Sunteți pe pagina 1din 27

Company History:

In calitate de ocupant al locului 2 in lume in domeniul retail-ului, Carrefour se


foloseste de mai mult de 7000 de magazine 1, sub diverse nume, cum ar fi Carrefour,
Champion, Shopi, March Plus, Dia, Ed, sau Promocash. Compania a fuzionat in anul
2000 cu Promods SA, pentru a deveni liderul European in materie de supermarketuri,
magazine de discount, outlet-uri de cash-and-carry si hypermarketuri. Hypermarketul
este un magazin foarte mare ce dispune de spatii comerciale ce variaza intre 8.000 22.000 metri patrati. Combina principiul desfacerii cu amanuntul cu cel al
supermarketului, cu magazinul de solduri si magazinul-depozit2. Fondatorii companiei au
creat conceptul de hypermarket, un supermarket marit care ofera o gama vasta de marfa
(incluzand produse alimentare, electronice, imbracaminte, articole sportive, sau accesorii
pentru automobile) care permite consumatorilor sa-si faca toate cumparaturile necesare
intr-un singur magazin.
Originile Companiei
Carrefour a aparut in anul 1959 in forma colaborarii dintre doi antreprenori,
Marcel Fournier si Louis Defforey, in Annecy, un oras din estul Frantei. Ambii oameni de
afaceri proveneau din familii instarite si fiecare era nerabdator sa isi extinda propria
afacere construnid mari supermarketuri. Fournier detinea deja magazinul Grand Magasin
de Nouveauts Fournier d'Annecy si avea legaturi cu Compania Casino de
Supermarketuri, iar Defforey era presedintele lui Badin-Defforey din Lagnieu.
In anii 1950, industria alimentara franceza era formata in primul rand din firme de
familie. Magazinele alimentare traditionale, care incercau sa furnizeze o varietate de
produse de calitate, erau responsabile de 83% din vanzari. Pe masura ce in aceste afaceri
de familie patrundeau din ce in ce mai putini tineri, precum si datorita cooperativelor
alimentare si vanzatorilor independenti, s-a evidentiat nevoia de alternative pentru pietele
1

Vezi Anexa 1
http://www.buget.ro/finante-banci-investitii-legi/o-DictionaryBuget_m-ViewTermen_id8155/Definitie_Hipermarket.html (accesat la data de 06.01.2009)
2

mai mici. In acelasi timp, marile magazine universale, aflate in general in centrele
oraselor, se dovedeau a fi destul de neconvenabile, si preturile ridicate pe care acestea le
practicau pentru articolele de lux si serviciile de valoare adaugata (value-added services)
ii determinau pe consumatori sa caute in alta parte articole ne-alimentare.
Mai mult, conceptual serviciului gratuit (free service) devenea din ce in ce mai
popular. Serviciul gratuiu, predominant in retail pana in anii 1990, a fost inventat in 1916.
Inainte de instituirea sa, consumatorii se bazau foarte mult pe asistenta vanzatorilor (sales
clerks) in selectarea produselor dorite. O data cu difuzarea conceptului de serviciu
gratuity, consumatorii incep sa foloseasca carucioare, cosuri sau pungi pentru a colecta
obiectele de care aveau nevoie plasate la indemana si cu pret individual in timp ce
vanzatorii (sales clerks) devin in principal casieri (cashiers)
Supermarket-ul, care a aparut prima oara in Franta in 1954, folosea conceptul de
free service. Cu facilitate mai mari, localizat in afara centrului oraselor, supermarketurile
puteau livra produse mai proaspete si mai variate la preturi mai mici decat magazinele
alimentare traditionale. Totusi, pana la sfarsitul deceniului, doar 33 de supermarketuri cu
serviciu liber erau operationale in Franta, si nici unul dintre ele nu adoptase modelul
marilor magazine de discount din SUA.
Astfel, n Mai 1959, Fournier si Defforey decid sa incorporeze aceste concepte aproape
neexploatate in magazinul lor n Annecy. O oferta de 7, 000 de actiuni a fost a facuta la
zece actionari, si un spatiu comercial deja n lucru n Annecy a fost cumprat.. Parterul
cladirii urma sa fie folosit ca supermarket, in timp ce etajele, continnd apartamente,
urmau sa fie vandute pentru a finanta afacerea. Marcel Fournier a fost ales presedinte, iar
Denis Defforey, fiul lui Louis, a fost ales ca director general. Fournier a numit afacerea
Carrefour, traducerea frantuzeasca a guvantului grecesc agora, piata .

Pentru a familiarize publicul cu conceptual de supermarket, Carrefour s-a angajat


intr-o campanie intense de publicitate inainte de a-si deschide primul magazine. Aceasta
campanie a fost foarte benefica, magazinul deschis pe 3 iunie 1960 atingand vanzari ce

au deposit asteptarile si insumand peste 15 000 de clienti in primele doua zile. In putin
maimult de trei saptamani, Carrefour atinsese vanzari de peste 290 000 de franci, o cifra
pe care majoritatea vanzatorilor independenti de produse alimentare o atineau intr-un an.
Pentru a preveni aglomeratia, magazinul si-a extins locurile de parcare, insa
managementul a constatat in scurt timp ca supermarketurile in spatiul urban nu sunt
practice.
Expansiunea din anii 1960
Intre anii 1961 si 1962, afacerile Carrefour au crescut cu 45%, la fel ca si salariile.
Anul urmator a fost deschis un nou magazin in Cran-Gevrier, in regiunea Annecy, de data
aceasta cu un spatiu destinat parcarii mult mai mare. In aceasta perioada, compania a
decis sa se extinda in zona Parisului, cumparand un teren la 30 de kilometri de capitala, in
regiunea Sainte-Genevive-des-Bois, unde costurile erau mai scazute si spatial disponibil
era mai mare. Desi Carrefour n-a adoptat dimensiunile uriase ale magazinelor americane,
cu multi casieri si culoare largi (many cashiers and large aisles), a construit o facility
relative mare si au introdus conceptual de preturi scazute, cumparand marfa de la engrossisti si de la producatori. Magazinul s-a deschis in Iunie 1963, iar presa s-a referit la el
numindu-l Hiyermarket, denumire ce reflecta spatial de 2500 de metri patrati, cele 400 de
locuri de parcare si abundenta de produse alimentare si non-alimentare. Magazinul a avut
un success imediat, avand in vedere ca fiecare consumator cheltuia in medie, de trei ori
mai multi bani decat intr-un supermarket obisnuit.
Succesul Carrefour-ului s-a bazat pe reducerile de preturi, descentralizarea puterii,
reducerea focusarii pe detaliile estetice si costul echipamentelor si o rotatie accelerate a
stocurilor. Hypermarketul era atragator pentru tineri si pentru locuitorii zonelor
suburbane, dar si pentru consumatorul preocupat de propriul buget afectat de rata mare de
inflatie din anii 60. Inovatiile Carrefour-ului in ceea ce priveste cantarirea, ambalarea,
modului de determinare a pretului si incasarea produselor au facut din aceasta companie
o piesa de baza a revolutiei retail-ului francez.
Cresterea internationala din anii 1970 - 1980

Carrefour a cautat, de asemenea, sa stabileasca legaturi cu alte companii din


Europa, cum ar fi Delhaize Frres-Le-Lion din Belgia, Mercure din Elvetia, Wheatsheaf
Investment din Marea Britanie, si Italware din Italia, si a depus eforturi serioase pentru a
se extinde in regiunile mediteraneene ale Europei. In timpul expansiunii sale
internationale, Carrefour a avut grija sa atraga clientele locala promovand produsele
locale/nationale in loc sa exporte produsele frantuzesti.
Cand in anul 1873, legea Royer a restrictionat dezvoltarea marilor magazine
franceze, Carrefour a inceput sa se concentreze pe intensificarea expansiunii in afara
granitelor Frantei. Intre anii 1973 si 1982, cele mai multe magazine Carrefour s-au
deschis in afara Frantei, in special in tarile latine, obtinand profituri mari in Brazilia,
Argentina si Spania.
Pana in 1982 industria hypermarketurilor se maturizase, ceea ce a rezultat intr-o
competitie active in ceea ce priveste preturile si in standardizarea liniilor de produse.
Piata produselor alimentare era in stagnare, si Carrefour s-a vazut obligata sa reduca
marimea unor magazine. In acest timp, compania a stabilit parteneriate cu alte nume
importante din industrie, inclusiv cu Castorama, prin care incerca sa satisfaca cererea
crescuta pentru produse de petrecere a timpului liber si de hardware. Desi Carrefour avea
un nivel de vanzari aproape dublu fata de principalii competitori, Casino, Viniprix, si
Nouvelles Galeriesscopul principal al companiei era sa pastreze pietele existente,
precum si avantajele comerciale, financiare si de dezvoltare de care beneficia.
Marcel Fournier, caruia ii fusese acordata Legiunea de Onoare, a murit n 1985,
consiliul de conducere fondat de Carrefour a fost numit dupa el. Pana in acel an,
Carrefour se extinsese in 10 tari pe 3 continente, si avea un profit net de 520 de milioane
de franci francezi. Pe msura ce s-a intensificat accentul pus pe imaginea de marca la
nivel national, Carrefour si-a introdus propriile marci in calitate de alternative low-cost,
insa punand accent pe calitate. n 1988 Carrefour era in fruntea Frantei la capitolul
hypermarket, si de asemenea in fruntea retail-ului european, cu 65 de hypermarketuri in
Franta si aproximativ 115 in Europa si America de Sud. In luna februarie a aceluiasi an,
Carrefour a deschis un al doilea hypermarket de 100.000 de metri patrati in afara

Philadelphiei. Problemele financiare initiale, datorate volumului scazut de consumatori


au fost depasite, si Carrefour a deschis un al doilea hypermarket in apropierea
Philadelphiei in 1991. Compania a continuat sa acorde autonomie fiecarui sef de
department prin politica sa de descentralizare, si a continuat sa se axeze pe rezultate pe
termen lung in locul unui success imediat.
Cresterea continua si in anii 1990
La inceputul anilor 90, toti membrii familiilor fondatoare a Carrefour-ului au
parasit consiliul director active al companiei pentru a infiinta un consiliu de consiliere.
Carrefour si-a vandut magazinele din Annecy si Cran-Gevrier lui Casino, acesta in
schimb vanzandu-si hypermarketul din Nantes lui Carrefour, astfel incat gigantul francez
conducea numai magazine mai mari de 2500 de metri patrati. In 1991 carrefour a
cumparat competitorul Euromarche cu 850 de milioane de dolari si Montlaur, lantul de
produse alimentare intrat in faliment cu 175 milioane de dolari. Desi Franta ajunsese la
un punct de saturarecu 798 de hypermarketuri si reglementarile guvernamentale
restrictionau deschiderea de noi magazine, carrefour a continuat sa se extinda pe pietele
straine, cu propriile magazine sau incheind parteneriate cu companii din Austria, marea
Britanie, Belgia, Italia, Spania, Africa, Argentina, brazilia si Statele Unite.
In 1992 Carrefour a deschis doua noi magazine in Marea Britanie, intr-un jointventure cu Costco. Mai mult, lantul alimentar de discount al companiei, cunoscut sub
numele de Ed, a fost introdus in Marea Britanie si Italia, oferind o gama limitata de
produse la un prt foarte scazut. Carrefour a deschis de asemenea magazine noi in Spania,
Brazilia, Argentina si a inceput s aplanuiasca deschidera unor magazine si in Taiwan,
Turcia si Malaesia.
In 1993, Carrefour a trebuit sa faca fata unor noi provocari din partea guvernului
francez, care a restrictionat aparitia de noi hypermarketuri in zonele rurale ale tarii. Cu
toate acestea, obisnuita cu asemenea decizii legislative, compania s-a continuat ritmul de
crestere, in special pe pietele straine. Ca o exceptie a acestui ritm de crestere
international, carrefour si-a inchis doua dintre magazinele din Statele Unite in acest an, si

nu a mai facut planuri pentru deschiderea unora noi. Mai mult, si-a continuat retragerea
de pe piata americana prin vanzarea celor 11 procente din Costco, un deposit de retail
(warehouse retailer) din SUA. Si-a pastrat totusi cele 20 de procente din actiunile Costco
din Marea Britanie, si incepand din 1998 detine 6% din Office Depot, un retailer de
produse de papetarie din SUA, si 8% din PETsMART, o companie Americana de
discount-retail de produse pentru animale de casa. (discount pet supply retailer.)
Expansiunea in America Centrala si de Sud a fost deosebit de puternica in anii
90. Carrefour si-a facut intrarea in Mexic in 1993. Dintre cele 30 de magazine pe care
Carrefour le-a deschis in 1996, 15 se aflau in Mexic, Brazilia si Argentina. In 1997
Carrefour detinea aproximativ 60 de magazine in America de Sud, si avea vanzari de 7
miliarde de dolari numai in Argentina si Brazilia. Sperand sa-si continue succesul
expansiunii in zona, Carrefour planuia sa deschida 10 magazine in Chile in urmatorul
deceniu.
In 1995 Carrefour detinea deja mai multe magazine in afara granitelor tarii decat
in Franta. Asia s-a dovedit un teren fertile pentru expansiunea sa internationala. Carrefour
si-a deschis primul magazine Asiatic la Seoul, in Coreea de Sud in anul 1996, dup ace
guvernul sud-coreean a anulat cateva dintre restrictiile care se aplicau la retailerii straini.
Cand criza financiara a lovit Asia, in 1996, Carrefour detinea deja 26 de hypermarketuri
in regiune, si datorita strategie de discount si a cererii constante de produse alimentare,
compania a fost capabila sa treaca cu bine peste perioada nefavorabila, deschizand inca
20 de magazine in Asia intre 1997 si 1998.
In anul 1996 s-au intensificat restrictiile in Franta, afectand cresterea nationala a
companiei. Intr-un effort de a proteja magazinele mici, guvernul francez a interzis timp
de 6 luni deschiderea unui magazine mai mare de 1000 de metri patrati. Neputand sa-si
deschida noi magazine, Carrefour s-a axat pe cumpararea competitorilor, iar in 1996 a
cumparat 41% din actiunile lantului de supermagazine Cora.
Internationally, Carrefour bought eight Eldorado stores in Brazil in 1997 and
converted them in 1998 to the Carrefour name. The company planned to open 34 new

stores by the end of 1998, including its first stores in Colombia, Chile, and Indonesia.
Carrefour thus remained committed to growth in France through increases in same-store
sales and the acquisition of rival stores and to expansion internationally through both
acquisitions and the opening of new stores.
Strategic Acquisitions in the Late 1990s and Beyond
Indeed, the company made two key purchases in 1998 and 2000 that would
catapult it into the top spot in Europe as well as secure its position as the world's second
largest retailer. Carrefour acquired the remaining shares of Comptoirs Modernes SA that
it did not already own for approximately $3 billion in 1998. The acquisition added more
than 790 supermarkets--operating under the Stoc, Comod, and March Plus names--into
Carrefour's expanding arsenal.
The company began planning its next big move in 1999 when it made a $16.5
billion play for competitor Promods SA. Founded in 1961 by Paul-Auguste Halley and
Leonor Duval Lemonnier, Promods originally started as a wholesale food distributor but
over time grew into one of the world's largest operators of hypermarkets, supermarkets,
convenience stores, and discount stores. Management from both firms hammered out the
terms of the deal over a three week period and agreed that a union would provide the
growth needed to remain competitive in the industry. Not only would the merger make it
the largest retailer in Europe and the second largest in the world, it would give it a
competitive edge over Wal-Mart Stores Inc., the U.S. giant that was looking to move into
Carrefour's territory.
The deal cleared regulatory hurdles and was completed in early 2000. With more
than 8,800 stores in 26 countries and revenues of nearly $65 billion, Carrefour entered the
new millennium on solid ground. While management worked on the merger integration
process, the company remained focused on growth. It formed GlobalNetXchange, an
online supply house, with Sears and Oracle in 2000. It also opened its first hypermarket
in Japan that year and purchased Belgium-based GB and Gruppo GS of Italy.

In 2001 the company sold its interest in Picard Surgels. The following year it
spun off its 10 percent interest in PETsMART. The firm continued to strengthen its hold
over the Italian and Polish markets and also moved into the Scandinavian market in 2003.
It established its first Champion supermarket in Beijing in April 2004.
Since the Promods acquisition, Carrefour had faced increased competition and
weakening sales in its homeland and its market share began to fall in France, Spain, and
Brazil. Rumors began to surface that Carrefour would either become a takeover target by
the likes of Wal-Mart or make another large acquisition to fend off unwanted advances. In
December 2003, Paul-Louis Halley and his wife died in a plane crash--the two
represented the Halley family, Carrefour's largest shareholder. Their deaths gave rise to
further speculation that changes could be on the horizon for Carrefour.
Principal Operating Units: Champion; Dia; Ed; Carrefour; 8 a Huit; Promocash;
Shopi; Proxi; Prodirest; Norte; GB; GS; Puntocash; March Plus; ooshop; DiperDi;
Dock's Market.
Principal Competitors: Auchan S.A.; Casino Guichard-Perrachon S.A.; II. Mission,
Values, Strategy3

Misiunea
Carrefour considera ca lupta impotriva discriminarii este in concordanta cu valorile sale:
egalitate, solidaritate si sharing. Acestea asigura o performanta la nivel ridicat si
dinamism in cadrul companiei deoarece misiunea acesteia este sa serveasca clientii, toti
clientii. Obiectivul companiei este de a oferi opotunitati de cariera tuturor angajatilor,
chiar daca acestia poseda sau nu studii superioare. Carrefour cauta in general angajati cu
aptitudini comerciale si cu capacitatea de a face fata provocarilor inerente acestui
domeniu. Aceasta abordare promoveaza un mediu de lucru diversificat din punct de
vedere social si cultural, avand in vedere ca mai mult de 100 de nationalitati sunt

http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Carrefour-SA-CompanyHistory.html (accesat la data de 02.01.2009)

reprezentate in hypermarketurile Carrefour, si 62 sunt reprezentate in magazinele de


discount ED.

Valori
Libertatea: respectarea libertatii de alegere a clientilor care trebuie sa aleaga dintr-o
multitudine de produse, branduri si preturi; a oferi consumatorilor libertatea de a cumpara
la preturi care sunt in concordanta cu bugetul lor; a oferi unui numar cat mai mare de
oameni oportunitatea de a cumpara bunuri; a incuraja toti angajatii sa aiba initiativa si a
le da libertatea de a actiona ca antreprenori
Responsabilitate:
We fully accept the consequences of our actions on our customers, company, employees,
institutions and the environment.
3. Sharing
We leverage our expertise and strengths to create value, which is shared among
customers, employees, shareholders, partners and suppliers.
4. Respect
We respect our employees, suppliers and customers.
We listen to them and accept their differences.
Wherever we do business, we understand and respect the lifestyles, practices, cultures
and interests of all our stakeholders.
5. Integrity
We respect our commitments and keep our word.
We deal honestly with customers, employees and suppliers.
We demonstrate this integrity both individually and collectively.
6. Solidarity
Everywhere Carrefour does business, we help to develop the local economy, create jobs,
provide training and fight exclusion.
We apply fair trade practices by promoting the sharing of value.
We also express solidarity within our group, regardless of our profession, function or
banner.

7. Progress
We support progress and the development of new technologies to serve the needs of
people.
As perpetual pioneers, we embrace change and encourage innovation.4

II.3. Strategy
Financial strength, management know-how, and longevity give Carrefour a decided
advantage in global retailing. Many firms are internationalizing, but key strategic
differences position Carrefour for sustained growth in the global arena. The main points
of Carrefour's strategy are:
1. Multiple Formats: Diversification of formats will continue to strengthen the firm's
position in established markets (e.g. France). This will be achieved through acceleration
of discount operations, supermarkets, and scaled down versions of the hypermarket.
Smaller stores meet French regulations for store size and allow flexibility in competitive
European markets.
2. Sustained International Growth: Carrefour will continue international expansion due to
saturation of its home market. Growth will be targeted for either developed countries with
low inflation rates or undeveloped retail markets. Carrefour's hypermarket format is
ideally suited for low-income and high population countries. This practice allows the
company to divide its risk among countries where currencies evolve at different rates.
3. Shared Risk: Entry into new markets will be facilitated by opening small pilot stores
that can be later expanded. Renting versus buying store space and forming strategic
partnerships are other risk reducing strategies. Cross ownership is preferred over joint
venture partnerships. The firm's policy is to not expand stores in any country unless
several have proven to be successful. Closing unprofitable stores in the US and Italy
reflects this policy.
4. Cultural Adaptation: Carrefour exports its basic concepts as it expands internationally.
Key concepts include: low prices, large selection, a convenient location, and usually a
flat-store format. Carrefour adapts merchandise to the local environment and consumers'
needs. The firm assimilates into the cultural and economy where it is installed and
4

http://www.carrefour.com/cdc/group/our-values/ (accesat la data de 08.01.2009)

essentially becomes part of that country. Merchandise supply sources are then obtained
on a regional level. Carrefour strives to expand credit repayment terms while developing
regional networks.
5. Improved Efficiencies: Optimization of sourcing and distribution synergies between
global regions is a current strategic emphasis. Carrefour cultivates relationships with
local suppliers by regions in effort to reduce dependency on imports. This provides
economic benefits to Carrefour and reduces the time it takes to break even in a new
country. To obtain better operating efficiencies and economies of scale, Carrefour is
shifting from its traditional decentralized management to a centralized process in France.
Centralization will eventually be implemented in all of Carrefour's global regions.
6. Strength in Food, Non-Food and Private Label: A current directive is to strengthen
non-food merchandise lines (computers, software, services) while maintaining strength in
food retail operations. Flexibility is exhibited in the ratio of food to non-food offerings
varying with consumer needs and the economy. Rapid expansion is taking place in food
retailing on a global scale. Carrefour is moving toward global branding of merchandise to
efficiently supply their vast market in both food and non-food lines. Its private label is
already strong in Europe and South America.
Analiza mediului de marketing
1.1. Micromediul
a.)Clientii alcatuiesc cercul agentilor economici (firme si institutii) si al persoanelor
individuale carora le sunt adresate produsele(serviciile) intreprinderii. Constituie cea mai
importanta componenta a micromediului.

b.)Furnizorii sunt organizatiile si indivizii care ofera firmelor input-urile (materii si


materiale, utilaje, echipament tehnologic, ambalaje, etichete, servicii, forta de munca, informatii
etc) necesare fabricarii produselor proprii.
In Carrefour numarul de furnizori este impresionant de la cei de branzeturi la cei de
imbracaninte si electrocasnice.

c.)Concurenta firme similare care urmaresc sa satisfaca aceleasi nevoi ale clientilor,
fiind percepute de consumatori ca alternative pentru satisfacerea nevoilor lor.

Cora

Billa

Kaufland

Univers`All

GMarket

Metro Cash & Carry

Sellgros etc

d.)organisme publice
In cadrul acestei categorii un rol important il joaca cei care fac publicitate, acestia putand
influenta pozitiv sau negativ clientii respective furnizorii Carrefour.
1.2.Macromediul
Macromediul firmei reprezinta ansamblul factorilor(variabilelor) incorporabili ce
constituie climatul general in care acesta isi desfasoara activitatea.
a.)Mediul demografic se refera la populatia din mediul in care se afla plasata firma
respectiva,
intereseaza nu numai eventualii clienti dar si eventualii angajati.
Printre indicatori specifici ai mediului demografic se numara: numrul populaiei,
structura acesteia pe sexe i grupe de vrst, numrul de familii i dimensiunea medie a unei
familii, repartizarea teritorial i pe medii ( mediul urban, respectiv cel rural ) a populaiei, rata
natalitii etc.
In ceea ce priveste hypermarketul Carrefour acesta se adreseaza tuturor indifferent de
varsta, sex, dimensiune medie a familiei etc. Ar trebui mentionat faptul ca hypermarketul
Carrefour se adreseaza in principal locuitorilor din Bucuresti.
b.)Mediul economic reprezinta ansamblul elementelor care compun spatial economic in
care actioneaza intreprinderea.

Veniturile disponibile ale populatiei, preturile, rata inflatiei, tendinta spre economisire se
numara printer principalele componente ale mediului economic in ceea ce priveste
hypermarketul Carrefour.
c.)Mediul tehnologic implica firma atat ca beneficiar, cat si ca furnizor, in principal prin
intermediul pietei. Se concretizeaza prin intermediul unor elemente specifice, cum sunt
investitiile si inovatiile, marimea si orientarea fondurilor destinate cercetarii-dezvoltarii,
asimilarea de produse noi si modernizarea celor traditionale etc.
d.)Mediul politic poate sa influenteze activitatea intreprinderii prin componente ca:
structura societatii, fortele politice si raporturile dintre ele.
Mediul politic poate deveni un factor stimulativ sau restrictiv dupa caz al unor
activitati de piata.
e.)Mediul juridic este constituit din ansamblul reglementarilor de natura juridica, prin
care este vizata direct sau indirect activitatea firmei.
Cele mai importante reglementari in acest domeniu sunt cele care privesc protectia
consumatorului, acesta trebuind plasat pe primul loc in cadrul fiecarei firme. De asemenea legile destinate
concurentei sunt foarte importante.

f.)Mediul socio-cultural este format din elemente referitoare la sistemul de valori,


obiceiuri, traditii, norme de convietuire etc. Acestea pot influenta decisive in anumite momente
asupra comportamentului comsumatorilor, asupra segmentarii pietelor, asupra comunicarii
intreprinderii cu piata.
Ca pentru oricare intreprindere care desfasoara o activitate economica, si pt
Carrefour
este importanta urmarirea schimbarilor survenite de la un moment la altul.
1.MEDIUL INTERN DE MARKETING
a.)resurse umane
Carrefour este primul grup european de distributie si al doilea pe plan mondial, cu peste
12.000 de magazine in 30 de tari, din care peste 920 de hypermarket-uri (date valabile la
sfarsitul lunii decembrie 2005) si numara peste 430000 angajati. Angajatii sunt persoana
dinamice si motivate, persoane foarte organizate, riguroase, responsabile, demne de incredere,

majoritatea tinere. Un punct forte al politicii Carrefour de resurse umane este promovarea interna.

Un alt obiectiv important este acela de a asigura satisfactia si stabilitatea personalului.


Motivarea, stimularea, incurajarea sunt cele trei puncte forte care stau la originea dezvoltarii
profesionale. Din aceste trei principii ia fiinta competenta profesionala, intotdeauna
recompensata prin promovarea interna.
Adevaratul obiectiv al politicii de resurse umane Carrefour este integrarea la cel mai bun
nivel a tuturor angajatilor, crearea unui spirit puternic, propriu companiei. Acest spirit este
reprezentat de conceptul "toti sub acelasi acoperis", fiecare angajat reprezentand o parte
importanta, iar impreuna - ca echipa a grupului Carrefour - vom fi cei mai performanti.
b.) resurse materiale
Carrefour Romania a investit aproximativ 180 de milioane de euro in cinci
hipermarketuri. Francezii au intrat pe piata romaneasca in 2001, o data cu inaugurarea
magazinului din Militari, pe 27 iunie. Aceasta este de altfel si cea mai mare unitate a companiei
din punctul de vedere al suprafetei de vinzare: peste 10.500 de metri patrati. Investitia s-a cifrat
la 50 de milioane de euro.
Doi ani mai tirziu, francezii au alocat 38 de milioane de euro pentru Carrefour Orhideea.
In 2004, au urmat lansarile hipermarketurilor din cartierul bucurestean Colentina si din orasul
Brasov. Anul trecut, grupul de retail a inaugurat magazinul din Ploiesti. Alte deschideri sint
programate pentru acest an.
In 2006 avem programate doua deschideri: Baneasa, in aceasta primavara, si
Constanta, in toamna, a spus Andreea Mihai, marketing manager Carrefour Romania.
Proiectul Hiproma in Romania implica investitii de 25-35 de milioane de euro pe
magazin, a adaugat Mihai.
c.)resurse financiare
Carrefour Romania a inceput cu zece angajati. Birourile au fost stabilite in 1999. Acum,
compania are 3.200 de angajati si a raportat in 2005 o cifra de afaceri de 436 de milioane de
euro.

Vanzarile Carrefour vor creste in urmatorii doi ani cu 10%, depasind 80 de miliarde euro,
comparativ cu nivelul din 2005, de 74,5 miliarde euro, pe fondul deschiderii de noi unitati, a cresterii
investitiilor si a adoptarii unor noi masuri privind organizarea interna a lantului de hypermarketuri.

Analiza SWOT
Analiza SWOT este o tehnica menita sa sprijine in mod prcis identificarea unor strategii
comerciale adecvate pe care sa le adopte o anumita organizatie. Aceasta implica specificarea si asocierea
atat a punctelor forte si punctelor slabe ale organizatiei, cat si a ocaziilor si amenintarilor puse de mediu.
Denumirea vine din engleza:

S - Strengths (puncte tari)


W - Weaknesses (puncte slabe)
O - Opportunities (oportuniti)
T - Threats (riscuri)

PDF
Hofstedes dimensions

http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_france.shtml (accesat la data de 6.01.2009)

SPAIN
Network of stores as of 12.31.07: 161 Hypermarkets
87 Supermarkets
3 Convenience Stores
2,912 Hard Discount stores
Carrefouronline: e-commerce website
80 travel agencies
132 finance and insurance agencies
78 service stations

Year of establishment: 1973


Sales incl. tax under banners in 2007: 14,749 millions euros
72,282 employees

With an area of 504,600 sq. km, Spain is the second-largest country after France. It is also
one of the most mountainous. Located in southwestern Europe between the
Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, it is separated from Africa by the Strait of
Gibraltar. It is also one of the oldest countries of the continent. Its rich culture is the
heritage of the various peoples who have lived here throughout its long history, including
Iberians, Celts, Phoenicians, Romans, Visigoths and Muslims. The Kingdom of Spain is a
constitutional monarchy divided into 17 autonomous communities. Spanish, its official
language, coexists with regional languages such as Catalan, Basque and Galician. In the
Carrefour Group, Spain is second only to France in terms of sales.

Population and consumption


Spain is the fifth-largest economy in Europe and the eighth-largest worldwide, with a per
capita income of around $30,000. The service sector (tourism etc.) is the leading source
of income in Spain. There are 15.3 million households and 24 million dwellings. The
Spanish lifestyle and mode of consumption are in line with those of a modern and
dynamic society. Its 46 million inhabitants live mainly in the cities, which are
concentrated for the most part along the coasts in particular the Mediterranean coast
as well as in its capital Madrid (population six million) in the centre of the country. Ten
percent of the population is made up of immigrants coming mainly from Latin America,
North Africa and Eastern Europe. The unemployment rate is about nine percent.

Retail
In Spain the development of this sector remains at a high level in all of the store formats
of modern commerce hypermarkets, supermarkets, hard discount, e-commerce,
specialists which are managed by large national groups (El Corte Ingls, Eroski,
Mercadona etc.) and international groups (Carrefour, Auchan, Ahold, Lidl etc.). Similarly,
regional food distribution groups have a strong presence in their areas of influence. Over
the past 20 years, the sector has experienced considerable growth and modernization due
to significant property development taking place in cities and the expansion of
commercial areas, as well as an intensive process of concentration. The Carrefour Group
leads the sector and its market share as measured by Alimarket in terms of food product
sales area, all formats combined is 17.3%, followed by Eroski with 13.1% and
Mercadona with 12.6%. Carrefour is also the leader in the hypermarket format sector,
with a food product sales area share of 42%, followed by Eroski (18%) and El Corte
Ingls (11%).

TheCarrefour group in Spain


The company began its operations here in 1973, opening the very first hypermarket in
Spain, in Barcelona. Its name was originally Carrefour, but was soon changed to Pryca.
In 1976, the Promodes Group opened its first Continente hypermarket in Valencia and
then, three years later, its first Dia discount store. In 1982, it launched the own-brand
concept on the market. The two groups then represented the cutting edge of leadership
and commercial innovation. The rest of the operators could only follow along behind.
They merged in 1999. In 2000, the banners adopted a common name: Carrefour. The new
group then had the largest market share in all three of its formats. In 2006, its
supermarkets adopted the new banner Carrefour Express, and in 2007 local testing of the
Carrefour City banner was carried out.
In Spanish households, the name Carrefour is a synonym for "hypermarket." The brand
enjoys the best consumer awareness indices. Its strong position is based on modernity,
proximity and discount, with seamless integration into the new environments it enters.
CARREFOUR HYPERMARKETS - Their sales areas range from 2,500 sq. m to over
11,000 sq. m, and they are the driving force of large commercial areas. With an
assortment of over 100,000 items in the largest centres, they maintain an intense level of
promotional activity throughout the year.
They offer consumers a wide range of innovative solutions in both food and non-food
products, under one roof and at the best prices. They also offer many additional services
such as the charge card, insurance, service stations and travel agencies.
CARREFOUR EXPRESS SUPERMARKETS A winning combination of low and
stable prices, every day, and an assortment of 7,500 food and non-food products, 25% of
which are Carrefour brand products. Services such as charge cards and home delivery are
also available. The sales areas of these store ranges from 1,200 to nearly 2,500 sq. m.

CARREFOUR CITY STORES - These stores were designed with the aim of putting
Carrefour "in the heart of the neighbourhood." This new form of convenience store,
currently being tested in Madrid, offers optimum value for money in its range of 3,800
food products (80% of the assortment). Carrefour's brands are actively promoted since
they represent a third of the assortment. These stores have an area of around 350 sq. m.
DIA HARD DISCOUNT STORES - With 2,912 stores, Spain has become both the
Carrefour Group's hard discount territory and its testing ground. It is here that Carrefour
tests its new Maxi-Dia and DiaMarket models, new services like mobile phones and Dia
own-brand products before they are introduced in other countries. In 2007, the
acquisition of Plus Supermercados from German retailer Tengelmann added 250 stores
to the Dia network, widening its lead as the country's top chain of discount stores. The
sales areas of these store ranges from 400 to 1,200 sq. m.
Commercial services
Carrefour's various forms of commerce are complemented by a series of commercial
services designed to bring more convenience to customers on a day-to-day basis. The
services, which are available at discount prices helping to ensure accessibility to
customers, include financial services associated with the Pass Visa card, which has two
million members, and a variety of other products and services (loans, insurance,
international money transfers etc.); service stations, which are being heavily promoted
with discounts of up to 10% on fuel; travel agencies; Carrefour Online, offering Internet
purchases of 12,000 food and technology products; and Carrefour Telecom, the Group's
telephone services operator for the past two years, offering ADSL, fixed-line and mobile
services at discount prices.
Created in 2006, Club Carrefour is now the largest customer loyalty programme in the
sector. It has 7.5 million members and accounts for nearly 70% of identified sales. It
rewards customer loyalty with large direct discounts that can be accumulated and used
toward future purchases. It also offers other exclusive benefits at the Group's banners. It
allows for recognition and technical identification of customers and helps generate
personalized commercial offers. It uses the largest segmented database in Spain and has a
high level of management and security technology.
Assortment and own brands
The attractiveness of the Carrefour Group's banners lies in the freedom they offer in
terms of product selection, brands and prices. The selection of over 100,000 food and
non-food products at our hypermarkets constitutes the largest multi-specialist offering on
the market. Our own-brand range is also one of the most extensive in the country. The
range now includes 9,000 staple good items in the main product families following
significant development efforts in 2007. Some 1,600 new items were launched and the
image and packaging were redesigned. Among the new product lines are prepared meals,
products for specific nutritional needs, organic products and products for children. The
other strong points of the assortment include the presence of major brands, a special

focus on regional food brands, and the development of ethnic and imported assortments
to match the lifestyles and realities of the Spanish population of today.

Team
At 31 December 2007, the Carrefour group employed 72,282 people in Spain. The
average annual job creation over the last four years was 1,500 persons. This growth and
the consolidation of the teams called for an intensive training programme. In 2007,
116,000 training sessions were held, representing 730,000 hours of instruction.
Management by objective and modern internal communications systems motivate the
teams to strive for excellence in service on a day-to-day basis.
Economic impetus
The CC Carrefour Group's contribution to Spain's GDP in 2007 came to 1,518 million,
with an annual growth rate of 6.7%. During the year eight new hypermarkets were
opened, creating 1,133 new jobs and making Carrefour one of the biggest employers in
Spain. The economic scope of the Group's operations is also significant. It means
bringing value to regional companies manufacturers and service providers. In 2007,
there were 12,666 such companies, most of them SMEs. They provide 93% of all the
products purchased annually.
For over 12 years, a specific programme for promoting regional products has been in
place. It includes promotions in other countries in the network. In 2007, 20 promotions
were carried out with the participation of 1,896 SMEs and 13 million visitors. Similarly,
Carrefour Espaa, as supplier of the Group's produce, is the leading produce distributor in
the country, handling over 500,000 tonnes in 2007, 174,000 of them exported.
Socially responsible buyer
Carrefour is particularly involved in social action geared toward assistance for children
and disadvantaged sectors via the Solidaridad Carrefour Foundation. Its participation
consists of the involvement of its teams as well as its financial support. In 2007, 583
disabled persons worked for the company. Agreements related to hiring people at risk of
social exclusion were also maintained. With the Red Cross, the company maintains an
emergency system for disaster situations in partnership with the company's logistics
network. In 2007, Carrefour provided food on a structured basis to welfare assistance
organizations and launched donation solicitation campaigns aimed at customers on behalf
of 117 local NGOs. Additionally, 17,261 employees voted on the corporate assistance to
be granted to six national-level projects. Carrefour participates actively in responsible
trade and corporate volunteering projects. It contributes its knowledge and maintains a
high level of sponsorship for sports and healthcare.
Modern commerce with a focus on quality and the environment
The goals in this area are demanding: guarantee defined levels of quality in processes
and products, keep the environmental effects of operations in the value chain to a

minimum and recycle and manage waste. In 2007, over 28,000 analyses of various types
were performed on commercial products. As for suppliers, 251 audits were carried out
and 8,000 inspections were performed throughout Carrefour's logistics network. The
"Zero Waste" objective was also set up. This involves a methodological restructuring of
the management of these materials. 2,100 tonnes of discarded electrical appliances were
collected. In 2007, with a view to using more renewable energy, we equipped the roofs of
our hypermarkets with photovoltaic generation systems able to produce 50,000 kWh.
Carrefour is an important partner in environmental management and works with
entrepreneurial and State institutions in this area. In 2007 it awarded the fifth Carrefour
Environmental Prize.6
Cultural Dimensions for Spain according to Hofstede

BRAZIL
Brazil, along with Russia, India and China (a grouping commonly referred to as BRIC),
is set to become one of the worlds great economic powerhouses. Based on its healthy
sales performance, Carrefour is the leader in this market, which offers high growth
potential and reported a rise in GDP of more than 15% in 2006. The company acquired
the discount hypermarket chain Atacadao in April 2007. With 444 stores and more than
48,000 employees, Carrefour is a major participant in the Brazilian economy and plays an
integral part in the lives of local communities.

Population and consumption


The size of a small continent, Brazil has 186 million inhabitants, making it the sixthlargest country in the world in terms of population. A multiethnic society, which has
6

http://www.carrefour.com/cdc/group/our-business/travel-diaries/spain-traveldiaries.html (accesat la data de 04.01.2009)


7

http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_spain.shtml (accesat la data de 06.01.2009)

absorbed numerous diasporas (from Lebanon, Japan and elsewhere), Brazil is


predominantly Catholic (up to 75%), young (42% of the population is under 20 years of
age) and urban. Metropolises like Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are home to 19 and 12
million inhabitants, respectively.
Colonized by the Portuguese as of 1500 AD, Brazil is the largest Portuguese-speaking
country in the world. However, despite being a major economic power and the growth
engine of South America, Brazil suffers from a significant rich-poor divide. Wealth is
mainly concentrated in the south of the country, in particular in the states of Sao Paulo,
Rio de Janeiro and Minas Grais.

Retail market
The food retail market in Brazil represents about 5.5% of GDP and more than 800,000
jobs. Large and diverse, the sector offers strong momentum for growth. This vast market
features a complete range of distribution channels, from commercial centres to mail order
and e-commerce activities. Lovers of shopping and innovative products, Brazilians have
access to practically every type of contemporary store format, including hypermarkets,
supermarkets and specialized superstores (with brands such as Leroy-Merlin and the
Fnac). Stores are allowed to open seven days per week, 24 hours a day.
Organized mass retail outlets (46% of the market) compete for business with more
informal operations. Hypermarkets are a growth format and represent 53% of the
organized retail sector.

Carrefour in Brazil
Background
The Carrefour Group opened its first store in Brazil in 1975. At the time, the brand was
just starting to build up its international operations, and hypermarkets had not yet been
introduced into Brazil. The groups arrival in this market coincided with the launch of its
own-brand products from 1989 onward and the introduction of the hard-discount trade
name Dia in 2001.
The groups strength resides in strong brand awareness, its multiformat policy and the
part it plays in the life of local communities. Popular among Brazilians, the Carrefour
brand is represented on television by celebrity presenter Ana Maria Braga. Carrefours
emphasis on fresh products, including the Garantia de Origem range, organic products
and innovative items, provides the company with a major competitive advantage. Some 5
million people possess a Carrefour Card, launched in 1989.
Since 2004, Carrefour has modernized its brand image, both in relation to its customers
and its employees, and has restructured its supermarket network based on a new concept
suited to local markets: Carrefour Bairro. With a presence in the petrol retail market since

2003, it is also developing its sales of non-food products (18 travel agencies and 50
pharmacies).
Already the countrys leading hypermarket chain, the group became the No. 1 mass
retailer in the food market in terms of sales in April 2007. It has also acquired Atacadao, a
discount hypermarket brand with 34 stores and sales of 1.5 billion euros. This acquisition
provides Carrefour Brazil with the opportunity to expand its operations into a new
customer segment by offering some 6,000 food items at discount prices in stores with an
average surface area of 6,300 sq.m.
The Carrefour Group reported sales of 3.8 billion euros (excluding tax) in 2006. It is one
of the countrys five largest private employers, with 48,000 men and women on staff.
More than 19,000 new employees joined the group in 2006. Carrefour has also developed
partnerships with more than 15,000 local suppliers.

Sustainable development
A Brazilian company for 30 years, Carrefour Brazil makes a practical contribution to the
lives of local communities and is responsible for numerous sustainable development and
social responsibility projects. It supported the cancer prevention campaign organized by
the Brazilian Institute for Cancer Control (IBCC) in 2006.
Carrefour Brazil also organizes a number of original social programmes for its
employees. In ethical terms, it instils the values of respect and integrity into its managers
and employees through its Pro Etica programme. For several years, it has run the
Carrefour Volunteer programme, designed to promote skills sponsorship and volunteer
work. As part of this initiative, more than 1,500 employees devoted four hours per month
to performing voluntary work in aid of 8,000 children and teenagers in 2006.
Since some 15.5 million Brazilians are unable to read or write, Carrefour Brazil has
committed itself to the fight against illiteracy by supporting several initiatives, including
the Aulas de Cidadania (citizenship lessons) programme, run in association with the NGO
Solidarity Alphabetization, which is responsible for providing around 15,000 students
with educational training based on the support of 26 stores, local communities and
suppliers.
Through the Carrefour International Foundation, the group provides support to another
NGO, Reciclar, which helps children from the favelas (slums) of Sao Paulo to gain
vocational training in making products from recycled paper.
In the country of soccers King Pel, Carrefour recently launched a pilot programme
that uses sports to integrate young people ages 7 to 17. Two football stars, Bernardinho
and Marcel Dessailly, are supporting this project, called Integrar Arte e Vida (Integrate
Art Into Your Life), which is run by Brazils National Sports Association. The goal is to
promote the schooling of 450 young people in disadvantaged areas through football and
volleyball.

Carrefour Brazil is also helping to protect the environment by taking part in a programme
launched by the President of Brazil to reduce energy dependency and develop renewable
energies. One of the practical steps taken by Carrefour stores in the Sao Paulo region
since 2004 is the use of biodiesel to power electricity generators during peak periods or
power failures. The biodiesel contains at least 5% waste vegetable oil from stocks used
by stores for frying food. A clean fuel, biodiesel is less harmful to the ozone layer than
conventional diesel.
For all of its activities, Carrefour Brazil was awarded the highest grade AAA on the
grading scale formulated by Akatu, an NGO specializing in corporate social
responsibility surveys.

Carrefour stores

110* Carrefour hypermarkets


34* Atacadao hypermarkets
34* Carrefour Bairo supermarkets
266* Dia hard discount stores
at april 2007

GDP per capita

5,101 USD (33,811 USD in France)

Currency

The real

Population

184 million (est. in 2005)

Language

Portuguese is the official language.8

http://www.carrefour.com/cdc/group/our-business/travel-diaries/brazil.html (accesat la
data de 02.01.2009)

Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions

Brazil is similar to many Latin American countries when analyzing Hofstede's


Dimensions (see Latin America Hofstede Graph below).

Brazil's highest Hofstede Dimension is Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) is 76, indicating the
societys low level of tolerance for uncertainty. In an effort to minimize or reduce this
level of uncertainty, strict rules, laws, policies, and regulations are adopted and
implemented. The ultimate goal of this population is to control everything in order to
eliminate or avoid the unexpected. As a result of this high Uncertainty Avoidance
characteristic, the society does not readily accept change and is very risk adverse.
Brazil has a slightly higher Individualism (IDV) rank of 38 compared to the average
Latin population score of 21. However, virtually all the Latin countries are considered to
be Collectivist societies as compared to Individualist cultures. This is manifest in a close
long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that a family, extended family, or
extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most
other societal rules.

CHINA

http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_brazil.shtml (accesat la data de 06.01.2009)

10

* Description for each of Hofstede's Dimensions listed below

Geert Hofstede analysis for China has Long-term Orientation (LTO) the highest-ranking
factor (118), which is true for all Asian cultures. This Dimension indicates a society's
time perspective and an attitude of persevering; that is, overcoming obstacles with time,
if not with will and strength.
The Chinese rank lower than any other Asian country in the Individualism (IDV) ranking,
at 20 compared to an average of 24. This may be attributed, in part, to the high level of
emphasis on a Collectivist society by the Communist rule, as compared to one of
Individualism.
The low Individualism ranking is manifest in a close and committed member 'group', be
that a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture
is paramount. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility
for fellow members of their group.
Of note is China's significantly higher Power Distance ranking of 80 compared to the
other Far East Asian countries' average of 60, and the world average of 55. This is
indicative of a high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society. This
condition is not necessarily forced upon the population, but rather accepted by the society
as their cultural heritage.
Chinas religion is officially designated as Atheist by the State, although the concepts and
teachings of the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius (500BC) are woven into the
society at large. Some religious practice is acceptable in China; however, the government
sets rigid limits.

10

http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_china.shtml (accesat la 02.01.2009)

Carrefour's hypermarkets in China are the Bosporus of retailing--commercial centers


where East and West splash against each other. Tanks of live fish, eels, bullfrogs and
turtles dominate the fresh food sections, while vacuum-packed strips of bacon and slices
of pepperoni lie in refrigerated cases a short distance away. Modern formats mix with
local tastes in the French retailer's stores: Shoppers stroll down wide, brightly lit aisles,
past displays of dried pork snouts and whole ducks hanging limply by the neck, as "Hotel
California" plays on the speakers overhead.
Carrefour wasn't the first foreign retailer in mainland China to open a hypermarket--a
giant outlet that offers "everything under one roof," from consumer electronics to
groceries. [Wal-Mart (nyse: WMT - news - people ) is also becoming interested in
China.] But since Carrefour opened its first store, in 1995, it has become the largest.
Today it operates 73 hypermarkets in 29 cities, from Urumqi (in the western reaches of
the Middle Kingdom) to Harbin (near the Russian border) to Kunming (in the south).
Carrefour also operates the Champion supermarkets and Dia convenience stores. Its 2005
turnover was about $2 billion (including value-added tax), making China Carrefour's
fifth-largest market. The company expects its sales in China to go on growing by 25% to
30% annually over the next five years.
Being one of the first foreign companies to enter the Chinese retail industry, Carrefour
played a major role in bringing about a retail revolution in the country. Carrefour had
adopted a decentralized management structure, where all store managers in China
operated stores with complete freedom. Carrefour sold private label products and
designed the stores according to the convenience of Chinese customers.
By procuring the majority of its products locally, Carrefour was able to ensure their
freshness, an attribute considered important by Chinese consumers.
In China, where vast economic, social, and cultural differences existed among different
provinces, Carrefour was able to cater to the needs of different customers successfully.
Till the 1980s, the retail industry in China was fully controlled by the Government. The
department stores run by the Government provided little in the way of conveniences.
According to Wang Zhirong, General Manager of Tian Bai department store in Dalian,
concepts like customer service and choice were unheard of. She said, "It didn't matter
how you did your job, when customers came they had to wait until the shop assistants
were in a good mood before begging them for help." Carrefour entered China in 1995,
when the Chinese Government had partially opened the retail sector.
The country's economy was in the growth phase and the urban consumers were shifting
their preferences from the wet markets8 and state-owned stores, to foreign retailers like
Carrefour which provided convenience along with a wide range of products in hygienic
surroundings (Refer to Exhibit II for retail industry in China).
Carrefour went on to strengthen its position in the country and by 2005; it had emerged as
the sixth largest retailer in China. It was also the largest foreign retailer in the country

(Refer to Table II for the leading retailers in China in 2005).


According to Beijing-based CTR Market Research9, Carrefour was the major retailer in
15 of the largest cities across China, with a market share of more than 5%.
Between 2006 and 2010, Carrefour projected revenue growth of above 20% in China per
annum and planned to open about 80 more hypermarkets in the country by 2009.