Sunteți pe pagina 1din 46

Gradele de comparatie

Adjective, Adverb 3 ianuarie 2011 Un comentariu


Ca si in limba romana, si in limba turca, atat adjectivul cat si adverbul au grade de
comparatie. Atributele unei actiuni sau insusirile unui obiect pot fi comparate cu altele.
Gradele de comparatie sunt forme pe care le ia adjectivul sau adverbul pentru a arata in ce
masura un obiect poseda o insusire in raport cu alte obiecte sau cu alte momente ale existentei
sale; in limba turca se exprima prin termeni care preced adjectivul sau adverbul. Fac acum o
scruta prezentare in limba romana pe care o voi folosi ca model pentru limba turca:
Gradul pozitiv: exprima o insusire a obiectului fara a o raporta la un alt obiect sau la alt
moment flori rosii, mers rapid.
Gradul comparativ: exprima insusirea unui obiect in raport cu insusirile unui alt obiect,
stabilind raporturi de egalitate sau inegalitate;
-de superioritate (mai frumos)
-de egalitate (la fel de frumos)
-de inferioritate (mai putin frumos)
Gradul superlativ - relativ: exprima insusirile la cel mai inalt sau cel mai scazut grad, prin
comparatie cu alt obiect;
-de superioritate (cel mai frumos)
-de inferioritate (cel mai putin frumos)
-absolut: arata gradul cel mai inalt sau mai scazut grad,fara a compara obiectul
(foarte/extraordinar de frumos)
Exemplele care urmeaza se folosesc atat pentru adjective, cat si pentru adverbe.
Gradul pozitiv se refera la adjectivele in forma lor absoluta sau declinata: gzel frumos
Bu gzel bir gl. Acesta este un trandafir frumos.
Comparativul de superioritate se obtine prin utilizarea termenului daha, corespondetul
lui mai din limba romana: daha gzel mai frumos
Bu daha gzel bir gl. Acesta este un trandafir mai frumos.
Comparativul de egalitate se obtine prin utilizarea termenului kadar ca, la fel ca, ca si:
Kar kadar beyaz. Este alb ca zapada.
Daca sunt 2 substantive care urmeaza sa fie comparate, ordinea in propozitie este urmatoarea:
substantiv1 substantiv2* kadar adjectiv
sau
substantiv1 de** substantiv2 kadar adjectiv
(de are aici sensul de asemenea)
Elbise etek kadar gzel. Rochia si fusta sunt la fel de frumoase.
Elbise de etek kadar gzel. Rochia este la fel de frumoasa ca fusta.
Observatii:
*Substantiv2 poate fi inlocuit si de un pronume simplu, precum: ben, sen, bu, u sau unul
posesiv:benim, senin, bunun, unun.
** de desi se scrie separat, se comporta ca un sufix Tip(a) si are 2 forme;
Comparativul de inferioritate: se obtine prin adaugarea daha az mai putin decat inaintea
adjectivului: daha az gzel mai putin frumos decat
Bu plaka kupa daha az gzel. Farfuria e mai putin frumoasa decat cana.
Superlativul de superioritate se obtine cu ajutorul lui en cel mai: en gzel cel mai frumos
Gl en gzel iek. Trandafirul e cea mai frumoasa floare.
Superlativul de inferioritate: se obtine folosind en az cel mai putin inaintea adjectivului; en
az gzel cel mai putin frumos
Dkkanda daha az gzel kuma elbise. Cea mai putin frumoasa haina din magazin e rochia.
Superlativul absolut se obtine cel mai frecvent folosind ok foarte: ok gzel foarte
frumos
Bu gl ok gzel. Acest trandafir este foarte frumos.
In mare parte mi se pare o lectie relativ usoara. Pe scurt, un adjectiv trecut prin toate gradele,
arata cam asa:
gzel
daha gzel
daha az gzel
en gzel
en az gzel
ok gzel
Dar ca sa nu va faceti iluzii prea mari ca intelegeti care-i treaba cu turca, mai completez lectia
cu niste observatii. Asadar, trebuie sa stiti ca si in limba turca, ca si in limba romana se mai
folosesc si alte cuvinte care nuanteaza diverse forme de comparatie si care se folosesc de
asemenea in fata adjectivului/adverbului:
fazla prea
daha fazla prea mult
kadar iyi la fel de bun ca
-dan daha iyi mai bun decat
en iyisi cel ami bun
pek az foarte putin
ok az cel mai putin
daha ok mai mult, supra-
Mai sunt si o seama de termeni cu origine arabica si persana, dar voi reveni cu un articol doar
pentru acesti termeni. Va recomand sa va uitati si pe articolele indicate ca sursa pentru
lamuriri suplimentare si exemple.
Cuvintele duble kilemeler
Adjective, Adverb 29 decembrie 2010 Comments: 6
Expresiile romanesti treaca-mearga, vrand-nevrand, terchea-berchea, talmes-balmes au
corespondenta in limba turca, nu atat ca sens ci ca maniera de constructie sub forma
cuvintelor duble. Unele cuvinte din limba turca au ajuns chiar si in limba romana:
Iava-iava= ncet, binior, fr grab.
Techer-mecher adv. (Turcism nv.) n mare grab, imediat; pe sus, cu sila. [Acc. i: tcher-
mcher] Din tc. teker meker.
harcea-parcea adv. (Fam.; n expr.) A face (pe cineva sau ceva) harcea-parcea = a tia (pe
cineva sau ceva) n buci, a face frme; a distruge, a nimici. Din tc. para-para bucat
cu bucatIn general se refera la adjective sau adverbe, care prin dublare fie isi accentueaza
sensul, fie il nuanteaza intr-o alta directie. Sunt mai multe moduri prin care au fost construite.
O lista foarte bine pusa la punct a acestor cuvinte gasiti aici.
Daca unele dintre sunt obtinute prin simpla dublare a cuvantului, ca yava-yava, altele au la
baza un alte seturi de reguli, precum asocierea unui termen care nu are sens in afara expresiei
sau inserarea unui mla cel de-al doilea termen. Cateva exemple, mai jos:
havadan sudan deodata
delik deik gaunos
elim melim mana cu totul
ucuz mucuz ieftin
odun modun lemn si alte materiale care ard
bakan makan ministere si birocratie

Redupl i cat ed Word Li s t
Intensified and reduplicated words
abur cubur in a haphazard manner
ak seik (ak saik) clean cut, direct, definite, clear
adm adm step by step, incrementally
afal afal bewildered, stupefied
ar ar slow and gradual, atete ar ar kaynamak, to simmer
ahm ahm beautiful, excellent, favourable (of a thing)
akn akn rushing, surging
aka paka pretty (white skinned, pale complexion) girl
alacal bulacal (alaca
bulaca)
many coloured, spotted
alet edevat paraphernalia, gadgets
alk alk stupidly, alk alk bakmak, to gawk, to gorpe at
allak bullak shambolic, allak bullak etmek, to jumble up
all pullu colorful and decked out with spangles, showily dressed
anl anl flamboyant, renowned
apul apul with waddling steps, toddling
ard ardna back to back
aval aval stupidly (slang)
avu avu lavishly, in handfuls
bangr bangr at the top of one's voice, bangr bangr barmak, to shout loudly
bas bas
at the top of one's voice, bas bas barmak, to shout at the top of one's
voice
baa ba neck-and-neck, dead equal, par
baka baka one by one, separately, different
baka br someone else
bal bana on one's own, in its own right, independent
batan baa from top to bottom, end to end, through and through
bata ka to come down to, with difficulty, to flounder
belli belirsiz uncertain, indistinct
bc bc bc bc yapmak, to take a bath (child language)
bngl bngl fat and bulging, blubbery, quivering like jelly
bili bili chuckie, chuckie (a call for chickens)
bire bir one to one
boum boum gnarled
bou bouna in vain, needlessly, unnecessarily, uselessly
bn bn vacantly, bn bn bakmak, to look vacantly
buram buram a lot, in clouds of
burcu burcu fragrant smelling
bklm bklm curly, in curls
cayr cayr fiercely, burning furiously
cazr cazr burning with a crackly noise
cr cr chattering continuously, a crcr is a cicada
cvk cvk yv yv
cvl cvl alive and kicking, frisky
cyak cyak with a screech; with a squawk
czr czr with a sizzling noise
cik cik with a sizzling or sputtering sound
cmbr cemaat the whole lot, the whole caboodle
al rp sticks and twigs, brushwood
angl ungul with a clatter or a crash
angr ungur with a clatter or a crash
atr atr
with a crackling noise, with a crunching noise, by force, willy-nilly, easily,
with no difficulty
atr utur breaking with a crack or a crunch
eit eit assorted, varied, all kinds of
ldr ldr brightly, with a sparkle, brilliantly
ngr ngr tinklingly, with a tinkle or a rattle
p p child's language taking a bath
t t or tt a snap fastener, press-stud, nail-clipper
t pt petite, dainty
tr tr with a crackling sound, crispy, crunchy
oluk ocuk wife and children, household
r p or er p litter, sweepings, trash
daldan dala from branch to branch, always on the move
dar darna or dar
darna
narrowly, hardly, barely ,narrowly, hardly, barely
derin derin deeply
drdr continuous grumbling, nagging
die di tit for tat, retaliation (from di, tooth)
diz dize with knees together
doru dzgn straight and correct
de kalka with great difficulty, struggling along/on
eci bc shapeless, crooked, distorted
eri br crinkly, contorted, twisted, gnarled
el ele hand in hand, hand by hand, hand to hand
elden ele from hand to hand
enine boyuna in length and breadth, broadly, in length, in depth
eski psk shabby, ragged, worn-out, threadbare, tattered, tatty
estek kstek so so, that's the way it is
ev bark hose and home, home and family
falan femekan and so on, etcetera, blah blah
falan filan and so on, etcetera, blah blah
feryat figan wailing, in squalls
fkr fkr lively and flirtatious
fr fr around and around (from frlamak, to dodge about, pop up)
frl frl whirling around
frt frt bumpety bump
fs fs in whispers, whispering
fsl fsl in whispers, whispering
fsr fsr with a sizzle or a hissing
f f with a swish or a rustle
fr fr with a swishing or a rustling
fokur fokur bubblingly hot and noisy, frothing up
gani gani abundantly
gcr gcr squeaky clean, brand new
gdm gdm inching along, bit by bit
gide gide (gitgide) as it goes, gradually
gz gze eye to eye, to eyeball s.o.
gze gz an eye for an eye, (a tooth for a tooth)
gm gm with loud thumps, bangs, bumps
gmbr gmbr thundering, with a thunder, rumblingly, with a rumble
gnden gne from day to day, daily
gn gnne to the very day
grl grl with a gurgling sound, in a loud/rich voice
gzel gzel calmly and quietly, peacefully
haldr haldr speedily and noisily
hpur hupur scoffing food, guzzling
harl harl assiduously, diligently, intensely, intensively
hava cva nonsense, stuff and nonsense, bosh, naff
hrl hrl wheezy, rattling
hr hr with a rustling sound
hop hop stop!, a warning shout
horul horul snoring loudly
hngr hngr crying one's eyes out, sobbing uncontrollably
vr zvr bits and pieces, unimportant details, trifling things
iten ie inwardly, secretly
incik boncuk cheap and tawdry jewelry, baubles, trinkets
kap kap greedily, in a mad scramble
kara kara brooding(ly)
karnca kararnca in a small way
kar kar every inch of, inch by inch
kak kak by/in spoonfuls
kerli ferli (middle-aged or elderly man) who is dignified and dressed to the nines
kkr kkr gigglingly, laughing internally
kpr kpr fidgety, restless
ktr ktr crisp, crackly, crunchy
konu komu the neighbours, the whole neighbourhood
kr krne hit or miss, blindly, carelessly
ks ks looking neither right nor left
kucak kucak by the armloads, by the armfuls, in abundance
kuu kuu child's language doggie, bow-wow, woof-woof, used to call a dog
kt kt pit a pat, a knocking
lami cimi
There are no "buts" about it!, That's the way it's got to be!, And that's
final!
lapa lapa (for snow to fall) in big flakes
mrl mrl with a mutter, in low, mumbling tones; in a grumbling murmur
ml ml (sleeping) soundly
omuz omuza shoulder to shoulder, side by side
paldr gldr headlong, pell-mell, helter-skelter
parl parl brilliantly, glitteringly, sparklingly
pat pat chug chug
pei peine One after another
pl prt worn-out things, junk, rummage
pr pr whirring, Get going!, Make tracks!, Head for the hills
prl prl squeaky clean, gleaming
p p nasty
pt pt pit a pat
ptr ptr pit a pat, clickety click
pisi pisi child's language pussycat, pussy, kitty, used in calling cats
pisi pisine in vain, uselessly, for nothing
poh poh flattery, fulsome praise
ptr ptr chapped, cracked, or chilblained
saati saatine punctually
sama sapan stuff and nonsense
salkm saak hanging down untidily
sapr sapr in great quantities and continuously
sere serpe (moving around) freely, comfortably, (stretched out) at full length,
sca scana while the iron is hot
soy sop family relations, ancestors
sus pus silent and cowering
sklm pklm in a crestfallen manner, in a hangdog manner, sheepish
srm srm to live a life of great misery, be driven from pillar to post
stliman very still and silent, dead calm
szm szm
to behave very coquettishly (refers to bodily movements and facial
expressions)
akr akr with a jingle, rattle, or clack.
ap ap kissy kissy
ap up lip smacking, noisy eating
apr upur lip smacking, noisy eating
kr kr with a jingling, clinking, or clicking noise
p p a drip drop sound
pr pr continuous dripping
rl rl (flowing) with a gentle, continuous splashing
yle byle so so, indifferent, comme ci comme ca
tak tak rat tat tat, knock knock
takm takm in groups, in platoons
takr takr very stiff and dry, very stale food
takr tukur
clatter bang wallop, used to indicate a rattling, clattering, or banging
noise which is unpleasantly loud
tam tamna exact, exactly, just so
tangr tangr clatteringly, with a racket
tangr tungur with a rude clatter
teke tek one to one
tk tk tick tock, rat a tat
tkr tkr
perfectly, without hesitating or faltering, like clockwork, with a regular
click
tk tk crowded
tklm tklm Very crowded, packed, jammed (with people), congested
tngr tngr with a continual clanging or rattling sound, completely empty
tir tir shivering, trembling
tiril tiril spotlessly clean, gauzy, gossamer like
topu topu all in all, all told, altogether
ucu ucuna ent to end, just about, narrowly
uslu uslu polite(ly)
vzr vzr (working, moving) continually, constantly
viyak viyak squawking
yaka paa forcibly
yan yana alongside, adjacent
yana yakla complaining(ly)
yarm yamalak sloppy, slipshod
yava yava slowly, easingly
yldan yla annually, year on year
zangr zangr shaking violently, rattling
zehir zemberek very poisonous and bitter, vitriolic
zr zr noisy in an incessant, nerve-racking way
zrl zrl incessantly and unpleasantly (of a sound)
zrt frt at any time whatsoever, whenever one feels like it
zrt prt at any time whatsoever, whenever one feels like it, every so often
zrt zrt at any time whatsoever, whenever one feels like it, every so often

The Compari s on of Adj ect i ves



The Degree of Equal i t y
The degree of equality is obtained by the use of kadar.. - [Lit: "its amount"] - as..
Londra stanbul kadar gzel. - London is as beautiful as Istanbul.
Mehmet Ali kadar zengin. - Mehmet is as rich as Ali.
Kar kadar beyaz. - As white as snow.
The Negat i ve Equal i t y
The negative comparison is marked by the use of - deil - is not - placed after the
comparison.
Londra stanbul kadar gzel deil. - London is not as beautiful as Istanbul.
Aye Deren kadar boylu deil. - Aye is not as tall as Deren.
The Degree of Compari s on:
This comparison is made by using - daha - more - and suffixing the object being compared
with -dan or -den - from - thus giving the sense than in the comparison.
Mehmet Ali'den daha zengin. - Mehmet is richer than Ali.
stanbul Londra'dan daha gzel. - Istanbul is more beautiful than London.
Demir sudan daha ar. - Iron is heavier than water.
The Negat i ve of Compari s on
The Negative First Degree Comparison uses daha az - less(er)
Londra stanbul'dan daha az megul. - London is less busy than stanbul.
Bulmacalar Trke derslerden daha az ilgin. - Crosswords are less interesting than
Turkish lessons
The Pos i t i ve Superl at i ve
The Third Degree of Comparison is obtained by using en - the most
Mehmet en zengin adam. - Mehmet is the richest man.
Dnyann en gzel ehri, stanbul. - Istanbul is the world's most beautiful city.
The Negat i ve Superl at i ve
The Negative uses - en az - the least - [Lit: the most less..]
Dnyann en az zengin memleketleri Afrika'da. - The least richest countries of the world
are in Africa.
However, the fact is that although possible, usage of - en az - for negative superlatives is not
common. The preferred way is to use the superlative form of opposite adjective. So, the
preferred way of the example is:
Dnyann en fakir memleketleri Afrika'da. - The world's poorest countries are in
Africa.
The more common usage of - en az - is - at least...
Ahmet en az Mehmet kadar zekidir. - Ahmet is at least as intelligent as Mehmet
Sen de en az benim kadar yeteneklisin. - You are at least as talented as me.
kadar iyi - as good as..
bu, o kadar iyi - this, is as good as that.
bu onun kadar iyi - this is as good as that.
-dan daha iyi - better than..
bu, ondan daha iyi - this, is better than that.
en iyisi - the best..
bu, en iyisi(dir) - [Lit: iyisi - the best..] - this, is the best of all
Many thanks to Ahmet A. Akin for suggestions to this section - JG Nov. 2006
Furt her Shades of Degree
ok - too, very, many..
ok para istiyor - he wants a lot of money
ok mutluyum - I'm very happy
ok odal bir otel - a hotel containing many rooms
en ok - the most..
en ok para - the most money
En ok para Ali'de - Ali has got the most money
tepede en ok ev var - most of the houses are on the hill
daha - more..
iki ay daha, ltfen - two more teas, please
daha be bira, ltfen - five beers more, please
fazla - too much, excessive..
fazla yemek geldi - too much food has arrived
fazla para istediler - they wanted too much money
daha fazla - much more..
daha fazla yemek geldi - much more food has arrived
daha fazla para istediler - they wanted much more money
The Negat i ve Forms
az, biraz - a little..
az sonra arya gidiyorum - I'm going to the shops a little later on
biraz tuz istiyorum - I want a little salt
daha az - Lit: more less(er)] - lesser..
yemee daha az tuz koyunuz - put less salt on the food
buralarda, daha az polis var - there are less policemen around here
pek az - [Lit: a bit less(er)] - very little..
pek az sigara kullanyorum - I smoke (cigarettes) just a little
pek az eker istiyorum - I only want a little sugar
ok az - [lit: a lot little(er)] - extremely little..
ok az benzin kalyor - just a small amount of petrol is left
ok az para istedi - he only wanted a very small amount of money



Degrees of Adjectives
Comparatives and superlatives are constructed in a very straightforward way in Turkish. Besides these,
there is a special way of making adjectives stronger in Turkish and this is not very trivial. I this lesson,
we will cover all these topics.
1. Comparatives
1.1. More, Less
Comparative of an adjective is obtained by adding the word "daha" before the adjective. We can say
that daha is the word for more and all adjective comparatives are constructed like 'more clever' (not like
faster).
faster --> daha hzl
slower --> daha yava
more intelligent --> daha zeki
more hardworking --> daha alkan
more beautiful --> daha gzel

If you want to say less beautiful or less hardworking, then replace the word 'daha' with 'daha az'.
less fast --> daha az hzl
less intelligent --> daha az zeki
less hardworking --> daha az alkan
less beautiful --> daha az gzel

Now, let's see how the comparative form of an adjective is used in sentences.
I am beautiful. --> (Ben) gzelim.
I am more beautiful. --> (Ben) daha gzelim.
You are more beautiful. --> (Sen) daha gzelsin.
She is more beautiful. --> (O) daha gzel.

This is a fast car. --> Bu hzl bir araba.
This is a faster car. --> Bu daha hzl bir araba.
This car is faster. --> Bu araba daha hzl.

1.2. More than
If you want to compare two nouns with respect to an adjective, the structure used in English is as
follows:
noun1 is more adjective than noun2
Ex1: Ahmet is more hardworking than Mehmet.
Ex2: I am more intelligent than you.
The structure to express the same meaning in Turkish is as follows:
noun1 noun2-den daha adjective
Ex1: Ahmet Mehmet'ten daha alkan. (Note that the ' sign is used to separate private names from their
suffixes)
Ex2: Ben senden daha zekiyim.

Now, let's see a few example sentences with this expression.
- Beril is beautiful. --> Beril gzel.
- Gke is more beautiful. --> Gke daha gzel.
- Gke is more beautiful than Beril. --> Gke Beril'den daha gzel.
- He is more hardworking than me. --> O benden daha alkan.
- My car is faster than your car. --> Benim arabam senin arabandan daha hzl.
- US is larger than Turkey. --> Amerika Trkiye'den daha byk.

1.3. As ... as
If you want to say that two nouns are equal with respect to an adjective, the strctre used in English is:
noun1 is as adjective as noun2
Ex1: Beril is as beautiful as Gke.
Ex2: I am as beautiful as you.
The structure to express the same meaning in Turkish is as follows:
. onuon onuon radak eviacejda
no
onuon dd onuon radak eviacejda
Both of these expressions have the same meaning, you will understand the very slight difference as you
see them used. One point to note here is that if noun2 is a simple pronoun (like ben, sen, bu, u) then it
is used in possessive form (like benim, senin, bunun, unun).
Ex1: Beril de Gke kadar gzel.
Ex2: Ben de senin kadar gzelim.
Now, let's see a few example sentences with this expression.
- Beril is beautiful. --> Beril gzel.
- Gke is also beautiful. --> Gke de gzel. (de means 'also', 'as well')
- Gke is as beautifl as Beril. --> Gke de Beril kadar gzel.
- He is as hardworking as me. --> O da benim kadar alkan.
- My car is as fast as your car. --> Benim arabam da senin araban kadar hzl.
- US is almost as large as China. --> Amerika neredeyse in kadar byk. (neredeyse meansalmost)

2. Superlatives
Superlatives are also straightforward in Turkish, like it is in English. Instead of 'the most', you use 'en',
and all superlatives are constructed using this word.
the fastest --> en hzl
slower --> en yava
the most intelligent --> en zeki
the most hardworking --> en alkan
the most beautiful --> en gzel

Now, let's see how the superlative form of an adjective is used in sentences.
I am beautiful. --> (Ben) gzelim.
I am more beautiful. --> (Ben) daha gzelim.

When you want to use the superlative form in a sentence, there are two different cases:
I am the most beautiful. --> (Ben) en gzelim. (This has the meaning of describing yourself, like an
answer to the question "What are your traits?")
I am the most beautiful. --> En gzel benim. (This has the meaning of the answer to the question "Who
is the most beautiful?")

I am the most beautiful girl. --> En gzel kz benim.
I am the most beautiful girl in this class. --> Bu snftaki en gzel kz benim.
You are the most beautiful girl in this class. --> Bu snftaki en gzel kz sensin.
She is the most beautiful girl in this class. --> Bu snftaki en gzel kz o.

3. Making an adjective stronger
3.1. Very
In English, when you want to make an adjective stronger, you use the word 'very'. Saying very fastis a
stronger statement than just saying fast. The same method is applied also in Turkish, and the word
for very is 'ok'. Hence:
very fast --> ok hzl
very slow --> ok yava
very intelligent --> ok zeki
very hardworking --> ok alkan
very beautiful --> ok gzel
You are very beautiful. --> (Sen) ok gzelsin.
She is a very beautiful girl. --> (O) ok gzel bir kz.
This girl is very beautiful. --> Bu kz ok gzel.
3.2. Too
Another way of making an adjective stronger, but this time giving the meaning extreme, is to use the
word too. Saying something is too fast gives the meaning that it is extremely fast and should be slower.
The word for too in Turkish is 'fazla'.
too fast --> fazla hzl
too slow --> fazla yava
too intelligent --> fazla zeki
too hardworking --> fazla alkan
too beautiful --> fazla gzel
We are too fast. --> (Biz) fazla hzlyz.
This car is too fast. --> Bu araba fazla hzl.
3.3. Other ways
A third way commonly used in Turkish (which is not seen in English) to make an adjective stronger is
adding a modified form of the first syllable before the adjective. Important points to note here are:
There is not a rule for how this first syllable should be modified, which makes this rule hard to learn.
This gives the same meaning as using the word 'very' and makes the adjective stronger.
All adjectives can't be made stronger using this method, and there is not a rule to understand for which
adjectives this method can be used. A group of adjectives you can always use this method is colors, to
express that the color is strong. However, there is no rule to exactly say which adjectives can be made
stronger like this.
Because there is not a well-defined rule, it will be very difficult to go over adjectives and see what the
stronger form of each adjective is. I think you should not try to learn this for each adjective at this step.
The best strategy here would be to note that there is a rule like this and when you see it used, you will
understand what it means. In your sentences, you simply can use 'ok + adjective' instead and you will
be clearly understood.
Let's see some examples to this rule:
hzl --> fast
hphzl --> very fast
sar --> yellow
sapsar --> very yellow, strong yellow
mavi --> blue
masmavi --> very blue, strong blue
beyaz --> white
bembeyaz --> very white, strong white
abuk --> quick
arabuk --> very quick
kaln --> thick
kapkaln --> very thick

Another way to make an adjective stressed and stronger is to repeat it twice. Again, this is not done
with all adjectives and the best way to learn for which adjectives this rule is applicable is to note when
you hear an adjective used like this. Don't be afraid by these rules, you will learn how to use them if
you start reading Turkish texts or if you speak to native speakers. You can still express yourself without
using these methods for making adjectives stronger. Simply use the word 'ok' before the adjective. I
am giving these rules now so that you know the meaning when you see such a usage somewhere.
byk byk evler --> big houses, the property big is stressed
sar sar elmalar --> yellow apples, the property yellow is stressed

There is also another way to stress an adjective and make it stronger. That is, adding a modified form of
the adjective after the original form. This is again an irregular rule and you don't need to know this
completely, just understand it when you see this usage. Sometimes, an adjective followed by the
modified form of that adjective may have a slightly different meaning.
yal --> old (for people)
yal bal --> old, mature
eski --> old (for objects)
eski psk --> very old and useless



Adjectivul (Sfat)
Adjective 28 octombrie 2010 Un comentariu
In general, adjectivul descrie atributele, calitatile unui substantiv. In limba turca este plasat
inaintea cuvantului pe care il determina.
krmz rosu
krmz etek fusta rosie
mavi albastru
mavi ev casa albastra
byk mare
byk elma marul mare
In limba turca adjectivul este invariabil, nu apar modificari in functie de gen sau numar.
Majoritatea adjectivelor capata rol de substativ, ca in exemplele:
hasta > bir hasta bolnav > un bolnav
byk > byklerim mare, batran > batranii (in sensul de parintii)
Krmz temiz. Cel rosu e curat.
In situatia in care un adjectiv apare inaintea substantivul, sensul se schimba, devenind o
declaratie:
etek krmz fusta e rosie
ev mavi casa e albastra
elma byk marul e mare
Pentru ca in mod frecvent la persoana a III-a singular nu se foloseste sufixul (vezi a fi),
utilizarea particulei -dir se face in situatia in care se doreste o accentuare, o pronuntie cu
emfaza:
Bu araba yeildir. Aceasta masina este verde.
In discutiile colocviale, acest -dir este absent.
About Turki s h Adj ect i ves
Posi ti on of Adj ecti ves
Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns - A blue house, a rich man.
The adjective always comes in front of its noun as in English.
mavi ev - the blue house
mavi evler - (the) blue houses
zengin adam - the rich man
yorgun ocuklar - tired children
But note that when adjectives follow a noun the meaning is entirely different - it becomes a
"Statement of Fact" :
ev, mavi - the house is blue
evler mavi - the houses are blue
adam, zengin - the man is rich
Uzun geni yol. - The long wide road. - is different to - Uzun yol, geni. - The long road is
wide.
Geni yol, uzun. - The wide road is long.- is different to - Yol, uzun geni. - The road is
long and wide.
This shows that the verb - to be - -dir - is lacking in the third person in Turkish, unless it is
needed to emphasize the meaning or unless it is a public statement such as a notice etc. as
follows:
Bu ev, mavidir - This house is blue
This last example is emphasized using the verb "to be" -dir - is however normally without
emphasis -dir is not required or used in normal conversation.
Emphas i zed and Publ i c Forms
Uzun yol, genitir. - The long road is wide.
Uzun yol, geni midir? - Is the long road wide?
As can be seen above Turkish generally places a comma after the subject - which comes first
in the word order of the sentence. The emphasis is is stressed by the use of the verb - "to be" -
suffix -dir (Vowel Harmony and Consonant Mutation are observed), which makes it a
"statement of fact" - Yol genitir. - The road is wide.
Pos i t i on of t he Art i cl e
bir - a, an, one - can interpose between the adjective and its noun. This has the effect of
putting the emphasis on the adjective and/or causes the noun it describes to become definite.
bir gzel kz gld - a beautiful girl laughed.
In this example some girl or other laughed - an indefinite girl, therefore the adjective
follows bir.
gzel bir kz grdm - I saw a beautiful girl.
In this example a definite girl was seen and moreover she was definitely beautiful -
gzel followed by bir emphasizes all these points.
Generally speaking if the indefinite article is used with its noun, then Turkish will not
separate them as we do in English
byk beyaz bir ev(dir) - it is a big white house
yal bir adam - an old man
bo bir kutu - an empty box
Adj ect i ves us ed as Nouns
Turkish adjectives can also be used as nouns:
hasta - ill, sick
bir hasta - a patient
hastalar hastanede. - the patients are in hospital.
zengin - rich
bir zengin - a rich person
otelde kalan bir zengin var - there is a rich [person] who is staying at the hotel.
I nt ens i f i ed Adj ect i ves
Many adjectives have an Intensified Form, for instance:
yeni - new - yepyeni - brand new
beyaz - white - bembeyaz - snow white
dolu - full - dopdolu - full to the brim
Many of these Intensified Forms are in daily use all the time.
Agreement of Adj ect i ves
Adjectives do not have to agree with the noun they describe in either number - as in Spanish -
or gender - as in French. The adjective precedes the noun as it does in English.
L et us rei terate the basi c rul es for usi ng adj ecti ves i n Turki sh
1. Adjectives describe nouns.
2. The adjective is always invariable.
3. Adjectives don't have a singular and plural form OR a masculine, feminine and neuter
form.
4. Adjectives are always the same! Never add a final -s - (in English) or -lar/-ler - (in
Turkish) to an adjective.
5. Adjectives are placed before the noun.
6. Adjectives can be formed from both nouns or verbs as in English.
These rules apply both in English and in Turkish.
At t ri but abl e Adj ect i ves
In Turkish, words can often be recognized as adjectives by their endings. This is similar to
English where words can also be recognized as adjectives by their endings. For instance the
ending -ful in the word beautiful - "They built a beautiful house in the hill." Thus the -
ful adjective adds the concept of beauty to the house. There are other adjectival endings in
English where English speakers recognize instantly the attribute being added by its ending.
One of these adjectival endings is used above, in the heading "Attributable". The following
example also uses the "Ability Attribute" -able - "They have built a beautiful, desirable
house on the hill".
Some other adjectival endings in English may be:
-ly as in the lovely view.
-ing as in the shaking branch.
-ive as in the positive result.
-en as in the broken arrow.
and some other forms; each ending giving us a differing degree or meaning in concept.
This then is the way that Turkish follows and if one learns the Adjectival Endings it is easier
to recognize the concept of meaning as we automatically do in our own tongue.
Forms of Adj ect i ves
We have just said above that adjectives can often be recognized by their endings. These are of
course words in their own right and should not be considered as words with an added suffix.
As with English the (adjectival) ending on the word often points to the type of attribute that
the adjective supplies to its noun. For instance in English there is a different type of attribute
supplied by the adjectives -lovely, loving, loveable, lovelorn, loved although the root word
carries the same meaning.
The Adjectival Suffix -ik -k -uk -k
This suffix usually forms adjectives where the described noun is in a state from which it
cannot return - that is - it has assumed a permanent state.
From yanmak - to burn - the adjective - yank is formed meaning burnt (as a permanent
state)
bir dk yaprak - a fallen leaf - [from dmek - to fall]
baz krk tabaklar - some broken plates - [krmak - to break]
kesik paralar - cut (up) parts - [kesmek - to cut]
By recognizing the -ik suffix we can see a permanent adjectival state has been attained.
We must take care however not to mistake nouns which end in -ik such as - balk fish - or -
szlk - dictionary as being adjectives.
A note on the Different Forms of Adjectives
If we take the first example above we should note that if we use the present participle -
den - which falls /which is falling - as an adjective then the meaning changes:
bir den yaprak - a falling leaf
den yapraklar - falling leaves
Similarly using the past participle:
dm olan - which has fallen
dm olan yapraklar nemlidir - the leaves which have fallen are damp/the fallen
leaves are damp.
Adj ect i ves and t hei r Oppos i t es
Adjective Opposite
beautiful gzel ugly irkin
better daha iyi worse daha kt
big byk small kk
cheap ucuz expensive pahal
early erken late ge
easy kolay difficult zor
free serbest occupied megul
full dolu empty bo
good iyi bad kt
heavy ar light hafif
here burada there orada
hot scak cold souk
near yakn far uzak
first (one) of a series ilk last (one) son
next (one) gelecek past (one) gemi (olan)/geen
old (in age) ihtiyar/yal young gen
old (former) eski new yeni
open ak shut kapal
quick abuk slow yava
right doru wrong yanl
Thanks to Murat Ak for corrections and additions to the above section - JG, December 2012
About Turki s h Demons t rat i ve Pronouns and Adj ect i ves
The Demonstrative Adjectives "this and that, these and those" and Demonstrative Pronouns
"this one, that one, these ones, those ones" demonstrate and describe which item is being
mentioned.
The Si mpl e F orm - thi s and that, these and those
bu - this (here) or this (which was just mentioned)
bunlar - these
u - that (nearby) or that (which follows on)
unlar - those (nearby)
o - that (over there, yonder)
onlar - those (over there)
The simple Forms: bu, u, o - this, that, that yonder
bu kedi - this cat
u fincan - that cup (near to, between us)
o adam - that man over there, yonder
This and That
bu - this (here) OR this (which was just mentioned) and the plural bunlar - these
Turkish has two words for "that, those"
u - that (nearby) OR that (which follows on) and the plural unlar - those (nearby)
u signifies something near by or something between the speakers.
u also means - "that which follows" as in u tavsiye - the following recommendation.
O - that (over there, yonder) and the plural onlar - those (over there)
O - signifies items far away or which does not lie between the speakers.
O - is often used for descriptions of happenings in foreign countries and cities.
When adding any suffixes including the plural suffix -lar buffer letter -n- is always used with
the demonstratives, thus forming the plurals bunlar, unlar, onlar
Turkish has two words for - "that"
u - signifies something near by or something between the speakers.
It also means - that which follows - eg. u tavsiye - the following recommendation.
Care must be taken using - u - and its extensions as it is also used in a derogatory sense
(according to context) - see below.
u adama bakn! - Look at that bloke!
unu istemedim - I didn't want that! - (damn thing)
u herif kim? - Who the hell is that fellow? - (herif - "fellow, guy, bloke")
O - signifies items far away or which does not lie between the speakers.
O - is often used for descriptions of happenings in foreign countries and cities.
The Suf f i xed Forms of t he Demons t rat i ves
The Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives - bu - this, u - that, o- that yonder use buffer
letter -n- to become bun-, sun-, on-when adding any further suffixes.This includes the plural
suffix -lar buffer letter -n- is always used with the demonstratives, thus forming the
plurals bunlar, unlar, onlar
Bu - thi s, thi s here
The Singular Forms - The Plural Forms
bu - this - bunlar - these
buna - to this - bunlara - to these
bunun - of this - bunlarn - of these
bunu - this (object) - bunlar - these (obj.)
bunda - in/on/at this - bunlarda - in/etc. these
bundan - from this - bunlardan - from these
bununla - with this - bunlarla - with these
u - that, that there
The Singular Forms - The Plural Forms
u - that - unlar - those
una - to that - unlara - to those
unun - of that - unlarn - of those
unu - that (object) - unlar - those (obj.)
unda - in/on/at that - unlarda - on those
undan - from that - unlardan - from those
ununla - with that - unlarla - with those
O - that over there
The Singular Forms - The Plural Forms
o - that yonder - onlar - those yonder
ona - to that - onlara - to those
onun - of that - onlarn - of those
onu - that (object) - onlar - those (obj.)
onda - in/on/at that - onlarda - on those
ondan - from that - onlardan - from those
onunla - with that - onlarla - with those
The suf f i x " -ca - concerni ng"
This is used with the Demonstrative Pronoun to produce - bunca - all this, bunlarca - all
these, onca - all that, onlarca - all those. Although "unca" and "unlarca" are not normally
in use but they are sometimes used disparagingly. However, in Turkish it could be used to
despise something in quantity or magnitude, power.
The addition of -ca produces an adjective which means - "all this/that amount (of)".
Bunca emeim boa gitti. - All this work of mine was in vain. ("all this amount of my
work")
Bunca kitab, kitaplkta dursunlar diye mi aldn? - Did you buy all these books (just) to
fill the bookcase? ("all this amount of books")
Bunca arkadamn arasndan onu mu beendin? - Between all these friends of mine,
was it (only) him you liked? ("all this amount of my friends")
Bunca yldr bu okuldaym, byle olay grmedim. - I was at this school all these years
and I have not seen such a thing (before). ("all these years")
Bunca kediyi nasl besleyeceksin ki? - How do you feed all thes cats? ("all this amount of
cats")
It can be seen that the addition of bunca replaces bu kadar - this amount
of and onca replaces o kadar- that amount of in Turkish.
The Singular Form
bunca - all this - "unca" - Not used - onca - all that
The Plural Form
bunlarca - all these - "unlarca" - Not used - onlarca - all those
Examples:
bu ne? - What's this?
Bu bir byk kedi - This is a big cat
Avluda bunca uzun kuyruklu kedi cirit atyorlar. - All these long tailed cat are running
wild in the yard.
(cirit atmak - Literally "to throw a javelin" but used here idiomatically meaning "run amok,
swarm wildly".)
If someone has a small wound and is complaining too much, you could say -
unca/uncacik, yaradan lmezsin - You won't die from such a small wound (surely
not!) [the "-cik" suffix also shows "downsizing"]
bunca and onca are plural and they take a singular object. The substantive that it describes is
always in the singular.
bunca kedi, onca kedi - all these/those cats - is similar to Bu kediler , o kediler. - these
cats, those cats.
A not e about t he us age of - u:
u ne? - what is that (just there)?
O bir gazete - that is a newspaper - [u bir gazete - is incorrect and is not used as a pronoun
when answering. It is only used as an adjective describing - "the newspaper". as shown in the
previous example.] Tm/Btn o gazeteler dnk(dr) - All those newspapers are
yesterday's.
u ne? - What is that (just there)? The answer - u bir gazete - That is a newspaper - is
incorrect.
The correct answer is - O bir gazete - as the answer to the question u ne?. Because after you
ask the question - u ne? - the person being asks now knows where and what the subject
actually is, therefore the answer must be something like - O bir gazete. As a phrase in its own
right you can say such as - u bir gazete - That (just there) is a newspaper - but not as an
answer to a question like - u ne? - What's that?
For example: There are some of your friends in your home and a newspaper (gazete) on the
desk in this case,there are two possibilities:
If you are asked - u masann stndeki nedir? - What is it on that table? - then you must
answer it like - O bir gazete or just -gazete - not - u bir gazete. If you want them to know
that there is a newspaper, then you must say - u bir gazete - and here if they want to ask you
where it is they must ask it like - Nerede o gazete? - not - Nerede u gazete?
Summary:
Question: u ne? - What is that? - Answer: O bir gazete. - That is a newspaper.
u bir gazete - Cannot be a question, but if it causes a question like - Where is that
newspaper? - then it must be: Nerede o gazete? - NOT - Nerede u gazete?
Further Examples:
o ne? - what is that over there? - o bir dergi - that is a magazine
Bunca dergiyi nereye koyacaksn? - Where are you going to put all these are
magazines? ["Bunlarca dergi" - is not generally used in modern Turkish]
bunlar ne? - what are these? - bunlar yeil elma. - these (ones) are green apples.
unlar ne? - what are those? - onlar beyaz ev. - those are white houses. - [See note on
usage of - u - in questions in the last section above.]
onlar kim? - who are those (people) over there? - onlar gen kzlar. - those (people) are
young girls.
Yarn onca gen kz Aye'nin partiye gidiyorm. - All those girls are going to Aye's
party tomorrow. (all that amount of girls)
Should we use Onlarca kiz or Onca kiz? If you say: onlarca kiz - we understand there are
some girls but they are in some groups and each group (has say) 10 girls.
buna bakar msnz? - would you look at (to) this? - [Used as the object of - "to look"]
bunlara bakar msnz? - would you look at (to) these? - [Used as an objective pronoun]
ona bakar msnz? - would you look at that?
onlara bakar msnz? - would you look at those?
The di s paragi ng meani ng of - u
Although unca and unlarca are not normally in use, they are sometimes used disparagingly.
In Turkish they can be used to despise something in quantity or magnitude, muscular power.
If someone has a small wound and is complaining too much about it then one could say -
unca/uncacik yaradan lmezsin - You won't die from such a small wound (surely not!)
Care must be taken using - u - and its extensions as they are used in a derogatory sense
according to context.
u adama bakn! - Look at that bloke!
unu istemedim! - I didn't want that! (damn thing)
u kahrolasca herif kim? - Who is that damn fellow? [quite strong language]
This is a "frozen form" - kahrolasca - kah olmak - to be overwhelmed. The suffixes are
made up - ol-a-s-ca - where -as is a now defunct subjunctive ending with an added -ca suffix
indicating having the attribute of. However this word is best learned as a single unit; but
really it should not be used as it is considered rather rude. You can also say kaholsun! - Let
him be dammed! It is really like a swear word in English and not to be taken lightly. Be
careful in its use!
Adverbi al Forms of t he Demons t rat i ves :
There are further derivations of - bu, u, o - which have produced the words - byle, yle,
yle - the meanings are a follows:
byle - In this way/thus - Onu byle yaptm - I did it like this - [byle is usually uses with
the First Person Pronoun]
yle - like that/in that manner - Onu yle yapn! - Do it like that! - [yle is usually used
with the inperative]
yle - such as that/like that - Onu yle yapt - He did it like that! - [past tense is more
distant, hence yle is used]
The -ce suffix can also be added to form adverbs:
bylece - In this way/thus
ylece is not really used much
ylece - such as that/like that
The -ce siffix give a sense of completion - bylece i tamamland - and so the job was done
thus
Some Examples:
Byle bir i yapmayn! - Don't do anything like (this) that! [in Turkish Bu and byle are
used regarding a specific action, such as "jumping on the bed", wheras English uses the the
word "That!" as opposed to the Turkish "This!" for emphasis.] - Bylece onu yapn! -Do it
like that! [Turkish Lit: "Do it like this!"]
yle byle - just so-so - [Lit: like that, like this - as French "comme ci comme ca"]
When asked How are you? then yle byle can be given as an answer "So so, I'm up and
down, I'm getting on OK"
yle bir saanak yamur yad ki - There was such a downpour that..
The "Formula Speak" yle mi? is used when listening with apparent disbelief to someone
describing events, meaning Well I never!, Go on then!, Really?. This formula is used a lot in
normal daily conversation.
Exampl es of Ext ended Forms
bu ne? - what's this?
Bu bir byk kedi - This is a big cat.
Bunca kedi uzun kuyruklu(dur). - All these cats are long tailed
Btn bu kediler uzun kuyrukludur. - All these cats are long tailed
u ne? - what is that (just there)?
u bir gazete - that is a newspaper
Onca gazete dnknn. - All those newspapers are yesterday's.
Btn o gazeteler dnknn.. - All those newspapers are yesterday's.
o ne? - what is that over there?
o bir dergi - that is a magazine
Bunlarca dergi - All these are magazines.
bunlar ne? - what are these?
bunlar yeil elma. - these (ones) are green apples.
unlar ne? - what are those?
unlar beyaz evler. - those are white houses.
onlar kim? - who are those (people) over there?
onlar gen kzlar. - those (people) are young girls.
Onlarca kzlar gen. - All those girls are young.
buna bakar msnz? - would you look after this? - [-a bakmak = to look after, take
temporary care of..]
bunlara bakar msnz? - would you look after these?
ona bakar msnz? - would you look after that?
onlara bakar msnz? - would you look after those?
Adverbi al Forms
The are further derivations of - bu, u, o - which have produced the words - byle, yle,
yle - the meanings are a follows:
byle - In this way/thus
yle - like this/ that
yle - such as that/like that
The -ce suffix can also be added to form adverbs:
bylece - In this way/thus
ylece - such as that/like that
Byle bir i yapmayn! - Don't do anything like that!
Bylece onu yapn! - Do it this way..
yle byle - like this, like that - (as French - comme ci comme a)
This can be given as an answer when asked - How are you? - [ie. I'm up and down, I'm
getting on OK etc..]
yle bir ya yad ki.. - There was such a downpour that..
The "Formula Speak" - yle mi? - is also used a lot when listening with apparent disbelief to
some one describing events. It means something like - Well I never, Go on then, Really?? -
This formula is used a lot in normal daily conversation.
Turki s h Language - Adj ect i ves ( Si f at )
Words which describe the condition, colour size, number, position and place of nouns are
called adjectives. Adjectives precede their noun and are used together with that noun. The
formulation of an adjective + noun is called an Adjective Completion. Adjectives are divided
into two groups according to their quality:
( 1) Qual i f yi ng Adj ect i ves
Adjectives which describe condition, colour or shape are called Qualifying Adjectives.
Hasta adam - The sick man - Describes Condition.
Krmz elma - The red apple - Describes colour.
Yuvarlak masa - The round table - Describes shape.
Qualifying Adjectives answer the question How? within a sentence.
( 2) Des cri pt i ve Adj ect i ves
Adjectives which signal (demonstrate), question, show position or number are called
Descriptive Adjectives.
There are four types of Descriptive Adjectives
(a) Demonstrative Adjectives - this, that
(b) Interrogative Adjectives - which?, who?, that?
(c) Numerical Adjectives - one, two, third, fourth, thee each, five each
(d) Indefinite Adjectives - some, any, many, few
( A) Demons t rat i ve Adj ect i ves
Bu - this, u - that, O - that yonder - when used with a noun or in place of a noun (as a
Demonstrative Pronoun) are called Demonstrative Adjectives as they demonstrate which noun
is being qualified.
These Demonstrative Adjectives can also be used with the suffix -ki - that which - to mean -
nearside, far side, the other nearer, the other further
Also -ki - that which - and -deki - that which is located at.. - can be used as suffixes and are
also Demonstrative Adjectives. ki itself can be used as an adjective or a suffixed adjective and
is called the ki Form.
Bu kalem - this pen.
u pencere - that window.
O araba - that car yonder.
teki ocuk - the further child.
Beriki bisiklet - the nearby bicycle.
Dolaptaki elbise - the clothes (which are) in the cupboard.
Beriki da - the nearby mountain.
teki kitap - the other book (over there.)
Yoldaki araba - the car (which is) in the road.
The Demonstrative Adjectives can only be used in the singular and simple form - (that is, not
further extended with suffixes) otherwise they are not adjectives but either pronouns or nouns.
( B) I nt errogat i ve Adj ect i ves
Interrogative Adjectives describe condition, place or number in a question form.
Nasl ocuk? - How a child? - (What sort of child?)
Hangi okul? - Which school?
Ka para? - How much money?
Kaar elma? - How many apples each?
Kata ka pasta? - How much pasta in how much?
Kanc ocuk? - Which child (in a series)? - (Answer might be "The ninth child.")
Ne biim bcek? - What sort of insect?
Ne tr bitki? - What type of plant?
Ne eit meyve? - What sort of fruit?
Ne kadar karpuz? - How many water-melons?
Neredeki ev? - The house where?
( C) Numeri cal Adj ect i ves
These adjectives describe number, order, equality and fractional parts of nouns.
Numerical Adjectives have four forms:
(i) Simple Numerical Adjectives (Cardinal Numbers) - one, two, three etc.
(ii) Number Order Adjectives (Ordinal Numbers) - first, second, third etc.
(iii) Partitive Adjectives - a half, a third, a fifth etc.
(iv) Fractional Adjectives - two-thirds, three-quarters, twelve percent etc.
(v) Numbered Group Adjectives - twin, triple, twins, triplets etc.
(i) Simple (Cardinal) Numbers
These adjectives describe the number (1, 2, 3, 4.) of the noun.
Bir araba - a, one car
ki elma - two apples
silgi - three rubbers
Yirmi kilometre - twenty kilometres
Be dzine yumurta - five dozen eggs
On sayfa - ten pages
Numerical Adjectives answer the question - How many?, How much?
(ii) Adjectives of Numerical Order
The suffix -inci, -nc, -uncu, -nc or -nci etc. - after a vowel is attached to the simple
number
Birinci araba - the first car
Onuncu ev - the tenth house
Yirminci kilometre - the twentieth kilometre
Yirmi birinci yzyl - the twenty-first century
To find this type of adjective we ask - Which one?
(iii) Partitive (Sharing) Adjective
This adjective describes an equal divisions to each person of shared items.
The suffix -ar or -er as added to the simple noun. Buffer letter -- is used between vowels.
Sekizer kalem - eight pencils each
Dokuzar silgi - nine rubbers each
Altar elma - six apples each
kier kavun - two melons each
Buffer letter -- is used after words that end in vowels, so in these cases the the suffix
becomes -ar or -er.
We ask the question - How many each? - to find this type of adjective.
(iv) Fractional Adjectives
The Fractional Adjective describes how many equal parts that the whole is divided into and
which actual part or parts are being described.
To find this adjective we ask Which part of..? or How many part(s) of the whole?
Sekizde bir karpuz. - One eighth of a melon
Onda elma - three tenths of an apple
Yzde yetmi faiz - seventy percent interest
Drtte bir pasta - a quarter of a cake
(v) Numerical Group Adjectives
This adjective describes a numerical group.
kiz ocuk - twin children (twins)
z bebek - triple babies (triplets)
( D) I ndef i ni t e adj ect i ves
This adjective describes the noun approximately and without particularity.
Biraz st - some milk
Birka ocuk - some children, a few children
Birok insan - some people, a few people
Birtakm kular - a flock of birds (a set of.)
Her anne - every mother
Baka gn - another day
Herhangi bir konu - whichever subject
Hi bir zaman - never (not any time)
Be on defter - 5 to 10 books
be ay - 3 or 5 months - We say 2 or 3 in English whereas Turkish says 3 or 5
Btn yl - all year (long)
Bir gn - one (any) day
About the word - bir - a, an one
(A) If - bir tane - one piece - or - bir takm - one set - is used then it is not an Indefinite
Adjective but a Numerical or Number Group Adjective.
(B) Herhangi bir - whichever one - is an Indefinite Adjective.
Manavdan bir karpuz aldm. - Say Sfat - I bought a melon from the grocers -
Numerical Adjective
Bir gn size geleceim. - Belgisiz sfat - One day I will visit you - Indefinite Adjective
Bir yaz akam gne erken batmt. - Belgisiz sfat - The sun sank early one summer's
day - Indefinite Adjective
Types of Adj ect i ve
I Adj ecti ves of Ti tl e
These adjectives describe the rank, duty, degree, station, official position and social
standing of the person noun or spoken respect and acknowledgement of the Title or
Profession etc. The position of Adjective of Title may come before or after the noun also the
can come both before and after in certain circumstances. The Adjectives of Title are written in
capital letters. In short, Adjectives of Title are used with names in these three forms:
(1) Before the noun
Doktor Mehmet - Dr. Mehmet
Yzba Hasan - Captain Hasan
Bay Cemil - Mr Cemil
Demirci Ahmet - (the) Miller Ahmet
(2) After the noun
Ahmet Bey - Mr. Ahmet
Aye Hanm - Miss/Ms/Mrs. Aye
Hasan Yzba - Captain Hasan (the Captain)
Mustafa Kemal Paa - General Mustafa Kemal (the General)
Mehmet Day - Uncle Mehmet (maternal uncle)
(3) Both before and after the noun
retmen Aye Hanm - Miss Aye the Teacher
Doktor Mehmet Bey - Dr. Mr. Mehmet
Makinist Ahmet Usta - Machinist Ahmet the Expert
I I Adj ect i ves of St ruct ure
These adjectives are divided into three types.
(1) Simple Adjectives
The noun does not take a suffix in the simple form.
Krk masa - a broken table
elma - three apples
Bu ocuk - this child
O adam - that man
(2) Extended or Derived Adjectives
The noun takes a suffix and th Adjective is derived from a noun or a verb.
Elmal pasta - Apple cake - derived from the noun "elma - apple" by adding the -li -
consisting of.. suffix
ekersiz ay - Unsugared tea - derived from "sugar" by adding the -siz - without suffix.
Dalgn ocuk - (the) Absent-minded child. - derived from the verb "dalmak - to plunge"
using the -gin suffix.
Uyuyan kpek - (the) sleeping dog. - derived from the verb "uyumak - to sleep" by adding
the -an - who/which/that is.. suffix and using buffer letter -y-
(3) Coupled Adjectives
Adjectives formed from two or more words strung together.
Vurdumduymaz ocuk - the thick-skinned child - vurmak (to hit) + duymaz (does not feel)
Birka ev - a few houses - bir (a) + ka (how many)
Soukkanl insanlar - cold-blooded people - Souk (cold) + kanl (blooded)
Akgz kadn - (the) greedy girl - Ak (open) + gz (eye)
Cingz Ahmet - Sly Ahmet - Cin (djinn) + gz (eye)
I I I I nt ens i f i ed Adj ect i ves :
Adjective forms which deepen, strengthen and intensify their basic meaning.
There are four forms of Adjectival Intensification
(A). Some adjectives can be Intensified by adding one of the letters - m, p, r, s - to the
first syllable of the Simple Adjective. The resulting syllable is prefixed to the Simple
Adjective to form an Intensified Adjective.
Beyaz nlk - Be + m + beyaz nlk - Bembeyaz nlk - Bright white apron
Krmz elma - K + p + krmz elma - Kpkrmz elma - bright red apple
Temiz ocuk - Te + r + temiz ocuk - Tertemiz ocuk - squeaky clean child
Doru yol - Dosdoru yol - Dead straight road
(B) The repetition of the qualifying adjective before the noun gives a feeling of Intensity.
Beyaz diler - Beyaz beyaz diler - white teeth - bright white teeth
Scak rekler - Scak scak rekler - fresh buns - really fresh buns
Sar kumlar - Sar sar kumlar - yellow sands - bright yellow sands
Uzun yollar - Uzun uzun yollar - long roads - really long roads
Taze yumurta - Taze taze yumurtar - fresh eggs - really fresh eggs
(C) Putting the question particle between repeated qualifying adjectives.
Beyaz diler - Beyaz beyaz diler - beyaz m beyaz diler - white teeth - very white teeth
Sar sar kumlar - Sar m sar kumlar - yellow yellow sands - the sands are so yellow
Scak scak rekler - Scak m scak rekler - very fresh buns - the buns are so fresh
Sar sar kumlar - Sar m sar kumlar - bright yellow sands - shining bright yellow sands
Uzun uzun yollar - Uzun mu uzun yollar - very long roads - the roads are so long
I V Reduci ng Adj ect i ves :
Reducing or narrowing adjectives are formed by adding the suffixes -ce, -cik to qualifiying
adjectives or -(i)msi, -(i)mtrak - to colours.
Gzel araba - gzelce araba - a niceish car
Yeil elma - yeilimsi elma - a greenish apple
Mavi anta - mavimsi anta - a bluish bag
Ksa pantolon - ksack pantolon - little short pants
Kk masa - kck masa - a smallish table
Mavi anta - mavimtrak anta - a bluish bag
Sar elma - sarmtrak elma - a yellowish apple

Var si yok
Adjective 30 septembrie 2010 Un comentariu
sunt doua adjective care sunt utilizate des in limba turca. desi cand m-am decis sa scriu acest
post, lucrurile pareau relativ simple, documentarea mi-a aratat ca nu e chiar asa
VAR = existent; se foloseste cu sensul de a fi, a exista sau de a avea
Kitap masann zerinde var. Cartea este pe masa.
Sabun banyoda var. In baie este sapun.
YOK= nonexistent; se foloseste cu sensul de a nu fi, a nu exista sau de a nu avea
Yeil kutuda hi topu yok. In cutia verde nu este nici o minge.
Arabann iinde hi kadn yok. In masina nu e nici o femeie.
Observatii:
- atat pentru singular, cat si pentru plural se folosesc formele var/yok.
- desi este foarte frecvent utilizat la persoana a III-a singular, dar poate primi si sufixe care sa
indice alte persoane, precum si alte timpuri (asta intr-o postare viitoare);
- cand var e folosit la persoana I si a II-a isi schimba sensul in a participa, a fi inclus in
ceva:
Toplantda varm. Eu particip la intalnire.
Yemekte varsnz. Tu participi la cina.
- este situat mereu la sfasitul propozitiei;
- cand apar intr-o intrebare, raspunsul la intrebare va fi var sau yok (si nu da sau nu)
Caddede krmz bir araba var m? Var/Yok Este vreo masina rosie pe strada? Da
(Este)/Nu (Nu este)
- cand au sensul de a avea, subiectul este la genitiv:
ocuun babas var > copilul are un tata
copilul tata are
- pentru ca yok functioneaza ca forma negativa pentru var, deil nu apare impreuna cu var;
exita un numar redus de exceptii pentru care deil insoteste var/yok, pentru a accentua intr-o
maniera dura semnficatia propozitiei:
ok i var deil, ama ben yorgunum. Nu e mult de munca, dar ma simt obosit(a).
- yok apare si in expresia yok yere = nicaieri
- apar impreuna in expresia uzuala ne var? ne yok?, care se traduce punctual: ce este? ce
nu este, dar formal inseamna ce mai faci?/cum iti merge?

About - var - t here i s , t here are and yok - t here i s n' t , t here aren' t
A s i gn i n Ku adas


A sign in Kuadas at the far end of Ladies' Beach - May 2006
This sign says it all,
is there a room empty or not, we wonder?
Pres ent Tens e Form
Note that both - var and yok - are used for either the Singular - there is, there isn't or the
Plural - there are, there aren't
Basically - var - means - Is existent, It exists, There is, There are.
Tepede bir lokanta var - There is a cafe on the hill.
Bu aata ok meyve var - There is a lot of fruit on this tree.
yok - means - Is non existent, It does not exist, There isn't, There aren't
Bahede kzlar yok - There are no girls in the garden.
Garajda hi araba yok - There is/are not any car(s) in the garage at all.
Yeil kutuda kibrit yok - There is/are no match(es) in the green box.
Do not forget that "People are" and "Things is" in Turkish. This is why the last two examples
can be singular or plural in meaning.
Pres ent Ques t i on Form
This is formed by adding the Question Particle - mi? - according to Vowel Harmony Rules.
The Question Particle is written separately:
var m? - means - Does it exist? Is there? Are there?
yok mu? - means - Doesn't it exist? Isn't there? Aren't there?
Tepede bir lokanta var m? - Is there a cafe on the hill?
Aata meyve var m? - Is there any fruit on the tree?
yok mu? - means - Doesn't it exist?, Isn't there?, Aren't there?
Garajda hi araba yok mu? - Isn't there a/any car(s) in the garage?
Yeil kutuda kibrit yok mu? - Are there not any matches in the green box?
In all cases the Question Particle is written separately.
Def i ni t e Pas t Form
This form is also used for the Past by using the past tense suffix -di according to Vowel
Harmony and Consonant Mutation Rules:
Thus - var - There is, There are - becomes - vard - There was, There were
Tepede bir lokanta vard. - There was a cafe on the hill.
Bu aata ok meyve vard. - There was a lot of fruit on this tree.
Similarly - yok - There is not, There are not - becomes - yoktu - There was not, There
were not
Garajda hi araba yoktu. - There wasn't a (single) car in the garage.
Yeil kutuda kibrit yoktu. - There were no matches in the green box.
Pas t Tens e Ques t i on
This is formed by adding the Past Tense Question Particle - miydi? - according to Vowel
Harmony Rules
The Past Tense Question Particle is written separately:
var myd? - means - Did it exist? Was there? Were there?
yok muydu? - means - Didn't it exist? Wasn't there? Weren't there?
var myd? - means - Did it exist? Was there? Were there?
Tepede bir lokanta var myd? - Was there is a cafe on the hill?
Aata meyve var myd? - Was there is any fruit on the tree?
The Past Tense Question Particle is written separately.
yok muydu? - means - Didn't it exist? Wasn't there? Weren't there?
Garajda hi araba yok muydu?. - Wasn't there a car(s) in the garage?
Yeil kutuda kibrit yok muydu? - Weren't there (any) matches in the green box?
The Past Tense Question Particle is written separately.
An Act ual Exampl e

Here is a sign along the old Lycian Road near Ka in the South Aegean Region of Turkey.
Many thanks to Jim Gronsand of Portland, Oregon, USA - Mar 4 2007.
It clearly shows that Var (and Yok) always come at the end of the sentence in Turkish.
You can see that the writer of the sign has literally translated into English - Care! Dog there
is!- thus conserving the natural Turkish word order.
More forms of - there is, there are - which are in daily use
Other than the basic forms of - there is, there are - as shown above the following more
extended forms are in constant use in daily Turkish conversation.
The Formal Form
vardr - definitely, surely
The formal form acts a statement of fact and is suffixed with the verb - to be - -dir
As already mentioned above - vardr - means - Is (definitely) existent, It (definitely) exists,
There (definitely) is, There (definitely) are. This form is used in Public Notices and
Advices.
Here is an actual example from a Traffic Propaganda Advertisement seen in Manisa, Turkey,
May 2006
Unutma! Her trafik kuralnn bir nedeni vardr.
Don't forget, every traffic law has a reason..!
Thus showing - vardr as definitely, surely.
Formal Publ i c Form
vardr - definitely, surely.
vardr - means - Is (definitely) existent, It (definitely) exists, There (definitely) is, There
(definitely) are.
Tepede bir lokanta vardr - There is a cafe on the hill - [definitely]
Bir kiloda bin gram vardr - There are 1000 grams in a Kilogram. - [Statement of Fact]
yoktur - definitely not, surely not.
yoktur - means - Is (definitely) non existent, It (definitely) does not exist, There
(definitely) isn't, There (definitely) aren't.
Garajda hi araba yoktur - There is (surely) not a (single) car in the garage. - [Statement
of Fact]
Yeil kutuda kibrit yoktur - There is not a (single) match in the green box. - [Definite
Statement]
The Condi t i onal Form
The Conditional - If there is, If there are - is simply formed by adding the Conditional
Suffix -sa as the following examples show:
varsa - If there is, If there are.
yoksa - If there is not, If there are not.
Present Tense Conditional
Tepede bir lokanta varsa, orada yiyelim - If there is a cafe on the hill, let us eat there.
Aata meyve varsa, onu koparrm - If there is any fruit on the tree, I will pick it.
Garajda hi araba yoksa, o zaman bir taksi tutun - [taxi tutmak - to take/catch a taxi] - If
there isn't a car in the garage, then catch/take a taxi
Yeil kutuda kibrit yoksa, akman kullan - [familiar method] - If there are no matches
in the green box, use your lighter.
Yeil kutuda kibrit yoksa, akmanz kullann - [polite method] - If there are no
matches in the green box, use your lighter.
Thanks to Nurcan Akaltun ifti for corrections to the above section - JG - June 2008.
Past Conditional
The Conditional Past - If there was, If there were - the forms with var - varsayd and yok -
yoksayd are not widely used. The forms with the verb - olmak - to be/to become - and -
olmamak - not to be/not to become - may be used instead.
olsayd - If there was, If there were.
olmasayd - If there was not, If there were not.
Tepede bir lokanta olsayd, orada yerdik - If there had been a cafe on the hill, we would
have eaten there.
Tepede bir lokanta olmu olsayd, orada yerdik - If there had been a cafe on the hill, we
would have eaten there. - [the addition of - olmu - been - makes this statement a little more
formal]
Aata meyve olsayd, onu koparrdm - If there had been any fruit on the tree, I would
have picked it.
Garajda hi araba olmasayd, taksi tutacaktm - If there had not been a car in the
garage, I would have taken a taxi.
Garajda hi araba olmam olsayd, taksi tutacaktm - If there had not been a car in the
garage, I would have taken a taxi. - [the addition of - olmam - not been - makes this
statement a little more formal]
Yeil kutuda hi kibrit olmasayd, akmam kullanrdm - If there weren't any
matches in the green box, I would have used my lighte.
Yeil kutuda hi kibrit olmam olsayd, akmam kullanrdm - If there weren't any
matches in the green box, I would have used my lighter
Krmzda gememi olsaydm, kadn yaayacakt., Krmzda gemi olmasaydm, kadn
yaayacakt., Krmzda gemeseydim, kadn yaayacakt. - are all different ways of saying
- If I hadn't passed on the red light, the lady would have still lived. - [the addition of -
olmam - not been - makes this statement a little more formal]
Thanks to Nurcan Akaltun ifti for corrections to the above section - JG - June 2008.
The I nf erent i al Form
The Inferential - It seems that there is/was - is used when the subject has no eyewitness
knowledge, it is used for reporting and inference. The Inferential is simply formed by adding
the Inferential Suffix -mi as the following examples show. The Inferential Suffix -mi is
used for both the Present Tense and the Past tense:
varm - It seems that there is/was, It seems that there are/were.
yokmu - It seems that there is/was not.. It seems that there are/were not..
Deniyor ki - ["Diyorlar ki.. - They say that.." more formal] - tepede bir lokanta varm,
[eer] yleyse orada yiyelim
It is said there is a cafe on the hill, if so let us eat there.
Aata ok meyve varm - It seems there is a lot fruit on the tree.
Garajda araba yokmu - (I think that) there is not a car in the garage.
Yeil kutuda kibrit yokmu, mavi olanna [olan--n-a] bakn - (I think that) there are no
matches in the green box. have a look in the blue one.
At the beginning of fairy tales Turkish usually says - bir varm, bir yokmu - which we
should translate as - Once upon a time
An expl anat i on of - ol an - t he whi ch one
olan - One [the one that] - [lit: that which is] as an item
olanlar - Ones [the ones that] - [lit: those which are] as items
Hangi tirt istiyorsunuz? - Which tee-shirt do you want?
Mavi olan(n) ltfen - The blue one, please
Hangi ayakkablar istiyorsunuz? - Which shoes do you want?
Siyah olanlar(n) ltfen - The black ones, please.
Note that (-ni) as an accusative direct object ending is grammatically correct in the answers as
the the verb - istemek - to want - is understood. But as with all languages sometimes the easy
way is used and the direct object suffix is discarded though constant daily conversational
usage.
See - olan as subject participle
Forms wi t h - "i ken - whi l e"
varken - While there is, As there is, yokken - While there isn't , As there isn't
This formation is var + iken (while) producing varken and similarly yok +
iken producing yokken
varken - While/As there is, While/As there are.
yokken - While/As there is not, While/As there are not.
Tepede bir lokanta varken, bakasn amyorlar - While there is a cafe on the hill, they
will not open another one.
Aata ok meyve varken, onu koparalm - While there is a lot fruit on the tree, let us
pick it.
Hazr garajda araba yokken, (haydi) iine - or - [oraya] - bisikletimizi
brakalm/koyalm. - As there is not a car in the garage, let us put our bicycles in it.
Yeil kutuda kibrit yokken, atei yakamam. - While there are no matches in the green
box. I cannot light the fire.
A Little note about using Var and Yok
(1) When enumerating lists of things you must say var or yok after each item.
In English the greengrocer may tell us that he has - apples, tomatoes, onions, cherries, etc.
In Turkish he will say - elma var, domates var, soan var, kiraz var, vs.
(2) If a question is asked that contains a var m? or a yok mu? - the the answer must always
be var or yok, whereas in English we tend to use - Yes or No as an answer, but the Turk will
not usually use the words hayr or evet in answer to a question that contains a var or a yok.
Dolapta bir bardak yok mu? - Isn't there a tumbler in the cupboard? Answer: var/evet
var or yok/hayr yok accordingly.
Kilitte anahtar var m? - Is the key in the lock?. Answer: var or yok accordingly.
The English answers can be - Yes [it is]. or No [it isn't]. However the Turkish answers must
simply be - Var there is or Yok - there isn't
Owners hi p - "I have/ haven' t got "
Explanation of Usage: There is no verb to have or to have got in Turkish for - "to have
something" - as in - I have a new car. - or -Have you got a new car? - or - Do you have any
anything cheaper?
All these kinds of sentences use - var - or - vardr - for - to have (got) and in the negative
sense - yok - or - yoktur - for - not to have (got). The addition of -dr or its vowel harmonic
equivalents does not alter the meaning, its use is optional, but it does show that the statement
is a fact and it is often used as - vardr - there (definitely) is or - yoktur - there (definitely)
is not in Public Notices and Advices.
We will use the simple form as this is more widespread.
To say - I have a cat - or - I have got a cat - we attach the Possessive Adjective Suffix - my,
your, his, our etc. - to the item which is possessed with - var - to have.. or yok - not to have.
Positive Examples - var- there is - have got
kedim var - [kedi-m var] I have a cat, I have got a cat
kpein var - [kpe-in var] You have a dog, You've got a dog
arabas var - [araba-s- var] He/she has a car, He's got a cat
evimiz var - [ev-imiz var] We have a house, We have got a house
baheniz var - [bahe-niz var] You have a garden, You have got a garden
ieleri var - [ie-leri var] They have a bottle, They have got a bottle
Negative Examples - yok - there is not - have not got
kedim yok - [kedi-m yok] I do not have a cat, I have not got a cat
kpein yok - [kpe-in yok] You do not have a dog, You have not got a dog
arabas yok - [araba-s- yok] He/she doesn't have a car, He has not got a cat
evimiz yok - [ev-imiz yok] We do not have a house, We have not got a house
baheniz yok - [bahe-niz yok] You do not have a garden, You have not got a garden
ieleri yok - [ie-leri var] They do not have a bottle, They have not got a bottle
Expl anat i on of Di f f erence i n Turki s h - Engl i s h f or - t o have, t o have
got .
kedim var - I have a cat, I have got a cat - [Lit: There is a my cat[
In the sentence above the first person singular Possessive Adjective suffix -im tells us -
"whose cat it is" - and in this case it tells us that - Ihave a cat - by using - var
kedin yok - You haven't got a cat - [Lit: There isn't a your cat]. Similarly in the second
sentence the Second Person Possessive Adjective suffix -in tells us that - You haven't got a
cat - by using yok. It is the Possessive Suffix which tells us who owns the object..
Thanks to J. R. for suggestions and corrections - Oct 2005
Pos i t i ve Ques t i ons
Using the positive question - var m? - "Is there? Are there?"
(1) Evin var m? - Have you got a house? - [Lit: Is there a your house?]
In the first example above the literal translation is - Is there a your house? - but in English
we must say - "Have you got a house?".
(2) Kedisi var m? - Has he/she got a cat? - [Lit: Is there a his cat? Is there a her cat?]. Here
the Third Person Singular Possessive Adjective Suffix -(s)i tells us whose cat it is, and in this
case it asks us if - Has he/she got a cat?
(3) Evleri var m? - (Ev-leri = their house) - Have they got a house? - [Lit: Is there a their
house?]
Negat i ve Ques t i ons
Using the negative question - yok mu? - "Isn't there?, Aren't there?"
(1) Evimiz yok mu? - Haven't we got a house? - [Lit: Isn't there an our house?]
In the sentence above the First Person Plural Possessive Adjective suffix -imiz asks us whose
house it is , and in this case it asks -"Haven't wegot a house?"
(2) Eviniz yok mu? - Haven't you got a house? - [Lit: Isn't there a your house?]. Similarly
in the last sentence the Second Person Possessive Adjective suffix -iniz asks us -
"Haven't you got a house?"
(3) Evleri yok mu? - [Ev-leri = their house] - Haven't they got a house? - [Lit: Isn't there a
their house?]. Finally you can see that we have turned all the above sentences into question
form - simply by adding the question tag -mi? - according to Vowel Harmony Rules.
Positive Examples - var m? - is there?
kedim var m? - [kedi-m var m?] Do I have a cat?, Have I got a cat?
kpein var m? - [kpe-in var m?] Have you a dog?, Have you got a dog?/Do you have a dog?
arabas var m? - [araba-s- var m?] Has he/she a car?, Has he/she got a car?
evimiz var m? - [ev-imiz var m?] Have we a house?, Have we got a house?
baheniz var m? - [bahe-niz var m?] Have you a garden?, Have you got a garden?
ieleri var m? - [ie-leri var m?] Have they a bottle?, Have they got a bottle?
Negative Examples - yok mu? - isn't there?
kedim yok mu? - [kedi-m yok mu?] Have I not got a cat?, Do I not have a cat?
kpein yok mu? - [kpe-in yok mu?] Do you not have a dog?, Have you not got a dog?
arabas yok mu? - [araba-s- yok mu?] Doesn't he/she have a car?, Has he/she not got a car?
evimiz yok mu? - [ev-imiz yok mu?] Have we not a house?, Have we not got a house?
baheniz yok mu? - [bahe-niz yok mu?] Do you not have a garden?, Have you not got a garden?
ieleri yok mu? - [ie-leri yok mu?] Do they not have a bottle?, Have they not got a bottle?
Some Exampl es of Pos s es s i on
Of course all the differing senses of var: varsa, varm etc. and of yok: yoksa, yokmu,
etc. - can be used with the Possessive Forms.
Yeni bir arabanz var m? - Have you got a new car?
Yeni bir arabamz olsayd, beraber/birlikte kasabaya gidebilecektik? - If we had a new
car, we could have gone to town together?
Orhan'n yeni arabas varm. - (It seems that) Orhan has/had a new car.
ekeriniz var m, ltfen? - Do you have any sugar, please?
ekeriniz yoksa, sade ieyim. - If you do not have sugar, I'll drink it without.
Bo vaktimiz var m? - Have we got time to spare?
Bo vakitleri/zamanlar olsayd, bize gelirdiler/gelirlerdi. - If they had had time, they
would have come to us.
Note that vakit - "a point in time" - loses final vowel when suffixed with another vowel.
See list of nouns which lose a vowel
Cevab yok - He/She hasn't got the answer
Cevab yoksa. - If He/She hasn't got the answer..
Elmalar yok - They haven't got any apples.
Elmalar yokmu - (It seems that) they haven't got any apples.
Elmalar yok mu? - Haven't they got any apples?
Mehmet'in kedisi var - Mehmet has got a cat.
Mehmet'in kedisi varken, kpeimi onunla brakamam. - While Mehmet has got a cat, I
cannot leave my dog with him.
Sadece az param var - I've only a little money.
Ali 'nin paras var m? - Has Ali got any money?
Yeterli param varsa, yeni araba alrm. Ama o kadar yokmu gibi geliyor..- If I have
enough money, I'll buy a new car. But it seems that (like) I have not got that much
(money)
var and yok - Peronal i s ed
Var and yok can also take the personal endings endings of the verb - to be - "I am, you are,
etc"
Var and Yok - Personalised
The Personalised - Var and Yok with "to be" suffixes added
varm I am there/I'll be there yokum I am not there/I'll not be there
varsn You are there/You will be there yoksun You are not there/You will not be there
var He/She/It is there - He/She/It will be there yok He/She/It is not there - He/She/It will not be there
varz We are there/We will be there yokuz We are not there/We will not be there
varsnz You are there/You will be there yoksunuz You are not there/You will not be there
varlar They are there/They will not be there yoklar They are not there/They will not be there
When stating the future olmak - to become can also be used - var olacam - I will be
there. But in practice the shorter way as in the table above is used in conversation.
The words here used like varm,varsn,var,varz.... can also have the meaning "I am in!",
when talking about interference into an issue. For instance, "Bugn raftinge var msn?"
"Evet, varm." "Hayr, ben yokum."
A couple of years ago, there was a TV show in Turkey (I am sure you have seen English or
NZ versions of it). You are a contestant, you have a box which is closed, and there are also
25-30 other boxes which are also closed. Every box has some amount of money. Some boxes
contain 1 million TL, some 250.000, some 100.000, some 1.000, some 250, some 50, some 10
and some 1 TL (also some intermediate values). You don't know which boxes including yours
contain which amount, and you have the other boxes open one after another. At first round,
you open 6 boxes, next round 5, then 4,and then 3 and then 2. After the end of each round,
you get a proposal of money. You can choose to go on for your own box, or you can accept
these proposals at the time of proposal. It is something about probability, and when you make
big amounts open at the beginning, you get lesser proposals afterwards for sure. And vice
versa. Anyway, let's not digress. The moderator was asking to the contestant at the end of
each round, right after getting the proposal (he got the proposals via a phone) "Bu x TL iin
var msn, yok musun?". That means, he asks if the guy wants to continue, or take the
proposed money and finish it here. The contestant says, "yokum" for the proposal, and he
continues. Or, he says "varm" and takes the proposed money regardless of the amount in his
box. This TV show was called (as you can guess) "Var msn, yok musun".
Many thanks to Oytun Arslan for corrections,suggestions and additions to this page. - JG - 28
Sept 2011
Varsa and Yoksa - Present Conditional
Varsa and Yoksa - "If I'm there/If I'm not there"
varsam If I am there/I'll be there yoksam I am not there/If I'll not be there
varsan If you are there/If you'll be there yoksan If you are not there/If you will not be there
varsa If he is there am there/If he'll be be there yoksa If he is not there/If he will not be there
varsak If we are there/If we'll be there yoksak If we are not there/If we will not be there
varsanz If you are there/If you'll be there yoksanz If you are not there/If you will not be there
varsalar If they are there/If they will be there yoksalar If they are not there/If they will not be there
Olsayd and Olmasayd - Past Conditions
When we are talking about past conditions - var and yok - are replaced by the verb olmak -
to be/become
Olsayd and Olmasayd - If I had/had not been there
olsaydm If I'd been there olmasaydm If I'd not been there
olsaydn If you had been there olmasaydn If you not been there
olsayd If he had been there olmasayd If he had not been there
olsaydk If we had been there olmasaydk If we had not been there
olsaydnz If you had been there olmasaydnz If you had not been there
olsaydlar If they had been there olmasaydlar If they had not been there
Varm and Yokmu - the Indefinite - mi form.
Varm and Yokmu - the Indefinite - mi form.
varmm possibly I am/was there/I'll be there yokmuum possibly I am/was not there/I'll not be there
varmsn possibly you are/were there/you'll be there yokmusun possibly you are/were not there/you'll not be there
varm possibly he is/was there/he'll be there yokmu possibly he is/was not there/he'll not be there
varmz possibly we are/were there/we'll be there yokmuuz possibly we are/were not there/we'll not be there
varmsnz possibly you are/were not there/you'll not be there yokmusunuz possibly you are/were not there/you'll not be there
varmlar possibly they are/were there/they'll be there yokmular possibly they are/were not there/they'll not be there
This form, which is in constant use, actually means something like - I am there, I'll be there,
I'll not be there, etc.
Some exampl es of these forms
Yarn ofiste yokum - I will not be at the office tomorrow.
Evde var msn? - Are you at home?
Kimse var m? - Is anybody there?
Kimse yok. - There is nobody (here).
Yalnz myz? - Are we alone?, Hayr. Onlar da var. - No, there's them as well..
Gelecek toplantda ben de varm. - I'll be at the next meeting as well.
Thanks to Volker Bodegom for corrections in the sections above - JG - Novenber 2009.
I di omat i c Us e
Neyimiz var neyimiz yok depremde kaybettik. - We lost everything what we had/have in
the earthquake.
Could also be stated thus:
Varmz youmuzu depremde kaybettik. - We lost everything what we had/have in the
earthquake.
Note that yok softens its final -k to - when adding a suffix which begins with a vowel - [yo-
umuz-u = our nothings (obj.)]
Vaktin varsa, sonra grelim - Let us meet later on, if you have time.
Saat onda ofiste yokmusun - It seems you were not at the office at 10 o'clock.
There is also another usage of var/yok: Namely - Varsa yoksa..
Varsa yoksa annesi. - meaning that person is very keen on his mother (a little exaggeration
and derision also exists).
Varsa yoksa bilgisayar - is suitable when talking about someone who spends a lot of time in
front of the computer.
Thanks to Nurcan Akaltun ifti for suggestions and examples in the sections above - JG -
June 2008.
Fi nal l y, t he "Yok Yok" Shop
What's in a name?
This shop really does belie its name - "the shop with no stock", but you would be wrong in
that assumption:
Here is a typical usage, "yok" yok. That means, the notion "yok" is "yok", which means
"yok" doesn't exist. Hence, that means, everything exists! You can say for instance, Bugn
pazara gittim, pazarda yok yoktu. This expresses that there were plenty of things in the
bazaar.