilor, agricultura, creterea vitelor, practicarea meteugurilor n cadrul comunitilor steti locale, ntre acestea cu deosebire s-a argumentat importana practicrii olriei. n primul rnd, numrul mare de forme de vase justific existena unei producii locale de ceramic, prin care s-au pstrat de-a lungul secolelor numeroase elemente de baz, de origine dac sau roman, primind n decursul evoluiei lor o serie de influene venite din regiunile imediat nvecinate (D. Gh. Teodor 1996, p. 52). n toate aezrile din secolele II-III i IV-V, prin cercetri arheologice sistematice, sondaje sau doar prin periegheze, s-a descoperit o mare cantitate de ceramic lucrat la roat de meterii locali i mai puin de import. n al doilea rnd, prezena diverselor cuptoare performante i gama variat a ceramicii reprezint o dovad a progreselor realizate prin mbuntirea tehnicilor i tehnologiilor, argumenteaz n mod evident faptul c ceramica era lucrat de meterii olari chiar la faa locului. Instalaiile ne furnizeaz dovezi importante cu privire la necesitile societilor steti locale, n care olarii au ajuns la un nalt grad de stpnire a meteugului, comparabil cu cel al lumii romane, spre care tindea prin calitatea tehnic, forme sau decor. Diferitele vase ceramice aflate n necropole, depozite sau n aezri i ateliere, n primele de obicei mult mai bine conservate, argumenteaz dimensiunile atinse de acest meteug. Formelor ceramice locale se adaug vasele de import, produse ale marilor ateliere, probabil dobrogene, cum a precizat Dumitru Tudor, nc din anul 1968, legate de atelierele est mediteraneene (M. Lang 1976, p. 55-56), sau venite din atelierele nfiinate pe teritoriul vechii provincii Dacia, influenate de importantele centre vest europene (F. Laubenheimer 1985; Idem 1989, p. 105 i urm). Cu toate acestea, cuptoarele de ars ceramic au fost atestate ntr-un numr redus n raport cu ceramica descoperit n aezrile i necropolele din spaiul carpato-dunrean, ele situndu-se de cele mai multe ori n marginea sau n exteriorul perimetrului locuit. Cel mai vechi cuptor de ars ceramica din zona est-carpatic este cel semnalat n cetatea de la Butuceni, construit din piatr, de form rectangular. A fost descoperit n nivelul hallstattian, faza Saharna Soloceni (I. Niculi 1996, p. 142). Pentru teritoriul de la est de Carpai, ele reapar n secolul al III-lea a.Hr., la Poiana Cetate, n focar cu perete median i n secolele III-II a.Hr., cuptorul de la Tometi - neconservat bine, pentru ca numrul lor s fie mai mare n secolele I a.Hr.-I p.Hr., prin descoperirea lor la Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, n focar cu pilon central i Poiana Silite, n focar cu perete median. Astfel, la est de Carpai, n prima jumtate a mileniului I, meteugarii olari au ajuns la stpnirea unei tehnici avansate i la un nalt nivel de producie. Din aceast perioad se poate vorbi de existena unei producii meteugreti a olarilor din mediul stesc, fr a concura cu producia din marile ateliere din provinciile romane, care se desfura n adevrate cartiere ale olarilor i crmidarilor (D. Tudor 1965, p. 295). Sistemul de construcie a depins de scopul pentru care au fost amenajate, cel mai frecvent cu forme cilindrice sau uor tronconice pentru cuptoarele de ars diferitele recipiente sau alte obiecte mrunte i cu forme aproximativ paralelipipedice, cu grtarul perforat sprijinit pe arcuri formate din crmizi, pentru ars materialele de construcii. nelegerea acestor instalaii se bazeaz pe

Cap. VII. Consideraii generale / Chapter VII. General Considerations

71

cunoaterea unor elemente tehnice, legate de modul lor de realizare i de funcionare. Construirea lor cerea mult experien, pentru ca prin funcionarea lor s se obin n timpul arderii arjei randamentul dorit, pentru a se evita arderile incomplete, rebuturile. Astfel, n funcie de numrul camerelor, cuptoarele de ars ceramica folosite n spaiul menionat, s-au ordonat n dou mari grupuri. Prima, a instalaiilor de ars ceramica formate dintr-o camer, vatra i bolta acesteia deschis n partea superioar, la baz prevzute cu gura de alimentare, uneori prelungit n ncperea de alimentare. A doua, a instalaiilor de ars ceramica formate din dou camere dispuse pe vertical, de cele mai multe ori cu gura de alimentare prelungit mult n ncperea din care meterul le mnuia cu pricepere, pentru realizarea unei arje bune. Ultimele s-au difereniat tipologic, n funcie de forma de sprijinire a grtarului din focar, fie cu un picior central, fie cu un perete median. Am reuit s semnalm 41 de puncte (5+7+29), de la cel puin tot attea ateliere, aflate n stadii diferite de conservare, care au funcionat n aezrile steti investigate arheologic i de la care s-au pstrat cel puin instalaiile performante de ars ceramica, i pentru care s-au consemnat 61 de cuptoare (5+16+40), din tipul celor cu dou camere:
- secolele III a.Hr.-I p.Hr., 5 ateliere cu 5 cuptoare performante; - secolele II-III/IV p.Hr., 7+1 ateliere cu 16+4 cuptoare performante, dou ateliere aveau mai multe cuptoare, am adugat altele patru de la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova; - secolele IV-V p.Hr., 29 ateliere cu 40 de cuptoare performante, trei aveau cel puin dou astfel de cuptoare. Total: 41 ateliere = 5 sec. III a.Hr.-I p.Hr. + 7 sec. II-III/IV, p.Hr. + 29 sec. IV-V p.Hr. 61 cuptoare = 5 sec. III a.Hr.- I p.Hr. + 16 sec. II-III/IV, p.Hr. + 40 sec. IV-V p.Hr.

Dei, nu n toate staiunile cercetate sistematic s-au descoperit astfel de complexe, aceasta nu nseamn c ele nu au existat. Instalaiile de acest fel trebuie s fi fost amplasate, de cele mai multe ori, undeva spre marginea aezrilor mai ntinse sau n afara acestora n apropierea surselor de ap, pentru a se evita, astfel, izbucnirea incendiilor, n locuri n care, ades, cercetrile arheologice nu ajung. "Numai o ntmplare fericit, care nu ne-a fost nc favorabil, ar fi permis identificarea cuptoarelor de ars vasele" (V. Srbu 1996, 40), a remarcat cunoscutul arheolog Valeriu Srbu, n monografia consacrat davei getice de la Grditea - Popin, datat n a doua jumtate a secolului al II-lea a.Hr. primele decenii ale secolului I p.Hr. Sistemul de construcie se leag de atelierele prezente n apropierea castrelor romane, numeroase ncepnd cu secolul II p.Hr., n provinciile nou formate Moesia Inferior i Dacia. Ele continu s fie intens utilizate pn n secolul al V-lea. Ne referim la atelierele i la artizanii care-i amplasau cartierele n apropierea unitilor militare, legiuni sau trupe auxiliare. Ele au devenit, prin activitatea meteugarilor, centre urbane cu mari ateliere ceramice. Aceste mari centre trebuie s fi influenat apariia numeroaselor ateliere de la est de Carpai, n Barbaricum, cum sugereaz categoriile ceramice produse n cuptoarele cu dou camere prezentate n repertoriul anexat. Cunoaterea acestor ateliere este important pentru relevarea specificului istoriei spaiului dintre Carpai i Prut, din teritoriile stpnite de dacii liberi i alte triburi barbare - extra fines provinciam (E. Nicolae 2007, p. 117), aflate n permanente legturi cu provinciile romane de la Dunrea de Jos, teritorii n care ulterior influena goilor a fost puternic. Publicarea unor noi ateliere, ntre ele i acela cercetat de noi de la Banca Gar - apte case, ne-a oferit posibilitatea de a realiza o prim tipologie, de a stabili cronologia i aria de difuziune n spaiul menionat. De asemenea, am realizat analogii i cu atelierele din Muntenia i Banat, din provincia roman Dacia, prevzute cu acelai tip de cuptor de olrie (J. Henning 1977, p. 194; E. Nicolae 2007, p. 70). Descoperirile au fost ordonate tot n forma unui repertoriu. Ateliere i cuptoare performante de ars ceramica, prevzute cu dou camere suprapuse Existena unor ateliere de olrie este dat un numai de descoperirea cuptoarelor de ars ceramica, prezena uneltelor, a unor spaii pentru prelucrat argila, modelat, ornamentat i uscat, dar

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

i prin identificarea a numeroase vase sau pri de la vasele modelate din argila aflat n preajma aezrilor. Totalitatea lor, a mijloacelor necesare pentru realizarea meteugului olriei, definesc tehnica folosit n fiecare atelier iar procesele i procedeele cunoscute de olari, deprinderile de prelucrare a argilei, dau specificul tehnologiilor folosite n atelier. Meterul olar le stpnete pe amndou, el modeleaz ceramica i tot el ncarc cu vase cuptorul i l supravegheaz n timpul arderii. n rndurile ce urmeaz vom ordona cronologic numai cuptoarele de ars ceramica, din secolele III a.Hr.-V. p.Hr., n raport cu rspndirea lor din sud-estul Munteniei pn n nordul Moldovei, de asemenea vom preciza datarea aezrilor n care s-au descoperit realizat de arheologii care au efectuat cercetrile, trimiterea bibliografic i specificul camerei de ardere a combustibilului. 5 Secolele III a.Hr. - I p.Hr., 5 cuptoare de la 5 ateliere, 2 n focar cu pilon, 2 cu perete median, 1 neclar.
Pentru aceast perioad cercetrile arheologice publicate consemneaz cinci instalaii, Poiana - Cetate, din sec. III a.Hr., n focar cu perete median, Tometi - neconservat bine, din sec. III-II a.Hr. iar din secolele I a.Hr.-I p.Hr., Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, ultimele dou n focar cu pilon central i Poiana - Silite, n focar cu perete median.

ntemeierea coloniilor greceti n nord-vestul Mrii Negre, n secolele VI-V a.Hr., a dus la formarea unor centre meteugreti n care olritul se practica prin folosirea cuptoarelor de ars ceramica prevzut cu dou camere, cu tiraj vertical. Primele cuptoare construite aveau fie grtarele susinute de un pilon central, fie au fost fixate doar pe marginea focriei. La populaia local geto-dacic de la est de Carpai, cuptoarele cu dou camere suprapuse au devenit cunoscute n a doua epoc a fierului i s-au rspndit n inuturile carpato-dunrene, n secolul al III-lea a.Hr., la Poiana - Cetate, jud. Galai i n secolele III-II a.Hr. la Tometi, jud. Iai, pentru a deveni mai numeroase n secolele I a.Hr.-I.p.Hr. Primul cuptor cercetat i cel mai vechi, care a aparinut unui atelier local, se poate considera cel de la Poiana - Cetate (fig. 1/3), jud. Galai, din aezarea geto-dacic identificat cu Piroboridava, cu focarul desprit de un perete median format dintr-o lespede de piatr pe care se sprijinea grtarul (R. Vulpe 1950, p. 50) i probabil i cuptorul de la Tometi, jud. Iai (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, p. 406). Cuptoarele performante, din tipul celor ntlnite la Dunrea de Jos, n oraele greceti, apoi romane, la est de Carpai i n nord-estul Munteniei, au nceput s devin mai numeroase n secolele I a.Hr.-I p.Hr. Pentru aceast perioad se cunosc cteva cuptoare din tipul celor prevzute cu dou camere suprapuse, pentru care s-a stabilit forma, Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi (Fig. 1/4), jud. Vrancea, cu grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, fig. 1), Piatra Neam Btca Doamnei, jud. Neam, tot un cuptor n focar cu pilon central (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 340), Poiana - Silite, jud. Neam, n focar cu perete median (Al. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, 334-336). Secolele II-III/IV p.Hr., 7 ateliere cu 16 cuptoare, 10 cu perete median (1+1+1+5+2), 2 cu pilon, 2 neclare, un atelier n bordei cu 2 cuptoare. Plus 4 cuptoare la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei.
Din apte puncte s-au dezvelit: 10 cuptoare n focar cu perete median: Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni Grla Strmbu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, cinci la Cucoeni - Butnreti, dou la cheia - Silitea, plus unul neclar, precum i cel de la Vleni - La Moar i dou cuptoare cu pilon central, unul la Cucoeni - Butnreti i altul la Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, adugm un atelier n bordei la Cucoeni - Butnreti - cu dou cuptoare i patru cuptoare de la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova.

apte ateliere provin din staiunile arheologice aflate n inuturile dacilor liberi carpilor de la est de Carpai, din nord-estul Munteniei i de la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova

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care se integreaz ariei acestei culturi, dup cum dovedesc descoperirile arheologice, datate n secolele II-III/IV, aflate n diferite stadii de conservare. n secolele II-III p.Hr s-a ncadrat cuptorul n focar cu perete median de la Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia (fig. 1/5), iar acela cu perete median de la Blteni - Grla Strmbu, jud. Buzu, s-a datat de descoperitori n secolul al III-lea - nceputul secolului al IV-lea (M. Constantinescu 1978, 125-126, fig. 2; I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 2); n secolul al III-lea a fost ncadrat cuptorul cu perete median de la ifeti - La Grigoreti (Fig. 1/6), Panciu, jud. Vrancea (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, p. 521-522, fig. 2) i cuptorul cu pilon central de la Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu, p. 345-346, fig. 5) (fig. 1/8); tot n secolele II-III s-au datat cele ase cuptoare din atelierul de olrie de la Cucoeni - Butnreti, jud. Neam, cuptorul mic i cel mare cu perete median (fig. 1/7), precum i nc trei cuptoare care aveau focria tot desprit de un perete median, de asemenea, nc un altul avea grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central, dar i un atelier care funciona n bordei, prevzut cu dou cuptoare (Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXII-XXXIV); atelierul de la cheia - Silitea (fig. 1/9), jud. Suceava, cu dou cuptoare n focar cu perete median, s-a datat n secolul al III-lea (Gr. Foit 1969, p. 25, fig. 2-3). Din ultima staiune un cuptor nu s-a conservat bine, iar pentru cuptorul de la Vleni - La Moar, nu cunoatem specificul (V. Ursache 1968, p. 120, fig. 5/2; I. Ioni, V. Ursachi 1988, p. 7). De asemenea, menionm cele patru cuptoare de la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova, datate n secolul al III-lea, cu probabilitate i n secolul al II-lea p.Hr. (Vl. Vornic et alii 2007, p. 38-74, pl. 14-15, 17-18, 20-21, 23) (fig. 1/10-13). Secolul al IV-lea i secolele IV-V/VI, 29 ateliere cu 40 de cuptoare, 14 cu pilon central, 13 n focar cu perete median, 1 i cu perete median i cu pilon, 3 cu focarul liber i 9 neclare.
Din 29 de puncte, cu 40 de cuptoare, n 10 aezri erau 14 cuptoare n focar cu pilon central (3+1+1+1+1+1+3+1+1): trei la Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Silitea - Muncelu, Zorleni - Fntnele, Srca - Pe linia ferat, Biceni - Laiu II i Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, trei la Iai - Nicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Huanu - Saivan. n 11 aezri erau 13 cuptoare n focar cu perete median: Dumbrveni, Brlad Valea Seac, dou la Banca Gar - apte case, Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Iai - Nicolina, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, dou la Huanu - Saivan. Un cuptor avea i pilon i perete median, cel de la Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, altul avea grtarul sprijinit pe marginea de sus a focarului, Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, la fel erau probabil i dou cuptoare de la Costia - Mnoaia. Neclare erau nou: Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, uletea - Fedeti, Berezeni - Vicoleni, Fereti, Banca - La confluena Banci, Isaiia - Satu Nou, Liteni, Ioneni - intirim, Vorniceni Pod Ibneasa.

Pentru secolul al IV-lea s-au menionat 29 de ateliere dotate cu 40 de cuptoare, unele au fost datate i la sfritul secolului al III-lea sau n secolul al V-lea. n ase aezri din cele menionate erau ateliere cu mai multe cuptoare, cu pilon central erau trei cuptoare la Stoicani - Poarta arinii i unul la Trueti - uguieta, mpreun cu un altul cu perete median, din cele trei cuptoare de la Huanu - Saivan, dou aveau pilon central i unul perete median, cele dou cuptoare de la Banca Gar - apte case, aveau perete median, la fel i cele de la Poieneti - Dealul Teilor iar dou descoperite la Costia - Mnoaia, aveau focarul liber. Unul dintre cuptoarele menionate pentru Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, avea grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central, n plan romboidal (Fig. 1/18). n funcie de forma focarului s-au ordonat n, 14 cuptoare cu pilon central, 13 cuptoare cu perete median, 1 cuptor n focar i cu perete median i cu stlp central i 3 cu focarul liber. 14 Cuptoare cu pilon central, n 8 aezri: 1-3 Stoicani - Poarta arinii, jud. Galai, secolele III-IV p.Hr., n focar cu pilon central (I. Bauman 1973-1974, 44, 46), 4. Zorleni - Fntnele, jud. Vaslui, cu pilon central (V. Palade 2004, p. 83-84, pl. IV), 5. Silitea - Muncelu (I. Ioni 2010, p. 191 i urm., fig. 2), 6. Srca - Pe linia ferat, jud. Iai, secolul al IV-lea - prima jumtate a secolului al V-lea, cuptor n focar cu pilon central (C. Bloiu 1975, p. 203 i urm.; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 48, IV.6.F.), 7-8. Biceni - Laiu II i Biceni - Silite (Ibidem, p. 114, XX.2.L.), jud. Iai, secolele III-IV, 9. Glvnetii

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Vechi - La Ghilitoare, jud. Iai, secolele III-IV (I. Nestor et alii 1951, 67-68; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51, fig. 18) (fig. 1/19), 10-12. Iai - Nicolina, secolele IV-V p.Hr., prima variant A, cuprinde cuptoarele C1 i C4, de dimensiuni mari cu stlp central n focrie (Fig. 1/20), la fel cuptorul C2, de dimensiuni mult mai mici (I. Ioni 1985, p. 30-34, fig. 4, tabel 4), 13. Trueti - Pe Cuha, 14 Huanu - Saivan, jud. Botoani (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1966, p. 36). 13 Cuptoare cu perete median: 1. Dumbrveni, jud. Vrancea, cuptor n focar cu perete median (Gh. Diaconu 1977, p. 431438) (fig. 1/14), 2. Brlad - Valea Seac, jud. Iai, n focar cu perete median (V. Palade 2004, p. 83-84, pl. IV) (fig. 1/16), 3-4. un atelier la Banca Gar - apte Case, prevzut cu dou cuptoare de ars ceramica n focar cu perete median (R. Alaiba 2007a, p. 18 i urm., fig. 1-3) (fig. 1/17), 5. Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca, cuptor prevzut n focar cu perete median (D. Gh. Teodor 1996, p. 54, nota 59), 6. Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, un cuptor cu grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central, n plan romboidal, continuat spre spatele cuptorului cu un perete i un altul descoperit n 1970 (M. Babe 1980 et alii, p. 35 i urm.) (fig. 1/18), 7. Iai - Nicolina, a doua variant B, i corespunde cuptorul C3, cu perete median - jud. Iai, 8-9. un alt cuptor cu perete median n focar era la tefan cel Mare Dealul Viorica, secolele III-IV (A. Stoia 1975, p. 301; E. Coma 1981, p. 90, nota 5; Eadem 1985, p. 171-184, nota 26), la fel la Gutina, secolul al IV-lea (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 44, nota 7; E. Coma 1981, p. 90), 10-11. Huanu - Saivan, dou cuptoare aveau n focar un perete median, primul cuptor era distrus aproape n ntregime (N. Marcu, N. Ungureanu 1989, p. 223 i urm.), 12. Trueti - Pe Cuha, secolele III-IV, cuptorul nr. 1, face parte din tipul celor prevzute cu dou camere, n focrie cu stlp central iar cuptorul nr. 2, avea perete median (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 174), 13. Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei (fig. 1/22), secolul al IV-lea, cuptor cu perete median n focar (N. i Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 461-471). 1 Cuptor n focar i cu perete median i cu stlp central Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, un cuptor cu grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central, n plan romboidal, continuat spre spatele cuptorului cu un perete i un altul, menionat anterior descoperit n 1970 (Fig. 1/18). 3 Cuptoare cu focarul liber 1. Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, cuptorul avea grtarul sprijinit doar pe marginea de sus a focarului (I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, p. 228, fig. 6) (fig. 1/16), 2. Costia - Mnoaia, jud. Neam, de la sfritul secolului al IV-lea i prima jumtate a secolului al V-lea (D. Gh Teodor, V. Cpitanu, I. Mitrea 1968, 238-239; Al. Vulpe, D. Gh. Teodor, E. Nicolae 1994, p. 362-363). 9 Neclare au fost cuptoarele doar semnalate sau distruse

1. Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, un cuptor distrus i altul necercetat, 2-4. trei cuptoare fr precizarea formei au fost semnalate la uletea - Fedeti, Berezeni - Vicoleni i Fereti, prin cercetrile de suprafa realizate de Ghenu Coman (1980, VIII.5.; IV.1., 55-56 i LXVII.1., 259), 5. Banca - La confluena Banci; 6. Isaiia - Satu Nou, jud. Iai, secolele III-IV p.Hr., neclar (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, 338, LXI.3.), 7. Liteni, jud. Suceava, 8. Ioneni - intirim, jud. Botoani, secolul al IV-lea, neclar, 9. Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, jud. Botoani, semnalare Maria Diaconescu.

Specificul cuptoarelor
Pe teritoriul Moldovei, la Curbura Carpailor i la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, ntre cercetrile arheologice din secolele III a.Hr.-V p.Hr., se regsesc mai multe astfel de complexe, n stadii diferite de conservare: - secolele III a.Hr. - I p.Hr, semnalm 5 ateliere, n care s-au conservat 5 cuptoare de ars ceramica: 2 n focar cu perete median, 2 cu pilon central iar 1 era neclar; - pentru secolele II-III/IV, p.Hr., 7 ateliere cu 16 cuptoare, 10 cu perete median (1+1+1+5+2), 2 cu pilon, 2 neclare, un atelier n bordei cu 2 cuptoare i 4 cuptoare la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei. - pentru secolul al IV-lea i secolele IV-V/VI, 29 de ateliere cu 40 de cuptoare, 16 prevzute n focar cu perete median, 12 n focar cu picior central, 3 cu focarul liber i 9 neclare.

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n total erau 41 de ateliere, avem n vedere c n nou erau mai multe cuptoare, 6+2 la Cucoeni - Butnreti, 3 la Stoicani - Poarta arinii, 2 la cheia - Silitea, 2 la Banca Gar - apte case, 2 la Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, 4 la Iai - Nicolina, 2 la Trueti - Pe Cuha, 3 la Huanu Saivan, 2 la Costia i 4 la Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei. Din ele provin 61 de cuptoare, 17 n focar cu pilon central, 25 n focar cu perete median, unul sprijinit pe un pilon central i pe un perete, trei cu grtarul sprijinit doar pe marginea de sus a focarului i 15 cuptoare neclare ca sistem de construcie (17+25+1+3+15). Dup specificul construciei camerei de ardere a vaselor s-au ordonat n trei gupe, n focar cu pilon central, cu perete median sau cu focarul liber. Separat s-a discutat cuptorul de la Poieneti - Mgura Dealul Teilor, iar n final s-au menionat cuptoarele neclare. 17 Cuptoare n focar cu pilon central tip A: 13 aezri prevzute cu ateliere de olrie (2+2+9), cu 17 cuptoare (2+2+13), repartizate astfel pe secole: 2 secolele I a.Hr. - I p.Hr., cu dou cuptoare: Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei; 2 secolele II-III p.Hr (nceput de IV), cu dou cuptoare: Cucoeni - Butnreti, Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe

Cuejdi; 9 secolul al IV-lea (unele s-au datat i la sfrit de secol. III sau la nceput de secol V), nou ateliere cu 13 cuptoare: 3 Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Zorleni - Fntnele, Srca - Pe linia ferat, Biceni - Laiu II i Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, 3 Iai - Nicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Huanu - Saivan.

25 Cuptoare n focar cu perete median tip B: 18 ateliere (2+5+11), cu 25 de cuptoare (2+10+13), repartizate astfel pe secole: 2 secolele I a.Hr. - I p.Hr., dou ateliere: Poiana - Cetate i Poiana - Silite; 5 secolele II-III p.Hr (nceput de IV), cinci ateliere, cu zece cuptoare: Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni Grla Strmbu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, 5 Cucoeni - Butnreti, 2 cheia - Silitea; 11 secolul al IV-lea (sfrit de III sau V), unsprezece ateliere cu 13 cuptoare: Dumbrveni, Brlad - Valea Seac, 2 Banca Gar - apte case, Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Iai - Nicolina, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, 2 Huanu Saivan.

Cum s-a precizat erau ase ateliere cu ambele tipuri de cuptoare, Cucoeni - Butnreti, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Iai - Nicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha i Huanu - Saivan i un cuptor neclar la cheia - Silitea. 1 Cuptor cu grtarul sprijinit pe un pilon central continuat cu un perete tip A-B:
1 secolul al IV-lea: Poieneti - Dealul Teilor.

3 Cuptor cu grtarul sprijinit doar pe marginea de sus a focarului: dou ateliere cu trei cuptoare tip C: 3 secolul al IV-lea: Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, probabil i dou la Costia - Mnoaia. 15 Cuptoare neclare ca sistem de construcie, 15 cuptoare distruse n mare parte sau necercetate: 1 secolele I a.Hr. - I p.Hr.: unul la Tometi; 4 secolele II-III, p.Hr, Vleni - La Moar, 2 Cucoeni - Butnreti, cheia - Silitea; 10 secolul al IV-lea, sfrit de sec. III/ nceput de sec. V, Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, uletea - Fedeti,
Berezeni - Vicoleni, Fereti, Banca - La confluena prului Banca, Isaiia - Satu Nou, Liteni, Ioneni intirim, Huanu - Saivan, Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa.

Total ateliere 41 [ 49 (13+18+1+2+15)- 8 au mai multe ateliere].

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Total cuptoare = 61 (17 cu pilon n focrie + 25 cu perete median + 1 cu pilon i perete +3 simple + 15 neclare). Ceramica ars oxidant apare de la sfritul secolului III, nceputul secolului II a.Hr. La est de Carpai formele de vase din past frmntat ngrijit i ars n cuptoare performante, foarte rar roie-crmizie, cu diferite nuane sau cu angob roie-brun, apar frecvent n secolul al II-lea i n prima jumtate a secolului al III-lea, dar ncep s dispar treptat n a doua jumtate a secolului al III-lea i nceputul secolului al IV-lea. Locul culorii roii este luat de culoarea alb murdar, dar mai ales de culoarea cenuie, care, n a doua jumtate a secolului al IV-lea, pentru ceramica local, devine aproape general (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 122). Din secolul al IV-lea o pondere tot mai mare capt ceramica modelat din past zgrunuroas, din argil cu diverse incluziuni, nisip cu bobul mare, mici pietricele. Aceasta se producea n toate atelierele nord dunrene (Ibidem). n perioada post roman cuptoarele cu dou camere suprapuse i grtarul susinut de un stlp central continu s fie folosite (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69 i urm.; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51). Aezrile menionate, caracterizate prin producia de ceramic, dup cum o dovedesc atelierele sau cuptoarele prezente de obicei la marginea sau periferia perimetrului locuit, descoperite n cuprinsul lor, au fost dup I. H. Crian centre economice de importan diferit n zon (1967, p. 112). De asemenea, pentru Nicolae Dunre, satele agricole-pastorale, n care s-au descoperit ateliere de olari prevzute cu cel puin dou cuptoare pot fi considerate, conform analogiilor etnografice, sate n care olritul cunoate un interes zonal sau un interes interinutal, iar cele care au menionat doar un cuptor, drept sate n care olritul se practica pentru a acoperi necesarul comunitii. Subliniem i faptul c, puine dintre ele, cu deosebire atelierele descoperite n Dobrogea, trebuie s fi fost centre specializate n meteuguri de interes mai larg (1979).

Pl. III. Cuptoare de olrie cu o camer/Installations for firing ceramic ware with one kiln: 1 Voetin - La curte, sec. IV/4th century; 2 Iai - Nicolina, sec. V-VI/5rd6th centuries. Ateliere de olrie i cuptoare de olrie cu dou camere/Workshops and pottery firing kilns with two overlapped chambers, BC: 3 Poiana - Cetate, sec. III a.Hr./3th century BC; 4 Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi; 5 Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia; 6 ifeti - La Grigoreti; 7 Cucoeni Butnreti; 8 Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi; 9 cheia - Silitea, 10-13 Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, secolele IIIII/2rd3th centuries; 14 Dumbrveni; 15 Silitea - Muncelu; 16 Brlad - Valea Seac; 17 Banca Gar - apte case; 18 Poieneti - Dealul Teilor; 19 Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare; 20 Iai - Nicolina; 21 Bacu - Curtea Domneasc; 22 Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, sec. IV-V/4rd5th centuries (apud 1 A. Paragin, V. Bobi 1983, fig. 15; 2, 15, 20 I. Ioni 1985, fig. 2B; 4; 2010, fig. 2; 3, 19 Gh. Iordache 1996, fig. 18 i 10/II; 4 V. Bobi, I. Cerrnat 1991, fig. 1; 5 M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 2; 6 S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, fig. 1; 7 C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, fig. 4; 8 Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXIII; 9 Gr. Foit 1969, fig. 2-3; 10-13 Vl. Vornic et alii 2007, pl. 14-15, 17-18, 20-21, 23; 14, 18 M. Coma 1981, fig. 1; 1985, fig. 4; 16 V. Palade 2004, pl. VI; 17 R. Alaiba 2007a, fig. 1-3; 21 I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, fig. 6; 22 N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 464, fig. 4).

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Cap. VII. Consideraii generale / Chapter VII. General Considerations

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Pl. IV. 1 Bucureti - Celu Nou, jud. Ilfov, secolele II-I a.Hr., cuptor geto-dacic; 2 Turnu Severin - Ostrovul imian, sec. I p.Hr.; 3 Rduleti. Cuptor de ars oale geto-dacic, sec. II-III p.Hr.; 4 Tibiscum; 5 Sucidava - Celeiu, sec. II-III; 6 Buridava - Ocnia, sec. III; 7 Slveni - Castrul roman, sec. II-III; 8 Bumbeti - Jiu, sec. III; 9 Bucureti Crngai; 10 Adunaii Copceni - Porcrie; 11 Mironeti - Giurgiu; 12 Turnu Severin - Drobeta, sec. IV-V; 14

Ostrovul Banului (apud 1 V. Leahu 1963, fig. 19-20); 2 D. Berciu 1939, reconstituire M. Coma 1985, fig. 2; 3 M. Coma, reconst.1985, fig. 3; 4 D. Benea et alii 1980, fig. 5; 5 O. Toropu, C. Ttulea 1987, fig. 29; 6 Gh. I. Petre 1968, fig. 1, 6; 7 D. Tudor 1968, fig. 5; 8 E. Bujor 1973, fig. 2; 9 Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, fig. 2-6; 10-11 V. Barbu 1999-2000, fig. 1-2, 10-14); 12-13 M. Davidescu 1980).

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Chapter VII. General Considerations


In order to know more about the world of the potters of the first half of the 1 st millennium and to provide a more convincing image of the pottery of the period, especially of the Sarmatians and Goths migrations, almost the whole body of information was used, including publications, surveys and fortuitous discoveries, explorations and systematic excavations, information regarding the technology and methods of pottery production in the first half of the 1 st millennium, in the area between the Carpathians and River Prut. The systematic analysis of this type of archeological complexes and the pottery of the period forms the basic information for our research. The presence of a central pillar or median wall in the fireplace, for sustaining the perforated grill, indicates certain differences as for how these functioned. In the first case a better circulation of the heat was provided and all vessels were equally heated while the whole structure was not very resistant. The latter case provided a better stability of the perforated plate on which the vessels were arranged, but the circulation of the air was not so uniform. The median wall separated the fireplace in two chambers with slightly unequal dimensions and it often had different openings so to allow the circulation of the heated air and the same temperature within the firing chamber. The repeated use of the kiln resulted in the petrification and vitrification throughout a 18-22 cm width, of the central pillar or median wall and of the peripheral ones and the red baking of the walls throughout a 12-16 cm. During the first half of the 1st millennium, to the north of the Lower Danube, the craft of pottery reached a high degree of development and the wide practice hereof was mainly illustrated by the wide range of ceramicware and other clay items with various usages, and also of construction materials. In this study, we tried to achieve a general image of the craft of pottery focusing only on the presence of the installations for firing the ceramics within the space delimited by the Carpathians and the Prut and the Carpathians Bend, dated to the 1 st century BC and 5th century AD, published or under research, more rarely only pointed out. Their number confirms the wide dissemination and knowledge of productive techniques and technologies. We managed to point out 41 potters workshops (5+7+29) in various states of conservation, which functioned in the archeologically investigated rural settlements, out of which there were preserved at least the qualitative installations for firing the ceramic ware, and for which there were identified 61 kilns (5+16+40) of the two chamber-type:
- 1st century BC 1st century AD, 5 workshops with 5 qualitative kilns; - the 2/3rd/4th centuries AD, 7+1 workshops with 16+4 qualitative kilns, two workshops with several kilns, 4 Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova; - the 4th5/6th centuries AD, 29 workshops with 40 kilns, three of which had at least two such kilns. Total: 41 workshops = 5 3th BC 1th AD + 7 2-3/4 AD + 29 4th5/6th centuries 61 kilns = 5 3th BC 1th AD + 16 2-3/4 AD + 40 4th5th (6th) centuries AD

Although not in all systematically investigated settlements there were discovered such compounds, this does not mean they did not exist. Such installations need to have been placed, in most cases, somewhere to the side of wider settlements or outside them close to the water sources, in order to avoid, thus, the creation of fires, in places where rather often the archaeological researches do not reach. "Only a happy circumstance, which has not yet been favorable to us, would have allowed the identification of kilns" (V. Srbu 1996, 40), says the renowned archaeologist Valeriu Srbu, in the monograph study dedicated to the Getic dava of Grditea Popin, dated to the second half of the 2nd century BC the first decades of the 1st century AD. The understanding of these installations is based on the knowledge of technical elements, connected to their manner of implementation and operation. The construction system depended on the aim for which they were arranged, most frequently with cylindrical or slightly conical shapes

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for the kilns where there were fired various vessels or other small items and approximately parallelepiped shapes, with perforated plate sustained by arches made of bricks, for the kilns used at firing construction materials. Their elaboration required a certain experience in obtaining during the firing of the batch the intended efficiency and in avoiding incomplete firing and refuse. Thus, pending on the number of chambers, the kilns were ordered in two main groups. The first one includes ceramicware firing installations consisting in one chamber, hearth and vault hereof open in the upper part, at the base with a feeding opening, sometimes extended in the feeding room. The second group includes the ceramicware firing installations consisting in two chambers vertically arranged, most of the times with the feeding opening extended considerably in the room where the potter would skillfully handle them, in order to obtain a good batch. The latter ones were typologically differentiated mainly according to the shape of the perforated plate in the fire chamber, either with one central pillar, or with one median wall. Potters workshops and two chamber-qualitative kilns: 1st century BC 1st century AD, 5 workshops For this period, the published archaeological researches specify five kilns, out of which two had kilns with a central pillar in the fire chamber, Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, two others had kilns with a median wall, Poiana - Cetate and Poiana - Silite and another one was not well preserved, the one of Tometi. The earliest qualitative kilns, of the type of those found on the Lower Danube, in Greek then in Roman towns, are dated to the 1st century BC-1st century AD. For this period, there have been acknowledged five kilns included in the type of two overlapped chamber-kilns. In the case of four of them, the shape has been established. The first one that was researched is also the oldest, and is the one of Poiana - Cetate (fig. 1/3), Galai county, of the Get-Dacian settlement identified as Piroboridava, with the fire chamber split by a median wall formed of stone slabs which sustained the perforated plate (R. Vulpe 1950, fig. 50) and probably the kiln of Tometi, Iai county (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, p. 406); it was to the same period that were dated the kilns found at Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi (fig. 1/4), Vrancea county, with the perforated plate sustained on a central pillar (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, fig. 1); Poiana - Silite, Neam county, with a median wall in the fire chamber (R. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, p. 334-336); Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, Neam county, kiln with a central pillar in the fire chamber (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 340). The 2nd3rd Centuries AD (beginning of the 4th century), 7+1 workshops with 16+4 kilns In six potters workshops there were covered 10 kilns with a median wall in the fire chamber: Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni - Grla Strmbu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, five at Cucoeni - Butnreti, two at cheia - Silitea and two kilns had a central pillar, one of Cucoeni Butnreti and another one at Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, plus one potters workshops identified of dwellings of this period at Cucoeni - Butnreti with twoo kilns and 4 kilns at Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republic of Moldova, neclar, uncovered at Vleni - La Moar Six workshops found in various states of conservation, in different settlements were dated to the 2nd3rd centuries (4th century). The kilns with a median wall in the fire chamber of Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia (fig. 1/5) was dated to the 2nd3rd centuries, while the one with median wall of Blteni Grla Strmbu, Buzu county was dated by the authors of the discovery to the 3rd century and beginning of the 4th (M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 125-126, fig. 2; I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 2); the kiln with median wall of ifeti - La Grigoreti (fig. 1/6), Panciu, Vrancea county was dated to the 3rd century (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, p. 521-522, fig. 2) and so was the one with central pillar of Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 345346, fig. 5) (fig. 1/7); the two kilns of the potters workshop of Cucoeni - Butnreti (fig. 1/8), Neam county, the small kiln and the large one with median walls, as well another kilns with the fire chamber also split by a median wall, and equally, a fourth kiln found there with the perforated

82

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

plate sustained by a central pillar were dated to the 2 nd3rd centuries (Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXIIXXXIV); the workshop of cheia - Silitea (fig. 1/9), Suceava county, with two kilns with a median wall in the fire chamber, was dated to the 3 rd century lea (Gh. Foit 1969, p. 25, fig. 2-3) and 4 Sub Dealul Babei, Republic of Moldova. The 4th century and the 4th5th /6th centuries, 29 workshops with 40 kilns Out of the 29 workshops, with 39 kilns, ten workshops contained 14 kilns (3+1+1+1+1+1+3+1+1): whose fire chamber contained a central pillar: 3 Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Silitea - Muncelu, Zorleni - Fntnele, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Srca - Pe linia ferat, Biceni Laiu II i Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, three in Iai - Nicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, two at Huanu - Saivan. In ten settlements there were found 11 kilns with a median wall in the fire chamber: Dumbrveni, Brlad - Valea Seac, Banca - La confluena Banci, Banca Gar - apte case, Dodeti - ipot and Clugreasca, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Iai - Nicolina, tefan cel Mare Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, twoo at Huanu Saivan. One had the perforated plate sustained on the upper border of the fire chamber, the one of Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, probably also 2 of Costia - Mnoaia. Nine presented a situation that could not be clarified: Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, uletea - Fedeti, Berezeni - Vicoleni, Fereti, Isaiia - Satu Nou, Liteni, Ioneni - intirim, Huanu - Saivan, Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa. For the 4th century, there were mentioned 28 workshops with 39 kilns, some of them were dated to the end of the 3rd century, some other to the beginning of the 5 th century. In three settlements there were several kilns. It was to the 4th century that were dated the kilns of: Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, a destroyed kiln and another one that was not investigated, of Dumbrveni (fig. 1/10), a kiln with a median wall in the fire chamber (Gh. Diaconu 1977, p. 431-438); three of Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Galai county, dated to the 3rd4th centuries AD, with a central pillar in the fire chamber (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 44, 46) Brlad - Valea Seac (fig. 1/11), with a median wall in the fire chamber; Zorleni - Fntnele, with a central pillar (V. Palade 2004, p. 83-84, pl. IV); three kilns whose shape was not specified were pointed out at uletea - Fedeti, Berezeni Vicoleni and Fereti, as a result of the surface researches of Ghenu Coman (1980, VIII.5.; IV.1., p. 55-56 i LXVII.1., p. 259); another one with a median wall in the fire chamber was found at Banca - La confluena prului Banca while at Banca Gar - apte Case (fig. 1/12), there was found a workshop with two kilns with a median wall in the fire chamber (R. Alaiba 2007a, p. 18 and the foll., fig. 1-3); Dodeti - ipot and Clugreasca, kiln with a median wall in a fire chamber (D. Gh. Teodor 1996, p. 54, note 59); two kilns of Poieneti - Dealul Teilor (fig. 1/13), one with the perforated plate sustained by a central pillar, of rhomboidal plan, continued to the back of the kiln with a wall and another one discovered in 1970 (M. Babe 1980 et alii, p. 35 and the foll.) -, the last nine localities being within the Vaslui county; Isaiia - Satu Nou, 3rd4th centuries AD, unclear (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, 338, LXI.3.); Srca - Pe linia ferat, the 4th century the first half of the 5th century, kiln with a central pillar in the fire chamber (C. Bloiu 1975, 203 and the foll.; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 48, IV.6.F.); kilns with a central pillar in the fire chamber also existed in Biceni - Laiu II and Biceni - Silite (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1966, p. 36; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 114, XX.2.L.), dated to the 3rd4th centuries and at Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare (fig. 1/14), dated to the 3rd4th centuries (I. Nestor et alii 1951, 67-68; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51, fig. 18); Iai - Nicolina (fig. 1/15), dated to the 4th5th centuries AD, the first variant A, contains kilns C1 and C4, of large dimensions with a central pillar in the fire chamber, and so it goes for kiln C2, much smaller, the second variant, B, corresponding to kiln C3, with a median wall Iai county for the last six specified localities (I. Ioni 1985, p. 30-34, fig. 4, table 4); another kilns with a median wall in the fire chamber being the one of tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, dated to the 3rd4th centuries (A. Stoia 1975, 301; M. Coma 1981, 90, note 5; Eadem 1985, 171-184, note 26); the same at Gutina, the 4th century (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 44, note 7; M. Coma 1981, p. 90); at Bacu - Curtea Domneasc (fig. 1/16), the kiln had the perforated plate sustained only on the upper border of the fire chamber, the last three of Bacu county; Costia - Mnoaia, Neam

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county, at the end of the 4th century and the first half of the 5th century (D. Gh. Teodor, V. Cpitanu, I. Mitrea 1968, p. 238-239; Al. Vulpe, D. Gh. Teodor, E. Nicolae 1994, p. 362-363) and Liteni, Suceava county; Trueti - Pe Cuha, dated to the 3rd4th centuries, kiln 1 is part of the two chamberkiln type, with a central pillar in the fire chamber and kiln 2 had a median wall (M. PetrescuDmbovia et alii 1955, 174); Ioneni - intirim, the 4th century, unclear; Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei (fig. 1/17), the 4th century, kiln with a median wall in the fire chamber; three kilns at Huanu - Saivan, the first of which was almost fully destroyed, while two had a median wall in the fire chamber (I. Ioni 1996, 264; N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 464, fig. 4; M. Marcu, N. Ungureanu 1989, p. 223 and the foll.); Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, pointed out by Maria Diaconescu -, the last five localities being situated on the territory of Botoani county. We mentioned only four installations for firing ceramic ware with one kiln, that is those of the 2nd3rd centuries AD, of Vleni - La Moar, of the 3rd century of Blteni - Grla Strmbu, of the 3rd4th centuries AD, of Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, of the 4th century of Voetin - La curte and of the 4th5th centuries AD, of Iai - Nicolina. 41 potters workshops, 61 kilns 17 Kilns with a central pillar in the fireplace type A:
13 potters workshops (2+2+9), with 17 kilns (2+2+13):

2 1st century BC1st century AD, 2 potters workshops: Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, Piatra Neam - Btca
Doamnei; 2 2rd3th centuries AD (4th): Cucoeni - Butnreti, Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi;

9 (3)4rd5th centuries AD, 9 potters workshops:nou with 13 kilns: 3 Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Zorleni Fntnele, Srca - Pe linia ferat, Biceni - Laiu II and Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, 3 Iai Nicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Huanu - Saivan.

25 Kilns with a median wall in the fireplace type B: 18 potters workshops (2+5+11), with 25 kilns (2+10+13): 2 1st century BC1st century AD, 2 potters workshops: Poiana - Cetate and Poiana - Silite; 5 2rd3th centuries AD (4th), 5 potters workshops with 10 kilns: Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni - Grla
Strmbu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, 5 Cucoeni - Butnreti, 2 cheia - Silitea; 11 (3)4rd5h centuries AD, 11 potters workshops with 13 kilns: Dumbrveni, Brlad - Valea Seac, 2 Banca Gar - apte case, Dodeti - ipot and Clugreasca, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Iai - Nicolina, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani - Dealul Crmidrie, 2 Huanu - Saivan.

8 The potters workshopstype of them kilns a central pillar in the fireplace and a median wall: Stoicani, Galai, Cucoeni-Butnreti, Banca gar-apte case, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, IaiNicolina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Huanu-Saivan and cheia-Silitea, one indistinctly potters workshops. 1 Kilns with a central pillar in the fireplace and a median wall type A-B: IVth century AD: Poieneti - Dealul Teilor. 2 Kilns with perforated plate sustained of the fireplace, yet not directly on the latter, but on a step especially designed for such type C: 2 4th century AD: 2 potters workshops with 3 kilns, Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, and 2 Costia - Mnoaia.
Indistinctly, 15 potters workshops:
3 2rd3th, centuries p.Hr, 3 potters workshops with 3 kilns Vleni - La Moar, 2 Cucoeni - Butnreti, cheia - Silitea; 11 (3)4rd5th centuries AD: 11 potters workshops with 11 kilns, Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, uletea Fedeti, Berezeni - Vicoleni, Fereti, Banca - La confluena prului Banca, Isaiia - Satu Nou, Liteni, Ioneni - intirim, Huanu - Saivan, Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa. -----------------------------------------------

1 1st century BC 1st century AD: 1 potters workshops with 1 kiln, with Tometi;

Total potters workshops: 41 [ 49 (13+18+1+2+15) - 8 of them kilns] Total kilns = 61kilns The highly efficient kilns with a central pillar were more numerous, that is 41 such kilns.

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

The kilns with a central pillar in the fireplace type A. the earliest case was dated to the 3rd century BC, two kilns being pointed out, those of Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi and Piatra Neam Btca Doamnei, two others for the period of the 2nd3rd centuries identified in Drmneti pe Cuejdi, Cucoeni - Butnreti, C4, and for the period of the 3rd4th centuries elven kilns were identified in ten localities as follows Stoicani - Poarta arinii, Zorleni - Fntnele, Srca - Pe linia ferat, C1-2, Biceni - Laiu II, Biceni - Silite, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, tefan cel Mare Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Iai - Nicolina, C3. The kilns with a medial wall in the fireplace type B. One kiln of the this is the kiln of Poiana - Cetate, for the period of the 3rd century BC, 3rd century BC was pointed out at Poiana Silite and 2 cheia - Silitea, kilns of the 2rd3th centuries were identified in four localities, as follows, Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, Blteni - Grla Strmbu, ifeti - La Grigoreti, Cucoeni Butnreti, C1-3 and from the 3rd4th centuries there were identified nine kilns in six points, that is in Dumbrveni, Brlad - Valea Seac, Banca - La confluena prului Banca, 2 Banca Gar - apte case, C1-2, Dodeti - ipot and Clugreasca, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Trueti - Pe Cuha, C1-2 and Iai - Nicolina, 4th5th centuries AD, with three kilns C1-2 and C4, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Gutina, Trueti - Pe Cuha, Botoani - Dealul Crmidrie, 2 Huanu - Saivan. Kilns with open fireplace type C, such as the kiln of Bacu - Curtea domneasc. Within the transition variants from type A to type B, Poieneti - Dealul Teilor and from type A to type C, the kiln Pdureni Jaritea Piigoi, dated to 1 st century BC - 1st century AD is suggestive, although all the installations of this type had the perforated plate sustained by the unprepared walls of the fireplace. Throughout the territory of Moldavia and at the Carpathians, for the 1st century BC the 5th century AD, we managed to point out 5 workshops, for the 2nd3rd centuries AD (beginning of the 4th century as well), 6 workshops, with 10 kilns and for the 4 th century and the 4th5th /6th centuries, 28 workshops with 39 kilns. Out of these, 13 workshops (2+2+9) contained 18 kilns (2+2+14) with the perforated kiln sustained by a central pillar. In other 18 workshops (2+6+10), there were 22 kilns (2+8+12) with a perforated plate sustained by a central pillar. To these, there should be added two kilns with the perforated plate sustained only on the upper border of the fire chamber, a workshop with a kiln that had the perforated plate sustained by a central pillar continued with a wall, two workshops with the perforated plate on the upper border of the fire chamber, with three kilns, while 10 kilns showed an unclear situation as for the construction system, one of them being dated to the period 1st century BC-1st century AD and the other nine to the period of the 4th5th centuries respectively. In total there were 41 workshops, out of which in nine we are confident there existed several kilns, 4 at Cucoeni - Butnreti, 3 at Stoicani - Poarta arinii, 2 at cheia - Silitea, 2 at Banca Gar - apte Case, 2 at Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, 4 at Iai - Nicolina, 2 at Trueti - Pe Cuha, 3 at Huanu - Saivan, 2 at Costia. These workshops allowed the research of 61 kilns, out of which 17 had a central pillar in the fire chamber, 25 had a median wall in the fire chamber, one sustained by a central pillar and a wall, three with the perforated plate sustained only by the upper border of the fire chamber, while 15 kilns showed an unclear situation of the construction system: 61 (17 central pillar in the fire + 25 median wall + 1 central pillar and median wall +3 simple + 15 unclear).

85

Repertoriul atelierelor de olrie, a cuptoarelor de ars ceramica din secolele III-V, n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut
Meseriaii au folosit un ansamblu de mijloace de munc, unelte, obiecte, instalaii, care s le permit s schimbe mai lesne natura materiei prime folosite. Din acest motiv, meseriile au exprimat mult vreme nivelul dezvoltrii perioadei (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 12). Pentru cunoaterea i analiza meteugului olriei subliniem importana elaborrii pe zone geografice, n ordine cronologic, a unui repertoriu arheologic al atelierelor prevzute cu instalaii de ars vasele cu dou camere suprapuse sau al cuptoarelor descoperite izolat, cu deosebire al acelora din secolele II-V p.Hr., perioada de maxim rspndire a lor. Anumite particulariti legate de funcionarea atelierelor sau de confecionarea vaselor au fost explicate folosind exemplificri din domeniul etnografiei. Studiul realizat pentru cunoaterea meteugului olriei pentru fiecare centru, ar fi complet prin alctuirea unor cataloage cu speciile ceramice, avnd n vedere gama divers a lor. Astfel, repertoriul alctuit de noi pentru cunoaterea instalaiilor de ars ceramica din prima jumtate a mileniului I, ateliere sau cuptoare izolate, reflect stadiul cercetrilor din acest moment, desigur i al posibilitilor noastre de a ne informa. Cercetrile arheologice au dus, firesc, i la descoperirea instalaiilor necesare pentru ars ceramica. n repertoriu staiunile n care s-au descoperit ateliere prevzute cu unul sau mai multe cuptoare au fost ordonate cronologic, pe regiuni geografice, ncepnd cu descoperirile de la curbura Carpailor, din sud-estul Munteniei i continund cu cele din zonele geografice din Moldova, de la sud la nord, Podiul i Cmpia Covurluiului, Cmpia Siretului inferior, Tecuciului i Rmnicului, Podiul Brladului, cu subunitile acestuia, Podiul Central Moldovenesc, Colinele Tutovei i Dealurile Flciului, mai la nord Cmpia Moldovei, format din Cmpia Svenilor, Dealurile Coplu Cozancea, Cmpia Iailor i Podiul Sucevei. n spaiul dintre Carpai i Prut, i n judeele Vrancea i Buzu, cuptoare performante, prevzute cu dou camere suprapuse s-au descoperit n 41 de puncte investigate arheologic, n aezri n care existau ateliere de olrie, unele i cu mai multe cuptoare. Numrul lor poate crete prin publicarea unor descoperiri. Acestea ofer cteva date concludente privind nelegerea i evoluia tehnicilor de confecionare a diverselor produse din argil. Clasificarea cuptoarelor n dou mari categorii, a celor simple, prevzute cu o singur camer, pentru combustibil i vase i a cuptoarelor prevzute cu dou camere suprapuse, rmne criteriul principal pentru ordonarea lor. Ultima categorie, a cuptoarelor nalte, a fost la rndul ei desprit n dou mari grupuri, a cuptoarelor n plan circulare, mai rar ovale sau n form de potcoav, utilizate n principal pentru ars ceramica i a celor n plan patrulatere, prevzute i cu arcade de susinere a grtarului, construite cu deosebire pentru ars diferitele materiale de construcie. Cunoaterea olritului, principalul meteug practicat n aceast perioad, prezint o dubl importan, ne d posibilitatea de a cunoate mai ndeaproape viaa comunitilor i caracterul societii daco-romane din secolele II-III, dar i a celei din secolele IV-V, pe de alt parte ele ngduie urmrirea specificului acestui vechi meteug. Pentru fiecare punct s-a precizat: numrul de cuptoare a, b...; tipul, cu dou camere suprapuse, planul circular sau oval, sistemul de construcie al focarului prevzut fie cu stlp central, fie cu perete median, grtarul sau placa perforat i camera de ardere a vaselor, gura de alimentare a focarului i specificul ncperii olarului necesar pentru punerea n funciune a instalaiilor i s-au subliniat particularitile fiecrei amenajri. De asemenea, s-a dat inventarul ceramic eventuala conservare a arjei, uneltele pstrate i s-au reluat analogiile la care s-a raportat fiecare descoperire.

86

Anexe / Annexes Anexa I. Gropi de ars ceramica / Annexe I. Pits for firing ceramics
Secolele I a.Hr. - I. p.Hr. 1. Arpau de Sus - Cetuia, com. ~, jud. Sibiu, secolele I a.Hr. -I. p.Hr., spturi arheologice realizate de M. Macrea, n 1955.

Fig. 1. Arpau de Sus - Cetuia, profilul gropii nr. 2 de ars ceramica. Legenda: 1 humus; 2 pmnt brun-cenuiu - strat de cultur antic; 3 sol viu; 4-5 argil cenuie i glbuie, lipitur; 6-7 chirpic, crbune - umplutur; 8 strat de aluviuni, pietri; 9 piatr; 10 lemn putrezit (apud M. Macrea 1957, fig. 29). Profile of pit no. 2 for firing ceramics. Key: 1 humus; 2 brown-grayish soil - antique culture layer; 3 living soil; 4-5 grayish and yellowish clay, adobe and wattle; 6-7 adobe, coal - filling; 8 layer of alluviums, gravel; 9 stone; 10 putrefied wood (apud M. Macrea 1957, fig. 29).

Aezarea dacic se afl pe una dintre cile antice de trecere spre Transilvania, n apropierea comunei, la circa 600 m altitudine, la confluena rului Arpau Mare cu prul Plvaia, nu departe de valea Oltului (M. Macrea, I. Glodariu 1976). Groapa nr. 2 descoperit n seciunea I (=1,5 m; h=1,16 m), de forma unor trunchiuri de con

unite la deschiderile mici, cu pereii ari de foc (fig. 1).

Fig. 2. Arpau de Sus - Cetuia. 1-2 Unelte pentru modelarea ceramicii (apud M. Macrea 1957, fig. 24/1, 5). 1-2 Tools for modeling the pottery (apud M. Macrea 1957, fig. 24/1, 5).

La baza nivelului antic se gseau dou deschideri laterale, de acces la groapa alturat, n ele cu mult cenu i crbune, pietre, chirpic i ceramic (M. Macrea 1957, p. 146-147, fig. 21-22; I. H. Crian 1967, p. 116-117, fig. 3).

Anexa I. Gropi de ars ceramica / Annexe I. Pits for firing ceramics

87

Inventar. Ceramica - dup M. Macrea - se lucra, n parte cel puin, chiar n aezare, dup cum dovedesc uneltele pentru finisat ceramica (fig. 2), descoperite aici (1957, p. 148, fig. 24/1, 5). 1st century BC-1st century AD Arpau de Sus - Cetuia, commune within Sibiu county, 1st century BC-1st century AD, archaeological excavations carried out by Macrea, in 1955. The Dacian site is situated on one of the ancient passage ways towards Transylvania, near the commune, at the altitude of circa 600 m, at the confluence of river Arpau Mare to the runlet Plvaia, not far from the Valley of River Olt (M. Macrea, I. Glodariu 1976). Pit no. 2 discovered in section 1 (=1,5 m; h=1,16 m), having the shape of truncated cones trunks with the smaller openings united, and the walls fired (fig. 1). At the basis of the ancient level, there were two lateral openings, providing access to the nearby pit, containing a lot of ash and coal, stones, adobe and ceramics (M. Macrea 1957, p. 146-147, fig. 21-22; I. H. Crian 1967, p. 116-117, fig. 3). Inventory. The pottery according to M. Macrea was prepared, at least partly, on the very site, as proven by the polishers discovered there (fig. 2) (1957, p. 148, fig. 24/1, 5). Secolul al III-lea a.Hr. 2. Poiana - Cetate, jud. Galai, secolul al III-lea a.Hr, cercetri arheologice R. Vulpe i colaboratori. Groap cu resturi de vatr (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 181 i urm.; Idem 1957, p. 143 i urm.). 3rd century BC Poiana - Cetate, Galai county, 3rd century BC, archaeological researches R. Vulpe and collaborators. Groap cu resturi de vatr (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 181 et sq.; Idem 1957, p. 143 et sq.). Secolele I-II p.Hr. 3. Dumbrava - Cprrie, com. Ciurea, jud. Iai, secolele I-II, cercetri arheologice S. Sanie, . Sanie, 19681976. n aezarea de la dacic de la Dumbrava, cercetrile arheologice au dus la descoperirea unei gropi n care au fost arse oale lucrate cu mna (1973, p. 90). Gropi ce au n inventar fragmente de crust de vatr, buci de lipitur de la carcasa unor cuptoare, pietre de ru arse ce proveneau de la baza vetrelor, crbuni i cenu, dar foarte puin ceramic (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 136). 1rd2th centuries Dumbrava - Cprrie, Ciurea commune, Iai county, 1st2nd centuries, archaeological researches S. Sanie, . Sanie, 1968-1976. In the eastern-Carpathian area, in the site of Dumbrava, the archaeological researches revealed a pit in which hand-made jars were burnt (1973, p. 90). Pits whose inventory contains fragments of hearth crust, pieces of adobe and wattle from the casing of kilns, fired river stones from the basis of hearths, coal and ash, but very scarce ceramics (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 136). Secolele II-III p.Hr. 4. Poiana - Varni, Dulceti, jud. Neam, secolele II-III, spturi realizate de Gh. Bichir. De aici au fost menionate cteva gropi, cu forme diferite. Groapa 7 (=1,45; h=1,90 m). Groapa 11, de form cilindric (=1,35; h=1,90 m), dar micorat spre partea superioar (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 136, pl. CL/1). Groapa 16, tronconic (maxim=1,50; minim =1,20; h=1,40 m). Groapa 52, cilindric (=1,10; h=1,55 m). Groapa 64, n form de butoi (=1,70; h=1,40 m) (Idem 1973a, p. 136). 2rd3th centuries Poiana - Varni, Dulceti, Neam county, excavations carried out by Gh. Bichir, 2rd3th centuries. Few pits of various shapes were discovered here.

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Pit 7 (=1,45; h=1,90 m). Pit 11, of cylindrical shape (=1,35; h=1,90 m), but smaller in the upper part (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 136, pl. CL/1). Pit 16, truncated cone (maximal =1,50; minimal=1,20 m; h=1,40 m). Pit 52, cylindrical (=1,10; h=1,55 m). Pit 64, barrel-shaped (=1,70; h=1,40 m) (Idem 1973a, p. 136). Secolul al IV-lea p.Hr. 5. Brlad - Valea Seac, municipiul Brlad, jud. Vaslui, secolul al IV-lea, spturi arheologice realizate de Vasile Palade. ntr-o groap oval alungit (=1,90 x 1,15), adncit la - 1,95 m (- 1,20 m de la nivelul antic de calcare), cu baza uor albiat, n jumtatea de est cu o vatr puternic zgurificat (85 x 50 m), pe care se afla un strat de cenu (h=3 cm) i n aceea de vest din lut i crbune, bine bttorit, prin clcri repetate. De asemenea, cu pereii gropii ari (h=40 cm) (V. Palade 2004, p. 158-159). Groap situat ctre marginea de nord a aezrii, important pentru cunoaterea meteugului olritului. n aceasta au fost aruncate buci din grtarul refcut al unui cuptor de ars oale. Inventar. Totodat, n ea se gseau i cantiti impresionante de fragmente ceramice numai de la vase lucrate la roat, din past cenuie, fin i zgrunuroas, rebutate n timpul arderii. Ele fceau parte din toate tipurile cunoscute pentru aceast cultur n sudul Moldovei (Ibidem, p. 172). Predomin, ntre forme - strchinile, castroanele cu buza dreapt, oalele i cnile. Specificul acesteia, cum subliniaz autorul cercetrilor, este "ntru-totul identic cu recipientele lucrate la roat din past fin i zgrunuroas care provin n aezare i cu acelea din inventarul mormintelor din necropola ce inea de aceast silite (Ibidem, p. 172). 4th century AD Brlad - Valea Seac, city of Brlad, Vaslui county, 4th century, archaeological excavations carried out by Vasile Palade. In an oval oblong pit (=1,90 x 1,15), dug out to - 1,95 m (- 1,20 m from the ancient treading layer), with the slightly bedded basis, in the eastern half with a very scaly hearth (85 x 50 m), on which there was a layer of ash (h=3 cm) and the western one of clay and coal, well trod, by repeated treading. Also with fired walls of the pit (h=40 cm) (V. Palade 2004, p. 158-159). Pit situated toward the northern border of the settlement, important for the knowledge of the pottery craftsmanship. Pieces of the perforated plated of a remade kiln for firing pots were thrown in here. Inventory. At the same time, it also contained impressive quantities of shards only from wheel-made pots, out of a grayish fine and ragged paste, rebutted during firing. They illustrated all the types known for this culture in the south of Moldavia. As for the shapes, there predominate the terrines, bowls with the straight rim, jars and mugs. Its specificity, as pointed out by the author of the researches, is "fully identical to the recipients made with the wheel out of fine and ragged paste, found in the site and those belonging to the inventory of the tombs of the necropolis of the settlement (Ibidem, p. 172).

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Anexa II. Cuptoare de olrie cu o camer / Annexe II. One-chamber kilns for firing ceramics
Secolele II-III 1. Vleni - La Moar = La Moric, jud. Bacu, secolele II-III, spturi arheologice realizate de Vasile Ursache. n aezarea datat n secolele II-III de la Vleni s-au descoperit cuptoare cu vetrele arse puternic, la mari temperaturi, ceea ce nu exclude folosirea lor i pentru ars ceramica modelat cu mna (1968, p. 117, fig. 5/2). Vleni - La Moar = La Moric, Bacu county, 2rd3th centuries, archaeological excavations made by Vasile Ursache. In the site of Vleni dated to the 2rd and 3th centuries there were uncovered two kilns with hearths strongly burnt, at high temperature values, which does not exclude their usage also for hand-shaped ceramics (1968, p. 117, fig. 5/2).

2. Biharea - Grdina CAP Baraj, jud. Satu Mare, la nord de cetatea de pmnt, comun situat la circa 12
km nord-vest de Oradea, jud. Bihor, secolele II-III, spturi S. Dumitracu. La Biharea, n locuirea din perioada roman, spre est de ncperea de deservire a atelierului de olrit, prevzut cu trei cuptoare de ars ceramica i o ncperea de deservire, s-a descoperit un cuptor fr grtar. Cuptorul de form cilindric, dar cu pereii arcuii, era alctuit numai din camera de ardere a combustibilului i a vaselor, care s-a spat n lutul galben. n fa era prevzut cu o prisp pentru protejarea gurii de alimentare. ncperea de deservire, n ea se mai aflau numeroase fragmente ceramice (S. Dumitracu 1979, p. 303). Biharea - Grdina CAP Baraj, Satu Mare county, to the north of the earth fortress, commune situated at about 12 km north-west of Oradea, Bihor county, 2rd3th centuries, archaeological excavations made by S. Dumitracu. In Biharea, during the habitation dated to the Roman period, to the east of the feeding chamber of the pottery workshop, with three pottery kilns and one feeding chamber, there was found a kiln without plate. The kiln was cylindrical, but with curved walls, made only of the chamber for the firing of fuel and ceramics, which was dug within the yellow clay. In front, there was also a threshold for the protection of the feeding opening. The feeding chamber contained numerous ceramic fragments (S. Dumitracu 1979, p. 303). Secolul al III-lea 3. Blteni - Grla Strmbu, com. C. A. Rosetti, jud. Buzu, secolul al III-lea, spturi arheologice realizate de I. T. Dragomir, n 1958. Cuptorul s-a semnalat n partea de sud-vest a aezrii, pe o lutrie actuala, n apropiere de Grla Strmbu, pe S11, lng bordeiul V i era din tipul cu o singur camer de ardere i a combustibilului i a vaselor, n plan semicircular i cu bolta pstrat pe o nlime de 10-15 cm. S-a construit din lut simplu, ars la rou-crmiziu i avea dou vetre suprapuse, ultima la adncimea de 80 cm fa de nivelul actual de clcare. Probabil s-a realizat pe un altul mai vechi. Era un cuptor gospodresc, dar care a fost folosit i n alte scopuri, probabil i pentru ars ceramica modelat cu mna, cum indic arderea vetrei acestuia la mari temperaturi, pn la zgurificare (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 12, fig. 1). Blteni - Grla Strmbu, commune C. A. Rosetti, Buzu county, 3rd century, archaeological excavations carried out by I. T. Dragomir, in 1958. The kiln was identified in the southwestern side of the settlement, on a nowadays clay quarry, near Grla Strmbu, on S11, near hut V. It had one firing chamber for both fuel and pots, with a half-circular plan and the vault preserved for an about 10-15 cm height. It was made of simple clay, fired until it turned

90

Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

brick red and it had two overlapped hearths, the last one at the depth of 80 cm in relation to the current treading layer. Probably it was built on top of a former older one. It was a domestic kiln, but it was used in other purposes as well, probably also for firing hand-modeled ceramics, as it is indicated by the firing of the hearth at very high temperature values, until it becomes scaly (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 12, fig. 1). Secolul al IV-lea 4. Voetin - La curte, jud. Vrancea, secolul al IV-lea, spturi arheologice realizate de Anton Paragin i Victor Bobi (fig. 3). Pe dreapta prului Coatcu, la aproximativ 200 m nord-vest de satul Voetin, com. Sihlea, n aezarea din secolul al IV-lea s-a descoperit un cuptor cu o singur camer (=1,50 m). Cam era de foc s-a spat n pmntul viu, cu vatra nu prea adnc de la nivelul antic de clcare (h=15 cm) i era bine conservat i ars puternic, cu partea superioar boltit nalt i cu deschiderea de evacuare a focului n extremitatea de nord-vest. Gura de foc, mult prelungit spre exterior, s-a orientat spre sud, probabil aici se ardea combustibilul. i camera de foc i de ardere a vaselor ct i gura de alimentare au fost acoperite cu un strat de lutuial mai gros, puternic ars n urma unor repetate folosiri (A. Paragin, V. Bobi 1983, fig. 12/1, 2; 15). Camera de alimentare a fost tiat de o vatr amenajat dup dezafectarea cuptorului, se afla spre sud i nu avea dimensiuni prea mari. Particulariti: cuptorul avea ncperea de acces mic, de aici se realiza i alimentarea cu lemne; uoara prelungire a gurii de foc, permitea ardea combustibilului aici. Inventar: n camera de alimentare se aflau baze de amfore romane, de asemena, pri de vase modelate la roat din past fin sau zgrunuroas, de culoare cenuie, specifice arealului culturii Sntana de Mure i ceramic lucrat cu mna, foarte friabil, de culoare brun-castanie (Ibidem, p. 15, fig. 15).

Fig. 3. Voetin - La curte. Cuptor, secolul al IV-lea. Legenda: 1 sol vegetal; 2-3 pmnt cenuiu; 4 cu arsur; 5 pmnt galben-deschis; 6 vatr cuptor a; 7 oase, ceramic (apud A. Paragin, V. Bobi 1983, fig. 15). Kiln, 4th century. Key: 1 vegetal soil; 2-3 light and dark grayish soil; 4 soil with burnt remains; 5 light yellowish soil; 6 the hearth of the kiln; 7 bones, ceramics (apud A. Paragin, V. Bobi 1983, fig. 15).

Voetin - La curte, Vrancea county, 4th century, archaeological excavations carried out by Anton Paragin and Victor Bobi (fig. 3). On the right side of runlet Coatcu, at about 200 m northwest of Voetin village, commune Sihlea, in the 4th century settlement, there was discovered a one-chamber kiln (=1,50 m). The firing chamber was dug out in the living soil, with the well preserved hearth (h=15 cm) strongly burnt, with the upper part highly vaulted and a fire evacuation opening in the northwest extremity. The firing chamber opening, much extended towards the exterior, was oriented to the south, probably where the fuel was burnt. The firing chamber and the one used for firing the pots as well as the feeding opening were covered with a thicker layer of clay, considerably burnt following repeated usages (A. Paragin, V. Bobi 1983, fig. 12/1, 2; 15). The feeding chamber was cut by a hearth created after the kiln stopped being used. It was towards the south and had small dimensions (fig. 3).

Anexa II. Cuptoare cu o camer / Annexe II. One-chamber kilns

91

Particularities: the kiln has a small access chamber, wherefrom it was fed with wood; the slight extension of the fire opening allowed its burning down there. Inventory: in the feeding chamber there were bases of Roman amphora, parts of wheel modeled pots made of grayish fine or rough paste, specific to the area of Sntana de Mure culture and brownish very friable hand-made ceramics (A. Paragin, V. Bobi 1983, p. 15, fig. 15). 5. Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, jud. Galai, I. T. Dragomir, n spturile din 1957 i 1958, din aezarea datat n secolele III-IV (1959, p. 453 i urm.), a degajat vetrele circulare a patru cuptoare (fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, planul spturilor de salvare (apud I. T. Dragomir 1959, fig. 1 / 1957-1958). Plan of the salvage excavations (apud I. T. Dragomir 1959, fig. 1 / 19571958).

Trei se aflau n caseta trasat n extremitatea nord-vestic a anului III i unul n caseta din captul sudvestic al anului II, la -1,80 m. Cuptoarele spate n pmnt, probabil prin boltire, au vetrele puternic arse, de culoare crmizie-rocat. Resturile acestora prezint un aspect sfrmicios, specific arderilor produse la temperaturi mai mari. Deasupra vetrelor i n preajma cuptoarelor erau i civa bolovani mari, se crede c au fost adui de pe talvegul apei Glodariului. Inventar. La Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului s-au descoperit i civa supori fragmentari, asemntori cu acei colaci de lut ars, frecvent ntlnii n aezarea dacic trzie de la Blteni - Grla Strmbu, folosii i pentru susinut vasele pe vatr (I. T. Dragomir 1961, p. 158). De asemenea, s-au gsit i numeroase fragmente ceramice, ntre care i trei oale specifice pentru complexul Sntana de Mure Cerneahov, datate la sfritul secolului al III-lea i n secolul al IV-lea p.Hr. (Ibidem, p. 159-160, fig. 7/1-3). Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, Galai county, I. T. Dragomir, in the excavations of 1957 and 1958, of the settlement dated to the 3rd4th centuries (1959, p. 453 et sq.), revealed the circular hearths of four kilns. Three were in the cassette drawn in the northwestern extremity of ditch III and one in the cassette toward the southwestern end of ditch II, at -1,80 m (fig. 4). The Kilns dug in the soil, probably by vaulting, were strongly burnt, and their color was reddish-brick. Their remains show a powdery aspect, specific to the firing taking place at high temperature values. Above the hearths and around the kilns there were also several large boulders, it is believed they were brought from the river of Glodari. Inventory. At Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului there were found other fragmentary supports, similar to those torsades of fired clay, frequently found in the late Dacian site of Blteni - Grla Strmbu, also used for sustaining the pots on the hearth (I. T. Dragomir 1961, p. 158). Numerous other ceramic fragments were also found, and among them three pots of the types of recipients specific to the Sntana de Mure Cerneahov complex, dated to the end of the 3rd century and during the

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

4th century AD (I. T. Dragomir 1961, p. 159-160, fig. 7/1-3). 6. Iai - Nicolina, jud. Iai, sfritul secolului V i prima jumtate a secolului VI, staiune cercetat sistematic de Ion Ioni (fig. 5). Cuptorul 3, de olrie cu o singur camer, andosat la locuina C 8, orientat cu faa spre sud, cu vatra construit din fragmente ceramice i lut i datat la sfritul secolului al V-lea i prima jumtate a secolului al VI-lea. A fost descoperit de I. Ioni, n sectorul C al aezrii de la Nicolina, unde au funcionat ateliere de olrie n toate etapele de existen (fig. 5). Datare. S-a considerat drept varianta D a cuptoarelor de la Iai, singura cu o camer i s-a datat ctre sfritul secolului al IV-lea i nceputul celui urmtor (1985, p. 34, fig. 2 b). Pornind de la o diagram ntocmit n funcie de toate caracteristicile complexelor de locuire, cuptorul sa ncadrat n a doua faz de locuire, conform ordonrii lor cronologice.

Faza mai nou se caracterizeaz prin schimbarea vechilor serii tipologice ale ceramicii, cu predominarea celor lucrate cu mna.

Fig. 5. Iai - Nicolina. Cuptor de olrie cu o camer. Legenda: sol, 1 vegetal, 2-3 negricios i cenuos, 4-5 cafeniu i galben; 6 vatra; 7 pietre (apud I. Ioni 1985, fig. 2b). One-chamber pottery kiln. Key: soil 1 vegetal, 2-3 blackish and grayish, 4-5 brownish and yellow; 6 hearth; 7 stones (apud I. Ioni 1985, fig. 2b).

Astfel locuina C3 din faza II suprapune parial cuptorul de olrie C3 din faza I (Ibidem, p. 45-46, tabel 4). n aceast faz se reduce i capacitatea cuptoarelor i datorit micorrii dimensiunilor vaselor, dei formele continu pe cele din etapa anterioar (Ibidem, p. 47). Iai - Nicolina, Iai county, 4th5th centuries AD, settlement systematically studied by Ion Ioni. One-chamber pottery kiln, abutted to dwelling C8, face to the south, with the hearth made of sherds and clay. It was discovered by I. Ioni, in sector C of the settlement of Nicolina, where pottery workshops functioned during all its phases of existence (fig. 5). Dating. It was considered as variant D of the one-chamber kilns and it was dated to the end of the 4th century and beginning of the 5th (1985, p. 34, fig. 2 b). Starting from a diagram prepared pending on all the dwelling complexes, the kiln was included in the second dwelling phase, in accordance with their chronological ordering. The newer phase is characterized by the change of the old typological series of pottery, with the prevalence of the hand-made one. Thus, dwelling C3 of phase II partly overlaps the pottery kiln C3 of phase I (Ibidem, p. 45-46, tablee 4). It was during this phase that the capacity of the kilns was reduced also due to the dimensions of the pots, although the shapes continue those of the previous phase (Ibidem, p. 47).

93

Anexa III. Cuptoare contemporane de ars ceramica


I. H. Crian a stabilit apropieri i cu instalaiile moderne de ars ceramica de la Marginea. Gropile de ars ceramic de aici, prevzute fiecare cu o ncpere de acces lateral, se spau ades aproape de cas, n curtea olarului iar dup un anumit numr de utilizri se astupau cu mult cenu, rmas de la arderile repetate, cu prile de vase care acopereau hornul n timpul funcionrii, cu pmntul ce se scotea din ele sau cu alte resturi menajere (1967, p. 3). Marginea - cuptoare contemporane de ars ceramica, jud. Suceava (fig. 6). n centrele de olari, precum cel de la Marginea, se folosesc instalaii pentru ars ceramic cu o singur camer, amenajate n gropi (I. H. Crian 1967, p. 117). Pentru construirea acestui tip de cuptoare se spa o groap de forma unui trunchi de con cu vrful n sus (gur/baz=90/1,5 cm). Vasele erau cldite n interiorul primei gropi n aa fel nct flacra s fie dirijat printre ele, s aib tragere. Dup ce se umplea groapa cu vase, la suprafaa solului se astupa cu pri de vase, printre care ieea fumul i flacra. Alturi de groapa cuptorului, la gura acestuia i n faa praefurnium-ului, s-a spat o mic ncpere necesar accesului la cuptor. Din aceast groap lateral se aprindea i se ntreinea focul cu bee subiri i uscate de brad, care ddeau un foc iute i puternic. Cnd vasele erau ptrunse de foc i cptau o culoare roie incandescent, gura gropii principale ct i comunicaia dintre cele dou gropi se acoperea cu lut umed. Arderea continua fr oxigen iar vasele cptau o culoare neagr (I. H. Crian 1967, p. 3).

Fig. 6. Marginea. Profilul unei gropi de ars vase. Legenda: A perete de lut cruat; B interiorul tronconic; C gura de foc; D scnduri de susinere; E panta de acces spre gura de foc (apud Fl. B. Florescu 1958, p. 15, fig. 7). The profile of a pottery firing pit. Key: A spared clay wall; B conical interior; C fire opening; D sustaining planks; E access slope towards the fire opening (apud Fl. B. Florescu 1958, p. 15, fig. 7).

Annexe III. Contemporary Pottery Kilns


I. H. Crian established similarities to the modern installations for firing ceramics such as the one of Marginea. The pits of firing ceramics down there, equipped each with a side access chamber, were frequently dug close to the house, in the yard of the potters household, and after a certain number of usage they were filled up with a lot of ash, left from the repeated burning, with the parts of pots which were covering the chimney during the functioning, with the earth taken out of them or with other domestic remains (1967, p. 3). Marginea contemporary pottery kilns, Suceava county. In the pottery centers, such as those of Marginea, one chamber installations for firing ceramics are being arranged in pits (Ibidem, p. 117). For the construction of such type of kilns a up-pointed conical pit was dug ( mouth/base=90; 1,5 cm). The hearths were made within a first pit so that the flame would be directed between them, so that they can assure the hot air flow. After the pit was filled with pots, at the surface of the soil it was filled with sherds, and among them the smoke and the flame would come out. By the pit of the kiln, at its mouth and in front of the praefurnium for the fire, a chamber for providing access to the kiln was dug out (fig. 6). From this lateral pit, the fire was started with thin and dry fir wood sticks, which produced a strong and fast fire. When the pots were penetrated by the fire and they would get an incandescent red color, the mouth of the main pit and the communication between the two pits was covered with moist clay. The firing continued without oxygen and the pots were turned black (Ibidem, p. 3).

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Anexa/Anexe IV. Ateliere i cuptoare de ars ceramic cu dou camere suprapuse, secolele III a.Hr.-I p.Hr. / Workshops and pottery firing kilns with two overlapped chambers, 3rd century BC1th century AD
Judeul Galai / Galai County 1. Poiana - Cetate, com. Nicoreti, jud. Galai, sec. III a.Hr., important staiune pluristratigrafic situat n apropiere de Tecuci, aezare geto-dacic, identificat cu Piroboridava, spturi Radu Vulpe, Ecaterina Vulpe i colaboratori.

Fig. 7. Poiana - Cetate. Cuptor dacic, spturi R. Vulpe i colaboratori (apud Gh. Iordache 1996, fig. 10/II). Dacian kiln, excavations by R. Vulpe and the collaborators (apud Gh. Iordache 1996, fig. 10/II).

Staiunea se situeaz pe terasa nalt a Siretului, dup Ptolemeu pe malul stng, n apropiere de Tecuci, n provincia Moesia Inferior (R. Vulpe, Ec. Vulpe 1933, p. 253 i urm.; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 59; M. Coma 1985, p. 171, nota 2; Al. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, p. 335). Cuptor, de form tronconic, datat n nivelul de locuire din sec I-II p.Chr, descoperit aproape ntreg. Era de tipul cu dou camere, cu perete median reprezentat de o lespede de piatr pe care se sprijinea grtarul (R. Vulpe 1950, 1, p. 50). Camera de foc avea o nlime de 0,38 m (R. Vulpe, S. Teodor 2003, p. 32). n cuptor erau rmase fragmente de vase lucrate la roat, cenuii iar stratigrafic se afla n stratul corespunztor nivelului V, astfel c a fost datat ntre nceputul sec. I i jumtatea sec. II p.Chr (fig. 7). Se dateaz ntre secolele IV a.Chr. - I p.Chr., i cunoate ase niveluri de locuirem, "Formele ceramice specifice civilizaiei geto-dacice, raportate la diversele niveluri constituie o imagine excelent a evoluiei olriei pe parcursul diferitelor faze ale La Tne-ului dacic" (R. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, p. 335). Cuptorul de olrie s-a surprins n suprafaa H, nivelul II2, este de form conic i se adncete la 1,30 m. Focria s-a amenajat n pmntul nederanjat i prezint o form uor tronconic (h=0,38 m), prevzut cu perete median (h=43 cm; l=18 cm). Pe acesta i pe un gardin se sprijinea grtarul circular, pe "o lespede vertical din marn ars", un perete median care separ cele dou camere (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 203; vezi i 1950, p. 50). Descrierea prezint un cuptor tronconic cu grtar orizontal sprijinit pe un perete median (E. Coma 1985, p. 171, nota 2; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 504). Camera de ardere a vaselor era parial deteriorat (h=75 cm) (R. Vulpe 1950, p. 50; Idem, 1960, p. 247; Fl. B. Florescu 1965, p. 143; Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 60; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 33, fig. 10/II; R. Vulpe, S. Teodor 2003, p. 32). Inventar. Modelarea vaselor pe loc s-a argumentat i prin prezena "polisoarele de lut, unelte ce serveau la lustruitul vaselor, au fost gsite din belsug n toate s pturile de la Poiana, la diferite niveluri" (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 203). n cuptor erau rmase fragmente de vase lucrate la roat, cenuii, Vase cenuii cu pasta fin, dens, impermeabil, dar casabile aproape ca sticla la diferenele de temperatur

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brusce (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 203). Vasele sparte erau reparate cu plumb, folosindu-se un procedeu cunoscut de olarii greco-romani, cum sugereaz prezena unui picior de vas mic cenuiu de tehnic superioar indigen, prezentnd o sudur fcut cu acest metal. Din spturi provine o plac de plumb, probabil pstrat pentru realizarea unor astfel de reparaii (Ibidem). Dup R. Vulpe, n zona Poiana, vechii locuitori ai acesteia "De la grecii localnici import i tehnica olriei fcut la roat, tehnica pe care i-o nsuesc cu mult amabilitate. Vasele cenuii indigene de tehnic superioar nu rmn cu nimic mai prejos fa de cele greco-romane din punctul de vedere al soliditii i acurateei i numai cu puin din punctul de vedere al fineei" (Ibidem, fig. 19-20/1). Dup R. Vulpe, multe dintre formele ceramicii grecoromane au fost imitate de olarii localnici (Ibidem). Poiana - Cetate, Nicoreti commune, Galai county, 3rd century BC, Geto-Dacian site, identified with Piroboridava, excavations by Radu and Ecaterina Vulpe and the collaborators. The site is situated on the high terrace of Siret, according to Ptolemy on the left bank, near Tecuci, in the province Moesia Inferior (R. Vulpe, Ec. Vulpe 1933, p. 253et sq.; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 59; 1973b, p. 103; M. Coma 1985, p. 171, note 2; Al. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, p. 335). It is dated between 4th century BC 1st century AD, and has six levels of habitation, "The ceramic shapes specific to the Geto-Dacian period, reported to the various levels, represent an excellent image of the evolution of pottery during the various phases of the Dacian La Tne" (Al. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, p. 335). The kiln is of the period before the Roman conquest R. Vulpe and collaborators (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, note 131; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 504). The kiln for firing pottery was identified in surface H, at level II 2, its shape is conical and deepens down to - 1,30 m. The perforated plate is supported on a "vertical slab of fired marl", on a median wall separating the two chambers (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 203; see also 1950, p. 50). The description presents a conical kiln with horizontal plate supported on a median wall (M. Coma 1985, p. 171, note 2). The pots were shaped on the spot as sustained also by the "clay polishers, tools that served at polishing the vessels, found in a large number in all the excavations of Poiana, at various levels" (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 203). According to R. Vulpe, in the area of Poiana, the old inhabitants of this area "also imported from the Greek inhabitants the wheel-based technique of pottery making, which they kindly appropriate. The indigenous grayish pots of upper technique are equally qualitative as the Greek-Roman ones, in terms of solidity and accuracy and not less from the point of view of fineness" (Ibidem, fig. 19-20/1). According to R. Vulpe, many of the shapes of the Greek-Roman ceramics were imitated by the local potters (Ibidem). Inventory: the grayish pots made of fine thick waterproof paste, but almost as breakable as glass at sudden differences of temperature values " (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 203). The broken pots were repaired with lead, using a procedure known by the Greek-Roman potters, as suggested by the presence of a small greyish pot made in the upper indigenous technique, presenting a welding done with this metal. The excavations also resulted in a piece of lead, probably preserved for carrying out such repairing works (R. Vulpe et alii 1951, p. 203). 2. Tometi, jud. Iai, sec. III-II a.Hr., perioada geto-dacic, semnalare V. Chirica, M. Tnsachi 1985. n cercetrile de suprafa ntreprinse n preajma municipiului Iai, ntre urmele de locuire specifice secolelor III-II a.Hr., s-a menionat i un cuptor n preajm cu fragmente ceramice getice, bastarne i amfore greceti (V. Chirica, M. Tnsachi 1985, p. 406). Tometi, Iai county, 3rd2th centuries BC, Geto-Dacian period The kiln for firing pottery was identified, specific to the Geto-Dacian period (V. Chirica, M. Tnsachi 1985, p. 406). Judeul Vrancea / Vrancea county 3. Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, jud. Vrancea, secolele I a.Hr.-I p.Hr., n urma unor cercetri de suprafa i a unui sondaj arheologic realizat de Victor Bobi, Ion Cernat (fig. 8-9). De menionat c n apropiere au fost identificate i urmele unei locuine din aceast perioad. Cuptorul o construcie masiv de form tronconic (h>1,6 m, iniial avea probabil 2 m), din tipul celor cu dou camere, s-a descoperit cu ocazia unor cercetri de suprafa ntreprinse pe terasa superioar stng a vii Vrstura Mare, n malul surpat, situat n partea de nord-est a satului Pdureni - Jaritea.

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Fig. 7. Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi. Cuptor de ars ceramic (apud V. Bobi, I. Cerrnat 1991, fig. 1). Pottery firing kiln (apud V. Bobi, I. Cerrnat 1991, fig. 1).

Dei afectat de prbuirea marginii terasei pe care s-a construit, avea grtarul prbuit parial, seciunea trasat a putut surprinde principalele detalii de construcie (fig. 8-9).

Fig. 8. Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi. Profil. Legenda: 1 sol vegetal, 2-3 sol cenuiu, galben, 4 umplutur focar, 5 sol ars rou, 6 grtar, 7 perete median, 8 ceramic, 9 pietre, 10 peretele din spate nainte de reamenajare, 11 feuial, 12 prundi (apud V. Bobi, I. Cerrnat 1991, fig. 2). Profile. Key: 1 vegetal soil, 2-3 greyish and yellow soil, 4 filling of the firing chamber, 5 red fired soil, 6 plate, 7 median wall, 8 ceramics, 9 stone, 10 back wall before rearrangement, 11 clay rendering, 12 gravel (apud V. Bobi, I. Cerrnat 1991, fig. 2).

Camera de foc (maxim=1,75 m; h=0,75 m) are baza construit dintr-un strat de lut cu pleav, cu o grosime de 5 cm, care suprapune un postament de pietre de ru de 10 cm, depus pe o fundaie de prundi (V. Bobi, I. Cerrnat 1991, p. 251). Mijlocul focarului se lrgete pn la 0,90 m, ngustndu-se la baza grtarului iari la 1,75 m, plus treapta pe care se sprijinea grtarul. Focarul era prevzut cu un pilon central de form tronconic (h=75 cm; baz=45 cm), realizat din pmnt cruat. O singur gur de foc (h=30 cm), de form rectangular cu colurile rotunjite, mult ngroat i nlat fa de baza camerei de foc a cuptorului i alungit spre groapa de acces, avea orientarea sud sud vest (Ibidem, p. 351). Grtarul (h=20 cm) s-a sprijinit pe pilonul central i pe o treapt construit special n partea superioar a peretelui camerei de foc, detaliu de construcie ce particularizeaz aceast instalaie. Iniial s-a construit pe un postament de brne de lemn pe care au fost fixai, cnd lutul era nc moale, capete de pari circulari dispui vertical, pentru realizarea perforaiilor de tiraj, dup care a urmat arderea, pstrnd n felul acesta urmele netede att ale perforaiilor ct i ale bazei grtarului (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, p. 352). Camera de ardere a vaselor, superioar, de ardere a vaselor (=1,60 m; h=0,60 m), avea partea superioar de aspect piriform, cu pereii groi pn la 30 cm, din care spre 25 cm erau ari la rou. Analogii: cuptorul a fost apropiat de cel de la ifeti - La Grigoreti, din mediu carpic (S. Morintz, N.

Haruchi 1962, p. 525), de asemenea i cu instalaia de ars ceramica de la Dumbrveni, din mediu Sntana de Mure (M. Coma 1981, p. 89).
Astfel, meterii comunitii geto-dace de aici au realizat o mbinare ingenioas a unor metode eficiente de ntrire a rezistenei cuptorului (Ibidem p. 353). Groapa de acces se afla n partea dreapt a gurii de foc.

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Fig. 9. Pdureni - Jaritea, seciune prin cuptor (apud V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, fig. 3). Cross section through the kiln (apud V. Bobi, I. Cerrnat 1991, fig.3).

Inventar: din pmntul de umplutur a camerei superioare s-a adunat ceramic modelat din past grosier lucrat cu mna i din past fin lucrat la roat. ntre forme predomin vaselor-borcan de diferite mrimi, de culoare cenuie (Ibidem, 352, fig. 3/1-6), cu analogii n staiunile La Tne III de pe teritoriul judeului Vrancea i din alte staiuni. Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, Vrancea county, 1st century BC-1st century AD, following surface researches and an archeological sondage undertaken by Victor Bobi, Ion Cernat (fig. 7-8). Mention should be made that nearby there were also identified traces of dwellings of this period. The kiln a massive construction of conical shape (h > 1,60 m, initially it probably was of 2 m), of the type of kilns with two overlapped chambers, was discovered with the occasion of surface researches carried out on the higher left terrace of the Vrstura Mare valley, in the broken bank, situated on the north-east side of Pdureni Jaritea village. Although it was affected by the collapsing of the border of the terrace on which it was built, it had the plate partly collapsed, the drawn section could identify the main construction details. The firing chamber (maximal=1,75 m; h=0,75 m) has the base made of a layer of clay with chaff, with the depth of 5 cm, which is superposed to a socle of 10 cm river stones, laid on top of a gravel foundation (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, p. 251). The middle part of the firing chamber increases up to 0,90 m, narrowing at the base of the plate at 1,75 m, plus the step on which the plate was sustained. The firing chamber had a conical central post (h=75 cm; base=45 cm), made of spared earth. A single firing chamber (h=30 cm), rectangular with rounded corners, much thickened and heightened in relation to the base of the firing chamber of the kiln and extended toward the access pit, was south west oriented (Ibidem, p. 351). The plate (h=20 cm) was supported on the post and on a step especially made in the upper part of the firing chamber, construction details which particularize this installation. Initially it was built on a post made of wooden beams, on which they were embedded when the clay was still soft, the ends of circular poles vertically disposed, for creating the perforations for the plate flow, and after this the firing followed, thus preserving the polished traces both of the perforations and of the base of the plate, 20 cm high (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, p. 352). Upper firing chamber for the pots (=1,60 m; h=0,60 m), its upper part was pear-shaped, with thick walls up to 30 cm, out of which 25 cm were fired red (fig. 7-8). The access pit was to the right of the fire opening. Analogies: the kiln was compared to the one of ifeti - La Grigoreti, from a Carpian environment (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, p. 525), and also to the ceramic firing installation of Dumbrveni, from a Sntana de Mure environment (M. Coma 1981, p. 89). Thus, the craftsmen of the Geto-Dacian community achieved an ingenuous combination of efficient methods for fortifying the resistance of the kiln (V. Bobi, I. Cernat 1991, p. 353). Inventory: from the filling earth of the upper chamber, there were gathered ceramic items made of a raw paste, shaped either by hand or with the wheel. Among the shapes, there predominate the jar vessels of various sizes, of grayish color (Ibidem, 352, fig. 3/1-6), with analogies in the La Tne III settlements on the territory of Vrancea county and other settlements. Judeul Neam / Neam County 4. Poiana - Silite, com. Dulceti, jud. Neam, spturi Gheorghe Bichir.

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Staiune specific La Tne-ul geto-dacic, secolele I a.Hr. - I p.Hr., cultura carpic i Sntana de Mure. Important pentru stabilirea cronologiei interne a acestor ultime dou culturi. Cuptor de ars vase (Al. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, p. 336), datat de M. Coma n secolul I p.Hr. cu focarul - singurul pstrat, prevzut pe mijloc cu un perete median. Nu s-au dat dimensiunile prii pstrate (1985, p. 171, nota 3). Inventar. n apropierea acestuia s-a gsit i o moned roman de bronz, emis n timpul lui Marcus Antonius (32-31 a.Hr.) (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 57; Idem 1973b, p. 103). Poiana - Silite, Broteanu, Dulceti commune, Neam county, excavations by Gheorghe Bichir. Settlement specific to the Geto-Dacian La Tne, 1st century BC - 1st century AD, Carps and Sntana de Mure cultures. Important for establishing the internal chronology of these last two cultures (Al. Vulpe, C. Preda, Gh. Bichir 2000, p. 336). Potter firing kiln dated by M. Coma to the 1st century AD with the firing chamber-the only one of its kind preserved, having in the middle a median wall. The dimensions of the fragment preserved were not specified (1985, p. 171, note 3). Inventory. Near it, a bronze Roman coin was found. It was issued during Marcus Antonius (32-31 BC) (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 57; Idem 1973b, p. 103). 5. Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, jud. Neam, sec. I a.Hr. - I p.Hr., spturi Constantin Matas, I. Zamoteanu i M. Zamoteanu (fig. 10). Cetuie La Tne centru dacic ntrit de tip oppidum (C. Preda 1994, p. 186), situat n marginea de vest a municipiului Piatra Neam, pe prelungirea dinspre nord a Muntelui Doamnei (Ibidem, p. 340, fig. 1). Pe terasa 4 vest s-au descoperit resturile unui cuptor de olrie, spat n pmnt, din tipul cu dou camere i plac perforat i stlp de susinere. O parte din numeroasele gropi circulare de pe marginea terasei trebuie s fi servit pentru scoaterea lutului (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 340). Focarul cu stlp central a fost fcut din pmnt cruat (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 33). Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, Neam county, 1st century BC - 1st century AD, excavations by Constantin Matas, I. Zamoteanu and M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 340). La Tne fortress fortified Dacian settlement of the oppidum type (C. Preda 1994, p. 186), situated in the western end of the city of Piatra Neam, in the northern end of mount Muntele Doamnei (Ibidem, p. 340, fig. 1). On the 4th west terrace, there were discovered the remains of a potters kiln hollowed from the natural soil. This kiln was of the type characterized by two chambers, a perforated plate and a sustaining pillar. Some of the numerous circular pots on the side of the terrace must have been used for clay extraction (fig. 10). The fire place with central pillar was made of spared natural soil (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 340; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 33).

Fig. 10. Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei. Planul general al spturilor n cetuia getic, X cuptorul de ars ceramic (apud C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, fig. 1). General plan of the excavations in the Dacian fortress. X The kiln for firing ceramic ware (apud C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, fig. 1).

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Anexa/Annexe V. Ateliere i cuptoare de olrie cu dou camere suprapuse, secolele II-III / Workshops and pottery firing kilns with two overlapped chambers, 2rd-3th centuries AD
Judeul Buzu / Buzu County 1. Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, com. Merei, jud. Buzu, cuptor din secolele II-III p.Chr., locuiri din secolele II-IV p.Chr. spturi M. Constantinescu 1972 (fig. 11-14).

Fig. 11. Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, descoperiri arheologice. A. Descoperiri carpice n judeul Buzu (apud M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 1). Archeological finds. A. Carpic finds in Buzu County (apud M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 1).

Staiunea, situat la periferia aezrii, limitat de Grla Ciuciur i Valea Seac, ocup o suprafa de peste 20 ha din extremitatea unui deal, nclinat de la nord la sud i de la vest la est. Cuptorul (h=1,30-1,50 m), din tipul cu perete median i dou guri de foc, s-a construit pe malul nalt al Grlei Ciuciur, n apropierea surselor de ap i a rezervelor de argil. Pentru aceasta terenul s-a nivelat pe o suprafa mai mare (M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 124, 127, fig. 1). Focarul, spat n pmntul viu, are pereii uor tronconici, cu deschiderea mare spre nivelul de clcare (=1,30 m; h=1,90 m) i cu vatra uor nclinat spre gurile canalelor de foc. Era mprit n dou camere inegale (l=63 i 85 cm), printr-un perete median orientat est-vest, mai gros la baz (26 i 10-11 cm), parial cruat, parial construit din lut frmntat cu paie i pleav (h=23 i 52 cm). Repetatele folosiri au dus la pietrificarea, vitrifierea peretelui median i a celor periferici pe o grosime de 18-22 cm i la arderea roie a pereilor pe o grosime de 12-16 cm. Interiorul s-a lutuit cu mai multe straturi de argil. n momentul descoperirii focarul era plin cu pmnt, cenu, crbuni, pri din placa perforat i din pereii camerei de ardere a vaselor, cu fragmente de vase i de oase de animale nearse. Cele dou guri de foc (l > 1,40 m; h=0,36-0,42 m), aflate n partea de est a instalaiei, cu baza la 2,08 m fa de nivelul actual de clcare, datorit ntinderii lor sub o cas contemporan, au fost cercetate parial. Canalele ce pornesc de la gura cuptorului spre ncperea fochistului, mai nti, pe vreo 60 cm, n parte sau cruat n pmntul viu, dup care s-au terminat folosind lut argilos amestecat cu pleav i paie tocate, modelnd ambele fiecare deschidere (l=1 m). Canalele de foc s-au construit paralel i separat unul de altul. n seciune au forme trapezoidale, colurile rotunjite i prevzute spre interior cu o crust pietrificat prin ardere, groas de 4-11 cm iar deasupra cu un strat de pmnt ars la rou (h=8-12 cm). Pentru asigurarea unei bune circulaii a aerului cald spre focarul secundar, adncimea lor s-a cobort vizibil, n msur ndeprtrii de cuptor. nclinarea gurilor de alimentare s-a fcut pn la nivelul ncperii de exploatare, aflat mai jos dect nivelul bazei cuptorului (Ibidem, p. 125-126, fig. 3/2). Grtarul pe care se stivuiau vasele, de form aproximativ circular (1,93x1,78 m; h=20-24 m), s-a

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construit din pmnt argilos amestecat cu paie tocate i pleav, pe un suport de nuiele, ce au ars la prima ntrebuinare. Pentru a se fixa grtarul, pe marginea de sus a pereilor focriei i ai peretelui median s-a cruat un prag de 2 cm (Ibidem, p. 125, fig. 3/3-4).

Fig. 12. Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia. Seciunea SII, 1-2 plan i profil sudic. Legenda: I strat steril; II pmnt-cenuiuz cu pri de chirpic i crbuni; III pmnt negru-cenuiu granulat; IV sol arabil (apud M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 2). Trench SII, 1-2 plan and south profile. Key: I sterile soil; II lightgrey layer, with fragments of adobe and charcoal; III grainy blackgrey layer; IV current tilled ground (apud M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 2).

Fig. 13. Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia. Cuptor de ars vase: 1 grtarul i seciune prin canalul de foc; 2-3 seciuni longitudinale i transversale. Legenda: O perforri astupate la reparaie; perete de lut vitrifiat; lut ars la rou (apud M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 2). Potterss kiln: 1 the perforated plate and section through the fire-hole; 2-3 longitudinal and croos sections. Key: openings walled-up during repairs; vitrified clay wall; red-baked clay (apud M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 2).

n momentul dezvelirii acestuia parial era prbuit de o parte i de alta a peretelui median. Perforrile (=2-4 cm), din care s-au pstrat 27, plus 15 pe marginea rupturii, ele au fost mai multe, erau dispuse relativ n cercuri concentrice urmnd conturul peretelui exterior al focarului. Grtarul n urma utilizrii sa pietrificat devenind cenuiu-verzui (Ibidem, p. 125, fig. 3/3). Camera de ardere a vaselor forma tronconic a acesteia (h=0,85-1 m), s-a construit deasupra plcii perforate, urmnd circumferina acestuia, tot din lut argilos amestecat cu pleav i paie tocate, dar fr schelet de susinere, cu marginea superioar boltit i n partea de sus cu o deschidere circular (=40-50 cm), prin care se cldeau vasele, ntre perforrile care asigurau circulaia aerului cald. Din ea s-a pstrat

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baza (h=10-18 cm) i pri prbuite peste grtar (Ibidem, p. 125, fig. 3/1, 4). Pentru a nu bloca perforrile, vasele cu dimensiuni mai mari de 15 cm se fixau pe supori, vltuci de lut, din care n cuptor s-au mai pstrat pri de la dou (fig. 11-13). Refaceri: dup o perioad de folosire cuptorul a fost reparat, prin aplicarea unui strat de lut bine frmntat, fr ingrediente, ntre ncheietura dintre placa perforat, pereii camerei inferioare i peretele median. n momentul refacerii s-au astupat accidental i patru perforri (Ibidem, p. 125, fig. 3/1, 4). Analogii: Blteni - Grla Strmbu (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 14, fig. 1-2), pentru Moldova s-au menionat descoperirile semnalate de Gh. Bichir (1966, p. 503) i descoperirile de la Micia - Veel, publicate de O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan (1970, tabel sinoptic), n care s-au stabilit analogii cu toate descoperirile cunoscute pn atunci n Romnia. Inventar. n umplutura instalaiei predomina pmntul, cenua i crbunii, dar s-au gsit i cteva fragmente ceramice de la diferite vase (Ibidem, p. 125, fig. 3/3). Ceramica din secolele II-III p.Hr. Din umplutura cuptorului s-au adunat 162 fragmente, din care 73 modelate cu mna, care provin de la cel puin 5 vase diferite i 89 modelate la roat, care provin de la cel puin 16 vase diferite. Nu este vorba de arj, ele s-au aruncat dup ncetarea funcionrii cuptorului, dei, probabil i aceste vase au fost arse n cuptor (Ibidem, p. 127-128).

Fig. 14. Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia. 1 Vas roman 1; 27 ceramica lucrat la roat, 2-3, 5-7 zona cuptorului, 4 pe nivel (apud M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 5-6). 1 Roman pot; 2-7 wheel-thrown pottery, 2-3, 5-7 from the kiln area, 4 layer surface (apud M. Constantinescu 1978, fig. 5-6).

Din ceramica modelat cu mna, degresat cu amot i scoici pisate, vizibil la exterior, ars roucrmiziu s-au reconstituit trei vase borcan, plus dou buze (Ibidem, fig. 4) iar din cadrul ceramicii modelate la roat, din past omogen, fin, ars neoxidant, de culoare cenuie cu diferite nuane, s-au detaat pri de la dou cni i de la alte vase mici, un vas cu dou toarte (Ibidem, p. 128, fig. 5/1-3; 7/47) (fig. 14/2, 5, 7), castroane fragmentare cu buza arcuit interior i o pater lucrat din past fin (Ibidem, fig. 6/1) (fig. 14/1). Alte fragmente provin de la vase mari, chiupuri, dou buze evazate, pereii unui vas lucrat din past galben-cenuie, ornate cu fine lustruiri orizontale i pri de la o amfor probabil roman (Ibidem, fig. 6/1-2, 4; 7/1-3, 10) (fig. 14/3-4, 6). De asemenea, prezena ceramicii modelate cu mna, decorate cu brie duble alveolate i absena ceramicii lucrate la roat, de culoare roie, care, cum subliniaz Gh. Bichir se nmulete n fazele mai

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trzii ale culturii carpice, a ngduit autorului cercetrilor s dateze aezarea ntre sfritul secolului al IIlea p.Hr. i prima parte a secolului al III-lea p.Hr. (1965, p. 691; Idem 1966, p. 503; Idem 1973a, p. 70). Particulariti: guri de foc trapezoidale construite paralel i separat, pe circa 60 cm n pmnt viu i nlate cu lut amestecat cu pleav i paie tocate paralel unul de altul i nclinate mult spre ncperea de exploatare; prag de 2 cm cruat pe marginea de sus a focriei i pe peretele median i refacerea cuptorului. M. Constantinescu, urmrind sistemul de funcionare i avnd n vedere dimensiunile celor dou guri de alimentare, a considerat c, pentru nclzirea cuptorului, focarul a avut rol secundar, n raport cu acela al gurilor de alimentare de mari dimensiuni, n care focul se fcea n ambele canale. De aici jraticul se putea mpinge n camera de jos. Pentru a se obine o ceramic roie, deschiderea din bolta cuptorului rmnea neacoperit iar pentru una cenuie fin se continua arderea dar cu el 'nbuit", prin acoperirea temporar a bolii i nfundarea cu mult cenu a gurilor de foc (Ibidem, p. 125, 127, fig. 3/4). O ardere superioar se obinea prin ndeprtarea vaselor ct mai mult de flcri (Ibidem, p. 127). Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, commune of Merei, Buzu County, 2rd3th and 4th centuries AD. Archeological research by M. Constantinescu 1972 (fig. 11-14). The Site is located at the periphery of the village and is bordered by the Cuciur and Valea Seac creeks. Its surface is over 20 hectares, on the edge of a hill, sloped north-south and west-east. The Kiln (h=1.30-1.50 m) is of median wall and two fire-holes type, and it was built on the high bank of the Ciucur creek, near the water and clay sources. During the building phase, a larger area of the ground was leveled (M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 124, 127, fig. 1). The Fireplace is hollowed out in the sterile clay, with the walls sloping slightly outwards, to the treading level (=1.30 m; h=1.90 m) and the bottom sloped towards the fire-holes. The fireplace is divided in two chambers of unequal size (w=63 and 85 cm), by a median wall oriented east-west, thicker at its base (26 and 10-11 cm), part spared, part build out from clay mixed with straw and chaff (h=23 and 52 cm). Its repeated use resulted in the petrification and vitrification of the median wall as well as of the outer walls, to a depth of 18-22 cm, and their red-baking to an additional depth of 12-16 cm. The inside was finished with several layers of daub. At the time of its discovery, the kiln was filled with earth, ash, charcoal, fragments of the perforated plate and the walls, as well as with potsherds and animal bones (not charred). The two fire-holes (w > 1,40 m; h=0.36-0.42 m), are located at the east end of the installation, at a depth of 2.08 m from the current treading level and, due to a superimposed modern house, were only partially excavated. The channels (l=1 m) leading from the kilns mouth to the stokers place were spared from the ground for their first 60 cm then finished with clay mixed with chopped straw and chaff and their openings each hand-modeled. The fire-ducts are parallel ad built separately. Their cross-section is trapezoidal with rounded corners and their inner surface transformed in a fire-petrified crust 4-11 cm deep, with a red-baked layer on top (h=8-12 cm). To ensure the optimal hot air circulation toward the secondary fireplace, their depth is growing in the direction of the openings. The channels are sloped to the level of the working area, which is lower than the kilns base (Ibidem, p. 125-126, fig. 3/2). The perforated plate on which the pots were piled is roughly circular (1.93x1.78; h=20-24 m) and is made of clay mixed with chopped straw and chaff on wattle which burned away during the first firing. The perforated plate was affixed to a 2 cm ledge spared from the fireplace walls and the median wall (Ibidem, p. 125, fig. 3/3-4). At the time of its discovery, the plate was partially collapsed on both sides of the median wall. The perforations (=2-4 cm), out of which 27 were preserved, along with another 15 on the broken edge (out of the larger initial number), were arranged in roughly concentric circles, following the contour of the outer wall of the fireplace. The perforated plate was petrified as a result of the frequent use, to a greenish-grey color (Ibidem, p. 125, fig. 3/3). The firing chamber: the conical vault of the kiln (h=0,85-1 m) is build above the perforated plate, following its circumference, of clay mixed with chopped straw and chaff as well, but without the supporting wattle, with a domed top and a circular opening at the apex (=40-50 cm) for the loading of the firing chamber, between the smoke holes. Only the base of the firing chamber is preserved, to a height of 10-18 cm, as well as some parts collapsed on top of the perforated plate (Ibidem, p. 125, fig. 3/1, 4). To keep the perforations unobstructed, the pots larger than 15 cm in diameter were placed on supporting clay cylinders, fragments of two of which were recovered from the kiln.

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Repairs: after a period of use, the kiln was repaired by applying a layer of well mixed clay with no additives at the junction between the perforated plate and the median wall with the lower chamber walls. During the repairs, four of the perforations were accidentally filled (Ibidem, p. 125, fig. 3/1, 4). Analogies: Blteni - Grla Strmbu (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 14, fig. 1-2), for Moldavia there are to be mentioned the finds reported by Gh. Bichir (1966, p. 503) and the finds of Micia - Veel, reported by O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan (1970, the summarizing table), which establishes the analogies with all the finds known so far in Romania. Inventory: The filling of the installation is mainly earth, ash and charcoal, with which were also fond several potsherds from various periods (Ibidem, p. 125, fig. 3/3). 2rd3th century AD pottery: 162 pottery fragments were recovered from the filling of the kiln. Ou of these, 73 are hand-modeled, from at least 5 different pots, while 89 are wheel-thrown from at least 16 different pots. These are not part of the batch, but were thrown in after the end of the kiln, although it is possible that the pots were also fired in it (Ibidem, p. 127-128). From the hand-modeled potsherds, with ground brick and shell fragments in the paste, visible on the outside, brick-red baked, were reconstructed three jars, with two separate, additional rims (Ibidem, fig. 4). From the wheel-thrown potsherds, with fine homogenous paste, many hued grey-fired in reducing atmosphere, were identified parts of two cups and other small vessels, a twin-eared pot (Ibidem, p. 128, fig. 5/1-3; 7/4-7) (fig. 14/2, 5, 7), fragmentary inward-turned rimmed bowls, as well as of a fine-paste patera (Ibidem, fig. 6/1) (fig. 14/1). Other fragments were identified as parts of large pots, storage jars, two flared rims, the walls of a vessel in yellowish-grey paste, decorated with small horizontal polished lines, as well as parts of an amphora, probably Roman (Ibidem, fig. 6/1-2, 4; 7/1-3, 10) (fig. 14/3-4, 6). In the same respect, the presence of the wheel-thrown pottery (decorated with double-alveolar bands), as well as the absence of the red handmodeled pottery that is more present in the late phases of the Carpic culture, as demonstrated by Gh. Bichir, allowed the author of the research to date the settlement between the end of the 2rd and the first part of the 3th century AD (1965, p. 691; Idem 1966, p. 503; Idem 1973a, p. 70). Peculiarities: trapezoidal fire-holes, parallel and built separately, 60 cm deep in the natural clay and raised in clay mixed with chopped straw and chaff, sloped towards the working area; a 2 cm ledge spared on top of the fireplace walls and the median wall, as well as the repairing of the kiln. M. Constantinescu, studying the operation system and taking into account the dimensions of the two feeding openings, concluded that the fireplace had a secondary role in heating the kiln, compared to the role of the two large fire-holes, which held the burning fuel in both channels. From this area, the burning coals could have been pushed into the lower chamber. To produce the red pottery, the apex opening was left uncovered, while for obtaining the grey pottery, the opening was temporary covered during the firing and the fire-holes were blocked with a large quantity of (Ibidem, p. 125, 127, fig. 3/4). A superior firing was achieved by increasing to maximum the distance between the batch and the flames (Ibidem, p. 127). 2. Blteni - Grla Strmbu, com. C. A. Rosetti, jud. Buzu, secolul al III-lea i nceputul secolului al IV-lea, spturi Ion T. Dragomir, n 1958 (fig. 15-18). Locuirea aparine carpilor (Gh. Bichir 1965, p. 686). Este suprapus de o aezare Sntana de Mure, pentru care s-a semnalat un pieptene de os cu spinarea arcuit (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 12). n aezare sau spat dou cuptoare, unul cu o camer, prezentat deja i altul din tipul cu dou camere

suprapuse, pentru ars ceramica la roat.

Cuptorul a fost surprins de seciunile S14 i S15, n apropierea bordeiului VI i face parte din tipul cu dou camere suprapuse, n plan circular (fig. 16). Camera de ardere a combustibilului - focria, cu vatra la 80 cm fa de nivelul actual al solului, a fost boltit n pmntul viu i mprit central printr-un perete median despritor, obinut prin cruare. Placa perforat s-a realizat din pmnt argilos, amestecat cu pleav i paie tocate ca i pereii i vetrele camerelor de foc iar pentru a li se da o rezisten mai mare n timpul arderii, au fost acoperii cu un strat gros de lutuial, fr paie (3-5 cm). Camera de ardere a vaselor avea placa la adncimea de circa 30-40 cm de la suprafaa actual a solului (Ibidem, p. 12, fig. 2), fapt ce presupune construirea acesteia deasupra nivelului vechi de clcare (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 503, nota 13).

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Fig. 15. Blteni - Grla Strmbu. Planul spturilor arheologice (apud I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 1). The plan of the archeological excavations (apud I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 1).

Analogii: Bucureti - Crngai, jud. Ilfov (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, p. 312-313), Trueti - Pe Cuha, jud. Iai (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 174-175, fig. 6) i Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, jud. Botoani (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra (1961, p. 464, fig. 4).

Fig. 16. Blteni - Grla Strmbu, rmie ale cuptorului de ars oale (apud I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 2). The remains of the potters kiln (apud I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 2).

Particulariti: prezena unui numr de 22 de gropi n form de clopot sau oal, strmte la gur, cu baza orizontal dar mai ales alveolar sau conic, cu deosebire n apropierea bordeielor IV i VI, argumenteaz nu numai arderea, dar i modelarea acesteia n bordeie (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 13). Inventar: printre drmturile cuptorului s-au gsit cteva fragmente ceramice similare cu acelea descoperite n aezare. Ceramic lucrat la roat de culoare neagr lucioas: strchini i forme ce imit strchinile romane trzii (fig. 17/1), cu buza nclinat interior din secolele III-IV (Ibidem, fig. 5/1-3). Castroane mijlocii i mari cu gura larg deschis i buza plat-orizontal (fig. 17/2), n profil n T (Ibidem, fig. 4/1; 8-12), cu marginile uor ngroate i prevzute cu trei toarte late, prinse de buza i umrul

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vasului (fig. 17/2), uneori canelate (Ibidem, fig. 4/1-2); pe vase de culoare neagr i glbuie, din care exemplific cu o strachin cu profil n S, ce are pe maxima bombare niruit un decor lenticular concav (fig. 17/1). Dup Gheorghe B. Fedorov, decorul se ntlnete pe recipientele complexului cultural Sntana de Mure Cerneahov, de aceeai factur este i banda n triunghiuri prezent i la Mlieti, raionul Rcani, Republica Moldova (1957, fig. 3; cf. Dragomir 1962, fig. 4/2), liniile incizate aplicate pe umrul oalelor; cioburi de la chiupuri folosite pentru pstrarea alimentelor (fig. 18/6-10), probabil cu buza n T, cu analogii la Sf. Gheorghe (Istvn Kovcs 1912, p. 283, fig. 41; I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 16, fig.7/5-9). Ceramica lucrat cu mna, din past relativ bun: pri de farfurii plat-orizontale cu buza ngroat (fig. 3/3-4), vase tronconice prevzute cu o buz scurt i castroane cu toarte semiovale, pe margine crestate sau cu nervuri. Dintre vasele modelate din past poroas, unul are pe buz un cioc mic, precum i una dintre cui (Ibidem, p. 17, fig. 5/4; 6/1). De asemenea, menionm oalele i capacele, cu perei aproape verticali sau uor arcuii, uneori cu buzele crestate sau pe corp cu bruri alveolate (Ibidem, fig. 7/12). Utilizate pentru iluminat, posibil i n anumite ceremonii rituale, afumtorile sau cuile caracteristice dacilor "sunt n numr impresionant", cte dou-trei i mai multe, uneori alveolate spre baz, fragmentare apar n fiecare locuin sau groap (Ibidem, fig. 5/4-5). Pentru ultimul exemplar s-au stabilit analogii cu exemplarele apropiate de la Sf. Gheorghe - Gar, datate cu moned de la Constantinus n secolul al IVlea p.Hr. sau Trgor, lng Ploieti (Ibidem). Datarea. Autorul spturilor l consider dacic trziu, dup ceramica din cuptor, respectiv carpic trziu, secolul al III-lea i nceputul secolului al IV-lea, n funcie de fragmentele ceramice dacice trzii descoperite n cuptor (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 14, fig. 3/4-5). ncadrarea cronologic a fost confirmat de Gh. Bichir (1966, p. 503, nota 1), ulterior s-a datat larg n epoca roman (O. Floca, Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 71, 93, tabel sinoptic 19).

Fig. 17. Blteni - Grla Strmbu, 1-2 ceramic (apud I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 4/1-2). 1-2 Pottery (apud I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 4/1-2).

Blteni - Grla Strmbu, commune of C. A. Rosetti, Buzu County, 3rd century, the beginning of 4th century AD, excavations by Ion T. Dragomir, in 1958 (fig. 15-18). The site is a Carpic settlement (Gh. Bichir 1965, p. 686) that is overlaid by a settlement of Santana de Mures culture, from which a bone comb with rounded back was reported (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 12). Within the settlement two kilns were excavated and studied, a single-chambered one, which is already presented, and another with two superimposed chambers, used for firing wheel-thrown pottery. The kiln was intercepted by the trenches S14 and S15, in the vicinity of the dugout house no. VI, and pertains to the type of circular plan with two chambers, one on top of the other (fig. 16). The fireplace for burning the fuel has the bottom at -80 cm from the current treading level, is hollowed out from the natural clay and is divided in two by a central median wall spared from the ground clay. The perforated plate is build from clay mixed with chaff and chopped straw, as the walls and the bottom of the fireplace, for added heat resistance were covered with a thick layer of straw-less daub, 3-5 cm.

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Fig. 18. Blteni - Grla Strmbu. 1-4 strchini; 5-6 cui; 7-10 corpuri de vase (apud I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 7/1-10). 1-4 dishes; 5-6 primitive lamps; 7-10 pot bodies (apud I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 7/1-10).

The firing chamber has its base at 30-40 cm below the current treading level (Ibidem, p. 12, fig. 2), which indicates its building above the ancient treading level (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 503, nota 13). Analogies: Bucureti - Crngai, Ilfov county (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, p. 312-313), Trueti - Pe Cuha, Iai county (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 174-175, fig. 6) and Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Botoani county (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra (1961, p. 464, fig. 4). Peculiarities: the presence of 22 bell (or jar) shaped pits, with small openings and flat but mostly rounded or conical bottoms, mainly in the vicinity of the dugout houses nos. IV and VI, supports the idea that not only the pots were fired but also modeled inside the respective houses (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 13). Inventory: interspersed with the collapsed remains of the kiln, were found several potsherds, similar to the ones found in the settlement. Wheel-thrown, polished black pottery: Shallow bowls and forms that imitate the Late Roman dishes (fig. 17/1) with inward-leaning rims, dated in the 3rd4th century AD (Ibidem, fig. 5/1-3). Large and averagesized bowls, wide-mouthed with flat-horizontal rims (fig. 17/2), with T-shaped rims (Ibidem, fig. 4/1; 812), with slightly thickened rims and three wide ears, affixed to the rim and shoulder of the pot (fig. 17/2), sometime grooved (Ibidem, fig. 4/1-2), on black and yellowish pots, of which there is the example of a dish with S-profiled walls, which, on its maximum convexity, has a row of lenticular, concave shapes (fig. 17/1). After Gheorghe B. Fedorov, this decoration is present on the vases of Sntana de Mure Cerneahov cultural complex, which style is shared by the rows of triangles on finds from Mlieti, Rcani district, Republic of Moldova (1957, fig. 3; cf. I. T. Dragomir 1962, fig. 4/2) and the incised lines on the pots shoulder; fragments of food storage jars (fig. 18/6-10), probably with T-shaped rims, with analogies in the finds from Sf. Gheorghe (K. Istvn 1912, p. 283, fig. 41; cf. I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 16, fig. 7/5-9). Hand-modeled pottery, of relatively fine paste: parts of flat dishes with thickened rims (fig. 3/3-4), conical pots with short rims and bowls with semi-oval ears, decorated with notches on the rim or with nervures. From the pots made of porous paste, one has a rim modeled with a small beak, as well as one of the primitive lamps (Ibidem, p. 17, fig. 5/4; 6/1). Is also worth mentioning the cooking pots/jars and the lids, with near vertical walls or slightly convex, sometime decorated with notches on the rim or with rows of alveoli on their bodies (Ibidem, fig. 7/12). Used for lighting or as possible ceremonial implements, the

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primitive lamp or thuribles that are a feature of Dacian settlements are present in large numbers, two or three or more together, sometimes decorated with rows of alveoli at the bases they appear as fragments in each and every house or pit (Ibidem, fig. 5/4-5). The last item shows analogies with similar pieces found at Sf. Gheorghe - Gar, which were dated by a coin of Constantine the Great in the 4th century AD, or with pieces from Trgor, near Ploieti (Ibidem). Dating. The author of the excavations dates the kiln as Late Dacian, after the pottery within, or Late Carpic (end of the 3rd beginning of the 4th century AD), after the Dacian potsherds found inside (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 14, fig. 3/4-5). The chronology was confirmed by Gh. Bichir (1966, p. 503, nota 1), and afterwards was dated largely in the Roman Period (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 71, 93, summarizing table 19). Judeul Vrancea 3. ifeti - La Grigoreti, Panciu, jud. Vrancea, secolul al III-lea, spturi Sebastian Morintz, Nicolae Haruchi, n 1959 (fig. 19-20). Cuptorul s-a descoperit ntr-o aezare din secolul al III-lea, situat pe valea Putnei. Cu ocazia spturilor din 1949, tot aici s-a semnalat i o locuire specific culturii Sntana de Mure (M. Coma 1985, p. 176).

Fig. 19. ifeti - La Grigoreti. Planul spturilor fcute n aezarea din secolul al III-lea (apud S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, fig. 1). The plan of the excavations carried out in the 3rd century settlement (apud S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, fig. 1).

Spturile arheologice au dus la descoperirea, n caseta A, a unui cuptor cu perete median i ncpere de acces la cuptor (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, p. 521-522, fig. 2; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 500; Idem 1967, p. 119; Idem 1973a, p. 57). Partea superioar a cuptorului, cu grtarul la 50 cm adncime, a fost distrus de fierul plugului. Focarul, situat la -1,2 m, fa de nivelul actual al solului, era bine pstrat. Avea forma circular (=1,68 m), fiind desprit n dou printr-un perete median, cu suprafeele de culoare crmizie arse puternic. Placa perforat era prbuit n focar (Ibidem, fig. 2). Gura acestuia avea dou deschideri. ncperea de acces la cuptor (=1,68; h=1,20 m; h=0, 95 m). n faa cuptorului se afla ncperea fochistului, cu baza situat cu 95 cm mai jos dect focarul cuptorului. Inventar. n ea s-au gsit multe fragmente de vase din secolul al III-lea i oase de animale, ceea ce arat c, dup dezafectare locul a fost umplut cu resturi menajere (Ibidem, p. 522-523, fig. 27; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 500, 503; O. Floca, Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, notele 66, 137, tabel sinoptic 17).

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Fig. 20. ifeti - La Grigoreti. Plan i seciune cuptorul de ars vase, secolul al III-lea (apud S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, fig. 2). Plan and sections, potters kiln, 3rd century (apud S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, fig. 2).

Vrancea County ifeti - La Grigoreti, Panciu, Vrancea county, 3rd century AD, excavations by Sebastian Morintz, Nicolae Haruchi, 1959 (fig. 19-20). The kiln was discovered within a 3rd century settlement, located in the valley of Putna river. During the 1949 excavations was also identified a settlement of Sntana de Mure Culture M. Coma 1985, p. 176). The archeological excavations resulted in the discovery (in cassette A) of a potters kiln, with median wall and access room in front of the feeding opening (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, p. 521-522, fig. 2; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 500; Idem 1967, p. 119; Idem 1973a, p. 57). The upper part of the kiln, which had the perforated plate at -50 cm, was destroyed by ploughing. The fireplace, located at a depth of 1.2 m below the current treading level, was well preserved, with a circular shape (=1.68 m), divided in two by a median wall, its surfaces strongly baked to a brick-red color (Ibidem, fig. 2). The perforated plate was found collapsed into the fireplace. The access room was circular (=1.68; h1=1.20; h2=0.95 m). The feeding opening of the kiln was twin-mouthed. In front of the kiln was the stokers place, its bottom 95 cm lower than the kiln fireplace (fig. 20). Inventory. The kiln was filled with a quantity of 3rd century potsherds, as well as animal bones, showing that the place was used as a waste dump after the kiln fell out of use (Ibidem, p. 522-523, fig. 27; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 500, 503; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, footnotes 66, 137, synoptic table 17). Judeul Bacu 4. Vleni - La Moar = Moric, jud. Bacu, secolele II-III, spturi arheologice realizate de Vasile Ursache. n aezarea datat n secolele II-III de la Vleni, care corespunde celei mai mari necropole cunoscute pn astzi (1968, p. 117). Atelier amplasat ntr-un bordei prevzut cu dou cuptoare cu vetrele arse puternic la mari temperaturi (V. Ursachi 1970, p. 266-267), unul era din tipul cu dou camere suprapuse (Idem, 1968, p. 120, fig. 5/2), funcionarea unui atelier de olrie a fost subliniat i n monografia necropolei de la Vleni - La Moar (I. Ioni, V. Ursache 1988, p. 7), menionat i de E. Nicolae (2007, p. 65, nota 48). Vleni - La Moar = La Moric, Bacu county, 2rd3th centuries, archaeological excavations made by Vasile Ursache. In the site of Vleni dated to the 2rd and 3th centuries there were uncovered two kilns with hearths strongly burnt, at high temperature values, which does not exclude their usage also for hand-shaped ceramics (1968, p. 117, fig. 5/2).

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Judeul Neam 5. Cucoeni - Butnreti, com. Secuieni, jud. Neam, secolele II-III, spturi arheologice realizate de

Gheorghe Bichir, n 1961 (fig. 2125).

Fig. 21. Cucoeni - Butnreti. Atelier de olrie cu dou cuptoare C1-2, secolele II-III (apud Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXII-XXXIV, jos). Potters workshop with two kilns C1-C2, 2rd3th centuries (apud Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXII-XXXIV, lower).

Cartier al olarilor situat n marginea de nord a aezrii, n apropierea prului Danciu, afluent de pe partea dreapt a rului Siret, s-a descoperit un cartier al olarilor, din care s-a spat un atelier prevzut cu dou cuptoare de ars ceramic, considerat mult timp unicul atelier de olrie cunoscut pn n prezent n spaiul carpato-danubiano-pontic. innd seama de faptul c alte cuptoare au fost distruse este de presupus c aici a existat un ntreg cartier de olari (Gh. Bichir 1966; 1973a, p. 53-57, 62; 1989, p. 49; 1994, p. 231). Alte ase cuptoare de ars ceramica, primele dou aflate fa de atelier la circa 20, respectiv 32 de metri, au fost distruse n mare parte de lucrrile de mbunti funciare (Idem 1973a, p. 53-57; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, nota 133).

I. Atelierul de olrie funciona ntr-o ncpere din care se alimentau cuptoarele, n plan oval i adncit
mult n pmnt (L=3,60 m; l=3,45 m; h=2,40 m), cum indic msurtorile de la nivelul actual de clcare, considerat bordei, pe podea cu mult crbune. Se intra pe cteva trepte aflate pe latura de sud (l=1,05 m). Bordeiul-atelier a avut pereii realizai din chirpici i acoperiul probabil conic (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 489, fig. 2-3; Idem 1973a, p. 53). Dintre cele dou cuptoare ale atelierului unul era mai mic. a. Cuptorul mic, nr. 1, situat n partea de nord-est, face parte din tipul celor cu dou camere suprapuse (L=84x70 m). Din cauza construirii lui la suprafaa solului avea distrus ultima camer.

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Vatra focarului se afla la 1,50 m deasupra podelei ncperii de acces, fapt pentru care n faa gurii de alimentare s-a rezervat un prag (l=84x70 cm), uor albiat, n care se scotea cenua din focar. n interior prin perete despritor cu un diametru egal cu al focarului, se formau dou camere (h=30; l=10 cm). Prin utilizare pereii camerei de ardere, acoperii cu un strat de 3-4 cm, s-au zgurificat (Idem 1966, p. 497, p. 2b-3, 8b, 11; Idem 1973a, p. 55, pl. XXXII/5; XXXIV/5; XXXVI/C1). Peretele nu nainta n gura de alimentare. Grtarul de form oval (1,25 cm x 1,05 cm), n momentul descoperirii se afla la adncimea de 15 cm de la nivelul actual de clcare. n grtar s-au realizat 29 de perforri, mai mici i mai dese dect ale cuptorului mare. Din camera de ardere a vaselor s-a pstrat doar o mic margine (h=5 cm). Iniial a fost construit

la suprafa solului antic de clcare, din lut. Bolta acestuia fiind mic nu s-a folosit un schelet de nuiele (Idem, 1966, p. 492, 497, 503; Idem 1973a, pl. XXXII/5).

Fig. 22. Cucoeni - Butnreti. Atelier de olrie cu dou cuptoare plan, secolele II-III (apud Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXIII). Potters workshop with two kilns C1- C2, 2rd3th centuries Plan (apud Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXIII).

Gura cuptorului, n seciune oval (L=18-20 cm; h=60 cm; l=55 cm), avea aspectul unui cotlon asemntor unui cuptor de copt pine (L=70 cm; h=70 cm). Groapa din faa acestuia, n care se evacua crbunele i cenua din focar era n plan oarecum oval (Idem, pl. XXXVI; =1,56x1,05 m; h=30 cm fa de podea) (fig. 21-23). Dup cum afirm autorul descoperirii - Gh. Bichir - sistemul de funcionare, dup introducerea vaselor prin deschiderea bolii, era diferit pentru vasele cenuii, caz n care se astupa gura de sus a camerei - se nbuea cuptorul - cu pmnt sau chiar cu un capac, dup arderea la rou. n aceast perioad s-a ars mai ales ceramica de culoare cenuie (Ibidem, p. 56). b. Cuptorul mare, 2, de form tronconic, amplasat n partea de sud-est, s-a conservat aproape ntreg (Idem 1966, fig. 2, 7-10; Idem 1973a, p. 53, pl. XXXII/3-6; =2,25x2,15 m). Se compunea din focar, grtar i camera de ardere a vaselor. Focarul acestuia s-a spat n pmntul viu, pe mijlocul lui s-a cruat un perete median (l=34 cm; h=85 cm), ce a mprit focarul n dou camere (L=84 i 80 cm). Vatra acestuia, situat la mare adncime fa de nivelul actual al solului (- 2,45 m), ca i restul focarului s-a acoperit cu un strat de lut, gros de 3-4 cm, care, prin repetatele arderi la mari temperaturi s-a zgurificat iar peretele s-a pietrificat. Spre exterior pereii erau puternic ari (circa 20 cm). Peretele nu nainta n gura de alimentare. Platforma de susinere a vaselor, grtarul n plan aproape circular (=2,25x2,15 m), lucrat din lut

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amestecat cu paie i pleav, era gros de 20 cm. Lutul moale s-a fixat pe un pat de nuiele (=2-3 cm), din care se mai vd 23, sprijinite pe marginea camerelor de ardere, pe o lungime de 10-12 cm, cu 10 cm ntre ele, cum indic urmele rmase dup arderea lor. Acestea, prin repetatele arderi la mari temperaturi s-a zgurificat iar peretele s-a pietrificat. La fel precum pereii focarului, acetia erau puternic ari (20 cm).

Fig. 23. Cucoeni - Butnreti. Atelier de olrie, reconstituire parial (apud Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXVII). The potters workshop partial reconstruction (apud Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXVII).

Grtarul avea 38 de perforri (=8 cm), pentru circulaia aerului cald. Camera de ardere a vaselor (h=1,25 m), de form tronconic, distrus n partea de sud-vest, s-a format cu 30 cm deasupra nivelului antic, din lut amestecat cu paie i pleav, pe un schelet de nuiele nfipte n pmnt la circa 15 cm una de alta. Dup aceasta s-a fuit cu un strat de lut curat. Astfel s-a format un perete gros de 10 cm. Nu avea bolt iar jumtate din deschiderea de sus era acoperit cu un alt perete, dar plan, gros de 8 cm, lucrat la fel, dar cu nuielele dispuse orizontal, pentru a acoperi locul prin care se introduceau i scoteau vasele din cuptor (Gh. Bichir 1966, fig. 3, 8a-10; Idem 1973a, p. 54, fig. 9. pl. XXXIII, XXXVI). Inventar: Pe marginile grtarului mai erau jumti de vase, fragmente ceramice mai mari, de la

vase fine modelate cu roata, dar i de la cele lucrate cu mna, poate fragmentele ceramice puse de olar n deschiderea camerei de ardere (Idem, pl. XXXII/3-4). S-a considerat c, n cuptorul mic se ardeau vasele cu buzele sau bazele cu diametrul de 7-8 cm, distana dintre perforri iar n cuptorul mare se ardeau vasele mari.
Analogii: Poiana - Cetate (R. Vulpe 1955, p. 262), ifeti - La Grigoreti (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, fig. 2), Blteni - Grla Strmbu, jud. Vrancea (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 12, fig. 2), Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, jud. Vaslui (M. Coma 1985, fig. 4), Poiana - Pe Silite, Dulceti, Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, fig. 4), cheia - Silitea, jud. Suceava (Gr. Foit 1969, p. 25, fig. 2-3), dar i la Bucureti, Struleti - Micneti, jud. Ilfov (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, fig. 4), Celu Nou (V. Leahu 1963, p. 30, fig. 20), Giuleti (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, fig. 4-5), Apulum (I. Berciu 1958, p. 180 i urm., fig. 1-3), Medieu Aurit, Arad - Ceala (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 507).

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Fig. 24. Cucoeni - Butnreti. Strchini cenuii din atelierul de olrie, grupa B, tip C (apud Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XCV-XCVII). Grey-baked dishes from the potters workshop, group B, type C (apud Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XCV-XCVII).

c-d. Cuptoarele 3 i 4, din ele s-a pstrat parial vatra. Ambele au fost uor mai mari n raport cu primul cuptor. Primul, nr. 3, avea n prima camer un pilon central i grtarul rotund (=1,35 m; h=12-14 cm) (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 57). Al doilea era mai mic, nr. 4, probabil tot tronconic (=1,60 m), avea la fel focria separat n dou de un perete median (l=18 cm) i grosimea grtarului nu prea mare (h=17-18 cm). e-f. Cuptoare distruse n mare parte, nr. 5-6. Focria era prevzut cu perete median (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 503). II. Atelier. Dup Gh. Bichir un alt atelier de olrie a funcionat ntr-un bordei, dotat pentru arderea vaselor cu dou cuptoare, care se mnuiau din locuin (E. Nicolae 2007, p. 64).

Fig. 25. Cucoeni - Butnreti. Unelte de piatr i un vrf de os (apud Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXV/6-12). Stone tools and a bone sharp implement (apud Gh. Bichir 1973a, pl. XXXV/6-12).

Inventarul ceramic: s-au ntregit, total sau parial, 36 de vase. Dup locul descoperirii lor, probabil iniial au fost ordonate pe rafturile de lemn fixate pe laturile de nord i de vest ale ncperii. Dezafectarea bordeiului atelier a dus la spargerea acestora, dar probabil fragmentele s-au folosit pentru astupat hornul fiecrui cuptor. Dup vasele descoperite n atelier i n aezare, se presupune c majoritatea tipurilor ceramice folosite de localnici se realizau pe loc (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 62; Gh. Iordache 1996, fig. 15). n aezare ceramica lucrat la roat reprezint 60 %. Toate s-au modelat din past fin, fr ingrediente, din ele 85 % au nuane mai deschise iar 15 % mai nchise. Dintre cele 36 de vase din atelier, 32 s-au ars cenuiu-deschis i doar patru negru-cenuiu. ntre forme se gsesc: - vase fr toart, numite de Gh. Bichir urne, de tradiie local, pentru care stabilete zece variante, dintre care a/5 de tradiie sarmatic; vasele de provizii de dimensiuni mai mari cu dou variante, corp oval sau

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bombat; strchini ordonate n zece variante, ca i urnele, unele forme, modificate, persist pn n cultura Sntana de Mure, strecurtori (fig. 24); patru variante de fructiere, un vas suport, capace; cni, ase variante de cnie; amfore de tip carpic, vase cu dou toarte, trei tipuri de vase cu trei tori i vase cu toarte aflate mai ales n necropole (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 72-86). Unele vase sau fragmente pstreaz urmele unor semne incizate (Ibidem, p. 89). Unelte i ustensile s-au gsit n partea de sud-vest a ncperii: dou lame de fier de la cuite; o achie de silex cu vrful triunghiular i bont, ce s-a folosit pentru executarea ornamentului lustruit, precum a olarilor de la Marginea, jud. Suceava; un mpungtor de os lefuit, folosit i pentru ornamentarea vaselor i pentru perforarea pereilor acestora n vederea fixrii toartelor (Gh. Bichir 1966, fig. 1-2a, 3, 5/6; Idem 1973a, p. 53, fig. 8); un topor de piatr i dou piese lucrate din aceeai roc, cu urme de folosire pe toate feele, folosite probabil pentru pisat suriul i cioburile sau ca lustruitoare (Ibidem, pl. XXXV/6, 8-12); o cute de gresie (fig. 25/1); o grmjoar de pietricele, suri i cioburi pisate, la fel precum cele ntlnite n pasta vaselor lucrate cu mna; o cantitate de lut frmntat din care se modelau vasele i o rni de tip roman, n momentul descoperirii situat mai sus de podea (Ibidem, pl. XXV/1). Modelarea ceramicii se realiza n atelier, cum indic inventarul pstrat, unde trebuie s fi fost i roata olarului, ca i alte obiecte de lemn care au disprut n urma unui incendiu (Ibidem, p. 53). Cu siguran au fost diverse amenajri i n preajma atelierului, iar modelarea se realiza i n acestea (E. Nicolae 2007, p. 65). Neam County Cucoeni - Butnreti, commune of Secuieni, Neam County, 2rd3th century AD, archeological excavations by Gheorghe Bichir, 1961 (fig. 21-25). At the north edge of the settlement, near of Danciu creek, a potters quarter was unearthed, with a potters workshop with two kilns being thoroughly excavated, which was long time regarded as the only potters workshop known up to present in the Carpathians-Danube-Pontic space. Taking into account the fact that several other kilns were destroyed, one can assume that here existed, in fact, a whole potters quarter (Gh. Bichir 1994, p. 231). Another six kilns, out of which the first and the second were found at 20 m and 32 m respectively from the potters workshop, were mostly destroyed by the damming works (Idem 1973a, p. 53-57; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, footnote 133). The potters workshop operated in a dugout room also used as feeding area for the kilns, of oval shape, with the floor sunken deep below the ground level (L=3,60 m; w=3,45 m; h=2,40 m), as indicated by the measurements from the current treading level, and regarded as dugout house, with large quantities of charcoal on the floor. The entrance was located on the south side, with several (w=1,05 m). The dugout house-workshop had walls built from adobe and a probable conical roof (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 489, fig. 23; Idem 1973a, p. 53). One of the two kilns was smaller that the other. a. The small kiln, C1, located in the north-west area, is of the type with two chambers, one in top of the other (L=84x70 m). Its upper chamber was destroyed, due to its above-ground construction. The bottom of the fireplace was 1.5 m above the level of the access room floor, for which fact the feeding opening was equipped with a threshold (l=84x70 cm), slightly concave, used for collecting the ash out of the fireplace. Within the fireplace, the division by a wall formed two chambers (h=30; w=10 cm). As a result of the frequent use, the walls of the fireplace were scorified, 3-4 cm deep (Idem 1966, p. 497, p. 2b-3, 8b, 11; Idem 1973a, p. 55, pl. XXXII/5; XXXIV/5; XXXVI/C1). The perforated plate is oval in shape (1.25x1,05 cm) which, in the moment of its discovery, was laying at 15 cm below the current treading level. The plate held 29 perforations, more agglomerated and smaller than the ones of the large kiln. The firing chamber is preserved as a small ridge (h=5 cm). It was built initially above ground, out of clay, without using a wattle skeleton, due to its smaller dome (Idem, 1966, p. 492, 497, 503; Idem 1973a, pl. XXXII/5). b. The large kiln no. 2, C2, is conical and located in south-east area, and is almost whole preserved (Idem 1966, fig. 2, 7-10; Idem 1973a, p. 53, pl. XXXII/3-6; =2.25x2.15 m). It consists in fireplace, perforated plate and firing chamber. The fireplace is hollowed out of the natural clay, with a median wall spared from the ground (l=34 cm; h=85 cm), which divides the fireplace in two chambers (L=84 and 80 cm). Its hearth, located deep below the current treading level (- 2,45 m), as well as the rest of the fireplace, are covered by a thick layer of

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clay (3-4 cm), which, after repeated firings at high temperatures, is scorified, while the wall proper is petrified. The walls are strongly burned at the exterior (circa 20 cm). The firing platform, a perforated plate almost circular (=2.25-2.15 m), is made of clay mixed with straw and chaff, with a thickness of 20 cm. The wet clay was laid on a wattle bed (with twigs of 2-3 cm thick and 10 cm spaced, out of which 23 were preserved, 10-12 cm in length, as indicated by their charred imprints), supported by the edge of the fireplace. The perforated plate held 38 perforations (=8 cm), to circulate the hot air. The firing chamber (h=1,25 m), of conical shape is destroyed on its upper part, and it was built, at 30 cm above the ancient treading level, of clay mixed with straw and chaff, on a supporting grid of twigs, wedged in the ground, spaced at 15 cm and then daubed with simple clay. The wall formed in this way is 10 cm thick. There was no dome, the chamber being roofed by a flat panel of clay covering half of the surface and used to block the loading-unloading opening; this panel was 8 cm thick, built in the same manner as the walls, but with the twigs laid horizontally (Gh. Bichir 1966, fig. 3, 8a-10; Idem 1973a, p. 54, fig. 9. pl. XXXIII, XXXVI). The feeding opening, is oval in section (L=18-20; h=60; w=55 cm), with a conduit similar to a bread baking oven (L=70; h=70 cm). The hollow in front of it, used to collect the ash and charcoal taken from the fireplace is roughly oval in plan (Idem, pl. XXXVI; =1.56x1.05; h=30 cm above the floor). After the author of the discovery - Gh. Bichir the operation, following the loading of the batch through the opening, was different for reducing firing (grey pottery), in this case the top opening was blocked snuff the kiln with earth or even with a ceramic lid, after the oxidizing firing phase took place. The pottery of the period is mostly grey (Ibidem, p. 56) (fig. 21-23). Inventory: the outer areas of the perforated plate still preserved several large pot fragments, even half vessels, from fine, wheel-thrown pots, but also from hand-modeled ones, used possibly by the potter as firing chamber stoppers (Idem, pl. XXXII/3-4). It is thought that the small kiln was used to fire the pots with rims or bases below 7-8 cm in diameter, which is the distance between the perforations, while in the larger kiln were fired the large vessels. Analogies: Poiana - Cetate (R. Vulpe 1955, p. 262), ifeti - La Grigoreti (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, fig. 2), Blteni - Grla Strmbu, Vrancea county (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 12, fig. 2), Poieneti Dealul Teilor, Vaslui county (M. Coma 1985, fig. 4), Poiana - Pe Silite, Dulceti, Piatra Neam Drmneti pe Cuejdi (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, fig. 4), cheia - Silitea, Suceava county (Gr. Foit 1969, p. 25, fig. 2-3), but also at Bucureti, Struleti - Micneti, Ilfov county (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, fig. 4), Celu Nou (V. Leahu 1963, p. 30, fig. 20), Giuleti (Vl. Zirra, D. Tudor 1954, fig. 4-5), Apulum (I. Berciu 1958, p. 180 sq., fig. 1-3), Medieu Aurit and Arad Ceala (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 507). c-f. Kilns C3 and C4, are preserved partially as fragments of the fireplace. Both kilns are relatively larger than the first one. C3 was also probably conical (=1,60 m), the fireplace also divided by a median wall (w=18 cm) and the perforated plate of relatively small thickness (h=17-18 cm). C4 was smaller, with a central pillar in the fireplace and a round perforated place (=1.35 m; h=12-14 cm) (Ibidem, p. 57). Inventory of pottery: 36 pots were restores, totally or partially. Judging from the place of discovery, these were probably arranged initially on the wooden shelves on the northern and western walls of the building. The falling out of use of the workshop resulted in breaking the pots, while the sherds were probably used for blocking the loading openings of each kiln. Judging from the vessels discovered within the workshop and in the settlement, we can assume that most of the ceramic types used by the inhabitants were manufactured locally (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 62; Iordache 1996, fig. 15). In the settlement, the wheel-thrown pottery is 60%. All vessels were made from fine paste, with no additives, and 85% light in color and 15% darker. From the 36 vessels in the workshop, 32 are light-grey baked and only 4 grey-black baked. Among the shapes, one must mention the following: 1. earless pots, presented by Gh. Bichir as urns, of local tradition, for which he establishes ten variants, from which a/5 is of Sarmatic tradition; 2. larger storage jars, in two variants, with ovoid or rounded bodies; 3. dishes, with ten variants, like the urns, of which some altered forms survive into Sntana de Mure culture, colanders (fig. 24; 4. four variants of fruit-dishes, one support-vessel and lids; 5. cups and six variants of small cups; 6. amphorae of Carpic type, twin-eared pots, three types of threeeared pots and other eared pots, found mainly within the funerary compounds (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 7286). Some vessels or potsherds bear traces of incised markings (Ibidem, p. 89).

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Tools and implements: there were found in the south-west part of the room: two iron knife blades, a flint flake with triangular, dulled point (used for the polished ornaments, like the modern optters of Marginea, Suceava county), a bone point used for applying the ornamentation and for making the holes for the ears/handles (Gh. Bichir 1966, fig. 1-2a, 3, 5/6; Idem 1973a, p. 53, fig. 8); a stone axe and another two stone implements, with use-wear traces on all its sides, used probably for grinding down the fillers or as polishers (Ibidem, pl. XXXV/6, 8-12) (fig. 25); a sandstone whetstone, a pile of pebbles, gravel and ground potsherds (identical to the usual additives in the hand-modeled pottery clay paste) and a Romantype millstone, found higher in the ground, above the floor level (Ibidem, pl. XXV/1). The pot-making was carried out inside the workshop, as it is suggested by the inventory preserved, in the same space as the potters wheel would be located, along with other wooden objects, which disappeared in a probable fire (Ibidem, p. 53). For sure there existed various structures around the workshop too and the modeling was done in there as well (E. Nicolae 2007, p. 65). 6. Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, staiune datat n secolul al III-lea p.Hr., spturile au fost realizate de Constantin Matas, Ioana Zamoteanu, Mihai Zamoteanu. Cuptorul descoperit n staiunea situat pe terasa inferioar din stnga Cuejdului, face parte din tipul cu dou camere suprapuse (fig. 26-27), n focar cu pilon central. Focria, prima camer s-a spat n lutul viu i s-a prevzut central cu un pilon central. Datorit arderilor repetate lipitura pereilor i a pilonului s-a zgurificat. Grtarul, prevzut cu perforri pentru tiraj, se sprijinea pe marginea superioar a primei camere i pe pilonul central, realizat din pmnt cruat (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, nota 135; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 502-503).

Fig. 26. Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi. Planul general al spturilor din aezarea getic (apud C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, fig. 4). General plan of the excavations in the Getic settlement (apud C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, fig. 4).

Camera superioar pentru ars vasele, construit deasupra solului cum a precizat Gh. Bichir (1966, p. 502), dei prbuit peste grtar, nu s-a sfrmat. Toate prile cuptorului s-au lutuit ngrijit, doar camera amenajat deasupra solului, s-a acoperit cu o feuial fin, colorat rou nchis, avnd aceeai compoziie cu feuiala ceramicii roii (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 345-346, fig. 6; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 502; Idem 1973a, p. 58; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 45). Din ncperea fochistului, de form circular, s-a deservit cuptorul pentru alimentare i punere n funciune (fig. 27).

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Fig. 27. Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi. Cuptor, planuri i profile. Legenda: sol negru-brun 1; sol brun argilos 2; sol brun-galben nisipos 3; prundi 4; sol nroit de foc 5; lipitur 6; lipitur cu feuial roie 7; lipitur zgurificat 8; pietre 9 (apud C. Matas, I. i M. Zamoteanu 1961, fig. 5). The kiln, plans and profiles. Key: brown-black soil 1; brown clayish soil 2; yellowish brown sandy soil 3; gravel 4; red-baked soil 5; daub 6; daub with re-baked slip 7; scarified daub 8; stone slabs 9 (apud C. Matas, I. and M. Zamoteanu 1961, fig. 5).

Piatra Neam - Drmneti pe Cuejdi, is a site dated in the 3rd century AD, excavated by Constantin Matas, Ioana Zamoteanu, Mihai Zamoteanu. The kiln found at this site located on the lower terrace of the Cuejdi river, on its left bank, it is of the type with two chambers, one on toop of the other (fig. 26-27). The Fireplace the chamber is hollowed out from the natural clay, with a central pillar. Due to the repeated firings, the daub on the walls and pillar is scorified. The perforated plate with hot-air circulation holes, was supported on the upper edge of the fireplace chamber and on the central pillar, which was spared from the natural clay (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, nota 135; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 502-503). The firing chamber was built above ground, as reported by Gh. Bichir (1966, p. 502), and, although it collapsed on top of the perforated plate, it was not shattered. All parts of the kiln were carefully daubed, only the above-ground chamber being washed in a fine, dark-red slip, with the same composition as the paste used for the red-baked fine pottery (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 345-346, fig. 6; Bichir 1966, p. 502; Idem 1973a, p. 58; Iordache 1996, p. 45). The stokers room is circular in plan and was used for starting the fire and feeding the kiln (fig. 27). Peculiarities: the upper (firing) chamber, even though was it collapsed, it preserved its shape, and was washed in a fine, dark-red slip, with a composition similar to the paste used for the red-baked fine pottery. Inventory: there were only a few potsherds found inside the kiln; instead, the service room held a large quantity of fragmentary vessels, grey as well as red, similar to those found in the contemporary settlement of Lutrie. The porous ware, as reported by the authors of the research, shows the same paste and shapes as the finds from the La Tne citadels of Cozla and Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 346, fig. 6/6-8). The grey and red-baked pottery, covered with paint or slip (Ibidem, fig. 6/9), is very numerous and is associated with the less frequent, wheel-thrown black species, in the same manner as in the Lutrie settlement. The dominant shapes are the tall vessels, similar in type to the urns found in the Poieneti Dealul Teilor cemetery, Vaslui county. Although only as a few fragments, the coarse paste, wheel-thrown pottery, specific to the 3 rd and 4th centuries AD settlements and cemeteries, is also present. Analogies: there were found analogies for the kiln in archeological features discovered at Micsasa, Sibiu county, 2rd3th centuries AD, while for the pottery types there are analogies in the finds from Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, Vaslui county (M. Coma 1985, p. 173, fig. 4) and Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, Neam county (C. Matas, I. Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu 1961, p. 346).

Anexa/Annexe V. Cuptoare cu dou camere, sec.II-III / Pottery kilns with two chambers, 2rd-3th centuries AD

117

Judeul Suceava / Suceava County 7. cheia - Silitea, astzi comun suburban n municipiul Suceava, jud. Suceava, secolul al III-lea, cu dou niveluri de locuire, spturi arheologice de salvare realizate de Gr. Foit, n 1959-1961 (fig. 28-30), cu trei cuptoare, dou cu perete median n focar, unul neconservat bine. La circa 600 m sud-vest de sat, pe malul stng al prului cheia, n imediata apropiere a albiei acestuia, s-a semnalat o staiune ntins pe circa 5 ha. n cadrul aezrii datate n secolele II-III p.Hr. s-a descoperit un complex format din trei cuptoare de ars ceramica, distruse n parte prin construirea terasamentului liniei ferate Suceava - Pltinoasa. Dou au perete median 1, 3, iar cuptorul 2, prin secionarea lui n parte de cuptorul 3, era prea distrus pentru a se preciza forma acestuia. Suprapunerile indic fie dou niveluri de locuire, fie unul cu dou faze de construcie (Gr. Foit 1970, p. 391-392; Idem 1965, p. 411). Camera superioar, n form de calot sferic, era distrus n cea mai mare parte de lucrri recente. Din ea s-a pstrat mai bine doar partea de nord-vest i puin de la baz. a. Cuptorul 1, de cea mai mare capacitate, se afla la numai la civa metri de locuina din caseta 4. Focria, camera de la baz (=2,10 m, h=60-65 cm), avea compartimentele spate n pmntul viu i desprite printr-un perete median (l =40-50 cm), care se continua formnd dou guri de alimentare cu lemne de foc (Ibidem, p. 25, fig. 2; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 499, 503; Idem 1973a, p. 57; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, nota 136). Marginea de sud-est a focriei s-a cptuit cu dou plci groase de gresie. Prima (L=1 m; h=60 cm), era nfipt n pmnt circa 15 cm iar a doua, mai mic (L=60 cm), s-a fixat n continuarea primei i ptrundea n galeria dinspre gura cuptorului, "Fr ndoial c, nclzindu-se, pietrele contribuiau la pstrarea unei temperaturi nalte i constante i asigurau peretele mpotriva unor eventuale deteriorri", astfel peretele despritor era complet ars la partea dinspre grtar, dar a pstrat un smbure nears la partea dinspre vatr (Ibidem, p. 25, fig. 2).

Fig. 28. cheia - Silitea. Cuptor nr. 1 de ars ceramic (apud Gr. Foit 1969, fig. 3). Potters kiln no. 1 (apud Gr. Foit 1969, fig. 3).

Galeriile gurilor de dare a focului, msurate pn la focar (L=1,40 m; l=50-60 cm; h=40-50 cm), au fost spate orizontal, n solul viu, pn la cele dou compartimente ale camerei inferioare, dar cu partea superioar alctuit din pmnt purtat de culoare galben, amestecat cu negru. Peretele despritor s-a ars puternic la partea superioar, dar spre baz pstreaz un smbure nears, de culoare galben. Din aceast camer s-au scos la suprafa crbuni de la nuielele i de la butucii de esene lemnoase diferite (Ibidem, p. 25, 27). Galeriile gurilor de alimentare din dreptul celor dou compartimente ale focarului, s-au ntrit prin ardere 5 - 8 cm (Ibidem, p. 25). Grtarul lucrat din pmnt amestecat cu paie i pleav, fixat iniial pe un schelet de nuiele (h=20-25 cm), s-a conservat parial (Ibidem). Cele dou perforri pstrare au diametre ceva mai largi spre extremiti (=5-7 cm), cu distane mici ntre ele (10-15 cm). Una este vertical iar alta oblic, nclinat spre partea central a grtarului i se afl situat lng peretele despritor al camerei inferioare. Prile de grtar prbuite au perforrile apropiate ca mrime. Repartizarea echilibrat a lor asigura vaselor o ardere egal (Ibidem, p. 26). Din camera superioar, cu pereii uor arcuii spre interior (bazei=2,2 m), s-au pstrat pri de la pereii lutuii de dou ori (fig. 28). Ambele camere s-au fuit cu un strat de lutuial, n momentul descoperirii de culoare roie-vineie, fapt specific arderilor oxidante (E. Nicolae 2007, p. 65). n peretele opus gurilor de alimentare, la trecerea de la grtar la peretele median se aflau dou canale oblice (=20 cm), ce veneau dinspre compartimentele camerei de ardere pentru a se uni deasupra peretelui despritor al acestora, pentru a urca vertical sub

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forma unui horn pentru rsuflare (Ibidem, p. 26). La suprafa tot cuptorul prezint o puternic zgurificare i ardere la rou, n adncime de pn la 15 cm (Ibidem, p. 25).

Fig. 29. cheia - Silitea. Cuptorul 3 de ars ceramic, plan. Legenda: 1 pereii; 2-3 grtarul pstrat i distrus; 4 perforri; 5 humus; 6 sol amestecat cu galben i boabe de chirpic; 7 guri de foc (apud Gr. Foit 1969, fig. 2). Potters kiln C3, plan. Key: 1 walls; 2-3 the perforated plate, preserved and destroyed; 4 perforations; 5 humus; 6 secondary soil, with yellow clay and adobe fragments; 7 fire openings (apud Gr. Foit 1969, fig. 2).

Analogii: cuptoarele de la Cucoeni Butnreti, n care se dau descoperirile cunoscute n acel moment (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 489 i urm.). Particulariti: placarea prii de sud-est a focriei cu dou plci groase de gresie, una n continuarea celeilalte, pn n galeria dinspre gura cuptorului, pentru rezisten i pstrarea temperaturii nalte i constante; perete median complet ars la partea dinspre grtar, dar incomplet spre baz (Ibidem, p. 27). Inventar: n cuptor se aflau numeroase fragmente ceramice lucrate la roat, de culoare roie i cenuie. b. Cuptorul 2, numerotat n ordinea investigrii acestuia n teren, a fost tiat de groapa cuptorului nr. 3, din el s-a conservat parial doar gura de alimentare (l=40 cm), slab ars, care coboar n pant 30o-40o. n faa lui exist o mic alveolare puin adncit (h=30 cm), pentru evacuarea crbunilor. S-a considerat c a avut o scurt perioad de funcionare. ncperea de acces, pstrat parial, era mai adnc fa de baza vetrei focarului cuptorului al doilea. Cuptorul a fost fuit cu un strat de lutuial, n momentul descoperirii de culoare roie-vineie, fapt specific arderilor oxidante (E. Nicolae 2007, p. 65). Inventar: n gura de alimentare i ncperea de acces la cuptor s-au gsit fragmente ceramice lucrate la roat din past fin sau zgrunuroas, roii sau cenuii i pri de vase lucrate la mn, mai ales de la oale de diferite dimensiuni. c. Cuptorul 3 s-a conservat mai bine, avea o capacitate mai redus, dar a fost utilizat mai mult (Gr. Foit 1969, p. 27, fig. 3). Fa de primul, s-a spat n pmntul viu, cu 30 cm mai jos, ajungnd la adncimea de 90 cm. Focarul (h=60 cm, prevzut cu perete median despritor (l=20-25 cm), are o capacitate mare de ardere a combustibilului i de acumulare de jeratic (Ibidem, p. 27). Arderea puternic a peretelui median a dat acestuia o nuan vineie. Galeriile, cele dou guri de dare a focului (l=40; h=35 cm), care duc la cele dou compartimente ale camerei inferioare sunt mult mai scurte dect la primul cuptor (l < 50 m). Grtarul (h=10-20 cm) era distrus spre mijloc, din cauza alunecrii pariale a platformei, fapt pentru care pri ale lui se aflau la adncimi diferite, din perforrile iniiale a pstrat un numr de 25. Camera superioar a cuptorului avea pereii arcuii spre interior (h > 70 cm). Arderea pereilor, pe care se pot distinge cinci lutuieli, este mai profund dect la primul, depind alocuri 20 cm (fig. 30). Inventar: n lipitura cuptorului s-a gsit o moned de argint, distrus n mare parte prin ardere. S-a ncadrat n vremea lui Antoninus Pius (138-161) sau Marcus Aurelius (161-180) (Ibidem, p. 28).Ceramica din aezare (fig. 30), n majoritate a fost modelat la roat (Ibidem, fig. 6/1-2, 5-6; 7/1-3, 67). Tot n cuptorul al treilea, n umplutura camerei inferioare, s-a descoperit o figurin din ceramic roie fin, bine ars, considerat clu, datorit arcuirii specifice a gtului (Ibidem, p. 30, fig. 8; h=39; L=5 mm), probabil un cel de vatr precum cei menionai n perioada anterioar (M. Babe, V. MihilescuBrliba 1972, p. 176 i urm.). Analogii: cuptorul nr. 1 de la cheia a fost apropiat de Eugen Nicolae, de cuptorul de la Luka Vrubleveckaja, din mediul Sntana de Mure, din zona Nistrului Superior (2007, p. 65, nota 47, cf. A. A. 1991, p. 50). Datare: dup Gh. Bichir (1966, p. 499; Idem 1973a, p. 57) i M. Coma (1985, p. 172, nota 11), cuptorul nu depete ca datare, n nici un caz, secolul al II-lea.

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Fig. 30. cheia - Silitea. Ceramic (apud Gr. Foit 1969, fig. 6/1-2, 5-6; 7/1-3, 6-7). Pottery (apud Gr. Foit 1969, fig. 6/1-2, 5-6; 7/1-3, 6-7).

cheia - Silitea, today a suburban commune, integrated in Suceava municipality, Suceava county, is dated in the 3th century and it has two levels of habitation, excavated in a rescue campaign by Gr. Foit, in 1959 (fig. 28-30). At approximately 600 m south-west of the village, on the left bank of Scheia creek, close to the water edge, it was identified the settlement, of around 5 hectares. Within the 2rd3th century settlement a feature consisting of three pottery kilns was discovered. These kilns were partially destroyed by the railway works of the Suceava-Paltinoasa line. Two of these include a median wall, C1 and C3, while the kiln C3 was destroyed by the C3 to such extent that its features cannot be marked. The superimposition indicates either two habitation phases or a single habitation with two construction phases (Gr. Foit 1970, p. 391392; Idem 1965, p. 411). The hemispherical upper (firing) chamber was mostly destroyed in modern times. It is preserved only as fragments of the north-west wall and the base. a. The kiln C1 is the most capacious and is located at only a few meters from the house identified in Cassette 4. The fireplace, which is the base chamber (=2.10, h=0,60-0,65 m), had the compartments hollowed out from the natural soil and separated by a median wall (l=40-50 cm), which continued to the two fuel feeding openings (Ibidem, p. 25, fig. 2; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 499, 503; Idem 1973a, p. 57; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, nota 136). The south-east end of the fireplace was lined with two thick sandstone slabs. The first one (L=1; h=0,60 m) was lodged in the ground, 15 cm deep, while the second, smaller, one (L=60 cm), is contiguous with first ones end and it protruded into the gallery coming from the kiln feeding opening There no doubt that when heated, these slabs helped in maintaining the high temperature constant inside the kiln, protecting also the wall against damage, in this regard, the median wall was thoroughly baked at its firing chamber end, but remained unbaked in its core at the its fireplace end (Ibidem, p. 25, fig. 2). The fuel feeding galleries, measured from the opening to the fireplace (L=1,40 m; l=50-60; h=40-50 cm), were excavated horizontally, into the natural clay to the two compartments of the fireplace chamber. Their upper areas were build from secondary soil, mixed black and yellow. The median wall is thoroughly baked at its upper end, but it preserved an unbaked core of yellow clay at its lower end. From the fireplace chamber, the charcoal from twigs and logs of various woods was

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collected (Ibidem, p. 25, 27). The fireplace ends of the galleries were baked to a depth of 5-8 cm (Ibidem, p. 25). The perforated plate is made of clay mixed with straw and chaff, supported originally by a wattle structure (h=20-25 cm), and it is only partially preserved (Ibidem). The two surviving perforations are flared at both ends (=5-7 cm) and quite closely spaced (10-15 cm). One of them is vertical and the other is tilted towards the center of the plate, located almost on top of the median wall of the fireplace. The perforations on the collapsed parts are similar in size. Their even spacing ensured an uniform firing of the batch (Ibidem, p. 26). The upper (firing) chamber of dome shape (2.2 m in diameter at the base) is preserved only as fragments of walls, which were doubly daubed (fig. 28). The wall opposite to the feeding intake was perforated, above the junction with the median wall, by two sloping ducts (=20 cm) coming from the fireplace, joined into a single opening in the firing chamber wall, and then continuing in a single channel that went upward as a vent for hot gases (Ibidem, p. 26). The surface areas are intensely scorified and red-baked, to a depth of 15 cm (Ibidem, p. 25). Analogies: the kilns of Cucoeni Butnreti, which reporting include the discoveries know at that moment (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 489 sq.). Peculiarities: the lining of the south-east area of the fireplace chamber with two contiguous thick sandstone slabs, up to the feeding gallery opening, to confer resistance and maintain the high temperature constant, a median wall which is thoroughly baked at its upper end, but preserving an unbaked core at its base (Ibidem, p. 27). Inventory: the kiln contained a large number of wheel-thrown pottery fragments, both red and grey. b. The kiln C2, numbered according to the order of discovery within the site, was sectioned by the kiln C3, ad is preserved only as a fragment of its fuel feeding opening (w=40 cm), faintly baked, which slopes downwards at 30-40 degrees. In front of it there is a shallow depression (=30 cm), used for the evacuation of the ash and charcoal. It is thought that the kiln had a short operational period. The access area is partially preserved and it was excavated deeper than the floor or the fireplace chamber. Inventory: the fuel feeding opening and the access area contained several pottery fragments, wheelthrown, both fine and coarse categories, red and grey-baked, as well as hand-modeled, mainly from pots of various sizes. c. The kiln C3 was preserved better, it had a smaller capacity but it had been used more frequently (Gr. Foit 1969, p. 27, fig. 3). Compared to C1, this kiln was hollowed out from the natural clay, it was 30 cm deeper, reaching a depth of 90. The fireplace (h=60 cm), divided by a median wall (w=20-25 cm), it had a high capacity of burning, as well as an accumulation of coals (Ibidem, p. 27). The intense burning baked the median wall. The two fire galleries (L=40; h=35 cm) leading from the fuelling opening to the two compartments of the fireplace, are much shorter that in the case of the kiln C1 (L < 50 m). The perforated plate (h=10-20 cm) was destroyed in the central area, due to the sliding of the platform, for which fact its several collapsed parts were found at different depths. From its original perforations, 25 survived. The upper (firing) chamber is dome-shaped (h>70 cm). The walls had five layers of daub and were more intensely baked than the walls of C1, the baked depth reaching 20 cm in certain areas (fig. 29). Inventory: the daubing layers included a silver coin, mostly burned away. It was probably an issue of Antoninus Pius (138-161) or Marcus Aurelius (161-180) (Ibidem, p. 28). The pottery found within the settlement (fig. 30) is mainly wheel-thrown (Ibidem, fig. 6/1-2, 5-6; 7/1-3, 6-7). Also inside kiln C3, contained in the filling of the inferior (fireplace) chamber, a animal figurine was found, in red-baked clay, of fine, well baked paste, identified as a horse, due to the specific arched neck (Ibidem, p. 30, fig. 8; h=39; L=5 mm). Dating: after Gh. Bichir (1966, p. 499; Idem 1973a, p. 57) and M. Coma (1985, p. 172, nota 11), the kiln is in no case later than the 2nd century AD.

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Ateliere de olrit i cuptoare performante de ars ceramic cu dou camere suprapuse, secolele III-V p.Hr. / Workshops and pottery firing kilns with two overlapped chambers, 3rd-5th centuries AD
Judeul Buzu / Buzu county 8. Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, jud. Buzu, cultura Sntana de Mure, punct menionat de Gh. Diaconu. Pe malul drept al rului Clmui, la circa 200 m est de o necropol Sntana de Mure a fost identificat i aezarea. Aici s-a semnalat un cuptor distrus i altul necercetat, conform informaiilor date de Gh. Diaconu, autorul investigaiilor arheologice ale necropolei din secolul al IV-lea (1977, p. 431-438; cf. M. Coma 1981, p. 91; Eadem 1985, p. 173, nota 45). Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, Buzu county, Sntana de Mure culture, site mentioned by Gh. Diaconu. The settlement was identified an located on the right bank of Clmui River, at around 200 m east from a Sntana de Mure cemetery. There were also reported two kilns, one destroyed and one left unexcavated, according to the information offered by Gh. Diaconu, the author of the investigations into the 4th century cemetery (1977, p. 431-438; cf. M. Coma 1981, p. 91; Eadem 1985, p. 173, footnote 45). Judeul Vrancea / Vrancea county 9. Dumbrveni, com. ~, jud. Vrancea, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri Maria Coma (fig. 31). Cuptorul de ars ceramica s-a amenajat la periferia aezrii situate spre est de Dumbrveni, n partea n care astzi trece linia de nalt tensiune, locuire ce se ntinde pn n perimetrul satului. Prin surparea malului s-a secionat natural aproximativ pe jumtate. Avea dou camere, inferioar, de foc, mprit n dou printr-un perete median (h=36; l=20 cm) i superioar, de ardere a vaselor (>1,10x1,25 m).

Fig. 31. Dumbrveni. Cuptor de ars oale. A suprafa grtar, B camera de foc, C seciune transversal, D seciune longitudinal. Legenda: 1 perete cuptor, plan; 2 perete median; 3 arsura perete cuptor, profil; 4 grtarul, profil; 5 vatra focarului (apud M. Coma 1981, fig. 1). The potters kiln. A the surface of the perforated plate, B the fireplace chamber, C cross section, D longitudinal section. Key: 1 kiln walls, plan; 2 median wall; 3 the baked layer of the kiln wall, profile; 4 the perforated plate, profile; 5 the hearth of the fireplace (apud M. Coma 1981, fig. 1).

Grtarul (h=22 cm) s-a fixat pe un pat de pari cioplii i s-a modelat din lut amestecat cu puine paie i pleav, fapt pentru care partea s-a inferioar era aproape neted. Marginal s-a sprijinit pe treapta de lut cruat de jur mprejurul camerei de foc. Se consider c au fost cte 10 perforri verticale n fiecare jumtate din grtar, realizate prin nfingerea n lutul nc moale a unor pari. Gura de alimentare se afla n partea de nord-est, dar s-a distrus prin alunecarea malului. M. Coma l-a reconstituit cu o gur de foc. Camera de ardere a vaselor avea o form uor tronconic, mai mare n partea inferioar (>1,10x1,25m), la fel ca i camera de foc, iniial cu o nlime de circa 80 cm, din care s-au pstrat 60 cm, partea de sus a pereilor fiind distrus de arturi. Limita acestuia s-a surprins la - 30 cm de la nivelul actual de clcare. Inventar: fragmente ceramice ntre care, pe grtar, se afla i un ciob din peretele unui vas lucrat din past cenuie nchis, cu suprafaa lustruit, precum a categoriei ceramicii fine a complexului cultural Sntana de Mure Cerneahov (M. Coma 1981, p. 89).

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Analogii: cuptoarele de la Trueti - Pe Cuha, jud. Iai (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 174-175, fig. 6), Cucuteni, Biceni - Laiu (Idem, 1966, p. 36), Ioneni - intirim (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60), Botoani Dealul Crmidriei, jud. Botoani (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 463-466), jud. Iai, Gutina, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, jud. Bacu (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 43), Sf. Gheorghe Eprestet (Z. Szkely 1959, p. 240, pl. I/5), Ozun, jud. Covasna (Idem 1969, p. 40-47), Bucureti Crngai, jud. Ilfov (Vl. Zirra, D. Tudor 1954, p. 312-313; M. Coma 1981, p. 90). Particulariti: perete median din lut cruat; grtar fixat pe un pat de pari cioplii, modelat din lut amestecat cu puine paie i pleav, cu partea inferioar aproape neted, sprijinit pe treapta cruat mprejurul camerei de foc. Dumbrveni, commune of ~, Vrancea county, 4th century AD, research by Maria Coma. The potters kiln was built at the periphery of the settlement, which is located east of Dumbraveni village, in the area of the nowadays high power lines, extending into the village perimeter. The kiln was sectioned almost in half by the collapse of the river bank. It had two chambers, the inferior one of the fireplace and the superior one for firing the batch ( > 1.10x1.25 m), the fireplace chamber is divided in two by a median wall (h=36; w=20 cm). The perforated plate (h=22 cm) was mounted on a bed of cut wooden staves and made of clay mixed with a small quantity of straw and chaff, resulting in a smooth undersurface. Its edges were seated on a ledge spared from the natural clay, all around the fireplace chamber. It is thought that teher were 10 perforations on each half of the plate, made by sticking staves into the still wet clay. The fuel-feeding opening would have been located in the north-east area of the kiln but was destroyed by the collapse of the bank. The reconstruction by M. Coma includes only one fuel opening. The firing chamber was slightly conical in shape, larger at the base ( > 1.10x1.25 m), similar to the fireplace chamber. It had an original height of approximately 80 cm, of which only 60 cm were preserved, its upper part being destroyed by the ploughing works. This upper limit was intercepted at -30 cm below the current treading level. Inventory: a number of pottery fragments, amid which, on top of the perforated plate, was found a piece from the wall of a dark-grey polished vessel, similar to the fine-paste variety of Sntana de Mure Cerneahov cultural complex (M. Coma 1981, p. 89). Analogies: the kilns of Trueti - Pe Cuha, Iai county (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 174-175, fig. 6), Biceni - Laiu (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1966, p. 36), Ioneni - intirim (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60), Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Botoani county (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 463-466), Gutina, Iai county, tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, Bacu county (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 43), Sf. Gheorghe - Eprestet (Z. Szkely 1959, p. 240, pl. I/5), Ozun, Covasna county (Idem 1969, p. 40-47), Bucureti - Crngai, Ilfov county (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, p. 312-313; M. Coma 1981, p. 90). Peculiarities: a median wall spared from the natural clay, a perforated plate mounted on a bed of cut wooden staves, made of clay mixed with a small quantity of straw and chaff, with a smooth underside, which is seated on the ledge spared all around the fireplace chamber. Judeul Galai / Galai county 10. Stoicani - Poarta arinii, com. Folteti, jud. Galai, secolul al IV-lea, spturi arheologice realizate de Ionel Bauman. O parte din terasa Prutului, unde se afl punctul menionat, a fost distrus de-a lungul timpului de gropile spate pentru scos lutul. a-b. Cuptoarele nr. 1-2. Dup cum susin locuitorii din apropiere, pe acest teren se aflau cuptoare nalte, sau menionat cel puin nc dou astfel de construcii. c. Cuptorul nr. 3. Sondajul realizat n anul 1973 a dus la descoperirea nc a unui cuptor de ars oale, care avea ncperea de acces comun cu a celui semnalat n 1971. n ea se gsea o mare cantitate de ceramic specific complexului cultural Sntana de Mure Cerneahov, "se poate admite c, la Stoicani, una din principalele ocupaii ale populaiei din secolele III-IV e.n. era olritul" (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 44, 46). Cuptorul, n plan cu o form aproximativ rotund, n camera de ardere avea pilon central de susinere. Inventar. n focar i n camera de ardere a vaselor se mai aflau numeroase fragmente ceramice i o mare cantitate de cenu. Prin degajarea cuptorului, deasupra plcii au fost descoperite mai multe fragmente ceramice specifice acestei culturii, ntre care i cteva fragmente din buza unui Krausengefsse, tip de vas prezent frecvent n aezrile perioadei, alturi de care se afla i o unealt de corn de cerb, cu ajutorul creia se realizau motivele vlurite (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 43, fig. 1/1; M. Coma 1981, p. 91).

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Stoicani - Poarta arinii, commune of Folteti, Galai county, the 4th century, excavation by Ionel Bauman. An area pertaining to the terrace of River Prut, where the site is located, was almost destroyed in time by the clay extraction holes made by the villagers. After the local people, this piece of land had several tall kilns. The archeological sounding carried out in 1973 revealed another potters kiln, which shared the access area with the one discovered in 1971. This area contained a large number of potsherds, specific to the Sntana de Mure Cerneahov cultural complex. It is feasible to assert that one of the main occupations for the population of the 3 rd-4th century settlement of Stoicani was the pottery-making (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 44, 46). The kiln, roughly circular in plan, falls within the category of central supporting pillar. Inside the fireplace and the firing chamber it was found a large quantity of ash and numerous pottery fragments. Following the unearthing of the kiln, on top of the perforated plate there were found a number of potsherds specific to this culture, including several fragments of a Krausengefsse rim, which type is quite frequently found in the settlements of the respective period, along with an implement in deer antler, used to make the wavy lines decoration (I. Bauman 1973-1974, p. 43, fig. 1/1; M. Coma 1981, p. 91). Judeul Vaslui / Vaslui county 11. Silitea - Muncelu, fost ifu, com. Iana, jud. Vaslui, prima jumtate a secolului al IV-lea (fig. 32-33). Spturi arheologice realizate pe locul fostei cooperative de consum, n 1963, de Vasile Palade (1971, p. 96-97, fig. 1; 2/2-3; 3/3) i n 1965, dou seciuni pe care a aprut i cuptorul, de Ion Ioni (2010, p. 191206), pe un mic platou nclinat uor de la vest spre est, situat la 500 m nord-vest de sat, sub pdurea de pe Muncelu, imediat pe malul drept al prului Studine, un afluent de pe partea stng a rului Tutova. Dup Ion Ioni, cuptorul de olrie, platforma de pietre de 1x2 m, orientat nord-sud, de la o construcie anex amenajat cu pereii din brne groase de lemn, cu un acoperi improvizat de la care au rmas resturi de crbuni i lipituri arse i gropile din preajm, par mai curnd un loc situat n afara satului, amenajat ocazional pentru a desfura o activitate meteugreasc temporar, a olriei, locul n care se pregtea lutul i se modelau vasele, dup care acestea se ardeau n cuptorul aflat la 50 m deprtare (Ibidem, p. 193-194, fig. 3/3).

Fig. 32. Silitea - Muncelu. Planul general al spturilor arheologice atelierul de olrie, plan i profil (apud I. Ioni 2010, fig. 2). The general plan of the archeological excavations the potters kiln, plan and profile (apud I. Ioni 2010, fig. 2).

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Fig. 33. Silitea Muncelu. Ceramica (apud I. Ioni 2010). Poterry (apud I. Ioni 2010).

Cuptor, cuptorul de olrie a aprut la circa 50 m de grupul de complexe din SI (I. Ioni 2010, p. 192, fig. 2), la 21 m de captul de est al SII, M 47-79. Camera de foc cilindric, 1,10 m, avea pereii puternic ari, de culoare crmizie, pe o grosime de 16 cm, cu grtarul susinut de un stlp central, =32; h=44 cm. Camera de ardere a vaselor, la baz uor mai mic dect focarul, 1,05 m, cu deschiderea la partea superioar de 45 cm, avea pereii la fel de puternic ari, de culoare crmizie, pe o grosime de 16 cm, era mai ngust la captul din groapa olarului (38 cm) i puin mai larg la cel din camera de foc (50 cm). Camera olarului este destul de mic, cu podeaua albiat i cu o form aproximativ circular, cu intrarea spre nord-est, unde limita peretelui este aproape dreapt, cu dou trepte, una pe toat lungimea ei (l=1220; h=1,23 m), alta mult mai scurt, ca un fel de ni (L=70; l=15-20; h=1,05 m). Pe o grosime de 60 cm, de la baza podelei, era un sol amestecat cu foarte mult cenu, deasupra lui un sol cafeniu-cenuiu. Inventar: cele mai numeroase erau n camera de ardere a arjei (I. Ioni 2010, fig. 4/4-5; 5/1-6; 6/1-5; 7/1-5; 8/4; 9/5; 10/5) iar cteva erau din past zgrunuroas (Ibidem, fig. 10/2, 9; 11/4, 7, 9). Fragmente ceramice asemntoare din past fin sau zgrunuroas (Ibidem, fig. fig. 4/2; 9/1, 3-4, 6, 9; 10/3 i 8/1; 9/2) i o fibul de fier de tipul cu piciorul nfurat (Ibidem, fig. 4/2), au aprut n groapa olarului. Datare, Ion Ioni a ncadrat descoperirile dup tipul de cuptor de olrie, caracteristicile tipologice ale vaselor lucrate la roat din past fin i zgrunuroas i fibula de fier cu picior nfurat, n prima jumtate a secolului al IV-lea, cultura Sntana de Mure (Ibidem, p. 193). Silitea - Muncelu, ifu, commune of Iana, Vaslui county, the 4th century (fig. 32-33). Archaeological excavations carried out on the place of the former general shop Cooperativa de consum, in 1963, by Vasile Palade (1971, p. 96-97, fig. 1; 2/2-3; 3/3) and in 1965, two trenches in which the kiln was found by Ion Ioni (2010, p. 191-206), on a small plateau slightly sloped westwards-eastwards, situated 500 m northwest of the village, under the words of Muncelu, just on the right bank of Studine rivulet, a lefthand affluent of River Tutova. According to Ion Ioni, the kiln, the stone platform of 1x2 m, north-south oriented, of an adjacent construction with walls made of thick wooden beams, with an improvised rood out of which there remained pieces of coals and fired daubing and the surrounding pits, seem to be rather a place outside the village, arranged occasionally in order to carry out a temporary crafting activity, that is pottery, the place where clay was being prepared and the vessels shaped, after which they were fired in the kiln that existed at a 50 m distance (Ibidem, p. 193-194, fig. 3/3). Kiln that was found about 50 m away from the group of compounds in SI (Ibidem, p. 192, fig. 2), at a 21 m distance from the eastern end of SII, M 47-79. Fire chamber, cylindrical, 1.10 m, had very fired walls, of brick red color, with the width of 16 cm, the perforated plate being sustained by a central pillar (=32 cm, h=44 cm).

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The vessel firing chamber had the base slightly smaller than the fire chamber, 1,05 m, with the opening in the upper part of 45 cm, had the walls equally fired as those of the fire chamber, of brick red, with the width of 16 cm, was narrower to the end toward the potters pit (38 cm) and slightly lighter to the one in the fire chamber (50 cm). The potters room is rather small, with a bedded floor, of approximately circular shape, with a northeastern entrance, where the limit of the wall was almost straight, with two stairs, one throughout the whole length thereof (l=12-20; h=1.23 m), one much shorter, with a kind of niche (L=70; l=15-20; h=1.05 m). Throughout a width of 60 cm, measured from the base of the floor, there was a soil mixed with a lot of ash, and on top of it a grayish coffee brown soil. Inventory: the most numerous items were found in the batch firing chamber (I. Ioni 2010, fig. 4/4-5; 5/1-6; 6/1-5; 7/1-5; 8/4; 9/5; 10/5) several of them being made of grainy paste (Ibidem, fig. 10/2, 9; 11/4, 7, 9). Similar potsherds of fine paste (Ibidem, fig. 4/2; 9/1, 3-4, 6, 9; 10/3) or grainy paste (Ibidem, fig. 8/1; 9/2), as well as an iron fragmentary fibula belonging to the type of the wrapped foot fibulae (Ibidem, fig. 4/2) were found in the filling of the potters pit. Dating, Ion Ioni dated the discoveries according to the type of kiln, the typological features of the wheel-made vessels of fine and grainy paste and the iron fibula with a wrapped foot, to the first half of the 4th century, the Sntana de Mure culture (Ibidem, p. 193). 12. Brlad - Valea Seac, municipiul Brlad, jud. Vaslui, secolul al IV-lea, spturi arheologice realizate de Vasile Palade, cuptor semnalat n 1973 i spat n anul 1988. Practicarea olriei, ca meteug specializat, se argumenteaz i pentru aceast aezare printr-un cuptor de ars vase i printr-o "groap cuptor". n sectorul sudic, n anul 1973 a fost semnalat un cuptor de ars oale, care a fost spat n anul 1988 (Ibidem, fig. 62), orientat uor spre vest sud-vest.

Fig. 34. Brlad - Valea Seac. Planul general al cercetrilor arheologice 1967-1975 (apud V. Palade 2004, plana I). The general plan of the archeological excavations 1967-1975 (apud V. Palade 2004, plate I).

n camera de foc era prevzut cu perete median, modelat din lut amestecat cu paie, puin frmntat, de form uor tronconic (h=30 cm), la baz cu o lime de 18 cm i la partea de sus de 13 cm. Lungimea focarului i a gurii de alimentare era de 2,15 m. Peretele median traverseaz focarul, spat n pant uoar, pentru a forma dou camere late de 42 cm la est i 36 cm la vest i se continu nc 10 cm n afara gurii acestuia. Pe coama peretelui se mai vd urmele adncite ale nuielelor mai groase, imprimate transversal peste acesta, cnd lutul nu se uscase nc. Gura de foc de form semioval (L=1,10 m), ocup o parte din ncperea de alimentare cu lemne, pe o

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Fig. 35. Brlad - Valea Seac. Cuptor de ars ceramica, plan i profile (apud V. Palade 2004, pl. VI). The potters kiln, plan and profiles (apud V. Palade 2004, pl. VI).

lungime de 0,92 m i avea la baz deschiderea de 0,60 m i nlimea de 0,30 m, care se reduce spre ncperea n care lucra olarul (h=20-25 cm). Grtarul se afla la - 63 cm fa de nivelul actual de clcare i s-a realizat prin aplicarea lutului bine frmntat, cu paie n past, pe un pat de nuiele i crengi. Perforrile pentru tiraj, n numr de 14, sunt relativ tronconice, cu deschiderea spre faa grtarului (=6-8 cm) i au fost dispuse aproximativ longitudinal pe axa est nord-est - vest sud-vest, cte patru de-a lungul peretelui median i cte trei marginale, n uor arc de cerc. Dup realizarea grtarului suprafaa a fost fuit i de mai multe ori refcut, prin aplicarea unor straturi de lutuial. n prezent, pe latura de est nord-est - vest sud-vest grtarul este uor prbuit. Camera de ardere a vaselor s-a pstrat doar pe o nlime de 0,25 - 0,35 m (V. Palade 2004, p. 83-84). La margine se sprijinea pe muchia unei lipituri groase, de 10-12 cm, ce acoperea pereii camerei de foc, pn la nlimea peretelui median, de la baza grtarului. ncperea de acces, de form aproape circular, are pe axa nord-sud 1,60 m i pe est-vest 1,70 m i se adncete pn la 1,32 m, de la suprafaa actual a solului iar spre gura de alimentare cu nc 11 cm. Analogii: ntreaga construcie a cuptorului, cum consemneaz V. Palade, este asemntoare cu a celor cercetate n aezrile datate n secolul al IV-lea de la Zorleni - Fntnele (V. Palade 2004, p. 83, 339 i urm.), Trueti - Pe Cuha, C2 (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 174-175, fig. 6), Ioneni intirim (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60), Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 463-466), Cucuteni, Biceni - Laiu (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1966, p. 36; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60), Cndeti - ntre praiele Recea i Rmna, com. Dumbrveni (M. Coma 1985, p. 172), Bucureti Crngai (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, p. 312-315). A fost construite n aceeai tehnic cele de la cheia Silitea (Gr. Foit 1970, p. 391-392), Cucoeni - Butnreti sau Poiana - Pe silite (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 57), ifeti - La Grigoreti (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, p. 522-523), Blteni - Grla Strmbu (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 12), Rduleti (R. Vulpe 1931, p. 156-158) .a. Brlad - Valea Seac, Brlad municipality, Vaslui county, 4th century AD, excavations by Vasile Palade, the kiln was identified in 1973 and excavated in 1988 (fig. 34-35). The significance of the potters craft for this settlement is supported by the discovery of a pottery kiln, as well as a pit-kiln. The potters kiln was identified in 1973 in the south sector, and it was excavated in

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1988 (Ibidem, fig. 62). It was oriented toward WSW and falls into the category of superimposed bicameral kilns (fireplace and firing chamber). The fireplace included a median wall, built of clay mixed with straw, negligently worked, in a slightly tapered shape (h=30 cm), 18 cm wide at the base and 13 cm wide at the top. The total length, of the fireplace chamber and its feeding opening was 2.15 m. The median wall goes through the fireplace, which is slightly sloped, to form two compartments, 42 cm (east) and 36 cm (west) wide, and continues another 10 cm beyond the opening. The top of the median wall bears the traces of the crosswise twigs applied to the wet clay. The feeding opening is semi-elliptic in shape (L=1.10 m), occupies a part of 0.92 m from the stokers room and it is 0.6 m wide, the base and 0.3 m high, sloping down towards the access area (h=20-25 cm). The perforated plate is 63 cm below the current treading level and it was built by applying the well worked clay, mixed with straw, on a bed of wattle. There are 14 perforations for hot air circulation, roughly conical, larger upwards, (=6-8 cm) placed in four rows (3-4-4-3), ENE-WSW oriented, in a shallow arc. After the plate was built, its face was covered with daub, which was remade several times. On the moment of its unearthing, the sides of the plate were somehow collapsed. Only 25-35 cm of the firing chamber was preserved (V. Palade 2004, p. 83-84). Its eges were supported by a 10-12 cm thick lining, which covered the walls of the fireplace level to the top of the median wall. The access area is roughly elliptic in shape (1.6 m on the N-S axis, 1.7 m on the E-W axis) and 1.32 m deep, below the current treading level, and sloping towards the feeding opening up to another 11 cm. Judging from the fragments of large and medium-sized pots, wheel-thrown, in fine as well as coarse paste, which were found in and around the kiln, it was concluded that this pottery was fired at this place. Analogies: The structure of the kiln, as a whole, as reported by V. Palade, is similar to the ones excavated within the 4th century settlements of Zorleni - Fntnele (V. Palade 2004, p. 83, 339 sq.), Trueti - Pe Cuha, C2 (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 174-175, fig. 6), Ioneni - intirim (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60), Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei (N Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 463466), Cucuteni, Biceni - Laiu (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1966, p. 36; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60), Cndeti ntre praiele Recea and Rmna, Dumbrveni (M. Coma 1985, p. 172), Bucureti - Crngai (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, p. 312-315), cheia - Silitea (Gr. Foit 1970, p. 391-392), Cucoeni Butnreti, Poiana - Pe silite (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 57), ifeti - La Grigoreti (S. Morintz, N. Haruchi 1962, p. 522-523), Blteni - Grla Strmbu (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 12), Rduleti (R. Vulpe 1931, p. 156-158) and other.

13. Zorleni - Fntnele, com. Zorleni, jud. Vaslui, secolul al IV-lea, spturi realizate de Vasile Palade.

Punct situat la periferia de nord a satului, la distan de circa 400 m, n faa fermei Fntnele, pe grindurile din lunca din stnga Brladului (fig. 36). Aezarea specific culturii Sntana de Mure, datat n secolul al IV-lea, se afl la circa 10 m deprtare de albia minor a rului, n apropierea unor izvoare cu ap potabil. Aici, n ruptura unui grind, s-au descoperit urmele unei locuiri steti, ntre care i un cuptor de olar, cu arja n el, plin cu aproximativ 150 de vase de toate mrimile. Aproape jumtate din acesta s-a distrus prin prbuirea malului nisipos. Partea pstrat i ncperea de acces a olarului, indic prezena aici a unui atelier amenajat special pentru ars ceramica (V. Palade 1969, p. 339, 341, 343; Idem 1970, p. 45; Idem 2004, p. 339). Cuptor de olrie de tip nalt, cu dou camere suprapuse. Focria (h=30 cm), avea vatra situat la adncimea de 1,60 m fa de solul actual i la 1,20 m fa de solul antic, n centru cu stlp central, format din pmnt mzros, de culoare neagr-glbuie, uor frmntat i amestecat cu puine paie. Se deschidea spre camera de alimentare cu un canal desprit de prelungirea peretelui median, se formau astfel dou guri de foc (V. Palade 1969, p. 339, fig. 1-3, 5; G. Coman 1980, LXXV.2., p. 283; M. Coma 1985, nota 35). Grtarul s-a construit pe o platform de lemne despicate i cioplite numai pe una din fee i s-a acoperit cu acelai lut cu care s-a fuit focarul. Datorit presiunii solului camera de ardere a vaselor (h=75 cm) are pereii mai nclinai spre golul format prin tasarea vaselor din spate. Deasupra camerei de ardere s-au aezat, drept capac, pri de vase mari, probabil i alte fragmente mai mrunte (V. Palade 1969, fig. 1-3). Focarul, stlpul central, grtarul i camera de ardere a vaselor, s-au acoperit cu o fuial de lut fin, n primele amenajri de circa 1 cm, n ultima n straturi succesive groase de 2-4 cm (Ibidem, p. 343, fig. 2). Datorit numrului mare de vase aflate pe grtar, dup Gh. Bichir, camera de ardere s-a ridicat deasupra nivelului solului antic, pentru a i se mri capacitatea (fig. 36/2).

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Fig. 36. Zorleni - Fntnele. Cuptor de olrie cu arja n el. Planuri i profile (apud V. Palade 1969, fig. 1-3). The pottery kiln with its batch inside. Plans and profiles (apud V. Palade 1969, fig. 1-3).

Inventar. Cum a menionat i Ghenu Coman, n 1970, "Cuptorul s-a descoperit cu toat arja n el i pare s aparin sfritul secolului al IV-lea p.Hr., poate i nceputul secolului al V-lea (1970, p. 183). Vasele rmase n cuptorul descoperit la Zorleni - Fntnele, i cele recuperate din prejma acestuia, s-au ntregit n majoritate, numai cele din care s-a pstrat doar o parte nu au fost reconstituite. Vasile Palade, experimental, dup restaurarea vaselor a i ncercat s reconstituie poziia acestora pe grtar, ordonndule pe vertical, n rnduri suprapuse, pe o nlime ce nu a depit 76 cm. Astfel, dup el, pe primul rnd au ncput 35 de vase din cele mari (h=20 cm) iar pe ultimul rnd nc 15-20 de vase cu diferite dimensiuni (h=7-13 cm), de la mici la mijlocii (1969, p. 343). Ceramica descoperit n cuptor s-a lucrat la roat, din past fin i doar un procent, circa 10%, din past amestecat cu amot, la exterior cu un aspect nengrijit. Dup analiza ceramicii Vasile Palade a stabilit trei categorii. Prima grup, cu procentul cel mai mare, s-a modelat din past fin, moale la pipit, de culoare cenuie, ades n seciune cenuiu-roietic, unele aveau la exterior angob neagr cu aspect metalic, toate au baza inelar. Sunt i vase neangobate, de culoare cenuie sau cenuiu-crmizie, cu aspect lucios. A doua grup, s-a lucrat din past cu mai puin nisip fin, dar mai ales cu alte impuriti n compoziie, la exterior este nelustruit i neangobat, aspr la pipit, de culoare cenuiu-nchis. Vasele au pereii mai groi spre baza ntotdeauna plat, de la tiatul cu sfoara (Ibidem, p. 345, 347, fig. 5/1) (fig. 36/3). n grupa a treia a inclus vasele modelate din past amestecat cu amot i alte impuriti, dar fr nisip cu bobul mare i microprundiuri, care imit ceramica zgrunuroas, dar cu pereii modelai nengrijit, neuniform, mai subiri n partea de sus i mai groi spre baza plat, tiat cu sfoara, uneori profilat, dar fr inel (Ibidem, fig. 4/1-3; 13/1-5) (fig. 37/6, 8-9, 11, 14; 38/2, 5-6).

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Fig. 37. Zorleni - Fntnele, 1-3, 5-6, 9, 12-14 oale; 4, 7, 10 strchini; 8, 11 castroane (apud V. Palade 1969, fig. 10; 13; 16). Pots; 1-3, 5-6, 9, 12-14 pots; 4, 7, 10 dishes; 8, 11 bowls (apud V. Palade 1969, fig. 10; 13; 16).

Fig. 38. Zorleni - Fntnele. 1-2, 5, 8-9 Oale; 3, 7, 11 amfore; 4 can; 6 vas bitronconic; 10 vas cu gt nalt (apud V. Palade, fig. 11, 14-15). 1-2, 5, 8-9 Pots; 3, 7, 11 amphorae; 4 cup; 6 bi-conical pot; 10 high-neck vessel (apud V. Palade, fig. 11, 1415).

n cuptor se ntlnesc mai multe tipuri de vase modelate din past fin: - strachina cu marginea arcuit exterior (Ibidem, fig. 7/1; 8/1-2) i castronul de dimensiuni mici i mari, cu buza orizontal, prevzut cu trei toarte (fig. 38/1, 3-4); - castroane cu buza faetat i baza dreapt sau altele cu marginea dreapt sau doar uor evazat (Ibidem, fig. 4/1; 13/4-5; 17/1-4) (fig. 37/8, 11; 38/1; 39/1, 4, 7-8); - oale cu forme bombate, aproape sferice, cu buza dreapt, ngroat la exterior (Ibidem, p. 353, fig. 4/3; 9/1-3; 13/2-3; 14/1, 4), oale tronconice, cu buza orizontal sau puin oblic i oale n past cu amot, gura larg deschis, corp piriform i baza ngust (Ibidem, fig. 10/3) (fig. 37/6, 9, 12; 38/2, 9; 39/2, 5, 9); - vase cu forme bitronconice (Ibidem, fig. 14/2) (fig. 38/6); vas cu gt nalt (Ibidem, fig. 15/3) (fig. 38/10); vase piriforme, bitronconice de tip amfor, cu toarte (Ibidem, fig. 8/3; 15/1, 4) (38/3, 7, 11; 39/1);

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Fig. 39. Zorleni - Fntnele. 12, 4-5, 7-9 Oale; 3, 6, 10 vase cu toarte. 1-2, 4-5, 7-9 Jars; 3, 6, 10 pots with handle.

Fig. 40. Zorleni - Fntnele, 1, 3, 4 strchini; 2 oal; vase fr toarte 5, 7; 6 castroane (apud V. Palade 1969, fig. 4; 7-8/1-2). 1, 3, 4 Dishes; 2 pot; 5, 7 earless vessels; 6 bowls (apud V. Palade 1969, fig. 4; 7-8/12).

- cni cu margine nalt, n form de plnie, corp sferic i toart (Ibidem, fig. 15/3) (fig. 38/4); - vas fr toart (oal ?), cu umr larg, gt scurtat pn la dispariie i buza lit orizontal sau nclinat. V. Palade consider c s-au format din vasele carpice fr toarte, din secolele II-III p.Hr., folosite ca urne, ce apar i la Poieneti - Dealul Teilor (R. Vulpe 1953, p. 317, 328, fig. 106, 131-132, 150-151, 153154, 198, 245, 357/4), Vleni - La Moar (I. Ioni, V. Ursache 1968, p. 215, fig. 3/2-4; 216, fig. 4/3), Cucoeni - Butnreti (Gh. Bichir 1967, p. 196, fig. 13/58), Gabra - Porceti (I. Antonescu 1959, p. 479, fig. 4/3-6), Porolissum (M. Macrea, M. Rusu 1960, p. 213, fig. 11/12), Cristeti - Cetatea de pmnt (D. Popescu 1956, p. 155; I. H. Crian 1965b, p. 51-63, fig. 8/16) i n alte necropole sau aezri. n secolul al IV-lea vasele fr toarte sunt mai puin nalte i mult mai largi (V. Palade 1969, fig. 4/3; 6/2; 9/1-3; 10; 11/1-3) (fig. 38/1, 5, 8; 39/2-3, 5, 12-13). Coborrea buzei prin scundarea gtului, dau formei un nou aspect (Ibidem, p. 353), care se apropie de formele din sec. II-III (R. Vulpe 1953, p. 339, 402, fig. 154;

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309) i prin decorul lustruit, ondulat sau n zigzag, obinut prin apsarea unui vrf de os sau lemn, n pasta crud, dunga n relief i mai rar decorul realizat cu rotia dinat sau prin tampilarea unor rozete, palmete (V. Palade 1969, fig. 4/3; 11/1-3; 16/1)(fig. 38/1-2, 5, 8). Din past cu aspect zgrunuros s-au modelat: - cana cu toart (V. Palade 1969, fig. 15/2) (fig. 38/4), cu forme care sunt apropiate de cele lucrate la roat n La Tne, la Poiana - Cetate (R. Vulpe, Ec. Vulpe 1933, p. 284, fig. 28/3; R. Vulpe et alii 1952, p. 203, fig. 15; I. H. Crian 1969, p. 174-175, fig. 89/1-2; 90/2-4, 6); - strchini modelate din past nisipoas (V. Palade 1969, fig. 16/1-4) (fig. 39/4, 7, 10); - oale scunde, bombate i oale nalte (Ibidem, fig. 16/1) (fig. 39/1, 14); - castroane mici, cu buza dreapt sau rsfrnt, caracteristic complexului cultural Sntana de Mure Cerneahov, apropiate de vasele de la Poiana - Cetate, din mediu geto-dacic (R. Vulpe, Ec. Vulpe 1933, p. 306-307, fig. 79/15; 80/9) sau din secolele II-III (I. Ioni, V. Ursache 1968, p. 218, fig. 6/2-3; I. Antonescu 1959, p. 479, fig. 4/1-2; D. Popescu 1956, fig. 96/1, 4, 8; 111/8, 15, 20; 112/14);

Fig. 41. Zorleni - Fntnele, 1 vase piriforme; 2 oal; 3 vas (apud V. Palade 1969, fig. 6; 8/3). 1 Pear-shaped vessels; 2 pot; 3 vessel (apud V. Palade 1969, fig. 6; 8/3).

- oale cu buza oblic, corp alungit i baza dreapt (Ibidem, fig. 6/1) (fig. 39/2); - castroane cu trei toarte, cu buza lat orizontal, unul dintre ele s-a mprit n metope aproximativ egale, fiecare acoperit cu unul sau dou motive probabil imprimate (V. Palade 1969, fig. 12/1-3) (fig. 38/3, 6, 10), n maniera olriei complexului Sntana de Mure Cerneahov, dei, forme apropiate se gsesc i n secolele anterioare, n zona romanului (V. Ursache 1968, p. 149, fig. 27/9), la Izvoare, unde, ntre recipientele lucrate la roat, strchini, castroane cu trei toarte, cni cu gt cilindric, gsete elemente din secolele anterioare (R. Vulpe 1957, p. 312-313; V. Palade 1969, p. 357, nota 17; fig. 12/1-3); - amfora sferic sau bitronconic cu dou toarte prinse vertical ntre buz i umr, gt scund, buz puin evazat, acoperit la suprafa cu angob neagr, lustruit. Toartele neglijent modelate au uneori, longitudinal, o nervur median i dou caneluri. V. Palade apropie forma de amforele daco-carpice din secolele anterioare, dar, fa de cele din secolele II-III sunt mai scunde i au pntecele mai larg (R. Vulpe 1953, p. 449, fig. 357/2; Gh. Bichir 1967, p. 196, fig. 13/4, 6, 9; I. H. Crian 1965b, p. 51-53, fig. 8/16; M. Coma 1981, p. 91).

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Zorleni - Fntnele, commune of Zorleni, Vaslui county, 4th century AD, excavations by Vasile Palade, located in the north of the village, on one of the rises in the flood-meadow of Brlad river. The settlement, specific to the Sntana de Mure culture, is dated in the 4th century AD and is located on the bank of the river channel, 10 m from its edge, in the vicinity of several freshwater sources. In this location there were found the traces of an ancient village, revealed by the collapse of the bank. This discovery included also a pottery kiln, still containing its batch, of approximately 150 vessels, of various sizes. Almost half of the batch was destroyed in the collapsing of the sandy bank. The preserved part and the access area of the potter indicate the presence of a potters workshop within the settlement (V. Palade 1969, p. 339, 341, 343; Idem 1970, p. 45; Idem 2004, p. 339). Potters kiln of the tall type, with two chambers, one on top of the other. The fireplace chamber (h=30 cm), had its hearth at the depth of 1.60 m from the current treading level and 1.20 m from the ancient one and included a central pillar. The stokers room responded into the twin fire opening (M. Coma 1985, footnote 35). The perforated plate was built from the same clay, on a platform of split, one-face planed logs. The plate was supported by a central pillar, which was built from grainy, clayish yellow-black earth, roughly worked and mixed with a small quantity of straw. As a result of the soil pressure, the firing chamber (h=75 cm) has its walls slightly drawn-in, towards the space created by the collapsing of the rear part of the batch. On top of the firing chamber there are placed, as stoppers, fragments of large pots as well as, probably, from several small vessels (V. Palade 1969, fig. 1-3, 5). The fireplace, the central pillar as well as the perforated plate and the firing chamber walls, were covered by a fine daub, in layers 1 cm thick (in the first phases) and up to 2-4 cm thick (in the later ones) (Ibidem, p. 343, fig. 2). Judging from the large size of the batch preserved on the perforated plate, after Gh. Bichir, the fireplace chamber was extended above-ground in order to increase its capacity (fig. 2). Inventory. As reported by Ghenu Coman in 1970, the kiln was discovered with its entire batch inside and it seems to date at the end of the 4th century AD, perhaps at the end of 5th century (1970, p. 183). The pottery recovered inside the kiln of Zorleni - Fntnele, as well as the fragments recovered from its vicinity, was reconstructed in majority and only the single-sherd pots were unable to be reconstructed. An experiment conducted by Vasile Palade, after the restoration of the vessels, piled them in vertically successive rows, to height of less than 76 cm. In this way, as the said archeologist reported, the first row included 35 of the largest vessels (h=20 cm) and the last row another 15-20 of various sizes (h=7-13 cm), from small to medium (1969, p. 343). The pottery found in the kiln is mostly wheel-thrown, in fine paste while only 10% is made from a paste with ground brick, with coarse outer surfaces. Following the analysis of the pottery, Vasile Palade established three categories. The first group, which constitutes the majority, is modeled in fine, soft to the touch, paste, grey-baked, often with a reddish core visible in cross-section, covered in a black, glossy slip, with a metallic shine, with annular bases. This group also includes pots without slip, grey or reddish-grey in color, with glossy outer surfaces (Ibidem, p. 345). The second group consists in vessels made from a less fine paste (with coarse aggregates rather that finegrained sand), with un-polished outer surfaces and without slip, rough to the touch, and dark-grey in color. The pots have walls that are thicker towards the base, which is always flat, as a result of the stringcutting detachment (Ibidem, p. 345, 347, fig. 5/1) (fig. 36/3). The third group includes the pots modeled in coarse paste (with ground brick and other similar grained aggregates), but with no large-grained sand or micro-gravel, imitating the coarse ware but with roughly finished walls, of uneven thickness, thinner at the rim and thicker at the base, which is flat, string-cut and sometime profiled, but not annular (Ibidem, fig. 4/1-3; 13/1-5) (fig. 37/6, 8-9, 11, 14; 38/2, 5-6). The batch comprised several forms within the fine-paste species: the dish with outward-arched rim (Ibidem, fig. 7/1; 8/1-2) as well as small and large three-eared bowls with horizontal rim (fig. 38/1, 3-4); bowls with faceted rims and flat bases, together with some forms with flat or just slightly flared rims (Ibidem, fig. 4/1; 13/ 4-5; 17/1-4) (fig. 37/8,11; 38/1; 39/1, 4, 7-8); pots with round shape almost spherical, with flat, thickened outwards (Ibidem, p. 353, fig. 4/3; 9/1-3; 13/2-3; 14/1, 4), bi-conical pots, with horizontal or slightly oblique rims and pots made of paste with ground brick, with wide mouths, pear-shaped bodies and narrow bases (Ibidem, fig. 10/3 (fig. 37/6, 9, 12; 38/2, 9; 39/2, 5, 9); pots with bi-conical shape (Ibidem, fig. 14/2) (fig. 38/6); vessel with high neck (Ibidem, fig. 15/3) (fig. 38/10); pear-shaped or bi-conical vessels, of amphora type, or with ears on the shoulder (Ibidem, fig. 8/3; 15/1,

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4) (fig. 38/3, 7, 11; 39/1); cups with high rim funnel-shaped, with spherical body and handle (Ibidem, fig. 15/3) (fig. 38/4); earless vessel (cooking pot ?), with very large shoulder, very short, almost inexistent neck and horizontally stretched or oblique rim. V. Palade considers that this type emerged from the earless Carpic ware, dated in the 2nd-3rd century AD, used as funerary urns, which appear also in the sites of Poieneti - Dealul Teilor (R. Vulpe 1953, p. 317, 328, fig. 106, 131-132, 150-151, 153-154, 198, 245, 357/4), Vleni - La Moar (I. Ioni, V. Ursache 1968, p. 215, fig. 3/2-4; 216, fig. 4/3), Cucoeni Butnreti (Gh. Bichir 1967, p. 196, fig. 13/58), Gabra - Porceti (I. Antonescu 1959, p. 479, fig. 4/3-6), Porolissum (M. Macrea, M. Rusu 1960, p. 213, fig. 11/12), Cristeti - Cetatea de pmnt (D. Popescu 1956, p. 155; I. H. Crian 1965b, p. 51-63, fig. 8/16) as well as in other settlements and cemeteries. During the 4th century AD, these earless vessels became shorter and more large (V. Palade 1969, fig. 4/3; 6/2; 9/1-3; 10; 11/1-3) (fig. 38/1, 5, 8; 39/2-3, 5, 12-13). The lowering of the rim by shortening the neck gives a new appearance to the shape of the vessel (Ibidem, p. 353). After V. Palade, these vessels are similar to the shapes specific to the 2nd-3rd century (R. Vulpe 1953, p. 339, 402, fig. 154; fig. 309) also by the polished decoration, wavy or in zigzag, made by pressing a bone or wood point into the soft clay, by the horizontal raised stripe or, rarely, by the wheelprinted decoration or stamped rosettes and palms (V. Palade 1969, fig. 4/3; 11/1-3; 16/1) (fig. 38/2; 38/12, 5, 8). The coarse paste species include the following forms: eared cup (V. Palade 1969, fig. 15/2) (fig. 38/4), with shapes similar to the wheel-thrown La Tne ones found at Poiana - Cetate (R. Vulpe, Ec. Vulpe 1933, p. 284, fig. 28/3; R. Vulpe et alii 1952, p. 203, fig. 15; I. H. Crian 1969, p. 174-175, fig. 89/1-2; 90/2-4, 6); dishes modeled out of sandy paste (V. Palade 1969, fig. 16/1-4) (fig. 39/4, 7, 10); short pots, with rounded bodies, and tall pots (Ibidem, fig. 16/1) (fig. 39/1, 14); small bowls, with flat or down-turned rims, specific to Sntana de Mure Cerneahov cultural complex, not dissimilar to the ones of Poiana - Cetate, in the Geto-Dacian cultural environment (R. Vulpe, Ec. Vulpe 1933, p. 306-307, fig. 79/15; 80/9) or in the 2rd3th centuries horizon (I. Ioni, V. Ursache 1968, p. 218, fig. 6/2-3; I. Antonescu 1959, p. 479, fig. 4/1-2; D. Popescu 1956, fig. 96/1, 4, 8; 111/8, 15, 20; 112/14); Three-eared bowls, with wide horizontal rims, one of them divide in two equal sized metopes, each covered by one or two repeated motifs, probably stamped (V. Palade 1969, fig. 12/1-3) (fig. 38/3, 6, 10), in the manner of the pottery of the Sntana de Mure Cerneahov cultural complex, although similar forms can also be found, for previous centuries, in the area of Roman (V. Ursache 1968, p. 149, fig. 27/9), at Izvoare, where, amid the wheel-thrown pottery (dishes, three-eared bowls, cylindrical necked cups), there are certain elements surviving from the previous centuries (R. Vulpe 1957, p. 312-313; V. Palade 1969, p. 357, nota 17; fig. 12/1-3). Oblique rimmed pots, with elongated bodies and flat bases (Ibidem, fig. 6/1) (fig. 39/2). Spherical of bi-conical amphorae with two ears, attached vertically between shoulder and rim, short neck, slightly flared rims, and surface covered with black, polished slip. The negligently worked ears sometimes have a median ridge and two grooves. V. Palade emphasize the similarities to the older Daco-Carpic amphorae with the difference that these vessels are shorter and wider bodied that the 2rd3th centuries ones (R. Vulpe 1953, p. 449, fig. 357/2; Gh. Bichir 1967, p. 196, fig. 13/4, 6, 9; I. H. Crian 1965b, p. 51-53, fig. 8/16; M. Coma 1981, p. 91). 14. Banca - La confluena prului Banca - Sat, com. Banca, jud. Vaslui, secolul al IV-lea, spturi reali zate de Vasile Palade, Nicoleta Ciuc. Din satul Banca, la Gura Bncii, att pe dreapta unde este sediul fermei, ct i pe stnga spre moar i crmidrie, se afl o bogat staiune i un cuptor de olar cu ntreaga arj, prsit dup ardere, coninnd vase lucrate la roat poate de un meter olar local (N. Ciuc, V. Palade, G. Coman 1971, p. 476-477; N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 310-311, o staiune cu punctele a-d i f; T. Udrescu 1973, p. 27; G. Coman 1980, IV.2., p. 56; M. Babe 1971, p. 362; M. Coma 1981, p. 91; Eadem 1985, p. 173). Inventar: s-au descoperit resturi ceramice, majoritatea modelate din past fin (G. Coman 1980, IV.1., p. 55-56).

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Banca - La confluena prului Banca - Sat, commune of Banca, Vaslui county, 4th century AD, excavations by Vasile Palade, Nicoleta Ciuc. On the territory of Banca, commune there is only one pottery kiln mentioned (N. Ciuc, V. Palade, G. Coman 1971, p. 476-477; M. Babe 1971, p. 362; M. Coma 1981, p. 91). Inventory: the most numerous items were found, several of them being made of grainy paste (G. Coman 1980, IV.1., p. 55-56). 15. Banca Gar - apte Case, com. Banca, jud. Vaslui, secolul al IV-lea, spturi realizate de Ruxandra Alaiba22. Staiunea arheologic situat la nord de municipiul Brlad, jud. Vaslui, com. Banca, n vestul satului Banca Gar, n punctul numit de localnici apte Case, s-a semnalat prima dat n anul 1981 (R. Maxim 1983, p. 355-359; Eadem 1987, p. 235-240; Eadem 1988, p. 253-261; Eadem 1990, p. 221-224; R. Alaiba 1996, p. 7; Eadem 2007a, p. 18-36; Eadem 2009, p. 73-74).

Fig. 42. Banca Gar - apte Case. 1-2 Vedere general dinspre vest i sud; 3 amplasarea geografic. 1-2 General view from west and south; 3 the geographic location.

22

Plane i desene / Plates and drawings, Ileana Plugariu, Georgeta Vrnceanu and Ruxandra Alaiba

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Fig. 43. Banca Gar - apte Case. 1-2 Plan general. 1-2 General plan.

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Din punct de vedere geografic, se afl situat n sudul Podiului Brladului (V. Bcuanu et alii 1980, p. 321, fig. 42), pe valea Brladului, la nord de drumul ce leag oseaua naional Iai - Brlad, de satele din comuna Banca, la interferena a dou microzone geografice, la est Dealurile Flciului i la vest subgrupa Dealurilor Banca - Grivia, din cadrul Colinelor Tutovei. Din punct de vedere geografic staiunea este situat n partea de nord a culoarului de trecere a popoarelor migratoare, a goilor, n drumul lor dinspre stepele din nordul Mrii Negre, spre Dunrea de Jos. n acest sens s-au consemnat cteva mrturii, din perioada de sfrit a eneoliticului (R. Alaiba, G. Miu, S. Stanc 2005, p. 153-160, ncadrat n orizontul cultural al nmormntrilor tumulare ivotilovka - Volansk, apropiat n vest de orizontul Costeti - Bursuceni - Taraclia) i mai ales din mileniul nti, dar i dou morminte datate n secolele X-XIII (R. Maxim 1987, p. 235-240). Din pcate, a fost distrus parial n anul 1980, cnd albia rului Brlad, prin lucrrile de hidroamelioraie i ndiguire, s-a mutat mai spre est. Noul curs al acesteia a traversat limita ei de vest. Cum indic puinele morminte descoperite, n apropiere de noua albie, lucrrile au afectat necropola din secolele III-IV, o parte din aezarea acestei perioade, dar i alte complexe (R. Maxim 1987, p. 235-240). Directorul Muzeului Judeean tefan cel Mare Vaslui, prof. Constantin Popescu, cu deosebit bunvoin ne-a ncredinat cercetrile, care s-au desfurat din anul 1981, pn n 1989, cu ntreruperile din 1984 i 1987.

Fig. 44a. Banca Gar - apte Case. 1-2 Grtar cuptor A, atelierul de olrie. 1-2 The perforated plate the Kiln A, the potters workshop.

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n timpul spturilor arheologice, urmele vechilor locuiri se mai gseau n albia major a actualului curs al rului Brlad, mai puin n dreapta i mai mult n stnga lui. De asemenea, pe grindurile dinspre limita de vest a satului Banca Gar, pe valea Brladului. Spturile arheologice sistematice au surprins un numr de 143 de complexe, aflate prin investigarea unei suprafee de 3400 m2, aproximativ jumtate din vechiul areal al acesteia (fig. 1/3). O parte dintre ele 74, din care 27 de locuine, cu vetrele i gropile din preajma lor, au aparinut comunitii steti din vremea ptrunderii popoarelor migratoare, a sarmailor i goilor, n anii de dup retragerea autoritii romane din Dacia (274-275) i din teritoriul nordic al Moesiei. Alte 38 de locuine au fost atribuite comunitii steti ce s-a aezat, pe acelai loc, n ultimele secole ale primului mileniu VII-IX/X. Cercetrile de la Banca Gar - apte case au nlesnit conturarea unor secvene culturale, din lumea mai puin cunoscutului mileniu nti, cruia i era specific, n multe privine, provizoratul. Acesta s-a realizat n cadrul unui atelier de olrie, prevzut cu dou cuptoare de ars ceramica. Conservarea suficient de bun ne-a permis reconstituirea lui. O ncercare de Reconstituire a atelierului de olrie din aezarea Banca Gar - apte case, secolele IV-V, a realizat Ana Maria Zub (R. Alaiba 2007a, p. 18 i urm.).

a-b. Atelier. Cuptoarele A i B

n faa gurilor de alimentare s-au spat gropi (L=2,40 m; l=1,96 m; h=0,36-0,40 m i L=2,10 m; l=2,2 m; h=0,40 m), n care se evacuau resturile de crbuni, cenu. Din groapa aflat n faa cuptorului s-a spat o groap cotlonit, alungit (L=1,8; l=1,2; h=1,2 m), ce avea n interiorul ei buci de lut uscat, nears, brui pregtii pentru modelarea ceramicii pe roata olarului de lemn.

Fig. 44b. Banca Gar apte Case. 1-2 Cuptorul A din atelierul de olrit. 1-2 Kiln A within the potters workshop.

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Fig. 45. Banca Gar - apte Case. 1-2. Plan i profil, atelier de olrie. 1-2. The plan and the profile, the potters workshop.

Tot aici s-au gsit multe fragmente de oase de animale, cum a menionat Simina Stanc, pentru acest complex este caracteristic i cea mai ridicat diversitate faunistic. Dintre acestea menionm: gina cu 94 de resturi, majoritatea aparin speciei Gallus domesticus (gina), dar i de la psri de talie mic, probabil slbatice; un craniu fragmentar de oaie, refcut parial, de la un mascul viguros, de 5-6 ani, reproductor; 382 fragmente de peti, cele mai multe aparinnd scheletului postcranial, provin de la teleosteeni i un singur solz de acipenserid, nu s-a putut stabili specia, un tip de pete probabil adus de la Prut sau Dunre, plus solzii de ciprinide. Menionm i trei cochilii, una folosit ca pandantiv, de

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Cerithium sp., care actualmente triete n Mrile Mediteran i Egee, ajunse la Banca n urma unor schimburi de mrfuri cu alte populaii (S. Stanc, Anexa 2). a. Cuptor A. Era de form uor tronconic (=1,84-2; h=1,08 m) i s-a spat pe latura lung dinspre nordest (fig. 97a-c). Din cuptor s-a conservat bine focarul, gura de alimentare, grtarul i baza bolii camerei de ardere a vaselor. n faa acestuia era groapa de acces la cuptor, de aici se realiza alimentarea focarului. Focar / camera de foc - furnium, de form uor tronconic, s-a amenajat n marginea atelierului, din una dintre laturile lungi, prin sparea lui n pmntul crud, la adncimea de 0,87 - 0,90 m, fa de nivelul actual de clcare. nlimea lui era de aproximativ 0,90 m. n centru avea cruat un perete median (l=0,36; h=0,88 m), ce mprea focarul n dou camere de foc, cu lrgimi apropiate (l=0,76 i 0,72 m), acum zgurificat. Interiorul ambelor camere i peretele median au fost acoperite cu un strat de lutuial, gros de 3-5 cm, care, prin ardere s-a ntrit i zgurificat diferit. Solul din jurul cuptorului s-a nroit circa 15-20 cm, mai intens spre interior.

Fig. 46. Banca Gar - apte Case. 1 Grtar cuptor A; 2-3 plan grtar i camera de foc, cuptor B. 1 the perforated plate of the kiln A; 2-3 the plan of the perforated pate and fireplace of the kiln B.

Gura de alimentare - praefurnium, ncepe de la marginea focarului. n exterior are o form aproximativ semicilindric, mai lat spre cuptor, pentru ca deschiderea interioar s aibe bolta oval. S-a construit pe un suport de nuiele, lutuit pe ambele fee (L > 1,20; l=1,22 m). Grtarul era n plan aproximativ circular (plac=1,8-2,0 m), diferenele diametrelor se pot datora i distrugerilor din vechime, cu o grosime de 18-21 cm, i se afla probabil deasupra nivelului antic de clcare. Se sprijinea pe peretele focarului i pe peretele median. A fost fcut dintr-o mpletitur de nuiele, care s-a acoperit cu lut, amestecat cu resturi vegetale, mai ales pleav. n placa acestuia s-au realizat 16 perforri, cu forme bitronconice (interior=5-8 cm), nspre camera de ardere a vaselor uor ovale, pe care se ordona arja. Prin ele ptrundea aerul fierbinte din camera de ardere a combustibilului, n camera de ardere a vaselor. Arderea puternic a dus la zgurificarea lor. Perforrile se astupau cu fragmente de vase sparte, cu marginile subiate, cu s-a observat la cuptorul B. n camera de ars ceramica, lipitura era acoperit cu o feuial roietic nchis, fin, ca i la cuptorul de la Drmneti, Piatra Neam, unde se consider c avea aceeai compoziie cu feuiala ceramicii roii (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 57). Baza bolii camerei de alimentare s-a conservat pe mici poriuni. S-a modelat tot pe un suport de nuiele, pe care s-a aplicat, pe ambele fee, un strat de lut amestecat cu cereale mrunite.

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Inventar cuptor A: dintre prile de recipiente descoperite prin degajarea pmntului din perimetrul primului cuptor A, s-au reconstituit parial 41 de vase (fig. 98-100), 8 vase din past zgrunuroas: 3 vase mari de provizii (fig. 98/8, 23-24; =30 cm), 3 baze inelare (fig. 98/14, 39, 43), 3 baze desprinse cu sfoara (fig. 98/37; 99/14) i unul din past negricioas, 1 corp de vas (fig. 98/40); 2 puin zgrunuroas, 2 perei de vase (fig. 98/19, 22), o baz dreapt (fig. 98/41); 3 ceramic din past fin negricioas, 1 perete (fig. 98/13), 3 baze (100/4-5, 8); 5 fin cenuiu-negricioas, 2 castroane (fig. 100/1-2), 1 oal (fig. 100/3), 1 buz, probabil de oal (fig. 98/6), 1 margine (fig. 99/7); 19 fin cenuie, 1 can (fig. 99/11), 6 castroane (fig. 99/1, 4-5, 8-9, 13), penultimul - un import, 2 oale (fig. 99/2; 100/6), 6 buze (fig. 98/4-5, 10, 12, 20; 99/6), 2 perei (fig. 98/7, 11), 1 toart (fig. 98/15), 9 baze inelare (fig. 98/25-30, 32, 34-35; 99/10), plus 2 roietice (fig. 98/31, 39), la fel 1 baz negricioas (fig. 98/33), baz dreapt cenuiunegricioas (fig. 98/42), 1 perete (98/36); ceramica de import: 4 fragmente ceramice glbui, probabil ceramic de import i perei (fig. 98/16-18) sau 1 baz de amfor (fig. 99/3).

Fig. 47. Banca Gar - apte Case. Atelier de olrie cu dou cuptoare, reconstituire arhitect Ana-Maria Zub. The potters workshop with two kilns. Reconstruction by architect Ana-Maria Zub.

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Cuptor B Avea tot o form uor tronconic, cu marginile mai puternic distruse din vechime (=1,74x1,82 m; h=1,04 m) i s-a spat pe latura lung dinspre nord-est (fig. 97a-c). Cuptorul s-a conservat mai puin ntreg dect primul, din el s-a pstrat mai bine focarul, gura de alimentare a acestuia, grtarul i o mic parte din baza bolii camerei de ardere a vaselor. Avea la fel n fa o groap de acces la focar.

Fig. 48. Banca Gar apte case. 1, 37 Lipituri, 2-3 chirpici. Fragmente ceramice lucrate la roata olarului: past fin cenuie, 4-5, 9-10, 12, 20 margini, 6, 11, 36 perei; negricioas, 7 margine, 13, 17 perei, 15 toart, baze, 42 dreapt, 31, 39 inelare roii; zgrunuroas, 8, 2324 vase de provizii, 14, 43 baze inelare, 37, 40 drepte, ultima negricioas; 16-18 perei de amfore; puin zgrunuroas, 17, 21-22 perei; 25-30, 32, 34 baze inelare, 33 negricioas, 35 concav, 41 dreapat. Cuptor A, sec. IV-V, cpl. 65. 1-3, 37 Pieces of adobe. Ceramic fragments made with the potters wheel: fine paste, 4-5, 9-10, 12, 20 edges, 6, 11, 36 wall; blackish, 7 edge, 13, 17 wall, 15, 42 bases; redish, 31, 39 annular bases; coarse, 8, 23-24 vessel for food storage, 14, 43 annular bases, 37, 40 straight, greysh, 40 basis; 16-18 wall of amphora; slightly coarse, 17, 21-22 walls; 25-30, 32, 34 annular bases, 33 blackish, 35 greysh concave, 41 straight. Kiln A, 4rd5th centuries, cpl. 65.

Focar / camera de foc - furnium, uor tronconic, s-a amenajat n pmntul crud, din marginea uneia dintre laturile lungi, opus primului cuptor al atelierului, la adncimea de 0,72-0,89 m, fa de nivelul cenuie (fig. 101/1, 3-9, 13-14, 28-32, 35, 41-42, 44-47; 102/1, 3-4, 15-17; 103/26), 10 castroane (fig. 101/1, 3-4, 7-9; 102/1, 3-4, 6, 14); 13 buze (fig. 101/2, 6, 10-12, 16-18, 20, 22-23, 25, 39); 3 oale (fig.

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101/5, 13-14); 3 perei de vase, folosii pentru astuparea perforrilor grtarului (fig. 102/15-17) i roie, 1 castron (fig. 102/7), 1 margine (fig. 101/21), 1 toart (fig. 102/5), 3 baze inelare (fig. 101/26, 28-30; 102/8) i 4 pri de amfore (fig. 101/24, 43; 102/10).

Fig. 49. Banca Gar - apte case. Fragmente ceramice lucrate la roata olarului: past fin, 1, 4-5, 7-9, 12-13 castroane; 2 oal; 6 buz; 10, 14 baze; 11 can; import, 3 baz amfor. Cuptor A, sec. IV-V, cpl. 65. Ceramic fragments: fine paste, 1, 4-5, 7-9, 12-13 tureens; 2 jar; 6 rim; 10, 14 bases; 11 mug; imported, 3 basis of amphora. Kiln A, 4rd5th centuries, cpl. 65.

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Gropile 1-3. n faa gurilor de alimentare ale cuptoarelor erau spate gropi (L=2,40; l=1,96; h=0,36-0,40 m i L=2,10; l=2,2; h=0,40 m), din care se alimentau focarele i n care se evacuau resturile de la combustibil, crbuni, cenu. Pe latura opus intrrii era o groap cotlonit, alungit (L=1,8; l=1,2; h=1,2 m), care s-a spat din groapa din faa cuptorului mare. n interiorul ei s-au pstrat buci de lut uscat, nears, n parte sfrmate, de la numeroii brui pregtii pentru modelarea ceramicii pe roata olarului de lemn. Probabil n apropierea acesteia se afla i masa olarului realizat din lemn. Groapa G1, 12 vase (fig. 103/1-9, 12-13), din care 4 din ceramic zgrunuroas cenuie, perei (fig. 103/8, 12-13); 1 fin cenuie-negricioas, 1 margine (fig. 103/4); 7 fin cenuie, 6, 1 castrona (fig. 103/3), 4 margini (fig. 103/1-2, 5-6), 1 baz inelar (fig. 103/6; baz=9 cm); 2 perei (103/9, 12).

Fig. 50. Banca Gar - apte Case. Fragmente ceramice lucrate la roata olarului: past fin neagr-cenuie, 1-2 castroane; 3, 7 oale; 4-5, 8 baze; past neagr lustruit, 6 oal. Cuptor A, sec. IV-V, cpl. 65. Ceramic fragmentes made with the potters wheel: blackish-grayish fine paste, 1-2 tureens; 3, 7 jars; 4-5, 8 bases; blackish-fine pilished paste, 6 jar. Kiln A, 4rd5th centuries, cpl. 65.

Groapa G2, 21 vase (fig. 103/14-39), 3 zgrunuroas, 3 baze (fig. 103/30, 36, 39), 1 perete (fig. 103/32); 3 past puin zgrunuroas: 2 oale (fig. 104/1, 7; buz=14; 13 cm); 1 buz (fig. 103/16), 1 baz (fig. 103/31; baz=5 cm), 1 fragment canelat (fig. 103/37); 13 din past fin cenuie, 5 castroane (fig.

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103/14-15, 18-19; 28), 1 castrona (fig. 103/24), 6 buze (fig. 103/20-23; 25; 33), 1 oal (fig. 103/26), 1 perete (fig. 103/27), 1 toart (fig. 103/17), 2 baze inelare, 1 baz dreapt (fig. 103/35, 38 i 29; =16 cm). Groapa G3, 4 vase (fig. 103/6, 9, 10-12), 2 modelate la mn, 2 baze (fig. 104/9, 12); 1 fin cenuie, 1 castron, 1 baz inelar (fig. 104/10-11; baz=10 cm). Interior atelier, 8 vase (fig. 104/1-3, 5, 8, 14-15, 17), tot aici s-a gsit i un os lustruit, 8 fin cenuie, 2 cni (fig. 104/2, 15), 3 castroane ornate cu incizii sau nervuri (fig. 104/1, 11, 14), 2 buze (fig. 104/5, 17), 1 baz inelar (fig. 104/3), 1 fragment ceramic ars pn la topire (fig. 104/8). Inventar cuptor A, 41 vase, cuptor B 39, G1 12, G2 21i G3 4, interior atelier 8 vase. La Butnreti, Neam, bolta pstrat avea o nlime de 1,25 m (Ibidem, p. 16). Alimentarea se realiza prin deschiderea de sus, rmas neastupat. Vasele se stivuiau pe vertical, n spaiul dintre perforri, n funcie de dimensiuni. Interiorul ambelor compartimente, peretele median i placa perforat au fost acoperite cu un strat de lut de 3-5 cm, ars crmiziu dar mai ales zgurificat din cauza temperaturii ridicate din timpul funcionrii. Solul din preajma cuptorului s-a nroit 15-20 cm, mai intens, mai rou spre marginile acestuia i mai deschis la culoare spre solul argilos n care s-a spat. Atelierul de olrie inventar ceramic pstrat fragmentar, cuptoarele A i B, gropile 1-3 i interior, 123 vase = 43CA, (7z + 1zn + 3pz + 3fn + 5fcn + 19fc + 2fr + 3fn) + 3 amfore + 36CB, (3pzr + 4pzc + 29f, (5fr + 2c-n + 22c) + 3 amfore + 12G1, [4pz, (3c + 1n) + 8f, (1cn + 7c)] + 21G2, (4z + 4pz + 13f) + 1G3, fc + 10interior (3m + 7f) + 6 amfore Cuptor A, 43CA (7z + 1zn + 3pz + 3fn + 5fcn + 19 fc + 2fr + 3fn) + 3 amfore - ceramic din past zgrunuroas: vas mare de provizii (fig. 98/8; =30 cm), alt vas de provizii din care s-au recuperat 10 fragmente ornate cu linii vlurite (fig. 98/23-24), mic baz inelar, n past i cu particole albe (fig. 98/14, =5 cm), corp de vas (fig. 98/21), baz desprins cu sfoara (fig. 98/37; baz=10); 2 baze inelare cu incizii circulare, cu pereii acoperii de praf cenuos alb (fig. 98/39; 43; baz=10; 8 cm), prima crmizie; mic baz dreapt negricioas, mat (fig. 98/40), baz dreapt de la un vas de provizii n past cu pietricele, desprins cu sfoara (fig. 99/14 -dimens. ); actual de clcare, micorat prin mpingerea pmntului pentru construirea digului. Focarul avea nlimea de aproximativ 0,84 m. n centru avea cruat un perete median (l=0,32; h=0,84 m), ce mprea cuptorul n dou camere de foc, cu lrgimi apropiate (l=0,79 i 0,84 m). Tot interiorul s-a acoperit cu un strat de lutuial, gros de 3-5 cm, acum zgurificat i ntrit spre pmntul n care s-a spat, 15 - 20 cm, mai intens spre interior. Gura de alimentare - praefurnium, s-a construit n prelungirea focarului, la fel de form aproximativ semicilindric, mai lat spre cuptor, formnd astfel interior pentru ca deschiderea interioar s aibe bolta oval. S-a construit pe un suport de nuiele, lutuit pe ambele fee (L > 1,20; l=1,22 m). Grtarul avea dimensiuni apropiate deschiderii focarului (=1,80 m; h=0,21 m), cu o grosime de 22-23 cm, i s-a construit probabil pe nivelului antic de clcare. S-a fixat pe peretele marginal al focarului i pe peretele median. S-a format pe o mpletitur de nuiele, acoperit cu lut amestecat cu resturi vegetale. Placa a avut 26 de perforri, uor bitronconice (interior=6-8 cm), uor ovale spre camera de ardere a vaselor. Probabil o parte dintre ele s-a distrus o dat cu frmiarea n timp a prilor marginale. La fel ca i la primul cuptor, s-au realizat mai ales spre margine, fiind mai numeroase spre gura de alimentare. Prin combustibil, crbuni, cenu. Pe latura opus intrrii era o groap cotlonit, alungit (L=1,8; l=1,2; h=1,2 m), care s-a spat din groapa din faa cuptorului mare. n interiorul ei s-au pstrat buci de lut uscat, nears, n parte sfrmate, de la numeroii brui pregtii pentru modelarea ceramicii pe roata olarului de lemn. Probabil n apropierea acesteia se afla i masa olarului realizat din lemn. Inventar cuptor B. Din perimetrul cuptorului B s-a recuperat o achie de silex (fig. 102/13), o gresie (fig. 102/9) i pri de la 39 de vase, din care de la 4 vase provin mai multe fragmente din past puin zgrunturoas, cenuii (fig. 101/15, 19, 34, 37) i roietice (fig. 101/21, 36; 102/8); 33 din past fin, 2 baze inelare cenuiu-negricioase, (fig. 101/27; 102/2); 1 baz dreapt (fig. 101/35), 12 perei (fig. 101/38, 45-47, 102/2, 12; 103/26), 4 fin roie (fig. 101/33, 38; 102/5, 7); 23 fin cenuie (fig. 101/1, 3-9, 13-14, 28-32, 35, 41-42, 44-47; 102/1, 3-4, 15-17; 103/26), 10 castroane (fig. 101/1, 3-4, 7-9; 102/1, 3-4, 6, 14); 13 buze (fig. 101/2, 6, 10-12, 16-18, 20, 22-23, 25, 39); 3 oale (fig. 101/5, 13-14); 3 perei de vase, folosii pentru astuparea perforrilor grtarului (fig. 102/15-17) i roie, 1 castron (fig. 102/7), 1 margine (fig. 101/21), 1 toart (fig. 102/5), 3 baze inelare (fig. 101/26, 28-30; 102/8) i 4 pri de amfore (fig. 101/24, 43; 102/10). Gropile 1-3. n faa gurilor de alimentare ale cuptoarelor erau spate gropi (L=2,40; l=1,96; h=0,36-0,40 m i L=2,10; l=2,2; h=0,40 m), din care se alimentau focarele i n care se evacuau resturile de la arderea combustibilului.

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Groapa G1, 12 vase (fig. 103/1-9, 12-13), din care 4 din ceramic zgrunuroas cenuie, perei (fig. 103/8, 12-13); 1 fin cenuie-negricioas, 1 margine (fig. 103/4); 7 fin cenuie, 6, 1 castrona (fig. 103/3), 4 margini (fig. 103/1-2, 5-6), 1 baz inelar (fig. 103/6; baz=9 cm); 2 perei (103/9, 12).

Fig. 51. Banca Gar - apte Case. Fragmente ceramice lucrate la roat: past cenuie, 1, 3-4, 7-9 castroane; 2, 6, 10-12, 16-18, 20, 22-23, 25, 39 buze; 5, 13-14 oale; roietic, 21 margine; 26, 28-30 baze inelare; cenuie-negricioas, 27 baz inelar; cenuie, 35 baz; 38, 41-42, 45-47 perei; puin zgrunturoas, 15 perete; 19 margine; 34, 37 baze; 24, 42 perei de amfore; zgrunuroas, 31, 36, perei; 32 baz inelar; roie, 33 baz. Cuptorul B, sec. IV-V, cpl. 65. Fragments made with the potters wheel: grayish fine paste, 1, 3-4, 7-9 tureens; 2, 6, 10-12, 16-18, 20, 22-23, 25, 39 rims; 5, 1314 jars; redish, 21 edge; 26, 28-30 annular bases; gray-blackish, bases; 27 annular; 35 straight; 38, 41-42, 45-47 walls; slightly coarse, 15 wall; 19 edge; 34,37 bases; 24,42 wall of amphora; coarse, 31, 36, walls; 32 annular basis; redish, 33 basis. Kiln B, 4rd 5th, cpl. 65.

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Groapa G2, 21 vase (fig. 103/14-39), 3 zgrunuroas, 3 baze (fig. 103/30, 36, 39), 1 perete (fig. 103/32); 3 past puin zgrunuroas: 2 oale (fig. 104/1, 7; buz=14; 13 cm); 1 buz (fig. 103/16), 1 baz (fig. 103/31; baz=5 cm), 1 fragment ceramic canelat (fig. 103/37); 13 din past fin cenuie, 5 castroane (fig. 103/14-15, 18-19; 28), 1 castrona (fig. 103/24), 6 buze (fig. 103/20-23; 25; 33), 1 oal (fig. 103/26), 1 perete (fig. 103/27), 1 toart (fig. 103/17), 2 baze inelare, 1 dreapt (fig. 103/35, 38 i 29; =16 cm). Groapa G3, 4 vase (fig. 103/6, 9, 10-12), 2 modelate la mn, 2 baze (fig. 104/9, 12); 1 fin cenuie, 1 castron, 1 baz inelar (fig. 104/10-11; baz=10 cm).

Fig. 52. Banca Gar - apte Case. Fragmente ceramice lucrate la roat: past fin cenuie, 1, 3-4, 6-7, 14 castroane; 15-17 perei de vase pentru astupat perforrile grtarului; negricioas, 2 perete; roietic, 5 toart; 7 castron; 8 baz inelar; 10 baz de amfor; 12 perete. 9 Percutor de gresie; 13 achie de silex. Cuptor B, sec. IV-V, cpl. 65. Ceramic fragments made with the potters wheel: dark grayish fine paste, 1, 3-4, 67, 14 tureens; 15-17 walls of vessels use for filling up the perforations of the kiln plate; blackish, 2 wall; redish, 5 handle; 7 tureen; 8 annular basis; 10 basis of amphora; 12 wall. Kiln B, 4rd5th centuries, cpl. 65.

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Interior atelier, 8 vase (fig. 104/1-3, 5, 8, 14-15, 17), tot aici s-a gsit i un os lustruit, 8 fin cenuie, 2 cni (fig. 104/2, 15), 3 castroane ornate cu incizii sau nervuri (fig. 104/1, 11, 14), 2 buze (fig. 104/5, 17), 1 baz inelar (fig. 104/3), 1 fragment ceramic ars pn la topire (fig. 104/8). Inventar cuptor A, 41 de vase, cuptor B, 39 de vase, G1 12 vase, G2 21 vase i G3, 4 vase,

interior atelier 8 vase.


La Butnreti, Neam, bolta pstrat avea o nlime de 1,25 m (Ibidem, p. 16). Alimentarea se realiza prin deschiderea de sus, rmas neastupat. Vasele se stivuiau pe vertical, n spaiul dintre perforri, n funcie de dimensiuni. Interiorul ambelor compartimente, peretele median i placa perforat au fost acoperite cu un strat de lut de 3-5 cm, ars crmiziu dar mai ales zgurificat din cauza temperaturii ridicate din timpul funcionrii. Solul din preajma cuptorului s-a nroit 15-20 cm, mai intens, mai rou spre marginile acestuia i mai deschis la culoare spre solul argilos n care s-a spat. Atelierul de olrie inventar ceramic pstrat fragmentar, cuptoarele A i B, gropile 1-3 i interior, 123 vase = 43CA, (7z + 1zn + 3pz + 3fn + 5fcn + 19fc + 2fr + 3fn) + 3 amfore + 36CB, (3pzr + 4pzc + 29f, (5fr + 2c-n + 22c) + 3 amfore + 12G1, [4pz, (3c + 1n) + 8f, (1cn + 7c)] + 21G2, (4z + 4pz + 13f) + 1G3, fc + 10interior (3m + 7f) + 6 amfore Cuptor A, 43CA (7z + 1zn + 3pz + 3fn + 5fcn + 19 fc + 2fr + 3fn) + 3 amfore - ceramic din past zgrunuroas: vas mare de provizii (fig. 98/8; =30 cm), alt vas de provizii din care s-au recuperat 10 fragmente ornate cu linii vlurite (fig. 98/23-24), mic baz inelar, n past i cu particole albe (fig. 98/14, =5 cm), corp de vas (fig. 98/21), baz desprins cu sfoara (fig. 98/37; baz=10); 2 baze inelare cu incizii circulare, cu pereii acoperii de praf cenuos alb (fig. 98/39; 43; baz=10; 8 cm), prima crmizie; mic baz dreapt negricioas, mat (fig. 98/40), baz dreapt de la un vas de provizii n past cu pietricele, desprins cu sfoara (fig. 99/14 -dimens. ); - ceramic din past puin zgrunuroas: corp de vas (fig. 98/19; corp=14 cm), alt corp de vas, la 4 cm de baz prezint linii orizontale adncite n past, spre baz albicioas, probabil de la arderea la o temperatur nalt (fig. 98/22), baz dreapat (fig. 98/41; baz=4,5 cm); 1 ceramic cenuie - negricioas uor lustruit, poroas (fig. 100/7; corp=16 cm). - ceramica din past fin roietic: 1 baz inelar; 1 baz crmizie (fig. 98/31 i 39; =10 cm); - ceramica din past fin negricioas: perei cu linii fin lustruite orizontale (fig. 98/13); neagr, 3 baze, una lustruit (100/4-5, 8; baz=7; 2x10 cm); 1 baz inelar, din past lustruit (fig. 98/33; =8,8 cm); past cenuiu-negricioas, 2 castroane lustruite (fig. 100/1-2; baz=21 cm), 1 oal (fig. 100/3), uor mat, 1 buz, probabil de la o oal (fig. 98/6), 1 margine (fig. 99/7; buz=21 cm), 1 baz (fig. 98/42); - ceramica din past fin cenuie, 1 can cenuie deschis (fig. 99/11), 3 castroane (fig. 99/1, 4-5), penultimul cu umrul arcuit n unghi - un import, cenuie lustruit, 1 oal (fig. 100/6; corp=22 cm), ornamentat cu linii orizontale lustruite, 1 oal (fig. 99/2), n past cu mai mult nisip; 1 castron (fig. 99/9; buz=18 cm), altul cu gura larg (fig. 99/13; buz=32), 1 castron cu marginea aproape dreapt, de tip Sntana de Mure (fig. 99/8), 1 buz lit (fig. 99/6), margine de vas (fig. 98/4; buz=24 cm), cu toart (fig. 98/5), 3 buze din past fin lustruit (fig. 98/10, 12, 20), perei (fig. 98/7, 11; corp=14 cm), toart (fig. 98/15), 6 baze inelare (fig. 98/25-30, 32, 34; baz=7,5; 5,5; 10x2; 7; 11x2; 8 cm), 1 fin cenuie (fig. 99/10), tot cenuie 1 baz concav (fig. 98/35; baz=7,5 cm), 1 perete (98/36);- ceramica de import: 16-18 perei de la amfore exterior glbui, interior roietice, past zgrunuroas (fig. 98/16), 19 fragment de amfor glbuie (fig. 98/17), perete roietic (fig. 98/18), baz amfor (fig. 99/3). b. Cuptor B, 36 [(3pzr + 4pzc) + 29f(5fr + 2c-n + 22c)] + 3 amfore - ceramica din past puin zgrunuroas, cenuie: 1 margine (fig. 101/19), 1 perete canelat (fig. 101/15), 2 baze (fig. 101/34; 37; buz=5,3; 8 cm), roietic, mat, 1 margine de vas cu urme de la modelare, n past i cu pietricele, uor prfoas (fig. 101/21; baz=14 cm); 1 perete de vas de provizii (fig.101/36), 1 baz inelar desprins cu sfoara, de culoare roie cu angob alb-roietic (fig. 102/8; baz=20 cm); - ceramica fin roie: 1 castron (fig. 102/7; buz=18 cm), 1 baz (fig. 101/33; 38, =8 cm), 1 toart (fig. 102/5); cenuie-negricioas: 1 baz lustruit (fig. 101/27; baz=8 cm), 1 perete negricios mat (fig. 102/2); - ceramica fin cenuie: 3 castroane (fig. 101/1, 6; 102/15; buz=21; 16 cm), 3 castroane cu profil n S (fig. 101/3, 7, 9; buz=17; 18 cm), 1 castron cu umrul carenat unghiular (fig. 101/4; buz=18 cm), 3 castroane (fig. 102/1, 3-4), primele dou din past fin cenuie-nchis; 2 margini de oale (fig. 101/5, 8; buz=18; 8 cm), alta invazat (fig. 101/14, =20 cm) i nc dou probabil de la acelai vas (fig. 101/13; 103/26), 9 margini (fig. 101/2, 6, 11, 16-18, 20, 22-23, 25, 28-30, 35, 35, 39; buz=3,5; 8; 10; 8,5; 5,5), 2 drepte nalte, cu o nervur (fig. 101/10), alta mic (fig. 101/12), baz uor inelar (fig. 101/32, 38;

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

baz=8 cm), perete (fig. 101/31; corp=7 cm); 3 fragmente de ceramic cenuie folosite la astuparea perforrilor plcii grtarului cuptorului B, din past lustruit, una are pe mijloc o canelur, alta incizii distanate (fig. 102/15-17) i alte fragmente (fig. 101/41-42, 44-47); - ceramica de import: perete de amfor roie (fig. 101/24, 43); achie de silex (fig. 102/13); gresie (fig. 102/9), baz de amfor roietic (fig. 102/10).

Fig. 53. Banca Gar apte Case. Fragmente ceramice lucrate la roata olarului: fin cenuie, 1-2, 4-6, 20-23, 25-26, 33 margini; 3, 14-15, 18-19, 24, 28 castroane; 7, 10-11, 35, 38 baze inelare; 9, 27, 34 perei; 17 toart; zgrunuroas, 8, 12 perei, 30, 36,39 baze; neagr, 13 perete;puin zgrunuroas, 31 baz, 32, 37 perei; 9, 12 modelat la mn. 1-9, 12-13G1; 14-39 G2; 10-11 G3, sec. IV-V, cpl. 65. Ceramic fragments made with the potters wheel:grayish fine, 1-2,46,20-23, 25-26, 33 edges; 3, 14-15, 18-19, 24, 28 tureens; 7,10-11,35,38 annular bases; 9, 27,34 walls;17 handles; coarse, 8, 12 walls, 30, 36, 39 bases; blackish, 13 wall; slightly coarse, 31 basis, 32, 37 walls 9, 12 hand made ware. Kiln B, 4rd5th centuries, cpl. 65.

Gropile 1-3 34 vase = 12G1 (4pz (3c + 1+ 8f(1cn + 7c) + 21G2(4z + 4pz + 13f cenuie) + 1G3, fc Groapa G1 12 vase = 4pz, (3c + 1n+ 8f, (1cn + 7c)

Cuptoare cu dou camere, sec. III-V p.Hr. / Pottery kilns with two chambers, 3rd-5th centuries

149

- ceramica zgrunuroas: 3 cenuii, perei canelai (fig. 103/8, 12-13), 1 negru, 1 perete, de la un vas lustruit (fig. 103/13); - ceramica fin cenuie-negricioas, 1 margine (fig. 103/4); 7 fin cenuie, 1 castrona (fig. 103/3), 4 margini (fig. 103/1-2, 5-6), 1 baz inelar (fig. 103/7; baz=9 cm); 2 perei (103/9, 12).

Fig. 54. Banca Gar - apte Case. Fragmente ceramice lucrate la roat: ceramica fin cenuie, 1, 11, 14 castroane; 2, 15 cni; 3, 10, 16 baze inelare; 5 oale; 17 margine; puin zgrunuroas, 4, 7 oale; zgrunuroas, 13 vas de provizii; 8 perete ars secundar pn la topire; modelat la mn, 6, 9, 12 baze. Interior atelier de olrie, sec. IV-V, cpl. 65. Ceramic fragments made with the potters wheel: grayish fine paste, 1, 11, 14 tureens; 2, 15 mugs; 3, 10, 16 annular bases; 5 jar; 17 edge; slightly coarse paste, 4, 7 jars; coarse paste, 13 vessel for food storage; 8 potsherd fired up to the melting; hand made ware, 6, 9, 12 bases. Inside the workshop, 4rd5th centuries, cpl. 65.

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Groapa G2 21 vase (4z + 4pz + 13fc): - ceramica zgrunuroas: 1 baz la exterior alb, acoperit cu cenu (fig. 103/30; baz=10 cm); 2 baze, prima cu urme de modelare sau impresiuni de la o plas (fig. 103/36, 39); 1 perete (fig. 103/32); - ceramic din past puin zgrunuroas: 2 oale (fig. 104/1, 7; buz=14; 13 cm); 1 buz (fig. 103/16); 1 baz (fig. 103/31; baz=5 cm), 1 fragment ceramic canelat (fig. 103/37); - ceramica fin: 5 castroane (fig. 103/14-15, 18-19; 28; buz=16-17; 22 cm); 1 castrona (fig. 103/24); 6 buze (fig. 103/20-23; 25; 33; buz=20; 18; 16 cm); 1 oal (fig. 103/26); 1 perete (fig. 103/27); 1 toart (fig. 103/17); 2 baze inelare (fig. 103/35, 38; baz=8, 6, 10 cm); 1 dreapt (fig. 103/29, =16 cm). Groapa G3, 1fc vas: - ceramica fin cenuie: 1 baz inelar (fig. 104/10; baz=10). Interior atelier: 10 vase = 3m+7f: - ceramica modelat la mn: 1 buz (fig. 104/6); 2 baze (fig. 104/9, 12; baz=10, 12 cm); - ceramic din past fin cenuie: 2 cni (fig. 104/2, 15; buz=8; 7,5 cm), 2 castroane (fig. 104/1, 11; buz=14; 22 cm), castron cu umr carenat, ngroat i rotunjit (fig. 104/14; buz=16), buze (fig. 104/5, 17, =24 cm); baz inelar (fig. 104/3; baz=4,5 cm); fragment cermic ars pn la topire (fig. 104/8). Analogii: n lumea carpic, la Suceava - cheia, dou din tipul cu perete median (Gr. Foit 1969, p. 2528), ifeti, Panciu - La Grigoreti (S. Morintz, N. Haruche, 1962, p. 522-523, fig. 2) i altul din tipul cu pilon central n focrie de la Drmaneti, Piatra Neam (C. Matas, Zamoteanu, M. Zamoteanu, p. 345346, pl. 5), Butnreti, ambele tipuri, Poiana Dulceti - Pe silite (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 53, 57, fig. XIX, XXXIII, XXXVI), n secolele III-IV i IV, la Blai, Iai (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, IV.6.F. p. 48), Blteni (I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 12, fig. 22), Poieneti - Dealul Teilor (C. Cihodaru 1938, p. 33, fig. 15; R. Vulpe et alii 1950, p. 50), Zorleni - Fntnele (V. Palade 1969a, p. 343-345), Brlad - Valea Seac (Idem, 2004, p. 172), n judeul Cara-Severin, la Grdini - Slite (O. Bozu 1996, p. 55-56, fig. 127). Inventar faunistic fragmentar: Din acest complex provine cel mai bogat eantion faunistic, este vorba de 1816 resturi faunistice, atribuite urmtoarelor grupe taxonomice: molute, peti, amfibieni, psri i mamifere. Un numr de 87 oase de la un purcel au fost separate de grupul de oase pentru Sus domesticus deoarece provin de la acelai individ, probabil depus ntreg. Din totalul de resturi faunistice, 501 nu au permis determinarea specific, ele fiind repartizate dup cum urmeaz: mamifere de talie mare - 36, mamifere de talie mijlocie - 289, mamifere - 20, micromamifere 53 i 103 nedeterminate. Din punct de vedere tafonomic s-au identificat urme de: arsur neagr - 32, calcinare - 3, tranare - 17, jupuire - 2, descarnare - 2, roase de carnivore - 40. Amphibia: resturi osoase (434) de Bufo sp. i Rana sp. aparinnd ntregului schelet (craniu 20, ilion 39, crural 58, humerus 41, vertebre sacrale 9, oase ale autopodului 85, femur 59, mandibula 27, radio-cubitus 34, urostil 24, vertebr proatlantic 3, vertebr toracic 35) de la un numr mare de indivizi. - Aves: 128 resturi osoase, dintre care 3 de Gallus domesticus (coracoid, metacarp III i sinsacrum), 66 de la psri de talie mic, probabil slbatice (1 craniu, 1 mandibul, 13 oase late, 39 oase lungi, 6 scapulare, 2 sinsacrumuri), pentru celelalte oase nu s-a putut face dect o determinare anatomic general. - Mollusca: 43 cochilii i valve, ntregi sau fragmentare, provenind de la urmtoarele specii-Cepaea virdobonensis, Cerithium sp., Helicella ovia, Helicella sp., Helix pomatia, Viviparus viviparus, Viviparus sp., Unio sp. Pisces: 382 resturi osoase provenind, n principal de la teleosteeni (Aspius aspius, Cyprinus carpio, Esox lucius, Silurus glanis, Stizostedion lucioperca i alii) i de la acipenseride (Acipenser sp.) Mamifere Bos taurus: 1 calcaneu (stnga), 1 carp-semilunar (stnga), 1 centrotars, 5 falange proximale, 1 falang mijlocie, 1 falang distal, 5 piese dreapta (astragal, calcaneu, maleolar, tibie, centrotars) n conexiune anatomic, de la un individ matur i piese fragmentare - 6 coxal, 22 craniu (3 stnga, 4 dreapta; un neurocraniu prezint pe osul frontal urma lsat de lovitura aplicat la acest nivel nainte de sacrificarea animalului), 1 cubitus (stnga), 8 humerus (2 stnga, 3 dreapta), 16 mandibul (6 stnga, 4 dreapta), 1 metacarp, 6 metatars (2 stnga, 1 dreapta), 3 radius (stnga), 12 scapula (3 stnga, 2 dreapta), 2 tibie (de la indivizi maturi; una este de pe partea stng), vertebre atlas i axis; - Canis familiaris: coxal (stnga), dinte, tibie (dreapta) i 7 piese osoase provenind de la acelai individ, matur (neurocraniu, 2 mandibule i primele 4 vertebre cervicale); - Capreolus capreolus: fragmente de craniu, mandibul, radius (stnga), tibie-2; - Equus caballus: piese fragmentare - 4 coxale (1 stnga), femur (dreapta), tibie (stnga), atlas, 4 vertebre i piese ntregi - 2 dini jugali superiori stnga, falang proximal;

Cuptoare cu dou camere, sec. III-V p.Hr. / Pottery kilns with two chambers, 3rd-5th centuries

151

- Ovicaprine: 7 dini jugali i incisivi, fragmente de craniu-3, humerus-2 (1 stnga), mandibul-4 (1 stnga, 2 dreapta), metacarp -2 (1 dreapta i de la un individ matur), metapod-1, radius-1 (stnga i de la un individ matur); Ovis aries: piese fragmentare- 6 craniu, 2 mandibule (stnga, dreapta), 2 tibii, 1 atlas; - Sus domesticus: fragmente de coast - 10, craniu - 17, cubitus - 1 (dreapta), mandibul - 4, metapod - 7, scapul - 1, tibie - 2 (de stnga, de la un individ matur), sacrum, vertebre - 7, carp/tars - 1 i piese ntregi: dini -11, falange - 4, metacarp III-2 (stnga). La aceste piese se adaug nc 87 oase fragmentare i ntregi provenite de la un individ foarte tnr, noi credem c ar fi vorba de acelai purcelu: 2 astragal (stnga, dreapta), 2 calcaneu (stnga, dreapta), 3 carpiene - cuboid i scafoid de dreapta, 27 fragmente coaste, 4 fragmente coxal (2 stnga, 2 dreapta), 2 cubitus (stnga, dreapta), 3 falange proximale, 3 femur (1 dreapta), 2 humerus (stnga, dreapta), 1 metacarpian III stnga, 2 metacarpian IV (stnga, dreapta), 1 metapodal, 2 metatarsian III, 1 metatarsian IV, 2 peroneu (stnga, drepta), 3 radius (stnga, dreapta), 3 scapula (1 stnga, 2 dreapta), 2 tibie (stnga, dreapta), 18 vertebre, 2 mandibul (stnga, dreapta), 1 os lung. The potters workshop, relatively well preserved. Dated to: the 4 rd century first part of the 5th century (fig. 97a-c -104). The potter's workshop of Banca Gar - apte case, situated in sector A, was researched between 19861988 (fig. 97a-c). Due to the hydroamelioration works which pushed the soil toward the water dam, the pot firing chambers are destroyed to a large extent nowadays. The potters workshop was commanding the operation of the two kilns and it was elliptic in shape (L=11 m; w=6.6 m). It was a large building, excavated in the slope of eh old valley of river Barlad, at 0.44-0.60 m below the ancient treading level and 0.80-1.10 below the current treading level. The entrance of the access room was located on its south-east side, with a few steps around 90 cm wide. As is the case of other multiple-kiln potters workshops such are the one of Cucoeni - Butnreti (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 489-509), these kilns were different in size. They were located on the long sides of the workshop and there fueled from inside the workshop. Their location, on the opposite sides of the workshop, accounted for the frequent change in the direction of the winds in the area of Barlad valley, a common feature of the open river-meadows. As indicated by the adobe fragments found inside and around the workshop, it can be presumed that the walls of the workshop were raised above the ground, similar to the half-buried houses. The floor of the workshop was littered with, a large quantity of charcoal, two flint flakes, 123+6 pot fragments broken in antiquity, have not kept wooden objects. There were also found a large number of animal bones, dumped after this fell out of use, investigated by arheozoolog Simina Stanc. The ovens, placed outside the long sides, were fed from the workshop. Their construction in a diametrically opposite position was aimed at changing the winds, specifically to the open meadow areas. In front of the feeding openings there were arranged pits (L=2.40 m; w=1.96 m; h=0.36-0.40 m and L=2.10; w=2.2; h=0.40 m), used for the evacuation of the ash and charcoal. Out of the front pit it was dug an elongated, channeled side hole (L=1.8; w=1.2; h=1.2 m), which held inside several pieces of unbaked, dry clay, probably chunks prepared for modeling on the wheel. a. Kiln A The first is roughly conical (=1,84-2; h=1,08 m) and it was excavated in the long side of the access room, from NE (fig. 97a-c). The access area, the fireplace chamber - furnium, the feeding channel praefurnium the perforated plate and the base of the firing chamber were well preserved. The fireplace chamber - furnium, is somehow conical, hollowed out from the natural clay, at the depth of 0.70-0.90 m from the ancient treading level. In its center was located a median wall, spared from the soil (w=0.36 m; h=0.88 m), which divided the fireplace in two fire compartments, with similar dimensions (w=0.,76 and 0.72 m). The interior of both firing chambers and the median wall were covered with a layer of clayey 3-5 cm thick which by firing got hardened and partly scorified. The interior of both compartments and the median wall were covered by a layer of clayey, 3-5 cm thick, hardened and partially scorified by the repeated firing. The soil around the kiln was red-baked to a 15-20 cm depth, the closer the kiln the more vivid the color, more intense towards the edges of the perforated plate. The feeding channel - praefurnium, is roughly cylindrical, wider towards the fireplace, giving an oval shape of this opening. It was built on a wattle support and then coveres with a layer of clayey on both faces (L > 1.20 m; w=1.22 m).

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

The perforated plate is roughly circular (=1.8-2.0 m), 18-21 cm thick, and it was located probably above the ancient treading level. It was seated on the median wall and on the top of the fireplace walls. It was built by covering a wattle bed with clay mixed with vegetal particles, mainly chaff. The plate held 16 double-flared perforations (interior=5-8), oval in shape ( < 12 mm), ensuring the inflow of hot air from the fireplace to the firing chamber. The intense burning resulted in scorification of these perforations. The perforations were filled with pieces of pot walls, with thinned edges, as indicated by the identified items, two of vessels that were polished, one preserving a groove on the middle, another one showing incised parallel lines. In the pot firing chamber, the a layer of clayey was covered with a fine reddish lining, like in the case of Drmneti, Piatra Neam, where it is considered it had the same composition with the lining of the red pottery (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 57). The basis of the vault was preserved on small areas and was built also on a wattle support on which a layer of clay mixed with chopped cereals was applied on both sides. In Butnreti, Neam, it had a height of 1,25 m (Ibidem, p. 16). The feeding was done by the upper opening, left unfilled. The vessels were placed between perforations. The interior of both compartments and the median wall were covered by a layer of clayey, 3-5 cm thick, hardened and partially scorified by the repeated firing. The soil around the kiln was red-baked to a 15-20 cm depth, more intense towards the edges of the perforated plate. The ceramic inventory - preserved is all fragmentary. The potters workshop = 123 vessels = 43CA(7z + 1zn + 3pz + 3fn + 5fcn + 19 fc + 2fr + 3fn) + 36CB(3pzr + 4pzc + 29f(5fr + 2c-n + 22c) + 12G1[4pz(3c + 1n) + 8f(1cn + 7c)] + 21G2(4z + 4pz + 13f) + 1G3, fc + 10 inside (3m + 7f) + 6 amphorae Out of the vessel parts discovered in the first kiln A, it was possible to put together 43 vessels (fig. 98100), 36 of the second kiln B (fig. 102), 12 of P-G1, of 21P-G2, 1P-G3 + 10 of inside the workshop. The inventory of kiln A, 43CA(7z + 1zn + 3pz + 3fn + 5fcn + 19 fc + 2fr + 3fn). Among the 43 vessels found in the first kiln A (fig. 98-100), the one that was first excavated, were: 8 of coarse ceramic, 3 vessel for food storage (fig. 98/8, 23-24; =30 cm), 3 annular bases (fig. 98/14, 39; 43), 3 straight bases detached from the potters wheel with string (fig. 98/37; 99/14) and one blackish, 1 wall (fig. 98/40); 3 slightly coarse paste, 2 vessels (fig. 98/19, 22), one straight basis (fig. 98/41); fine (3fn + 5fcn + 19 fc + 2fr + 3fn) 3 fine blackish paste, 1 wall (fig. 98/13), 3 bases (100/4-5, 8); 5 other fragments of blackgrayish fine polished paste resulted from two tureens (fig. 100/1-2), 1 jar (fig. 100/3), 1 rim, probably of jar (fig. 98/6), 1 edge (fig. 99/7); 19 fine grayish, 1 mug (fig. 99/11), 6 tureens (fig. 99/1, 4-5, 8-9, 13), the penultimate - one imported, 2 jars (fig. 99/2; 100/6), 6 rims (fig. 98/4-5, 10, 12, 20; 99/6), 2 walls (fig. 98/7, 11), 1 handle (fig. 98/15), 9 annular bases (fig. 98/25-30, 32, 34-35; 99/10), 2 redish (fig. 98/31, 39), 1 blackish (fig. 98/33), 3 grayish-blackish (fig. 98/42), 1 wall (98/36); the imported pottery, 4 yellowish potsherds, probably imported vessels and an walls of amphorae, and basis (fig. 98/16-18; 99/3). The inventory of kiln B 36CB(3pzr + 4pzc + 29f(5fr + 2c-n + 22c) (fig. 101-102), has recovered a sliver of flint (fig. 102/13), one whetstone (fig. 102/9) and parts of the 36 vessels, of which: 4 slightly coarse paste, grayish, 2 (fig. 101/15, 19, 34, 37), redish, 2 (fig. 101/21, 36; 102/8); 29, 2 grayish-blackish, bases, annular and wall (fig. 101/27; 102/2); 5 redish (fig. 101/33, 38; 102/5, 7) and 22 grayish fine, 10 tureens (fig. 101/1, 3-4, 7-9; 102/1, 3-4, 6, 14); 13 rims (fig. 101/2, 6, 10-12, 16-18, 20, 22-23, 25, 39); 3 jars (fig. 101/5, 13-14); walls of vessels use for filling up the perforations of the kiln plate (fig. 102/1517); redish, tureen (fig. 102/7), 1 edge (fig. 101/21), handle (fig. 102/5), 3 annular bases (fig. 101/26, 2830; 102/8), 1 straight (fig. 101/35), 12 walls (fig. 101/ 38, 41-42, 45-47, 102/2, 12; 103/26) and 4 parts an wall of amphorae (fig. 101/24, 43; 102/10). The inventory of pit Ceramics of pits: 12G1[4pz(3c + 1n) + 8f(1cn + 7c)] + 21G2(4z + 4pz + 13f) + 1G3, in which of: Pit P-G1, 12 (fig. 103/1-9, 12-13), 4 coarse ceramic, 4 wall (fig. 103/8, 12-13); 1 grayish-blackish, 1 edge (fig. 103/4); 8 grayish fine paste, 1 small tureen (fig. 103/3), 4 edges (fig. 103/1-2, 5-6), 1 annular basis (fig. 103/7; =9 cm); 2 wall (103/9, 12); Pit P-G2 (fig. 103/14-39), 21, 4 coarse paste, 3 bases (fig. 103/30, 36, 39), 1 wall (fig. 103/32); 4 slightly coarse paste: 2 jars (fig. 104/1, 7; mouth=14; 13 cm); 1 rim (fig. 103/16), 1 basis (fig. 103/31; =5 cm), 1 ceramic fragments a groove (fig. 103/37); 13 grayish, 5 tureens (fig. 103/14-15, 18-19; 28), 1 small tureen (fig. 103/24), 6 rims (fig. 103/20-23; 25; 33), 1 jar (fig. 103/26), 1 wall (fig. 103/27), 1 handles (fig. 103/17), 2 annular bases (fig. 103/35, 38), 1 straight basis (fig. 103/29); Pit P-G3 (fig. 103/6, 9, 10-12), 1, grayish fine ceramic, 1 tureen, 1 annular basis (fig. 104/10-11).

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Inside the workshop 10 Inside (3m + 7f) (fig. 104/1-3, 5-6, 8-9, 12, 14-15, 17), of which only 3 hand made ware (104/6, 9, 12), 1 rim (fig. 104/6), 2 bases (fig. 104/9, 12); 8 vessels made of fine grayish paste, there were found a polished bone, vessels of the category of the grayish fine pottery, 2 mugs decorated with incisions or nervures (fig. 104/2, 15), 3 tureens (fig. 104/1, 11, 14), 2 rims (fig. 104/5, 17), 1 annular basis (fig. 104/3), 1 ceramic fragments burned by melting (fig. 104/8). Inventory of the workshop The inventory of kiln A - ceramic - coarse ceramic: 2 vessel for food storage (fig. 98/8, mouth=30 cm), the last were recovered 10 fragments decorated with a polished wave (fig. 98/23-24), small annular basis, with particole white in the paste (fig. 98/14; =5 cm), body (fig. 98/21), straight basis detached from the potters wheel with string (fig. 98/37; =10 cm), 2 annular bases with circular incisions and walls covered by white ash dust (fig. 98/39; 43; =10; 8 cm), first bricks; small straight basis blackish, matte (fig. 98/40), straight basis with one vessel for food storage in the paste with few gravel, detached from the potters wheel with string (fig. 99/14 ); - ceramic of slightly coarse paste: body (fig. 98/19; body=14 cm), body of another vessel, to 4 cm of basis with horizontal lines buried, to basic whitish, probably from burning to a high temperature (fig. 98/22), straight basis (fig. 98/41; =4,5 cm);1 grayish-blackish ceramic, porous (fig. 100/7, corp=16 cm); - ceramic of blackish fine paste: wall with fine polished horizontal lines (fig. 98/13); blackish, 3 base, one of them polished (100/4-5, 8; basis=7; 2x10 cm); grayish-blackish, 2 tureens polished (fig. 100/1-2, mouth=21 cm), 1 jar (fig. 100/3), matte light, 1 rim, probably from jar (fig. 98/6), 1 edge (fig. 99/7); - ceramic of greyish fine paste, mug (fig. 99/11), 3 tureens (fig. 99/1, 4-5), penultimat with shoulder arched angular - one imported, grayish polished, 1 jar (fig. 100/6; body=22 cm), decorated with lines horizontal polished, 1 jar (fig. 99/2), the paste with more sand, 1 tureen (fig. 99/9; mouth=18 cm), another with mouth wide (fig. 99/13; mouth=32), 1 tureen with edge almost right, type of Santana de Mures (fig. 99/8), 1 rim (fig. 99/6), edge (fig. 98/4; mouth=24 cm), with handles (fig. 98/5), 3 rims of paste polished fin (fig. 98/10, 12, 20), wall (fig. 98/7, 11; body=14 cm), handles (fig. 98/15), 8 annular bases (fig. 98/2530, 32, 34; =7,5; 5,5; 10x2; 7; 11x2; 8 cm), 1 grayish fine (fig. 99/10), 1 redish fine (fig. 98/31; =6,4 cm) and 1 blackish paste of polished (fig. 98/33; =8,8 cm), all grayish, 1 concave basis (fig. 98/35; =7,5 cm), 1 wall (98/36) or 1 basis redish (fig. 98/39; =10 cm) and 1 grayish-blackish (fig. 98/42); - the imported pottery: 16-18 wall of amphorae; yellowish outside, redish inside, coarse paste (fig. 98/16), 19 fragment of amphoraae, yellowish (fig. 98/17), wall redish (fig. 98/18), an basis (fig. 99/3). Construction materials: - splice fragments of burnt brick-red, the paste with sand, chaff and broken potshards (fig. 98/1, 38); - 2 fragments of adobe, first with traces of a circular beam section, the second with sleek both sides (fig. 98/2-3). The inventory of kiln B - ceramic - hand made ceramic: 1 flared basis (fig. 102/8; =8 cm) - slightly coarse ceramic, 1 edge (fig. 101/19), 1 wall with groove (fig. 101/15), 2 bases (fig. 101/34; 37, mouth=5,3; 8 cm), redish, matte, 1 edge with traces of modeling, and paste with the gritty, slightly dust (fig. 101/21; mouth=14 cm); 1 wall from vessel for food storage (fig. 101/36), 1 annular basis detached from the potters wheel with string, red with white-redish engoba (fig. 102/8; =20 cm); - ceramic of blackish fine paste, 1 basis polished (fig. 101/27), 1 wall of blackish matte (fig. 102/2); - ceramic of redish fine paste, 1 tureen (fig. 102/7; mouth=18), 1 basis (fig. 101/33; 38, =8 cm), 1 handle (fig. 102/5); - ceramic of grayish fine paste, 3 tureens (fig. 101/1, 6; 102/15; mouth=21; 16 cm), 3 tureens with profile in the S (fig. 101/3, 7, 9; mouth17; 18 cm), 1 tureen with shoulder angled bottom (fig. 101/4; mouth=18 cm), 3 tureens (fig. 102/1, 3-4), first two of fine gray paste-closed; 2 edge of jars (fig. 101/5, 8; mouth=18; 8 cm), other invasive edge (fig. 101/14; mouth=20 cm) and two probably from same vessel (fig. 101/13; 103/26), 4 annular bases (fig. 101/26, 28-30, 35, mouth=3,5; 8; 10; 8,5; 5,5), 2 right high, with a string (fig. 101/10), other small(fig. 101/12), 1 slightly annular basis (fig. 101/32; =8 cm), wall (fig. 101/31; body=7 cm); 3 grayish ceramic fragments use for filling up the perforations of the kiln plate for pit B, paste of polished, a means has a groove, other incisions distanced (fig. 102/15-17) and other fragments (fig. 101/41-42, 44-47);

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- the imported pottery: wall of redish amphora (fig. 101/24, 43); sliver of flint (fig. 102/13); gresie (fig. 102/9), basis of redish amphora (fig. 102/10). The inventory of pits Pit P1, 17 (fig. 103/1-9, 12-13) - ceramic of coarse paste: 2 groove walls (fig. 103/8, 12), blackish, 1 wall polished fine (fig. 103/13); - ceramic of grayish-blackish fine paste: 1 edge (fig. 103/4); - ceramic of grayish fine paste: 1 edge of tureen (fig. 103/3), 3 edges (fig. 103/1-2, 5), 1 edge with handle (fig. 103/6), 1 annular basis (fig. 103/6; =9 cm); 103/9, 12); - the imported pottery: 16-18 wall of amphorae; outside yellowish, inside redish, coarse paste (fig. 98/16), 19 wall of yellowish amphora (fig. 98/17), redish (fig. 98/18), and basis amphora (fig. 99/3). Pit P2, 19 (fig. 103/14-39) - coarse ceramic: 1 basis white outside, covered with a layer of ashes (fig. 103/30, =10 cm), 2 basis, first with traces of modeling or impressions from a net (fig. 103/36, 39), 1wall (fig. 103/32); - slightly coarse ceramic: 2 jars (fig. 104/1, 7: mouth=14; 13 cm); 1 rim (fig. 103/16), 1 basis (fig. 103/31, =5 cm), 1 fragment ceramic canelat (fig. 103/37); - ceramic of grayish fine paste: 5 tureens (fig. 103/14-15, 18-19; 28; mouth=16-17; 22 cm), 1 small tureen (fig. 103/24), 6 rims (fig. 103/20-23; 25; 33; mouth=20; 18; 16 cm), 1 jar (fig. 103/26), 1 wall (fig. 103/27), 1 handle (fig. 103/17), 2 annular bases (fig. 103/35, 38; =8, 6, 10 cm), 1 straight basis (fig. 103/29; =16 cm). Big pit P3 (fig. 104/6, 9-10, 12) - hand made ware ceramic: 1 rim (fig. 104/6), 2 bases (fig. 104/9, 12; =10, 12 cm); - ceramic of grayish fine paste: 1 annular basis (fig. 104/10, =10 cm). Interior of the workshop: - gray fine ceramic: 2 mugs (fig. 104/2, 15; mouth=8; 7,5 cm), 2 tureen (fig. 104/1, 11; mouth=14; 22 cm), tureen with umr carenat, ngroat i rotunjit (fig. 104/14; mouth=16 cm), 2 rims (fig. 104/5, 17; mouth=24 cm), 1 annular basis (fig. 104/3; =4,5 cm), ceramic fragments burned by melting (fig. 104/8). -1 bowl put together from pieces, pot wall for filling up the perforations of the kiln plate (fig. 103/1-4); - 3 fragmentary bowls (fig. 104/1, 3-4); 2 potsherds decorated with incisions or with nervures (fig. 104/2 10); 3 bases (fig. 104/5-6, 8), 1 basis an amphora (fig. 104/9) and 3 vessels (fig. 104/1-6, 8). Various artifacts - tools, utensils, other items: - 1 rubber (fig. 104/7). Construction materials: - remains of kiln daub (fig. 104/10). Fragmentary fauna inventory: The fauna inventory of this feature represents the richest example - 1816 remains assigned to the following taxonomical groups: mollusks, fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. 87 bones of a piglet were separated from the bone group of Sus domesticus, as they result from the same individual, probably laid as a whole. From the total number of fauna remains, 501 did not allow the specific determination, they being distributed to: the large mammals - 36, average size mammals - 289, mammals - 20, micromammals - 53 and 103 left undetermined. Taphonomically the following traces were identified: 32 black traces of firing, three of which were even calcined, 17 of butchering, two of skinning and two of meat removal, and 40 were gnawed by carnivores. - Amphibians: bone and fragments (434) of Bufo sp. and Rana sp. From the entire skeleton (cranium 20, ilion 39, crural 58, humerus 41, sacral vertebrae 9, autopodal bones 85, femur 59, mandible 27, radiusulna 34, urostil 24, pro-atlantic vertebra 3, thoracic vertebra 35) from a large number of individuals. - Aves: 128 bones and fragments, out of which 3 of Gallus domesticus (coracoid, metacarpal al III and sinsacrum), 66 from various small birds, probably wild (1 cranium m, 4 furculae, 1 mandible, 13 flat bones, 39 long bones, 6 scapulars, 2 sinsacrums), while for the other bones there was no possibility for a general anatomical determination. - Mollusks: 43 shells, whole or fragmentary, from the following species: Cepaea virdobonensis, Cerithium sp., Helicella ovia, Helicella sp., Helix pomatia, Viviparus viviparus, Viviparus sp., Unio sp.; - Pisces: 382 bones, mainly from teleosteans (Aspius aspius, Cyprinus carpio, Esox lucius, Silurus glanis, Stizostedion lucioperca and other), and from sturgeons (Acipenser sp.); - Bos taurus: 1 heel-bone (left), 1 half-moon carpal (left), 1 centro-tarsal, 5 proximal phalanges, 1 medial

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phalange, 1 distal phalange, 5 right member pieces (astragal, heel-bone, kneecap, tibia, centro-tarsal) in anatomic connection, from one adult individual, as well as bone fragments - 6 hipbone, 22 cranial (3 left, 4 right; with a skull showing on its frontal bone the mark of the slaughterers hit), 1 ulna (left), 8 humerus (2 left, 3 right), 16 mandible (6 left, 4 right), 1 metacarpal al, 6 metatarsal (2 left, 1 right), 3 radius (left), 12 scapula (3 left, 2 right), 2 tibia (from adult individuals, one from the left member), atlas and axis vertebrae; - Canis familiaris: hipbone (left), tooth, tibia (right) and 7 other bones from the same, adult individual, (skull, 2 mandible and its first 4 cervical vertebrae); - Capreolus capreolus: fragments of the cranium, mandible, radius (left), tibia - 2; - Equus caballus: bone fragments - 4 hipbones (1 left), femur (right), tibia (left), atlas, 4 vertebrae and whole bones - 2 jugal upper left teeth, proximal phalange; - Ovicaprinae: 7 jugal teeth and incisors, fragments of cranium - 3, humerus - 2 (1 left), mandible - 4 (1 left, 2 right), metacarpal - 2 (1 right and one from an adult individual), metapodal - 1, radius - 1 (left, from an adult individual); - Ovis aries: bone fragments - 6 cranial, 2 mandibles (left, right), 2 tibiae (1 right), 1 atlas; - Sus domesticus: ribs fragments - 10, cranium - 17, ulna - 1 (right), mandible - 4, metapodal - 7, scapula - 1, tibia - 2 (left, from an adult individual), sacrum, vertebrae - 7, carpal/tarsal - 1 and whole bones: teeth - 11, phalanges - 4, metacarpal al III - 2 (left). In addition there were found another 87 bones and bone fragments, from a very young individual (the same piglet, in our opinion): 2 astragal s(left, right), 2 heelbone (left, right), 3 carpals - right cuboid and scaphoid, 27 ribs fragments, 4 fragments of hipbone (2 left, 2 right), 2 ulna (left, right), 3 proximal phalanges, 3 femurs (1 right), 2 humeri (left, right), 1 metacarpal al III left, 2 metacarpal al IV, 1 metapodal, 2 metatarsal III, 1 metatarsal IV, 2 fibulae, 3 radius (left, right), 3 scapulae (1 left, 2 right), 2 tibiae (left, right), 18 vertebrae, 2 mandible (left, right), 1 long bone. The faunal remains recovered from this archeological feature, according to the results of the analyses carried out by PhD Simina Stanc, assemble the richest find of this type within the settlement: 1816, and are assigned to the following taxonomic groups: Mollusks, Amphibians, Fish, Birds and Mammals. From the taphonomic point of vies, there were identified the following types of traces: 32 of black burn, three calcinated; 17 of butchering, two of each skinning and boning and 40 traces of the action of wild carnivores. As reported by the author of the study, the ancient inhabitants were using the local animals as food-source. 16. uletea, Fedeti, jud. Vaslui, secolul al IV-lea, cercetare Vasile Palade. Cuptor de ars ceramica (V. Palade 1992, p. 204). uletea, Fedeti, Vaslui county, 4th century AD, excavations by Vasile Palade. The potters workshop (V. Palade 1992, p. 204). 17. Berezeni - Vicoleni, jud. Vaslui, secolul al IV-lea, cercetare arheologic G. Coman. Cuptor de olar n focar cu pilon central, descoperit pe terasa interfluvial din vatra satului (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 356; Gh. Coman 1969, p. 292). Pe terasa interfluvial din vatra satului, s-au descoperit numeroase fragmente de cni, castronae, strchini, lucrate la roat din past fin cenuie, decorate cu brie fine, cu motiv n val, lustruite, din sec. IV, V-VI (Gh. Coman 1969, p. 292; idem, 1980, VIII.5.; T. Udrescu 1973, p. 25). Berezeni - Vicoleni, Vaslui county, secolul al IV-lea, archaeological researches G. Coman. The pottery kilns with central pillar, discovered on the interfluvium terrace within the village (N. Zaharia, M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, Em. Zaharia 1970, p. 356; G. Coman 1969. 18. Fereti, com. Vleni, secolul al IV-lea p.Hr., cercetri de suprafa Ghenu Coman. Pe interfluviul din marginea sudic a satului, la fostul sediu C.A.P. Cuptor (=1,55 m; h=2 m). ncperea de acces mai adnc, situat la 2,60 m. Focria distrus n mare parte (G. Coman 1980, LXVII.1., p. 259). Inventar: resturi ceramice datate ntre sfritul sec. IV - prima jumtate a sec. V.

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Fereti, com. Vleni, 4th century AD, surface researches by Ghenu Coman. On the interfluvium from the southern outskirts of village. Potters kiln (=1,55 m; h=2 m). The acces room is deeper, situated at 2,60 m. The fireplace chamber was almost destroyed (G. Coman 1980, LXVII.1., p. 259). Inventory: numerous items was founded, dated between end of 4th century first half of the 5 th century AD. 19. Dodeti - ipot i Clugreasca, jud. Vaslui, secolul al IV-lea, spturi arheologice sistematice realizate de Dan G. Teodor i Ctlina Bloiu, 1968-1969. Staiune pluristratigrafic situat ntre satele Dodeti i Tmeni, locuire Sntana de Mure. Cuptor de ars oale cu dou camere suprapuse, n focar cu perete median, inedit (G. Coman 1970, p. 183; Idem 1980, p. 265-266, fig. 133/7; 142/23; D. Gh. Teodor 1994, p. 54, nota 59; R. Vulpe, S. Teodor, 2003, p. 397). Dodeti - ipot and Clugreasca, Vaslui county, 4th century, systematic archeological excavations by Dan G. Teodor and Ctlina Bloiu, 1968-1969. Multi-layered site, located between the villages of Dodeti and Tmeni. Pertaining to the settlement of Sntana de Mure culture it was excavated a potters kiln, with two superimposed chambers, with median wall in the fireplace, unpublished (G. Coman 1970, p. 183; Idem 1980, p. 265-266, fig. 133/7; 142/23; D. Gh. Teodor 1994, p. 54, footnote 59; R. Vulpe, S. Teodor 2003, p. 397). 20. Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, com. Poieneti, jud. Vaslui, secolele III-IV, cercetri coordonate de Constantin Cihodaru, Radu Vulpe, Mircea Babe. a. Cuptorul nr. 1. n partea de nord-vest a prelungirii Dealului Teilor, n spturile realizate de C. Cihodaru, n 1949, n sondajul C, a aprut un cuptor distrus n mare parte n timpul plantrii viei (Idem 1938, p. 35-37, fig. 14-15; R. Vulpe 1953, p. 219; G. Coman 1980, p. 212, LII.1.; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 503, notele 1, 17; Idem 1967, p. 214; Idem 1973a, p. 58). Maria Coma a situat aceast instalaie de ars ceramica la civa metri nord-est de cuptorul crematoriu din perioada La Tne i la datat n secolul al IVlea, dup specificul ceramicii aflate n preajma lui i dup amplasarea acestuia la periferia aezrii. L-a considerat a fi o form intermediar ntre cuptoarele cu pilon central i cele cu grtarul sprijinit pe un perete median. n focrie avea un pilon central, romboidal n seciune, care ns se continua n spate cu un perete subire, arcuit pe ambele pri, nspre spatele cuptorului ngroat.

Fig. 55. Poieneti - Dealul Teilor. Cuptor de ars oale din secolul al IV-lea p.Hr. Spturi C. Cihodaru, reconstituire M. Coma (apud ~, 1985, fig. 4). Potters kiln of 4th century AD. Excavations by C. Cihodaru, reconstructions by M. Coma (apud ~, 1985, fig. 4).

i gura de foc alungit era specific cuptoarelor datate mai trziu (L=1 m), peretele median prelungit forma dou galerii de foc. Camera de ardere a vaselor s-a distrus prin plantarea viei. Aici s-au descoperit pri de la dou vase mari specifice ultimei perioade de existen a acestei aezri (1985, p. 173, fig. 4). Cele dou camere precum

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i grtarul aveau o culoare cenuie, era folosit mai ales pentru arderea reductoare a ceramicii Vl. Vornic 2007, p. 64. M. Coma l-a reconstituit folosind schiele publicate de C. Cihodaru i schiele prof. R. Vulpe. C. Cihodaru consemna prezena cuptorului n partea de sud a anului A II "n acest loc, de o parte i de alta a unei vetre [la suprafa cu o crust albicioas] se nlau dou hornuri. Lng unul s-au gsit fragmente ceramice La Tene (?) lustruite, negre iar lng al doilea era sfrmat un vas mare (= chiup) din epoca roman" (1938, p. 36, fig. 43), specific secolului al IV-lea (cf. M. Coma 1985, p. 173). Apare clar c este vorba de dou cuptoare tronconice (cu sau fr grtar), probabil care se alimentau din aceeai ncpere, ce aveau camera de ardere a vaselor din nuiele mpletite, lipite cu lut. Probabil vatra dintre ele era spaiul din faa gurilor de foc (Eadem, p. 173, nota 29). Particulariti: pilonul central, n plan romboidal, se continu spre spatele cuptorului cu un perete, ca o form intermediar ntre cele cu pilon i cu perete median. Inventar. Deasupra grtarului se aflau dou vase mari, conform crora M. Coma atribuie cuptorul aezrii aparinnd culturii Sntana de Mure, cercetat prin spturi sistematice pe Mgur (1985, p. 173). - de aici provine un rest de amfor pe gt cu un X aplicat cu vopsea roie (Em. Popescu 1976, p. 401, fig. punct 443). b. Cuptorul nr. 2. Recent, n spturile coaordonate de M. Babe, din anul 1970, s-a mai descoperit un cuptor de olrie, datat n secolul al IV-lea, prevzut n focrie cu perete median Aezarea specific complexului cultural Sntana de Mure - Cerneahov, la scurt timp a suprapus aezarea carpic de aici (~ et alii 1980, p. 35 i urm.; M. Babe 1988, p. 3 i urm.; Idem 2000, p. 340; M. Babe, D. Spnu 2006). Cuptor, cu perete median. Gura de foc era alungit, cu peretele median prelungit pentru a forma dou galerii de foc. Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, commune of Poieneti, Vaslui county, 3rd4th centuries, research coordinated by Constantin Cihodaru, Radu Vulpe, Mircea Babe. a. Kiln no. 1. At the northwest extremity of Teilor Hill, there was a potters kiln identified in trench C during the excavations carried out by C. Cihodaru, in 1949, destroyed in most part by the vineyard works (Idem 1938, p. 35-37, fig. 14-15; R. Vulpe 1953, p. 219; G. Coman 1980, p. 212, LII.1.; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 503, footnotes 1, 17; Idem 1967, p. 214; Idem 1973a, p. 58). Maria Coma located this installation in the northeast vicinity of the La Tne cremation kiln, and dated it in the 4th century AD, judging from the specific pottery found around it, as well as from its location at the outskirts of the settlement. She considered it as a intermediary form, between the central pillar kilns and the median wall ones. The fireplace was equipped with a central pillar, lozenge in cross-section, which was continued towards the thickened back wall of the chamber by a thin dividing wall, flared at the top. The elongated fire channel was also specific to the later-dated kilns (L=1 m). The firing chamber was destroyed by the vineyard works. It was associated with the find of fragments of two large vessels, specific of the last phase of the settlement (M. Coma 1985, p. 173, fig. 4). The reconstruction made by M. Coma used the drawings published by C. Cihodaru and the sketches of prof. R. Vulpe. C. Cihodaru reported the existence of the kiln in the southern area of the trench II. In this spot, on both sides of a hearth (covered by a whitish crust), there were raised two chimneys. Several fragments of La Tne (?) pottery, black and polished, were found near one of these, while the near the other there lay a broken large storage jar from the Roman times (1938, p. 36, fig. 43), which configuration is specific to the 4th century (cf. M. Coma 1985, p. 173). There is evident that this refers to two conical kilns (with or without perforated plate), which were fuelled from the same room, with fireplaces built from wattle and daub. Probably, the hearth between them was the area in front of the feeding openings (Eadem, p. 173, note 29). Peculiarities: the lozenge shaped central pillar, which is continued by the dividing wall, up to the backwall of the fireplace, an intermediary form between the central pillar kilns and the median wall ones. Inventory. Above the perforated plate, there were found the fragments of two large vessels, used by M. Coma to assign this kiln to the Sntana de Mure culture settlement, located on the Mgur and studied by systematic excavations (1985, p. 173). b. Kiln no. 2. Recently, during the excavations coordinated by M. Babe, in 1970, it was discovered another pottery kiln, dated to the 4th century AD. The settlement of Sntana de Mure Cerneahov cultural

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complex superimposed the local Carpic settlement, shortly after its end (~ et alii 1980, p. 35 sq.; M. Babe 1988, p. 3 et sq.; Idem 2000, p. 340). Judeul Iai / Iai County 21. Isaiia - Satu Nou, com. Rducneni, jud. Iai, secolele III-IV p.Hr., punct descoperit prin cercetrile de teren realizate de Constantin Iconomu, n vatra satului Isaiia. n surpturile din faa casei locuitorului Stratulat I. Ioan s-a descoperit un cuptor de ars oale. Pe vatra circular (=1,40 m) a acestuia, la adncimea de 1 m, de la nivelul actual de clcare, se aflau dou ulcioare, unul pstrat ntreg i altul fragmentar, care dateaz complexul n secolele III-IV p.Hr. (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, p. 338, LXI.3). Isaiia - Satu Nou, commune of Rducneni, Iai county, 3rd4th centuries AD, discovered by the survey of Constantin Iconomu, within the village of Isaiia. The collapse of road-banks in front of the house of Stratulat I. Ioan revealed a pottery kiln. On its preserved circular hearth (=1.40 m) there were found, 1 m below the current trading level, two jugs, one whole and the other one fragmentary, which date the feature in the 3rd4th centuries AD (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1985, p. 338, LXI.3). 22. Srca - Pe linia ferat, com. Blai, jud. Iai, secolul IV - prima jumtate a secolului V, spturi C. Bloiu. Lucrrile pentru repararea liniei ferate, n dreptul km 45, au deranjat dou cuptoare de ars ceramic, din tipul cu pilon central i grtar, ce fac parte dintr-o aezare datat n secolul IV - prima jumtate a secolului V p.Hr. (C. Bloiu 1975, p. 203 i urm.; Adriana Stoia 1975, p. 301; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 48, IV.6.F.; M. Coma 1981, p. 91). Srca - Pe linia ferat, commune of Blai, Iai county, 4th century the first half of the 5th, excavations by C. Bloiu. The repair works of the railway, at Km 45, unearthed two pottery kilns, the type with central pillar and perforated plate, pertaining to the settlement dated in the 4 th century first half of the 5 th AD (C. Bloiu 1975, p. 203 sq.; Adriana Stoia 1975, p. 301; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 48, IV.6.F.; M. Coma 1981, p. 91). 23. Biceni - Laiu II, com. Cucuteni, jud. Iai, secolele III-IV, cercetri coordonate de M. PetrescuDmbovia. Aezarea din punctul Laiu, din perioada post-roman, secolele III-IV, se afl la circa 250 m vest de Cetuia, pe un teren n pant uoar, cu rpi n partea de sud-vest. Cuptorul avea culoarul de alimentare - praefurnium-ul alungit i grtarul sprijinit pe un stlp central (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1966, p. 36; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 114, XX.2.L.; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505; Idem 1973a, p. 60; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, tabel sinoptic 37; M. Coma 1981, p. 90-91). Biceni - Laiu II, commune of Cucuteni, Iai county, 3rd4th centuries AD, research coordinated by M. Petrescu-Dmbovia. The settlement on the Laiu hill, dated in the post-Roman period (3rd4th century AD) is located approximately 250 m west of Cetatuia hill, on a gentle slope, cut by ravines at its SW edge The kiln has an elongated fire channel and the perforated plate supported by a central pillar (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1966, p. 36; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 114, XX.2.L.; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505; Idem 1973a, p. 60; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, summarizing table 37; M. Coma 1981, p. 90-91). 24. Biceni - Silite, com. Cucuteni, jud. Iai, secolele III-IV, cercetri sistematice realizate, de I. Ioni, V. Palade i V. Brliba, 1963. Pe partea dreapt a prului Recea, nu departe de aezarea situat pe Dmbul lui Pletosu, au fost descoperite resturi de locuire datnd din diferite epoci, printre care i din secolele II-III i IV. n total sau dezvelit 22 de locuine de suprafa i adncite, 80 de gropi i un cuptor de ars ceramic n focrie cu

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picior de susinere a grtarului (D. Popescu 1965, p. 591, nr. 27; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505; Idem 1973a, p. 60; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p 115). Biceni - Silite, commune of Cucuteni, Iai county, 3rd4th centuries AD, systematic research by I. Ioni, V. Palade and V. Brliba, 1963. On the right bank of Recea creek, not far from the settlement of Dmbul lui Pletosu, there were discovered traces of habitation dated to several periods, the 3rd4th centuries among them. There were unearthed 22 dwellings overall, above-ground and half-buried, 80 pits and one potters kiln, with a central supporting pillar in the fireplace (D. Popescu 1965, p. 591, nr. 27; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505; 1973a, p. 60; V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p 115). 25. Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, com. Andrieeni, jud. Iai, probabil secolele III-IV, spturi Ion Nestor i colaboratori, 1949-1950. La circa 1 km vest - sud - vest de sat, pe un martor de eroziune al terasei inferioare din dreapta Jijiei, n perimetrul a cinci movile s-au realizat spturi arheologice. n partea de nord a suprafeei cercetate se afl o locuire din secolele III-IV p.Hr., din care s-au dezvelit dou locuine, vetre, un cuptor de ars oale (=1,30 m), mai perfecionat dect cel aparinnd locuirii cucuteniene. n una dintre locuine s-au aflat: o brar tubular de fier, o fibul de bronz i o moned de argint de la Antoninus Pius (138-161) (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 37, II.5.B, cu bibliografia).

Fig. 57. Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare. Cuptor de ars oale (apud Gh. Iordache 1996, fig. 18). The Potters kiln (apud Gh. Iordache 1996, fig. 18).

Cuptorul n plan circular (=1,30 m), cu dou camere suprapuse, s-a descoperit n partea dinspre deal a staiunii (I. Nestor et alii 1951, p. 67-68). Cuptorul avea camera de foc prevzut cu pilon central, rezervat din pmnt. Focarul se prelungea prin culoarul de alimentare - praefurnium-ul, construit mult alungit, pentru arderea combustibilului. Pereii camerei n care se ntreinea focul, ct i stlpul central au fost cptuii cu un strat gros de lutuial. Platforma de susinere a vaselor s-a construit pe un pat de nuiele dispuse n raze, ce se sprijinea pe marginile cuptorului. La fel s-a montat i "acoperiul camerei de foc", cu vergile dispuse n raze, sprijinite cu un capt pe de jur mprejurul marginii gropii, amenajat ca o poli i cu alt capt pe stlpul central (Ibidem, p. 68; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51, fig. 18). Vergile au fost acoperite cu trei rnduri succesive de lipitur, n care s-au realizat perforrile pentru circulaia aerului cald.

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Bolta ce acoperea camera de ardere a vaselor s-a prbuit din vechime. Fragmentele acesteia se gsesc rvite pe plac i mprejur. n partea de sus trebuie s fi avut o deschidere care a servit de horn. n faa cuptorului era ncperea de acces "n care sttea olarul" (I. Nestor et alii 1951, p. 68; Fl. B. Florescu 1965, p. 151-153; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 504; Idem 1973a, p. 60). Particulariti: praefurnium-ul era mult alungit; pilon rezervat din pmnt; grtarul construit pe un suport de nuiele dispuse n raze pe marginile cuptorului iar bolta cu vergi ordonate tot n raze sprijinite pe marginea gropii (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93-94, tabel sinoptic 38). Inventar. Ceramica din preajma cuptorului face parte din categoria celei lucrate la roat i s-a ordonat n dou categorii; a celei din past amestecat cu nisip i pietricele, ce reprezenta ceramica de uz casnic i a celei din past fin, cenuie, cu suprafeele lustruite, ades i ornate (I. Nestor et alii 1951, p. 68; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51). Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, commune of Andrieeni, Iai county, probably 3rd4th century AD, excavations by Ion Nestor & team, 1949-1950. Around 1 km WSW from the modern village, on an erosion witness in the lower terrace of Jijia river, on its right bank, a series of archeological excavations were carried out in the area of five mounds. The north area of the site revealed a 3rd4th century settlement, where were excavated two dwellings, several hearths and a pottery kiln (=1.30 m), which was more technologically advanced than the type used in the Cucuteni culture. The inventory of one of the dwellings included: a tubular iron bracelet, a bronze shoulder clasp and a silver coin, issued by Antoninus Pius (138-161) (V. Chirica, M. Tanasachi 1984, p. 37, II.5.B, with bibliography). The kiln was circular in plan (=1.30 m), with two superimposed chambers and it was found in the upper area of the site (I. Nestor et alii 1951, p. 67-68). The fireplace of the kiln was equipped with a central pillar, spared from the natural clay. The fireplace chamber was extended by the fire channel, which was long, to accommodate the burning fuel (Ibidem). The walls of the fireplace chamber, as well as the central pillar were covered by a thick daub layer. The perforated platform was built on a supporting bed made of radial arranged twigs, seated on the edges of the fireplace chamber. In the same manner was build the capping of the fireplace, with the twigs arranged radial, with one end supported by the top of the walls, worked as ledge, and the other end by the central pillar (Ibidem, p. 68; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51, fig. 18). The twigs were covered by three successive layers of daubing, through which the hot air holes were perforated. The dome covering the firing chamber collapsed in the antiquity, its fragments were found spread on top of the plate and around it. It might have had an opening at the top, that served also as a chimney. In front of the kiln was located the access room, in which the potter was seated (I. Nestor et alii 1951, p. 68; Fl. B. Florescu 1965, p. 151-153; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 504; Idem 1973a, p. 60). Peculiarities: the overextended fire channel, the central pillar spared from the natural clay, the perforated plate built on supporting bed of radially arranged twigs supported on the walls of the kiln, and the dome of the fire chamber built in the same manner, with the twigs seated on the edge of the firing chamber walls (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93-94, summarizing table 38). Inventory. The potsherds found in and around the kiln are wheel-thrown and may be separated in two categories: the coarse paste, with sand and gravel, representing the domestic use pottery and the fine paste, grey-baked with polished walls, often decorated (I. Nestor et alii 1951, p. 68; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51). 26. Iai - Nicolina, jud. Iai, secolele IV-V p.Hr., staiune cercetat sistematic de Ion Ioni, 1975-1978 Una dintre cele mai importante descoperiri, datate n secolul al IV-lea (fig. 54), se gsete n zona de trecere de la platourile mai nalte ale Podiului Central Moldovenesc, la Cmpia Moldovei. Punctul se afl n marginea de sud a municipiului Iai, n cartierul Nicolina, n apropierea terasei inferioare a prului Nicolina, de-a lungul a 1000 m, ce au fost mprii pentru cercetare, n funcie de specificul natural, n trei sectoare, A-C. Aici, n perioada 1975-1978, naintea construirii Combinatului de utilaj greu, au fost efectuate ample spturi de salvare pentru descoperirea complexelor arheologice din secolele IV-VI p.Hr., i anume: 32 de locuine, 17 adncite n sol i 15 construite la suprafa, 4 vetre din piatr i lut, 2 cuptoare de piatr, 23 de gropi cu resturi menajere, precum i 5 cuptoare de ars ceramica (I. Ioni 1985, p. 30).

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Patru din cuptoarele de ars ceramica erau din tipul cu dou camere suprapuse i unul din cel cu o singur camer. I. Ioni a ordonat cuptoarele n dou tipuri, n funcie de specificul acestora, orientarea, forma i dimensiunile camerei i galeriei de foc, grosimea, diametrul i sistemul de susinere a grtarului (1985, tabelul 3). n primul tip a inclus cuptoarele din secolul al IV-lea, din care a desprins dou variante (Ibidem, p. 30-49). a. Prima variant, A, cuprinde cuptoarele C1 i C4, de dimensiuni mari, orientate cu gura spre sud-est. Acestea aveau camera de ardere tronconic (=176-188, inclusiv C3; h=42-44 cm) i interior stlp central tronconic, cu baza mai mare (6 x70 i 46x48 cm). Gura de foc, la C4 era mai nalt (h=0,68 m), fa de C1,2 (h=22-30 cm) iar C1,3,4 aveau L=0,70-1,15 m; l=56-64, inclusiv C2). Grtarul (C1, =1,50 m; C4,2, =1,14-1,24 m), era susinut de un stlp central la C1-2,4 (I. Ioni 1985,

fig. 4/1, 3).

Fig. 58. Iai - Nicolina. Cuptoarele de olrie C1 i C2 - 1 pmnt ars; 2 grtar (apud I. Ioni 1985, p. 34, fig. 4). The potters kilns C1 and C2: 1 burned earth; 2 perforated plate (apud I. Ioni 1985, p. 34, fig. 4).

Cuptor C2 de dimensiuni mult mai mici, era orientat cu faa spre sud. Focarul cilindric, avea dimensiuni mai mici (=114 cm; h=20 cm), iar n interior un stlp central tronconic (40x28 cm), mai mare spre grtar (h=18 cm). n prelungirea camerei de ardere a combustibilului s-a amenajat galeria de foc, orientat nord-sud (=30 cm), de mici dimensiuni (I. Ioni 1985, fig. 4/1, 4). b. Celei de-a doua variante, B, corespunde cuptorul C3, cu diametru mai mare, conservat parial, orientat cu faa spre est. Camera de foc era desprit de un mic perete median (l=40 cm) pe care se sprijinea grtarul. Iai - Nicolina, Iai county, 4th5th centuries AD, systematical excavation of the site by Ion Ioni, 19751978. One of the most important discoveries for the period of the 4th century AD, the site is situated in the interface of the Central Moldavian Highlands high plateaus with the Moldavian Plain. It is located in the southern outskirts of Iasi municipality, within Nicolina suburb, near the lower terrace of Nicolina river, on a 1000 m strip, which, for the purpose of the research was divided in three sectors, A to C, according to the terrain. There were carried out ample archeological rescue excavations in the interval 1975-1978, before the starting of the construction of the Heavy Machinery Industrial complex.

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

There were discovered numerous archeological features dated in the 4th6th century AD, consisting in: 32 dwellings, 17 dugouts and 15 above ground houses, 4 hearths of clay and stone, 2 stone ovens, 23 waste disposal pits, as well as 5 pottery kilns (I. Ioni 1985, p. 30). Four of the pottery kilns were of the type with two superimposed chambers and one of the singlechambered type. I. Ioni classified the kilns in two categories, according to their specific features, orientation, shape and size of the fireplace chamber and fire-channel, as well as the thickness, diameter and supporting system of the perforated plate (1985, table 3). The first category included the 4th century kilns, with two variants (Ibidem, p. 30-49). a. Cat. 1, var. A included the kilns C1 and C4, large in size, with the feeding opening towards SE. these were equipped with a conical fireplace chamber (=176-188 cm, including C3, h=42-44 cm) with conical central pillar with widened base (65 x 70 and 46 x 48 cm). The feeding opening was higher in the case of kiln C4 (h=0,68 m), compared to C1 and C2 (h=22-30 cm) while kilns C1, C3 and C4 had a long fire channel (L=0.70-1.15 m; w=56-64 cm, including C2). The perforated plate (C1 with =1.50 m; C4 and C2 with =1.14-1.24 m), was supported by a central pillar on kilns C1, C2 and C4 (I. Ioni 1985, fig. 4/1, 3). The kiln C2, of much smaller size, was oriented towards south. Its cylindrical fireplace chamber was smaller (=114 cm; h=20 cm), with a inverted conical central pillar (40 x 28 cm), widened towards the perforated plate (h=18 cm). The shorter fire channel was built in the axis of the fireplace chamber, with north-south orientation (=30 cm) (I. Ioni 1985, fig. 4/1, 4). b. Cat. 1, var. B includes the kiln C3, which is larger in diameter, only partially preserved. Its orientation was towards east. The fireplace chamber was divided by a small median wall (l=40 cm) on which the perforated plate was seated. Judeul Bacu / Bacu county 27. tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, com. n jud. Bacu, secolele III-IV, spturi arheologice realizate de Constantin Eminovici i Ionel Bauman. Nu s-a precizat dac aparine culturii carpice sau Sntana de Mure (A. Stoia 1975, p. 301). Cuptor de ars oale descoperit n comuna suburban a municipiului Bacu, din tipul cu dou camere suprapuse. Focarul spat n pmntul viu era desprit n dou de un perete median. Grtarul era prevzut cu perforri pentru tiraj. Camera de ardere a vaselor era puternic distrus (M. Coma 1981, p. 90, nota 5; Eadem 1985, nota 26). Inventar: ceramic specific pentru categoriile modelate din past fin sau zgrunuroas. tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, commune of ~, Bacu county, 3rd-4th centuries AD, excavations by Constantin Eminovici and Ionel Bauman. There are no data as for its chronology, i.e. Carpic or Sntana de Mure culture. Potters kiln found on the territory of a suburban commune pertainin to Bacau municipality, it falls into the type with two superimposed chambers. The fireplace was hollowed out from the natural clay and it was divided by a median wall. It was identified a perforated plate. The firing chamber was almost completely destroyed (A. Stoia 1975, p. 301; M. Coma 1981, p. 90, footnote 5; Eadem 1985, footnote 26). Inventory: pottery specific for the fine-paste and coarse-paste species. 28. Gutina, com. tefan cel Mare, jud. Bacu, secolul al IV-lea, spturi Ionel Bauman, n 1973. Cercetri realizate sub coordonarea Muzeului de istorie a Municipiului Gheorghe Gheorghiu Dej. Aezare de tip Sntana de Mure n care s-a descoperit i un cuptor de ars ceramica de tip nalt, prevzut n focar cu perete median (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 59; I. Bauman 1974, p. 44, nota 7; M. Coma 1981, p. 90). Gutina, commune of tefan cel Mare, Bacu county, 4th century AD, excavations by Ionel Bauman, 1973. The research was carried out under the coordination of the Municipal Museum of History of Gheorghe Gheorghiu Dej City.

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This Sntana de Mure settlement also included a potters kiln with median wall (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 59-60; I. Bauman 1974, p. 44, footnote 7; M. Coma 1981, p. 90). 29. Bacu - Curtea Domneasc, municipiul Bacu, jud. Bacu, secolul al IV-lea i primele decenii ale secolului al V-lea, cercetri arheologice coordonate de Ioan Mitrea i Alexandru Artimon, n anul 1970. Cercetrile ntreprinse n perimetrul complexului medieval au dus i la descoperirea, n aezarea din secolul al IV-lea i primele decenii ale secolului al V-lea, a opt locuine i a unui cuptor de ars ceramica de dimensiuni mici, format din dou ncperi suprapuse. Aezarea se continu n secolele urmtoare. S-a menionat suprapunerea locuinei L3, din perioada culturii Sntana de Mure, de o alta, L 4, din secolele

VI-VII (I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, p. 228, fig. 6).

Fig. 59. Bacu - Curtea Domneasc. Seciune prin cuptorul de ars oale: 1a-b camera de foc, camera de ardere a vaselor; 2 sol arabil; 3 sol brun-zgrunuros; 4-5 sol brun-cafeniu i ars; 6 sol galben; 7 grtar; 8 sol cenuiu; 9 bolta reconstituit (apud I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, fig. 6). Section through the pottery kiln: fireplace; 1b firing chamber; 2 ploughed topsoil; 3 brown grainy soil; 4 dark brown soil; 5 baked earth; 6 yellow clay; 7 the perforated plate; 8 grey soil; 9 reconstructed dome (apud I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, fig. 6).

Focria deschis s-a spat n solul galben. Deasupra ei s-a construit grtarul circular ( > 1 m), perforat, modelat din lut amestecat cu paie, pe un suport de nuiele i pari, dispuse paralel. Marginile grtarului se sprijineau pe un prag amenajat la sparea gropii, n jurul acesteia. Nu s-a surprins nici un sistem de susinere a grtarului, probabil dimensiunile mici ale camerei de ardere a vaselor nu necesitau aceasta. M. Coma a subliniat lipsa i a piciorului central i a peretelui median i modalitatea n care grtarul s-a sprijinit pe peretele camerei de foc (1985, p. 173). Gura de foc s-a amenajat n partea de nord. Camera de ardere a vaselor, de form cilindric, trebuie s fi fost boltit spre partea de sus, distrus din vechime. Ambele camere au fost pomestite i netezite cu lut. Inventar: ceramica lucrat la roat i cu mna, se afla peste grtar, din ultima s-a ntregit doar un vas (I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, p. 225, 228-229, fig. 7-8; J. Werner 1956, p. 64-65). Particulariti: grtarul sprijinit doar pe marginea de sus a focarului. Inventar: ceramica lucrat la roat cuprinde, aproape n proporii egale, pri de la vasele lucrate din past cenuie fin (fig. 56/1-9) i din past zgrunuroas. ntre vase 4-5 erau de provizii, un procent ridicat din totalul ceramicii, de obicei cu gtul scurt sau aproape inexistent i ornate cu specifica band liniar incizat, vlurit (I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, p. 231, fig. 9/1; 10/2). Pe un fragment din past fin cenuie, apare decorul lustruit (Ibidem, fig. 9/4). Ceramica lucrat cu mna (fig. 56/10-12), lucrat dintr-o past grosier, amestecat cu amot, cuprinde: vase borcan cu buza evazat, uneori pe umr cu brie alveolate (Ibidem, fig. 7/1; 8/3; 10/1), primele dou

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au fost descoperite pe grtarul cuptorului, alturi de ceramica lucrat la roat (Ibidem, fig. 8/1-2, 6). Analogii ale vaselor ornate cu brie alveolate: Dodeti, sud-estul Transilvaniei i Dobrogea (Z. Szkely 1969, pl. XVII/7; XIX/3; C. Scorpan 1970, p. 146-148, 152, fig. 2/1-2; 6/1-2). Datarea, n secolul IV i primele decenii ale secolului V, se sprijin pe ponderea relativ mare a vaselor de provizii specifice unei etape trzii a culturii, procentul mic de ceramic fin cenuie, n comparaie cu etapa clasic, de mare nflorire i specificul ceramicii zgrunuroase, care aparine unei categorii trzii ca past, forme i decor (I. Artimon, Al. Mitrea 1996, p. 25-28, fig. 7-8). Alte cteva fragmente de vase, lucrate tot la roat, din past cu microprundiuri, cu buza rsfrnt, pe umr i sub buz cu striuri drepte, ornate cu un val realizat, indic tot o datare trzie (Ibidem, fig. 7-8). Bacu - The Princely Court, Bacu municipality, Bacu county, 4th century AD and the beginning of the 5th, archeological research coordinated by Ioan Mitrea and Alexandru Artimon, 1970. The excavations carried out within the medieval site revealed also, within the area of the 4th-5th century AD settlement, of eight dwellings and a small pottery kiln with two superimposed chambers. The settlement continues to exist during the following centuries. It was reported the superimposition of dwelling L3 (Sntana de Mure culture) by a later, 6th-7th century AD one (L4) (I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, p. 228, fig. 6). The open fireplace was excavated into the natural yellow clay. On top of it the perforated plate was built ( > 1 m), from clay mixed with straw, on a wattle bedding. The edges of the plate were seated on the ledge spared to this purpose, at the time of the building, around the fireplace pit. There was no supporting system for the plate to be found, due perhaps to the small size of the firing chamber that did not require such supporting system. M. Coma emphasized the lack of central pillar or median wall, as well as the means of seating the perforated place on the fireplace wall (1985, p. 173). The feeding opening was located on the north side of the kiln. The firing chamber is cylindrical in shape and it should have been domed at the top, which was destroyed in the antiquity. Both chambers were daubed and the clay smoothed. Inventory: wheel-thrown and hand-modeled pottery, spread over the perforated plate. The latter category consisted in only one reconstructible pot (I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, p. 225, 228-229, fig. 7-8; J. Werner 1956, p. 64-65). Peculiarities: the perforated plate supported only by the walls of the fireplace.

Fig. 60. Bacu - Curtea Domneasc. Ceramic din cuptor (apud I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, fig. 6). Pottery from the kiln (apud I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, fig. 6).

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Inventory: The wheel-thrown pottery includes, in roughly equal proportions, fragments of grey-baked fine (fig. 56/1-9) and coarse paste. Amid the accountable vessels, 4 or 5 were large storage jars, which represents a relatively large percentage of the overall ceramic inventory. These storage jars were short-necked, almost without neck, and decorated with the specific incised wavy ribbon on the shoulder (I. Mitrea, Al. Artimon 1971, p. 231, fig. 9/1; 10/2). The polished decoration is also present, on fine grey (Ibidem, fig. 9/4). The hand-modeled pottery (fig. 56/10-12), is made from coarse paste, with ground brick as additive, and includes: flared rimmed jars, sometimes decorated with wavy ribbons n the shoulder (Ibidem, fig. 7/1; 8/3; 10/1), the first two jars were found inside the firing chamber, on the plate, along with the wheelthrown vessels (Ibidem, fig. 8/1-2, 6). There are analogies for the jars decorated with wavy ribbons: Dodeti, South-east Transylvania and Dobrudja (Z. Szkely 1969, pl. XVII/7; XIX/3; C. Scorpan 1970, p. 146-148, 152, fig. 2/1-2; 6/1-2). The dating, to the 4th century AD and the beginning of the 5th, is supported by the relatively large percentage of the storage jars specific to the late phases of the culture, the small percentage of fine grey pottery, compared to its classical phase, of maximum flourishing, as well as the presence of a specific coarse ware, which is more common to a later period, as paste, shapes and decoration (Al. Artimon, I. Mitrea 1996, p. 25-28, fig. 7-8). Another few potsherds, wheel-thrown, from coarse paste with microgravel, with overturned rim and decorated with straight-and-wavy ribbons on the shoulder and neck, which also indicate a later period (Ibidem, fig. 7-8). Judeul Neam / Neam county 30. Costia - Mnoaia, jud. Neam, sfritul secolului al IV-lea i prima jumtate a secolului al V-lea, spturi 1962, 1965-1968, M. Zamoteanu Dan Gh. Teodor, Viorel Cpitanu, Ioan Mitrea 1968. La Mnoaia, pe malul stng al Bistriei a fost descoperit o aezare Sntana de Mure, ncadrat de I. Nestor ntre sfritul secolului al IV-lea i prima jumtate a secolului al V-lea. n suprafaa acesteia, pe panta lin din apropierea sursei de ap, s-a investigat i un cuptor de ars ceramic, pe grtarul cruia s-au pstrat resturi de vase dintr-o arj. Olria lucrat la roat din past zgrunuroas brun-cenuie, prin tehnic, forme i ornamente, are trsturile culturii Costia Mnoaia Botoana, rspndit n regiunile est-carpatice n secolele V-VII (D. Gh. Teodor, V. Cpitanu, I. Mitrea 1968, p. 238-239; Al. Vulpe, D. Gh. Teodor, E. Nicolae 1994, p. 362-363). Unele urne au partea inferioar a corpului dublu boltit (Ibidem, fig. 6/11), precum vasele de provizii lucrate cu mna de la Btca Doamnei. I. Nestor, pornind de la aceste descoperiri de o deosebit importan, a definit pentru prima dat conceptul de cultur Costia, caracteristic populaiei autohtone n vremea dominaiei hunilor n aceste regiuni (1964, p. 399). Stratigrafia prezint o succesiune aproape nentrerupt de orizonturi culturale, datate ntre sfritul secolului III i prima jumtate a secolului VI, ntre care mai intens locuit este perioada culturii Sntana de Mure, dintre secolele IV-V(I. Mitrea 2007, p. 138). Costia - Mnoaia, Neam county, end of 4th century first half of the 5th century AD, excavations by M. Zamoteanu 1965; Dan Gh. Teodor, Viorel Cpitanu, Ioan Mitrea 1968. A Sntana de Mure settlement was discovered at Mnoaia, on the left bank of Bistrita river, which was dated by I. Nestor between the end of 4th century and the first half of the 5th century AD. On its surface, on a gentle slope in the vicinity of a water source it was found and investigated a potters kiln, on which plate there were preserved several fragmentary vessels from the last batch. The brown-grey coarse-paste pottery, by its technique, shape and decoration, is specific to the Costia Mnoaia Botoana culture, which was spread in the regions east of Carpathians during the 5th and 6th centuries AD (D. Gh. Teodor, V. Cpitanu, I. Mitrea 1968; Al. Vulpe, D. Gh. Teodor, E. Nicolae 1994, p. 362-363). Some of the urns have twin-vaulted bases (Ibidem, fig. 6/11), similar to the hand-modeled storage jars from Btca Doamnei. Starting form these important discoveries, I. Nestor defined for the first time the base concepts of Costia culture, which is specific to the local population at the time of the Huns domination on this lands (1964, p. 399). The stratigraphy shows an uninterrupted sequence of cultural horizons, dated from the end of 3 rd century to the middle of 6th century. Within this interval, the most intense populated period is the one of Sntana de Mure culture, between the 4th century and the middle of the 5th (I. Mitrea 2007, p. 138).

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Judeul Suceava / Suceava county 31. Liteni, jud. Suceava, spturi Emil Emandi. Spturile sistematice realizate la Liteni au surprins i un nivel de locuire din secolul al IV-lea, pentru care s-a semnalat i un cuptor de ars ceramica din tipul cu dou camere suprapuse. Liteni, Suceava county, excavations by Emil Emandi. The systematic excavations carried out on the site of Liteni revealed also a habitation level from the 4th century AD, for which was reported a potters kiln with two superimposed chambers. Judeul Botoani /Botoani county 32. Trueti - Pe Cuha = Cuha, jud. Botoani, secolele III-IV, spturi coordonate de M. PetrescuDmbovia, D. G. Teodor i A. Niu, 1954. Punct situat la circa 1,5 km nord de ugueta, la locul numit Pe Cuha, aflat pe panta vestic a unei vi secundare a Jijiei. n aezarea de pe Cuha, din secolele III-IV, au fost documentate ambele tipuri de cuptoare, n focrie cu pilon central sau cu perete median (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 172175, fig. 6). Atelierul descoperit aici era format dintr-o ncpere de acces n care, spre peretele vertical erau construite dou cuptoare, frecvent menionate n lucrrile referitoare la tehnicile de ardere (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505; M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69, 71, 94, tabel sinoptic nr. 29; M. Coma 1981, p. 90; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51).

Fig. 61. Trueti - Pe Cuha. Cuptor de ars ceramica (apud M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, fig. 6). Potters kiln (apud M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, fig. 6).

a. Cuptorul 1, face parte din tipul celor prevzute cu dou camere, n plan circulare. Focria, adncit n lutul galben, avea pereii arcuii, n centru cu un stlp, rotund n seciune, cruat n momentul construirii camerei de foc, n care se forma un spaiu circular. Gura de alimentare nu s-a pstrat n ntregime (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 174). Grtarul, rezervat ntre cele dou camere, a fost acoperit cu un strat gros de lut frmntat cu resturi vegetale, care, prin ardere s-a transformat ntr-o plac dur. n urma arderilor repetate acesta s-a prbuit parial iar partea distrus s-a reparat cu lipituri de lut de aceeai grosime. Camera de ardere a vaselor are forma unui trunchi de con, cu partea superioar deschis deasupra solului i pereii acoperii cu un strat subire de lutuial, refcut de mai multe ori i prevzut pe margine cu un colac exterior tot de lut, din care s-a pstrat o parte. Acoperirea la timpul potrivit a gurii, cu pmnt i cioburi, permitea o ardere nbuit a vaselor. b. Cuptorul 2, avea tot plan circular (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 174; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505; M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54, nota 14). Focria cu un aspect boltit, la fel ca i la primul cuptor s-a adncit n lutul galben, dar, spre deosebire de acesta era desprit de un perete median, prin care se formau dou crri n care focul ardea separat. Grtarul (platforma) realizat din pmnt natural i prevzut cu perforri, se consider c a fost refcut dup prbuirea acestuia n urma arderilor repetate (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505; Idem, 1973, p. 60; M. Coma, op. cit., 1985, p. 173; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51). Camera de ardere a vaselor se apropie tot de forma unui trunchi de con.

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Ambele camere, peretele median i grtarul aveau pereii lutuii cu straturi succesive, refcute de mai multe ori i ntrite prin ardere. Solul natural din jurul cuptoarelor, sub aciunea focului i a cldurii, prezint o zon ars la cenuiu, urmat de una ars la rou. ncperea de acces la cuptoare, oval n plan, din care se puneau n funciune cele dou instalaii de ars ceramica, a aprut spre captul de est al SII. Pe laturile scurte i pe latura de nord are pereii arcuii pentru ca, la captul de est s fie tiate cteva trepte, acum nruite, pentru a nlesni accesul. Peretele de pe latura de sud a gropii este aproape vertical (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 174). Dup dezafectarea atelierului, ncperea de acces i zona cuptoarelor s-au umplut cu pmnt, cenu, cioburi. Inventarul ceramic ocup primul loc i s-a ordonat n patru grupuri, n funcie de compoziia pastei, form i decor. Prima grup, considerat a fi cea mai important prin cantitatea, calitatea i originea ei, include ceramica de tradiie La Tne modelat din past fin, ars cenuiu deschis sau negru. Forme: cupe sau strchini cu gura joas sau nalt, vertical sau invazat, cu umrul carenat sau

rotunjit; boluri sau strchini cu gura larg, cu baza lat i umrul carenat sau rotunjit; castronul cu baza orizontal i trei tori verticale, cana cu gt nalt i toarta plat; vsciorul cu gt ngustat; borcanul cu umr rotunjit i buza rsfrnt. Bazele sunt fie simple, fie profilate sau nlate cu un scurt picior cilindric. Suprafaa vaselor s-a lustruit i n primul registru prezint una sau dou nervuri n relief i linii formate prin lustruire, n zigzag, oblice sau n reea.

Fig. 62. Trueti - Pe Cuha. Amfor cu inscripia M A K A P I (apud M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, fig. 7-7a). Amphora bearing the inscription M A K A P I (apud M. PetrescuDmbovia et alii 1955, fig. 7-7a).

Un fragment de castron din past cenuie, cu lustru negru, prezint pe umrul carenat caneluri i vrci oblice n relief, realizate prin mpingerea peretelui din interior n afar. Grupa a doua, ceramica zgrunuroas, prezint dou variante, prima a vaselor lucrate din past de aspect grosier, amestecat i cu pietri, bine ars i a doua a celor modelate din past mai dens, cu mici pietricele i ardere cenuie. Predomin chiupurile cu buza orizontal i borcanul cu buza rsfrnt i ngroat diferit, cu baze plate profilate sau nlate. A treia grup cuprinde ceramica lucrata cu mna. Ca forme predomin borcanul cu umerii nali i rotunjii, de origine La Tne (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 175). A patra grup o constituie ceramica de import, probabil din sud: cupe cu firnis negru i amfore din tipul cu toarte nalte i baza ascuit i amfora roman cu baza rotund i toarte joase prinse sub gt, pe umr cu nuiri orizontale. n umplutura cuptorului 2 s-a pstrat un gt de amfor glbuie, cu inscripia pictat cu rou (miniu) M A K A P I (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 176, fig. 7-7a). Complexul s-a datat i prin fragmentul de amfor descoperit n umplutura cuptoarelor, care avea pe gt pictat cu rou (miniu), o inscripie n limba greac M A K A P I, completat MAKAPIOS, considerat de Marius Alexianu i Nelu Zugravu, un antroponim cretin din secolul al IV-le (1996-1997, p. 173-178, fig. 1; M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, 1-2, p. 165 i urm.; ~ et alii 1999, p. 640-641, fig. 418). Particulariti: pe marginea din partea superioar a camerei de ardere a vaselor era un colac exterior de lut, din care s-a pstrat o parte, cum s-a afirmat, realizat mpotriva scurgerii apelor de la suprafa. Trueti - Pe Cuha = Cuha, Botoani county, 3rd4th centuries, excavations coordinated by M. PetrescuDmbovia, D. G. Teodor and A. Niu, 1954. The site is located around 1.5 km north of ugueta hill, at the point known as Pe Cuha, on the western slope of a secondary course of river Jijia.

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In the settlement of Cuha, dated in 3rd4th century AD, there were documented both types of pottery kilns, with central pillar or median wall in he fireplace chamber (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 175, fig. 6). The workshop discovered here consisted in an access room with two pottery kilns opening into it, which are frequently mentioned in the publications dealing with the techniques of pottery firing (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505; M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69, 71, 94, summarizing table no. 29; M. Coma 1981, p. 90; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51). a. Kiln no. 1, is of the type with two superimposed chambers, circular in plan. The fireplace is hollowed out from the natural clay, with arched walls, with a cylindrical central pillar, spared from the natural clay art the moment of the building (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 174). The feeding opening and the fire channel are only fragmentarily preserved. The perforated plate that separate the two chambers was covered by a thick layer of clay mixed with vegetal trimmings, which was baked into a hard, stone-like slab. Following the repeated firings, this plate partially collapsed and the break was repaired with clay lumps of the same thickness. The firing chamber was built in the shape of a truncated cone, with its upper half, which had the loading opening, above ground, and the walls covered by a thin daub, which was remade several times. The chamber was equipped with an external clay belt, which was partially preserved. The timely covering of the loading opening, by means of soil and potsherd, ensured the anaerobe firing of the batch. b. The kiln no. 2, it was also circular in plan (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 174; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505; M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54, footnote 14). The fireplace was somehow domed, as in the case of kiln 1, and also hollowed out from the natural clay but, opposite to kiln 1, it was divided by a median wall resulting in a two paths in which the fire burned separately. The perforated plate (the platform) is build from the excavated clay and it is thought that was remade after it collapsed following the intense use. The firing chamber is roughly in the shape of the same truncated cone. Both chambers, the median wall and the perforated plate had their surfaces covered by successive layers of daub, which daubing was remade several times, and was hardened by the heat. The natural soil surrounding the kilns was baked to a grey, with an outer regon baked to red. The access area was elliptic in plan and was used to start and fuel both kilns. It was discovered at the eastern end of trench S II. Its short sides and the north wall are slightly arched, while the east end was equipped with several access steps, which were partially collapsed on the time of their discovery. The southern wall was almost vertical (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 174). After the workshop fell out of use, the access area and the kilns were filled with earth, ash and potsherds. The inventory is mainly ceramic, which was categorized in four groups, according to the paste composition, shape and decoration. The first group is the most important, by quantity, quality and origin and consists of pottery of La Tne tradition, of fine paste; light grey or black-baked. The shapes: cups or dishes with high or low mouth, upright or inward-curved rimmed, with ridged or rounded shoulders; wide-mouthed bowls or dishes, with widened bases and with ridged or rounded shoulders; the bowl with horizontal base and three vertical ears, the jug with high neck and flat ear; the small pot with tapered neck; the jar with rounded shoulder and outward turned rim. The bases are either simple or profiled and elongated, with a short cylindrical stem. The surface of the vessels is polished, decorated in the upper register with one or two ridges and polished wavy, zigzag diagonal lines or mesh. One fragment of a bowl, in fine grey-baked paste with black sheen, shows on its ridged shoulder a series of diagonal grooves and edges made by pushing the clay outwards from the interior of the vessel. The second group consists in coarse pottery with two variants; the first one includes the coarser paste with gravel, thoroughly fired vessels; the second one includes the denser paste with only sparse small pebbles, grey-baked vessels (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 175). The group is dominated by flat rimmed storage jars, and jars with outward turned rims, of uneven thickness. The bases are flat, ridged or heightened. The third group includes the hand-modeled pottery. Its dominant shape is the jar with high rounded shoulders, of La Tne origin. The fourth group includes the imported pottery, of probable southern origins: black-slipped cups as well as amphorae of the type with elongated ears and pointed base and Roman amphorae with short ears at the base of the neck and round bases, decorated with horizontal grooves on the shoulder. Inside the filling of

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kiln 2 it was found a neck from a yellowish amphora, bearing the painted (red minium) inscription: (miniu) M A K A P I (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia et alii 1955, p. 176, fig. 7-7a). The feature was also dated by means of the amphora fragment discovered in the filling of the kilns, which showed on its neck, painted with minium red, an inscription in Greek, MAKAPI, completed as MAKAPIOS, considered by Marius Alexianu and Nelu Zugravu, a Christian anthroponym dated to the 4 th century (M. PetrescuDmbovia et alii 1955, 1-2, p. 165 et sq.; ~ et alii 1999, p. 640-641, fig. 418; M. Alexianu, N. Zugravu 1996-1997, p. 173-178, fig. 1). Peculiarities: the clay belt outside the upper walls of the firing chamber, partially preserved, intended, as reported, to protect the kiln against the surface waters. 33. Ioneni - intirim, secolul al IV-lea, com. Trueti, jud. Botoani. n vatra sat s-a descoperit o ntins aezare din secolul al III-lea p.Hr., cultura dacilor liberi i alta din secolul al IV-lea specific culturii Sntana de Mure (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 177-180; I. Ioni 1996, p. 264). n literatura de specialitate apare menionat cuptorul de olar nr. 2 de la Ioneni (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60; M. Coma 1981, p. 90; V. Palade 2004, p. 84). Ioneni - intirim, 4th century, commune of Trueti, Botoani county. Within the perimeter of the village nucleus there were discovered two large settlements, one of the Free Dacians culture (3th century AD) and the other one, specific to Sntana de Mure culture (4 th century) (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 177-180; I. Ioni 1996, p. 264). The kiln no. 2 from Ionaseni is the feature mentioned in the academic publications (Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60; M. Coma 1981, p. 90; V. Palade 2004, p. 84). 34. Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, secolul al IV-lea, spturi realizate de N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra, n 1958.

n apropiere de oraul Botoani, pe stnga prului Sitna se afl o aezare specific secolului al IV-lea, culturii Sntana de Mure i o necropol datat n prima jumtate a secolului al V-lea, deranjat n parte de lutria din marginea ei.

Fig. 63. Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei. Profil. Legenda: 1 camere; 1-3 sol nelenit; 4-6 sol cenuos brun-rocat, galben; 7 grtar; 8 mpletitur de nuiele; 9 fuial de lut; 10-11 sol vitrificat 10, ars rou 11 (apud N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 464, fig. 4). Profile. Key: 1 chambers; 2-3 grassy soil; 4-6 ashy, redbrown and yellow soil; 7 perforated plate; 8 wattle structure; 9 daubing; 10 vitrified soil; 11 red-baked soil (apud N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 464, fig. 4).

Prin cercetri de suprafa, n malul rpei Crmidriei, Em. Zaharia a identificat un cuptor de ars oale, prevzut cu dou camere, des ntlnit n arealul culturii Sntana de Mure, ulterior cercetat de N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra (1961, p. 464, fig. 4; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, tabel sinoptic 36; M. Coma 1981, p. 90). Cuptorul face parte din tipul cu dou camere suprapuse (h=1,53 m; =1,73 m). Focarul era desprit de un perete median (h=59 cm), cruat n timpul sprii acestuia, mai lat spre baz (l=22 cm), unde s-au realizat dou mici trepte i mai subire spre partea superioar (h=12 cm), pe care se

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sprijinea gratarul. Caracteristic pentru acesta este lipsa oricrei comunicaii ntre cele dou camere de foc. Din cauza temperaturii ridicate, pmntul n care s-a spat cuptorul s-a vitrificat pn la jumtatea camerei de ardere i sub vatr, pe o grosime de 4-5 cm, dup care pmntul s-a nroit 7-10 cm. Grtarul pe care se ordonau vasele pentru ars, sprijinit pe peretele median din focar, s-a construit pe un pat de nuiele subiri, mpletite, peste care s-a aplicat mai nti un strat de lut amestecat cu paie, pleav i chiar crengue subiri, dup care s-a finisat cu lut curat. n aceste dou straturi (h=17 cm) s-au realizat perforrile grtarului (=3-4 cm), pentru circulaia aerului cald din camera de foc n camera de ardere a vaselor (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 464, fig. 4; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51; Vl. Zirra, Margareta Tudor 1954, p. 315; I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 13). Camera de ardere a vaselor (h=0,74 m) avea pereii feuii i terminai spre gur cu o margine rotunjit. La baza ei, n pereii spai s-a cruat un prag (prichici) (l=10-12 cm), drept suport circular pentru susinerea grtarului. Accesul la cuptor se fcea dinspre rpa crmidriei, de unde, prin gura de alimentare se realiza alimentarea cu lemne. Particulariti: perete median cruat, plin, mai lat spre baz, unde are i dou mici trepte; grtar format pe o mpletitur de nuiele i sprijinit pe un prag aflat pe focar; n partea de sus a boltei era prevzut cu o margine rotunjit (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra (1961, p. 464). Analogii: Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare (I. Nestor et alii 1951, p. 67-68), Trueti - Pe Cuha, jud. Iai (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 174-175, fig. 6), Bucureti - Crngai, jud. Ilfov (Vl. Zirra, D. Tudor 1954, p. 312-313). Inventar: fragmentele ceramice din aezare provin de la borcane cu marginile nengroate, lucrate din past semifin, amestecat cu nisip i pietricele mrunte, ars cenuiu sau brun; din past zgrunuroas, vase cu marginile evazate i rotunjite, cu o nuire n interior i din past foarte fin (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 468, fig. 8). Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Botoani county, 4th century AD, excavations by N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra, 1958. At the outskirts of Botoani municipality, on the left bank of Sitna creek, it was discovered a 4th century AD settlement, specific to Sntana de Mure culture, and a cemetery dated in the first half of the 5th century AD, partially affected at the edge by the clay pits made by the local villagers. The archeological survey carried out on the banks of Crmidriei creek by Em. Zaharia revealed a pottery kiln, with two superimposed chambers, which is quite common in the area of Sntana de Mure culture. The kiln was later excavated by N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra (1961, p. 464, fig. 4; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, summarizing table no. 36; M. Coma 1981, p. 90). The kiln pertains to the type with two superimposed chambers (h=1.53 m; =1.73 m). The fireplace was divided by a median wall (h=59 cm), spared from the natural clay in the course of the kilns building, and is wider at the base (l=22 cm), which includes two small steps, and narrower at the top (h=12 cm), at the junction with the perforated plate. The two compartments do not communicate, which is one of the characteristics of the construction. Due to the high temperatures generated during the operation, the surrounding soil is vitrified around the lower half and under the fireplace, to a depth of 4-5 cm, and then red-baked, to another 7-10 cm. The perforated plate that supported the batch being fired was seated on top of the median wall and it was built from a wattle bedding of thin twigs, covered by a layer of clay mixed with straw, chaff and even minute twigs, finished with a daubing of clean clay. The perforations (=3-4 cm), were made into these two layers (h=17 cm) to circulate the hot air from the fireplace into the firing chamber (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 464, fig. 4; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51; Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, p. 315; I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 13). The walls of the firing chamber (h=0.74 m) were daubed and their edges rounded at the top opeing. The base of the firing chamber is equipped with a ledge spared from the natural clay (w=10-12 cm), as a circular seating for the perforated plate. The kiln access was made from the brickworks ravine, where the fueling was carried out. Peculiarities: the solid median wall spared from the natural clay, wider at the base, with two small steps; the perforated plate built on top of wattle bedding and supported by a ledge on top of the fireplace walls; the opening of the firing chamber has rounded edges (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra (1961, p. 464).

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Analogies: Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare (I. Nestor et alii 1951, p. 67-68), Trueti - Pe Cuha, Iai county (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 174-175, fig. 6), Bucureti - Crngai, Ilfov county (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, p. 312-313). Inventory: the potsherds from the settlement originates from jars with even rims, of semi-fine paste with sand and small pebbles, grey or brown baked; from flared, round rimmed vessels, from coarse paste, with lid seating inside the rim, as well as from fine-paste ware (N. Zaharia, Em. Zaharia, S. Ra 1961, p. 468, fig. 8). 35. Huanu - Saivan, jud. Botoani, secolul al IV-lea, spturi Mariana Marcu, Napoleon Ungureanu. n partea de nord-vest a terasei situate foarte aproape de valea prului Grla, s-au semnalat trei cuptoare de olrit, nr. 1 cu pilon central i nr. 2-3 cu perete median n focrie i dou gropi n plan circulare, aflate n apropierea ncperilor de acces la primele ateliere, care au servit probabil pentru scoaterea lutului (M. Marcu, N. Ungureanu 1988, p. 225). a. Cuptorul nr. 1. Focarul avea pilonul pentru susinerea grtarului modelat din lut, n seciune uor oval (h=40; =46/50 cm), dispus lateral fa de focar, praefurnium-ul era bine conservat (L=75x55; h=26 cm). Grtarul cuptorului (=1,38x1,30 m) era distrus aproape n ntregime. Perforrile grtarului aveau diametre cu deschideri de 3-4 cm. Camera de ardere a vaselor nu s-a pstrat dect spre baz. Dup urmele de lipituri czute pe plac, pereii acesteia, formai din straturi succesive de lut, aveau o grosime de trei cm. n urma arderilor repetate prin funcionarea cuptoruluii au cptat o culoare cenuiu-verzuie, ca i grtarul. mprejurul pereilor i sub vatra focarului s-au nroit 10-12 cm (Ibidem, p. 224). ncperea de acces la cuptor n plan era oval (L=5 m; l=3,50) i are spre vest trepte pentru acces. Adncimea maxim a gropii este de 1,05 cm de la nivelul actual al solului. Latura de vest a ncperii a tiat o alt groap datat mai timpuriu. Inventar. n groapa de acces a cuptorului s-a descoperit o fusaiol i o penset de bronz, din tipul aflat la Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Izvoare, datate n secolul al IV-lea (Ibidem, p. 224). Ceramica. Predomin fragmentele de vase specifice categoriilor cunoscute, lucrate cu mna i la roat. Ceramica lucrat cu mna cuprinde oalele-borcan zvelte, cu buze uor evazate, interior nuite i cu buze drepte, unele decorate cu brie alveolate. Ceramica lucrat la roat a fost bine reprezentat de grupa celei zgrunuroase, modelate din past cu diferite incluziuni, cu deosebire nisip. ntre forme se deosebesc strchinile cu buzele drepte sau uor evazate i corp bitronconic, oala-borcan cu buza uor ngroat i evazat, umeri proemineni i bazele drepte sau evazate i corp mai zvelt. Ultimele rar au pe umr o linie incizat sau o incizie mai adnc pentru a forma un prag. n cuptor s-au gsit i fragmente de la vase de provizii de tip Krausengefss. Ceramica lucrat din past fin are culoare cenuie, rar crmizie sau glbuie iar ntre forme predomin strchinile, oalele i cnile. Se remarc un gt de can, cu decor lustruit. Baza era inelar sau dreapt, uneori nlat. b. Cuptorul nr. 2, de ars oale era bine conservat, s-a descoperit ntreg. Focria de form oval, avea axul lung de 2,05 m iar cel scurt de 1,50 m. Pe axul lung se afla peretele median (L=1,25; h=0,45 m) format din lut, ncepe de la 1,35 m fa de intrarea n praefurnium i se termin la 40 cm distan de peretele opus. n faa cuptorului are limea de 16 cm i spre perete 40 cm. Grtarul circular (=1,38x1,20 m) se sprijin la exterior pe pereii laterali ai camerei de foc. S-a realizat pe o leas de nuiele i crengi bine fixat n pereii marginali, lipit i consolidat cu straturi succesive de lut, de 12-15 cm. Grtarul prezint 39 de perforri. Camera de ardere a vaselor a fost parial acoperit cu o ncpere tronconic, pstrat pn la nlimea de 50 cm. Iniial ea depea nivelului antic de clcare. nlimea cuptorului a fost de aproximativ 1,15 m iar praefurnium-ul era alungit (l=1,05; l=0,75; h=25 m) (Ibidem, p. 225). ncperea de acces la cuptor avea o form aproximativ rectangular, cu colturile rotunjite (L=2,10x2,20 m) iar nlimea de la nivelul actual de clcare era de 1,38 m. n groapa de acces se coboara pe dou trepte situate n partea opus praefurnium-ului. Ea a tiat o alt groap, n plan oval (=2,45; h=2,09 m). Inventar. Cu deosebire, n camera de ardere a vaselor, dar i n focrie, s-au descoperit numeroase fragmente ceramice de la vase de provizii. n groapa de acces s-a era mult ceramic lucrat la roat i cu mna, precum i un fragment de oglind cu tamga. Dup aspect ceramica din groap este mai timpurie dect aceea din cuptor, din secolul al III-lea p.Hr. (Ibidem, p. 226).

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c. Cuptorul nr. 3, de ars oale, descoperit pe S VIII, M 14-22, era n plan de form circular (=1 m x 0,90 m) i adncit puin n pmnt, fapt pentru care camera de ardere a vaselor a fost distrus. De la nivelul actual de clcare adncimea este de 65 cm iar de la cel antic de 40 cm. Focria i praefurnium-ul (L=70 cm), s-au mprit n dou de un perete median (h=27 cm spre interior i 20 cm la gur). Peretele, la 78 de cm de spate s-a arcuit cu un unghi de 170o, pentru a se continua pn la intrarea n praefurnium. ncperea de acces (L=2,55; h=0,65 cm de la nivelul actual de clcare) avea n plan o form rectangular. ncperea a secionat o locuin B6 (h=1,22 m). n inventarul locuinei s-a descoperit mult ceramic specific secolului al III-lea, mai timpurie n raport cu atelierul datat n secolul al IV-lea. Huanu - Saivan, Botoani county, 4th century, excavations by Mariana Marcu, Napoleon Ungureanu. In the northwest side of the terrace very near to the valley of Grla brook, there were pointed out three potters workshops and two pits of circular plan, near the access rooms to the first workshops, which then were probably used for clay exploitation purposes (1988, p. 225). a. Kiln no. 1. The fire chamber had the pillar for sustaining the perforated plate made of clay, its crosssection was slightly oval (h=40; =46/50 cm), somehow to the side of the fire chamber, with the praefurnium better preserved (L=75; l=55; h=26 cm). The perforated plate of the kiln (=1,38x1,30 m) was almost completely destroyed. The perforations consisted in openings with diameters of 3-4 cm. The pot firing chamber had only its lower part preserved. According to the traced of daubing fallen on the plate, its walls, made of successive layers of clay, were three cm thick. Following the repeated firing when the kiln was functional, their color turned grayish greenish, similar to the one of the perforated plate. Around the walls and under the fire chamber hearth, 10-12 cm turned reddish (Ibidem, p. 224). The kiln access room had an oval plan (L=5 m; l=3,50) and to the west it has stairs for facilitating the access. The maximal depth of the pit is of 1,05 cm from the current treading level of the soil. The western side of the room cut another pit dated to an earlier period. Inventory. The kiln access pit revealed a spindle whorl and bronze pincers, of the same type as those of Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, Izvoare, dated to the 4th century (Ibidem, p. 224). Ceramic ware. There are mostly potsherds from vessels specific to the two categories, hand-made and wheel-thrown. The hand-made pottery includes the svelte jar-pots, with slightly flared rims, with inner grooves and straight rims, some decorated with alveoli belts. The wheel-thrown pottery was better represented by the group of coarse ceramic ware, shaped out of a paste including various added materials, especially sand. In terms of shapes, mention should be made of the dishes with straight or slightly flared rims and biconical body, the jar-pot with slightly thickened and flared rim, prominent shoulders and straight or flared bases and rather svelte body. The latter ones only rarely show on the shoulder a deeper incised line so to create a threshold. In kiln 1 there were also found fragments resulting from food storage vessels of the Krausengefss type. The ceramic ware made of fine paste is of grayish color, only rarely brick-red or yellowish and in terms of shapes there predominate the dishes, pots and mugs. The neck of a mug is particularly interesting due to its polished ornament. Its basis was ring-like or straight, sometimes raised. b. Kiln no. 2, for pot firing, was well preserved and was uncovered as a whole item. The fire chamber was of oval shape, its long axis was of 2,05 m and the short one of 1,50 m. On the long axis, there stands the median wall (L=1,25 m; h=0,45 m) made of clay, which starts from 1,35 m measured from the entrance into the praefurnium and ends at 40 cm distance from the opposite wall thereof. The frontal width of the kiln is of 16 cm and to the wall is of 40 cm. The circular perforated plate (=1,38x1,20 m) is sustained from the outside on the side walls of the fire chamber. It was made from a wattle well embedded in the lateral walls, the knitted branches being well consolidated with successive layers of clay, of 12-15 cm. The perforated plate shows 39 holes. The pot firing chamber was partly covered with a conical vault, preserved up to the height of 50 cm. Initially, it exceeded the ancient treading level. The height of the kiln is of about 1,15 m and the praefurnium had an elongated shape (l=1,05; l=0,75; h=25 m) (Ibidem, p. 225). The kiln access room had a rather rectangular shape, with rounded corners (L=2,1x2,2 m) and the height measured from the present treading level is of 1,38 m. In the access pit one could enter by means of two steps situated on the opposite side of the praefurnium. It cut another pit of oval plan (=2,45; h=2,09 m).

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Inventory. Numerous potsherds resulting from food storage vessels were found especially in the pot firing chamber but also in the fire chamber. In the access pit there was a lot of wheel-thrown and handmade ceramic ware, but also a fragment of mirror with tamga. According to its aspect, the ceramic ware in the pit is earlier than the one in the kiln, dated to the 3rd century AD (Ibidem, p. 226). c. Kiln no. 3, for pot firing, discovered on S VIII, M 14-22, had a circular plan (=1x0,90 m), slightly buried in the ground reason why the pot firing chamber was destroyed. Measured from the current treading level, the height is of 65 cm and from the ancient one it is of 40 cm. The fire chamber and the praefurnium (L=70 cm) were divided in two by a median wall (h=27 cm toward the interior and 20 cm at mouth level). The wall, at 78 cm from the back, was arched with an angle of 170o, being continued until the entrance into the praefurnium. The access room (L=2,55; h=0,65 m from the current treading level) had a rectangular plan. The room sectioned a dwelling B6 (h=1,22 m). The inventory of the dwelling revealed a lot of ceramic ware specific to the 3rd century, earlier than the workshop dated to the 4th century. 36. Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, com. Vorniceni, jud. Botoani, semnalare Maria Diaconescu. Punctul se afl la circa 3-4 km est de satul Vorniceni, pe un promontoriu din dreapta prului Ibneasa, care, spre sud-est se vars n Jijia, n apropierea podului ce traverseaz oseaua Vorniceni Sveni, aezare de secol IV (L. ovan, P. adurschi 1981, p. 51). n alunecrile de teren din marginea drumului ce duce spre punctul Pod Ibneasa, unde se ntinde cunoscuta aezare Cucuteni A-B, se afl i un cuptor de olrie prevzut cu dou camere suprapuse. Vorniceni - Pod Ibneasa, commune of Vorniceni village, Botoani county, reported by Maria Diaconescu. The point is located about 3-4 km east of Vorniceni, on a promontory on the right bank of Ibneasa creek, not far from its confluence with the Jijia, close to the bridge on the Vorniceni-Sveni road and settlement of 4th centuries (L. ovan, P. adurschi 1981, p. 51). The landslides near the road to Pod Ibneasa point, not far from the area of the known settlement of Cucuteni A-B culture, revealed a pottery kiln, of the type with two superimposed chambers. Republica Moldova / Republic of Moldova 37. Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republica Moldova, datate n secolul al III-lea (II) p.Hr., spturi 2001, 2003, Vlad Vornic, Nicolai Telnov, Valeriu Bubulici, Serghei Kurceatov, Larisa Ciobanu, redactate unitar ntr-un volum mpreun cu Eugen Nicola (Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, p. 38-74, pl. 2-3, 13-16). a. Cuptorul nr. 1, de ars oale, cvasitronconic, nu era bine conservat, partea estic s-a nruit prin alunecarea marginii pantei iar n partea sudic s-a spat groapa unui pom (Ibidem, p. 39-43, pl. 2-3, 13-16). Focria s-a spat n solul viu (h=0,35 m) iar diametrul prii pstrate avea 0,75 m, avnd central cruat din pmnt peretele median orientat nord-vest / sud-est, trapezoidal n seciune (lbaz/grtar=0,35/18-20; h=0,44 m), nu se continua n galeria de alimentare. Pereii s-au lutuit cu un strat de 0,02-0,03 m, zgurificat de la arderile puternice, cu pmntul spre lutul viu nroit 0,15 m (Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, p. 39). Gura de alimentare a focriei (L=0,45; h=0,36; l=0,72 m) era finisat cu un strat de 2 cm de lut fin. n el s-au realizat concentric perforrile, - cu vergele de lemn -, la distane diferite, de 1320 cm (Ibidem, p. 43). Grtarul circular (=1,68; h=0,20-0,24 m) s-a format pe un cofraj de nuiele dispuse n dou rnduri, perpendiculare unele pe altele, din trei straturi de lut amestecat cu paie i pleav i prezint 39 de perforri. S-a fixat pe pragul (14-16 cm), format deasupra pereilor focriei i pe peretele median. Camera de ardere a vaselor (=1,68; h=1,59 m) era la nivelul antic de clcare, la fel cu pereii mai groi la baz, o parte din peretele estic s-a drmat complet (hpstrat=20-26; lpstrat=6-4 cm). ncperea de acces la cuptor avea o form oval-neregulat (=2,3-2,1 m), mai lat n faa cuptorului, cu podeaua uor albiat i puternic bttorit, spre gura cuptorului cu mult cenu i intrarea spre vest, spre nord a fost tiat de o groap recent. nlimea de la nivelul actual de clcare era de 1,38 m. n groapa de acces se cobora pe dou trepte situate n partea opus praefurnium-ului. Ea a tiat o alt groap, n plan oval (=2,45; h=2,09 m) (Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, p. 43). Inventar: umplutura camerei inferioare i a canalului de alimentare consta din pmnt amestecat cu cenu, lut ars i pri de vase lucrate la roat din past fin, 352 cenuii, 27 roii (Ibidem, p. 39, tab. 1);

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- n umplutura camerei de ardere a vaselor erau, 379 fragmente ceramice de la vasele lucrate din past fin, 32 roii i 347 cenuii (Ibidem, p. 43, fig. 7-12, 22/1-11; 23).

Fig. 64. Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, R. Moldova, cuptor de olrie nr. 1 (apud Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, fig. 1316). The potters kiln no. 1 (apud Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, fig. 13-16).

- n umplutura gropii olarului s-au gsit pri de la vasele lucrate din past fin, cenuii 761 fragmente, roii 164 fragmente (Ibidem, fig. 13-19; 20/5-11 i 20/1-4; 21). b. Cuptorul nr. 2, era la 2 m vest de C1, conservat ntreg (Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, p. 43, pl. 23, 17-19). Focarul s-a spat n solul viu (h=0,35 m), n centru avea cruat din pmnt un perete median, care-l mprea n dou camere (L=0,65/0,55; h=0,35 m), cu vatra uor nclinat spre ncperea de acces. - inventarul ceramic cuprinde un fragment de la un vas modelat cu mna, 126 de vase fine lucrate la roat, din care 52 cenuii i 73 roii (Ibidem, p. 46, fig. 24/1-8 i 9-18). Gura de alimentare (0,51x0,32 m), orientat spre vest, a fost adncit cu 15 cm fa de nivelul vetrei i la fel s-a acoperit cu lut fin devenit la exterior cenuiu i n adncime crmiziu, 4-6 cm. Deschiderea dinspre ncpere era astupat bine cu lut (Ibidem, p. 46, nota 25), autorii exemplificnd acest obicei cu specificul unui cuptor din oraul antic Phanagoria nr. 4, unde se practica, dup V. Gajdukevi, pentru ca ncrctura s se rceasc ncet (apud . . 1967, p. 116), poate i cu un cuptor din aezarea roman Slveni, cu gura acoperit cu o igl (Gh. Popilian 1976b, p. 140). Camera de ardere a vaselor era tronconic, din cauz c a fost construit la nivelul antic de clcare, a fost distrus n parte de lucrrile agricole. Avea pereii conservai 17-42 cm, mai bine spre sud i vest (Ibidem, p. 43). S-a ridicat pe un schelet de nuiele nfipte n pmnt, la 10-15 cm una de alta, peste acestea s-a aplicat lutul n straturi, iniial peretele avea peste 20 cm, acum doar de 5 cm. Nu s-au pstrat urmele acoperiului sau capacului ce astupa deschiderea lsat pentru umplerea cu vase i pentru tiraj.

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Grtarul era aproape circular (=2,25x2,32; h=0,17-0,25 m). De la margine spre centru, n trei patru cercuri erau realizate cel puin 35 de perforaii (=5-7 cm), trei erau nc acoperite cu pri de vase, mai ales baze (Ibidem, p. 46, fig. 22/12). Un strat de lutuial nears s-a aplicat, dup cum cred autorii, pentru pregtirea realizrii unei noi arje. Ei au argumentat cu o consemnare fcut de o . , cu privire la olarii din Moldova, care pregtesc cuptorul nainte de fiecare arj, l cur i-i ung crpturile cu lut, dup uscarea acestor reparaii ei astup perforrile grtarului cu mici perei de vase pentru a proteja ncrctura ceramic de aciunea direct a flcrilor (1969, p. 52-53).

Fig. 65. Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, cuptor de olrie nr. 2 (apud Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, fig. 17-19). The potters kiln no. 2 (apud Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, fig. 17-19).

- n umplutura camerei de ardere a vaselor i pe grtar erau 158 fragmente ceramice de la 21 vase roii, patru de la vase modelate cu mna i 133 de la vase din past fin (Ibidem, p. 46, fig. 22/1-11; 23). ncperea de acces la cuptor (L=2,3x2,2 m), precum i focria i gura de alimentare, au fost acoperite cu un strat subire de lut, de 1 cm, care a devenit cenuiu, chiar s-a pietrificat prin arderile reductoare dese. ncperea avea pe latura de sud o treapt din pmnt cruat, semioval (0,45x0,19x0,7 m). n faa gurii de alimentare era groapa aproximativ rectangular (1x0,9x0,1 m), n care se evacuau cenua i crbunele. - n umplutur au fost fragmente ceramice, patru de la vase lucrate cu mna, 461 cenuii i 162 roii (Ibidem, p. 48, fig. 25-26; 57/11-16 i 27 i 57/2-4, 6-10). c. Cuptorul nr. 3, cvasitronconic, de ars oale a fost cel mai bine conservat, se afla n apropierea prii de nord-vest a ncperii de deservire a cuptorului nr. 1 (Ibidem, p. 48, pl. 20-22). Focarul s-a spat n solul viu, era prevzut n centru tot cu un perete median prelungit n gura de alimentare format din lut cruat, n seciune trapezoidal (h=0,45; l=0,45 i 0,18 m) care-l mprea n dou camere (L=0,65 i 0,55 m), cu vatra uor nclinat spre ncperea de acces. Era puternic ars roumaroniu n unele locuri zgurificat. n apropierea gurii era o plac de gresie neprelucrat (L=5x15x10 cm), folosit dup autorii descoperirii pentru nmagazinarea cldurii, poate i pentru acoperirea gurii focarului i izolarea ncperii de focul din ea. Gura de alimentare, din partea de nord-vest a cuptorului era mprit n dou prin prelungirea peretelui median. Astfel, s-au format dou galerii, cu deschideri ovale, una estic i alta vestic (l=0,52/0,50; h=50/45), la fel feuite i arse. - inventar, din ambele s-au recuperat 439 cioburi, 260 roii, 163 cenuii i 16 modelate la mn (Ibidem, fig. 33/1-2, 5-17; 29/9 i 33/3-4). Grtarul aproape circular (=1,7; h=0,16-0,25 m; pl. 20-22) avea de la margine spre centru 40 de perforaii (=5-8 cm), dispuse tot n patru iruri, n momentul descoperirii erau acoperite cu un strat de lut zgurificat. La fel s-a realizat pe un cofraj de nuiele dispuse perpendicular probabil numai ntr-un rnd, urmele se vd la baza grtarului, pe prag sau pe peretele median, erau acoperite cu patru staturi de lut amestecat cu paie i pleav. La nord-vest se mai vd urmele unei lopele utilizate pentru amenajare.

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

Camera de ardere a vaselor era la nivelul antic de clcare i n parte a fost distrus de lucrrile agricole (hpstrat=35-55 cm), avea pereii uor arcuii.

Fig. 66. Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, R. Moldova, cuptor de olrie nr. 3 (apud Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, fig. 20-22). The potters kiln no. 3 (apud Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, fig. 20-22).

Inventar, o gresie de ascuit, buci de lut ars i ceramic, 287 cioburi lucrate la roat, 222 roii i 65 cenuii (Ibidem, p. 48, fig. 28 i 29/10-15), de asemenea, cenu, crbuni i lut zgurificat. ncperea de acces la cuptor (L=2,7x3,4; h=1,4 m), pe latura de vest avea o lavi amenajat din lut cruat (l=0,40; h=0,31 m), n faa gurilor de alimentare era groapa aproximativ oval (=0,4x0,7; h=0,1 m), n care se evacuau cenua i crbunele. - n umplutur au fost gsite 1347 fragmente ceramice, unul de la un vas lucrat cu mna, 255 cenuii i 1091 roii (Ibidem, p. 52, fig. 36/19 i 29/1-8; 30 i 31-32; 34-36/1-8). d. Cuptorul nr. 4, cel mai puin conservat, pe locul acestuia fusese plantat un pom. Se afla la circa 1 m de groapa de alimentare a cuptorului nr. 2 (Ibidem, pl. 2; 11-12; 23-25). Focarul (=1,8; h=0,45 m), a fost distrus n mare parte, s-a spat n solul viu, avea n centru tot un perete median din lut cruat, n seciune trapezoidal (l=0,35 i 0,15; h=0,45 m) care mprea focarul n dou camere (L=0,65 i 0,55 m) i se prelungea n gura de alimentare, formnd dou camere, una estic, alta vestic (l=0,40 i 0,45; h=0,42 i 0,40 m). Toate au fost feuite cu un strat subire de lut, care, n urma arderilor oxidante a devenit roiatic. - n umplutur, pe vatra focarului, spre est s-a gsit i o piatr brut de gresie (3x2x15 cm), n partea de vest s-au pstrat dou fragmente mari arse secundar de la amfore romane de import i multe fragmente ceramice, 157 de la vase roii lucrate la roat (Ibidem, fig. 72-73/1, 3-5; 74/5-11; 75), 259 cenuii i ase fragmente de amfore romane (Ibidem, fig. 71 i 73/2, 6). Camera de ardere a vaselor avea pereii uor curbai, i se afla la nivelul antic de clcare. - n umplutur, n partea superioar a camerei, au fost gsite, mpreun cu mult cenu i crbune, fragmente ceramice, unele deformate de foc sau chiar zgurificate. Deasupra grtarului erau fragmente de la patru amfore de mari dimensiuni, arse la rou dar incomplet. Grtarul era aproape circular (=1,8; h=0,15-0,25 m). La fel s-a realizat din straturi de lut amestecat cu paie i pleav, dispuse pe un suport de nuiele i s-a fixat pe gardina lat de 0,14-0,17 m, de pe marginea camerei de foc i pe peretele median. La nord-vest de grtar se mai vd urmele unei lopele utilizate pentru amenajarea cuptorului. Perforaiile, 17 pstrate, pentru ptrunderea aerului fierbinte i erau dispuse de la margine spre centru (=4-7 cm). Cuptoarele nr. 3 i 4 aveau grtarele sfrmicioase, probabil de la arderea oxidant iar n nr. 1-2, grtarele erau zgurificate puternic de la arderile reductoare.

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Fig. 67. Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, R. Moldova. Cuptor de olrie nr. 4 (apud Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, fig. 23, 25). The potters kiln no. 4 (apud Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, fig. 23, 25).

- n total erau 1456 fragmente ceramice, ntre ele i de la amforele de imitaie roman, opt de la vase lucrate cu mna (Ibidem, p. 52, fig. 65/10-16), 541 de la vase lucrate la roat cenuii (Ibidem, fig. 64/1-5, 7, 9-18; 65/9, 11-15; 66-69) i 907 de la recipiente de culoare roie (Ibidem, fig. 64/6, 8; 65/1-8; 74/1-4; 100/1-2; 101-102; 103/1, 3; 104/1, 3). ncperea de acces la cuptor avea form oval-neregulat (mic=2,9 m), avea pe latura de est o poli de pmnt cruat semioval (l=0,4 x0,35; h=0,15 m) iar la nord-vest o treapt rectangular (l=0,4; h=0,2 m). - n umplutur, au fost gsite, mpreun cu mult cenu i crbune, fragmente de la vase lucrate la roat din past fin, 1438 roii (Ibidem, p. 56, fig. 76-80/1-10; 81-85/2-20; 86/3-12) i 1218 cenuii (Ibidem, p. 56, fig. 87-93/3-13; 94-96), plus trei de la vase lucrate cu mna (Ibidem, p. 56, fig. 86/1-2; 93/1-2). Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, Republic of Moldova, discoveries dated to the 3rd (2nd) century AD, resulting from excavations carried out in 2001, 2003, by Vlad Vornic, Nicolai Telnov, Valeriu Bubulici, Larisa Ciobanu, presented in an unitary volume co-signed by Eugen Nicola (Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, p. 38-74, pl. 2-3, 13-16). a.Kiln no.1,of quasi-conical shape, was not well preserved, the eastern side collapsed when on the border of the slope slid away in the southern side, there was made a pit for a tree (Ibidem, p. 39-43, pl. 2-3, 13-16). The fire chamber was carved in virgin soil (h=0,35 m) and the diameter of the preserved part was of 0.75 m, having in the center the median wall spared from the soil, with a northwest/ southeast orientation, with a trapezoidal cross-section (lbase/perforated grill=0.35/18-20; h=0.44 m), which did not continue in the feeding gallery. The walls were daubed with a layer of 0.02-0.03 m, baked to slag-like aspect due to massive firing, with the soil toward the virgin clay turning red 0,15 m (Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, p. 39). The feeding opening of the fire chamber (L=0.45; h=0,36; l=0.72 m) was finished with a layer of 2 cm of fine clay. Within it, there were made the concentric perforations, - with wooden rods -, at varying distances, of 13-20 cm (Ibidem, p. 43). The circular perforated plate (=1.68; h=0.20-0.24 m) was formed using a mould made of rods arranged in two rows, perpendicular ones on the others, of three layers of clay mixed with straw and chaff and includes 39 perforations. On the exterior the threshold was embedded (14-16 cm), formed above the side walls of the fire chamber and the median wall. The vessel firing chamber (=1.68; h=1.59 m) was at the ancient treading level, and so war the walls thicker at the base. Part of the eastern wall fully collapsed (hpreserved=20-26; lpreserved=6-4 cm).

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The kiln access room was of an irregular oval shape (=2.3-2.,1 m), wider in front of the oven, with the slightly bedded and massively trodden floor, with a lot of ash to the kiln opening, with the entrance to the west, where must have been the steps, while to the north there was dug out a recent pit. The height from the current treading level was of 1.38 m. To reach the access pit, one should climb down two steps situated on the opposite side of the praefurnium. It cut another pit, of oval plan (=2.45; h=2.09 m) (Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, p. 43). Inventory: The filling of the lower chamber and of the feeding gallery consists in soil mixed with ash, fired clay and parts of fine paste wheel-made vessels, 352 grayish, 27 reddish (Ibidem, p. 39, tab. 1); - in the filling of the vessel firing chamber there were 379 potsherds of the fine paste vessels, 32 reddish and 347 grayish (Ibidem, p. 43, fig. 7-12, 22/1-11; 23). - in the filling of the pottars pit, there were found parts of fine paste vessels, grayish 761 fragments, red 164 fragments (Ibidem, fig. 13-19; 20/5-11 and 20/1-4; 21). b. Kiln no. 2 was situated 2 m west of kiln no. 1, and was preserved as a whole (Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, p. 43, pl. 2-3, 17-19). The fire chamber was dug out in the virgin soil (h=0.35 m), with a median wall spared out of the soil in the center, splitting the kiln into two chambers (L=0.65/0.55; h=0.35 m), with the hearth slightly sloped towards the access room. - the ceramic inventory also contains a potsherd of a hand-shaped vessel, 126 fine wheel-made vessels, out of which 52 grayish and 73 red (Ibidem, p. 46, fig. 24/1-8 and 9-18). The feeding opening (0.51x0.32 m), oriented to the west, was deepened with 15 cm in relation to the level of the hearth and it was covered with fine clay which on the outside became grayish and in depth brick red, 4-6 cm. The opening from the chamber was well lined with clay (Ibidem, p. 46, note 25), the authors exemplifying this habit with the one practiced in the case of a kiln from the ancient town Phanagoria no. 4, where according to V. Gajdukevi, with the role of letting the batch cool slowly (apud . . 1967, p. 116) and with a kiln of the Roman settlement of Slveni, which had the opening covered with a tile (Gh. Popilian 1976b, p. 140). The vessel firing chamber was conical, as it was built on the ancient treading level, and partly destroyed by the agricultural works. Its walls were preserved for 17-42 cm, better to the south and to the west (Ibidem, p. 43). It was built on a structure of rods embedded into the soil, at a 10-15 cm distance between them, covered with layers of clay, which initially formed a wall more than 20 cm wide, which now has only 5 cm of width. There are no remains of the roof or of the lid that closed the opening left for inserting the batch and for the draft. The perforated plate was almost circular (=2.25x2.32; h=0.17-0.25 m). From the side to the center, in three or four circles, there were at least 35 perforations (=5-7 cm), three were still covered with parts of vessels, especially bases (Ibidem, p. 46, fig. 22/12). In the authors opinion, a layer of non fired daubing was applied in order to prepare a new batch. They argued with a notification made by o . , concerning the potters of Moldova, who prepare the kiln before each batch, clean it and cover the cracks with clay, and after these repairing works get dry they fill the holes of the perforated plate with shards in order to protect the batch from the direct action of the flames (1969, p. 52-53). - in the filling of the vessel firing chamber and on the perforated plate there were found 158 potsherds from 21 red vessels, four from hand-shaped vessels and 133 from fine paste grayish vessels (Vl. Vornic et alii / E. Nicolae 2007, p. 46, fig. 22/1-11; 23). The kiln access room (L=2.3x2.2 m), as well as the fire chamber and the feeding opening were covered with a thin layer of clay, of 1 cm, which became grayish, even got petrified by frequent reducing firing. The room had on the south side a semioval step made of spared soil (0.45x0.19x0.7 m). In front of the feeding opening there was the approximately rectangular pit (1x0.9x0.1 m), where the ash and the charcoal were disposed. In the filling there were potsherds, four from hand-shaped vessels, 461 grayish and 162 red (Ibidem, p. 48, fig. 25-26; 57/11-16 and 27 and 57/2-4, 6-10). c. Kiln no. 3, quasi-conical, de was the best preserved. It was situated near the northwest part of the access room to kiln no. 1 (Ibidem, p. 48, pl. 20-22). The fire chamber was dug out of the virgin soil, it had in the center also a median wall extended to the feeding opening formed of spared clay, of trapezoidal cross-section (h=0.45; l=0.45 and 0.18 m) which split it into two chambers (L=0.65 and 0.55 m), with the hearth slightly sloped towards the access room. It was strongly fired, of brownish red in some areas of slag-like aspect. Near the opening there was a plate of unprocessed gritstone (L=25x15x10 cm), used, as the authors point out, to storing heat, maybe

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also for covering the opening of the fire chamber and the isolation of the room from the fire inside it. The feeding opening, in the northwest side of the kiln, was split in two by the extension of the median wall. Thus, there were created two galleries, with oval openings, one to the east and the other to the west una (l=0,52/0,50; h=50/45), equally daubed and fired. - Inventory. From both of them, there were recovered 439 shards, 260 red, 163 grayish and 16 hanshaped (Ibidem, fig. 33/1-2, 5-17; 29/9 and 33/3-4). The perforated plate was almost circular (=1,7; h=0,16-0,25 m; pl. 20-22). From the side to the center there were 40 perforations (=5-8 cm), arranged also in four rows, in the moment of the discovery they were covered with a layer of slag-like clay. The same procedure was applied to create a mould of rods perpendicularly arranged probably in one row only, the traces thereof being visible at the base of the perforated plate, on the threshold and on the median wall and covered with four layers of clay mixed with straw and chaff. To the northwest of the perforated plate, one can still see the traces of a small shovel for the preparation of the kiln The vessel firing chamber was on the ancient treading level and was partly destroyed by the agricultural works (hpreserved =35-55 cm), and had the walls slightly rounded. - Inventory: gritstone for sharpening, pieces of fired clay and ceramic ware, 287 wheel-made potsherds, 222 red and 65 grayish (Ibidem, p. 48, fig. 28 and 29/10-15), also ash, charcoals and slag-like clay. The kiln access room (L=2.7x3.4; h=1.4 m), on the western side, has a bench made of spared clay (l=0.40; h=0.31 m). In front of the feeding openings there was the pit of approximately oval shape (=0.4x0.7; h=0.1 m), where the ash and the charcoal were disposed. - in the filling there were found 1347 potsherds, one from a hand-shaped vessel, 255 grayish and 1091 red (Ibidem, p. 52, fig. 36/19 and 29/1-8; 30 and 31-32; 34-36/1-8). d. Kiln no. 4, the worst preserved, on whose place a tree had been planted. It was at about 1 m from the feeding pit of kiln no. 2 (Ibidem, pl. 2; 11-12; 23-25). The fire chamber (=1.8; h=0.45 m) was mostly destroyed. It was dug out in the virgin soil, it also had in the center a median wall made of spared clay, of trapezoidal cross-section (l=0.35 and 0.15; h=0.45 m) which split the fire chamber in two chambers (L=0.65 and 0.55 m) and extended in the feeding opening, forming two chambers, one to the east and the other to the west (l=0.40 and 0.45; h=0.42 and 0.40 m). They were all daubed with a thin clay layer, which following the oxidizing firing became reddish. - In the filling, on the hearth of the fire chamber, to the east there was also found a raw whetstone (3x2x15 cm), in the western side there were preserved two large fragments with secondary firing from imported Roman amphorae and many potsherds, 157 from red wheel-made vessels (Ibidem, fig. 72-73/1, 3-5; 74/5-11; 75), 259 grayish and six fragments of Roman amphorae (Ibidem, fig. 71 and 73/2, 6). The vessel firing chamber had the walls slightly rounded, and was situated on the ancient treading level. - In the filling, in the upper part of the chamber, there were found together with a lot of ash and charcoal, potsherds, some of which were deformed by fire or even acquired a slag-like aspect. Above the perforated plate there were fragments from four large amphorae, red but incompletely fired. The perforated plate was almost circular (=1.8; h=0.15-0.25 m). It was also obtained from successive layers of clay mixed with straw and chaff, laid on a support of rods and attached to the wide border of 0.14-0.17 m, on the side of the fire chamber and the median wall. To the northwest of the perforated plate one can still see the traces of a small shovel used at preparing the kiln. The perforations - 17 were preserved whose role was to let in the hot air, were arranged from the border towards the center (=4-7 cm). Kilns no. 3 and 4 had crumbly perforated plates, probably in these cases the firing was oxidizing and in no. 1-2, the perforated plates had a slag-like aspect due to the reducing firing. - In total, there were found 1456 potsherds, and among them those of the Roman imitation amphorae, eight from hand-shaped vessels (Ibidem, p. 52, fig. 65/10-16), 541 from wheel-shaped vessels of grayish (Ibidem, fig. 64/1-5, 7, 9-18; 65/9, 11-15; 66-69) and 907 from red vessels (Ibidem, fig. 64/6, 8; 65/1-8; 74/1-4; 100/1-2; 101-102; 103/1, 3; 104/1, 3). The kiln access room had an oval irregular shape (small=2.9 m). A bench of spared soil, of semi-oval shape was located on the eastern side (l=0.4x0.35; h=0.15 m) and in the northwest side there was a rectangular step (l=0.4; h=0.2 m). In the filling there were found apart from a lot of ash and charcoal, potsherds from wheel-shaped vessels of fine paste, 1438 red (Ibidem, p. 56, fig. 76-80/1-10; 81-85/2-20; 86/3-12) and 1218 grayish (Ibidem, p. 56, fig. 87-93/3-13; 94-96), plus three from hand-made vessels (Ibidem, p. 56, fig. 86/1-2; 93/1-2).

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Anexa / Anexe VI. Analogii cu inuturile de la sud de Carpai / Analogies with regions of Lower Danube
Ateliere i cuptoare de ars ceramic cu dou camere suprapuse, secolele II a.Hr.-VI p.Hr. / Workshops and pottery firing kilns with two overlapped chambers, 2rd century BC6th century AD Judeul Ilfov / Ilfov County 1. Bucureti - Celu Nou, jud. Ilfov, cuptor geto-dacic, datat mai timpuriu, n secolele II-I a.Hr., spturi Valeriu Leahu, 1960. Selite statornicit pe terasa ultim a rului Colentina, cu mai multe locuiri, ntre care i o aezarea geto-dacic din secolele II-I a.Hr. (V. Leahu 1963, p. 35).

Fig. 68. Bucureti - Celu Nou I-II. 1 Cuptor de ars ceramica, 2 reconstituire (apud V. Leahu 1963, fig. 19-20). 1 The potters kiln, 2 reconstruction (apud V. Leahu 1963, fig. 19-20).

Cuptorul din aezarea geto-dacic se afla ctre marginea terasei, n nivelul al doilea. Se nscrie ntre instalaiile de olrie prevzute cu dou camere suprapuse, cu dimensiuni medii (maxim=1,76 m). Focria avea pereii nali (h=88 cm) i era prevzut cu un perete median care mprea camera de foc. Spre deosebire de alte instalaii de acest tip prezenta semiadncituri n pereii camerei de ardere a vaselor (V. Leahu 1963, p. 30, fig. 19-20; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 504; Idem 1973a, nota 168; M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 70, 94, notele 61, 142; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 33). Datare: autorul cercetrilor a ncadrat cuptorul n secolele II-I a.Hr. (Ibidem, p. 30, 33, 35), Gh. Bichir menioneaz ca fiind corect datarea acestuia n secolele II-I i nu n secolele III-IV (I. H. Crian 1967, p. 111-112; idem 1973, nota 168). Ulterior, avndu-se n vedere dimensiunile i gradul de perfecionare, s-a considerat a fi fost din secolul I a.Hr., una din perioadele de nflorire a meteugurilor la geto-daci (M. Coma 1977, p. 172; Eadem, 1985, p. 171, nota 4). Analogii: Bucureti - Crngai (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, fig. 2-6), Struleti - Micneti (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54, 56, fig. 4), Popeti, centru meteugresc i comercial (V. Leahu 1963, p. 34). Particulariti: semiadncituri n pereii boltei camerei de ardere a vaselor. Bucureti - Celu Nou, county Ilfov, Geto-Dacian kiln, dated earlier, in the 2nd1st centuries BC. Small village established on the last terrace of River Colentina, with several habitations, among which a Geto-Dacian settlement of the 2nd1st centuries BC (V. Leahu 1963, p. 35). The kiln of the Geto-Dacian settlement was to the margin of the terrace, in the second level. It belongs to the category of pottery installations with two overlapped chambers, of average dimensions (maximal=1.76 m).

Anexa / Anexe VI. Analogii cu inuturile de la sud de Carpai / Analogies with regions of Lower Danube

181

The fire chamber has high walls (h=88 cm) and a median wall that divided the fire chamber in two. Unlike other installations of this type, this one showed the presence of deepened areas in the width of the walls of the vessel firing chamber (V. Leahu 1963, p. 30, fig. 19-20; Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 504; Idem 1973a, note 168; M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 70, 94, notes 61, 142; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 33). Dated to: the author of the researches included the kiln in the 2nd1st centuries BC (Ibidem, p. 30, 33, 35), Gh. Bichir mentions such dating as correct in the 2nd1st centuries BC and not in the 3rd th centuries (I. H. Crian 1967, p. 111-112; idem 1973, note 168). Later on, having in mind the dimensions and degree of technique, it was considered as belonging to the 1st century BC, a crafts flourishing period in the case of the Geto-Dacians (M. Coma 1977, p. 172; Eadem, 1985, p. 171, note 4), Popeti being such a craftsmen and trading center. Peculiarities: deepened areas in the walls and vault of the vessel firing chamber. 2. Bucureti - Crngai, cartier n Bucureti, jud. Ilfov, secolul al IV-lea, spturi Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1953. Aezare, din secolul al IV-lea, situat pe martorul pstrat din vechea teras, i cea mai nalt, din stnga Dmboviei, cu o depunere de 20-60 cm, mai bogat spre sud-vest unde s-a spat un cuptor de olrie bine conservat. n a doua jumtate a sec. XIX aici s-au instalat numeroase crmidrii.

Fig. 69. Bucureti - Crngai. 1-2 Cuptorul n momentul descoperirii; 3 reconstituire; 4 fibul; 5-6 fragmente de vase de provizii; 7 greutate de la rzboiul de esut (apud Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, fig. 2-6). 1-2 The potters kiln, at the moment of its discovery; 3 reconstruction; 4 shoulder-clasp; 5-6 fragments of storage jars; 7 clay weight from a weaving loom (apud Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1953, fig. 2-6).

Cuptor, degajat n ntregime, constituit din trei pri principale i reconstituit prin desen (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, p. 309-316, fig. 2-3 i 4-5; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69 i urm.; Gh. Bichir 1976, p. 505). Particulariti: pilonul central, relativ tronconic, s-a realizat prin cruarea unui calup de lut n momentul sprii gropii. Gura cuptorului (praefurnium) s-a construit din lespezi de piatr patrate, asemntoare unor crmizi romane. Bucharest - Crngai, residential district in Bucharest, Ilfov County, 4th century AD, excavations by Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1953.

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A settlement dated to the 4th century, located on the highest erosion witness preserved from the ancient terrace on the left bank of Dmbovia river, with a deposit layer of 20-60 cm thickness and a richer southwestern area, where a well-preserved pottery kiln was uncovered. During the second half of the 19th century the site was used for brick-making workshops. The kiln excavated completely, is made of three main parts, which were reconstructed by means of drawing (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1953, p. 309-316, fig. 2-3, 4-5; O. Floca, t. Ferenczy, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69 etc.; Gh. Bichir 1976, p. 505). The feeding room, used by the potter for feeding the kiln. The fireplace is slightly oval in shape, with inward-leaning walls, its dimensions of: h=1.80m, diam.=1.40m, is hollowed into the southern wall of the feeding chamber and is divided by a median wall spared from the natural clay. The walls of the fireplace were burned to a depth of 20 cm, due to its repeated use. Two feeding openings extend the two chambers of the fireplace into the feeding room, near a water pot, which remains were found in place, ensuring the required level of moisture. The two feeding openings were usually closed with small stone slabs or with clay stoppers. The firing chamber is conical, excavated top-down from the surface of the ancient treading level, roughly on top of the fireplace, with the perforated plate seated as a lid above the fireplace. The pots of the charge were piled upon this perforated plate. The firing chamber was covered by a built clay dome (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1953, p. 309-310, fig. 2-3). The walls of the firing chamber were lined with a mixture of clay, sand and chaff, which was also used for daubing the bottom of the fireplace as well as the perforated plate. The repeated firings resulted in brick-hard baking the clay of the kiln, leading to a good state of conservation for the said archaeological feature, as shown in the reconstruction image. (Ibidem, p. 313, fig. 4-5). Dated to: the second half of the 4th century, on the basis of the ceramic inventory, a bronze shoulderclasp with under-turned stem (Ibidem, p. 315, fig. 6), a copper coin issued by Emperor Valentinian I (Ibidem, p. 315, cf. Coh.2 69). Find inventory: the dominant pottery is the grey-purple, porous, coarse-ware with large quantities of gravel mixed in the paste (65%), mainly as jars with arched walls, decorated with 2-3 horizontal, parallel lines on the belly, in smaller numbers are present the large storage jars, decorated with groups of wavy striations below the rim, together with three variants of dishes and few cups. The fine grey, high quality pottery, represents 25% of the ceramic inventory, in form of cups, mugs, dishes and storage jars. Several fragments of amphorae and black luster vessels were also uncovered from within the feature. Analogies: Ileana - Podari, Clrai county (Vl. Zirra 1959, p. 501) and Glvnetii Vechi, Iai county. 3. Bucureti - Fundenii Doamnei, secolul al IV-lea, spturi arheologice MIB, inedit. Aezare situat ctre marginea de vest a platoului din stnga rului Colentina, pe dealul Radu Vod, la sud de biserica sptarului Mihai Cantacuzino, fratele voievodului erban, Bucureti, cu locuine de suprafa i semiadncite (Vl. Zirra 1959, p. 758). Cuptor mare pentru olrie, prevzut cu dou camere suprapuse, doar menionat n literatura de specialitate. Focria era prevzut cu un pilon central (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 50, 54; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69 i urm.; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51). Camera de ardere a vaselor avea la baz placa grtarului perforat pentru ptrunderea aerului ncins din focrie. Pe aceasta i n faa cuptorului s-au gsit pri de la vasele unei arje arse n cuptor, instalaia a fost menionat de Vl. Zirra i M. Tudor (1954, p. 315 i urm.; Gh. Bichir 1976, p. 505 1973a, p. 60, M. Coma (1985, p. 173, nota 39). Bucureti - Fundenii Doamnei, 4th century, excavations by MIB, novelty. A settlement situated to the west end of the plateau to the left of Radu Vod Hill, south of the church of Sword bearer Mihai Cantacuzino, brother of Prince erban, Bucharest with surface and half-buried dwellings (Vl. Zirra 1959, p. 758). The vessel firing chamber had at the base the perforated plate whose holes allowed the penetration of the air heated in the fire chamber. On this plate and in front of the kiln there were found parts of the vessels of a batch fired inside the kiln.

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4. Bucureti, cartier Struleti - Micneti, jud. Ilfov, spturi M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1960-1966. a. Cuptor aflat la "600 m de cele dou cuptoare cunoscute de la Micneti" (S. Morintz 1972, p. 333). Bucureti, Micneti - La Nuci, jud. Ilfov, secolul al III-lea, spturi M. Constantiniu, n 1967. La circa 600 m de Struleti, n sectorul aflat pe versantul estic al colinei Micneti, pe terenul fostului CAP Otopeni, denumit de localnici La Nuci, s-a investigat un cuptor de ars ceramica (M. Constantiniu 1978, p. 174, 181; S. Dolinescu - Ferche 1976, p. 555; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51). Din umplutura ncperii de acces de form oval, din care meterul mnuia instalaia, s-au adunat nu numai fragmente ceramice dar i buci de lut cu mult pleav de la unul sau mai muli stlpi n seciune semicirculari (=13 cm), care probabil au aparinut unei construcii ce-l adpostera sau unui paravan din faa acestuia. Cuptorul cu aceeai orientare precum cel de la Micneti, a fost situat fa de acesta la 25 m nord-est, n linie dreapt. Este apropiat de bordeiul 59, spat n 1964, n care se aflau numeroase deeuri ceramice puternic arse i deformate (M. Constantiniu 1969, p. 15). Focria, aproape cilindric (h=50 cm), s-a spat n pmntul viu, cu vatra la - 2,15 m de la nivelul actual de clcare i a fost prevzut cu un pilon central (=44 cm). Gura de alimentare, neprelungit, era n seciune transversal oval (Eadem, p. 16). Grtarul perforat, cu o grosime de 16 cm, s-a pstrat n mic parte. S-a montat pe o plas de nuiele acoperit cu lut amestecat cu paie iar pentru fixarea lui, n pereii marginii s-a realizat o nuire circular (Vl. Zirra, M. Tudor 1954, p. 315, fig. 2-5; I. T. Dragomir 1962, p. 13; V. Palade 2003, p. 84). Camera de ardere a vaselor s-a pstrat pe alocuri pn la nlimea de 64 cm i are pereii ari superficial 6 cm, fapt pentru care s-au frmat (M. Constantiniu 1969a, p. 13 i urm.; Eadem 1969b, p. 16). Inventar, olrie lucrat cu mn i la roat, din past fin i zgrunuroas. Din preajma cuptorului s-a ntregit o oal bitronconic cu marginea arcuit exterior, baza inelar i dou strchini, una cu buza rotunjit i umr carenat, alta cu buza dreapt, datat n sec. III. n umplutura atelierului mai numeroase erau oalele cu marginea evazat i buza rotunjit sau n muchie i borcanele lucrate cu mna avnd n past cioburi sfrmate, un buton de capac, dar i dou fibule cu piciorul ntors pe dedesubt, o brar de bronz i un pinten de fier cu spin (Eadem, p. 18, fig. 2). Ceramica era specific aezrilor geto-dacice din centrul Munteniei. Analogii, s-a comparat cu primul cuptor de la Micneti, din apropiere (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 45, fig. 4), Butnreti (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 497), Poieneti - Mgura Dealul Teilor (R. Vulpe 1953, p. 357). b. Bucureti, Struleti - Micneti, municipiul Bucureti, jud. Ilfov, secolele III-IV, spturi M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1960-1966, cuptor descoperit n 1965. Aezare geto-dacic din zona central a Cmpiei Munteniei situat pe terasa stng a Colentinei, unde, n zona estic a terenului, n apropiere de locuinele 42-43 i 49-50, s-a descoperit un cuptor de ars oale, n partea superioar n plan sub forma unui cerc de pmnt nroit, dublat la 30 cm nord-est de peretele unui canal arcuit pe 60 cm, un co - horn pentru aerisire, nentlnit nc la astfel de cuptoare (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 53-54, fig. 4, nota 11).

Fig. 70. Bucureti, Struleti Micneti. Cuptor de ars ceramica (apud M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, fig. 4). The potters kiln (apud M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, fig. 4).

ncperea de acces la cuptor avea mici dimensiuni (L=2x1,35 m) iar adncimea era la nivelul gurii de foc, n dreptul creia era un prag (Ibidem, p. 56). Camera de foc de form tronconic (h=0,40; =1,50 m), cu stlp central pentru sprijinirea grtarului (=0,50 m) avea gura de foc proiectat n afar (=30; L=20 cm). Platforma grtarului era groas de 30

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cm i strpuns de 18 perforri egale (=6 cm), dispuse n jurul stlpului central pe dou rnduri. Camera de ardere a vaselor (=1,12 cm), cu pereii pstrai pe alocuri cel mult 40 cm, s-a presupus c se astupa n partea superioar cu cioburi, aa cum se procedeaz i astzi la Marginea, n Bucovina (Fl. B. Florescu 1958, p. 38). La baza peretelui de nord-est a camerei de foc, n dreptul peretelui dublu, se aflau trei ferestre mici, dreptunghiulare, una la mijloc mai mare iar de o parte i de alta cte una mai mic. Prin camera de ardere se comunica astfel cu acest horn al cuptorului, care, avea i el la baz, dou perforri care conduceau n canalul de aerisire. Astfel se producea un curent constant n timpul arderii, probabil n prima faz iar cnd se nbuea cuptorul, canalul asigura un tiraj minim. Inventar: pe cuptor era o cni din past fin cenuie i n camera de ardere o oal din past zgrunuroas (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 56, fig. 2/7; 5/10). n groapa cuptorului erau strchini i oale, asemntoare cu cele din L42-43. O strachin s-a i ntregit cu un fragment din L43. Altele au un aspect mai timpuriu specific aezrilor de sec. II-III (Ibidem). Analogii: s-a asociat cu instalaiile tot cu stlp central de la Bucureti - Celu Nou, din sec. III-I a.Hr., precum i la Fundenii Doamnei, din sec. IV, dar i cu Bucureti - Crngai, n focrie cu perete despritor (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54, nota 13), indrilia, cuptorul de la care s-a pstrat cupola (Ibidem, nota 13) sau Trueti - Pe Cuha (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, p. 172-177, fig. 6). Bucureti. Struleti - Micneti, jud. Ilfov, excavations by M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1960-1966. a. Kiln situated at "600m from the two kilns acknowledged at Micneti" (S. Morintz 1972, p. 333). Bucharest, Struleti quarter, Micneti - La Nuci, 3th century, excavations by M. Constantiniu, in 1967. At about 600m of Struleti, in the sector located on the eastern slope of Micneti hill, on the land of the former CAP Otopeni, referred to by the local inhabitants as La Nuci, there was investigated a kiln. The filling of the oval shaped access room, wherefrom the craftsman would manipulate the installation, brought to light not only potshards but also pieces of clay with a lot of chaff from one or several pillars of semicircular cross-section (=13 cm), which probably belonged to a construction that sheltered it or a protection panel in front of it. The kiln had the same orientation as the one of Micneti, and was situated 25m northeast of the same, at a birds flight. It is close to hut 59, excavated in 1964, which contained numerous ceramic debris considerably fired and deformed (M. Constantiniu 1969, p. 15). The fire chamber, almost cylindrical (h=50 cm), was dug out in the virgin soil, with the hearth at -2,15m from the current treading level and has a central pillar (=44 cm). The feeding opening, without extension, had an oval cross-section (Eadem, p. 16). The perforated plate, with the width of 16 cm, was preserved to a little extent. It was mounted on a wattle made of rods covered with clay mixed with straw and for embedding it a circular groove was created on the border of the walls. The vessel firing chamber was preserved here and there, up to the height of 64 cm and has superficially fired walls 6 cm, reason why they broke (M. Constantiniu 1969a, p. 13 et sq.; Eadem 1969b, p. 16). Inventory hand-made and wheel-made pottery made of fine and coarse paste. Around the kiln there was found a fragmented biconical pot that allowed to put it back together. Its border was arched toward the exterior, the base was ring-shaped. There were also found two dishes, out of which one was with a rounded rim and a ridged shoulder, the other with straight rim, dated to the 3rd century. Within the filling of the potters workshop there also existed pots with flared border and rounded rim, or with edged rime, and hand-made jars whose paste contains smashed shards, a lid button, and two fibulae with the underneath turned foot, a bronze bracelet and an iron spur (Eadem, p. 18, fig. 2). The ceramicware was specific to the Geto-Dacian settlements of the central part of eastern Walachia. Analogies it was compared to the first kiln of Micneti, in the neighborhoud (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 45, fig. 4), Butnreti (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 497), Poieneti (R. Vulpe 1953, p. 357). b. Bucureti, quarter Struleti - Micneti, municipiul Bucureti, Ilfov county, 3rd4th centuries secolele III-IV, spturi M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1960-1966, cuptor descoperit n 1965. Geto-Dacian settlement of the central par of the Walachian plain situated on the left terrace of River Colentina, where, in the eastern area, near dwellings 42-43 and 49-50, there was discovered kiln. The upper part hereof was circular in terms of plan, being made of reddened soil, doubled 30 cm to the northeast by the wall of a channel arched over 60 cm, an air intake flue, the first one discovered so far in the case of such kilns (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 53-54, fig. 4, note 11). The room providing access to the kiln was of small dimensions (L=2x1.35 m) and the base thereof was at the same level as the feeding opening, where there was also a threshold (Ibidem, p. 56).

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The fire chamber of conical shape (h=40 cm; =1.50 m), with a central pillar for sustaining the perforated plate (=0.50 m), had the fuel feeding opening protruded to the outside (=30; L=20 cm). The platform of the perforated plate was 30 cm thick and showed 18 perforations of the same size (=6 cm), laid around the central pillar on two rows. The vessel firing chamber (=1.12 cm), with the walls preserved here and there, for at most 40 cm, was assumedly closed up in the upper part with shards, as people do even nowadays at Marginea in Bucovine (Fl. B. Florescu 1958, p. 38). At the base of the northeast wall of the fire chamber, at the level of the double wall, there were three small rectangular windows, the one in the middle slightly larger, while those on the sides were smaller. The fire chamber communicated this way with this kiln flue, which also had at the base two perforations which led to the air intake channel. This is how a constant draft was created during firing, probably in the first phase and then, when the kiln was closed, the channel provided a minimal air intake. Inventory: on the kiln there was a small cup of grayish fine paste and in the firing chamber a pot made of coarse paste (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 56, fig. 2/7; 5/10). In the pit of the kiln there were dishes and pots, similar to those of L42-43. As a matter of fact a dish allowed to be completed with a fragment found in L43. Other dishes have an earlier aspect specific to the 2 nd3rd centuries sites (Ibidem). Analogies: it was associated with the central pillar installations of Bucharest - Celu Nou, dated to the 3rd1st centuries BC, as well as of Fundenii Doamnei, dated to the 4th century, and also of Crngai, which had a median wall in the fire chamber, and with the one of indrilia, the kiln out of which the cupola was preserved (Ibidem, note 13) or the one of Trueti - Pe Cuha (M. Petrescu-Dmbovia 1955, fig. 6). 5. Bucureti - Dmroaia, sec. VI-VII p.Hr., spturi D. V. Rosetti (1939, p. 207-213), publicate n 1959 de S. Morintz, D. V. Rosetti i n 1972 de V. Teodorescu (1972, p. 75-76, 94; Idem, 2009, p. 150 i urm.). S-a descoperit n Piaa de Flori, str. Sf. Ioan Nou, strad aflat pe teritoriul oraului Bucureti, lng biseric.

Fig. 71. Bucureti, Piaa de Flori, str. Sf. Ioan Nou. 1a-b Cuptor de olar, plan i profile; 2 suport de lut pentru vase, sec. VI-VII p.Hr. (apud S. Morintz, D. V. Rosetti 1959, p. 34, pl. XXXIV/3-4; XXXVII/2a-b). The potters kiln, 1a-b plan et profiles 1a-b; 2 clay support for the vessels, 6rd7th centuries (apud S. Morintz, D. V. Rosetti 1959, p. 34, pl. XXXIV/3-4; XXXVII/2a-b).

Cuptor de ars oale trapezoidal n seciune, s-a spat n lut ntr-o groap simpl conic, fr grtar (S. Morintz, D. V. Rosetti 1959, p. 34, pl. XXXIV/3-4; XXXVII/2a-b). De jurul mprejurul vetrei avea cruat o mic treapt - o poli pe care se ordonau vasele, pe dou rnduri, desprite de suluri de lut, pentru a nu fi atinse de flcrile focului (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54; M. Coma 1975, p. 181-182; Eadem 1981, p. 247). Bucureti - Dmroaia, 6rd7th centuries p.Hr., excavations by D. V. Rosetti (1939, p. 207-213), publishing in 1959 by S. Morintz i D. V. Rosetti and in 1972 de V. Teodorescu (1972, p. 75-76, 94; ; Idem, 2009, p. 150 et sq.). There was discovered in the Flower Square, Sf.Ioan Nou str., within the city of Bucharest,near the church (1959, p. 34, pl. XXXIV/3-4; XXXVII/2a-b), a clay support for the vessels.

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The kiln had a trapezoidal cross-section. A simple conical pit was dug out in the clay, without a perforated plate. But, all around the hearth, there was spared a small step a reserved bench on which the vessels would be ordered, on two rows, separated by clay rolls, so to protect them from the flames (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54; M. Coma 1975, p. 181-182; Eadem 1981, p. 247). 6. indrilia, com. Gneasa, jud. Ilfov, cultura Sntana de Mure, cuptorul a fost identificat n 1966. Complet distrus de lucrrile de ndiguire. Aici se afl o aezare din secolele III-IV, n cadrul creia s-a investigat i un cuptor de ars ceramica, specific culturii Sntana de Mure (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54, nota 10), de la care s-a pstrat, n partea superioar a camerei de ars ceramica (Ibidem, nota 13), un capac pentru acoperit deschiderea acesteia (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505, nota 36; M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 127, nota 4). Dup M. Coma, dac partea superioar avea cupol este vorba de un cuptor de ars oale (1985, p. 173). indrilia, Gneasa commune, Ilfov county, Sntana de Mure culture. The kiln was identified in 1966. It was completely destroyed by the dam construction works. Here, there was found a 3rd4th century site, which also contained a kiln specific to the Sntana de Mure culture (M. Constantiniu, P. I. Panait 1968, p. 54, note 10) Out of this kiln the upper part of the cupola was preserved (Ibidem, note 13), a lid used at closing up the vault opening (Gh. Bichir 1966, p. 505, note 36; M. Constantinescu 1978, p. 127, note 4). According to M. Coma, if the upper part had a cupola it means this could be nothing but a kiln (1985, p. 173). Judeul Dmbovia / Dmbovia County 7. Trgovite, Bucani, jud. Dmbovia, sec. IV-V, spturi Luciana Oancea. a-c. Bucani, s-au descoperit trei cuptoare de olari, n apropierea aezrii din secolele IV-V cercetate aici, conform informaiilor date de Luciana Oancea Musc (1976, p. 56-60; M. Coma 1985, p. 173, nota 40). Trgovite, Bucani, Dmbovia co, 4rd-5th centuries, excavations by Luciana Oancea Musc. a-c. Bucani, there were discovered three kilns near the 4th5th century settlement, researched there, according to the information provided by Luciana Oancea (1976, p. 56; M. Coma 1985, p.173, note 40). 8. Mtsaru, la sud-est de satul Pneti, secolele III-IV, spturi Gh. Bichir (2000, p. 40), Em. Popescu. Aezare a culturii Chilia-Militari, din Muntenia, din secolele II-IV, n cadrul creia s-au descoperit i dou cuptoare de ars ceramica (Gh. Bichir, Em. Popescu 1970, p. 271 i urm.). Mtsaru, la sud-est de satul Pneti, 3rd4th centuries, excavations Gh. Bichir, Em. Popescu (1968, p. 271). Judeul Ialomia / Ialomia County 9. Crsanii de Jos - Piscu Crsani, sat n com. Balaciu, jud. Ialomia, sec. II-I a.Hr., spturi ncepute n 1870, 1876 i 1922, sistematice 1923, reluate n 1969, 1973, 1978, 1985, de N. Conovici i colaboratori. Centru meteugresc, situat pe malul drept al Ialomiei, n dava getic din sec. III-I a.Hr. (V. Prvan 1927, p. 173-220; C. Preda 2000, p. 371). Cuptoare cu dou camere. Ateliere n care se modelau cupe cu decor n relief, poate unele aduse de la Popeti, fructiere cu picior i amfore locale cu tampile anepigrafe, realizate dup cele de Thasos i Rhodos, confecionate aici sau n alt centru important, poate la Ceteni (N. Conovici 1979, p. 145). Crsanii de Jos - Piscu Crsani, village within Balaciu commune, Ialomia county, 2nd1st centuries BC, the excavations started in 1870, and continued in 1876 and 1922, systematic excavations were carried out in 1923, and were taken over in 1969, 1973, 1978, 1985, by N. Conovici and his team. Craftsmen center, situated on the right bank of River Ialomia, in the Getic dava dated to the 3rd1st centuries BC. (V. Prvan 1927, p. 173-220; C. Preda 2000, p. 371). Two chambered kilns. Workshop in which there were shaped chalices with ornaments in relief, some of them being possibly brought from Popeti, fruit vessels with a stem and local amphorae, with anepigraph stamps, made following the model of those of Thasos and Rhodos. These local amphorae were either made on the spot, or in another important center, possibly at Ceteni (N. Conovici 1979, p. 145). 10. Rduleti, jud. Ialomia, secolele II-III p.Hr., spturi Radu Vulpe, 1931. a-d. n staiune s-au descoperit patru cuptoare de ars ceramica.

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Fig. 72. Rduleti. Cuptor de ars oale geto-dacic, secolele II-III p.Hr. Spturi R. Vulpe, reconstituire M. Coma (apud 1985, fig. 3). Geto-Dacian potters kiln, 2nd3rd centuries AD. Excavations by R. Vulpe, reconstruction by M. Coma (apud 1985, fig. 3).

Cuptor atribuit geto-dacilor (aprox.=1,43 m) (R. Vulpe 1931, p. 156-158; M. Coma 1985, p. 172, fig. 3). Camera de ardere a combustibilului avea form oval i perete median pentru sprijinirea grtarului, care se oprea puin naintea gurii de alimentare. Camera de ardere a vaselor, s-a conservat pe o nlime de cel mult 20 cm, avea pereii lutuii, de 22 cm Inventarul ceramic specific perioadei geto-dacilor, a permis datarea lor n secolele II-III p.Hr. (R. Vulpe 1931, p. 157-158, fig. 2-4). Rduleti, Ialomia county, 2nd3rd centuries AD, excavations by Radu Vulpe, 1931. In the settlement there were discovered four kilns for firing ceramic ware, out of which only one provided any information (R. Vulpe 1931, p. 156-158; M. Coma 1985, p. 172, fig. 3). a-d. Four kilns were discovered in the settlement. Kiln assigned to the Geto-Dacians (approx.=1.43 m) (R. Vulpe 1931, p. 156-158; M. Coma 1985, p. 172, fig. 3). The fuel firing chamber was of oval shape and had a median wall for sustaining the perforated plate, which stopped slightly in front of the fuel feeding opening. The vessel firing chamber was conserved on a height of at most 20 cm, its walls were clayed, and were of 22 cm The potters workshop and the ceramic inventory specific to the Geto-Dacian period allowed its dating to the 2nd3rd centuries AD (R. Vulpe 1931, p. 157-158, fig. 2-4). Judeul Clrai / Clrai county 11. Independena - Vatra satului, com. n jud. Clrai, secolele III-IV, semnalat de Bucur Mitrea i Nicolae Anghelescu Cuptor cu dou camere suprapuse. Focria avea stlp central (B. Mitrea, N. Anghelescu 1962, p. 612; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60 Idem 1976, p. 505; M. Coma 1985, p. 173; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69 i urm.; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51). Independena - Vatra satului, com. n jud. Clrai, the 3nd4rd centuries AD, specified by Bucur Mitrea and Nicolae Anghelescu. The kiln had two overlapped chambers. The fire chamber of conical shape (B. Mitrea, N. Anghelescu 1962, p. 612; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69 et sq.; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60 Idem 1976, p. 505; M. Coma 1985, p. 173; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51). 12. Ileana - Podari, jud. Clrai, investigaiile de teren D. V. Rosetti, menionat n 1959 de Vl. Zirra. Cuptor cu dou camere suprapuse, cu plan circular specific perioadei post romane, cnd se continu folosirea acestor construcii (Vl. Zirra 1959, p. 501) Focria avea stlp central sub platforma grtarului (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69 i urm.; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60; Idem 1976, p. 505; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51).

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Ileana - Podari, Clrai county, field investigations carried out by D. V. Rosetti, specified in 1959 by Vl. Zirra. The kiln had two overlapped chambers, with a circular plan specific for the post-Roman period, when these constructions continued to be used (Vl. Zirra 1959, p. 501) The fire chamber had a central pillar under the platform of the perforated plate (O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 69.; Gh. Bichir 1973a, p. 60; Idem 1976, p. 505; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51). Judeul Giurgiu / Giurgiu county 13. Popeti - Nucet, com. Mihileti, jud. Giurgiu, sec. II-I a.Hr.-I p.Hr., cercetri R. Vulpe. Centru meteugresc i comercial (V. Leahu 1963, p. 34). Olria este aceea obinuit epocii clasice geto-dacice. Principalul centru de producie al cupelor deliene sau megariene elenistice, cum indic imitaiile descoperite (R. Vulpe 1955, p. 241; Al. Vulpe 2000, p. 353) Tot aici funciona i un centru de producere a amforelor imitaii dup cele de Rhodos sau de Kios, unele cu tampile anepigrafe care imitau pe cele originale greceti (Ibidem, p. 353). Popeti - Nucet, Mihileti commune, Giurgiu county, 2nd1st centuries BC 1st century AD, R. Vulpe. Craft and trade center (V. Leahu 1963, p. 34). The ceramicware is the one specific to the classical GetoDacian period. The main production center of local chalices imitating the Greek ones created in Delos or Megara (R. Vulpe 1955, p. 241; Al. Vulpe 2000, p. 353). There also existed a center where there were created amphorae imitating those of Rhodos and Kios, some of them with anepigraph stamps which imitated the Greek originals (Ibidem, p. 353). 14. Adunaii Copceni - La Porcrie, sat i com., jud. Giurgiu, secolele III-IV, spturi arheologice Vasile Barbu, 1988. Pe teritoriul comunei Adunaii - Copceni, n satul cu acelai nume, pe terasa nalt din dreapta rului Arge, n punctul La Porcrie, n cadrul unei locuiri Sntana de Mure s-a investigat un cuptor de ars ceramica, aflat n preajma unei aezri (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 231, fig. 1-3)

Fig. 73. Adunaii Copceni - Porcrie. Cuptor de ars oale, secolul al IV-lea (V. Barbu 1999-2000, fig. 1-2). Potters kiln, 4th century AD (V. Barbu 1999-2000, fig. 1-2).

a. Cuptorul prevzut cu dou camere suprapuse, se afla la 1500 m vest de oseaua Bucureti Giurgiu, pe terasa nalt din dreapta rului Arge, i era distrus parial ca urmare a ruperii malului drept abrupt, nalt aici de 6-7 m. Din el s-a conservat mai mult de jumtate (C. Schuster 2007, p. 43-44, pl. I/4). Focria, camera de ardere a combustibilului s-a spat n cea mai mare parte n pmntul viu i era aproape cilindric, interior mai mic (=1,18 m), dect exterior (=1,50-1,60 m). Era prevzut cu stlp central cilindric (=40; h=44 cm), cu o ngroare n partea inferioar, pentru susinerea plcii grtarului. Camera de ardere a vaselor era la fel cilindric spre baz (=1,05-1,10 m) i tronconic n partea superioar (h=1,30 m), dar depea nivelul antic de clcare (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 231, fig. 3). V. Barbu crede c "fiind partea cea mai friabil din toate componentele unui cuptor de ars ceramica, ea era refcut foarte des (Ibidem, p. 232, fig. 3), refacere susinut i de O. Floca, t. Ferenczi i L. Mrghitan (1970, p. 41-42) sau de Gh. Bichir (1966, p. 492-495, fig. 9). Grtarul n ultima parte de folosire a cuptorului era "portant", se sprijinea de pilon i pe bordura de 5-8 cm, spat deasupra focarului n pmntul crud. i bordura avea la distane neregulate mici anuri. Dup

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autorul cercetrilor cupola era demontat n urma realizrii unei arje. Se vd unele adugiri de lipituri cu pmnt amestecat cu paie i pleav, spre partea de formare a bolii, de la un nivel diferit de cel iniial. Lipiturile pstrate arat trei straturi succesive de reparaii i adugiri, deci cuptorul s-a ntrebuinat mai mult vreme, ct i faptul c n unele etape de ntreinere i consolidare a suferit i mici modificri.

Fig. 74. Adunaii Copceni - Porcrie. Cuptor de ars oale (V. Barbu 1999-2000, fig. 3). Potters kiln, 4th century AD (V. Barbu 19992000, fig. 3).

Adunaii Copceni - La Porcrie, village and commune, Giurgiu county, 3rd4th centuries, excavations by Vasile Barbu, in 1988. The works for the Canal Danube - Bucharest, made on the right bank of River Arge, laid to the discovery of several kilns. Wells existed around these kilns although they were rather close to the waters. They were placed near a river in order to allow the processing of the ceramic paste, and also due to the possibility of extinguishing a fire, if necessary (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 231, note 2). a. The high kiln, situated west of the village (Ibidem, p. 231; C. Schuster 2007, p. 43-44, pl. I/4). The northern part was not preserved as it was close to the right bank of River Arge, and as such collapsed (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 231-232, fig. 1-3). The fire chamber, almost cylindrical (h=1,18 m and outside =1,50-1,60 m), was dug out in the virgin soil, with the hearth at 0,44 m from the current treading level and has a central pillar (=40; h=44 cm), which sustained the perforated plate was hour glass shaped, being formed of cone trunks dug in the soil. The one toward the perforated plate shoed traces of successive daubing, which indicates that at least in the last phase of existence of the kiln the central pillar and the perforated plate were not united (Ibidem, p. 232, fig. 3). The feeding opening was situated on the northeast side of the fire chamber (L=70; l=82 and 52-44 cm). The vessel firing chamber had an almost cylindrical shape (=1,05-1,10 m), the walls were preserved only two sides, for a height of about 0,50-0,70m. The three layers of daub were made of clay mixed with straw and chaff, visible even after repeated firings, they were successively applied, as indicated by the joining of the vertical walls with the firing platform (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 231, fig. 3).

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The perforated platform: above it, at 15 cm. It was also "sustainable" but its borders were not supported any more on the sides, but were stuck on both sides to the walls of the kiln itself. The perforations were laid in four concentric circles, on the side there were 12 and in the middle four. 15. Mironeti - Giurgiu, jud. Giurgiu, secolul al IV-lea, cercetri Vasile Barbu, 1988. a. Cuptor nr. 1, era situat la est de sat, lng sediul fostului CAP Mironeti, de tip nalt (=1,40-1,50; h=140 m, 60+15+60), partea de nord a disprut prin cderea malului. A fost suprapus de o vatr specific culturii Dridu (Ibidem, fig. 10-11). Focria (=1,20-140/1,50 m), era prevzut cu stlp central, rezervat din pmntul crud, n form de clepsidr, dou trunchiuri de con cu bazele mari la extremiti (l=0,42; h=0,60 m), pentru susinerea plcii grtarului. S-a spat n mare parte n pmntul viu, era aproape cilindric. Lipiturile pstrate arat trei straturi succesive de reparaii i adugiri, deci cuptorul s-a ntrebuinat mai mult vreme. La baza bolii s-a adugat lut amestecat cu paie i pleav pe partea superioar a pereilor (Ibidem, fig. 12/5 i 16).

Fig. 75. Mironeti - Giurgiu. Cuptor de ars oale, secolul al IV-lea (V. Barbu 1999-2000, fig. 10-11, 13-14). Potters kiln, 4th century AD (V. Barbu 1999-2000, fig. 10-11, 13-14).

Lucrrile pentru Canalul Dunre - Bucureti, realizate pe malul drept al Argeului, au dus la descoperirea i a cuptorului de pe terasa nalt din dreapta rului Arge, n cadrul unei locuiri Sntana de Mure (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 233; fig. 3, 14-16). Camera de ardere a vaselor era aproape cilindric, mai mare cu 0,30-0,40 m dect focarul, doar partea superioar depea nivelul antic de clcare (Ibidem, p. 233, fig. 12/9-13). Gura cuptorului i ncperea de alimentare, plasate pe latura de nord-est a focarului, au fost distruse. Inventar. Ceramica se mparte n trei categorii, cenuie din past fin, grosier i modelat cu mna. Platforma perforat: era "portant" i se sprijinea pe pilonul central din focar, avea marginile lipite pe ambele fee de pereii cuptorului. Perforrile pentru tiraj au fost dispuse n patru cercuri concentrice, cel de pe marginea avea 12, iar cel mai mic patru (Ibidem, fig. 12/1; 14). Perforrile erau astupate cu dopuri

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tronconice (L=15,5 cm), teite la partea superioar, realizate din pmnt amestecat cu paie i pleav (Ibidem, p. 234, fig. 15). Inventarul ceramic aflat n umplutura rmas a cuptorului, cuprindea la fel ceramica modelat la roat cenuie din past fin i din past mai grosier i ceramica lucrat cu mna. Amenajri, surse de ap. n preajma cuptoarelor erau amenajate puuri, dei erau n apropierea apelor. Amplasarea pe marginea unei ape se fcea pentru prelucrarea pastei ceramice, dar i pentru a stinge un eventual incendiu (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 231, nota 2). Particulariti. Platforma portant, detaat de pereii camerei de ardere i de focar, avea perforrile distribuite n patru cercuri concentrice. Prezena dopurilor care permiteau opturarea perforrilor i abinerea unor temperaturi diferite n camera de ardere. b. Cuptoare cu plan circular, n prima camer cu stlp central (Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 51), unul menionat de V. Barbu (1999-2000, p. 233). Mironeti - Giurgiu, jud. Giurgiu, 4th century, cercetri Vasile Barbu. The northern part was not preserved as it was close to the right bank of River Arge, and as such collapsed (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 233, fig. 10-11). a. The high kiln, situated east of the village (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 233-234; C. Schuster 2007, p. 43-44). The fire chamber was of hemispheric shape, it was 0,30-0,40 m larger than the vessel firing chamber (h=0,65 m; =1,20 - 140/150m).

Fig. 76. Mironeti - Giurgiu. Cuptor de ars oale, secolul al IV-lea (V. Barbu 1999-2000, fig. 12). Potters kiln, 4rd century AD (V. Barbu 1999-2000, fig. 12).

The vessel firing chamber had an almost cylindrical shape (=1.20; h=0,65 m), the walls were preserved only two sides, for a height of about 0,50-0,70m and has a central pillar, which sustained the perforated plate was hour glass shaped, being formed of cone trunks dug in the soil (=40; h=44 cm). The three layers of daub were made of clay mixed with straw and chaff, visible even after repeated firings, they were successively applied, as indicated by the joining of the vertical walls with the firing platform (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 231, fig. 12/9; 13). The perforated platform: above it, at 10-20 cm, there was the hearth of a Dridu dwelling. It was also "sustainable" but its borders were not supported any more on the sides, but were stuck on both sides to the walls of the kiln itself. The perforations were laid in four concentric circles, on the side there were 12 and in the middle four. Two of the rows of perforations were filled with cylindrical stoppers (L=0,155; =0,42-0,45 m), beveled in the upper part and narrowed at the other, made of earth mixed with straw and chaff. Others though were discovered in the area (Ibidem, p. 234, fig. 12/1; 14-15). The feeding opening and the kiln access room were destroyed. Inventory: hand made ceramic, slightly coarse ceramic and ceramic of fine paste. The kilns was located on its surface, on a gentle slope in the vicinity of a water source (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 231, nota 2). Peculiarities: the perforated plate "sustainable" but its borders were not supported any more on the sides, the perforations were laid in four concentric circles and perforations filled with cylindrical stoppers. b. The kiln, although partly destroyed (V. Barbu 1999-2000, p. 233).

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Judeul Olt / Olt county 16. Romula - Reca, com. Dobrosloveni, jud. Olt, datare a doua jumtate a secolului II i n prima jumtate a secolului III, spturi D. Tudor, Gh. Popilian i colaboratori.

Fig. 77. Romula - Reca. Plan (apud D. Tudor, 1996, fig. p. 511).

Ora roman n Dacia, mare centru de olrie din timpul stpnirii romane (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 61). S-a considerat a fi fost "cel mai mare ora din Dacia roman de la sud de Carpai. Aici s-a dezvoltat un important centru de producie meteugreasc situat n partea de nord a oraului, extra muros, n apropierea surselor de lut bun, ap i a unor ntinse pduri (D. Tudor 1976, p. 510). Tot aici s-au identificat i crmidrii romane, n prezent mult deteriorate (Idem, 1968, p. 95; Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 61; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 77, nota 86, tabel sinoptic nr. 24). apte cuptoare de ars ceramica - ordonate n grupuri de cte dou sau patru - construite n tehnica roman, erau probabil dirijate de meteri specializai, favoriznd astfel formarea produciei de serie (Gh. Popilian 1976, p. 222 i urm.). La Reca, centrul de olrie din timpul stpnirii romane, prin dispunerea cuptoarelor n grupuri, dou patru, mai rar mai multe, "bateria", se creau condiiile pentru realizarea ceramicii n serie (1984, p. 46). Romula - Reca, Dobrosloveni commune, Olt county, dated to the second half of the 2nd century and the first half of the 3rd, excavations carried out by D. Tudor, Gh. Popilian, and their team. Roman city in Dacia, large pottery center dated to the Roman occupation (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 61). It was considered as "the largest town in Roman Dacia south the Carpathians, an important economic, military, administrative center", which became the capital of Lower Dacia and then of Dacia Malvensis. During the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the following century, Romula - Reca, acknowledged a

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wide economic, political and cultural development and became "one of the most flourishing craftsmens centre in the whole Roman province of Dacia" (Gh. Popilian 1984, p. 46).

Fig. 78. Romula - Reca. Tipare pentru statuete: Diana 1a; Bacchus (apud, Gh. Popilian 1984, fig. 2). Mold for statuettes: of Diana 1a; of Bacchus (apud Gh. Popilian 1984, fig. 2).

It was here that an important center of craft work was developed in the north part of the town, extra muros, close to the sources of good clay, water and wide forests (D. Tudor 1976, p. 510). It was also here that Roman bricks were also identified, although much deteriorated at present (Idem 1968, p. 95; Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 61; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 77, note 86, synoptic table no. 24). Seven kilns - ordered in groups of two or four built in the Roman technique, were probably coordinated by specialized craftsmen favoring serial production (Gh. Popilian 1976, p. 222 and the foll.). At Reca, the pottery center dated to the Roman occupation, as the location of the kilns in groups of twofour, more rarely a higher number, indicate, there were created the conditions for serial production of the ceramicware (1984, p. 46). 17. Sucidava - Celeiu, sat n raza oraului Corabia, astzi desfiinat, jud. Olt, spturi V. Christescu, D. Tudor i colaboratori. La Sucidava, veche aezare geto-dacic, apoi centru militar roman i cetate romano-bizantin situat pe terasa inferioar a Dunrii, au fost descoperite ase cuptoare pentru ars ceramica, cinci de form aproximativ cilindric sau tronconic i unul rectangular (D. Tudor 1966; Gh. Petre 1968, p. 147; O. Toropu, C. Ttulea 1987, p. 115). a. Cuptor nr. 1, secolele II-III p.Hr. Focria, spat n pmnt din camera de acces, avea central un pilon pentru sprijinirea platformei grtarului i se continua cu gura de alimentare. Din bolta camerei de ardere s-a pstrat o parte. b. Atelierul de olar, din secolul al III-lea p.Hr., a fost protejat de ploi printr-un acoperi din igle mari, a fost prevzut cu un mic cuptor de ars oale (=1,25 m), care se compunea din dou camere etajate. S-a spat n pmnt din camera de acces. Probabil acesta a fost menionat ntre analogii (V. Christescu 1929, p. 76; D. Tudor 1965, p. 44-45; Idem 1966; Gh. I. Petre 1968, p. 147; O. Floca, t. Ferenczi, L. Mrghitan 1970, p. 93, nota 122, tabel sinoptic nr. 23). Camera de foc avea central tot un pilon iar camera de ardere a vaselor a fost prevzut cu bolt. c. Cuptor nr. 3, din secolul al VI-lea, s-a spat n pmnt din camera de acces. Focria avea central tot un pilon. d. Cuptorul 4, la fel s-a spat n pmnt din camera de acces, dar platforma grtarului se sprijinea pe trei pilatri realizai din crmizi de chirpici, lipii de pereii camerei de foc cu rostul de a susine grtarul. e. Cuptor nr. 5, de form tronconic, datat n secolul al IV-lea, s-a spat la fel din camera de alimentare. Dup sparea gropii focriei n pmnt, pereii acesteia s-au zidit cu piatr, crmizi i igle ntregi ori fragmentare, legate cu lut.

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Fig. 79. Sucidava - Celeiu, cuptoare de ars ceramica 1-2. Legenda: igle, crmizi, lipitur de lut galben, piatr (apud O. Toropu, C. Ttulea 1987, fig. 29 i 11). Kilns 1-2. Key: tile-s, bricks, yellow daub, stone (apud O. Toropu, C. Ttulea 1987, fig. 29 and 11).

ncperea de alimentare, de form pentagonal, s-a realizat din crmizi i are profil de "cas" cu acoperiul n dou ape. Camerele de foc i de ardere au fost lutuite interior, fr a avea o platform i un sistem de susinere. n lipsa lor, pe vatra camerei de foc au fost aezate vertical olane ntregi iar deasupra lor crmizi, pe care se stivuiau vasele destinate arderii (O. Toropu, C. Ttulea 1987, p. 115, fig. 29). f. Cuptor nr. 6, de form dreptunghiular, destinat mai ales pentru sau doar pentru arderea materialelor de construcie, crmizi, igle, a fost realizat din crmid, avnd pilonii din interior legai ntre ei prin arcade zidite (Ibidem). Inventar. Aici se produceau, n a doua jumtate a secolului al II-lea p. Hr., ceramic de lux - terra sigillata, cum indic tiparul descoperit n aezarea civil, dup prototipuri provenite din atelierele de la Lezoux, din Galia Central, iar n secolele II-III i opaie - lucernae, cum indic tiparele de lut, unele cu inscripii care ar putea indica numele productorilor (Ibidem, p. 117-118, fig. 30/3; 31/1). Din past roie glbuie au fost modelate, cnie cu o toart, la suprafa cu un strat de vopsea roie rar maronie, cupepahare, strchini, capace i urcioare cu una sau dou toarte; din argil alb, cnie i oale cu toarte, dar i creuzete; iar din past zgrunuroas cenuie, castroane. Rar s-au ornat cu linii incizate drepte, paralele, caneluri. n secolul al IV-lea s-au executat local opaie aproximativ cilindrice, lucrate din past cenuie negricioas sau din past roie crmizie, lipsite de decor (Ibidem, fig. 32). Olarii din secolele IV-VI lucrau la roata rapid vase din past roie carmizie, ars oxidant, fin, din care s-au lucrat, farfurii, strchini, cni, cni-urcioare, oale fr sau cu toarte, urcioare cu o toart i capace de vase; din past de aspect zgrunuros, cenuiu-negricioas, oale fr sau cu o toart, cni sau urcioare cu toart, cu acelai decor simplu (Ibidem, fig. 33/1, 3-7, 9-10, 13, 18-20). Pe unele dintre vasele de lut ars

se afl inscripii graffiti, incizate cu un vrf ascuit, probabil cu numele proprietarilor, precum [A]NTONIN[VS] i MA[RCVS ?]. Se imitau produsele fine aduse din atelierele unor olari vestii din Apus, ca Armenius, Cassius, Fortis, Octavius, Sextus, Vettus i alii (Ibidem, fig. 24), altele erau importuri (M. Lange 1976; F. Laubenheimer 1985). Materiale de construcie. La Sucidava s-a dezvoltat producia de olane, crmizi, igle, unele de dimensiuni impresionante: 65x65x8 i 52x42x6 cm. Pentru comercializare se realizau n ateliere mari,
dar i n gospodrii, cum sugereaz prezena rar a tampilelor cu numele productorilor imprimate pe ele. Unele se transportau peste Dunre, n oraul Oescus, pentru realizarea construciilor civile i militare. Producia de igle i crmizi a fost mult mai mare n secolele IV-V p.Hr., cnd garnizoanele ce au trecut prin cetate aveau grij s le nsemne cu numele lor (Ibidem, fig. 8).

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Alte produse: greuti de lut pentru rzboiul de esut vertical sau pentru plase de pescuit, fusaiole, baze sau fusuri de colonete, reliefuri, figurine antropomorfe (Ibidem, p. 121, fig. 34/2-4; 35/2-6; 40/2). Datare. O moned, gsit n camera de foc, dateaz cuptorul n anii 238-244 p.Hr.

Fig. 80. Sucidava - Celeiu, Atelier de ars ceramica, reconstituire. The pottery baking workshop, reconstruction.

Sucidava - Celeiu, village within the city of Corabia, which does not exist any more nowadays, Olt co., excavations by V. Christescu, D. Tudor and collaborators. In Sucidava, old Geto-Dacian site, then Roman military centre and Roman Byzantine fortress situated on the lower terrace of the Danube, there were discovered six kilns, five of them of cylindrical or conical shape and a rectangular one (D. Tudor 1966; Gh. I. Petre 1968, p. 147; O. Toropu, C. Ttulea 1987, p. 115). a. Kiln no. 1, 2nd3rd centuries AD The fire chamber, hollowed out in the ground from the access chamber, had a central pillar for sustaining the platform of the perforated plate and continued with the feeding opening. The vault of the firing chamber was preserved as half. b. The potters workshop no. 2, dated to the 3rd century AD, was protected from rain waters by a roof made of large tiles, and had a small kiln consisting in two superimposed chambers. It was dug in the earth from the access chamber. The fire chamber had a central pillar and the pot firing chamber was vaulted. c. Kiln no. 3, dated to the 4th century, was dug out in the ground from the access chamber. The fire chamber also had a central pillar. d. Kiln no. 4 was also dug into the ground from the access chamber, but the platform of the perforated plate was sustained by three pilasters made of adobe bricks, bound to the walls of the fire chamber, in order to sustain the perforated plate. e. Kiln no. 5, dated to the 4th century, was also dug from the feeding chamber. After the pit of the fire chamber was dug in the ground, its walls being lined with whole or fragmentary, clay bound stones, bricks and tile. The fire opening, of pentagonal shape, was made of bricks too and had a "house" profile, by its two slope-roof. The fire and firing chambers were lined with clay inside but had neither platform nor sustaining system. In their absence, on the hearth of the fire chamber there were laid vertically whole pipes and above them bricks on which the vessels to be baked were piled up (O. Toropu, C. Ttulea 1987, p. 115, fig. 29). f. Kiln no. 6, of rectangular shape, especially meant for or only for the firing of construction materials, bricks, tiles, it was made of bricks, with interior pillars connected between them by walled-up arcades (Ibidem).

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The potters workshop. It was here that during the second half of the 2nd century there were produced luxury ceramic ware items - terra sigillata, as indicated by the mould found in the lay settlement, according to prototypes resulting from workshops of Lezoux, Central Gallia, and during the 2nd3rd centuries also lanterns - lucernae, as shown by the clay moulds, some with inscriptions that might indicate the name of the producers (Ibidem, p. 117-118, fig. 30/3; 31/1). The yellowish reddish paste was used to shape small mugs with a handle, covered with a layer of red or rarely brownish paint, cupsbeakers, dishes, lids and pitchers with one or two handles; the white clay was used for small cups and pots with handles but also for crucibles; the grayish coarse paste was used for bowls. It was only rarely that the ceramic ware was decorated with straight parallel incised lines or grooves. In the 4th century, there were locally made approximately cylindrical lanterns, made of blackish grayish paste or of brickred paste, without ornamentation (Ibidem, fig. 32). The 4th5th century potters made with the fast wheel vessels of brick-red fine paste, fired in oxidizing atmosphere, out of which plates, dishes, mugs, pitchers/mugs, pots with or without handles, pitchers with one handle and vessel lids; of grayish blackish coarse paste, pots without or with one handle, mugs or pitchers with one handle, with the same simple ornamentation (Ibidem, fig. 33/1, 3-7, 9-10, 13, 18-20). On some of the vessels of fired clay there are inscriptions graffiti, incised after firing with a sharp point, probably with the names of the owners, such as [A]NTONIN[VS] and MA[RCVS ?]. There were imitated the fine products brought from the workshops of famous Occidental potters such as Armenius, Cassius, Fortis, Octavius, Sextus, Vettus and others (Ibidem, fig. 24), others were imported from the Greek (M. Lange 1976). Construction materials. At Sucidava there was developed the production of pipes, bricks, tiles, some of impressive dimensions: 65x65x8 i 52x42x6 cm. Those for trading were made in large workshops, but also in households, as indicated by the rare presence of the stamps with the name of the producers impressed thereunto. Some were transported across the Danube, in the city of Oescus, in order to make the civilian and military constructions. The production of tiles and bricks was much higher during the 4 th 5th centuries AD, when the garrisons that passed in the fortress took care to mark them with their names (Ibidem, fig. 8). Other products: clay weights for the vertical loom or for fishing nets, whorls, bases or shafts of columnettes, reliefs, anthropomorphic figurines (Ibidem, p. 121, fig. 34/2-4; 35/2-6; 40/2). Dating. A coin, found in the fire chamber, dates the kiln to the years 238-244 AD (fig. 3). 18. Slveni - Castrul roman, com. Gostav, jud. Olt, 250-251 p.Hr. - sfritul secolului III p.Hr., spturi D. Tudor, Gh. Popilian i colaboratori, 19621969 (1971, p. 627 i urm.; Idem, 1976, passim). Aezarea civil i roman situat pe Limes Alutanus. n colul de nord-est al thermelor i al castrului de la Slveni, care, dup D. Tudor, era un avanpost al Romulei (1968, p. 309), s-au descoperit patru cuptoare de tip nalt, din care dou erau conservate mai bine (1976, p. 546; Gh. Popilian 1971, p. 627 i urm., fig. 5, 7; Idem, 1976, passim; Gh. I. Petre 1968, p. 147; V. Lungu et alii 1970, p. 21; Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 61; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 45). a. Cuptor nr. 1, distrus. b. Cuptor nr. 2, dei n parte era distrus, s-a construit ca i ultimul, dar cu pilonul central din carmizi (40x28x6 cm). Avea vatra focarului ars puternic (=1,50 m). c. Cuptorul nr. 3, precum i al doilea, au fost distruse de gropi moderne. Focarul avea vatra pavat cu pietre de ru, de mici dimensiuni, peste care s-a aplicat un strat de lutuial. d. Cuptorul nr. 4 s-a pstrat mai bine, n raport cu altele din acest centru de olrie din timpul stpnirii romane. Camera de foc (=2 m; h=56 cm), spat n panta malului Olt, n pmnt sntos, era prevzut cu pilon central de lut (=40 cm) i s-a finisat cu un strat de lut (5-28 cm). Praefurnium-ul pentru alimentarea cu diferii combustibili, nu avea dimensiuni prea mari (h=65; h=50 cm). Grtarul (=1,35 m; h=28 cm), susinut de un pilon, avea 14 perforri (=13-14 cm) dispuse n dou cercuri concentrice. Camera de ardere a ceramicii s-a pstrat pe o nlime de 1 m. Inventar. Ceramica din zona cuptoarelor s-a modelat din past la pipit fin i zgrunuroas i s-a ars cenuiu sau rou. Din ceramica roie s-a menionat o parte dintr-o cup, dar i cteva pri de figurine de lut (Gh. Popilian 1971, p. 636, fig. 7/2; 8/1-3). Datare. Cuptoarele au funcionat dup folosirea bilor. Datorit faptului c amplasarea cuptorului nr. 3 a dus la distrugerea canalului colector, s-a presupus c olarii i-au desfurat activitatea dup prsirea

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castrului, cnd thermele nceteaz s mai funcioneze, n urma atacului goilor din iarna anului 249-250. Ei ajungnd pn la Augusta, distrugnd Novae, Nicopolis ad Istrum, Oescus (Ibidem, p. 634).

Fig. 81. Slveni - Castrul roman. Profil i plan cuptor nr. 2, sec. II-III (apud D. Tudor 1968, fig. 5). Profile and plan of potters kiln no. 2, 2rd-3th centuries (apud D. Tudor 1968, fig. 5).

Cum a precizat D. Tudor a fost prsit n urma unor atacuri serioase (1970, p. 67 i urm.). Dup aceast dat viaa a continuat n aezarea civil. Data prsirii cuptoarelor trebuie s fi fost la sfritul secolului al III-lea (Gh. Popilian 1971, p. 634). Analogii: Sucidava.

Fig. 82. Slveni - Castrul roman. Ceramica descoperit n zona cuptoarelor (apud D. Tudor 1968, fig. 7). Ceramic ware discovered in the area of the potters kiln (apud D. Tudor 1968, fig. 7).

Slveni The Roman castrum, com. Gostav, Olt county, 250-251 AD end of the 3rd century AD, excavations by D. Tudor, Gh. Popilian and collaborators, 1962 1969 (1971, p. 627 sq.; Idem, 1976, passim). This lay and Roman settlement is situated on Limes Alutanus. In the northeast corner of the thermae and of the castrum of Slveni, which according to D. Tudor, was an outpost of Romula - Reca (1968, p. 309), there were discovered four high kilns two of them being better preserved (D. Tudor 1976, p. 546; Gh. Popilian 1971, p. 627 sq., fig. 5, 7; Idem, 1976, passim; Gh. I. Petre 1968, p. 147, V. Lungu et alii 1970, p. 21; Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 61; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 45). a. Kiln no. 1, destroyed. b. Kiln no. 2, although partly destroyed, had a structure similar to the one of the last kiln, although its central pillar was made of bricks (40x28x6 cm). The hearth of the fire chamber was strongly fired (=1,50 m). c. Kiln no. 3, like the second one, was destroyed by modern pits. The fire chamber had the hearth paved with small river stones, which were covered with a layer of daub. d. Kiln no. 4, was better preserved in comparison to the others of this pottery centre dated to the Roman occupation.

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The fire chamber (=2 m; h=56 cm), excavated in the slope of the bank of River Olt, in healthy ground, was equipped with a clay central pillar (=40 cm) and was finished with a layer of clay (5-28 cm). The praefurnium for the feeding with various fuels, was of average dimensions (h=65; h=50 cm). The perforated plate (=1,35 m; h=28 cm), sustained by a pillar, had 14 holes (=13-14 cm) disposed in two concentric circles. The pottery firing chamber was preserved for the height of 1 m. The potters workshop. The pottery in the kiln area was modeled of fine and coarse paste and was grayish or red fired. The red ceramic ware includes a part of a chalice, but also several parts of clay figurines (Gh. Popilian 1971, p. 636, fig. 7/2; 8/1-3). Dating. The four kilns functioned after the period when the baths were used. Due to the fact that the position of kiln 3 led to the destruction of the collecting pipe, it was supposed the potters of Slveni carried out their activity after the castrum was left, when the thermae of Slveni stopped functioning, following the Goths attack in the winter of year 249-250, when they reached Augusta, destroying Novae, Nicopolis ad Istrum, Oescus (Ibidem, p. 634). As pointed out by D. Tudor the therma was left following serious attacks (1970, p. 67 sq.). After this moment, life in the lay settlement continued its sequence. The date when the kilns were left must be placed sometimes at the end of the 3rd century (Ibidem, p. 634). Analogies: Sucidava. Judeul Vlcea / Vlcea county 19. Buridava dacic i roman, situat la vest de Ocnia, com. Ocnia, localitate component a municipiului Rm. Vlcea, jud. Vlcea, spturi coordonate de D. Tudor 1965, D. Berciu 1981, P. Bardau, Gh. Bichir (1983, p. 336 i urm.; Idem 1989, p. 45 i urm).

Fig. 83. Buridava - Ocnia. Cuptor de olari, sec. III (apud Gh. I. Petre 1968, fig. 12). Potters kiln, 3th century (apud Gh. I. Petre 1968, fig. 1-2).

Fig. 84. Buridava - Ocnia. Cuptor de olrie (apud Gh. I. Petre 1968, fig. 1, 6). The potters kiln (apud Gh. I. Petre 1968, fig. 1, 6).

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Fig. 85. Buridava - Ocnia. 1 Cuie descoperit n aezarea civil roman; 2-6 vase din cuptor (apud Gh. I. Petre 1968, fig. 2/1-6). 1Primitive lamp discovered in the area of Roman civil settlement; 26 ceramic with the potters kiln.

Fig. 86. Buridava - Ocnia. Vase din cuptor, prima jumtate a sec. III (apud Gh. Petre 1968, fig. 3). Ceramic with the potters kiln, 3th centuries (apud Gh. Petre 1968, fig. 3).

Aici, n vremea regelui Thiamarcus, funciona centrul unei formaiuni politice, cu mare rol economic, cultural, spiritual i militar din Subcarpaii Olteniei care a intrat n statul lui Decebal (Ibidem). a. Cuptor nr. 1, geto-dacic, Latne, menionat de Gh. Iordache (1996, p. 33, 45).

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b. Cuptor nr. 2 de olrit descoperit ntmpltor n perimetrul vechii aezri, datat n timpul stpnirii romane, prima jumtate a secolului III p.Hr. (fig. 83-84), prin spturile de salvare ntreprinse de Gh. I. Petre (1968, p. 147 i urm., fig. 1-5). Cuptorul n plan circular, aflat n perimetrul vechii aezri, a fost deranjat de anul unei conducte. Cuptorul s-a prbuit din antichitate n timpul arderii unei arje, dup noi probabil pilonul nu a fost suficient de rezistent. S-a folosit att pentru arderea ceramicii dacice ct i a celei romane (Ibidem; V. Lungu et alii 1970, p. 21; O. Floca 1971, p. 268, Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 33). Focria s-a spat la 1 m adncime (=1,65; h=0,40 m) i a fost prevzut central cu un pilon, distrus din vechime cum indic rmiele acestuia de pe vatr. Gura de alimentare (h=93; l=60 cm), prelungit n ncperea de acces, avea o lungime de 45 cm, avea n fa un prag din piatr de Olt. Mare parte din cuptor s-a ntrit cu o tencuial de lut, de 6-10 cm i de 20 cm spre gura cuptorului, la baz prevzut i cu un prag din pietre de Olt (L=60 cm).

Fig. 87. Buridava - Ocnia. Cuie descoperit n aezare, vase romane din cuptor (apud Gh. Petre 1968, fig. 4-5/1-3, 5). Ceramic with the potters kiln (apud Gh. Petre 1968, fig. 45/1-3, 5).

Grtarul era prevzut cu 24 de perforri dispuse n trei cercuri concentrice n jurul pilonului, n reconstituire fiecare prezint cte opt perforri. Nu s-au pstrat pereii camerei de ardere a vaselor, care, probabil era protejat de un acoperi, cum indic igla existent n jur. Inventar: din interiorul cuptorului s-au recuperat cteva vase romane. mpreun cu ceramica roman a aprut i o cuie, un mare vas dacic modelat cu mna n form de sac i o ustensil de bronz (Gh. I. Petre 1968, p. 147-159, fig. 2/2-6; 3-5/1-3, 5). Datare, n timpul stpnirii romane, prima jumtate a secolului III p.Hr.

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Analogii: Poieneti, Slveni, Sucidava (Ibidem, p. 147). n aezarea civil roman, dezvoltat la nceputul secolului II p.Hr., cnd a devenit un puternic centru militar iar n secolele II-III un important centru economic i comercial, s-au cercetat dou grupuri de therme. n cele mari, pentru Dacia Inferior Malvensis cel mai bine pstrate - s-au identificat guri de cuptoare pentru nclzit praefurnia, dar i numeroase materiale arse pe loc, crmizi de mrimi i forme diferite, ptrate, cruciforme, picoturi pentru a forma pavajele - n opus spicatum -, igle, tuburi de lut ars folosite pentru aduciunea apei. Dup retragerea stpnirii romane din Dacia, 275 p.Hr., n sectorul unde se aflaser thermele mari, locuitorii rmai daco-romani i daci liberi - carpi, refac construciile romane ridicnd ziduri fr mortar iar podelele pavate cu mortar (n opus signinum) s-au reparat cu lut (Gh. Bichir, P. Bardau 1983; Gh. Bichir 1994, p. 229). The Dacian and Roman Buridava, west of Ocnia, ~ commune, locality which nowadays is part of the city of Rm. Vlcea, Vlcea county, the excavations were coordinated by D. Tudor 1965, D. Berciu 1981, Gh. Bichir, P. Bardau (1983, p. 336 and the foll.; Idem 1989, p. 45 et sq.). The development of the Dacian center of Ocnia, delimited to the east by River Olt, geographically situated in the Vlceni Subcarpathians, was also possible thanks to the rich salines in the area, the sale trading, "salt being so much asked for at the time south the Danube" (M. Babe, D. Berciu 2000, p. 219), and also thanks to the existence of mirror workshops, and especially potter workshops, such as the one owned by the king himself. a. Geto-Dacian kiln no. 1, La Tne, mentioned by Gh. Iordache (1996, p. 33, 45). The presence of workshops dated to the period between the end of the 2nd century BC and the 2nd century AD, may be also indicated by the inscriptions preserved in totality. One of them is written on a dolium, with Greek capital letters, in Greek, which in latin transcription reads Basileus Thiamarcus epoiei that is "King Thiamarcus made (this vessel in his capacity of workshop owner) -, representing for the first time the name of a Geto-Dacian King, unknown from written sources of Antiquity (M. Babe, D. Berciu 2000, p. 219). There, in the time of king Thiamarcus, there functioned the center of a political formation, with a considerable economic, cultural, spiritual and military role in the Olteniei Subcarapthians that entered in Decebals State. Possible anthroponyms of the brick workshop coordinators are [IVL?] IVS APER or [COR] NELIVS SEVERVS (Gh. Bichir 1994, p. 230). b. Kiln no. 2. Buridava Roman settlement situated on the bank of River Olt, west of Ocnia, nowadays superposed by Stolniceni village. Within the perimeter of the old settlement there was discovered by chance a kiln dated to the Roman occupation, the first half of the 3rd century AD (fig. 84), by the salvage excavations carried out by Gh. I. Petre (1968, p. 147 and the foll., fig. 1-5). Dated to the period of the Roman occupation, the first half of the 3rd century AD. The kiln had a circular plan, and was contained within the perimeter of the old settlement. It was disturbed by the ditch of a pipe. The kiln collapsed already in Antiquity, during the firing of a batch, as in our opinion the pillar was not resistant enough. It was used for firing both Dacian and Roman ceramicware (Ibidem; V. Lungu et alii 1970, p. 21; O. Floca 1971, p. 268; Gh. Iordache 1996, p. 33). The fire chamber was excavated down to 1m deep (=1.65 m, h=0.40 m) and had a pillar, destroyed since Antiquity as indicated by the remains hereof on the hearth. The feeding opening (h=93 cm; l=60 cm), extended in access room, was 45cm long, and had in front of it an Olt stone threshold. The kiln was for the most part consolidated with a clay plastering, of 6-10 cm and of 20 cm toward the kiln opening, la the base also had an Olt stone threshold (L=60 cm). The perforated plate has 24 perforations laid in three concentric circles around the pillar, and in the reconstruction each of them has eight perforations. The walls of the vessel firing chamber were not preserved. This chamber was probably protected by a roof, as indicated by the tiles in the area. Inventory: from inside the kiln there were recuperated several Roman vessels. Toghether with the Roman ceramicware, there also appeared a small cup, a large Dacian hand-made vessel in the shape of a sack and a bronze implement (Gh. I. Petre 1968, p. 147-159, fig. 2/2-6; 3-5/1-3, 5). In the Roman civil settlement, developed at the beginning of the 2nd century AD, when it became a powerful military center, and in the 2nd3rd centuries, an important economic and commercial center, there were investigated two groups of thermae. In the large ones, for Dacia Inferior Malvensis the best preserved, there were identified openings of heating installations praefurnia, and also numerous materials fired on the spot, bricks of various sizes and shapes, square, cruciform, or eight-shaped in order to create pavements - in opus spicatum -, roof tiles, fired clay pipes used for water adduction. After the

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Roman retreat from Dacia, in 275 AD, in the sector where there were the large thermae, the remaining inhabitants, Dacian-Romans and Free Dacians Carpaisn, remake the Roman constructions erecting mortar free walls while the floors paved with mortar (in opus signinum) where repaired with clay (Gh. Bichir, P. Bardau 1983; Gh. Bichir 1994, p. 229). Judeul Gorj / Gorj County 20. Bumbeti - Jiu, com. n jud. Gorj, aezare civil roman din prima jumtate a secolului III, spturi Expectatus Bujor. Aezare civil roman situat la 3 km sud de defileul Jiului, n apropierea castrului din dreptul grii Bumbeti. Cuptorul descoperit aici este n plan circular i a aparinut unui meter productor de olane. Spre gura cuptorului, pe placa perforat aflat acum la mic distan sub pmntul arabil, s-au pstrat cteva exemplare (E. Bujor 1973, p. 108, fig. 2). Inventar. n spturile din aceast campanie s-au gsit pri de oale de origine provincial roman, lucrate la roat, cni, ulcele, strchini, amfore i un tipar de lut probabil pentru ornamentarea ceramicii (Ibidem, 1973).

Fig. 88. Bumbeti Jiu. Cuptor de olar din aezarea civil roman (apud E. Bujor 1973, fig. 2). The potters kiln of a civil Roman settlement (apud E. Bujor 1973, fig. 2).

Bumbeti - Jiu, a commune in Gorj county, a civil Roman settlement of the first half of the 3rd century, excavations by Expectatus Bujor. A civil Roman settlement situated 3 km south the Gorges of River Jiu, near the castrum situated by the railway station of Bumbeti. The kiln discovered there has a circular plan and belonged to a tile maker. Towards the opening of the kiln, on the perforated plate situated now at a small distance under the ploughing level, there were preserved few such items (E. Bujor 1973, p. 108, fig. 2). Inventory. The excavations of this campaign led to the identification of potshards which belong to the Roman provincial wheel-made ceramicware: mugs, pitchers, dishes, amphorae and a clay mould probably for decorating the ceramic ware (Ibidem). 21. Ctunele, comun n judeul Gorj, din epoca Roman, secolele I-III, spturi realizate de D. Tudor, M. Davidescu. Pe teritoriul comunei, n apropierea malului Rului Motru, la confluena cu Chivdaru, s-a cercetat un castru roman n plan rectangular, cu spaii rezervate pentru practicarea meteugurilor i cu cteva ateliere de olrie (D. Tudor 1968, p. 226, 273). Ctunele, a commune in Gorj county, dated to the Roman epoch, the 1st half of the 3rd century, excavations by D. Tudor, M. Davidescu. On the territory of this commune, on the left bank of River Motru, at the confluence with Chivdaru brook, there was researched an earth-walled Roman castrum of rectangular shape, with a space for practicing crafts, and within this some brick workshops (D. Tudor 1968, p. 226, 273).

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Judeul Mehedini / Mehedini County 22. Turnu Severin - Ostrovul imian, secolul I p.Hr., cercetat n anii 1933 i 1935 de D. Berciu (1939, p. 341-342). Staiunea se afl pe o insul a Dunrii, n raza oraului Turnu Severin - Drobeta. a. Cuptorul descoperit aici a fost considerat deosebit de Maria Coma i datorit faptului c, spre deosebire de celelalte cuptoare, are un plan oval (=2,70x1,10 m), mult alungit. De asemenea, n peretele opus gurii de alimentare, de o parte i de alta a peretelui median, prezint cte dou perforri triunghiulare pentru aerisire i pentru a ntreine un tiraj mai mare n camera de foc, necesar datorit lungimii cuptorului (D. Berciu 1939, p. 340-342, fig. 234/a). La exterior perforrile se vedeau din groapa de acces, situaie ntlnit i n secolele VI-VII la Radovanu - Pe Neguleas, unde se afla un horn pentru rsuflare (M. Coma 1977, p. 172; Eadem 1985, p. 171-172; Eadem 1981, fig. 1).

Fig. 89. Turnu Severin - Ostrovul imian. Cuptor de olrie, secol I p.Hr. (apud D. Berciu 1939, reconstituire apud M. Coma 1985, fig. 2). The potters kiln, 1th century (apud D. Berciu 1939, reconstruction apud M. Coma 1985, fig. 2).

M. Coma, n funcie de datele cunoscute pentru camera de foc a reconstituit cuptorul: grtarul i camera de ardere a vaselor (h=70 cm). n partea de sus a acestuia deschiztura avea o form tot oval (=1x0,35 m) (Ibidem, p. 172, fig. 2). Inventarul ceramic descoperit spre intrarea n camera de foc, cuprinde fragmente modelate cu mna dacice n asociere cu cele de influen celtic, cenuii, pe baza crora s-a datat cuptorul n secolul I p.Hr. (D. Berciu 1939, p. 342). Turnu Severin - Ostrovul imian, 1st century AD, researched between 1933 and 1935 by D. Berciu (1939, p. 341-342). The settlement is on a Danube island, near the city of Turnu Severin - Drobeta. a. The kiln that was discovered there, was considered by M. Coma to be special also due to the fact that unlike the other kilns its plan is oval (=2.70x1.10 m), prolonged. On the wall opposite the feeding opening, on each side of the median wall, it shows two triangular perforations created for ventilation purposes and for providing a better air intake for the fire chamber, necessary due to the length of the oven (Ibidem, p. 340-342, fig. 234/a). On the outside, the perforations were visible from the access pit, situation which was also identified in the case of the 6th7th century kiln of Radovanu - Pe Neguleas, which also had an air intake flue (M. Coma 1985, p. 171-172; Eadem 1981, fig. 1). According to the data available for the fire chamber, M. Coma reconstructed the kiln: the perforated plate and the vessel firing chamber (h=70 cm). In its upper part the opening also had an oval shape (=1x0,35 m) (Ibidem, p. 172, fig. 2). The ceramic inventory discovered towards the entrance of the fire chamber contains Dacian fragments associated with those of Celtic influence, grayish, which were used at dating the kiln in the 1st century AD (D. Berciu 1939, p. 342).

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23. Drobeta, centru roman, devenit municipiu, astzi Drobeta - Turnu Severin, judeul Mehedini, cuptoare datate la sfritul secolului III i n secolul IV, spturi Grigore Tocilescu, Alexandru Brccil, Miu Davidescu. Drobeta a fost oraul roman cel mai important, dup Romula - Reca, n Dacia de la sud de Munii Carpai. Aici funcionau diferite ateliere, ntre care i ceramice. Din vechile centre de olrie din timpul stpnirii romane (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 61) s-au descoperit cuptoare cu diverse funcionaliti, folosite pentru arderea vaselor de provizii, a ceramicii pentru uz casnic i a celei fine, dar i pentru realizarea crmizilor, iglelor, tuburilor pentru aduciunea apei (Al. Brccil 1934; M. Davidescu 1980, p. 112). a. Cuptor nr. 1, de ars olrie, primul descoperit n castru a fost semnalat de Grigore Tocilescu, n zona n care se afla una din ncperile perioadei trzii (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 212, nota 206, Manuscris, 5135, fila 13). b. Cuptor nr. 2, de ars oale, datat la sfritul secolului III i n secolul IV, descoperit n latus praetorii dextra, din care s-a pstrat camera de foc de form circular, grtarul i gura de foc. Inventar, n jurul lui se aflau multe fragmente de vase de calitate superioar, modelate la roat, de culoare cenuie (R. Florescu 1967, p. 148; M. Davidescu 1980, p. 113). c. Cuptor nr. 3, de ars ceramica semnalat n anul 1964, n praetentura sinistra, n zona uneia din construciile realizate din piatr i pmnt din aceeai vreme. d. Un alt cuptor nr. 4, de ars oale dar i crmid, s-a descoperit n zona cimitirului roman, de M. Davidescu, n partea de nord-est a oraului Drobeta, datat n secolele IV-V (1980, p. 113). Cuptorul construit din crmizi mari (L=4,47x4 m) s-a spat n pmnt. Focria avea opt canale fcute din iruri de crmid, perpendiculare pe canale, crora le corespundeau n grtar opt iruri de perforri dreptunghiulare. S-a construit din crmizile fcute din lut amestecat cu paie i pleav, precum chirpicii, dar care prin ardere au devenit rezisteni.

Fig. 90. Turnu Severin - Drobeta. 1-2. Cuptor de olrie i de ars crmida, sec. IV-V (apud M. Davidescu 1980, p. 213214). The potters kiln and brick-making workshops, 4rd-5th centuries (apud M. Davidescu 1980, p. 213-214).

Alimentarea cuptorului se asigura prin dou guri de alimentare, de forma a dou canale realizate din rnduri de crmizi (h=1 m; lbaz=0,60 m), care strbteau cuptorul de la est la vest. Spre deosebire de alte instalaii erau ferite de curenii de aer, prin orientarea spre rsrit.

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Grtarul (h=0,30 m) s-a fixat pe un picior aflat n mijlocul focarului, care i desprea cele dou guri de foc. S-a construit la 1,30 m, de la solul actual. Inventar: pe placa grtarului s-au gsit buci de crmid ars i fragmente ceramice cenuii datate n secolele II-III, de factur roman provincial. Analogiile s-au stabilit cu instalaiile descoperite la Garvn, jud. Tulcea i Ostrovul Banului, jud. Mehedini (M. Davidescu 1977, p. 41-42; Idem 1980, p. 113). e. Depozitul mare de igl, crmid, olane, tuburi de diverse dimensiuni pentru aduciunea apei i canalizare, poate argumenta i existena n apropiere a cuptoarelor, s-a descoperit n urma unor lucrri edilitare, n partea de vest a oraului, n apropierea castrului de pmnt. S-a datat n prima faz de dezvoltare a oraului i de construire a fortificaiilor militare. Tot aici erau i multe gropi rmase n urma folosirii argilei, n acest perimetru, de altfel, n mare cantitate i de bun calitate (M. Davidescu 1975, p. 67). Instalaiile de ap ale thermelor romane au fost alimentate cu ap de o conduct de pmnt, surprins pe nivelul antic de Al. Brccil (1938, p. 34-35, fig. 71, 73; M. Davidescu 1980, p. 113). Muzeul Porile de Fier, n anul 1938, tot aici se amintete i un fragment de terra sigilatta, care avea tampila olarului EBVRRVS (Ibidem, p. 115). Drobeta - Roman center, turned into municipality, end of the 3rd4rd centuries AD, spturi Grigore Tocilescu, Alexandru Brccil, Miu Davidescu. The settlement is situated on a Danube island, near the town Turnu Severin - Drobeta. The kiln discovered here was considered by M. Coma as being special also due to the fact that unlike the other kilns its plan is oval (=2.70x1.10 m), considerably extended. Also, in the wall opposite the feeding opening, on each side of the median wall, there are two rectangular perforations for ventilation and for the air intake for the fire chamber, necessary due to the length of the kiln (D. Berciu 1939, p. 340-342, fig. 234/a). On the exterior the perforations were visible from the access pit, situation which was also found in the 6th7th centuries at Radovanu - Pe Neguleas, where there existed an air intake flue (M. Coma 1985, p. 171-172; Eadem 1981, fig. 1). Based on the available information for the fire chamber, M. Coma reconstructed the kiln: the perforated plate and the vessel firing chamber (h=70 cm). In the lower part thereof the opening was also oval (=1x0.35 m) (Ibidem, p. 172, fig. 2). The ceramic inventory discovered towards the entrance into the fire chamber contains Dacian potsherds associated with those of Celtic influence, grayish, which were used for the dating to the 1st century AD (D. Berciu 1939, p. 342). a. Kiln no. 1. Between the kilns discovered in the castrum, there was one pointed out by Grigore Tocilescu, in one of the rooms of the late period (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 212, note 206, manuscris, 5135, fila 13). b. Kiln no. 2. Potter center dated to the time of the Roman occupation (Gh. Bichir 1973, p. 61). Kiln dated to the end of the 3rd century and to the 4th century, discovered in latus praetorii dextra, out of which the circular fire chamber, the perforated plate and the fire opening were preserved inside the kiln while outside it there were discovered numerous fragments of grayish wheel-shaped qualitative potsherds (R. Florescu 1967, p. 148; M. Davidescu 1980, p. 113). Sntana de Mure ceramicware. c. Kiln no. 3. In 1964 there was pointed out another kiln, in praetentura sinistra, in one of the constructions made of stone and earth of the same epoch. d. Kiln no. 4. Another kiln used both at firing ceramicware and bricks, was discovered in the area of the Roman cemetery, by M. Davidescu, in the northeast side of the town Drobeta, dated to the 4th5th centuries, with grayish ceramicware (1980, p. 113). The kiln made of large bricks (L=4.47x4 m) was dug into the earth, and had the perforated plate at 1.30 m, from the current treading level. The bricks were made of clay mixed with straw and chaff, like the adobe, but by firing they became more resistant. The fire chamber had eight channels made of rows of bricks, perpendicular on the channels, to which there corresponded in the perforated plate eight rows of rectangular perforations. Two feeding openings, in the shape of two channels made of rows of bricks (h=1; lbase=0.60 m), crossed the kiln from east to west, and assured the feeding of the kiln. Unlike other installations they were protected from air currents by the eastwards orientation. The perforated plate (h=0,30 m) was embedded on a stand in the middle of the kiln which also separated the two fire openings. On the plate there were found pieces of fired bricks and potsherds dated to the 2nd 3rd centuries, of Roman provincial style. There were established analogies with the installations discovered at Garvn and Ostrovul Banului (M. Davidescu 1977, p. 41-42; Idem 1980, p. 113).

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e. The large storehouse of roof tiles, bricks, pipes, ducts of various dimensions for water adduction and sewerage, may also sustain their existence near the kilns. It was discovered as a result of urban works, in the west side of the town, near the earth-walled castrum. It was dated to the first phase of the town development and construction of the military fortification. It was also here that there were found pits resulting from the qualitative and quantitative use of clay in this perimeter (M. Davidescu 1975, p. 67). The water installations of the Roman thermae were water supplied by a cly duct (Idem, 1980), identified on the ancient level by the Al. Brccil (1938, p. 34-35, fig. 71, 73; M. Davidescu 1980, p. 113). The Danubes Iron Gates Museum. In 1938, also here, there was found a fragment of terra sigilatta, which showed the potters stamp EBVRRVS (Ibidem, p. 115). 24. Ostrovul Banului, numit i Ostrovu Golu, judeul Mehedini, insul pe Dunre, situat n apropierea satului Gura Vii, n prezent acoperit de apele lacului de acumulare Porile de Fier. n perioada roman a existat o fortificaie de piatr situat n partea de vest, spre ieirea Dunrii din strmtoarea Porilor de Fier, spturi M. Davidescu (1977, p. 37-42).

Fig. 91. Ostrovul Banului. 1-3 Cuptor construit din crmid, pentru arderea materialelor de construcie (M. Davidescu 1980). Kiln made of bricks, for firing construction materials (M. Davidescu 1980).

a. Cuptor nr. 1, datare, secolul al IV-lea (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 115), construit tot din crmid, la fel ca i primul, dar mai mic (Ibidem, p. 214). Cuptoarele au fost apropiate de instalaiile de la Sarmizegetusa, Romula - Reca i Garvn (O. Floca 1945, p. 431-440; Gh. Popilian 1969, p. 167-169; Idem 1976a, p. 139-145; Gh. tefan 1957, p. 339-345). M. Coma, n funcie de datele cunoscute pentru camera de foc a reconstituit cuptorul: grtarul i camera de ardere a vaselor (h=70 cm). n partea de sus a acestuia deschiztura avea o form tot oval (=1x0,35 m) (Ibidem, p. 172, fig. 2). Inventarul ceramic descoperit spre intrarea n camera de foc, cuprinde fragmente ceramice dacice n asociere cu cele de influen celtic, cenuii, pe baza crora s-a datat cuptorul n secolul I p.Hr. (D. Berciu 1939, p. 342).

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Aici, n afara fortificaiei, s-au descoperit dou cuptoare de ars crmizi, la circa 25 m unele de altele, n malul de pe latura de sud a ostrovului i la 1,50 m adncime. n acest fel erau ferite de cureni, de vnturile ce bat dinspre vest i nord i se asigura o ardere constant (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 206, 212). b. Cuptor nr. 2 de crmid, de form dreptunghiular (L=4,60 x l=4 m), avea n focar un ir de boli care se sprijineau pe piciorul median i n partea opus pe marginile perimetrali. Bolile sprijineau ntreaga greutate a grtarului i a crmizilor stivuite pentru a fi arse. Pentru a se pstra cldura tot interiorul s-a lutuit cu un strat de 10-12 cm, pentru a nu permite pierderea cldurii. Cele dou guri de foc semicirculare (h=75 cm), aveau n fa cte o piatr masiv pe care se sprijineau capetele lemnelor cu care se alimenta cuptorul i o gardin (h=30 m), fixat la 40 cm n faa cuptorului, care nu lsa curenii de aer s ptrund n interior i s influeneze arderea. Grtarul plan, de mari dimensiuni (3,90 x 3,60 m), se sprijinea pe peretele median i pe cele ase rnduri de boli. ntre arcade era prevzut cu apte rnduri de perforri pentru tiraj, necesare pentru circulaia cldurii. Pe grtar se stivuia crmida crud, n spaiul dintre perforri, numai deasupra bolilor, lsate libere pentru circulaia cldurii printre irurile de crmizi. Dup cum a explicat M. Davidescu, sistemul de transmitere a cldurii se realiza prin perforrile realizate n spaiul de 25 cm dintre irurile bolilor. n acest spaiu pentru fiecare perforare erau fixate n picioare cte dou sau trei crmizi, ntre ele cu 10-12 cm, interval desprit de o alt crmid, dispus longitudinal, pentru a forma cele dou compartimente ale perforrilor de tiraj, ulterior lutuite cu un strat de 5-6 cm. n final arja de crmid crud era lutuit la exterior, lsndu-se orificii pentru evacuarea fumului (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 213-214). Ostrovul Banului, also named Ostrovu Golu, Mehedini county, Isle on the Danube, situated close to the village Gura Vii, at present covered by the waters of the reservoir Porile de Fier. Durign the Roman period, there existed a stone fortification situated to the west, toward the exiting of the Porile de Fier Narrows, excavations by M. Davidescu (1977, p. 37-42). Here, outside the fortification, there were discovered two kilns for firing bricks, at about 25m one from the other, in the bank on the south side of the island and the at the depth of 1.50m. This way, they were protected from currents, winds blowing from west and north and a constant firing was also provided (Ibidem, p. 206, 212). a. Kiln no. 1 was made of bricks, dated to the beginning of the 4th century (M. Davidescu 1980, p. 115), of rectangular shape (L=4.60xl=4 m), had in its fire chamber a row of vaults that were sustained by the median stand and in the opposite side on the perimetral borders. The vaults sustained the whole weight of the perforated plate and of the bricks piled for being fired. In order to keep the heat inside, the kiln was lined with a 10-12 cm clay layer, so to avoid loosing temperature. The two semicircular fire openings (h=75 cm) had each in front of them a massive stone on which there were propped the ends of the logs used at feeding the kiln and a raised border (h=30 m), embedded at 40 cm in front of the kiln, so to prevent the air currents penetrate inside and influence the firing. The plan of the perforated plate showed large dimensions (3.90 x 3.60 m), and was supported on the median wall and the six rows of vaults. Between the arcades there were seven rows of perforations for the air intake necessary to the circulation of the heat. On the perforated plate the raw bricks were piled in the space between the perforations, only above the vaults, left free so to assure the circulation of the heat between the rows of bricks. As M. Davidescu explained, the heat transmission system used the perforations created in the 25cm space between the rows of the vaults. In this space for each perforation there were embedded standing two or three bricks, at a 10-12cm distance one from the other, interval separated by another brick, longitudinally laid, in order to create the two compartments of the air intake perforations, later on daubed with a 5-6 cm clay layer. In the end, the batch of raw bricks was daubed on the outside, leaving orifices for evacuating smoke (1980, p. 213-214). b. Kiln no. 2 was also made of bricks, like the one above, but smaller (Ibidem, p. 214). The kilns were compared to the installations of Sarmizegetusa, Romula - Reca and Garvn (O. Floca 1945, p. 431-440; Gh. Popilian 1969, p. 167-169; Idem 1976a, p. 139-145; Gh. tefan 1957, p. 339-345). According to the data available for the fire chamber M. Coma reconstructed the kiln: the perforated plate and the vessel firing chamber (h=70 cm). In the upper part of the kiln the opening was also of oval shape (=1x0,35 m) (Ibidem, p. 172, fig. 2). The ceramic inventory discovered towards the entrance into the fire chamber contains Dacian potsherds associated to those of Celtic influence, grayish, used at dating the kiln to the 1st century AD (D. Berciu 1939, p. 342).

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Banat Judeul Cara-Severin / Cara-Severin County 25. Gornea - Cunia de Sus, com. Sichevia, jud. Cara-Severin, secolul al III-lea, spturi Nicolae Gudea. Aezare rural roman situat pe o teras situat la 500-600 m de malul Dunrii. n 1967, n apropierea unei locuine cu zid de piatr (16,6x5,85 m), cu absid avnd nclzire cu hypocaust. Aici s-au descoperit dou cuptoare pentru ars materiale de construcie: igle, crmizi, n preajm erau i fragmente de vase, semn c nici producerea acestora nu era neglijat (N. Gudea 1977, p. 13-14; L. Mrghitan 1980, p. 101, nota 105). Gornea - Cunia de Sus, Sichevia commune, Cara-Severin county, 3rd century, excavations by N. Gudea. The Roman rural settlement is situated on the terrace at a 500-600m distance from the bank of the Danube. In 1967, near a stone wall dwelling (16.60 x 5.85 m), with an apse with hypocaust heating, there were discovered two kilns for firing construction materials: roof tiles, bricks, also having around them potsherds, thus indicating that the production of ceramicware was not neglected either (N. Gudea 1977, p. 13-14; L. Mrghitan 1980, p. 101, note 105). 26. Satul Jupa - Cetate, Tibiscum, jud. Cara-Severin, datare secolul al II-lea, spturi M. Moga 1964, D. Benea, Fl. Medele, P. Bona, R. Petrovsky, 1979. Castru i aezare civil roman, aflat la jonciunea mai multor drumuri Lederata - Tibiscum, Dierna Tibiscum, Tibiscum - Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa. Cetate situat la nord de sat, ntins de o parte i de alta a rului Timi, n imediata apropiere a castrului spre nord, n preajma cldirilor care formau aezarea civil, s-au menionat i cteva cuptoare (I. Gloradiu 1976, p. 572) i s-au prezentat complexele ceramice (D. Benea 1977, p. 161; Eadem 1990, p. 149). a. Cuptor nr. 1. n 1976, I. Glodariu menioneaz prezena unui cuptor de ars ceramica (Ibidem, p. 572). n 1978, n zona sistemului defensiv i a thermelor s-au semnalat ateliere de prelucrat metalele i un atelier de sticl, cu patru ncperi, din care a doua s-a utilizat drept locuin (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 300). b. Cuptor nr. 2. n 1978, n apropierea unui atelier de sticl, pe SI A, de la care s-au extins cinci casete, s-a descoperit un cuptor de olar, datat la nceputul secolului II. Din el s-a pstrat focarul, cu baza la - 2,30 m (Ibidem, p. 301) i groapa de acces la cuptor. Dup dezafectarea cuptorului terenul s-a nivelat. Inventar. n aceasta s-a descoperit o parte dintr-o igl cu tampila, COH I S, n cartu tabula ansata, specific pentru cohors I Sagittariorum. Este dovada existenei aici a unui atelier ceramic care aparinea acestei uniti i deservea armata. S-a exemplificat cu situaia asemntoare de la Brigeto (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 302; cf. E. Bonis 1977, p. 105-139). Ceramica modelat din past degresat cu mic, nisip fin sau pietricele, pentru cele aspre la pipit, mai puin sfrmate. Categoria cea mai fin este de culoare glbuie, cu angob rou carmin. S-au modelat: strchini de diferite dimensiuni. Din ars rosu s-au modelat urcioarele cu gt cilindric i corp globular, cni, fructiere .a.

Fig. 92. Tibiscum. Cuptorul de olar descoperit n anul 1978 (apud D. Benea et alii 1980, fig. 5). Potters kiln discovered in 1978 (apud D. Benea et alii 1980, fig. 5).

Din past neagr-cenuie, s-au modelat cu mna oale-borcan cu buza evazat, cui, strchini cu corp tronconic. Cum menioneaz autorii cercetrilor - n funcie de cerina de pia. Cuptorul s-a distrus n 118 - cum indic o moned de la Hadrianus. S-a legat de evenimentele din anii 117/118, provocate de nvlirile sarmailor iazygi (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 302). b1. Cuptor de sticl. Peste cuptorul de olar a aprut un cuptor de sticl, de mici dimensiuni (=40 cm), a aprut n suprafaa A/1979 (h=1,60-1,75 m) i construcia n care se obineau diferite produse, mrgele. Din acesta s-a conservat in situ doar baza camerei de foc, cu pereii realizai din sferturi de crmizi legate cu lut (20x13x5 cm), n interior lutuii cu grij. Podeaua, format dintr-o crmid de 40x25x6 cm,

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avea deasupra cu un strat dens de cenu, de 3-4 cm. Pe podeaua camerei de ardere s-au descoperit fragmente din placa de chirpic a camerei de ardere, amestecat cu mult pietri. Pe ea se turna amestecul de nisip, var i potas. Nu s-a pstrat nimic din bolt. Peste cuptor erau igle i olane, ce proveneau probabil de la construcia ce-l acoperea (Ibidem, p. 301).

Fig. 93. Tibiscum. Cuptor de sticl (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 301). Glass makers kiln (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 301).

c. Cuptor nr. 3. n anul 1979 la Tibiscum s-a descoperit un alt cuptor de ars oale n plan circular (=1,50; h=0,45 m), n apropierea cldirii VIII, la sud de un atelier de fierrie, la -1,10 m, datat n a doua jumtate a secolului III.

Fig. 94. Tibiscum. Cuptorul de olar descoperit n anul 1979 (apud D. Benea et alii 1980, fig. 6). Potters kiln discovered in 1979 (apud D. Benea et alii 1980, fig. 6). Focarul cu planul rotunjit avea gura de alimentare trapezoidal (h=15-20 cm), cu pereii groi de 12-15 cm ndreptat spre vest. Grtarul nu exist, dar pilonul central, format din fragmente de crmizi, igle, olane legate cu lut, era tronconic (h=35; =90 cm), uor nclinat din cauza suprafeei mari lipite de peretele interior i transformat n suport pentru depunerea vaselor pentru ars. Camera de foc s-a lutuit cu un strat de lutuial de 2-4 cm. Bolta pstrat pe partea de sud s-a realizat rudimentar, din fragmente de crmid, igl, olane. Aerul nclzit circula ntre plac i peretele dinspre nord i sud al cuptorului, dintre pereii laterali i acest suport (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 302). n groapa de acces la cuptor, erau urme de chirpici ari pn la zgurificare iar n faa gurii acestuia era groapa de cenu (=80 cm), uor albiat, cu pereii cptuii cu scnduri de lemn. Inventar. n groap au aprut pri de vase de culoare cenuie, o can cu o toart i o strachin, lucrate la roat din past cu mult mic, oase de pasre, poate i porumbel, smburi de ciree .a. (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 302; D. Benea 1983, p. 309, fig. 20).

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n colul de nord-vest al ncperii 2, a fost dezvelit o platform de lut btut (L=3; l=0,90 m), prevzut cu bordur de 10-15 cm. La est de ea se afl dou bazine din crmizi (L=80; l=50 i 56 m), bine lutuite, orientate est-vest, folosite pentru dospirea lutului, curirea de impuriti pentru obinerea unei paste elastice bun pentru modelarea ceramicii, forme nedescoperite arheologic nc (D. Benea 1983, p. 308, fig. 7; 17; 19). d. Cuptorul nr. 4. Pe teritoriul municipiului, n timpul dezvelirii cldirii II, la 3,30 m de colul de nord-vest al acesteia, pe stratul de lut a fost construit un cuptor ce avea gura de alimentare orientat spre vest. Din el s-a conservat doar baza camerei de foc, n rest era distrus. Cuptorul nu depete veacul al II-lea (Eadem, p. 310). Focarul n plan rotund (=1 m) avea gura de alimentare spre vest. n interiorul acesteia s-a descoperit o fructier din past roie, lucrat la roat, decorata cu bru alveolar crestat, alturi de o cni, lucrat tot din past roie. La gura cuptorului s-a descoperit o pater i trei ceti dacice, modelate cu mna. Dup ieirea cuptorului din uz a fost dezafectat intenionat iar terenul nivelat, ca urmare a unui puternic incendiu, dup care a urmat ntinderea unui strat de lut steril galben, gros de 45 cm. Se considera c de acest cuptor inea i o ncpere a subsolului, folosit pentru depozitat ceramica, cum indic marea cantitate de ceramic rmas pe pardoseala acesteia (D. Benea 1983, p. 310-311, fig. 20/3; 27/1-4). d1. ntr-o etap trzie de folosire a cldirii I, la acest nivel, exact deasupra cuptorului a fost ridicat o instalaie de topit sticl ( > 1 m), conservat doar pe o nlime de 14 cm, apropiat ca form de cel descoperit n suprafaa A/1978.

Fig. 94. Tibiscum. Instalaie de topit sticl (apud D. Benea et alii 1983, fig. 7). Glass makers kiln (apud D. Benea et alii 1983, fig. 7).

S-a mai pstrat din podeaua focarului, o parte dintr-o igl cu bordura n jos, ce o acopereau, i un strat gros de cenu. Pereii s-au cldit cte dou rnduri de sferturi de crmizi (16 x 15 cm), legate cu lut i avnd interior o fuial de lut din de circa 1 cm. Pereii au urme compacte de sticl prelins i zgur sticloas, sub ele cu un strat de cenu de 2,5 cm. Topirea sticlei se fcea ntr-un recipient de lut cu gura larg, cum indic fragmentele ceramice pe ele cu sticl topit, a unor tuburi de ceramic cu sticl prelins, folosite la amestecarea pastei sticloase n timpul topirii i amestecului cu colorani. n apropiere erau i mrgele de sticl, deci era un atelier de sticl, anex a cldirii principale II. Toate au permis urmrirea procesului de fabricare a sticlei. Astfel de cuptoare - destul de fragile - nu s-au conservat ntregi (D. Benea 1983, p. 311, fig. 7). Klaus Khne a propus o reconstituire (1976, p. 23). Datarea, prima jumtate a secolului II. La fel se dateaz instalaia de topire a sticlei, ce a fost considerat o posibil anex a atelierului, cu sfritul posibil n epoca lui Marcus Aurelius (Eadem, p. 311). Village Jupa - Cetate, Tibiscum, north of this village, Cara-Severin county, dated to the 2nd century, excavations by M. Moga 1964, D. Benea, Fl. Medele, P. Bona, R. Petrovsky, 1979. Castrum and Roman civil settlement at the junction of several roads iunea Lederata - Tibiscum, Dierna Tibiscum, Tibiscum - Ulpia Traiana Szegetusa, and spread on both sides of River Timi, and also near castrum to the north, near the buildings that formed the civil settlement, there were also mentioned several kilns (I. Gloradiu 1976, p. 572) and it was exemplified with ceramic complexes (D. Benea 1977, p. 161; Eadem 1990, p. 149).

Anexa / Anexe VI. Analogii cu inuturile de la sud de Carpai / Analogies with regions of Lower Danube

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a. Kiln no. 1. In 1976, I. Glodariu mentions the presence here of a kiln (p. 572). In 1978, in the area of the defensive system and of the thermae there were pointed out workshops for metal processing. Also a glass workshop, with four rooms, out of which the second was used as a dwelling (D.Benea et alii 1980,p.300). b. Kiln no. 2. In 1978, near a glass workshop, on SI A, wherefrom five excavation areas were spread, there was found a potters kiln, dated to the beginning of the 2 nd century. Out of it, the fire chamber, with the base at 2.30m (Ibidem, p. 301) and the kiln access pit were preserved. After the kiln was turned out of use, the land was leveled. Inventory. Within it there was discovered a part of a roof tile with the stamp COH I S, in escutcheon tabula ansata, specific for cohors I Sagittariorum. This is the proof there existed here a potters workshop that belonged to these entity and its products were used by the army. It was exemplified with the similar situation of Brigeto (Ibidem, p. 302; cf. E. Bonis 1977, p. 105-139). The ceramicware was shaped of paste degreased with mica, fine sand or small gravel in the case of coarser vessels, which got less fragmented. The finest category is the yellowish one, with carmine red slip. Dishes of various sizes were made out of this paste. The red paste was used to shape pitchers with cylindrical neck and globular body, mugs, fruits trays etc. From the grayish black paste, there were shaped by hand pot-jars with flared rim, small cups, dishes with conical body, according to the authors of the researches this being reflected in the market demand. The kiln was destroyed in 118 as indicated by a coin from Hadrianus. It was related to the events of 117/118, caused by invasions of the Iazyges Sarmatians (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 302) b1. Above the potters kiln there appeared a glass makers kiln, of small dimensions (=40 cm). It was found in the surface A/1979 (h=1.60-1.75 m) in this construction various items and beads were produced. Only the base of the fire chamber was preserved in situ, with the walls made of brick quarters bound with clay (20 x 13 x 5 cm), carefully daubed to the interior. The floor, made of a tile of 40 x 25 x 6 cm, was topped with a 3-4 cm thick layer of ash. On the floor of the firing chamber there were discovered fragments of the firing chamber adobe plate, mixed with lot of gravel. On it, the mixture of sand, line and potash was laid. Nothing remained out of the vault. Above the kiln there were roof tiles and pipes, which probably remained from the building covering it (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 301). c. Kiln no. 3. In 1979, there was discovered another kiln of circular plan (=1.50; h=0.45 m), near building VIII, south a blacksmiths workshop, at -1.10 m, dated to the 2nd half of the 3rd century. The fire chamber with rounded plan had a trapezoidal feeding opening (h=15-20 cm), with thick walls of 12-15 cm, directed westwards. The perforated plate does not exist, but the central pillar, formed of fragments of bricks, roof tiles, pipes, bound with clay, was conical (h=35; =90 cm), slightly sloped due to the large daubed surface on the interior wall transformed in support for the vessels to be fired. The fire chamber was daubed with a 2-4 cm layer. The vault was preserved only in the southern side. It was obtained in a rudimentary manner, of fragments of bricks, roof tiles, pipes. The heated air circulated between the plate and the north wall and south walls of the kiln, between the side walls and this support (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 302). In the kiln access pit, there were traces of adobe fired until it became scorified and in front of the opening there was the ash pit (=80 cm), slightly concave, with the walls lined with planks. Inventory. In the pit there were found grayish potsherds, an eared mug and a dish, wheel-made, from a paste including a large proportion of mica, bird bones, possibly dove too, cherry stones etc. (D. Benea et alii 1980, p. 302; D. Benea 1983, p. 309, fig. 20). In the northwest corner of room 2, there was found a trodden clay platform (L=3; l=0.90 m), with a 10-15 cm border. East of it there are two basins made of bricks (L=80; l=50 and 56 m), well clayed, east-west oriented, used for slacking the clay, cleaning of impurities and obtaining an elastic paste good for shaping the ceramic ware. Such structures were for the first time discovered in this case (D. Benea 1983, p. 308, fig. 7, 17, 19). d. Kiln no. 4. On the territory of the town, during the excavation of building II, at 3.30m of the northwest corner hereof, on the clay layer, there was built a kiln with westwards feeding opening. Only the base of the fire chamber was preserved out of it, the rest being already destroyed. The kiln does not exceed the 2nd century (Eadem, p. 310). The fire chamber had a round plan (=1 m) and westwards feeding opening. Inside it, there was discovered a red paste wheel-made fruit tray, decorated with a notched alveolar belt, together with a small mug, made also of red paste. At the kiln opening there were discovered a patera and three Dacian cups, hand-made. After the kiln stopped being functional, it was destroyed on purpose

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Meteugul olriei n secolele II-V / The Pottery Craft During the 2rd5th Centuries

and the soil leveled as a result of a massive fire, followed by the spreading of a layer of yellow sterile clay, 45cm thick. It was considered that an underground chamber also belonged to such kiln. The concerned chamber was used for storing the ceramicware, as indicated by the large quantity of pottery remaining on the floor thereof (D. Benea 1983, p. 310-311, fig. 20/3; 27/1-4). d1. In a late phase of the usage of building I, at this level, exactly above the kiln, there was erected a glass melting installation ( > 1 m), conserved only on a 14 cm height, similar, as shape to the one discovered in area A/1978. From the floor of the fire chamber there were preserved a fragment of a roof tile with lower turned border, which covered it, and a thick layer of ash. The walls were built of two rows of brick quarters (16 x 15 cm), bound with clay and having inside a clay daubing of about 1 cm. The walls show compact traces of poured glass and glassy slag, with a 2.5 cm ash layer underneath. The melting of the glass was done in a wide open clay vessel, as indicated by the potsherds that show melted glass on their surface, and also ceramic pipes with poured glass, used at mixing the glassy paste during melting and the mixing of colorants. In the neighborhood there also were glass beads, therefore a glass workshop, adjacent to the main building II. All these allowed to follow the process of stone fabrication. Such kilns rather fragile were not preserved as a whole. Klaus Khne proposed a reconstruction (D. Benea 1983, p. 311, fig. 7; K. Khne 1976, p. 23). The dating is to the first half of the 2 nd century. The same dating goes for the glass melting installation, which can also be considered a possible adjacent structure of the workshop, its end being possibly situated to the epoch of Aurelius (Eadem, p. 311). 27. Ramna, com. n judeul Cara-Severin, informaii Octavian Rut, participant la spturile efectute n 1961. a-... Cuptoare. Spturile efectuate n 1961 la Ramna, jud. Cara-Severin, au dus i la dezvelirea unor cuptoare (D. Benea, A. Bejan, p. 143, nr. 83). n apropierea unui cuptor de ars ceramica se gseau i pri de la o ceac dacic (D. Benea 1992, p. 251, informaii O. Rut). Ramna, commune in the Cara-Severin county, information from Octavian Rut, participant in the excavations carried out in 1961. Here, near a kiln, there were also found shards from a Dacian cup (D. Benea 1992, p. 251, information from O. Rut).

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Abrevieri
= Acta Moldaviae Meridionalis. Muzeul judeean tefan cel Mare, Vaslui. = Acta Musei Tutovensis, Anuarul muzeului Vasile Prvan Brlad. = AIStCl. Anuarul Institutului de Studii Clasice, Cluj, I 1928 V 1949. = Apxeo , e. = Anuarul Liceului M. Koglniceanu - Vaslui. = Apulum. Acta Musei Apulensis, Alba - Iulia. = Arheologia Moldovei. Institutul de (Istorie i) Arheologie A. D. Xenopol, Iai. = Arta i Arheologia, Iai. = Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al. I. Cuza, Iai. = British Archaeological Reports. International Series, Oxford. = Deutsches Archologisches Instituut. Bericht der Rmish Germanische Kommission, Frankfurt am Main. Bibliotheca Memoriae Antiquitatis = Bibliotheca Memoriae Antiquitatis, Piatra Neam. CercetIst = Cercetri istorice, seria nou, Iai. Carpica = Carpica. Muzeul Judeean de Istorie i Art Iulian Antonescu, Bacu. CercetIst = Cercetri istorice. Complexul Naional Muzeal Moldova, Iai. Dacia = Dacia. Recherches et dcouvertes archologiques en Roumanie, Bucarest, I-XII (1924-1947). Dacia, NS = Dacia, Nouvelle Srie, Revue darchologie et dhistoire anciene, Bucarest, 1957Danubius = Danubius. Istorie. Muzeul Regional de Istorie Galai. Drevnejie obnosti = Drevnejie obnosti, Kiinev. FolArh = Folia Arheologica, Budapest. Hierasus = Hierasus. Muzeul Judeean Botoani. EAIVR = EAIVR, Enciclopedia Arheologiei i Istoriei Vechi a Romniei, vol. I-III, 1994, 1996, 2000. = pa o , Mocka. KZNM = Kurgany v zonah novostroek Moldavii, Kiinev. Marisia = Marisia. Studii i materiale. Arheologie, istorie, etnografie. Muzeul judeean Mure, Tg. Mure. Materiale = Materiale i cercetri arheologice, Bucureti. MemAntiq = Memoria Antiquitatis, Acta Musei Petrodavensis, Complexul Muzeal Judeean Neam, Piatra Neam. MIA-MA = a A CCCPP, Mocka. Pontica = Pontica. Muzeul de Istorie Naional i Arheologie, Constana. Revista arheologic = Revista arheologic, Chiinu. REF = Revista de etnografie i folclor, Institutul de etnografie i folclor, Bucureti. SAA = Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica, Seminarul de Istorie Antic i Arheologie al Universitii Al. I. Cuza Iai. SatuMareStCom = Satu Mare, Studii i Comunicri. SCIV(A) = Studii i cercetri de istorie veche (i arheologie), Institutul de Arheologie Vasile Prvan, Bucureti. SC-Iai = Studii i cercetri tiinifice, Iai. SCA = Studii i cercetri antropologice, Bucureti. Sc.Piteti = Studii i comunicri, Piteti. SNECMI = Spaiul nord-est carpatic n mileniul ntunecat, coord. Victor Spinei, Editura Universitii Alexandru Ioan Cuza Iai. SymThr = Symposia Thracologica, Institutul Romn de Tracologie, Bucureti. Thraco-Dacica = Thraco-Dacica. Institutul Romn de Tracologie, Bucureti. Thracian World = The Thracian World at the Crossroads of Civilisations. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress of Thracology, Constana-Mangalia-Tulcea 1996. Tyragetia = Tyragetia. Muzeul Naional de Arheologie i Istorie a Moldovei, Chiinu. Valahia = Anales D'Universit Targoviste, section d'Archologie et d'Histoire. VDI- = , Moscka. Vrancea. Studii i Comunicri = Vrancea. Studii i Comunicri. ZfA = Zeitschrift fr Archologie, Berlin L = lungime; l = lime; h = nlime; = diametru; L1 = locuin; Gr. = groap; Cpl. = complex ActaMM ActaMT AIStCl AKM ALMKV Apulum ArhMold Arta i Arheologia AUIai BAR BerRGK

214

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231

Indice de culturi / Culture index


Carpi cultura / The Carpian Culture, p. 23, 25, 51, 54, 59, 66, 69, 72, 96-99, 103, 105, 107, 113-114, 130131, 133, 150, 157, 162, 201. Chilia-Militari cultura / culture, p. 51, 54, 59, 95, 186. Costia - Mnoaia, cultura, complexe, p. 7, 12, 15, 17, 21, 73-75, 82-84, 165. Cucuteni, p. 9, 44, 59, 160, 173 Tripolie, 38, 44. Cultura carpic / Carpian Culture, p. 29, 36, 68, 102-103, 113-114, 130-131. Dacii liberi carpi / Free Dacians The Carpian, p. 23, 25, 69, 72, 201. Daco-roman / Dacia-Romans, p. 13, 15, 26, 33, 56, 62, 85, 131, 201-202. Geto-daci cultura / Geto-Dacians Culture, p. 6, 18, 21, 23-24, 26, 29, 31, 35, 50, 53-54, 66, 68, 70, 72, 78, 94-98, 131, 133, 180-181, 183-184, 187-188, 193, 195, 200-201. Goi / Goths, p. 19, 22, 28, 35, 136-137, 197, 189. Sarmai / Sarmatians, p. 19, 22, 28, 35, 70, 136-137, 197, 189. Dridu cultura / culture, p. 24, 31, 190-191. Horoditea Gordineti, grup cultural / Cultural group, 9-10. Roman(), perioada / Period, 12, 14, 24-29, 31-33, 36-37, 41-42, 47, 51, 54-57, 59, 62, 67, 69-70, 72, 76, 81, 89-91, 95, 98, 101, 103-107, 113, 115, 157, 167-168, 174, 176, 179, 181, 192-193, 195-202, 204-206, 208, 210. Romanic/Romanic, post-roman/post-Roman period, 13, 56, 62, 158, 187-188. Romano-bizantin/Roman Byzantine, p. 193, 195. Sntana de Mure, p. 8, 23, 26, 29, 33, 36, 41, 47, 50-51, 53-54, 56-57, 62, 66-69, 90-91, 96-98, 103, 105-108, 113-114, 118, 121-125, 127, 131-133, 147, 156-157, 162-165, 169-170, 186, 188, 190, 205. ivotilovka Volansk, p. 136. Costeti Bursuceni Taraclia, p. 136. Grupuri culturale cu nmormntri tumulare din bronzul timpuriu / cultural group a tomb that belongs, Early Bronze Age.

Indice de nume / Names index


A R. Alaiba, p. 6-7,18-19, 21-22, 24, 31, 59, 66, 68, 73, 75, 81, 136, 138, 214. V. V. Alaiba, p. 52, 55, 214. Al. Alexandrescu, p. 224. Petric Alexandrescu, p. 56, 230, 218, 225. M. Alexianu, p. 167, 169, 215. D. Alicu, 38, 43, 215. N. Anghelescu, p. 8, 26, 33, 187, 223. I. Antonescu, p. 130-131, 133, 215. R. Ardevan, p. 27, 37, 215. Al. Artimon, p. 7, 24, 31, 67, 69, 74, 76, 163-165, 223 Petre Aurelian, p. 218. B M. Babe, p. 7, 37, 49, 74, 82, 118, 133-134,156-158, 201, 215. T. Bader, p. 27, 34, 58, 63, 220. Gh. Baltag, p. 28, 202, 215. Nicolae Barbu, p. 16-19, 21, 136, 215. V. Barbu, p. 8, 26, 29, 33, 36, 78, 188-191, 21. P. Bardau, p. 8, 198, 201-202, 216. Al. Barnea, p. 42, 48, 228. I. Barnea, p. 228. I. Bauman, p. 6-7, 28, 37, 43, 66, 68, 73-74, 82, 122-123, 215. V. H. Bauman, 28, 35, 215. Maria Brbulescu, p. 29, 36, 215. M. Brbulescu, p. 29, 36, 215. V. Bcuanu, p. 16-19, 21, 136, 215. Al. Brccil, p. 8, 25, 32, 204-207, 215. A. Bejan, p. 212, 216. D. Benea, p. 8, 26, 28, 33, 35, 37, 78, 208-212, 215-216. D. Berciu, p. 8, 78,198, 201, 203-205, 207-208, 215-216, 225. I. Berciu, p. 27, 33, 58, 63, 111, 114, 216. Gh. Bichir, p. 5-6, 8, 23, 25, 27-32, 34-36, 50-51, 54, 5660, 62-63, 66-69, 72-73, 76, 81, 87-88, 95-96, 98-99, 102, 104, 106-119, 121, 123, 127-128, 131-134, 140, 151-153, 157-161, 163, 167, 169-171, 181-185, 186190,193-194, 197-199, 202-203, 205-206, 217, 216, 229. M. T. Bir, p. 38, 43, 216. M. Bitiri-Ciortescu, p. 28, 34, 216. C. Bloiu, p. 7, 66, 68, 73, 82, 156, 158, 216. V. Bobi , p. 5-6, 25, 31, 66-69, 72, 76, 81, 90-91, 95-97, 217, 224. P. Bona, p. 8, 208, 210, 216. E. Bonis, p. 208, 211, 217. G. Bordenache, p. 56, 218. O. Bozu, p. 26-28, 33, 35, 150, 217. G. Brown, p. 39, 44, 217. V. Bubulici, p. 7, 25, 173, 177, 225, 228. E. Bujor, p. 8, 25, 32, 78, 202, 217. V. Butur, p. 30, 36, 217. C A. Ctina, p. 38, 43, 217. M. Crciumaru, p. 18-19, 22, 217. I. Cernat, p. 6, 25, 31, 66-69, 72, 76, 81, 95-97, 217. G. Charachidz. p. 61-62, 65, 217. Dumitru Chiriac, p. 16-19, 21, 136, 215. V. Chirica, p. 6, 29, 36, 66, 68, 72-73, 81-82, 95, 150, 158-160, 217. A. Gheerbrant, p. 60, 217. J. Chevalier, p. 60, 217.

232 E. Chiril, p. 29, 36, 218. C. D. Chiri, p. 42, 47, 217. V. Christescu, p. 8, 25, 27, 33, 39, 41, 45, 47, 193, 195. C. Cihodaru, p. 7, 23, 30, 150, 156-157, 217. L. Ciobanu, p. 7, 25, 173, 177, 228. E. Ciocea, p. 38, 218. N. Ciuc, p. 6, 133-134, 218. M. Coja, p. 28, 56, 218, 225. G. Coman, p. 7, 16, 19, 24, 29, 31, 36, 67, 69, 74, 82, 127-128, 132-134, 155-157, 218. E. Coma, p. 51, 53, 55, 64, 74, 94. M. Coma [Chivasi, p.227],6, 9,23-26,29-33,36,49-51, 54, 66-69, 76, 78, 82, 94-96, 98, 107-108, 111, 114, 116, 118, 120-122, 126-127, 131, 134, 156, 158, 162, 164, 166, 168-170, 180-182, 186-187, 203, 205-206, 218. Em. Condurachi, 56, 218. N. Conovici, p. 8, 29, 36, 186, 218. M. Em. Constantinescu, p. 6-7, 24, 31, 57, 62, 64, 67, 73, 76, 81, 99-103, 186, 218. M. Constantiniu, p. 7, 26, 32, 42, 111, 114, 166, 168, 180, 182-186, 218. Fl. Costea, p. 29, 36, 219. I. H. Crian, p. 27, 29, 34-36, 50, 53-54, 58, 64, 76, 86-87, 93, 130-131, 133, 180-181, 219. N. Cuomo di Caprio, p. 48, 42, 219. A. Cserny, p. 27, 33, 219. D C. Daicoviciu, p. 51, 54, 219-220. H. Daicoviciu, p. 220. M. Davidescu, p. 8, 25-26, 32, 76, 78, 202, 204-207, 219. t. Dnil, p. 27, 34, 222, 225. Gh. Diaconu, p. 6, 52, 74, 82, 121, 219. I. Diaconescu, p. 27, 34, 228. M. Diaconescu, p. 7, 74, 83, 173. M. Dinu, p. 226. S. Dolinescu-Ferche, p. 183, 219. E. Drner, p. 27, 34, 219. I. T. Dragomir, p. 5-6, 24, 31, 67, 69, 73, 81, 89-92, 101107, 111, 114, 126, 150, 170, 183, 219. P. Duhamel, p. 56, 219. St. Dumistrcel, p. 60, 219. S. Dumitracu, p. 6, 27, 34, 58, 63, 89, 220. S. Dumitriu, p. 56, 215, 18. N. Dunre, p. 47, 76, 220. P. Dupont, p. 28, 56, 218. E L. Ellis, p. 34, 39, 42, 44-45, 48, 220. E. Emandi, p. 7, 166. C. Eminovici, p. 7, 162. V. Eftimie, p. 218, 225. F Gh. B. Fedorov, p. 105-106, 220. Al. Ferenczi, p. 31, 59, 220. t. Ferenczi, p. 27-28, 34, 42, 58-9, 63, 76, 95, 101, 103, 105, 107-109, 113, 115-117, 119, 158-160, 166, 168170, 180-182, 187-189, 192-193, 220. A. Filimon, p. 27, 33, 50, 220. M. Filipescu, p. 16, 20, 220. O. Floca, p. 27-28, 34, 42, 58, 63, 76, 95, 101, 103, 105, 107-109, 113, 115-117, 119, 158-160, 166, 168-170, 180-182, 187-189, 192-193, 220. A. Florescu, p. 225. Fl. B. Florescu, p. 30, 36, 51, 54, 57-58, 63, 93-94, 160, 185, 220. R. Florescu, p. 25, 27, 32, 34, 51, 54, 204-205, 220. Gr. Foit, p. 6, 24, 31, 57, 60, 67, 69, 73, 76, 81, 111, 114, 117-120, 126-127, 150, 220. G D. Gheorghiu, p. 40, 46, 221. Gh. Gherghe, p. 18-19, 22, 214. C. Giurescu, p. 18, 21, 221. I. Glodariu, p. 26-27, 33-34, 86-87, 208, 210, 220, 222, 228. Ioan Godea, 30, 36, 221. N. Grigore, p. 61, 224 . N. Gudea, p. 8, 26, 28, 33, 35, 38, 43, 208, 221. H R. Harhoiu, p. 28, 221. N. Haruchi, p. 6, 24, 31, 67, 69, 73, 76, 81, 96-97, 107108, 111, 114, 126-127, 150. J. Henning, p. 29, 36, 71, 221. C. Hobincu, p. 9-10. K. Horedt, p. 29, 36, 50, 53, 221. M. M. Hudeak, p. 28, 35, 56, 221. I C. Iconomu, p. 7, 29, 35, 158, 221. I. Ioni, p. 5-7, 9, 24, 29, 31, 36, 41, 47, 67-69, 73-74, 76, 82, 92, 108, 123, 125, 130-131, 133, 158-162, 169, 221. Gh. Iordache, p. 30, 36-37, 39-40, 42-43, 45-46, 48, 51, 54-55, 57-58, 63, 66-69, 74, 76, 82, 85, 94, 98, 112, 114-116, 158-160, 166, 168, 170, 180-183, 187-188, 191, 196-197, 200-201, 221. M. Irimia, p. 29, 35, 221. M. Istrate, p. 215. K H. Klusch, p. 41, 46, 49, 52-53, 221. V. Kotigoroko, p. 29, 36, 51, 53, 222. Istvn Kovcs, p. 27, 33, 105, 222. A. Kokowski, p. 29, 222. K. Khne, p. 210, 212, 222. L M. Lange, p. 194, 196, 222. F. Laubenheimer, p. 70, 14, 222. Gh. Lazin, p. 28, 34, 222. V. Leahu, p. 7, 78, 111, 180-181, 188, 222. A. Levinschi, p. 25, 222. O. Leviki, p. 9-10. I. T. Lipovan, p. 28, 35, 222. M M. Macrea, p. 5, 50, 54, 86-87, 130, 133, 222. Ren Majurel, p. 27, 33, 222. V. I. Marchevici, p. 39, 45, 222. M. Marcu, p. 7, 29, 36, 74, 83, 171-172, 222 . C. Matas, p. 6, 24, 31, 66, 68, 72-73, 76, 81, 98, 111, 114116, 150, 223. Al. V. Matei, p. 28, 34, 222-223.

233 L. Mrghitan, p. 9, 27-28, 34, 42, 58, 63, 76, 95, 101, 103, 105, 107-109, 113, 115-117, 119, 158-160, 166, 168-170, 180-182, 187-189, 192-193, 208, 215, 230, 227. Fl. Medele, p. 8, 208, 210, 217, 223. V. Mihilescu Brliba, p. 7, 118, 215. H. Mikler, p. 38, 43, 223. B. Mitrea, p. 8, 26, 32, 195. I. Mitrea, p. 7, 23, 31, 65, 67, 72, 74, 81, 168-171. N. Mirioiu, p. 215. I. Mitrofan, p. 28, 34-35, 37-38, 43, 223. G. Miu, p. 136, 214. M. Moga, p. 8, 208, 210. S. Morintz, p. 6, 24, 31, 67, 69, 73, 76, 81, 96-97, 107108, 111, 114, 126-127, 150, 183, 184-185, 223. C. Mueeanu, p. 37, 43, 223. N V. Natcheva, p. 38, 43, 223. E. Neme, p. 38, 43, 215. I. Nmeti, p. 27, 34, 223. I. Nestor, p. 7, 24, 30, 66, 68, 74, 82, 159-160, 165, 170171, 223-224. E. Nicolae, p. 25, 28, 35, 52, 58, 60, 71, 74, 83, 108, 112113, 115, 117-118, 165, 173-178, 224, 227-228. V. Nicolae, p. 61, 231. C. Nicolescu, p. 30, 36-37, 43, 224. M. Nicorescu, p. 30, 36, 224. I. Niculi, p. 71, 224. A. Niu, p. 7, 24, 31, 166-167, 224, 225, 229. H. Nubar, p. 56, 218. O L. Oancea, p. 8, 26, 33, 186, 224. t. Olteanu, p. 61, 224. A. Opai, p. 29, 35-36, 42, 224. P V. Palade, p.5-7, 12, 14, 24, 31, 52, 55, 66, 69, 73-74, 76, 82, 88, 123, 134, 150, 155, 158-159, 169, 183, 214, 217, 224. P. I. Panait, p. 7, 26, 33, 112, 115, 167, 169, 181-187, 219. M. Pantazic, p. 16-19, 21, 136, 215. A. Paragin, p. 5, 25, 31, 76, 90-91, 224. V. Prvan, p. 11, 13, 116, 225. T. S. Passek, p. 39, 45, 225. C. Punescu, p. 42, 47, 217. C. C. Petolescu, p. 218, 225. Gh. I. Petre, p. 8, 25, 32, 131, 198-202, 225. Paul Petrescu, p. 30, 36-37, 43, 224, 226. M. Petrescu-Dmbovia, p. 7, 24, 29-30, 36, 39, 45, 66-69, 74, 82, 104, 106, 122, 126-127, 133, 155, 158, 166171, 181, 184-185, 225, 229. R. Petrovsky, p. 8, 208, 210. D. M. Pippidi, p. 28, 35, 56, 218, 225. I. Plugariu, p. 9-10. Gh. Poenaru Bordea, p. 27, 34, 225. Em. Popescu, p. 8, 95, 130, 157, 186, 216, 218, 225. D. Popescu, p. 131, 133, 158-159, 225. Gh. Popilian, p. 8, 26, 32, 37, 41-43, 47, 52, 58, 61, 71, 181, 185, 199-201, 205. C. Preda, p. 23, 30, 67-68, 72, 81, 94-95, 98, 186, 219, 225, 228. D. Protase, p. 27, 34, 221-222, 225. R R. L. Rands, p. 29, 225. C. Radu, p. 56, 225. S. Ra, p. 7, 24, 31, 74, 76, 82, 104, 106, 122, 126-127, 169-171, 236. A. Rdulescu, p. 28, 35, 226. O. Rut, p. 8, 219. D. Rhodes, p. 42, 48, 233. P. M. Rice, p. 42, 47, 228. G. B. Rogers, p. 38, 43, 226. D. V. Rosetti, p. 7-8, 185, 236. Al. Rou, p. 16, 19-20, 226. L. Rou, 233. I. I. Russu, p. 226. M. Rusu, p. 130, 133, 229. S E. V. Saiko, p. 29, 226. S. Sanie, p. 5, 50, 54, 87, 219, 226. . Sanie, p. 5, 87, 226. H. Schmidt, p. 39, 44. 226. C. Schuster, p. 26, 33, 188-189, 191, 226. C. Scorpan, p. 163, 165, 226. E. Secoan, 226. Ann O. Shepard, p. 29, 226. B. Sltineanu, p. 30, 36, 226. T. Smilenko, p. 226 V. Srbu, p. 11, 13, 39, 41, 45, 47, 71, 80, 226. V. Spinei, p. 18, 21, 226. D. Spnu, p. 215. S. Stanc, 136, 138, 151, 155, 214. A. Stoia, p. 74, 82, 158, 162, 226. I. Stoian, p. 56, 218, 225. G. Stoica, p. 39, 45, 49, 52, 226. Al. Suceveanu, p. 42, 48, 221, 226-227. B. Sultov, p. 37-38, 43, 227. V. G. Swan, 38, 43, 227. Z. Szkely, p. 27, 34, 122, 163, 165, 227. P. adurschi, p. 173, 227. L. ovan, p. 173, 227. D. tefan, p. 225. Gh. tefan, p. 28, 35, 140, 141, 227. T M. Tanasachi, p. 6, 29, 36, 66, 68, 72-73, 81-82, 95, 150, 158-160, 217. C. Ttulea, p. 25, 32, 78, 193-195, 227. D. Teaci, p. 42, 47, 217. N. Telnov, p. 7, 25, 173, 177, 226, 228. D. G. Teodor, p. 7, 9-10, 16, 18-19, 21-24, 56, 62, 70, 74, 82, 94, 156, 165-167, 226-227. V. Teodoresu, p. 185. Gr. Tocilescu, p. 8, 25, 32, 204. O. Toropu, p. 25, 32, 78, 193-195, 227. Gh. Trohani, 39, 44, 49, 50, 53, 227. D. Tudor, p. 8, 25-26, 32, 59, 70, 78, 114, 122, 170-171, 192-193, 19 5, 196-198, 201-202, 228. M. Tudor, p. 7, 26, 78, 104, 106, 111, 122, 127, 170-171, 180-183, 228. U N. Uc, p. 30, 36, 228.

234 G. Ulbert, p. 38, 43, 228. T. Udrescu, 133, 155, 228. Al. Ungureanu, p. 16-19, 21, 136, 215. N. Ungureanu, p. 7, 74, 83, 171-172, 222. V. Ursache, p. 6, 73, 89, 108, 130-131, 133, 221, 228. V V. Vasiliev, p. 29, 36, 218. I. Vlduiu, p. 30, 36, 228. Vl.Vornic, p. 7, 25, 57-61, 73, 76, 156, 173, 178, 226, 228. R. Vuia, p. 18, 22, 228. Al. Vulpe, p. 23, 67, 72, 74, 82, 98, 165, 188, 228. Ec. Vulpe, p. 5, 23, 30, 94-95, 130-131, 133, 228-229. R. Vulpe, p. 5-8, 23, 25, 30, 32, 50, 53-54, 59, 68, 72, 81, 87, 94-95, 111, 114, 126-127, 130-131, 133, 150, 156157, 183-184, 186-188, 228-229. W I. Werner, p. 163, 164, 229. I. Winkler, p. 29, 36, 218. Z Eugenia Zaharia, p. 224. N. and Em. Zaharia p. 7, 24, 29, 31, 36, 39, 45, 74, 76, 82, 104, 106, 122, 126-127, -133, 155, 169-171, 22. M. Zahariade, 28, 35, 214-215, 229. I. Zamoteanu, p. 6, 24, 31, 66, 68, 72-73, 76, 81, 98, 111, 114-116, 150, 223. M. Zamoteanu, p. 6-7, 24, 31, 66, 68, 72-73, 76, 81, 98, 111, 114-116, 150, 165, 222-223. Vl. Zirra, p. 7, 26, 32-33, 78, 104, 106, 111, 114, 122, 126-127, 170-171, 180-183, 187-188, 218, 223-224, 229. N. Zugravu, p. 167, 169, 216. A. A. , p. 42, 118, 229. A. T. , p. 67, 69, 229. M. . , p. 59, 229. . . , p. 174, 178, 229. o . , p. 175, 178, 229. N. A. , p. 66, 68, 229. . . , p. 30, 36, 230. . . , p. 36, 29, 230. . . , p. 59, 230. M. A. , p. 67, 69, 230. C.., p. 61, 65, 230.

Toponymical index
A Adunaii Copceni - La Porcrie, p. 8, 26. Aislingen, fortificaie n Germania, p. 38, 43. Alba, jud./county, p. 27-28, 33, 35, 39, 45. Alba Iulia, Apulum, Colonia Nova Apulensis, p. 27, 39, Nord vest, 27, 33, 39, 41, 45, 47, 58, 63. Andrid, p. 27, 34. Aque Cioroiul Nou, p. 27, 34. Arad-Ceala, 24, 27, 31, 34, 111, 114; jud/county, p. 50, 53. Arpau de Sus - Cetuia, 5, 12, 14, 38, 44, 50, 54, 86-87. B Banat, p. 26, 28, 33, 35, 37, 208. Banca Gar - apte case, p. 5-6, 9-12, 14-15, 17-18, 2024, 39-42, 45-49, 52, 58, 60, 64, 67, 69, 73-76, 82-84, 134-143, 145-146, 148-149, 151. Banca Gar-La Sltioara, p.17, 21. Banca - Sat, p. 6, 12, 15, 17, 20, 73, 75, 82-84, 133-134. Biceni - Laiu II, 7, 12, 15, 17, 20, 66-69, 73, 75, 81-83, 122, 126-127, 158,- Silite,p. 7, 12, 15, 17, 20, 24, 31, 66, 68, 73, 75, 81-83, 158-159. Blteni - Grla Strmbu, p. 5-6, 12, 14-16, 20, 23-24, 31, 38, 44, 51, 54, 67, 69, 72-73, 75, 81, 83-84, 89, 91, 101, 103-106, 111, 114, 126-127, 150. Bneasa - Struleti, p. 23. Brlad, ora/city, p. 9, 17, 21. Brlad, ru/river, p. 16-18, 20-21, cu/with Petrioara, Ghermneti, Valea Luavei, Banca, Bujoreni, p. 17, 21. Brlad - Valea Seac, p. 5-6, 12, 14-15, 17, 20, 24, 31, 49, 67, 69, 73-76, 82, 84, 88, 125-126, 150. Berezeni - Vicoleni, p. 7, 73-75, 82-83, 155. Biharea-Grdina CAP Baraj, p.6, 12, 14, 27, 34, 38, 44,89. Bihor, jud./county, p. 6, 12, 14, 89. Bistria, p. 17, Bistria Nsud, jud./county, p. 27, 34. Borduani, p. 39, 44, 49, 53. Botoani, jud./County, p. 7, 12, 15, 31, 39, 45, 66-69, 74, 83-84, 104, 106, 122, 166, 169-173. Botoani - Dealul Crmidriei, p. 7, 12, 15, 17, 20, 24, 31, 57, 63, 67, 69, 73, 75-76, 82-83, 104, 106, 122, 126-127, 169-170, 172. Braov, p. 29, 36. Bucani, p. 8, 186. Bucureti, p. 9, 17, 26, 66, 188, 190. Bucureti - Celu Nou, p. 7, 67, 69, 111, 114, 180, 184185, 222. Bucureti - Crngai, p. 7, 26, 32, 67, 69, 78, 104, 106, 122, 126-127, 171, 180-181, 184-185, 222. Bucureti - Dmroaia, p. 7, 185. Bucureti-Fundenii Doamnei, p.7, 26, 57, 63,182,184185. Bucureti, Struleti - Micneti, - La Nuci, p. 7, 26, 32, 66, 68, 183-184. Bugeac, p. 16, 19, 31. Bumbeti - Jiu, p. 8, 25, 32, 78, 202. Buridava, Stolniceni, p. 8, 25, 32, 78, 198-201. Butnreti, p. 6, 12, 15-16, 20, 23-24, 29, 35, 42, 57-60, 63-64, 66-69, 72-73, 75-76, 81, 83-84, 109-113, 118, 120, 127, 130, 133, 144, 147, 150, 152, 183-184, 216. Buzu, p. 5-6, 12-15, 31, 39, 41, 45, 47, 73, 81, 85, 89, 99, 102-103, 105, 121. C Cara-Severin, jud./county, p. 8, 26, 28, 33, 35, 150, 208, 210, 212; olari/potter,Bini, p. 51, 55. Carpai/Carpathians, p. 5, 7, 9-14, 16-17, 19, 23, 25, 29. Curbura ~, p. 20 Cain, ru/river, p. 26, 33.

235 Caucaz, p. 62. Cavadineti - Rpa Glodului, p. 5, 12, 14, 38, 44, 51, 54, 83, 91. Clrai, p. 8, 182, 187-188. Ctunele, p. 8, 25, 32, 202. Cmpia/Plain Jijiei, Bahlui, p. 17, 20. Cmpia/plain Covurlui, p. 16, 20. Cmpia/Plain, Dealurile/Hills Flciu, p. 16-17, 20. Cmpia/Plain DorohoiBotoani, p. 17. Cmpia/Plain Moldovei, p.16-17, 20. Cmpia/Plain Munteniei, p. 26. Cmpia/Plain Rmnic, p. 19, 85. Cmpiei Romn/Romanian Plain, p. 16, 19. Cmpia/Plain Sveni, p. 16-17, 19-20. Cmpia/plain Siret, p. 16, 19. Cmpia/plain Tecuci, p. 16, 19. Colinele Tutovei, p. 16. Cmpia Iailor/Iailor Plain, p. 16, 19. Cluj-Napoca, p. 29, 36, - Cartier Mntur, p. 27, 33; Napoca, p. 28, 35. Costia - Mnoaia, p. 7, 12, 15, 17, 21, 73-75, 82-84, 165. Crasna, ru/river, p. 16, 20. Crsanii de Jos - Piscu Crsani, p. 8, 186. Cucoeni - Butnreti, p. 6, 12, 15-16, 20, 23-24, 29, 31, 35, 42, 57-60, 63-64, 66-69, 72-73, 75-76, 81, 83-84, 109-113, 118, 120, 126-127, 130, 133, 144, 147, 150152, 183-184. D Dacia, p. 26, 28, 32, 34-35, 38, 41-43, 47, 52, 56-57, 62, 70, 137, 192, 201-202, 204. Dmbovia, jud./county, p. 8, 51, 54, 111, 114, 181-182, 186, 214. DealurileHills, Coplu Cozancea, p. 16, 19. Dealurile/Hills Banca-Grivia, p. 18. Dealurile/Hills Comarna Rducneni, Faa Prutului, p. 17, 20. Dealuri-cmpia/Hills-plain Flciu,Tutova,p.16-22, 85, 136. Tutova, ru/river, p. 123-124. Dealurile/Hills Iapa, Uneti, Seaca, p. 17, 20. Dealurile/Hills Racova Stemnic, p. 17, 20. Depres.Ozana Topolia, Cracu Bistria, Rca, p. 17, 20. Depres. Tazlu, Oituz-Cain, Trebi, Capta, p. 17, 20. Dierna, p. 28, 35, 208, 210. Dinogetia, p. 29, 35. Dobrogea, p. 28-29, 35, 76, 163. Dodeti - ipot, Clugreasca, p. 7, 9-10, 12, 15, 17-18, 20, 22, 44, 67, 69, 73-75, 82-84, 156, 163, 165. Dondueni, p. 9-10. Drobeta - Turnu Severin, p. 8, 25, 28, 32, 35, 78, 203, 205. Dumbrava - Cprrie, p. 5, 12, 14, 87. Dumbrveni, p. 6, 12, 15-16, 20, 24, 67, 69, 73-76, 82-84, 96-97, 121-122, 126-127. Dumeti - ntre praie, p. 9-10, Dunre/Danube, p. 11, 12, 16, 42, 59, 67, 72, 136, 190, 193-194, 203-206, 208. Durostorum, p. 37-38, 43. E Epureni - oldneti, p. 9-10, 24-31. Europa, p. 38, 43. F Fereti, p. 7, 73-75, 82-83, 155. Folteti, p. 37, 43, 122-123. G Galai, jud., p. 5-6, 12, 14-15, 24, 31, 37, 43, 50, 53-54, 68, 72-73, 81-83, 87, 91, 94-95, 122-123. Garvn, 28, 35, 205-207. Germania/Germany, p. 38, 43. Gherseni - Lacul Frncului, p. 6, 12, 15-16, 20, 38, 44, 74-75, 82-83, 121. Giurgiu, jud./county, p. 8, 26, 50, 53, 188, 190-191, Glvnetii Vechi - La Ghilitoare, p. 7, 12, 15, 17, 20, 23, 30, 57, 63, 66, 68, 73-76, 81-83, 159-160, 170-171, 182. Gorj / jud./county, p. 8, 25. Gornea - Cunia de Sus, p. 8, 26, 28, 33, 35, 208. Gorsium, fortif. in Pannonia, p. 38, 43. Grdinari - Slite, p. 26, 28, 33, 35, 150. Grditea - Popin , p. 11, 13, 39, 41, 45, 47, 71, 80. Grivia, p. 17-18, 20, 22, 136. Gura Vii, 206-207. Gutina, p. 7,12, 15, 17, 21, 66-69, 73-75, 82-84, 122, 162. H Histria, p. 28, 35, 51, 54, 56. Horezu p. 51, 55. Hunedoara, jud./county, p. 27, 34, 51, 55; olari/potter, Baru Mare, p. 51, 55. Huanu - Saivan, p. 7, 17, 73-75, 82-84, 171-172. I Ialomia, p. 8, 25, 32, 186-187. Iai, ora, p. 17, jud., p. 5-7, 12, 14-15, 24, 29, 31, 36, 57, 63, 66, 68, 72-74, 81, 87-92, 95, 104, 106, 122, 1581161, 170-171, 182. Iai - Nicolina, p. 5, 7, 12, 14-15, 17, 20, 24, 31, 66-69, 73-76, 82-84, 92, 160. Ileana - Podari, p. 8, 26, 33, 182, 187-188. Ilfov, p. 7, 9, 57, 63, 67, 69, 78, 104, 106, 111, 114, 122, 170-171, 180-181, 183-184, 186. Independena - Vatra satului, p. 8, 26, 33, 75, 187. Ioneni - intirim, p. 7, 12, 14, 17, 20, 73, 82-83, 158. Isaiia - Satu Nou, p. 7, 12, 15, 17, 20, 73-75, 82-83, 158. Izvoru Dulce - Borcnia, p. 6, 12, 15-16, 20, 24, 38, 44, 57, 62, 64, 67, 69, 72-73, 75-76, 81, 81-84, 99-102. J Jijia, p. 20, 161, 168, 174. L Lazuri, p. 28, 34. Lederata, p. 26, 33, 208, 210. Liteni, p. 7, 12, 15, 17, 21, 73-75, 82-83, 166. M Mamaia, p. 35. Mangalia - Nord, Neptun, p. 29, 35. Marea Neagr/Black Sea, p. 28, 35. Marginea, p. 5, 12, 14, 93, 113, 115, 184-185. Medieu Aurit, p. 24, 27-28, 31, 34, 111, 114. Mehedini, jud./County, p. 8, 25, 32, 203-207; olari/potter, ieti, p. 51, 55. Micsasa, 28, 34-35, 37-38, 43, 116.

236 Micia, Miciensis p. 9, 28, 34, 58, 63, 101, 103. Militari - Mtsaru, p. 8, 51, 54, 59, 186. Mironeti - Giurgiu, p. 8, 26, 78, 190-191. Medieul Aurit - uculeu, p. 27, 34. Moldova/Moldavia,p.12,16,18, 23-24, 29, 50,58,67,85, 101. Mugeni - Vzlok, p. 24, 31, 59. Muntenia/Walachia, p. 11, 18, 21, 25. Mure, ru/river, p. 27, 33; jud./counti, p. 50, 53. N Neam, p. 5-7, 12, 14-15, 23-24, 50, 53, 66, 68, 72-74, 8182, 87, 97-98, 109, 113, 144, 147, 152, 165. Nicopolis ad Istrum, p. 196, 198; p. 37, 43. Novae, p. 196, 198. O Obcinele Bucovinei, p. 16, 19. Oescus, p. 196, 198. Olt,jud./county, p.8, 25-26,192-193,196;ru/river 198, 201. Oltenia, p. 25, 31. Oltina - La dinamit, Altina (Altinum), p. 29. Orheiu Bistriei, p. 27, 34. Ostrov, p. 29, 35. Ostrovul Banului, p. 8, 25, 32, 78, 205-207. Ostrovul imian, p. 8, 78, 203. P Pannonia, p. 38, 43. Pdureni Jaritea - Piigoi, p. 6, 12, 14, 25, 31, 38, 44, 6670, 72, 75-76, 81, 83-84, 95-97. Pecica - anul Mare, p. 50, 53. Piatra Neam - Btca Doamnei, p. 6, 24, 31, 66, 68, 70, 72, 75, 81, 83, 98, 116. Piatra Neam - Drmneti, p. 6, 12, 15-16, 20, 23-24, 31, 72-73, 75-76, 81, 83, 111, 114-116, 139, 150, 152. Piatra oimului (Calu) - Horoditea, p. 50, 53. Platforma Europei Orientale/Eastern Europe Platform, p. 16, 19. Platforma Scitic, p. Podiul/plateau Brlad, p. 16-20. Podiul, Cmpia/ Plateau, Plain Covurluiului, p. 16, 19. Podiul Central Moldovenesc/ Central Moldavian Plateau, p. 16-17, 19-20. Podiului/plateau Moldovei, p. 16, 19-20. Podiul Niprului/Dnieper Plateau, p. 16, 19. Podiul/plateau Sucevei, p. 16-17, 19, 21. Podiul/plateau WolhynoPodolian, p. 16, 19. Poiana-Cetate, p. 5-6, 12,14, 23, 30, 38, 44, 50, 53-54, 66-70,72, 75-76, 81, 83,87, 94-95,111, 114, 126, 131, 133. Poiana - Silite, p. 6, 12, 14, 23, 30, 38, 44, 67-70, 72, 75, 81, 83, 97, 98, 111, 114, 126-127. Poiana - Varni, Dulceti, p. 5, 12, 14, 23, 50, 54, 59, 67, 69, 87, 150. Poieneti - Dealul Teilor, p. 7, 12, 15, 17, 20, 23, 66, 68, 73-76, 81-84, 111, 114, 116, 130, 133, 150, 156-157, 183-184, 201. Popeti - Nucet, p. 8. Porolissum, p. 28, 35, 38, 43, 130, 133. Potaissa, p. 28, 35. Prut, River, p. 5, 9-13, 16-21, 23, 29. Pruteni - Sub Dealul Babei, p. 7, 11, 25, 57-61, 71-73, 7476, 81, 173-177. R Radovanu - La fraii Dinc, p. 33, 67, 69. Radovanu, p. 9-10 - Pe Neguleasa, p. 26, 33, 203, 205. Ramna, p. 8, 26, 28, 33, 35, 212. Rduleti, p. 8, 25, 32, 67, 69, 78, 126-127, 186-187. Republica Moldova/Republic of Moldova, p. 7, 9-11, 25, 39, 45, 57, 71-73, 105-106, 173-178. Romnia, p. 11, 21, 30, 39, 67, 102, 215. Romula - Reca, p. 8, 26, 28, 32, 35, 37, 41-43, 47, 58, 63, 193-194, 198, 205, 207-208. Sarafineti - Cetuia Corni, p. 39, 45. Sarmizegetusa, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica, Dealul Grditii, M-ii Ortiei, p. 27-28, 34-35, 206207. Satu Mare, p. 27-28, 34, 89. Srca - Pe linia ferat, p. 7, 12, 15, 17, 20, 66, 68, 73, 75, 81-83, 158. Scytia, p. 29, 36. Sf. Gheorghe - Eprestet, p. 27, 34, 50, 53, 105-107, 122. Sibiu, p. 5, 12, 14, 86-87, 116. Sighioara, p. 50, 53. Silitea - Muncelu, p. 6, 9-10, 12, 24, 31, 73, 76, 123-124. Siret, p. 16-17, 19-21, 94-95, 109. Slveni - Castrul roman/ Roman castrum, p. 8, 26, 32, 78, 174, 178, 196-198, 201. Stepele Euro-Asiatice/Euro-Asian Steppes, p. 19, 21. Stoicani - Poarta arinii, p. 6, 12, 15-16, 20, 38, 44, 66, 68, 73, 75, 81-84, 122-123. Subcarpaii/Subcarpathians, Moldova/Moldavian, p. 1617, 21, Neam, Trotu, Tazlu Cain, p. 17, 19-20. Subcarpaii/Subcarpathians Vrancea, p. 17, 20. Suceava, p. 5-7, 12, 14-15, 19, 21, 57, 62, 67, 69, 73-74, 81-82, 93, 111, 113-115, 117, 119, 150, 166. Sucidava - Celeiu, p. 8, 25, 28, 31, 35, 78,193-198. cheia - Silitea, p. 6, 12, 15-16, 20, 23-24, 31, 38, 44, 57, 60, 62, 67, 69, 72-73, 75-76, 81, 83-84, 111, 114, 117119, 126-127. indrilia, p. 8, 184-186. irna, p. 61. tefan cel Mare - Dealul Viorica, p. 7, 12, 14, 17, 20. uletea, Fedeti, p. 6, 12, 15, 17, 20, 73-75, 82-83, 155. T Trgovite, p. 7, 26. Trpeti-Rpa lui Bodai, p. 19, 21. Telia, p. 29, 35, 51, - Amza, p. 28,- La Pod, p. 28, 35. Tibiscum, sat/village Jupa-Cetate, p. 8, 26, 28, 33, 35, 78, 208-210. Tissa, p. 36. Tometi, p. 6, 70, 72, 75, 81, 83, 95. Tomis, p. 29, 35. Transilvania/Transylvania, p. 12, 27-28, 33, 50, 66, 86. Trinca - Izvorul lui Luca, p. 9-10. Trueti - Pe Cuha, p. 7, 9, 12, 15, 17, 20, 23-24, 30, 57, 63, 66-69, 73-75, 82-84, 104, 106, 122, 126-127, 166167, 169-171, 184-185; - uguieta, p. 73. Tulcea, jud./county, p. 28, 35, 205. Turnu Severin - Drobeta, p. 8, 25, 32, 78, 203-205.

237 Turnu Severin - Ostrovul imian, p. 8, 78, 203. ifeti - La Grigoreti, p. 6, 12, 15-17, 20, 23-24, 51, 54, 67, 69, 72-73, 75-76, 81, 83-84, 96-97, 107-108, 111, 114, 126-127, 150. ucani - ipote, p. 24, 31. U Ucraina, p. 28, 38-39, 44, 67. V Valea Cainului, p. 26. Vaslui, ora/city, p. 17, jud./county, p. 5-6, 9, 12, 14-15, 24, 29, 31, 36, 66-69, 73, 82, 88, 111, 114, 116, 123127, 132-134, 136, 155-157. Vleni - La Moar, p. 6, 12, 14, 38, 44, 51, 54, 72-73, 75, 81, 83, 89, 108, 130, 133, 155. Vlcea, jud./county, p. 8, 25, 32, 198, 201; olari/potter, Deti, p. 51, 55. Vldicesca, p. 39, 44, 49, 53. Voetin - La curte, p. 5, 12, 14, 25, 31, 38, 44, 76, 83, 90. Vorniceni-Pod Ibneasa, p. 7, 12, 15, 17, 20, 73-75, 8283. Vrancea, jud./county, p. 5-6, 12, 14-15, 17, 20, 24-25, 31, 54, 67, 69, 72-74, 81, 85, 90, 95, 97, 107-108, 111, 114, 121-122. Z Zalu - Valea Mei, p. 34. Zlatna, Ampelum, p. 28, 35. Zorleni - Fntnele, p. 6, 12, 15, 17, 20, 24, 31, 38, 44, 52, 55, 66, 68, 73, 75, 81-83, 126-132, 150.