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ART NOUVEAU - 110 ANI N ROMNIA


Texte de
Rodica Rotrescu,
Mircea Hortopan, Liliana Manoliu,
Cornelia Dumitrescu, Macrina Oproiu,
Corina Dumitrache i Izabela Trk.
Design grafic i fotografii de
Alexandru Du
Traducere de
Irina Voicu

Septembrie 2013 - Muzeul Naional Pele


Nicio parte a acestei publicaii nu poate fi reprodus
fr acordul scris al deintorilor drepturilor de autor.
Toate drepturile rezervate.

Vas
Atelier european,
circa 1900

Vase
European Workshop,
Early 20th century

SUMAR
CONTENTS
8

DUBL ANIVERSARE LA CASTELUL PELIOR


DOUBLE ANNIVERSARY AT THE PELISOR CASTLE

12

ARTA 1900
1900 ART

16

ART NOUVEAU N CASTELUL PELIOR


ART NOUVEAU AT THE PELISOR CASTLE

22

CASTELUL PELIOR - KAREL LIMAN I ARHITECTURA ART NOUVEAU


THE PELISOR CASTLE - KAREL LIMAN AND THE ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE

42

PICTORI EUROPENI LA CURTEA REGAL A ROMNIEI


EUROPEAN PAINTERS AT THE ROMANIAN ROYAL COURT

52

SOCIETATEA ,,TINERIMEA ARTISTIC


THE ARTISTIC YOUTH SOCIETY

62

REGINA ARTIST I CREAIA SA PLASTIC, MANUSCRISUL PE PERGAMENT


THE ARTISTIC QUEEN AND HER PAINTING, THE PARCHMENT MANUSCRIPT

76

AFIUL ART NOUVEAU


THE ART NOUVEAU POSTER

80

COLECIA DE MOBILIER A REGINEI MARIA


QUEEN MARIES FURNITURE COLLECTION

90

COLECIA DE STICL A REGINEI MARIA


QUEEN MARIES GLASSWARE COLLECTION

114

ARTA METALULUI N PERIOADA ART NOUVEAU


METALWORKING DURING THE ART NOUVEAU PERIOD

128

SCULPTURA ART NOUVEAU


ART NOUVEAU SCULPTURE

136

CERAMICA ART NOUVEAU


ART NOUVEAU CERAMICS

150

CATALOG SELECTIV

Dubla Aniversare
la Castelul Pelisor
Castelul Pelior a fost construit ntre anii

arhimandritul Nifon, ofieri superiori ai

Rodica Rotrescu

1899-1902, de ctre arhitectul ceh Karel

armatei romne, personaliti din lumea

Director General

Liman (1855-1929) la comanda regelui

politic i cultural, numeroi localnici.

Carol I, ca reedin a principilor motenitori,


Ferdinand i Maria.

Anii 1900 au constituit pentru Europa artistic


o transformare de mentalitate i o cotitur

Inaugurat un an mai trziu, la 24 mai 1903,

important prin apariia unei concepii

castelul pstreaz amintirea pregnant a

stilistice novatoare, stilul Art Nouveau.

celei care avea s devin regina tuturor

Principesa Maria i asum stilul, n esena

romnilor, regina Maria, a regelui Ferdinand

sa nonconformist i spectaculoas pn la

ntregitorul de neam i a copiilor acestora.

a-i crea aura unui personaj Art Nouveau; ea


comand arhitectului Liman i decoratorului

n Actul inaugural al castelului, pictat de

vienez Bernhard Ludwig interioare luminoase,

Maria pe pergament se consemneaz:

primitoare, decorate dup gustul

noului

stil, cu elemente bizantine, motive celtice,


Noi, Carol I, rege al Romniei, cldit-am

motive tradiionale romneti i o distribuie

aceast cas alturea de falnicul castel

a spaiilor subordonat arhitecturii moderne.

Pele pentru iubiii notri nepoi. Sfinit de


biseric spre a aduce binecuvntarea cerului,

Dup anul 1948, castelul Pelior este

noi, Ferdinand, principe al Romniei cu Maria,

preluat de ctre statul romn, devenind Cas

principes primit-am n aceast nou cldire,

de creaie a scriitorilor, compozitorilor i

cu inima recunosctoare i plin de dragoste.

artitilor plastici din Romnia.

Intrat-am cu ai notri copii, Carol, Elisaveta i


Maria, n anul mntuirii 1903, iar al domniei

Urmare a unei ndelungate cercetri de

regelui Carol al 37-lea, n ziua de 24 maiu.

arhiv, dup anul 1989, grupul de specialiti

Dat-i-am nume, Pelior.

ai M.N. Pele

a reuit s reconstituie un

spaiu princiar i regal, pe baza documentelor


La srbtoarea inaugurrii au fost prezeni

fotografice de arhiv i respectnd n

alturi de monarhi i principii motenitori,

bun msur i inventarul iniial, rednd

Double Anniversary
at the Pelisor Castle
In 2013 we celebrate 110 years since Peles

The inauguration ceremony was attended

Rodica Rotrescu

Castle was inaugurated and 20 years since it

by sovereigns and crown princes, the

General Manager

opened its doors to the public as a museum.

archimandrite Nifon, officers of high rank

Pelisor Castle was built between 1899-1902

of the Romanian army, personalities of the

by the Czech architect Karel Liman (1855-

political and cultural life and many local

1929) being ordered by King Carol I as a

people.

residence of Crown Prince Ferdinand and


Crown Princess Marie.

For the artistic Europe, the 1900s meant a


change of menthality and an important turn

Inaugurated a year later, on 24th May 1903,

as a new stylistic concept was born: The Art

the castle preserves the vivid memory of the

Nouveau. The Princess Marie adopted this

one who was to become the Queen of all the

style, in her nonconformist and spectacular

Romanians, Queen Marie, but also of King

essence and thus, she created the aura of an

Ferdinand The one who brought unity to his

Art Nouveau character; she ordered architect

people and their children.

Liman and the Vinnese decorator Bernhard


Ludwig to create bright, welcoming interiors,

The Inaugural Act of the castle, painted by

decorated according to the taste of the

Queen Marie on parchment says: We, Carol

new style, with Byzantine elements, Celtic

I, King of Romania built this residence beside

motifs, traditional Romanian motifs and a

the towering Peles Castle for our beloved

distribution of the spaces submitted to the

grandchildren. Holy by the church to bring

modern architecture.

the blessings of heaven, we, Ferdinand, Prince


of Romania and Princess Marie have received

After 1948, Pelisor Castle was taken over by

this place with a loving and grateful heart.

the Romanian state and became a House of

We entered it, together with our children

creation for writers, composers and plastic

Carol, Elisabeth and Marie on the 24th May,

artists from Romania.

in the blessed year 1903, the 37th reigning


year of King Carol And we called it Pelisor.

As a result of a long archive research, after


1989, the specialists of the Peles National

patrimoniului cultural naional o reedin

Lamp, detaliu

de importan istoric. Astfel, spaiul muzeal

Auguste Moreau,

romnesc s-a mbogit cu un monument

circa 1900

de art unic n Romnia prin interioarele


sale, decorate n stilul specific reginei Maria.

Lamp, detail

Muzeul a fost inaugurat n luna februarie

Auguste Moreau,

1993.

Early 20th century

De dou decenii, Peliorul justific pe deplin


speranele publicului i ncrederea pe care
amatorii de art i-au acordat-o: aici s-au
organizat expoziii temporare, un parteneriat
cultural expoziional cu Muzeul de Art din
Lige - Belgia, manifestri tiinifice care au
mbogit prin valoarea lor datele istorice
despre perechea regal Ferdinand i Maria
i au valorificat colecia de art, subliniind
astfel menirea muzeului. Douzeci de ani
reprezint doar un nceput, adevrat foarte
promitor, concludent ns pentru un muzeu
care s-a creat i s-a afirmat, dovedindu-i
din plin rolul su n educarea i renaterea
spiritual a vizitatorilor.
Cu prilejul acestei aniversri, Muzeul Naional
Pele organizeaz expoziia Art Nouveau 110 ani n Romnia, o srbtoare a acestui
curent artistic.
Expoziia i propune s reuneasc cele mai
reprezentative piese ce se nscriu n stilistica
Art Nouveau, prezente n coleciile muzeului,
multe dintre ele fiind ilustrative pentru
gustul artistic al reginei Maria. Ideile acesteia
privind decoraia de interior au fost puse
n oper de Karel Liman, un arhitect puin
cunoscut n Romnia, dar care este creatorul
unuia dintre cele mai importante ansambluri
monumentale din ar, reedina regal de la
Sinaia.
Stilul Art Nouveau a definit deopotriv
sfritul i nceputul unui secol, conferind
personalitate unei epoci i cuprinznd
toate genurile artistice legate de ambientul
exterior sau interior.

10

Daphn, detaliu
Isidore de Rudder,
circa 1900

Daphn, detail
Isidore de Rudder,
Early 20th century

Museum managed to reconstitute a princely

proved its role in the education and the

and royal space by taking into account the

spritual revival of its visitors.

photographic archive documents and, as


far as possible, the initial inventory and

In order to celebrate this occasion, Peles

thus, they returned a residence of historical

National Museum organizes the exhibition

importance to the national cultural heritage.

Art Nouveau 110 Years in Romania, a

In this way, the Romanian museal space

celebration of this artistic movement.

was enriched with a monument of art which


is unique in Romania due to its interiors,

The exhibition sets to bring together the most

decorated in Queen Maries specific style.

representative pieces of Art Nouveau, which

The museum was inaugurated in February

are part of the collections of the museum,

1993.

many of them being illustrative for Queen


Maries taste. These ideas concerning the

For two decades, Pelisor has fully answered

interior decoration were included in the work

to publics expectations and the trust the art

by Karel Liman, an architect who was hardly

lovers showed it: there were organized here

known in Romania but who created one of

temporary exhibitions, a cultural partnership

the most important monumental ensemble

with the Museum of Art from Liege-Belgium,

in our country the royal residence from

scientific events which enriched, by their

Sinaia.

value, the historical data about the royal


couple Ferdinand and Marie and focused on

The Art Nouveau defined both the end and

the art collection and thus, highlighted the

the beginning of a century, gave personality

main purpose of the museum. Twenty years

to an age and included all the artistic styles

mean only a beginning, a promising one

related to interior and exterior environment.

indeed, but a conclusive one for a museum


which opened its doors, developed and

11

Arta 1900
Arta 1900 a nflorit la rscruce de veacuri,

de ptrundere, astfel c n Frana el are

Cornelia Dumitrescu

situndu-se ntre istorismul secolului al XIX-

mai multe denumiri: Art Nouveau, Style

Muzeograf

lea i revoluia artistic a secolului al XX-lea. A

Guimard, Style Mtro, Style Jules Verne,

fost o micare autonom, atotcuprinztoare,

cole de Nancy etc; n Belgia: Coup de Fouet,

de o putere i o amploare rar ntlnite n

Style Horta, Style Belge etc; n Germania:

istorie. Meritul ei principal a fost acela de

Jugendstil, Sezession sau Secession, Lilenstil,

a fi ncercat s construiasc o nou sintez,

Wellenstil, Baudwurmstil; n Austria se va

modern a artelor.

numi Sezession sau Secession, Wagnerstil,


Hoffmanstil, Wiener Werkstatte; n Anglia:

Pentru spiritele progresiste ale vremii, copiii

Modern Style, Morris Style, Liberty Style,

noului veac, toat efervescena noilor

Glasgow Style, Studio Style; n Italia: Stile

curente artistice era cuprins n vocabula

Floreale, Stile Liberty, Stile Vermicelli; n

noul Art Nouveau, Nieuwe Kunst, ea

Spania: Stile Modernista, Stile Joventud, Stile

echivala cu modernismul Modern Style, Stile

Gaudi; n Ungaria: Szecesszi, Stil Lecchner

Modernista. Ceea ce n gndirea naintat a

dn; n Olanda: Nieuwe Kunst, iar n S.U.A.:

vremii era sinonim cu nonconformismul, cu

Tiffany Style, Saracenic Style; i Japonia:

desprinderea i eliberarea de academismul

Nakuba Karai.

istoricist.
William Morris, fondatorul micrii Arts and
Arta anilor 1900, aflat sub semnul tinereii,

Crafts, lansa sloganul arta n toate, cernd

a cuprins, n numai 20 de ani (1885 1905),

instalarea frumuseii n obiectele de uz

toat Europa i America de Nord, atingnd i

cotidian, dar i n aspectul oraelor, ntre

Extremul Orient (mai ales Japonia) i a marcat

altele prin arhitectur i afie. Arta afiului se

puternic tot ceea ce inea de expresia vizual:

nate n cadrul Artei 1900. Regina Maria era

arhitectur, arte aplicate i industriale,

la curent cu noile tendine artistice, ea fiind

pictur, sculptur, grafic, decoraie scenic.

abonat la diverse reviste de decoraiuni


interioare ale epocii.

Diversitatea titulaturilor prin care se afirm


acest stil demonstreaz marea sa putere

Prin ptrunderea artei n viaa de toate

12

1900s Art
The art 1900 florished at the crossroads of

The diversity of the names this style is known

Cornelia Dumitrescu

centuries, between the historicism of the

by definitely proves its great power; thus,

Curator

19th century and the artistic revolution of

in France it is known as: Art Nouveau, Style

the 20th century. It was an autonomous

Guimard, Style Mtro, Style Jules Verne, cole

and comprehensive movement, with a

de Nancy etc; in Belgium as: Coup de Fouet,

stength and amplitudine history has seldom

Style Horta, Style Belge etc; in Germany as:

recorded. Its main merit was that of trying to

Jugendstil, Sezessionor Secession, Lilenstil,

create a new and modern synthethis of the

Wellenstil, Baudwurmstil; in Austria it is

arts.

called Sezession or Secession, Wagnerstil,


Hoffmanstil, Wiener Werkstatte; in England:

For the progressive spirits of the age,

Modern Style, Morris Style, Liberty Style,

the children of the new era, the whole

Glasgow Style, Studio Style; in Italy: Stile

effervescence of the new artistic trendes era

Floreale, Stile Liberty, Stile Vermicelli; in

is expressed by the word new - Art Nouveau,

Spain: Stile Modernista, Stile Joventud, Stile

Nieuwe Kunst-which is an equivalent of

Gaudi; in Hungary: Szecesszi, Stil Lecchner

modernism-Modern Style, Stile Modernista.

dn; in Holland: Nieuwe Kunst and in U.S.A.:

In the cultivated thinking of the age this was a

Tiffany Style, Saracenic Style and in Japan:

synonim for nonconformism, the detachment

Nakuba-Karai.

and release from the historicist academicism.


William Morris, the founder of the movement
In only 20 years (1885-1905), being under

Arts and Crafts launched the motto art in

the sign of youth, the art 1900 extended

everything and asked for installing beauty

to all Europe and North America, reached

in object s of daily use but also in the way

the Far East (especially Japan) and had

towns look like, by means of architecture

a great impact on everything related to

,posters and many others. The poster art

visual expression: architecture, applied and

is born within Art 1900. Queen Maria was

industrial arts, painting, sculpture, graphics,

aquainted with the new trends in art as she

stage decoration.

was subscribed to different magazines on


interior decoration.

13

zilele, aceasta devenea mai accesibil, mai

Art got more and more into the daily life

frumoas, mai plcut, mai comod. Arta

and made it more beautiful, pleasant and

trebuia deci, s aib o tendin funcional

comfortable. Therefore, art was meant to

i pentru aceasta forma trebuia conciliat cu

have a functional role which imposed a

necesitatea. De aici se nate un alt principiu

balance between form and necessity. And

al Artei 1900: utile cum dolci.

this led to another principle of the art 1900:


utile cum dolci.

Aspectul raional nu trebuia s-l exclud pe


cel simbolic, care proiecta asupra obiectelor

The rational aspect didnt have to exclude

starea sufleteasc a artistului, animndu-le

the symbolic one, which projected the

cu un dinamism uman. Cci, simbolurile sunt

artists mood on the objects and thus, gave

o manifestare a spiritului uman care exprim,

them a human dynamism. The symbols are

ntr-o form distilat, afectivitatea i dorina,

a manifestation of the human spirit which

cele cunoscute i cele visate, contientul i

expresses, in a distilled form, the affection

incontientul.

and the desire, the known and the desired


ones, the conscious and the unconscious.

Arta 1900 mbogete valenele spaiului,


transformndu-l astfel nct s rspund

The Art 1900 enriches the valences of the

ct mai bine nevoilor utilizatorului. Apariia

space and changed it in order to meet the

electricitii, utilizarea pe scar larg a

users needs. The invention of electricity,the

sticlei sau fierului n decoraiunile interioare

extensive use of glass and iron in the interior

confer ncperilor mai mult confort, dar i

decorations bring more comfort and also

admirabile caliti estetice.

admirable aesthetic qualities to the rooms.

Ca form de expresie, Arta 1900 folosete

As a way of expresssion, the Art 1900 makes

laitmotivul liniei arcuite, micarea curbilinie,

use of the leitmotif of arcs, the arcuate wavy

ondulatorie, ce amintete de plantele marine,

motion which reminds of maine plants, lianas

liane i alge, dar i formele geometrice,

and algae, but also of purified rectangular

rectangulare, epurate proprii colii din

geometric shapes specific to the School of

Glasgow, celei din Viena sau unor coli

Glasgow or the one of Vienna or to some

scandinave. mile Gall, fondatorul colii

Scandinavian schools. mile Gall, the

din Nancy mbogete stilul cu o viziune

founder of the School from Nancy, gives a

suprasimbolist, naturalist.

naturalistic, simbolist vision to this style.

14

Momentele zilei
Alphonse Mucha

The moments of
the day
Alphonse Mucha

15

Art Nouveau
in Castelul Pelisor
Arhitectul noului palat de la Sinaia a fost

noii concepii despre habitat, bazat pe

Rodica Rotrescu

numit cehul Karel Liman, recomandat de

coordonate ale luminii i aerului ce intr

Director General

celebrul su coleg francez, Charles Lecomte

n relaie direct cu nevoile naturii umane,

de Noy. Liman studiase la Praga i Mnchen,

devenind deosebit de funcional.

mbogindu-i

experiena

la

castelele

Hohenlohe din Jabrino - Tatra i respectiv

Fiecare

Rotschild din Viena. n anul 1894, acesta

caracteristici proprii, att din punct de vedere

iniiaz la Sinaia un program de redecorare,

formal - decorativ ct i structural arhitectonic;

recompartimentare

luminatoarele i vitraliile ferestrelor stabilesc

augmentare

Castelului Pele.

din

cele

70

de

ncperi,

au

relaia interior-exterior ntr-un joc de umbr


i lumin. Soluiile arhitecturale i inginereti

Era perioada n care se manifesta distinct

ale cehului Karel Liman vdesc similitudini

contradicia dintre gustul pentru construcii

cu inovaiile contemporanului su, arhitectul

greoaie, ncrcate, tributare istorismului i

belgian Victor Horta. Difuzarea i receptarea

posibilitile izvorte din avntul noului suflu

spiritului i conceptelor Art Nouveau a fost

industrial, de la sfritul secolului al XIX-lea

posibil, mai ales prin circulaia publicaiilor

i nceputul secolului al XX-lea, cnd s-au

vremii. n biblioteca Muzeului Naional Pele

impus materiale de lucru novatoare precum

se pstreaz o mare parte din colecia revistei

sticla i fierul, ce vor influena ntreaga

de informare i documentare Deutsche

viziune arhitectural a epocii.

Kunst und Decoration, fondat n 1897.

n construcia Palatului Pelior se simt

Dintre

deopotriv cele dou orientri. Pstrnd

distinge, cu cert valoare de unicat, Camera

aspectul exterior al cldirii, n spiritul

de aur a reginei Maria. Descoperim aici,

arhitecturii specifice zonei Pdurea Neagr,

emblematic, fascinaia pe care miturile

Liman organizeaz spaiul interior conform

celtice i scandinave au exercitat-o asupra

interioarele

Palatului

Pelior

se

Camera de joac a
Principilor
Castelul Pelior

The Princes
playroom
Pelior Castle

16

Art Nouveau in
the Pelisor Castle
The architect of the new palace from Sinaia

reception of the Art Nouveau spirit and

Rodica Rotrescu

was appointed the Czech Karel Liman,

concepts was possible mainly due to the

General Manager

recommended

French

publications of the time. In the library of the

colleauge,

by

Charles

his

famous

Nouy,

Peles National Museum there is a great part

Liman had studied in Prague and Munich

Lecomte

De

of the collection of the magazine Deutsche

and enriched his experience at the castles

Kunst und Decoration, founded in 1897.

Hohenlohe from JabrinoTatra and Rotschild


from Vienna. In 1894, he started in Sinaia a

Among the interiors of Pelisor Castle, it is

programme of redecoration, resubsivision

worth mentioning, as a unique piece, Queen

and augumentation of Peles Castle.

Marias Golden Room. Here we discover


the fascination the celtic and scandinavian

It was during a period marked by the

myths brougth upon The Artist Queen, also

contradiction between the taste for heavy

called the last romantic by Hanna Pakula;

contructions, tributary to the historicism,

the interior of the room is marked by vaults

and the possibilities brought by the new

with ogival arches and a luminaire decorated

industrial boom blast from the end of

with a monumental celtic cross (a motif which

the 19th and the beginnings of the 20th

is to be found in other rooms, too).

centuries when new materials ,such as glass


and iron, became popular and influenced the

Its artistic solemnity is counterbalanced by

whole architectural vision of the age. Both

the rhytmic, vegetal-zoomorphic movement

directions can be noticed in the construction

of the entrelacs.The celtic mythology also

of Pelisor Castle. Liman preserved the

inspired another decorative element the

exterior appearance of the building in the

thistle branch which entirely covers the

architectural style specific to Black Forest

walls of the Golden Room, a motif made of

area. Yet, he organizes the interior space

gilded gold. Being considered the symbol of

according to the new vision on habitat ,based

regeneration and eternity in Scotland, the

on the coordinates of light and air in close

thistle branch is also the emblem of Lorena,

connection to human needs and thus, made

of the town Nancy, the town of Emille Gall,

it extremely functional.

the Daum brothers and many outstanding


artists of Art nouveau. Many of the decorative

Each of the 70 rooms hs its own feature, both

art pieces of the 1900s are decorated with

from the formal-decorative point of view and

these elements depicted in the symbolical

the structural and architectural one as the

space of The Golden Room. Mainly, the

luminaires and the stained glass windows

bronze works created by the Viennese artist

create the relation interior-exterior in a game

Gustav Gurschner, awarded with a silver

of shadow and light. The architectural and

medal and a bronze one at the Universal

engineering solutions of the Czech Karel

Exhibition in Paris (1900); in the collection

Liman prove similarities with the innovations

of the Peles National Museum there is a set

of his contemporary, the Belgium architect

of dishes decorated with the celtic cross,

Victor Horta. The distribution and the

entrelac and zoomorphic motifs. The works of

17

Salon din Falkewood


MacKay Hugh Baillie Scott,
1906

The Drawingroom of
Falkewood
MacKay Hugh Baillie Scott,
1906

Reginei Artiste numit de Hanna Pakula

cnd atenia sa se ndreapt spre obiecte de

Ultima romantic; interiorul camerei este

uz cotidian, servicii de birou, coupe-papier-

marcat de boli cu arcuri n ogive, ce se mbin

uri. Simul formei, al modelajului l definesc

ntr-un luminator, decorat cu o monumental

pe Gurschner - sculptorul. El alege de cele

cruce celtic (motiv reluat i n alte

mai multe ori n decoraie chipul feminin

interioare). Solemnitatea artistic a acesteia

delicat i sensibil.

e contrabalansat de micarea ritmic-fluent,


zoomorf-vegetal a entrelac-urilor. Mitologia

Pe aceleai coordonate stilistice se nscriu

celtic a inspirat deopotriv un alt element

piesele semnate de orfevrul mnchenez

decorativ - ramura de ciulin - care acoper

Max Strbl; pocalele sale din argint ciocnit

n ntregime pereii Camerei de aur, motiv

nnobilate cu pietre semipreioase sunt

realizat n stuc aurit. Considerat n Scoia

decorate

simbolul regenerrii i al veniciei, ramura de

oscilnd de multe ori ntre decorativul laic i

ciulin este de asemenea emblema Lorenei,

al obiectului de cult.

cu

entrelac-uri,

aspectul

lor

a oraului Nancy, oraul lui mile Gall, a


frailor Daum i a altor artiti reprezentativi

Se cuvine remarcat serviciul de lavoar al

ai curentului Art Nouveau. Multe dintre

reginei Maria, atribuit americanului Louis

piesele de art decorativ din anii 1900

Comfort Tiffany: piesele din aram ciocnit

sunt decorate cu aceste elemente descrise

au forme austere, ordonate, fiind decorate cu

n spaiul plin de ncrctur simbolic al

motivul crucii gamate, acoperite cu email n

Camerei de aur.

tonuri violente de albastru cobalt i verde


smarald.

n primul rnd, piesele de bronz ale artistului


vienez Gustav Gurschner, premiat la Expoziia

n sfrit atragem atenia asupra coleciei

Universal de la Paris (1900) cu o medalie de

de sticlrie semnat mile Gall. Se afl aici

argint i una de bronz; n colecia Muzeului

piese remarcabile: delicatul Clair de lune,

Naional Pele se afl o garnitur de vase

datat 1890, precum i Muza paradisiac,

decorate cu motivul crucii celtice, entrelac-

una dintre piesele rarissime ale acestui

uri i motive zoomorfe. Piesele artistului

magician al sticlei, dar att de reprezentativ

austriac se remarc prin imaginaia i

pentru creaia Art Nouveau.

perfeciunea realizrii tehnice, chiar i atunci

18

the Austrian artist are outstanding due to the

We ought to notice Queen Maries toilet set,

imagination and perfection of their technical

attributed to the American Louis Comfort

Budoarul Reginei
Maria

achievement, even when his attention is

Tiffany: the hammered brass pieces have

Castelul Pelior

focused on everyday objects, office services,

austere,

coupe-papier. Gurschner - the sculptor - is

decorated with the motif of the bent cross

defined by the sense of shape and molding.

and covered by email in vivid shades of

He often choses the delicate and sensitive

cobalt blue and emerald green.

orderly

shapes

and

they

are

feminine face as a decoration.


Finally, we focus on the collection of
The same stylistic coordinates define the

glassware signed by mile Gall. We display

pieces signed by the goldsmith Max Stroble

remarkable pieces: the delicate Clair de

from Munich.His

silver goblets

lune, dated 1900 and Heavenly Muse, one

embellished with semiprecious stones are

of the extremely rare pieces of this magician

decorated with entrelac and their appearance

of glass but a very representative one for the

is often somewhere between the secular

Art Nouveau creation.

knocked

decorative and the object of worship..

19

Queen Maries
Boudoir
Pelior Castle

20

Faada de sud
Castelul Pelior

South facade
Pelior Castle

21

Castelul Pelisor - Karel Liman


si arhitectura Art Nouveau
n memoriile pe care regina Maria le-a redactat

latura de sud. n acel cadru eclectic, realizat

Mircea Hortopan

i publicat la vrsta maturitii, suverana i

de firma de decoraiuni interioare Isaac

Director Adjunct

amintea cu neplcere de aspectul rece i

Daniel Heymann din Hamburg (Germania),

aparent auster al reedinelor regale din jurul

care crease la cererea suveranului i a

anului 1890. Maria de Saxa-Coburg-Gotha

principalului su consilier artistic - sculptorul

(1875 -1938), duces de Saxa i principes

Curii regale Martin Sthr, un ambient de

a Marei Britanii i Irlandei, era obinuit din

sorginte neo-renascentist german, s-a

copilrie cu confortul cminelor englezeti.

desfurat primul sejur n staiunea de la

n ceea ce privea decoraia de interior a

poalele Munilor Bucegi. Tot aici principesa

Palatului Regal de pe Calea Victoriei din

motenitoare Maria avea s dea natere, la

Bucureti, reedina de iarn a regelui

16 octombrie 1893, principelui Carol (1893

Carol I sau a Castelului Pele de la Sinaia,

1953), viitorul rege Carol al II-lea al Romnei

reedina regal estival, tnra principes

(1930 -1940).

motenitoare a Romniei a fcut un efort


de adaptare la ceea ce ea numea stilul Alt-

ns amplasarea tinerei familii princiare n cel

Deutsch, pe care l respingea funciar.

mai spaios apartament al Castelului Pele nu


a fost dect o soluie tranzitorie: necesitile

La Sinaia, tnra principes Maria a sosit

de reprezentare i gzduire a reedinei

pentru prima oar n vara anului 1893, n

regale pe de o parte, precum i nevoia de

compania soului ei, principele motenitor

intimitate i de un cmin propriu al tinerilor

Ferdinand de Hohenzollern (1865-1927),

Ferdinand i Maria,

viitorul rege Ferdinand I al Romniei (1914

regele Carol s renune la folosirea vechiului

-1927). Ei i-au petrecut prima vacan de

pavilion de vntoare numit Foior, aflat

var mpreun, iar btrnul rege Carol, att de

nu foarte departe de Pele, n favoarea

mndru de Pele, ctitoria sa cea mai drag, s-a

principilor motenitori. Este foarte probabil

strduit s ofere motenitorilor tronului cel

ca n vederea schimbrii destinaiei micului

mai bun apartament din castel, apartamentul

chalet, s se fi recurs la serviciile unor firme de

principal pentru oaspei, aflat la etajul I pe

decoraiuni interioare cu care Administraia

22

l-au determinat pe

The Pelisor Castle - Karel Liman


and Art Nouveau architecture
In the memoirs that the Queen Marie

wing. In that eclectic setting, made by Isaac

Mircea Hortopan

wrote and published at a maturity age, the

Daniel Heymanns interior decor company

Deputy Manager

sovereign remembered, unpleasantly, the

from Hamburg (Germany), company that

chilly and apparently austere look of the

created, at the request of the sovereign

royal residences around the year 1890.

and his main art counsellor the sculptor

Marie of Saxa-Coburg-Gotha (1875-1938),

Martin Sthr, an ambience of German neo-

Duchess of Saxa and Princess of Great Britain

Renaissance origin, unfurled the first stay in

and Ireland, got used from childhood to the

the resort at the foot of the Bucegi Mountains.

comfort of British homes. Regarding the


interior decoration of the Royal Palace on

It is here that the Crown Princess Marie gives

Victoria Avenue in Bucharest, the winter

birth to Prince Carol (1893-1953), the future

residence of King Carol I or the Peles Castle,

King Carol II of Romania (1930-1940), on

the summer royal residence, the young

16th of October 1893.

Crown Princess Romania made an effort to


adapt to what she called the Alt-Deutsch

However, the location of the young princely

style, which she rejected fundamentally.

family in the most spacious apartment of Peles


castle was only a temporary solution: on the

The young princess Marie, arrived for the first

one hand, the necessities of representation

time in Sinaia, in the summer of 1893, in the

and hosting of the royal residence, as well

company of her husband, the Crown Prince

as the need for privacy and that of a home

Ferdinand of Hohenzollern (1865-1927), the

for the young Ferdinand and Marie, made

future King Ferdinand I of Romania (1914-

King Carol renounce in favour of the Crown

1927). They spent their first summer vacation

Princes to the usage of the old hunting lodge

together, and the old King Carol, so proud of

called Foisor, located not far from Pele. In

Peles, his most dear construction, strived to

order to change the destination of the small

offer the best apartment in the castle to the

chalet he may have appealed to the services

heir to the throne, the princely apartment for

of some interior decor companies that the

guests, located at the first floor on the south

Administration of the Royal House worked

23

Scara principal
Cliveden House

The main staircase


Cliveden House

24

Victoria-Melita
(Ducky) pe scara
principal
Castelul Pelior

Victoria-Melita
(Ducky) on the main
staircase
Pelior Castle

25

Casei regale colaborase pn atunci, precum

de est a castelului Pelior.

firma citat mai sus sau firma August Bemb


din Mainz (Germania). n perioada de

Un alt argument ce poate susine aceast

redactare a primei monografii a Castelului

ipotez este ns compararea amprentei la

Pele i a reedinei regale de la Sinaia (1892

sol a primului Economat i cea a castelului

-1893) de ctre bibliotecarul regelui Carol I -

Pelior. Cu o marcat latur de est, dezvoltat

elveianul Lo Bachelin, autorul monografiei,

n ax pe direcia sud-nord, corpul principal

amintete de lucrrile de mrire ale vechiului

al vechiului Economat se continua spre vest,

Pavilion

dup

dup un plan n form de L, cu latura lung

proiectele arhitecilor Eisenlohr i Weigl din

de

vntoare,

realizate

pe axul est-vest i cu latura scurt pe direcia

Stuttgart (Germania). Astfel, din vara anului

sud-nord, ca o contrapondere la corpul de

1894, Foiorul a devenit reedina estival

est, cu care era aproape paralel. Aceast

a principilor motenitori, unde avea s se

latur scurt este continuat cu un mic corp

nasc, la 12 octombrie 1894, cel de al doilea

perpendicular pe ea, dezvoltat din nou pe

copil al cuplului, principesa Elisabeta (1894

axa est-vest.

1956), devenit prin cstorie regina Greciei.


n anii urmtori principii motenitori aveau

Un plan deci destul de centrifug, fr un

s foloseasc Foiorul, ns i aceast soluie

punct central, fr un reper anume, generat

a fost una tranzitorie ndat ce condiiile

cu siguran de conjuncturile terenului i

financiare au fost prielnice, regele Carol I a

mai ales a stabilitii acestuia, care n zona

comandat pentru viitorii suverani o nou

Domeniului regal este destul de precar pe

reedin de var, foarte aproape de Pele,

alocuri, dar i de utilitile pe care cldirea

ce avea s fie amplasat chiar pe cursul unui

cea mai important cldire anex a Peleului,

mic pru, afluent al rului Pele Peliorul,

n perioada 1883 -1899, le impunea. Aceast

de unde i numele viitoarei reedine.

dezvoltare planimetric dezvoltat n mare


pe direcia est-vest, putea da impresia unei

Din analiza documentelor din Arhiva Biroului

improvizaii arhitectonice, dar constructorii

regal de Arhitectur de la Sinaia, precum

au tiut, cel puin la rezolvarea faadelor, s

i a unor gravuri din jurul anilor 1885

dea un aspect uniform construciei, mai ales

1893, observm o mare similitudine ntre

c aceasta era perfect vizibil din imediata

planul la sol al primei cldiri administrative

proximitate a castelului Pele. Aceast

a Domeniului regal, Casa de Economie (sau

rezolvare a constat n tratarea soclului cu

Economatul), realizat n aceeai perioad ca

piatr fuit, la nivelul fundaiilor, iar la

i Castelul Pele, dup indicaiile arhitectului

nivelul parterului pe laturile de est, nord i

Johannes Schulz von Strassnitzky. Facem

sud, de prezena unei colonade din lemn,

aceast afirmaie, dei compararea peisajului

n maniera arhitecturii de vilegiatur, de

din zona acestei cldiri cu cel actual s-a

sorginte rustic, ce a marcat aspectul oraului

schimbat mult schimbrile nu au fost ns

Sinaia, dar i al localitilor nvecinate,

fundamentale ntre perioada fiinrii primului

precum Buteni, Azuga sau Comarnic. La

Economat i cea a edificrii castelului Pelior.

nivelul etajului, colonada era surmontat de

Acestea au intervenit mult mai trziu, poate

panouri din lemn, traforate, integrndu-se

dup 1910, cnd mprejurimile Peliorului

fericit n aspectul general al reedinei, mai

sunt reamenajate, fiind plantai i arbori care

ales datorit similaritilor cu plastica de pe

astzi, la peste un secol, constituie o cezur

faada de sud a castelului Pele.

vizual serioas a peisajului, ntre aleea de


acces ctre terasele castelului Pele i faada

Cldirea a fost probabil dezafectat nainte

26

with till then, such as the mentioned above

by planting trees, that nowadays, a more

company or the August Bembe company from

than a century later, represent a serious

Mainz (Germany). During the writing period

visual caesura of the landscape, between the

of the first monograph of the Peles Castle

access alley to the terraces of Peles Castle

and of the royal residence from Sinaia (1892-

and the east front of the Pelisor Castle.

1893) by King Carol Is librarian the Swiss


Lo Bachelin, the author of the monography,

Another argument which can hold up this

mentions the works of extension of the

hypothesis is the comparison of the ground

old hunting lodge, made according to the

print of the first Economat and that of the

projects of the architects Eisenlohr and

Pelisor castle. With a pronounced east side,

Weigl from Stuttgart (Germany). Therefore,

developed in axle towards south-north

from the summer of 1894, Foisor became the

direction, the main body of the old Economat

summer residence of the Crown Princes, the

continued towards the west, according to a

place where, on 12th of October 1894, the

plan of an L shape, with the long side on the

second child of the couple was born, namely

east-west axle and with a shorter side on the

the Princess Elisabeth (1894 1956), who

south-north direction, as a counterweight on

became, by marriage, Queen of Greece.

the east body, to which it was almost parallel.


This short side is continued by a small body

In the following years the the Crown Princes

perpendicular to it, also developed on the

used the Foisor, yet this solution was

east-west axle.

temporary as well as long as the financial


conditions allowed it, King Carol I ordered

Thus, a quite centrifugal plan, without a

a new summer residence for the future

central point, without a certain reference, a

sovereigns, a residence very close to Peles,

plan surely generated by the conjunctures

which was located on a brooks course,

and especially the stability of the field,

tributary of the Peles river Pelisor, thus the

which in the area of the royal Estate was

name of the future residence.

quite precarious here and there, but also by


the utilities which the building the most

By analysing the documents from the

important annexe building of Peles, during

Archive of the Royal Bureau of Architecture

the 1883-1899 period, imposed.

from Sinaia, as well as some engravings


around 1885- 1893, a great similarity can be

This

noticed between the ground plan of the first

on the east-west direction, could give the

administrative building of the royal Estate,

impression of a architectural improvisation,

the House of Economy (or the Economat),

yet the builders knew, at least in the making

constructed in the same period as the Peles

of the frontage, how to render an even

Castle, according to the remarks of the

appearance to the construction, especially

architect Johannes Schulz von Strassnitzky.

that it was perfectly visible from the direct

We make this claim, although the comparison

proximity of Peles Castle. This making meant

of the landscape around the area of this

processing the socle with coping stone, at the

building with the present landscape changed

level of foundations, and at the ground floor

a lot the changes were not fundamental

on the east, north and south sides, by the

between the period of existence of the first

presence of a colonnade from wood, in the

Economat and that of Pelisors construction.

style of the holidaying architecture, of rustic

The changes appeared much later, after 1910,

origin, which marked the appearance of the

when Pelisors surroundings were readjusted

town Sinaia, but also of the neighbouring

planimetrical

27

development

mostly

Faada de sud, plan

de anul 1899, cnd au nceput lucrrile de

plane ale Biroului de arhitectur, exactitatea

edificare a noului castel pentru principii

matematic

motenitori. ntr-o scrisoare din anul 1900

de arhitectur datorate lui Karel Liman.

adresat

motenitoare

Este evident c, nc n jurul anului 1900,

Maria, mamei sale, ducesa Maria de Saxa-

arhitectul Lecomte du Noy, un apropiat al

South facade,
blueprint

Coburg-Gotha, se face meniunea construirii

regelui Carol I, avea un cuvnt greu de spus

Karel Liman, 1903

la Sinaia a unui nou castel, destinat cu

asupra destinului Domeniului regal de la

siguran perechii princiare, dei regele

Sinaia. Preferina principesei motenitoare

Carol pstra nc discreia asupra viitoarei

pentru arhitectul apropiat al familiei, pe care

destinaii a cldirii.

de

principesa

complexitatea

detaliilor

Aceasta figureaz pe

l ntlnea probabil la Curte, cnd acesta i

planurile pstrate la Biroul de arhitectur,

petrecea serile alturi de btrnul suveran

ca Prinzenbau (Cldirea principilor). Acest

la partidele de biliard, erau poate expresia

termen generic amintete de palatul

pe

acestei apropieri i familiariti pe care

care, n calitate de prini de Hohenzollern,

restauratorul Mnstirii Argeului o avea cu

Leopold (fratele regelui Carol I) i Antonia

Familia regal. Acesta fusese i cel care, cu

de Portugalia, prinii principelui motenitor

puin timp n urm, coordonase (avizase)

Ferdinand al Romniei, l ocupau n micul

lucrrile pentru ridicarea Juniperus, micul

ora de reedin a familiei, Sigmaringen.

pavilion excentric al principesei, Casa din


copac, una dintre primele originaliti

Cldirea Prinzenbau din Sinaia, ridicat n

arhitectonice datorate Mariei. Se poate ns

perioada 1899 1903, trebuia probabil s in

prezuma, datorit studiilor recente, faptul

seama de traseul preexistent al fundaiilor

c arhitectul Liman era nu numai prezent

vechiului Economat, descris mai sus. Dei

la Sinaia n acea perioad, dar coordona

n scrisoarea citat, tnra principes Maria

nemijlocit, la faa locului, lucrrile de

meniona ca autor al planurilor pe arhitectul

construcie sau amenajare de pe Domeniul

francez Andr Lecomte du Noy, putem

regal.

lesne identifica n seturile de planuri i

28

Karel Liman, 1903

towns, such as Busteni, Azuga or Comarnic.

Romania, had in the small town of residence


of the Sigmaringen family.

At the floor level, the colonnade was


surmounted by wood panels, fretworked,

The Prinzenbau building from Sinaia, built

becoming

general

between 1899-1903, probably had to take

appearance of the residence, especially due

into account the pre-existing route of the

to the similarities with the plasticity on the

old

southern frontage of the Pele Castle.

above. Though in the mentioned letter, the

integrated

into

the

Economats

foundations,

described

young Princess Marie mentioned the French


The building was probably disused before

architect Andr Lecomte du Noy, as the

the year 1899 when began the construction

author of the plans, we can easily identify

works of a new castle for the Crown Princes.

in the sets of plans and plates of the Bureau

In a letter from the year 1900 addressed

of architecture, the mathematic exactness

to her mother, the Duchess Marie of Saxa-

and complexity of architectural details due

Coburg-Gotha, by the Crown Princess Marie,

to Karel Liman. It is obvious that, around

there is the mention of the erection of a new

the year 1900, the architect Andr Lecomte

castle in Sinaia, a castle surely meant for

du Noy, a close person to the King Carol I,

the princely pair, though the king Carol kept

played an important role in the destiny of

discretion about the future destination of the

the royal Estate from Sinaia. The preference

building. This is among the plans preserved

of the Crown Princess for the architect, who

in the Bureau of architecture, as Prinzenbau

was a close acquaintance to the family, that

(The Building of the princes). This generic

she probably met at the Court, when he

denomination

spent the evenings in the company of the

Princes

of

reminds of the palace the

Hohenzollern,

Leopold

(the

old sovereign during the billiard game, was

brother of Carol I) and Antonia of Portugal,

probably the expression of this proximity

the parents of Crown Prince Ferdinand of

and familiarity that the restorer of the Arges

Planul castelului
Pelior
Karel Liman, 1903

Pelior Castle
floorplan
Karel Liman, 1903

29

Realizarea Prinzenbau a fost aadar avizat

supranlat i s primeasc ceasul mare),

de arhitectul Lecomte du Noy, dar planurile

de seciune ptrat, i turnul de pe colul de

i detaliile de execuie au fost cu certitudine

nord-est, de seciune circular.

elaborate

de

Karel

Liman.

Aici

este

momentul s marcm nc o dat importana

Interesant este faptul c arhitectul Liman

traseului preexistent al fundaiilor, pentru

apeleaz, pentru noul castel, la amplasarea

a putea explica alegerea fcut de Liman

a dou turnuri pe faad. Acestea se ridic

n elaborarea planurilor. Edificiile pe care

pe latura de sud a micului castel, cel de

Liman le realizase deja ca arhitect principal

pe colul de sud-est, de seciune ptrat,

(ne referim la casa de vntoare a Familiei

masiv, dnd cldirii un aspect monumental

princiare de Hohenlohe, la Javorino, sau

i adpostind o ntreag suit de ncperi,

la palatul Rotschild de la Viena), arat

la nivelul parterului, etajului I, etajului II i

predilecia acestuia pentru faade principale

mansardei - mult mai nalt ns dect corpul

simetrice,

ntr-o

principal al cldirii (la fel ca i turnul central al

ordonan clasicizant, subordonate unui

echilibrate,

Peleului), acesta se continu pe vertical cu

punct central de interes. La Prinzenbau

o ncpere supraetajat, flancat de o galerie

situaia se schimb radical datorit att

acoperit, imediat sub nvelitoarea strpuns

terenului pus la dispoziie, ct i cerinei

de lucarne. Cel de al doilea turn, amplasat pe

comanditarului de a integra noua cldire n

colul de sud-vest, este de seciune circular,

peisajul natural subalpin i notei generale

el nefiind altceva dect un adaos fericit la

a arhitecturii componentelor parcului regal,

faad, genernd n plan, la fiecare nivel, mici

unde, desigur, reperul central era castelul

coluri intime ale camerelor de pe acest col

Pele, n varianta sa de la 1883.

al cldirii.

Plastica faadelor s-a dovedit a fi extrem

Modelul Peleului este deci prezent n

de

complex

elaborate

numai

tratarea faadelor noului castel. Profuziunea

c volumetria cldirii a dictat aceast

elaborat.

Nu

fachwerk-ului pe latura de est, care se

complexitate, dar i elaborarea planurilor,

vrea

cu diversele destinaii date spaiilor, care

se contrapune utilizrii mai echilibrate a

au generat soluii pentru deschideri ui

procedeului amintit la faada de sud, n

i ferestre, nu de puine ori dublate pe

favoarea unor suprafee ceva mai pline,

faad de balustrade, balcoane, terase, logii.

care la nivelul parterului devin echilibrate,

Pentru o mai armonioas integrare a noului

uor monolitice, prin utilizarea zidriei i

edificiu n trama arhitectonic a reedinei

a pietrei la parament i ancadramentele

regale, arhitectul Liman a propus i a aplicat

ferestrelor. Aceast aproape insesizabil

cteva soluii ce constituiser elementele

dihotomie,

caracteristice ale vechiului Pele utilizarea

arhitect prin amplasarea volumului masiv

fachwerk-ului pentru faadele de la nivelul

al turnului mare, amintete i ea de plastica

etajelor, cutarea ct mai multor rezolvri i

faadelor Peleului, unde bogia lemnului

ancadramente din lemn (mici logii, balcoane,

de pe faadele de est i de sud las loc unei

galerii), dar mai ales introducerea temei

oarecari sobrieti pe faada de nord, tratat

turnului. Turnurile de la Pele ddeau ntr-

ca faad secundar.

faada

principal

foarte

bine

Prinzenbau,

disimulat

de

adevr aspectul general de cldire elansat,


dezvoltat n primul rnd pe vertical. Dou

Tocmai soluiile abordate de Liman la Pelior

astfel de turnuri marcau plastica faadelor

fac nu numai ca aspectul general al edificiului

Peleului turnul principal de pe latura

s fie unitar, dar las privitorului alegerea

de sud (ce avea s fie civa ani mai trziu

unui unghi predilect pentru contemplare.

30

Convent had with the Royal Family. He was

doors and windows, and which were often

also the person who coordinated (notified)

doubled on the frontages by balustrades,

the works for the construction of Juniperus,

balconies terraces and loggias. For a more

the small eccentric lodge of the Princess,

harmonious integration of the new edifice in

the house from the tree, one of the first

the architectural frame of the royal residence,

architectural originalities due to Maria.

Liman proposed and applied few solutions

However, due to recent studies, it can be

which were the characteristic elements

presumed that architect Liman was not only

of the old Peles the use of the fachwerk

present tin Sinaia during that period, but he

for the frontages from the floors levels,

also coordinated directly, on the very spot,

the search of many solutions and wooden

the works of construction and adjustment of

frames (small loggias, balconies, galleries),

the royal estate.

but mostly the introduction of the theme of


the tower. The towers from Peles gave the

Thus, the building of Prinzenbau was

general appearance of slendered building

achieved by the architect Lecomte du Noy,

mostly developed vertically. Two such towers

but the plans and details of construction

marked the plasticity of Peles frontages

were certainly made by Karel Liman.

the main squared tower on the southern


side (which few years later will be extended

It is important to emphasize once again the

and get the big watch), and the north-eastern

importance of the pre-existing route of the

circular tower.

foundations in order to explain the choice

made by Liman in the drafting of the plans.

Quite interesting is the fact that for the new


castle, Liman resorts to the placement of

The buildings that Liman already created

two towers on the frontage. These are being

as main architect (we refer to the hunting

built on the southern side of the small castle,

house of the princely family of Hohenlohern,

the one on the south-eastern corner of a

to the Javorino, or the palace Rotschild

squared section that gives a monumental

from Vienna), show his predilection for

appearance and has a sequence of rooms at

main,

well-balanced

the ground floor, first floor, second floor and

fronts, made in an orderly and classical way

the attic yet much higher than the main

subject to a central main point of interest. At

body of the building (as well as the central

Prinzenbau the situation radically changes

tower of Peles), it continues vertically with

thanks to the field at disposal but also to

a multilayered room with a covered gallery

the limited partners request to integrate

right under the cover pierced by skylights.

the new building into the natural landscape

The second tower, located on the south-

and into the general architectural mark of

western corner, has a circular section and it

the components of the royal park, where,

is just a fortuitous addition to the frontage,

of course, the main landmark was the Peles

which, according to the plan, generates, on

castle in its 1883 version.

each level, small private corners to the rooms

symmetrical

and

on this side of the building.


The plasticity of the frontages proved to be
extremely complex and elaborated.

Peles model is observed on the facades of


the new castle. The richness of the fachwerk

Not only buildings volumetrics dictated

on the Eastern side, regarded as the main

this complexity, but also drafting the plans,

front wall of the Prinzenbau, differs from

with varied destinations given to spaces,

the moderate use of this technique on the

which generated solutions for openings

Southern facade, and provide more busy

31

Dei latura de est, la intrarea cu peron,

Sub acest aspect, noul castel se deosebete

se vrea faada principal, dimensiunile

fundamental de castelul Pele. Dei acelai

reduse ale corpului de cldire, profilarea

aspect general este cutat i realizat (trebuie

din laterala dreapt a corpurilor secundare

amintit faptul c transformrile pe care

ce se dezvolt ctre vest, nu pot susine

tot arhitectul Liman le-a operat n decada

aceast intenie. Cea mai important faad

1903 1914, au modificat fundamental

a cldirii, prin dimensiuni i prin amplasarea

aspectul

celor dou turnuri la coluri este cea de

principilor motenitori apare ca o vil de

sud, ns absena deschiderilor importante

loisir, fr pretenii de monumentalitate i

i monumentale, precum i asimetria celor

reprezentativitate, fr un punct central de

existente, lipsa unui punct central de interes

referin, fr a privilegia o faad sau alta.

nu reuesc s fac nici din aceast faad,

Este poate tocmai aspectul pe care i tnra

frontul privilegiat. Acesta nu poate fi dect

principes motenitoare Maria l atepta de

colul de sud-est al edificiului, direcie

la o reedin la poalele Carpailor, rezultatul

din care privitorul poate cuprinde ambele

fiind menionarea Peliorului ntre casele

faade, fcnd practic din turnul central (cu

sale de vis.

faadelor

Peleului),

reedina

adaosurile sale), punctul central de interes.


Din analiza schielor de faade aflate n
fondul documentar al Muzeului Naional
Pele, reiese intenia unor soluii plastice

Camera de aur

elaborate, ce ncercau s dea Peliorului

Castelul Pelior

o not suplimentar de monumentalitate.


Interesant este plana n care arhitectul

The Golden Room

Liman propune pentru rezolvarea corpului

Pelior Castle

central al faadei de est, deasupra intrrii


principale, la nivelul etajului II, amplasarea
unui attic polonez, structurat pe dou
registre, cel inferior cu trei deschideri, cel
superior cu o singur deschidere. Dei
aspectul zidriei era oarecum compact,
acesta era contrabalansat de mulurile i
volutele corniei, fcnd n ansamblu corp
comun cu latura de est a turnului mare, cu
deschiderile sale mici, n masivul de zidrie.
Soluia propus de arhitect ddea faadei
de est un aspect mai sobru, clasicizant, n
defavoarea fachwerk-ului, care totui a fost
n cele din urm preferat. Pentru c tema
atticului polonez a fost se pare drag
arhitectului, acesta avea s aplice o astfel
de soluie pe faada de sud a Peleului,
civa ani mai trziu, la redecorarea acestei
faade, unde, peste corpul ce adpostea
sala maur, s-a adugat o mansard n care
au fost amenajate ncperile secundare ale
apartamentului imperial, n anii 1905 1906.

32

surfaces,

balanced,

This is possibly exactly what Princess Marie

slightly monolithic, on the ground floor

that

become

more

expected from a residence nestled at the

due to the use of masonry and stone in the

foot of Carpathian Mountains, and, in the

parament and window frameworks. This

end, she considered Pelisor among her

sensible dichotomy, well dissimulated by

dream houses.

the architect with the location chosen for


the massive big tower, also reminds of Peles

Further analysing the facades designs kept

walls architectural appearance where the

in Peles National Museum library, we notice

abundance of wood on the Eastern and

some elaborate solutions that are meant to

Southern facades make room for a soft

render additional monumentality to Pelisor.

sobriety on the Northern wall regarded as a

There is a very interesting sketch where

secondary one.

Liman suggested to place a two level Polish


attic, the inferior one with three openings

Limans solutions for Pelisor give a unitary

and the superior one with a single opening,

look to the edifice, and also allow the viewer

above the main entrance, at the second floor.

to choose a contemplation angle of their

This attic was designed to shape the central

preference. Although the Eastern side with

body of the Eastern front wall. Although

the platform entrance is looked at as the

the masonry aspect looked compact, it was

main facade, the reduced dimensions of

counterbalanced by the mouldings and

this building, and the secondary bodies

volutes of the cornice, and it made a unitary

from the right side that develop Westward,

body with the Eastern side of the big tower

cannot support such a consideration. Taking

with its small openings in the mason giant.

into account the size and location of the

The solution proposed by the architect gave

two corner towers, the most important

the Eastern facade a more classic and austere

facade of the castle should be the Southern

look compared to the fachwerk, which was

one, but the absence of any significant

preferred, eventually. It is said that the Czech

and monumental openings, as well as the

architect was very fond of the Polish attic

asymmetry of the existing ones, and the

theme and, thus, a few years later, he added

lack of a focal point cannot make this the

one to the Southern wall of Peles castle while

privileged contemplation point. This is none

redecorating this part. During 1905 1906,

other than the South-Western corner of the

an attic was added over the body that hosted

castle because, from there, the viewer can

the Moorish hall, and secondary rooms for

admire both front walls, thus, turning the

the imperial suite were installed there.

central tower (its additions included) into the


focal point.

The 1905 1910 transformations have


marked out Peles metamorphosis, and

In this regard, the new castle is fundamentally

the rise of Pelisor castle. The latter was

different from Peles. Although a common

inaugurated on May 24th 1903, and would

general appearance was intentional and

become the summer residence of the young

achieved (we need to remind that the

royal family, and maintained its status after

transformations made by Liman between

King Ferdinand was crowned on October 6th

1903 1914, have essentially modified

1914. Further researches have established

Peles facades aspect), the residence of the

the exact time when these alterations were

main heirs resembles a loisir chateau with

made. Thus, a compact body is built on the

no claims of monumental representation,

Southern facade and attached to the Western

and no focal point or a favoured front wall.

wall of the big tower. A small open terrace is

33

Camera de zi la Noul
Palat, Darmstadt
Design M. H. Baillie Scott,
1899

Sitting room in New


Palace, Darmstadt
Design M. H. Baillie Scott,
1899

Transformrile din jurul anilor 1905 1910

reuind s traseze o ax est-vest, de la intrarea

aveau s marcheze nu numai metamorfoza

principal, adpostit de un peron acoperit

Peleului, dar i amplificarea castelului

(ce susine la rndul su o teras spaioas la

Pelior. Acesta, inaugurat la 24 mai 1903,

etajul I), pn la sufrageria mare. Acest parcurs

avea s devin reedina de var a tinerei

este marcat de un mic antreu, un vestibul ce

familii princiare, pstrndu-i statutul i

separ corpul de est n dou segmente egale

dup urcarea pe tron a regelui Ferdinand, n

cel dinspre nord adpostind apartamentul

octombrie 1914. Cercetrile ulterioare vor

Marealului Curii principilor motenitori,

stabili cu precizie data acestor transformri,

iar cel dinspre sud dublul salon de primiri al

care la nivelul faadei de sud se traduc

principelui Ferdinand i n sfrit, de scara

prin construirea unui corp compact, adosat

principal a vilei, ce se nal pe trei nivele

zidului de vest al turnului mare. La nivelul

(parter, etaj I i etaj II), prevzut cu plafon

parterului apare o mic teras descoperit,

vitrat, o mare fereastr pe latura de nord i o

cu balustrad din fier forjat susinut de

galerie subliniat de colonete pe laturile de

stlpi masivi de zidrie placat cu piatr

sud i de est.

i o mare fereastr cu u, ce pare dublura


marei ferestre de la acelai nivel de pe turnul

Aspectul spaial i soluia pentru rezolvarea

mare. La etajul I, corpul suplimentar este

scrii amintesc de scara conacului Cliveden

tratat complet diferit, cu fachwerk i patru

House, din Anglia, proprietatea familiei

deschideri flancate de colonete din lemn.

Astor, unde tnra principes motenitoare

n plan, noul corp se traduce prin dublarea

a Romniei era adesea primit de prietenii

suprafeelor iniiale ale cabinetelor de lucru

si, fraii Pauline i William Waldorf, Viconte

cel al principelui la parter i cel al principesei

Astor. Similitudinile cu spaiul de la Cliveden

la etaj. Aceasta e singura modificare major

House

operat de arhitectul Liman nainte de Primul

aezarea rampei scrii)

Rzboi Mondial.

anii 1920, cnd locatarii regali au comandat

(arcaturile

ce

despart

spaiile,

s-au amplificat n

arhitectului desfiinarea salonului de la


Planimetria noii reedine de var este i ea

parter, pentru a crea n faa scrii principale

destul de fracturat, arhitectul Karel Liman

a Peliorului un mare hol de primiri. Putem

34

Camera de zi la Noul
Palat, Darmstadt
Design M. H. Baillie Scott,
1899

Sitting room in New


Palace, Darmstadt
Design M. H. Baillie Scott,
1899

constructed on the ground floor, decorated

first and second), and has a glass ceiling,

with a wrought iron rail supported by massive

a large window on the Northern side and a

mason pillars plated with stone and a big

gallery bordered by small columns on both

window door, which appears to be the mirror

Eastern and Southern sides.

image of the big window from the same floor


of the big tower. As regards the first floor,

The staircase resembles the one in Cliveden

the additional section is treated completely

House, England, ownership of the Astor

differently, with fachwerk and four openings

family, where the young princess of Romania

winged by small wooden columns. This new

was often attended by her friends, and family

body doubled the initial space of the working

Pauline and William Waldorf, Peer Astor.

cabinets the princes on the ground floor

The similarities with Cliveden House (small

and the princess on the first floor. This is the

vaults separating the spaces, location of the

only significant alteration made by architect

staircase ramp) increased during the 1920s,

Liman before the First World War.

when the royal residents commissioned


the architect to eliminate the ground floor

The planimetry of the new summer residence

parlour in order to build a large foyer in front

is rather segmented, architect Karl Liman

of the main staircase of Pelisor. Therefore,

managing to trace a similarly segmented

the fortunate location of this staircase, its

East West axis, from the main entrance,

size and the wonderful sunlight coming

sheltered by a covered platform (also

through the two natural light sources turned

supporting the spacious terrace on the first

it into the junction point of the castle. And if

floor), to the master dining room. This path

this solution led to the creation of a central

is marked by a small vestibule that separates

pivot of the house, architect Karel Liman was

the Eastern section in two equal segments

to keep it in mind and put it into practice

the one from the North sheltering the

in a much more elaborate manner and at

Princes Marshal suite, and the one from the

a monumental scale, when covering the

South, a double parlour of Prince Ferdinand

interior yard of Peles castle and setting up

and, in the end, there is the chateaus main

the Honour Hall, during 1907 1910.

staircase that rises up three floors (ground,

35

afirma c dispoziia fericit a scrii principale

destinat micilor principi Carol i Nicolae i

a Peliorului face din aceasta punctul nodal

personalului superior al Casei princiare. O

al cldirii, att prin dimensiuni i amplitudine,

excepie notabil o constituie ncperea de la

ct i prin luminozitatea extraordinar dat

acest nivel amplasat n turnul mare, Camera

de cele dou surse de lumin natural. i dac

de aur, amenajat ca boudoir al principesei

soluia scrii principale s-a dovedit salutar

motenitoare, asupra cruia vom reveni.

pentru crearea unui pivot central al casei,

i mai departe, n turnul mare, deasupra

arhitectul Karel Liman avea s rein soluia,

Camerei de aur a fost proiectat o ncpere

pentru a o pune n oper mult mai elaborat

supraetajat, un mic salon intim al principelui

i la scar monumental, la acoperirea curii

Ferdinand, flancat pe trei laturi la faad de o

interioare a castelului Pele i la amenajarea

galerie-belvedere i de o mic ncpere de

aici a holului de onoare, n perioada 1907

odihn deasupra (empore). Dei ideea de

1911.

Stube este preluat de arhitectul Liman de


la cunoscuta Trinkstube (Camera agapelor)

Etajul I al castelului Pelior se agreg i

din turnul mare al Peleului, din punct de

el n jurul scrii principale, Liman crend

vedere stilistic aceasta se raporteaz la

aici dou anfilade, una pe latura de est,

un repetoriu decorativ complet diferit

destinat micilor principese (cu camer de

ncercarea de redare a atmosferei epocilor

joac, sufragerie, camer pentru guvernant,

apuse cu ajutorul neo-Renaterii germane la

dormitor i baie) i una pe latura de sud,

Pele, las loc n sala din turn a Peliorului,

constituind

unei ambiane de zidrie i structur de lemn

apartamentul

principesei

motenitoare Maria, aezat chiar deasupra

(realizate n manier fachwerk)

apartamentului principelui Ferdinand, cu

de abordrile britanice Arts and Crafts, n

care comunica iniial printr-o mic scar

ncercarea de revitalizare a interioarelor

interioar. Apartamentul principesei era

renascentiste engleze ale stilului Tudor.

inspirat

format din salon de primiri (cu o extindere


remarcabil, proiectat ca salon de marmur

i, dup acoperirea registrului superior

decorativismului de la Pelior, datorat

al pereilor cu fresce de Arthur Verona,

cu

supranumit capela), un mic cabinet de

motenitoare, o constituie tratarea pereilor

lucru, un dormitor i o baie. Revenind la

i a plafoanelor. Peste tot n spaiile

parter, la apartamentul principelui Ferdinand,

importante, decoraia parietal este rezolvat

acesta avea aceeai dispoziie planimetric,

prin acoperirea pereilor cu lambriuri simple,

o anfilad ce cuprindea salonul, cabinetul

din lemn atent lustruit i biuit stejar n

de lucru, dormitorul i baia. Cele dou

sufragerie, ulm n salonul principelui, brad

cabinete de lucru, iniial spaii nguste,

n cabinetul de lucru al acestuia, fag n

tratate mai mult ca piese de legtur ntre

cabinetul de lucru i dormitorul principesei.

salon i dormitor (poate ilustrarea faptului c

Sobrietatea

principii motenitori nu aveau dect funcii

parietale este contrabalansat de decorul

de reprezentare) vor fi dublate ca suprafa

luxuriant, uneori policromat, al plafoanelor.

odat cu adugarea pe latura de sud a

S-au pstrat din prima etap de decoraie

castelului a noului corp de cldire.

a Peliorului plafoanele din vestibul, din

interesant
siguran

marc

britanic

ascendenei

simplitatea

principesei

decoraiei

salonul principelui, din cabinetul su de lucru


La etajul I, deasupra sufrageriei, au fost

i din dormitorul acestuia, din dormitorul

amenajate trei ncperi pentru doamnele

principesei, tocmai pentru c aceste spaii

de onoare ale principesei motenitoare,

nu au suferit modificri fundamentale n anii

iar etajul II, n parte mansardat, a fost

1924 - 1929. Decorul bogat al plafoanelor,

36

The Ist floor of Pelisor castle is added around

atmosphere of long gone eras depicted in

the main staircase, Liman creating there two

the German Neo-Renaissance manner leaves

enfilades, one on the Eastern side designed

room to a masonry and wooden structure

for the small princesses (with a play room,

ambiance inspired by the British Arts and

dining room, governess room, bedroom and

Crafts (fachwerk technique), in the tower hall

bathroom), and one on the Southern side

of Pelisor, as an attempt to rejuvenate the

forming princess Maries suite, placed right

English Renaissance interiors of the Tudor

on top of Price Ferdinands suite, and which

style.

were originally connected by a small interior


staircase. The princess suite comprised a

An interesting British mark of the decorative

reception hall (with a remarkable extension,

style in Pelisor, due to the princess

designed as a marble salon and called the

descent, is represented by walls and ceiling

chapel, after the upper parts of the walls

treatment. Every important space is covered

were covered with Arthur Verona murals),

with parietal decorations made of simple and

a small working cabinet, a bedroom and

carefully polished panels and stained wood

a bathroom. On the ground floor, Prince

oak in the dining room, elm in princes foyer,

Ferdinands suite had the same planimetry

fir tree in the princes working cabinet, and

that included the foyer, working cabinet,

beech in the princess working cabinet and

bedroom and bathroom. The two working

bedroom. The sobriety and simplicity of the

cabinets, initially narrow spaces, regarded

parietal decorations are counterbalanced by

more like corridors between the foyer and

the luxuriant and sometimes multicoloured

bedroom (possibly illustrating the fact

decorations of the ceilings. In Pelisor, there

that the princes had only representative

are some ceilings from this first period

functions), will double their space when the

of decorations that are still preserved -

new addition is built on the Southern side of

the vestibule, princes foyer, work office,

the castle.

bedroom, and the princess bedroom as wellprecisely because these spaces suffered no

On the Ist floor and above the dining room,

fundamental changes between 1924- 1929.

three rooms were set for the princess

The rich decorations of the mainly coffered

mistresses, while the IInd floor, mainly

ceilings resemble the arched works of the

converted into an attic, was designed for

late English Gothic (Prince Ferdinands

the little princes Carol and Nicolae and the

bedroom ceiling is remarkable in this regard).

Royal House high rank personnel. A notable


exception on this floor is the room from the

For the furniture, that had to comply with

big tower, the Golden Room, designed as

the modernity requirements of Sezession,

a boudoir for the princess, a topic we shall

so loved by young Princess Marie visibly

resume later. Furthermore, a superposed

influenced by her favourite sister, Victoria-

room was built in the big tower, above the

Melita, and her husband, the Great Duke

Golden Room, as a small cosy salon for

Ernst of Hessen-Darmstadt (protector of

Prince Ferdinand. This space was

flanked

Matildenhhe artistic colony), architect Liman

on three sides by a belvedere-gallery and

appealed to the services of Berhard Ludwig

a small rest room on top (empore). Liman

company in Vienna, which was to provide

adopted the Stube concept from the well

furniture for almost all the rooms of the royal

known Trinkstube (Drinking Parlour) in the

chateau. Thus, the entire house decorations

big tower of Peles, but stylistically speaking,

would have stricken the wrong note with

the one in Pelisor relates to a completely

the monumental, precious decorations of

different

Peles suites, emphasizing not only the style

decorative

repertoire

Peles

37

casetate n mare parte, amintete de


rezolvrile de bolt ale goticului englez
trziu (remarcabil n acest sens este plafonul
dormitorului principelui Ferdinand ).
Pentru

realizarea

pieselor

de

mobilier

ce trebuia s rspund cerinelor de


modernitate ale Sezession-ului, att de
ndrgit de tnra principes Maria vdit
influenat de sora sa preferat, VictoriaMelita i de soul acesteia, Marele Duce Ernst
de Hessen-Darmstadt (patronul coloniei
artistice Matildenhhe), arhitectul Liman a
apelat la serviciile firmei Berhard Ludwig
de la Viena, care avea s livreze ansambluri
de mobilier pentru aproape toate camerele
vilei princiare. Astfel, decorul ntregii case
avea s fac not discordant cu decorul
monumental, preios al apartamentelor de
la Pele, subliniind nu numai cezura de gust
ntre dou generaii, dar i intrarea artei ntrun nou secol. Notabil este faptul c exact n
vara anului 1903, cnd perechea princiar
i lua reedina la Pelior, arhitectul Liman,
ce trecuse o prob de foc prin construirea i
amenajarea noii reedine, ncepea marea
oper de mrire i redecorare a castelului
Pele, ce avea, dup planurile i schiele
sale, s i schimbe aproape total aspectul
interior i exterior, n decursul unui deceniu
(1903 -1914). Astfel, supranlarea corpului
principal al Peleului prin transformarea
mansardei n etajul II, peste care avea s se

ansambluri

decorative

distincte,

ce

se

ridice o nou mansard i poduri, deci crearea

datoreaz fanteziei tinerei principese Maria

unui etaj suplimentar, avea s fie rezultatul,

salonul apartamentului su de la etajul

n materie de construcie, compartimentare

I, n stil bizantin i Camera de aur, aflat

i decor de interior, al experienei acumulate

n turnul mare, la etajul II, chiar deasupra

de Liman la construirea Peliorului. Etajul

salonului un spaiu intim al principesei,

II al Peleului este constituit din spaii de

flancat la exterior de o teras, ulterior

sine stttoare, sau din mici apartamente,

mrit i modificat. Camera de aur merit

uniti abitative perfect individualizate, prin

menionat nu numai pentru originalitatea

specularea denivelrilor, opiunile cromatice

decoraiei perei mbrcai n gips, cu

etc., totul realizndu-se n acelai stil Art

motivul frunzei de ciulin (simbolul scoian

Nouveau (n varianta austriac i german).

i celtic al regenerrii i vieii venice),


plafonul cu bolt terminat n caseton ptrat

Revenind ns la decorul Peliorului n

din sticl pte-de-verre, subliniat de cruce

anul 1903, trebuie s remarcm dou

celtic aurit, dar i pentru ansamblul de

38

built, thus creating an additional floor. All


these reflected the experience accumulated

Interior la Cliveden
House

by Liman while building, compartmentalizing


and interior decorating Pelisor Castle. Peles
IInd floor of is formed of independent spaces
or small suites, perfectly individualized
dwellings, where all uneven spaces and
chromatic possibilities were speculated in
the same Art Nouveau style (Austrian and
German version).
Coming back to Pelisor decorations in 1903,
we notice two distinct decorative assemblies
which are the result of young Princess
Maries fantasy the parlour of her suite on
the Ist floor has a Byzantine style, while
the Golden Room, situated in the big tower
on the IInd floor, right above the parlour an
intimate space framed by a terrace that was
later enlarged and modified. The Golden
room deserves to be mentioned not only for
the originality of decorations gyps covered
walls with the thistle leaf motifs (the Scottish
and Celtic symbol of regeneration and
eternal life), the ceiling with an arch ending
in a square cassette made of pte-de-verre
glass and outlined by the Celtic golden cross
but also for the furniture in the parlour
below, carried out according to Maries
drawings inspired from interior decoration
magazines, which create a mix between the
Neo-Byzantine decorations, the entrelac
differences between the two generations,

Celtic decorations, and the old Norwegian

but also the new century art. In the summer

sculpture bestiary. The spectacular and

of 1903, when the royal couple moved to

surprising hall, still preserved as a century

Pelisor, architect Liman, who had proved

ago, was not the only gold and silver whim

himself while building and decorating the

of the future queen. There was also the

new residence, began the great development

construction of a golden parlour in the

and redecoration work in Peles castle.

Cotroceni Palace, the winter residence of the


royal couple, around the year of 1901, when

Keeping true to his plans and sketches

Princess Maries old Louis XIV reception room

for more than a decade (1903 -1914), he

was modified. The constructions in Cotroceni

managed to alter almost entirely the interiors

and Pelisor are, therefore, contemporary. It

and exteriors of the castle. During the

is worth mentioning that, since that period,

process, Peles main building was heightened

architect Karel Liman, although engaged in

by transforming the attic into the IInd floor,

the historic projects commissioned by King

over which a new attic and lofts would be

Carol I in Peles, became the main advisor

39

Cliveden House
interior

mobilier, prezent i n salonul de dedesubt,

de lucru, transformat n dormitor; vechiul

realizat dup schiele Mariei, ce copiaz

dormitor, decorat la partea superioar a

sau se inspir din reviste de decoraiuni

pereilor cu friza alegoric Anotimpurile,

interioare, crend un mix ntre decorul

datorat lui Tadeusz Ajdukiewicz, devenind

neo-bizantin, decorul celtic cu entrelac i

cabinet de toalet. n aceeai perioad, anii

bestiarul sculpturii vechi norvegiene. Sala,

1924 - 1925 ( n care lucrrile la castelul Bran

spectaculoas i surprinztoare, pstrat

se desfurau foarte alert), regina a renunat

azi aproape la fel ca acum un secol, nu era

i la decoraia iniial a salonului su, spaiu

singurul capriciu n aur i argint al viitoarei

adiacent noului dormitor. Noul ansamblu

regine. Merit menionat realizarea, n jurul

constituit din salon i dormitor, cu perei

anului 1901, la palatul Cotroceni, reedina

albi, cu plafoane n bolt, cu arcade ample

de iarn a cuplului princiar, a unui salon

sprijinite pe coloane din piatr sculptat,

de aur, prin modificarea vechiului salon de

constituie un aspect nou al castelului

primiri al Mariei, n stil Louis XIV. Realizrile

Pelior, datorat tocmai schimbrii de gust

de la Cotroceni i de la Pelior sunt deci

n domeniul decoraiei de interior al reginei

contemporane i merit subliniat faptul

Maria, care se cristalizase n timpul lucrrilor

c arhitectul Karel Liman, dei angrenat n

de la Bran.

proiectele istoriste ale regelui Carol I de la


Pele, devine nc de pe acum principalul

Un alt ansamblu n stilul Bran este realizat

sftuitor

de Liman, la cererea reginei, la etajul

realizator

al

demersurilor

arhitectonice ale viitoarei regine Maria.

II al Peliorului, probabil n anul 1929,


unde

apartamentul

destinat

principelui

Acestea vor fi marcate de cristalizarea unui

Nicolae trece prin transformri notabile i

stil propriu al suveranei, mai ales dup

recompartimentri. n linii mari, abordrile

anii rzboiului. Deja ctre 1914 aceasta

sunt similare cu cele din noile camere ale

renunase la experimentele vizuale ocante,

reginei perei albi, un mare cmin din zidrie

se familiarizase cu stilul neo-romnesc

inspirat din vetrele romneti; interesant este

din care va reine pastiele dup modelele

faptul c aici, la etajul II, Liman nu mai rezolv

istorice din perioada brncoveneasc -,

tavanele n aceeai manier, renunnd la

iar evoluia general a artei, prin apariia

boli, dar gsind o soluie pentru a conferi

i proliferarea curentelor de avangard, o

acestor spaii un aspect particular uile i

situau deja n rndul conservatorilor.

ferestrele, cu deschideri ample i pstreaz


lemnria iniial, cu relief discret floral, n

n aceste condiii stilul regina Maria avea

stil Art Nouveau, dar aceasta e vopsit n

s capete cteva trsturi ce particularizau

brun nchis, aproape negru, constituind un

noile

contrast puternic cu albul zidriei.

sale

demersuri

arhitectonice

decorative: preferina pentru vernacular


i rustic tradus prin folosirea pereilor

Putem afirma deci c prima mare oper a

zugrvii n alb i apariia cminelor de tip

arhitectului ceh Karel Liman pe Domeniul

vatr, de inspiraie popular, folosirea

regal de la Sinaia este construirea castelului

elementelor de sculptur n piatr de

Pelior. Lund drept model castelul Pele,

inspiraie

arhitectul Liman opteaz pentru soluii noi,

uniformitii

brncoveneasc,
mobilrii

spargerea

ncperilor,

prin

moderne, pe care apoi le va aplica cu succes

punerea mpreun a unor piese diverse ca stil

n opera de transformare a castelului regelui

i provenien, dar care s aib drept rezultat

Carol I, n primul deceniu al secolului al XX-

ansambluri armonioase. n anul 1924 regina

lea.

Maria noteaz n jurnalul su faptul c a fost


terminat redecorarea vechiului su cabinet

40

and developer of future Queen Maries

Liman builds another Bran style assembly

architectural initiatives.

on the IInd floor of Pelisor, upon the Queens


request, probably in the year of 1929. Then,

These will be marked by the crystallisation

Prince Nicolaes suite undewent notable

of the sovereigns own style, especially

transformations.

after the war years. By 1914, she already

alterations are in line with the ones in the

gave up the shocking visual experiments,

queens apartments white walls, and a big

when she got better acquainted with the

masonry fireplace inspired by the Romanian

Neo-Romanian style out of which she will

hearth; the interesting fact is that here,

keep the pastiches inspired by the historic

on the IInd floor, Liman does not execute

models from the Brancoveanu period and

ceilings in the same manner he gives

the general art evolution and avant-garde

up the arches, but finds solutions to give

currents already placed her among the

these spaces a special appearance doors

conservatives.

and windows with ample openings keep

Broadly

speaking,

the

their initial carpentry decorated with an Art


Under

Queen

Nouveau discrete floral relief, but painted in

Maries style acquired certain features

these

circumstances,

dark brown, almost black, giving it a powerful

that singularized her new architectural and

contrast against the white masonry.

decorative initiatives the taste for vernacular


and rustic reflected in the use of white

Therefore, we can state that the first great

walls, hearth type fireplaces of popular

work of the Czech architect Karel Liman on

inspiration,

elements

the royal estate in Sinaia is the building of

inspired from the Brancovenesc style, and

the Pelisor castle. Considering Peles castle

an unitary furnishing design characterized

as model, architect Liman embraced new and

by adding together very diverse pieces, yet

modern solutions, which he will successfully

the end result being a harmonious assembly.

apply later in his work of transforming King

In the year of 1924, Queen Marie writes in

Carol I castle, in the first decade of the 20th

her diary that the redecoration of her old

century.

sculptural

stone

working office which was transformed into a


bedroom have finished.
The old bedroom, decorated in the upper part
of the walls with an allegorical frieze of The
seasons, painted by Tadeusz Ajdukiewicz,
became the dressing room. In the same
period, 1924 1925, (the works for Bran
Castle were evolving very quickly), the queen
gave up her initial decoration plan of her
parlour located near the new bedroom. The
new assembly consisting of the parlour and
bedroom with white walls, arched ceilings,
and wide arcades supported by sculpted
stone columns will define the new aspect
of Pelisor Castle, which it is due to Queen
Maries new interior decoration preferences
that took contour during the works in Bran.

41

Pictori europeni la Curtea regala a


Romaniei la cumpana secolelor XIX-XX
Considerat adeseori stil exclusiv decorativ,

Printre ele se numr un nume care avea

Macrina Oproiu

stilul Art Nouveau se manifest i n artele

s fac istorie, inaugurnd propriul su

Muzeograf

plastice prin mbinarea Simbolismului i

stil,

a estetismului aristocratic cu tendinele

LOMBOS (18691937), artistul care avea

funcionaliste ale artei. Artitii perioadei

s-i revendice cea mai numeroas clientel

1890-1910 concep tablouri, decoruri de

regal, printre modelele sale aflndu-se i

teatru, ilustraii de carte i afie, a cror

regina Maria a Romniei.

,,stilul

Laszlo.

PHILIP

LASZLO

de

valoare artistic le garanteaz perenitatea.


Cele trei mari Secesiuni n art au fost cele

La nceputul secolului al XX-lea, Curtea

de la Mnchen (1892), Viena (1897) i Berlin

regal a Romniei este vizitat de unul

(1898). Parisul, n special, dar i celelalte

dintre cei mai celebri portretiti ai epocii,

capitale culturale europene, ncurajeaz

ANTONIO ARGNANI. Nscut la Faenza, la

difuzarea n rndul lumii bune a portretului

21 februarie 1868, Antonio Argnani i

de salon, gen situat la grania dintre pictur i

descoper nc din copilria petrecut ntr-

mondenitate. Nume sonore ale portretisticii

un mediu artistic, pasiunea pentru desen.

de salon, precum John Singer Sargent (1856-

Antonio ia primele lecii n urbea natal

1925), Jacques-mile Blanche (1861-1942),

cu Filadelfo Simi (18491923), pictor i

Paul Csar Helleu (1859 1927), Giovanni

sculptor academist, absolvent al Academiei

Boldini

La

din Florena, unde devine ulterior profesor.

Gndara (1861 1917) particip la saloanele

(18421931),

Antonio

de

Tnrul Antonio efectueaz cltorii de

Secession de la Mnchen, Stuttgart, Berlin i

documentare la Roma i Napoli. Mai mult

Viena, iar n 1900, la Bienala de la Veneia.

ca oricare alt ora italian, Napoli, cu cerurile

Artitii protipendadei se reunesc n cadrul

sale pastelate reflectate n apele golfului, cu

expoziiilor anuale de la Royal Society of

silueta fantomatic a Vezuviului, cu palatele,

Portrait Painters din Londra, Hibernian

bisericile i cartierele sale vechi, pline de

Academy din Glasgow, Le Salon de Bruxelles

culoare, i subjug imaginaia artistic pentru

i n Saloanele Revistei ,,Mir Iskusstvo de la

aproape un deceniu. ntre 18821891, se

Sankt-Petersburg, n 1900 i 1902.

stabilete aici i i perfecioneaz printr-o

42

European painters at the Romanian


Royal Court at the crossroads between
the 19th and 20th Centuries
exclusively

Le Salon de Bruxelles and in the saloons of

Macrina Oproiu

decorative style, the Art Nouveau expresses

the magazine Mir Iskusstvo from Sankt-

Curator

itself in plastic arts as well, as it mixes the

Petersburg, in 1900 and 1902.

Being

often

considered

an

Symbolism and the aristocratic aestheticism


with the functionalist tendencies of art.

Among them, there is a name who was going

The

1890-1910

to make history as he inaugurated his own

create paintings, theatrical scenery, book

style Laszlo Style. PHILIPP LASZLO DE

illustrations and posters whose artistic value

LOMBOS (1869-1937), the artist who had the

guarantess their immortality. The three main

most numerous royal clients, among whom

Secessions in art were those from Munich

there is also Queen Marie of Romania.

artists

of

the

period

(1892), Vienna (1897) and Berlin (1898).


At the beginning of the 20th Century, The
Firstly Paris but also the other European

Romanian Royal Court is visited by one of the

capitals

in

most famous portraitist of the age, ANTONIO

the elevated environments of the parlor

ARGNANI. Born in Faenza, on 21st February

portrait, a genre situated between painting

1868, Antonio Agnani discovers his passion

and modernism. Well-known names of the

for drawing since his childhood spent in an

parlor painting, such as John Singer Sargent

artistic environment. Antonio gets the first

(1856-1925), Jacques-mile Blanche (1861-

lessons in his native town from Filadelfo Simi

1942), Paul Csar Helleu (1859 1927),

(1848-1923), academist painter and carver,

Giovanni Boldini (18421931), Antonio de

a graduate of the Academy from Florence,

La Gndara (1861 1917) participate in the

where he later teaches. The young Antonio

Secession Saloons from Munich, Stuttgart,

makes documentation travels in Rome and

Berlin and Vienna and in 1900 at the Biennal

Napoli. More than any other Italian city,

from Venise. The high-society artists gather

Napoli enslaves his artistic imagination

on the ocassion of yearly exhibitions from

for almost a decade due to its pastel skies

Royal Society of Portrait Painters from

reflected in the waters of the bay, the ghostly

London, Hibernian Academy from Glasgow,

silhouette of Vesuvius, its palaces, churches

encourage

the

distribution

43

munc febril talentul nnscut de desenator.

inovatoare ale artei, Arthur Ferraris devine

Duce o existen boem, desennd n special

n anul 1898 membru oficial al Secessiunii

Portretul Reginei
Maria

portrete n pastel pe carton.

vieneze, sub auspiciile creia expune la

Philip de Laszlo, 1924

Dsseldorf, Mnchen i Berlin. Ca autor

Londra

Fire ambiioas, resimte treptat nevoia de

consacrat de portrete ale lumii mondene,

schimbare. Ajuns la vrsta maturitii, el

dobndete toate favorurile notorietii:

sacrific rutina unei viei linitite. Antonio

o via de lux i desftare, care i poart

Queen Maries
Portrait

Argnani prsete plin de sperane Napoli cu

paii de fiecare dat spre Orient ca spre un

Philip de Laszlo, 1924

destinaia Paris. Perioada parizian a creaiei

pelerinaj al sufletului. Faimos n ntreaga

London

sale i prilejuiete ntlnirea cu familia

Europ, de la Stokholm la Roma i de la

regal i princiar romn, care i comand

Londra la Bucureti, obine recunoaterea

portrete la nceputul secolului trecut, n jurul

calitilor sale artistice i dincolo de ocean,

anilor 1910 1912. Regele Carol i Regina

n Statele Unite prin intermediul puternicei

Elisabeta, Principesa Maria i Principele

familii Rockefeller, creia i execut portrete.

Ferdinand, copiii celor doi, Principii Carol i


Nicolae, Principesele Elisabeta, Mignon i

n Mnchen-ul cosmopolit al sfritului de

Ileana devin, prin mna artistului, modele

secol XIX, cu atmosfera lui euforic, n care

pline de elegan i gingie. Majoritatea

artitii tineri i uneau eforturile sub semnul

acestor portrete figureaz n castelul Pelior,

modernismului, alturi de nume mari ca

reedina privat a cuplului Ferdinand

Endell i Obrist, se constituie treptat o ,,cast

Maria i fac parte din patrimoniul Muzeului

a femeilor artiste, ntre care TINI RUPPRECHT

Naional Pele.

ocup un loc aparte. Nscut n anul 1868, Tini


Rupprecht rmne fidel oraului Mnchen,

La nceputul secolului al XX-lea, Principesa

n ciuda succesului care i poart paii n

Maria

ARTHUR

afara patriei natale. Pictori i desenatoare

FERRARIS (1856-1936) un sensibil portret

de talent, Rupprecht se specializeaz in

neconvenional, n culori pastelate, n care

portretistica feminin, realizat n tehnica

se regsesc trsturile Artei 1900, precum i

pastelului i mai puin n ulei. Fotograf de

portretul fiicei mai mari, Elisabeta, superb

talent, lucreaz cu mare acribie, realiznd

execuie n acuarel i pastel. Cltor

nu mai puin de 40 de cliee fotografice n

neobosit, ,,cetean al lumii, cum i plcea

dou edine, dup care, n singurtatea

s se autodefineasc, Arthur Ferraris vede

atelierului, cu mn sigur, i desvrea

lumina zilei ntr-un mic orel din Ungaria.

opera. Prezen discret n mediile artistice

Deprinde nc din adolescen tehnica

bavareze, Tini Rupprecht se altur nc de

realizrii portretului, sub atenta ndrumare

la nceputul carierei sale artistice micrii

a pictorului Joseph Matthaus. Prsete ns

Seccesion cu care i descoper afiniti

fr regrete Viena cu direcia Paris, unde la

elective. Succesul repurtat cu ocazia primei

1876, aprofundeaz pictura alturi de Jules

sale prezene oficiale n cadrul Expoziiei de

Lefebvre la Academia Julian i Jean-Lon

la Glaspalast de la 1900 o propulseaz printre

Grme, la cole des Beaux Arts.

artitii cu cele mai numeroase comenzi.

comand

pictorului

Rupprecht realizeaz portrete feminine i de


n anii 1889 i 1900, picturile lui Arthur

copii, n care mbin atenia pentru detaliu

Ferraris figureaz n cadrul Expoziiilor

cu o tehnic precis, marcat de amprenta

Universale de la Paris. Sedus de tendinele

propriului su talent. Principesa Maria o

44

45

Portretul Reginei
Maria
Antonio Argnani,
circa 1910

Queen Maries
Portrait
Antonio Argnani,
approx. 1910

descoper relativ devreme i i nlesnete

prezena primilor trei vlstare princiare. n

participarea n cadrul Saloanelor ,,Tinerimii

anul 1904, este decorat de Regele Carol

Artistice, alturi de nume sonore ale artei

I cu ordinul ,,Bene Merenti pentru art

romneti i strine.

i tiine clasa I n semn de apreciere a


portretului de grup etalat n Holul de onoare

Prin intermediul Mariei, Tini Rupprecht

al castelului Pelior. La 1906, este solicitat

cucerete nu doar lumea burghez nstrit a

s creeze un nou portret al Mariei. Suav, n

marilor capitale europene, ci i marile familii

culori pastelate, cu ochii vii, chipul mobil

aristocratice ale momentului. La nceputul

al Principesei surde insinuant privitorului.

anilor 1900, ntr-un moment decisiv al

Artista se stinge din via la Mnchen, n

destinului su artistic, Rupprecht este invitat

anul 1956, dup mai bine de o jumtate de

s execute prima sa comand princiar: Maria

veac de carier strlucit.

o invit la Sinaia, n decorul Art Nouveau al


castelului Pelior, unde au loc edinele n

TADEUSZ

AJDUKIEWICZ

46

(18521916),

and old colourful neighbourhoods.

become, by the artists hand, models full


of elegance and delicacy. Most of these

Between 1882-1891, he settles here and by

portraits are housed by Pelisor Castle, the

hard work he takes to perfection his native

private residence of the couple Ferdinand-

skill as an illustrator. He has a bohemian

Marie and they are part of Peles National

life and mainly drawns portraits in pastel

Museums patrimony.

on cardboard. Having an ambition nature,


he needs change. As an adult, he sacrifices

At the beginning of the 20th century, Princess

the routine of a quiet but mediocre life and

Marie orders the painter ARTHUR FERRARIS

he

hopefully leaves Napoli for Paris. He

(1856-1936) a sensitive unconventional

becomes famous really soon: in 1904, The

portrait, in pastel colours, which reflects the

Portrait of a Lady, his first Parisian success

features of Art 1900 and also, the portrait of

leads to numerous orders.

the eldest daughter, Elisabeth, a wonderful


work in watercolour and pastel. A tireless

The beauties and the celebrities of the age

traveler, a citizen of the world, as he liked

from the most different social and artistic

to define himself, Arthur Ferraris is born in a

environments - actors, writers, lyrical artists,

small town in Hungary. Since teenagerhood,

aristocrats - become his clients. His talent is

he learns the technique of painting portraits

revealed especially in the feminine portraits

under the attentive guidance of the painter

and bring him the nickname Painter of the

Joseph Matthaus. Yet, he leaves Vienna,

feminine grace. Agnani knows how to focus

without any regret, and goes to Paris where,

on woman by shrouding her with delicate

in 1876 he studies painting in depth with

touches in a fluid, mysterious aura of

Jules Lefebvre at the Academy Julian and

transparent veils, hats with panache, stems

Jean-Lon Grme at cole des Beaux Arts.

flowers and overwhelming jewelry. Sensual


but inaccessible, in a pastel chromatic,

In the years 1889 and 1900, Arthur Ferraris

Agnanis ladies smile discretly to the

paintings are to be found at the Universal

viewer while his masculine portraits prove

Exhibitions

expressiveness and elegance.

innovative tendencies of art, in 1898, Arthur

in

Paris.

Seduced

by

the

Ferraris becomes an official member of the


Agnani studies his models attentively and

Vienesse Seccession, under whose auspices

knows how to notice their character from

he exhibits in Dsseldorf, Munich and Berlin.

little details, from a simple hand gesture

As a famous author of portraits in the modern

but especially from their look. The eyes, as

world, he receives all the favors of fame: a life

a mirror of the soul, are those he focuses his

of luxury and pleasure, which leads his steps

entire attention on. They become the focus

to the East in a sort of pilgrimage of his soul.

of the work: the composition is developed


starting from the eyes, like a moving spiral.

Famous in the whole Europe, from Stokholm


to Rome and from London to Bucharest, he

The Parisian period of his creation brings him

enjoys the recognition of his artistic qualities

the occasion of meeting the Romanian royal

across the ocean as well, in the USA due to

and princely family, which order portraits

the powerful family Rockefeller, he makes

at the beginning of the last century, around

portraits for.

1910-1912. King Carol and Queen Elisabeth,


Princess Marie and Prince Ferdinand, their

In the cosmopolitan Munich from the end

children, the Princes Carol and Nicolae,

of the 19th Century, with its euphoric

Princesses Elisabeth, Mignon and Ileana

atmosphere, in which young artists joined

47

unul

dintre

pictorii

oficiali

ai

regelui

Carol I, rspunde ntre anii 1902 i 1904,


unei comenzi speciale, venite din partea
Principesei Maria pentru Budoarul su
din castelul Pelior. Ea opteaz pentru o
cavalcad pe care o gndete n frize dispuse
n jurul scafei, n toate cele patru anotimpuri.
Ajdukiewicz face apel la talentul su de
artist animalier, specializat n reprezentrile
ecvestre, dar i la aplecarea sa ctre pictura
orientalist, izbutind s mpace preteniile
simboliste ale comanditarei cu realismul
profund al tuei sale.
Nscut n Polonia nghiit de imperii,
Tadeusz Ajdukiewicz dezvolt nc din
copilrie un profund sim patriotic, care
avea s-l gseasc n luptele dramatice ale
Primului Rzboi Mondial printre martirii
btliei Cracoviei, din iarna anului 1916. ntre
anii 1868 i 1873, studiaz la Academia de
Arte-Frumoase din Cracovia, apoi primete
burse la Academiile din Viena i Mnchen.
Dotat cu un ptrunztor sim al observaiei,
Ajdukiewicz se specializeaz treptat n
scene de lupt, vntoare i n portretistic.
Metodic i interiorizat, i cultiv o clientel
select, compus din personaliti ale epocii
i membri ai aristocraiei. n anul 1883, este
solicitat s execute un portret al Principelui
de Wales, viitorul Rege Edward al VII-lea al
Angliei.
Pentru Regele Carol I al Romniei, artistul
realizeaz mai multe portrete.

48

their efforts under the sign of modernism

In 1904, she is decorated by King Carol I with

Portret de femeie

together with great names such as Endell

the order Bene Merenti for art and sciences

fotogravura dupa Franz

and Obrist, gradually it is made a cast of the

I rank as an appreciation for the group

von Stuck, circa 1900

women artists, among whom TINI RUPPRECHT

portrait displayed in the Hall of Honour of

is of special importance.

Pelisor Castle. Suave, in pastel colours, with

Woman Portrait

vivid eyes, the flexible face of the Princess

photoengraving after Franz

Born in 1868, Tini Rupprecht remains faithful

smiles to the viewer in an insinuanting way.

von Stuck, Early 20th century

to Munich, in spite of her success abroad.

The artist dies in Munich in 1956, after more

Talented painter and illustrator, Rupprecht

than 50 years of brilliant career.

specialises in feminine portraiture achieved


in the pastel technique rather than oil. Gifted

TADEUSZ

photographer, she works conscientiously and

of the official painters of King Carol I is the

achieved about 40 photographic cliches in

one chosen between 1902 and 1904 to

two sessions and afterwards, in the solitude

honour a special order from princess Marie

of her workshop, she completed her work

for her boudoir from Pelisor Castle. She opts

with a firm hand. A discreet presence in

for a cavalcade in friezes disposed around

the Bavarian artistic environments, Tini

the fillet in all the four seasons. Adjukiewicz

Rupprecht joins the Seccession from the

makes use of his talent as an artist specialized

beginning of her career as she shares elective

in equestrian representations, but also of his

affinities.

interest in the Orientalist painting and thus,

AJDUKIEWICZ (1852-1916), one

he managed to bring a balance between the


The success she enjoyed on her first official

symbolist claims of the beneficiary and the

presence at the Exhibition from Glaspalast in

profound realism of his touch.

1900 made her become one of the artists with


the greatest number of orders. Rupprecht

Born in a Poland swallowed by empires,

achieves feminine portraits and portraits of

Tadeusz

children, in which she mixes the attention for

childhood a profound patriotic feeling which

the detail and a precise technique, marked

involved him in the dramatic fights of the First

by the print of her own talent. Princess Marie

World War among the martyrs of the fight

discovers her relatively soon and facilitates

in Kracow in the winter of 1916. Between

her presence at the Artistic Youth Salon

the years 1868 and 1873, he studies at the

together with famous names of the Romanian

Academy of Fine Arts from Kracow, then

and foreign art.

he is given scholarships at the Academies

Ajdukiewicz

develops

since

from Vienna and Munich. Having a sharp


Due to Marie, Tini Rupprecht conquers not

spirit of observation, Ajdukiewicz gradually

only the wealthy bourgeois world of the

specializes in battle and hunting scenes

great European capitals, but also the great

and portraits. Methodical and introverted,

noble families of the time. At the beginning

he cultivates a select clientele, composed

of the 1900, in a decisive moment of her

of personalities of the age and members

artistic destiny, Rupprecht is invited to

of aristocracy. In 1883, he is requested to

execute her first royal order: Marie invites her

execute a portrait of the Prince of Wales, the

in Sinaia, in the Art nouveau decor of Pelisor

future King Edward VII of England. The artist

Castle, where the sessions take place in the

also achieves several portraits for King Carol

presence of the first three princely offspring.

I of Romania.

49

50

Dansatoarea
Elena Popeea, circa 1900

The Dancer
Elena Popeea,
Early 20th century

51

Societatea
Tinerimea Artistica
ntemeiat pe bazele fostei Societi ,,Ileana,

prestigiul Societii, o face ns Oscar Spthe.

Macrina Oproiu

,,Tinerimea artistic a fost, fr ndoial, cea

La nceputul anului 1902, sculptorul merge

Muzeograf

mai coerent i longeviv grupare artistic

n audien la Principesa motenitoare, creia

din Romnia primei jumti a secolului al XX-

i ofer n numele Societii preedinia

lea. Proaspt revenii de pe bncile colilor

onorific a ,,Tinerimii artistice. Mgulit,

i academiilor de art pariziene, cinci tineri

Maria accept cu entuziasm invitaia fostului

artiti, Kimon Loghi, Ipolit Strmbu, Gheorghe

su profesor. Obiectiv vorbind, propunerea

Petracu, tefan Popescu i Frederic Storck

venea ca o continuare fireasc a activitii

adreseaz o provocare vechii grzi artistice,

artistice att de variate a Mariei. Ultima

la 3 decembrie 1901.

romantic a secolului a cochetat deopotriv


cu artele plastice i decorative. Pe de alt

Reunii n cadrul boem al Berriei Gambrinus

parte, Principesa Maria aducea n planul

din capital, dup modelul impresionitilor

vieii artistice un suflu nnoitor i prestigiul

i nabitilor, ei coopteaz n rndurile nou

poziiei sale sociale.

proclamatei societi pe tefan Luchian,


Nicolae Vermont, Arthur Verona, Constantin

La zi cu cele mai noi cuceriri artistice,

Artachino, Nicolae Grant, Oscar Spthe

propagate

Conducndu-se

londoneze ,,The Studio, ea implementeaz

dup deviza, ,,Buni artiti, buni camarazi,

n mediul Curii regale arta occidental.

elaboreaz Statutele, sensibil modificate

Leciile de pictur desfurate n cadrul

la 24 ianuarie 1908. Prin gestul lor, cei

regal al castelului Pele, n compania Reginei

doisprezece ,,apostoli ai artei se racordeaz

Elisabeta, a pictorielor Ruth Mercier i

la fenomene similare din Polonia, Cehia,

Ottilia Mihail Oteteleanu o transform ntr-o

Finlanda i Rusia, nscriindu-se astfel n

acuarelist talentat, specializat n pictura

zona de iradiere a marilor culturi europene.

floral.

Demetrescu

Mirea.

prin

intermediul

revistei

Contieni de erorile trecutului, membrii


Societii i propun ca virtui cardinale,

Angajamentul

perseverena i msura.

,,Tinerimea artistic i deschide porile

Mutarea

de

maestru,

decisiv

pentru

total

fa

de

Societatea

lumii artistice autohtone, care o primete cu

52

The Artistic Youth Society


Founded on the basics of the former society,

The key movement, decisive for the prestige

Macrina Oproiu

Ileana, Artistic Youth was undoubtedly

of the Society, is made by Oscar Spathe.

Curator

the most coherent and long-lasting artistic

At the beginning of the year 1902, the

group in Romania in the first half of the 20th

sculptor goes in an audience at the Crown

century. Freshly returned from the desks of

Princess which he offers, on the behalf of

the Parisian Art Schools and Academies, five

the Society, the honorific presidency of

young artists, Kimon Loghi, Ipolit Strmbu,

the Artistic Youth. Being flattered, Marie

Gheorghe Petracu, tefan Popescu and

accepts with enthusiasm the invitation of her

Frederic Storck challenge the old artistic

former professor. Objectively speaking, the

guard, on December 3rd 1901.

invitation came as a naturally sequel of her


various artistic activities. The last romantic

Reunited in the Bohemian setting of the

of the century was interested in both plastic

Gambrinus Pub, situated in Bucharest, after

and decorative arts. On the other hand,

the model of impressionists and nabists,

Princess Marie was brought an innovative

they co-opt Stefan Luchian, Nicolae Vermont,

spirit and the prestige of her social position

Arthur Verona, Constantin Artachino, Nicolae

in the artistic life.

Grant, Oscar Spathe and Demetrescu Mirea


in the newly proclaimed society. Following

Up

the motto Good artists, good comrades,

developments, propagated by the British

they develop the Bylaws, carefully modified

magazine The Studio, she implements the

on January 24th 1908. By means of their

Western Art in the Royal Court. The painting

actions, the twelve Apostles of art connect

lessons which took place at the Peles Castle

with similar phenomena in Poland, Czech

in the company of Queen Elisabeth and

Republic, Finland and Russia, signing in

the painters Ruth Mercier and Ottilia Mihail

this way in the irradiation area of the great

Oteteleanu turn her into a talented painter,

European cultures. Being aware of the errors

specialised in floral painting.

to

date

with

the

newest

artistic

of the past, the members of the Society


establish perseverance and measure as

The total commitment towards Artistic

fundamental virtues.

Youth Society opens her the doors of

53

ncredere: dup 1906, Mariei i se ncredineaz

artitilor: ,,De fapt i amintete Artachino

patronajul seciei de art decorativ a colii

-, am fost o instituie artistic care a dat la

de Belle-Arte din Bucureti i cel al Societii

nceputurile ei tonul n art, a creat atmosfera

Domnia Maria. Pn atunci ns, Principesa

i a stimulat pasiunea iubitorilor de frumos

are de nfruntat ostilitatea academitilor, care

pentru a deveni colecionari. A impus rubrica

percep prezena aripii tinere a Casei regale n

de art i a creat un statut social favorabil

rndurile artitilor rzvrtii drept un afront

artitilor, care au nceput s fie apreciai

adus artei oficiale. Martor rigid i prudent al

pentru

experimentelor artistice de la rscrucea celor

sunt

dou secole, Regele Carol I accept nu fr

Romniei, care impune un protocol rigid de

ezitare implicarea Principesei motenitoare.

participare la vernisaje. n deplin acord cu

Atitudinea sa se va relaxa n anii urmtori,

lozinca democratic a Societii, talentatele

Regina Elisabeta fiind inclus cu lucrri de

Principese regale expun alturi de artiti.

profesia
onorate

lor

de

nobil.

prezena

Expoziiile
suveranului

art decorativ n rndul expozanilor.


A doua expoziie a ,,Tinerimii artistice i
La 1 martie 1902, n cadrul elegant al Slii

vede lucrrile pe simezele de la Atheneu

Exarcu a Atheneului, se vernisa prima

la 9 martie 1903. n deschidere, sculptorul

expoziie a Societii ,,Tinerimea artistic, n

Fritz Storck se adreseaz oficialitilor i

prezena Reginei Elisabeta a Romniei.

ntr-

publicului, salutnd frumuseea ,,stilului

un decor elegant Art Nouveau, la aranjarea

Prinesa Maria, ca i strdania artitilor de

cruia contribuise nemijlocit, Principesa

a pune bazele ,,unui nou Art Nouveau. n

expune acuarele irii i nuferi ntr-

semn de solidaritate artistic i, fr ndoial,

una din slile expoziiei, reunind piese de

la intervenia Principesei Maria, Nicolae

mobilier lucrate dup designul personal.

Grigorescu expune dou din tablourile sale,

Banii rezultai din vnzarea lor sunt oferii cu

,,Ciobanul din Valea Prahovei i ,,Peisaj de

generozitate proaspt nfiinatei Societi.

toamn. Pe lng artitii fondatori sunt


invitate nume noi, precum Abgar Baltazar, J.A.

Debutul oficial al mecenatului artistic al

Steriadi, Pericle Capidan, Constantin Milles,

Principesei nsemna nceputul unei epoci

Alexandru Satmari i Tini Rupprecht.

de mare efervescen, n care slujirea


Artei devine deziderat naional. Prezena

La 18 martie, ,,Adevrul dedica un vast articol

electrizant a frumoasei Principese, atrage tot

expoziiei

mai mult atenia protipendadei bucuretene.

asupra modului rafinat de expunere, cu

Treptat, vernisajele ,,Tinerimii se transform

mare accent pe detalii (ancadramente, rame,

n veritabile evenimente mondene.

postamente etc). Ca i n cadrul expoziiei

,,Tinerimii

artistice,

insistnd

precedente, un spaiu distinct reunete


Pe msur ce prestigiul Societii crete

obiectele de mobilier ale Principesei Maria,

odat cu numrul membrilor ei, se dezvolt

,,artist de talent i mare pricepere: ,,Un divan

colecionismul, iar preul de vnzare al

acoperit cu o splendid cuvertur, admirabil

lucrrilor atinge plafonul mediu al celor

brodat n violete de d-na Anna Roth se afl

vehiculate de cataloagele pariziene ale

n fund. Dulap, scaune, fotolii:... totul pretat n

epocii. Printr-o politic financiar abil, un

acelai gen, perdele splendid esute n pene

procent de zece la sut din ncasri este

de pun o oaz (?) de culori n care natura

reinut pentru cheltuielile curente. n cteva

a pus toat arta-i nentrecut i pentru care

cuvinte,

sintetiza

prinesa pare a avea o deosebit admiraiune

peste ani, rolul jucat de ,,Tinerime n viaa

Constantin

Artachino

completeaz aranjamentul acestei camere, n

cultural a momentului i mai ales, n statutul

care un clar obscur te face s visezi la castele

54

Troie

the artistic world which receives her with

of Queen Elisabeth of Romania. In an elegant

confidence: after 1906 Marie is entrusted the

Art

patronage of the Department of decorative

exposes watercolors - iris and water lilies -

arts of the School of Fine Arts in Bucharest

in one of the halls of the exhibition, bringing

Crosses

and the one of the Lady Marie Society.

together pieces of furniture crafted according

Arthur Verona, 1913

Until then, however, the Princess has to face

to her personal design. The money resulting

the hostility of the academists, who perceive

from their sale are generously offered to the

the presence of the young member of the

freshly established Society.

Nouveau

atmosphere,

the

Princess

Royal House among the rebellious artists as


an affront to the official art. As a rigid and

The official debut of the artistic patronage of

cautious witness of the artistic experiments

the Princess meant the beginning of an era of

at the crossroads of two centuries, King Carol I

great tumult, in which Art becomes national

accepts, with a certain hesitation, the Crown

service

Princess involvement. His attitude will relax

presence of the beautiful Princess attracts

over the next years, Queen Elizabeth being

more and more attention of the Bucharests

included with works of decorative art among

aristocracy. Gradually, the exhibitions of the

the exhibitors.

Youth turn into genuine social events.

On

March

1st

1902,

in

the

requirement.

The

electrifying

elegant

As the company prestige increases, along

environment of the Exarcu Hall of the

with the number of its members, the

Athenaeum is presented the first exhibition

colectionism is developed and the selling

of the Artistic Youth Society in the presence

price of the work reaches the medium limit

55

Arthur Verona, 1913

artistice. Articolul insist asupra creaiei

de pictur, sculptur i art decorativ

Mariei: ,,Mobilele prinesei se deosebesc prin

a Societii ,,Tinerimea artistic. ,,[...] O

simplitatea liniilor, prin adaptarea perfect la

atraciune deosebit a acestei expoziii va

scopul crora sunt destinate i prin modul

fi faptul c au nevoit a expune admirabile

discret i distins prin care sunt ntrebuinate

lucrri i M.S. Regina [Elisabeta], care a adus

podoabele artistice mai ales florile.

[...] broderii ncnttoare [...].

Anul 1904 marcheaz un moment special

Victoria-Melita se altur cauzei artitilor

n destinul artistic al Societii. Prin invitaia

romni,

venit din partea autoritilor din Atena,

achiziionrii unui spaiu adecvat prezentrii

arta plastic romneasc depete din nou

lor de grup. Evenimentul aduce Romnia n

graniele naionale. Deja netezit de recenziile

paginile revistei londoneze de art, ,,The

ncurajatoare ale presei occidentale, ca i de

Studio, care subliniaz aportul artistic al

celebritatea Mariei, drumul Societii prea

Principesei. Maria care a contribuit cu mobile

s aib un curs ascendent. Expoziia regal

i draperii i ,,a trimes i opere de art lucrate

internaional de la Atena ofer Romniei

de dnsa, nite mostre frumoase de olrie.

ansa de a se afirma alturi de cele mai mari

Pentru prima dat, creaia artitilor romni

nume ale artei mondiale.

este ncadrat n dou mari curente: coala

contieni

de

necesitatea

naturalist-realist, reprezentat de Artachino,


Drept recunoatere, pictorul Kimon Loghi

Grant, Luchian, Vermont i Verona i curentul

este

secesionist, cu Loghi, Petracu i tefan

delegat

amenajeze

Seciunea

Belle-Artelor romneti i totodat, s fac

Popescu.

parte din Juriul superior internaional. Cu


acordul regelui Carol I, Regina Elisabeta

Sub naltul patronaj al Prinului regent

expune o cup decorativ i pagini pictate

Leopold al Bavariei i sub preedenia de

de Biblie. n rndul artitilor Societii apar

onoare a Prinului Ludwig, n perioada 1

nume importante, precum gravorul Gabriel

iunie-30 octombrie 1905, se desfura a

Popescu, arhitectul Petre Antonescu i

noua ediie a Expoziiei Internaionale de

pictoria Cecilia Cuescu-Storck, iar seciunea

Arte-Frumoase de la Mnchen. Organizat

primete medalia de aur.

de Societatea Artitilor, n colaborare cu


Secesiunea mnchenez, ea reunea sub

n acelai an, Nicolae Grigorescu figureaz din

cupola generoas a Palatului de Cristal,

nou ca invitat de onoare n cadrul expoziiei

creatori de valoare din ntreaga Europ.

din capital, iar sculptorul Oscar Spthe

Invitaia oficial, semnat de comisarul

prezint publicului bustul Art Nouveau

superior al guvernului bavarez, baronul

din marmur, numit ,,Sfnt bizantin.

Julius von der Heydte, se adresa ,,domnilor

Achiziionat de ctre Principesa Maria,

i confrailor de pretutindeni. Confruntai

piesa figureaz i azi n inventarul castelului

cu probleme de logistic, artitii romni

Pelior.

nu rateaz participarea i revin n ar cu o


binemeritat medalie de aur. n acelai an,

Succesul
deschidea

deosebit
calea

nregistrat
prezenelor

la

Atena

romneti

,,Tinerimea particip n plen la Bienala de la


Veneia.

n Germania, din anii 1904 i 1905. n


numrul din 5 martie 1904, jurnalul ,,Epoca

Anul 1906 este captivat la nivel nalt de

anuna pregtirea n capitala Marelui Ducat

pregtirile srbtorilor Jubileului regal. Dup

de Hessen a trei sli dedicate expoziiei

o domnie de patru decenii, Regele Carol I

56

of the era. Through a skillful financial policy,

Catalog Tinerimea
Artistic

a percentage of ten percent of the revenue

1912

of those circulating in the Parisian catalogues

is retained for recurrent expenditure. In a


over the years, the role played by the Youth

Artistic Youth
Catalogue

in the cultural life of the time and especially,

1912

few words, Constantin Artachino synthesized

in the artists status: In fact-he recallswe were an art institution which gave, at
her beginnings, the tone in art, created the
atmosphere and stimulated the passion of
beauty lovers in order to become collectors.
It imposed the box of art and created a
favourable social status for the artists, who
began to be appreciated for their noble
profession.
great emphasis on details(frames, pedestals,
The exhibitions are honored by the presence

etc.).As in the previous exhibition, a special

of the sovereign of Romania, who imposes a

space brings together pieces of furniture of

rigid protocol of participation in exhibitions.

Princess Marie, an artist of great talent and

In full accord with the democratic slogan of

skill: a sofa covered with a splendid coverlet,

the Society, the talented Royal Princesses

beautifully embroidered with violets by Ms.

exhibit along with the artists.

Anna Roth, is placed at the bottom. Closet,


chairs, armchairs, all in the same style ,drawn

The second exhibition of the Artistic Youth

curtains woven into splendid feathers of

sees its works on the walls of the Atheneum

peacock- an oasis of colors in which nature

on March 9th, 1903. In the opening, the

put all its unsurpassed art and for which

sculptor Fritz Storck adresses to the public

the Princess seems to have a particular

and officials, welcoming the beauty of

admiration, fill this rooms arrangement, in

Princess Maries style, as well as the effort

which a clear obscure makes you dream

of the artists to lay the groundwork of a new

of artistic castles. The article insists on

Art Nouveau.

Maries creations: Princess furniture

is

different due to the simplicity of lines, the


As a sign of solidarity and no doubt at the

perfect adaptation to their purposes an the

intervention of Princess Marie, Nicolae

distinguished and discreet way of using the

Grigorescu exhibits two of his paintings, The

artistic adornment- especially the flowers.

Shepherd of the Prahova Valley and Autumn


Landscape. In addition to the founding

The year 1904 marks a special moment in

artists

as

the destiny of Society. Through the invitation

Abgar Baltazar, J.A. Steriadi, Pericle Capidan,

came from the authorities in Athens, the

Constantin Milles, Alexandru Satmari and Tini

Romanian fine arts exceeds again national

Rupprecht.

boundaries. Already paved with encouraging

new personalities are invited

Western media reviews, as well as with


On March 18th, Adevarul dedicated a vast

Maries celebrity, the Society seemed to have

article to the Artistic Youth exhibition,

an upward course. The Royal International

focusing on the refined way of exposure, with

Exhibition in Athens gives Romania the

57

Cas din Sighioara


Kimon Loghi, circa 1920

House in Sighioara
Kimon Loghi, approx. 1920

accept flatanta propunere a lui Take Ionescu

susinute din partea lui Nicolae Vermont,

de a organiza o Expoziie Naional. Deschis

Constantin Artachino i Ipolit Strmbu,

publicului larg n perioada 6 iunie-23

n sli sunt gzduite lucrrile pictorului,

noiembrie 1906, n Parcul ,,Carol I, ea a

gravorului i acuarelistului galez, Frank

reprezentat cel mai spectaculos eveniment

Brangwyn. ncurajat de succes, anul urmtor,

desfurat vreodat sub auspiciile Casei

Societatea ,,Tinerimea artistic organizeaz

regale. Cu peste 40.000 de expozani i nu

o mare expoziie, cu ampl participare

mai puin de 165 de obiective, Expoziia

strin. Alturi de Iosif Iser, Camil Ressu etc.

Naional a demonstrat potenialul Romniei.

se gsesc nume celebre ca A.L. Derain (1880-

Cu un design Art Nouveau de mare impact,

1954), D.A. Galanis (1880-1966) i J.-L.Forain

Pavilionul ,,Tinerimii la expoziie se bucur

(1852-1931). Cu aceast ocazie, Principesa

de un succes deosebit.

Maria expune, din creaia personal, un dulap


pirogravat i o mas.

n aprilie 1907, porile Atheneului romn


se deschid unui nou vernisaj al Societii

Dup ce n anul 1910, Oscar Spthe

,,Tinerimea artistic. Marcat de tensiuni

se prezentase cu un bust academist al

sociale fr precedent, anul 1907 a rezonat i

Elisabetei, sculptorul revine acum cu o

n creaia artitilor angajai. Dup demersuri

lucrare dedicat aceleiai figuri regale.

58

chance to assert itself alongside the biggest

school, represented by Artachino, Grant,

names of the world art.

Luchian, Vermont and Verona and the


secessionist current, with Loghi, Petrascu and

As recognition, the painter Kimon Loghi is

tefan Popescu.

delegated to fit out The Romanian BelleArts Section and at the same time, to be

Under the high patronage of the regent

part of the international superior jury. With

Prince Leopold of Bavaria and under the

the consent of King Carol I, Queen Elizabeth

Presidency of Prince Ludwig, from June

exhibits a decorative cup and painted pages

the first to October 30th 1905, the ninth

of the Bible. Among the artists of the Society

edition of the International Exhibition of

appear important names such as Gabriel

Fine Arts took place in Munich. Organized

Popescu, the architect Petre Antonescu and

by the Society of Artists, in collaboration

the painter Cecilia Cutescu-Storck, and the

with Munich Secession, it united under the

section is awarded with the gold medal.

generous dome of the Palace of Crystal,


creators of value across Europe.

In the same year, Nicolae Grigorescu features


again as the guest of honor at the exhibition

The

in the capital, and the sculptor Oscar Spthe

Commissioner of the Bavarian Government,

presents to the public the Art Nouveau marble

Baron Julius von der Heydte, address

bust, called Holy Byzantine. Purchased by

gentlemen

Princess Marie, the art piece is listed in the

everywhere.

inventory of Pelisor Castle.

logistics, the Romanian artists do not miss

official

invitation,

and

signed

fellow

Faced

with

by

citizens
problems

the

from
of

the participation and return in the country


The great success recorded in Athens opened

with a well deserved gold medal. In the same

Romanias way to Germany, in 1904 and

year, the Youth participates in plenary at

1905. In the edition from March 5,1904, the

the Venice Biennale.

journal Epoca announced the preparation


in the capital of the Grand Duchy of Hesse

The year 1906 is captivated at high levels

of three halls devoted to the exhibition of

by the preparation of the Royal Jubilee

painting, sculpture and decorative arts of

celebrations. After a reign of four decades,

the Society Artistic Youth. [...] A special

King Carol I accepts the flattering proposal

attraction of this exhibition will be the fact

of Take Ionescu to organize a National

that they needed to exhibit admirable works

Exhibition. Opened to the public from June

and H.M. Queen Elisabeth, who brought [...]

6th to November 23rd 1906, in Carol I Park,

delightful embroidery [...].

it represented the most spectacular event


ever held under the auspices of the Royal

Victoria-Melita joins the cause of Romanian

House. Having over 40,000 exhibitors and no

artists, aware of the need to purchase

less than 165 goals, the National Exhibition

an

group

demonstrated the potential of Romania. With

presentations. The event brings Romania

appropiate

an Art Nouveau design of great impact, the

in the pages of the London art journal The

Youth Pavilion has a great success at the

Studio,

exhibition.

which

space

for

emphasizes

their

the

artistic

contribution of the Princess. Marie has


contributed with pieces of furniture and

On April 1907, the gates of the Romanian

drapes and she sent some works of art,

Atheneum open for a new exhibition of

crafted by her, some beautiful samples

the Artistic Youth Society. Marked by

of pottery classes. For the first time, the

unprecedented social tensions, the year

creation of the Romanian artists is classified

1907 resonated in the creation of the

into two main streams: naturalist-realistic

employeed artists. After sustained efforts of

59

Intitulat ,,Quies(,,Linite) i realizat la

Nicolae Vermont, Constantin Artachino and

propunerea Regelui Carol I, ea face parte

Ipolit Strmbu, the works of the Gaelic painter

din patrimoniul actual al Muzeului Naional

and engraver, Frank Brangwyn are housed in

Pele. n linii mari, expoziia merge pe

the halls. Encouraged by the success, the

direcia trasat de Impresionism, cu accente

following year, the Artistic Youth Society

ale picturii grigoresciene, dar i cu profunde

organizes a large exhibition, with extensive

influene simboliste trzii i ale Artei 1900.

foreign participation. Alongside Camil Ressu,

Printre invitaii strini se numr pictorul

Iosif Iser, etc. there are famous names such

francez, Henri Martin (1860-1943), care

as A.L. Drain (1880-1954), D.A. Galanis

expune lucrarea neoimpresionist, ,,Vara.

(1880-1966) and J.-L.Forain (1852-1931).

Anii de dinainte de intrarea Romniei n

On this occasion, Princess Marie exhibits

Rzboi vin ca o ncununare a activitii

an engraved wardrobe and a table from her

Societii, aceasta dobndind n sfrit un

personal collection.

sediu propriu.
After Oscar Spthe presented with an
Baza coleciei de art plastic reunit sub

academic

titulatura generoas a ,,Tinerimii artistice

the sculptor returns now with a work

din patrimoniul Muzeului Naional Pele s-a

devoted to the same Royal figure. Entitled

constituit din achiziiile Principesei Maria.

Quies(Quiet) and carried out at the

Devotat artei naionale, Maria agrementeaz

initiative of King Carol I, it is part of the actual

interioarele reedinei particulare de la

heritage of Peles National Museum. Broadly,

Pelior cu pnze ale artitilor romni.

the exhibit goes on the direction mapped

Preferinele sale merg ctre tefan Popescu,

out by Impressionism, with touches of

Arthur Verona i Kimon Loghi. Un numr

Grigorescus painting but also with profound

foarte mic de piese n special portrete i

late Symbolist influences and of the art 1900.

busturi regale - au fost comandate de ctre

Among the foreign guests, there was also

Regele Carol I.

the French painter Henri Martin(1860-1943),


who

bust

exposes

of

the

Elizabeth

post

in

1910,

impressionistic

work,Summer. The years before Romanias


entry into the war, come as a crowning of the
activity of the Society, which finally find a
headquarter.
The core of the fine art collection, reunited
under the name of Artisitc Youth from
Peles National Museum heritage was made
up of Princess Maries purchases. Devoted
to folk art, Marie decorates the interiors of
the personal residence from Pelior with the
canvas of Romanian artists. Her preferences
go to Stefan Popescu, Arthur Verona and
Kimon Loghi. A very small number of pieces
- especially Royal portraits and busts - have
been commissioned by King Carol I.

60

Interior de mnstire
cu clugrie
Costin Petrescu, circa 1910

Monastery Interior
with Nuns
Costin Petrescu, aprox. 1910

61

Regina Artista si creatia sa


plastica, manuscrisul pe pergament
Ce vrei, iubesc viaa, cu pasiune, n toate

Regina Artist iubea tot ce este frumos, iar

Rodica Rotrescu

manifestrile ei. Condiia este bineneles, ca

dac ceva nu era frumos l transforma cu

Director General

ele s fie simple sau inspirate de dorina de

puterea cuvntului sau a culorii. Astfel o

perfeciune... spunea Regina Maria n ultimii

poveste devenea pictur, iar florile desenate

ani de via. Ea a fost, i o putem constata cu

de ea, ncrcate de simboluri, deveneau

uurin privind operele ei, o mare artist,

poveti.

care a cutat frumosul i bunul gust n tot ce


o nconjura, n climatul su i nu n ultimul

La numai aptesprezece ani, Principesa Maria

rnd, n natur. Vom observa c la Maria

vine n Romnia ca soie a lui Ferdinand,

alegoria i realitatea se mpletesc i greu

Principele motenitor al tronului Romniei.

reuim s delimitm cele dou noiuni, dar

Dei tnr, Maria nu va fi pentru austerul

de aici se nate amprenta stilistic personal,

Carol o persoan uor de convins sau de

definit ca fiind preponderent original i

manevrat. Iubea natura, sportul n aer liber i

ncrcat de fantezie.

mai mult ca orice viaa n toate manifestrile

Manuscris
Pictura Regina Maria, 1906

Manuscript
Painting by Queen Marie,
1906

62

The Artistic Queen and her


creation, the parchment manuscript
Youll have to understand me. I love life

The Artist Queen loved everything that is

Rodica Rotrescu

passionately, in all its ways. Undoubtedly,

beautiful and, if something werent beautiful,

General Manager

the only condition is they should be simple

she used to change it by the simple power

and inspired by the desire for perfection,

of words and colours. Thus, a story became a

said Queen Marie in the last years of her

painting and the flowers she drew were full

life. She was, as we can easily notice from

of symbols and became stories.

her works, a great artist who look for beauty


and good taste in everything around, in her

When she was only 17 years old, the Princess

environment and, last but not least, in nature.

Marie comes in Romania as wife of Ferdinand,

We can notice that for Marie the alegory and

the Crown Prince of the Romanian Monarchy.

the reality make a mixture and we can hardly


separate one from the other. It is exactly what

In spite of being young, Marie wasnt a

gives her personal stylistic mark, defined as

person who could be easily persuaded or

being mainly original and fanciful.

manipulated by the austere Carol. She loved

63

64

65

ei. De multe ori ns Principesa a fost nevoit

decorarea reedinelor de la Cotroceni i

s se adapteze unei viei austere, cu principii

de la Sinaia, iar n ultimii ani de via, de la

rigide: E o menire fr de mulumire aceea

Balcic.

Regina Maria lucrnd


la manuscris
Sinaia, 1905

de rege, dar e mndr i falnic pentru


cei ce tiu s-i poarte povara, s rabde

Trebuie s menionm c Maria a fost i a

singurtatea i s ierte de aptezeci de ori

rmas pn n ultimul moment al vieii un

Queen Marie working


on the manuscript

apte... i pentru a rbda i a ierta, Maria a

personaj Art Nouveau, cu greu acceptnd

Sinaia, 1905

avut nevoie de un refugiu, care a fost arta.

formele Art Deco-ului ctre anii 1920. n


nsemnrile zilnice de mai trziu, Regina

mai

povestete ct de greu suporta vernisajele

pregnant a fost Art Nouveau-ul, stil neles

epoc,

fenomenul

artistic

cel

la expoziiile artitilor plastici contemporani.

n profunzime de principes i folosit de

Revenind la nceputul secolului, perioada

aceasta ca o arm i o revolt mpotriva celor

att de drag Mariei, subliniem c aceasta a

care ncercau s o frustreze de ceea ce i-ar fi

fost o perioad de creaie. Tnra principes a

plcut s fac sau s gndeasc.

refuzat s copieze cu fidelitate formele Artei


1900 i a ncercat, reuind, s impun un

Dovada la cele afirmate mai sus este

stil personal - neo-romnescul, caracterizat

66

nature, sports in the open air and more than

Victoria Melita, her spoiled sister Ducky and

anything else, she loved life in all its ways. In

later on, Duckys husband, the Duke Ernst

many cases, the Princess had to adapt to an

of Hessa, who patronized the School from

austere life, based on rigid principles: Being

Darmstadt. In fact, until the divorce of Ducky

a king is a fate which lacks satisfaction but it

and the Duke of Hessa, Marie spent two

is full of pride and glory for those who know

summers in Darmstadt, where she painted

how to bear its burden, to endure loneliness

and made pyrography together with the local

and forgive for seventy multipled by seven

artists.

times.
The first lessons of grande eau the Princess
In the age, the main artistic phenomenon

receives are from Ruth Mercier, her workshop

was the Art Nouveau, a style the Princess

partner and Queen Elizabeths teacher. She

fully understood and used as a weapon and

was the one who inspired Marie to love so

a rebellion against those who tried to refrain

much

her from everything she would have liked to

depicting flowers, from the imperial lily to

do or think.

the beloved humble wild flowers.

The proof of all these stands in the decoration

Me and Nando really loved flowers a lot.

of the residences in Cotroceni and Sinaia and,

When we were together among flowers,

in the last years of her life, the one in Balchik.

Nando became again the one I had known

decorative

painting,

watercolours

in Coburg and Sigmaringen; he seemed


It should be mentioned that Marie was an Art

younger, he could laugh and have fun and

Nouveau character until the last moment of

seemed to have lost that worried look I was

her life, who hardly accepted the Art Deco

so sad to notice.

forms towards 1920s. Later, in her daily


notes, the Queen confesses she found it

Marie mastered the line and the colour and

difficult to accept to attend the exhibitions of

she gradually developed her own style by

the contemporary plastic artists.

only reproducing nature,without imitating


anyone.

As for the beginning of the century, a


period Marie loved so much, it was one of

About her love for flowers and the real

creation. The young Princess refused to

poems she created with her brush, Nichifor

imitate the forms of the Art 1900 and she

Crainic says in The Times Icons: Queen

tried and managed to impose her own style

Marie didnt refrain from showing us that in

the Neo-Romanian stuyle, characterized by

front of a lily with a yellow core like a glimpse

electicism. The elements of byzantine, celtic

of moon, or in front of an iris with bluish

and scandinavian inspiration are taken over

petals like the evening sky, her soul will

in a 1900 manner. This phenomenon was

kneel piously like the soul in love with the

a rebellion against the heavy forms of the

harmony of colours and lines. This extremely

historicism.

tender soul floated with gorgeous tails in


the kingdoom of fairytales It reflected the

Before creating design for furniture and

water falling in its clarity, it opened at dawn

interiors, Marie trained her skill in watercolour.

and grieved at sunset in order to gather itself

Painting was not something unusual for the

in the end, like the springs,in the heart of the

young ladies of the European Royal Families.

artwork.

When painting, she had partners such as

67

prin eclectism. Elementele de influen

liniilor. Sufletul acesta de o finee rar a plutit

bizantin, celtic i scandinav, sunt preluate

cu pajura miastr n mpria basmelor... a

ntr-o manier 1900. Acest fenomen apare

rsfrnt n limpezimea lui cderea apelor, s-a

ca o revolt fa de formele ncrcate ale

deschis cu zorile i s-a ntristat cu asfinitul...

istorismului.

ca s se adune n urm, ca izvoarele, n matca


operei de art.

Maria, nainte de a crea design pentru


mobilier sau interioare, i-a exersat talentul

Astfel de opere de art sunt manuscrisele

n acuarel. A picta nu era ceva neobinuit

Reginei Maria. Ea a fost fascinat de

pentru tinerele din familiile regale europene.

miniaturile Reginei Elisabeta, dar acest gen

Avea o bun partener de atelier n Victoria

de lucrri i se preau greoaie i atunci a decis

Melita, sora ei alintat Ducky i mai trziu

s picteze flori. mpreun cu Ducky a nceput

n soul acesteia, Ducele Ernst de Hessa,

crearea primei cri. Fiecare principes

cel care patrona coala de la Darmstadt.

i propusese s-i ofere n dar celeilalte o

Amintim c pn la divorul lui Ducky de

minunat lucrare. Au ales drept suport hrtia

Ducele de Hessa, Maria a petrecut dou veri

japonez. Din pcate, lucrrile nu se mai

la Darmstadt, pictnd i fcnd pirogravur

pstreaz astzi.

alturi de artitii de acolo.


Urmtoarea creaie de acest gen a fost pe
Primele lecii de grande eau Principesa

pergament, n ferectur de argint i coperi

le primete de la Ruth Mercier, partenera

bogate cu fir i pietre semipreioase, pierres

de atelier i profesoara Reginei Elisabeta.

de lune. Ea era trudit pentru o persoan

Nu numai c stpnea foarte bine tehnica

special, buna ei prieten Pauline Astor i cu

acuarelei, dar doamna Mercier era i o

un prilej special, cstoria acesteia.

mare maestr n pictarea florilor. De la


aceasta Maria a ndrgit att de tare pictura

Lucrarea, cu totul deosebit era ca o carte

decorativ, acuarelele nfind flori, de la

uitat ntr-o zi geroas de toamn afar, fiind

imperialul crin la umilele flori de cmp att

acoperit de brum. Toate paginile n interior

de iubite.

erau pictate n tonuri de alb i gri, ca pentru


o mireas.

Nando i cu mine iubeam mult florile. Cnd


eram cu el printre flori, Nando se fcea

n anul 1906, an jubiliar pentru Regat,

iari cel pe care l cunoscusem la Coburg

Principesa Maria mai picteaz un manuscris

i Sigmaringen; atunci ntinerea, tia s rd

pentru soul su, Ferdinand: E opera cea mai

i s petreac i nu mai avea acea privire de

de seam i a fost plnuit cu gndul s las

griji care m ndurera.

casei noastre ceva ce nu se putea nstrina.


Este o lucrare cu 50 file din pergament

Maria stpnea linia desenului i culoarea i

legate ntr-o miestrit ferectur din argint

treptat a dobndit un stil propriu necopiind

i pietre preioase, care i-a fost ncredinat

pe nimeni, ci numai reproducnd natura.

spre execuie artistului german Paul Telge,


cunoscut argintar al Casei Regale din

Despre dragostea ei pentru flori i adevratele

Romnia.

poeme create cu penelul, Nichifor Crainic


scria n Icoanele vremii: Regina Maria nu s-a

Pe faa primei coperi se afl stema veche a

sfiit s ne arate c n faa unui crin cu miezul

Romniei i n coluri crucea gamat a Mariei,

galben ca o frm de lun, ori n faa unui

iar pe ultima copert blazonul familiei de

stnjenel cu petale vinete ca cerul de sear,

Edinburg, mrginit de deviza ordinului

sufletul su tie s ngenuncheze evlavios, ca

Jartierei: Hony soi qui mal y pense. Pe cotor

al oricrui ndrgostit de armonia culorilor i

dedicaia: Lui Ferdinand de la Maria 1906.


68

Such artworks are Queen Maries manuscripts.

covers full of thread and semiprecious

She was fascinated by Queen Elisabeths

stones, pierres de lune. The book was the

manuscripts but this kind of works seemed

result of hard work and it was a gift for a

heavy to her and thus, she decided to paint

special person, her dear friend Pauline Astor

flowers. Together with Ducky, she started

on the special occasion of her marriage.

her first book. They had intended to offer


one another, as a gift, a wonderful work. As

The work, which was really special, seemed

a background, they chose Japanese paper.

a book forgotten outside and covered by

Unfortunately, the works are not preserved

frost in a cold autumn day. All its pages

any longer.

were painted in shades of white and grey, as


suitable to a bride.

The next creation of this kind was made on


parchment, in silver binding and having

In 1906, a jubilee year for the Kingdom,

Pagin din Manuscris


Regina Maria

Manuscript page
Queen Marie

69

La interiorul primei coperi gsim portretul

st citat Bardul de Dmbovia.

n email al reginei, deasupra cruia se afl

Pagini din Manuscris


Regina Maria

deviza familiei regale: Nihil sine Deo, iar

Analiznd cu atenie manuscrisul observm

sub portret putem citi versurile (n limba

c apar cu predilecie crini, ciulini, irii i

Manuscript pages

englez):Lupt pentru bine, lupt cum poi

brndue. Fiecare dintre aceste flori poart

Queen Marie

mai bine/ Cristos este puterea, Cristos este

un simbol drag reginei.

dreptatea / Triete viaa i va fi ntotdeauna


bucurie semnate Marie i data 1906.

Crinul apare obsesiv n pictura acesteia,


mai mult chiar, dac privim fotografii ale

Manuscrisul se nchide cu dou ncuietori cu

Mariei realizate n reedinele ei regale,

motive celtice.

remarcm abundena acestor flori. Pe lng


aspectul maiestuos trebuie s ne referim i

Piesa din argint cu titlu de 800 % cntrete

la simbolistica acestei flori. El este sinonimul

24.200 gr i este decorat cu cteva pietre

albului, al inocenei, al castitii, deci

preioase i anume 5 citrine, 3 safire albastre

extrapolnd al puritii celeste. n acelai

i 3 pinel, iar pe ncuietori cu 2 ametiste.

timp crinul este floarea viselor, datorit


parfumului mbttor cu proprieti hipnotice

Fiecare fil este pictat n guae, pe ambele

(poate aa se explic abundena acestor flori

fee, cu flori purtnd versuri meteugit

n spaiile de locuit ale Reginei Maria).

caligrafiate

de

Maria,

sub

semnturi

importante: Carmen Sylva, Victor Hugo, Heine,

Crinul mai simbolizeaz i uitarea de sine n

Armand Sylvestre dar i versuri populare

seama lui Dumnezeu. Pe arcada ce marcheaz

romneti, traduse n limba englez, sub care

intrarea n Capela Reginei Maria de la castelul

70

Princess Marie painted a manuscript for

The lily is

Ferdinand: It is my most important work and

painting, even more than that, in the photos

it was planned in order to offer our household

Marie made in her royal residences there

something that can not stay way from it.

are plenty of these flowers. Besides its

It is a work including 50 parchment pages

majestic appearance, we have to mention the

in silver and semiprecious stones binding,

symbolism of this flower. It is the synonym

executed by the German artist Paul Telge, a

of white, innocence, chastity, extrapolating,

well known silversmith of the Romanian

the celestial purity. In the same time, the lily

Royal House.

is the flower of dreams due to its ravishing


fragrance

an obsessive presence in her

with

hypnotic

properties

(a

On the front cover there is Romanias old

possible explanation for the great number of

coat-of-arms and in the corners, Maries

lilies in Queen Maries rooms).

bent cross while on the back cover there is


the coat-of-arms of Edinburgs family and

The lily also symbolizes self forgetfulness in

the motto of the Order of the Garter in the

front of God. On the arcade at the entrance in

edges: Hony soi qui mal y pense. On the

Queen Maries Chapel from the Pelisor Castle,

spine of the book there is a dedication: To

there is the inscription: Leave your worries

Ferdinand, from Maria, 1906. On the interior

outside in order to be free to reason and

of the front cover, we may see the emailed

pray. And this arcade was always flanked by

portait of the Queen and above it, the motto

large pots full of lilies. We may not forget to

of the royal family: Nihil sine Deo; under

mention the lilys symbol as a flower of glory

the potrait, some lines (in English): Fight

as the heraldic lily has six petals which may

for good, do your best/Jesus is power/Jesus

be associated with the six rays.

is justice/Live your life and it will always be


merry.

Another common vegetal element which


is to be found is the thistle. During the Art

The manuscript is closed by means of two

Nouveau, the thistle was the emblem of

locks with Celtic motifs.

Nancy, the residence of the artists Emile


Gall and the Daum brothers. Galls moto

The silver piece with a 800% title, weights

was: Qui sy frotte sy pique, suggesting

24,200 grams and its decorated with some

the defence against the oitside attacks.

precious stones, namely 5 citrines, 3 blue

Galls work Les chardons is particularly

sapphires and 3 pinels and 2 amethysts on

remarkable as it is a vase in quadruplicate

the locks. Each page is painted in gouache,

dedicated by the artist to his city.

on both sides, with flowers and having


verses in Marias skillful handwriting below

In ancient China, the thistle was considered

important signitures: Carmen Sylva, Victor

a fortefiant, a long life magic element. In

Hugo, Heine, Armand Sylvestre, but also folk

the celtic-Scotish mythology, the thistle

verses, translated into English and below, the

symbolizes regeneration and eternity. The

moto: The Bard of Dambovita.

Golden Room from Pelisor is decorated


entirely with thistle flowers and, certainly not

When attentively analyzing the manusript,

by chance, this was the place Queen Marie

we can notice it mainly depicts lilies, thistle,

chose to pass away, surrounded by all these

irises and crocuses. Each of these flowers

symbols.

symbolizes something dear to the Queen.

71

Pelior se gsete inscripia: Las-i grijile

la Pele, att primvara ct i toamna.

afar pentru a putea fi liber s cugei, s te


rogi. i aceast arcad era mereu flancat de

Trebuie subliniat un element care face

vase mari ncrcate cu crini.

legtura ntre trei dintre aceste elemente


vegetale. Att floarea de ciulin ct i irisul

Nu trebuie s omitem i simbolul de floare a

i brndua sunt violete i dup cum tim

gloriei, crinul heraldic cu ase petale ce pot fi

violetul era culoarea preferat a Mariei. Ea

asimilate cu ase raze.

se compune din rou i albastru i semnific


echilibrul ntre pmnt i cer, ntre iubire i

Un alt element vegetal des ntlnit este

nelepciune, dar i trecerea autumnal de la

ciulinul. Suntem n plin Art Nouveau i nu

via la moarte.

trebuie s uitm c ciulinul era emblema


oraului Nancy, reedina artitilor mile

n religie, violetul este culoarea tainei, iar

Gall i a frailor Daum. Deviza acestuia

n tradiia medieval este culoarea sacr de

era Qui sy frotte sy pique sugernd

doliu destinat bisericii i regalitii.

aprarea mpotriva atacurilor din afar. Este


remarcabil lucrarea lui Gall Les chardons,

Vedem dar cum n paginile pictate de Maria

un vas n numai cinci exemplare, pe care

nici un simbol nu este strin, nici o culoare nu

artistul l-a consacrat oraului.

este aleas ntmpltor. Lucrarea fascineaz


prin frumusee i pasiune i oriunde o

n China Antic, ciulinul era ns considerat

deschizi primeti un mesaj.

un fortefiant, un element magic de via


lung. i n mitologia celtico-scoian ciulinul

n timpul vieii Mariei, lucrarea a participat

semnific regenerarea i venicia. Camera de

la

Aur de la Pelior este n ntregime decorat

nainte de rzboi, n anul 1914, la Mnchen,

cu ramuri de ciulini i desigur, nu ntmpltor,

primete prima medalie de aur. Urmtoarea

Regina Maria a dorit s treac n eternitate

participare internaional este n 1929 cnd,

aici, nconjurat de aceste simboluri.

la Barcelona, lucrarea este din nou medaliat.

mai

multe

expoziii

internaionale.

n sfrit, n anul 1935, aceast minunat


Alturi de frunza de ciulin, poleit cu aur,

Carte a cntrilor, cum o numete Tzigara

metalul definit ca foc divin, ntlnim n

Samurca, este prezentat la Expoziia

centrul plafonului crucea celtic, patriarhal,

Universal de la Bruxelles. Aici i se rezerv o

cu patru brae egale nscrise n cerc, simbol

sal special la Secia Crii i a Culturii, unde

al domniei sacre.

este expus ntre busturile regilor Romniei,


Carol I i Ferdinand I. Din nou lucrarea este

Nici irisul sau stnjenelul nu era lipsit de

recompensat cu o medalie de aur.

semnificaie. Pe lng aspectul lui ndrgit


de toi artitii ce se nscriu curentului Art

Din anul 1948, cartea cu foile de pergament

Nouveau,

caligrafiate i

Almaric

Tiffany,
Walter

Loetz,

sau

Henry

Lalique

Berger,

decorate n guae a fost

(superbele

pstrat n depozitul de Tezaur al castelului

bijuterii din email, pietre semipreioase i

Pele, ea fiind pentru prima dat prezentat

aur), irisului i s-a conferit un rol purificator i

publicului vizitator din Romnia n anul 1993,

chiar protector. Mai amintim c n antichitate

odat cu deschiderea oficial a Castelului

el simboliza legtura dintre pmnt i cer, dar

Pelior, ca muzeu.

i ntre regi i oamenii de rnd.


n sfrit, brnduele sunt cele alese. Floare
simpl, dar de un mare rafinament, ea era
att de des ntlnit de Maria pe poienile de

72

Besides the thistle leaf, gilded as a symbol

was called by Tzigara Samurcas, is presented

of the divine fire, on the celtic ceiling one

at the Universal Exhibition in Brussel. Here it

can see the celtic patriarchal cross, with four

was displayed in a special room at the Section

equal arms within a circle as a symbol of

Books and Culture, between the busts of the

sacred reign.

Romanian kings, Carol I and Ferdinand I. The


book was awarded with another gold metal.

Neither the iris, nor the

crocus lacked

significance. Besides its appearance so dear

From 1948 on, the book with calligraphed

to all the Art Nouveau artists, Tiffany, Loetz,

parchment sheets decorated with gouaches

Henry Berger, Almaric Walter or Lalique (the

was preserved in the Treasury Warehouse of

wonderful jewelery from email, semiprecious

Peles Castle and it was first showed to the

stones and gold), the iris was given a purifing

public from Romania in 1993, when Peles

and protective role. In the antiquity it

Castle was officially opened as a museum.

symbolized the connection between earth


and heaven, but also the one between royalty
and commoners.
Finally, the crocuses are the chosen ones.
Being a simple but really refined flower,
it was the one Marie often came across in
the meadows of Peles, both in spring and
autumn. All these three flowers the thistle,
the iris and the crocus are violets and, as we
know, purple was Maries favourite colour. It
is a mixture of red and blue and signifies the
balance between earth and heaven, between
love and wisdom, but also the autumnal
passing from life to death.
During Maries life, the work participated in
different international exhibitions. Before
the war, in 1914, in Munich, it receives the
first gold metal. The next international
participation is in 1929, when it is awarded
again with a medal in Barcelona.
In religion, purple is the colour of mystery
and in the medieval tradition it is the sacred
colour mourning for church and royalty.
Therefore, we can see that in the pages
Marie painted all the symbols are full of
significance and none of the colours was
chosen at random. The work is fascinating
due to its beauty and passion, and each of its
pages sends a message to its reader.
In 1935, this wonderful Book of Hymns, as it

73

74

75

Afisul Art Nouveau


Artistul francez de origin ceh, ALPHONSE

ale tinerei principese motenitoare. Maria

Izabela Trk

MARIA MUCHA (1860-1939), a fost una

adesea o imita n toalete i alur. La un bal

Muzeograf

dintre marile personaliti ale curentului Art

de la Curtea regal, principesa Maria s-a

Nouveau, creatorul unei opere originale i

costumat ca un personaj din dramaturgia la

diverse. A abordat mai multe genuri artistice,

mod a lui Edmond Rostand, La Princesse

excelnd n grafic i realiznd cteva dintre

Lointaine, interpretat cu strlucit succes de

cele mai celebre afie ale vremii sale. Opera

steaua scenei pariziene.

sa mbin stilul artei bizantine i trsturi


ale Artei 1900, printr-o cromatic diafan,

Dar afiele lui Mucha nu erau singurele lucrri

simboluri pertinente, reuind s realizeze

de grafic achiziionate de principesa Maria.

o amprent personal, preluat mai apoi

Trei epigoni ai acestuia, care pastiau linia i

de ali artiti europeni. Tinerele cu expresii

paleta pastelat a maestrului sunt prezeni

vistoare, drapate n veminte vaporoase,

n colecia de la castelul Pelior: ADOLPHE

alegorii menite s accentueze caracterul

COSSARD (1880-1952) cu cromolitografia

enigmatic, vor rmne prototipurile feminine

Fata cu vioara, PRIVAT LIVEMONT (1861-

Belle poque.

1936) cu dou portrete de tinere i PAUL


BERTHON (1872-1905) cu o cromolitografie

Afiul realizat pentru actria francez Sarah

Sarah Bernhardt.

Bernhardt n anul 1894, intitulat Gismonda


este printre lucrrile cele mai cunoscute.

Ceva mai deosebit i mai dramatic - nu

Dramatismul acestui afi pentru piesa de

neaprat pentru c folosea acromatisme

teatru semnat de Victorien Sardou, la

i chipuri aspre, spectrale - era MARCEL-

teatrul Renaissance din Paris a produs o mare

LENOIR (1872 - 1931) cu litografia sa,

senzaie i

Monstrul (Le Monstre), de asemenea prezent

actria i-a oferit autorului un

contract de exclusivitate.

n patrimoniul Peliorului. Avnd n vedere


misoginismul, de multe ori deschis exprimat

Celebritatea lui Alphonse Mucha, vizita

de ctre unii artiti ai anilor 1900, lucrarea

actriei pariziene la Bucureti a determinat-o

Monstrul este o metafor care prezint

pe viitoarea suveran a Romniei, principesa

femeia ca temelia tuturor relelor. Expus la

Maria s achiziioneze cteva dintre cele

al aselea Salon al Rozicrucienilor din anul

mai reprezentative opere ale acestuia,

1897, aceast enluminur n camaieu

precum cele patru panouri cu Anotimpurile,

aprut reprodus n alb-negru un an mai

altele cu Momentele zilei i impozantul afi

trziu, n revista Le Courrier Francais.

pentru spectacolul Gismonda. Actria Sarah


Bernhardt era una dintre actriele preferate

76

Art Nouveau Poster


The French artist of Czech origin, ALPHONSE

favourite actresses of the successor princess.

Izabela Trk

MUCHA (1860-1939) has been one of the

Marie always tried to imitate her personality

Curator

great personalities of the Art Nouveau

and clothing. At one of the dances organised

movement, the author of a vast, original work.

at the Royal Court, Princess Marie dressed as

He tried many artistic genders, by excelling in

one of the characters from Edmond Rostands

graphics and making some of the most famous

fancy dramaturgy, La Princesse Lointaine,

posters of his age. His work combines the

which was succesfully played by the star of

style of the Byzantine art with some details

the Parisian stage.

of the Art 1900, by reuniting them by the use


of a pale chromatic, pertinent symbols and

Yet, Muchas posters werent the only graphic

succeeding into creating his personal mark,

artworks princess Marie purchased. Three of

the later used by other European artists. The

his epigones, who imitated the lineage and

young women with dreamy looks, drapped

the pastel palette of the master are also to

in vaporous clothing, allegories meant to

be found in the collection from the Pelisor

focus on the enigmatic character, will always

Castle. ADOLPHE COSSARD (1880-1952),

remain the characteristic feminine figures of

with the chromolithography called The Girl

the Belle-Epoque.

With The Violin, PRIVAT LEVIMONT (18611936), with two portraits of some young

The poster he made for the French actress

women, and PAUL BERTHON (1872-1905),

Sarah Bernhardt in 1894, called Gismonda,

with a Sarah Bernhardt chromolythography,

figures between his most famous works.

rough, spectral facial expressions. MARCEL

The dramatism of this poster for the play

LENOIR (1872-1905), with his lythography,

written by Victorien Sardou, caused such

The Monster was a

a sensational reaction and determined the

and dramatic, not necessarily because he

actress to

used the achromatism and rough, spectral

offer the author an exclussive

contract.

bit more different

facial expressions. Taking into account the


misogyny, which used to be frequently

The celebrity of Alphonse Mucha determined

expressed by some of the 1900s artists, the

the next female sovereign of Romania,

artwork named The Monster is a metaphor

Princess Marie, to purchase some of the most

which introduces woman as the foundation

representative of his works, such as the four

of all the bad things. Exposed at the sixth

pannels with the Seasons, some others

Salon of the Rosicrucians, in 1897, this

with the Moments of the day and the

enluminura in camaieu appeared as a copy

important poster made for the Gismonda

in black and white a year later in the Le

show. Actress Sarah Bernhardt was one of the

Courrier Francais magazine.

77

78

79

Colectia de
mobilier a Reginei Maria
Colecia de mobilier a castelului Pelior se

alegerea tapetului, a materialelor textile i a

Liliana Manoliu

poate caracteriza ca fiind influenat stilistic,

tapieriilor de pe mobilier, draperii, cuverturi

Muzeograf

n mare msur, de elegana sobr i totui

etc.

vibrant a artitilor britanici. n general,

exemple de decoraie rafinat, de sorginte

piesele de mobilier Art Nouveau din colecia

englezeasc, avnd culoarea alb sau ivoire,

reginei Maria sunt adevrate capodopere

cu motive florale subliniate cu auriu i

n arta ebenisteriei. Caracterizate prin linii

ncadrate n romburi sofisticate.

Plafoanele

castelului

Pelior

sunt

rotunde, sinusoidale, elansate, rafinate, ele


sunt construite din lemn de esen luminoas,

Cele mai frecvente motive decorative folosite

n combinaie cu sticla i metalul. Unele

n designul creatorilor de mobilier al Noului

piese de mobilier (scaune, sofale, fotolii) sunt

Stil sunt: flacra i scoica (inspirate din stilul

tapiate cu esturi cu motive florale mari, iar

Rococo), frunza, floarea (mai ales mac i crin),

ca decoraie sculptat se apeleaz la relieful

fructele (de cele mai multe ori struguri),

fin (meplat) fiind preferate ornamente florale

crengile i plantele agtoare, ierburile

stilizate. Dulapurile sunt prevzute cu multe

marine, coralii, psrile (n speciali puni),

sertare, cu vitralii policrome i feroneria

dragonii zburtori. Stilurile consacrate au

mnerelor, n general decorativ, imit

influenat n mod inspirat Art Nouveau-ul

formele unduitoare ale tijelor de plante sau

prin adoptarea de la rococo a exemplului

corole de floare.

asimetriei, de la baroc a concepiei plastice a


formelor, de la arta colorat a Japoniei, forma

Scaunele

sunt

proiectate

cu

sptarul

linear i curat a volumelor.

modulat ergonomic, iar mesele, joase i


cu blatul din sticl colorat sau faian. De

Lemnul pare uor de modelat n creaiile

altfel, sticla pictat i vitraliile sunt definitorii

artitilor ebeniti, tehnica de lucru dovedete

pentru acest stil. n decoraia unitar a

o imaginaie debordant, esenele preioase

interioarelor, Art Nouveau-ul s-a folosit de

de lemn exotic i cire, tei, frasin sau paltin

diverse imprimeuri i muluri ornamentale.

devin spectaculoase jocuri de serpentine

Acestea sunt ntlnite n decorul pereilor,

prin tehnica modelrii la abur a frailor

plafoanelor, ornamentarea uilor sau n

Thonet din Viena sau adevrate tablouri

80

Queen Maries
furniture collection
Pelisor

Castles

furniture

collection

may be characterized as being largely

wallpaper, textile materials and upholstery


on furniture, curtains, quilts etc.

Curator

stylistically influenced, by the sober, yet


vibrant elegance of the British artists. In

The most frequent decorative motifs are:

general, the Art Nouveau pieces of furniture

the flame and the shell (inspired from the

are genuine masterpieces in the art of

Rococo style), leafs, flowers (mostly poppy

woodworking. Characterized by rounded,

and lily), fruits (mostly grapes), branches

sinuous, elongated, refined lines, they are

and vines, seaweeds, corals, birds (especially

made of light essence wood, in combination

peacocks), flying dragons. The consecrated

with glass and metal. Some furniture pieces

style

(chairs, sofas, armchairs) are upholstered

Art Nouveau by adopting the example of

with fabrics depicting

large floral motifs

asymmetry from rococo, the plastic concept

and as a sculptured decoration they resort to

of shapes from the Baroque, the linear and

fine relief (flat), with a preference for floral

clean form of the volumes from the colourful

stylized ornaments. The cabinets are fitted

Japanese art.

influenced in an inspiring way the

with many drawers, polychrome stainedglass and the metalwork of the handles is

The

wood

generally decorative, imitating the wavy

the

creation

curves of the plant rods or flower corollas.

the

technique

seems
of

easily

moulded

woodworking

proving

an

in

artists,

overflowing

imagination, the exotic wood essences


The chairs are designed with a tall backrest,

and the cherry, linden, ash or maple wood

and the tables are low with a coloured glass,

becoming spectacular serpentines by the

tiled countertop. Also, the painted glass

technique of steam moulding of the Thonet

and stained-glass define this style. In the

brothers in Vienna or realpaintings made in

unitary decoration of the interiors, the Art

the technique of inlaid work at the French

Nouveau was used in various ornamental

artist Emile Gall.

prints and mouldings. These are encountered


in the decoration of walls, ceilings, and the

The collection of Art Nouveau furniture

ornamentation of doors or in the choice of

Pelisor Castle is owed to the influence of the

81

Liliana Manoliu

Canapea cu etajer
Bernhardt Ludwig, 1903

Sofa with shelf


Bernhardt Ludwig, 1903

pictate n tehnica marchetriei la artistul

Baillie Scott i Charles Robert Ashbee pentru

francez mile Gall.

decorarea a numeroase camere din palatul


su de la Darmstadt. Baillie Scott (1864-

Creaia de mobilier Art Nouveau din castelul

1945) era unul dintre cei mai importani

Pelior se datoreaz influenei colii de la

reprezentani ai micrii Arts and Crafts.

Darmstadt i implicit micrii Arts and Crafts

Acesta s-a dedicat designului de interioare,

(Arte i Meserii) din Anglia.

lucrnd ca proiectant de mobilier dar i n


alte arii ale artelor i meteugurilor. Creaiile

Marele Duce Ernst Ludwig von Hesse a fost

sale vesele i parc mai puin statice au avut

fiul fiicei favorite a reginei Victoria a Marii

imediat o primire entuziast. Principesa

Britanii. Extrem de interesat de ideile lui

Maria l cunoscuse prin intermediul surorii

Ruskin i Morris, entuziasmat de renaterea

sale mai mici, Victoria Melita, prima soie a

britanic

marelui duce Ernst Ludwig de Hessa.

din

domeniul

artelor

al

meteugurilor din sfera domestic, ducele


Ernst Ludwig a adresat o comand n anul

Din anul 1899, Ludwig a subvenionat una

1897 ctre arhitecii decoratori Mackay Hugh

dintre cele mai importante colonii de artiti

82

School of Darmstadt and therefore, to the

In fact, the correspondence of Marie with

Arts and Crafts movement in England.

Baillie Scott regarding the elaboration of the


decorative projects for the house between

The great Duke Ernst Ludvig von Hesse was

the trees (Juniperus or the Princesses Den)

the son of the Great Britains Queen Victorias

in Sinaia, was carried out through Victoria

favourite daughter. Extremely interested

Melita. Undoubtedly, the sketches made by

in Ruskin and Morris ideas, excited by the

Baillie Scott in the creation of the furniture

British Renaissance in the field of arts and

ordered by Marie for the den were used

crafts in the domestic branch, the Duke Ernst

as a source of inspiration for the design of

Ludvig ordered Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott

the chairs with painted, gilded lilies and of

and Charles Robert Ashbee the decoration of

the decoration of the doors in the Golden

numerous rooms in his palace in Darmstadt

Chamber from Pelisor Castle.

to the architects Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott


and Charles Robert Ashbee in 1878. Baillie

The furniture set with interlacing, conceived

Scott (1864-1945) was one of the most

by Queen Marie around the year 1909,

important representatives of the Arts and

is one of the most valuable and original

Crafts movement. He dedicated himself to

works preserved from the creation of the

interior design, working as furniture designer,

sovereign from Pelisor. The 20 pieces made

but also in other branches of the arts and

by the School of Arts and Crafts from the

crafts. His cheerful and less static creations

Peles domain, including a tabernacle for

had an immediate enthusiastic reception.

the sovereigns chapel of prayer, sofas, arm

Princess Marie had known him through her

chairs, chairs, tables, a bed, a wardrobe, a

younger sister, Victoria Melita, the great Duke

toilet etc., forming a bedroom set and sitting

Ernst Ludwig von Hessas wife.

room ensemble for the Golden Chamber.


Numerous pieces from the same set were

Since 1899, Ludwig subsidized one of the

ordered and donated to the American

most important artist colonies of orientation

museum Mary Hill, private property of the

1900 in Europe, named the group of the

industrialist Samuel Hill. The furniture is

seven, Die Sieben, which included resonating

worked in linden wood and entirely gilded.

names such as Peter Behrens, Josef Maria


Olbrich, Hans Christiansen, Patriz Huber etc.

The style of the concept is ranged in the

The oldest was 32 years old, the youngest

neo-Romanian style, with the design of

was 20. They became the most enthusiastic

the seats (armchairs, sofas, chairs) and the

followers of the artistic movement Jugenstil

panels of the bet, tabernacle and sideboards

in Germany.

in straight, imposing, sober lines, decorated


with semi-circular trilobite or accolade arcs,

Maria will take over many ideas from the

short and thick pillars with twisted rounded

young artists of Darmstadt, especially from

sphere capitels, inspired by the Byzantine

the Scotch Baillie Scott. Also, Victoria Melita,

style.

the Princesss sister, design project originator


and active collaborator of her husband in

Queens Marie outstanding concern for the

Darmstadt, had a considerable influence on

sculpted decor of the panels stems Romanian

the Princesss later creation. Photos kept in

traditional elements, interwoven with old

Peles National Museums archive, show that

Celtic motives: a sculpted decoration on the

a large part of the furniture found in Maries

table having a circular countertop forming

palaces after the year 1900, was sketched at

a cross with raised corners, suggesting, due

the court of the great Dukes of Hessa.

to the central decoration the tree of life, a

83

Mas, detaliu blat


Proiect Regina Maria,
coala de Arte i Meserii
Sinaia, 1908-1909

Table, top detail


Queen Maries project,
The Arts and Crafts School
Sinaia, 1908-1909

de orientare 1900 din Europa, numit grupul

De altfel, corespondena Mariei cu Baillie

celor apte, Die Sieben, cuprinznd nume

Scott n elaborarea proiectelor decorative

de rezonan ca Peter Behrens, Josef Maria

pentru csua dintre brazi (Juniperus sau

Olbrich, Hans Christiansen, Patriz Huber .a.

Cuibul Principesei) de la Sinaia, s-a purtat

Cel mai n vrst avea 32 de ani, cel mai tnr

prin intermediul Victoriei Melita. Nendoios

20. Acetia au devenit cei mai nfocai adepi

c schiele trasate de Baillie Scott n crearea

ai micrii artistice Jugenstil din Germania.

mobilierului comandat de Maria pentru cuib


au fost folosite ca surs de inspiraie n

Maria va prelua multe idei ale tinerilor

desenul scaunelor cu crini pictai i aurii i

artiti de la Darmstadt, n special de la

a decoraiei uilor de la Camera de Aur din

scoianul Baillie Scott. De asemenea o

castelul Pelior.

influen considerabil asupra creaiei de


mai trziu a principesei a avut-o sora sa,

Garnitura de mobilier cu entrelac, conceput

Victoria Melita, iniiatoare de proiecte de

de REGINA MARIA n jurul anilor 1909, este

design i colaboratoare activ a soului su

una dintre cele mai valoroase i originale

la Darmstadt. Din fotografiile pstrate n

lucrri pstrate din creaia suveranei de la

arhiva Muzeului Naional Pele reiese c o

Pelior. Cele 20 de piese realizate la coala

mare parte din mobilierul ce se va regsi

de Arte i Meserii de pe domeniul Pele,

n palatele Mariei dup anul 1900, au fost

cuprinznd un tabernacol pentru capela

schiate la curtea marilor duci de Hessa.

de rugciune a suveranei, banchete, jiluri,

84

Ua de la dormitorul
Reginei Maria
Proiect Regina Maria,
coala de Arte i Meserii,
Sinaia, 1902

Queen Maries
bedroom door
Queen Maries project,
The Arts and Crafts School
Sinaia, 1902

85

scaune, mese, un pat, un dulap, o toalet

romneasc regsim i motivele geometrice

etc., formeaz o garnitur de dormitor i un

care abund n manuscrise, pe covoare ori pe

ansamblu de salon pentru Camera de aur.

straiele rneti: crucea gamat i steaua.

Numeroase piese din aceeai garnitur au

Motivul frnghiei mpletite, - entrelacul, este

fost comandate i donate Muzeului de art

de origine celtic, iar motivele animaliere

american, Mary Hill, proprietate privat a

cu ncolcirile de erpi i animale fantastice

industriaului Samuel Hill.

sunt preluri din mitologia nordic.

Mobilierul este lucrat n lemn de tei i aurit n

Mobilierul realizat de BERNHARD LUDWIG

ntregime cu foi de aur.

(1866-1939)

stil

Secession

ofer

ncperilor intimitate i rafinament.


Stilul concepiei este ncadrat ca fiind neoromnesc, cu desenul ezutelor (jiluri,

Bernhard

banchete, scaune) i al panourilor de la

asemenea altor forme de art ca avndu-i

pat, tabernacol i comode- n linii drepte,

originea ntr-o munc de calitate exemplar,

impozante, sobre, ca la mobilierul voevodal,

care ar trebui s aib o legtur cu viaa de

cu ornamente de arce semirotunde, trilobate

zi cu zi, cu viaa prosper n care obiectele

sau n acolad, stlpi scuri i groi cu capitele

bine fcute sunt preuite. Lemnul de paltin,

sfere torsadate mrunt, rotunjite, inspirate

o esen deosebit de proaspt din care sunt

din stilul bizantin.

alctuite garniturile, cu forme decupate sau

Ludwig

considera

arhitectura,

curbate, picioare fine, fuselate i utilizarea


Preocuparea deosebit a reginei Maria

unei tapierii cu dcor de irii, feronerie din

pentru decorul sculptat al panourilor aduce

alam btut simboliznd corole de floare

elemente tradiionale romneti, mpletite

sau frunze de primvar, execuia ngrijit,

cu vechi motive celtice: o decoraie sculptat

sunt rezultatele admirabile ale acestui

pe masa avnd blatul circular formnd o

creator de mobilier.

cruce cu colurile reliefate, sugereaz prin


decoraia central pomul vieii, motiv fitomorf

Mobilierul original din camera de joac a

ntruchipnd strvechiul mit al omenirii, visul

copiilor, executat de atelierul Ludwig, din

irealizabil al tinereii fr btrnee i al vieii

nuiele de rchit mpletite i vopsite ntr-

fr de moarte, aici n locul coroanei vegetale

un alb imaculat, ne incit spiritul ludic i

vom ntlni capete de erpi. Animal teluric,

ne poart n lumea delicat i voioas a

arpele - motiv zoomorf des ntlnit - are un

copilriei.

pronunat rol apotropaic, fiind considerat


pzitorul casei, iar reprezentarea sa, pe
obiectele de uz casnic sau de ceremonial
reprezint o garanie a dinuirii gospodriei.
Motivele florale simplificate (apar corole
sau ornamente tri/cvadrilobate) se regsesc
de asemenea la panourile pieselor, fiind
simboluri ale dragostei, armoniei, puritii,
renovrii, dar i ale lumii multicolore,
paradisiace i efemere. Tot n arta tradiional

86

motif which embodies the ancient myth of


mankind, the unattainable dream of eternal
youth, here the vegetal crown is replaced by
snake heads. A telurical element, the snake-a
common zoomorphic animal has an obvious
apotropaic

role,being

considered

the

house guardian and its representation, on


household or ceremonial items guarantees
the household persistence.
The simplified floral motifs (corollas or three/
four-lobs ornaments) are also found on the
panels of the pieces, being symbols of love,
harmony, purity, renewal, but also of the
multi-coloured, heavenly, ephemeral world.
Also, in the traditional Romanian art we find
the geometrical motifs which are to be found
in great number in manuscripts, on carpets
or on the peasant clothes: the Gamat cross
and the star. The motive of the braided rope,
interlacing, is Celtic, and the animal motives
with the coils of snakes and fantastic animals
are takeovers from the Nordic mythology.
The furniture made by Bernard Ludwig in the
Secession style gives privacy and refinement

from wattle and painted in an immaculate

to the rooms.

Detaliu comod

white, revives our playful spirit and takes

proiect Regina Maria,

us to the delicate and cheerful world of

coala de Arte i Meserii,

Bernard Ludwig thinks that architecture, as

childhood.

well as other forms of art, has its origin in the


exemplary quality of the work, which should

Sinaia, 1908-1909

Commode, detail

have a link with day to day life and with the

Queen Maries project,

prosperous life in which well-made objects

The Arts and Crafts School

are cherished. Maple wood, an especially

Sinaia, 1908-1909

fresh essence with cut or curved shapes,


delicate, fusilladed legs and the use of an
upholstery with an iris dcor, beaten brass
metalwork symbolizing flower corollas or
spring leaves and the careful execution give
the sets made by him a remarkable elegance.
The original furniture from the childrens play
room, executed in Ludwig workshop made

87

88

89

Colectia de
sticla a Reginei Maria
n atmosfera degajat i intim a castelului

a fcut s fie realizate sub conducerea sa

Cornelia Dumitrescu

Pelior, respirnd rafinament i elegan i

direct opere de o calitate artistic i tehnic

Muzeograf

gsete locul, n mod firesc, colecia de sticl

de excepie, nu numai n domeniul sticlriei,

a reginei Maria, ce cuprinde mai ales piese

ci i n cel al ceramicii sau al mobilierului.

Art Nouveau i Art Deco. Cteva dintre aceste


piese, ce poart semnturile unor celebri

A expus cu regularitate, iar comentariile sale

artiti europeni, se remarc n mod deosebit

despre expoziiile de arte decorative ale

prin valoarea lor decorativ i prin miestria

vremii sunt veritabile cursuri de tehnica i

execuiei.

teoria artei sticlei. Sursele de inspiraie sunt


numeroase, dar cea mai important dintre ele

EMILE GALL (1846 1904) domin istoria

rmne natura, creia i dedic un adevrat

artei sticlriei nu numai din 1880 pn la

cult intelectual i sentimental i pe care a

moartea sa, n 1904, dar i mult mai trziu,

redat-o n viziune occidental sau extrem

pn la nchiderea atelierelor ce-i purtau

oriental,

numele, n 1936. S-a nscut la Nancy, a

alteori descompunnd-o n prile organice

absolvit studii clasice, artistice, tehnice i

sau pur i simplu schematiznd-o pn la

chiar tiinifice, iar n 1864 s-a alturat tatlui

limita abstraciunii. Gall a fost i un artist

su, care conducea o faianerie i un atelier

angajat, dedicnd unele din piesele sale

de sticlrie de menaj, la Saint Clment.

cauzei nobile a libertii Irlandei (Dragonul

trasnd-o uneori cu claritate,

i pelicanul), sau a susinerii cpitanului


Gall i-a desvrit studiile prin numeroase

Dreyfus (Galinetta).

vizite i stagii n diverse sticlrii din Europa,


ntre care cea de la Meisenthal ocup un loc

Poezia se integreaz n mod firesc n creaia

privilegiat. n 1874, a transferat la Nancy

lui mile Gall, completnd-o i mrindu-i

afacerea familiei, pe care de acum nainte

farmecul. Poeme ale unor cunoscui autori

o va conduce i dezvolta. A fost un artist

lirici, precum Thocrite, Charles Baudelaire,

n sensul complet al termenului: creator al

Jules Ferry, Sully Prudhomme expliciteaz

stilului Art Nouveau, promotor al colii de la

inteniile

Nancy, el a imaginat, a desenat, a executat,

verreries parlantes, deosebit de apreciate

autorului,

90

aa

numitele

Queen Maries
glassware collection
In the intimate atmosphere of Pelisor

and technical quality , not only in the domain

Cornelia Dumitrescu

Castle, inspiring refinement and elegance,

of glassware, but also in the one of ceramic

Curator

find its place, as expected, Queen Maries

and furniture.

glass collection, which mainly contains Art


Nouveau and Art Deco pieces. Some of these

He organised regular exhibitions, and his

pieces, signed by famous European artists, are

comments

distinguished mainly due to their decorative

exhibitions of decorative art are precious

value and the mastery of execution.

lectures about the glassware theory and

regarding

the

contemporary

technique. He got many inspirational themes,


MILE GALL (1846-1904) dominates the

but the most important of all remains nature,

art of glassware not only from 1880 until his

to which he dedicates a real intelectual and

death, in 1904, but also much later, until the

sentimental cult and which he reproduced,

his workshops were closed in 1936. He was

either in an western vision, or in an extremely

born in Nancy, graduated classical, artistical,

oriental one, by sometimes drawing it with

technical and even scientifical studies and in

clarity and dividing it in its organic parts

1864 he joined his father, who ran a faience

or simply schematizing it to the limit of

and a household glassware workshop in

abstraction in other cases. Gall was also a

Saint Clement. Gall completes his studys by

dedicated artist who dedicate some of his

numerous visits and trainings in a variety of

artworks to the noble cause of the liberation

glassware workshops in Europe, the one from

of Ireland (The Dragon And The Pelican),

Meisenthal

or

being of special importance.

In 1875 he transfers the familys business

the

sustaining

of

captain

Dreyfus

(Galinetta).

in Nancy, which he manages and develop


afterwards. He was a complete artist from

The

each and every point of view: the creator

mile Galls creation by completing it

of the Art Nouveau style,a promoter of the

and increasing its charm. Some poems

Academy of Nancy, he envisioned, drew,

belonging to well-known lyrical authors,

executed and carefully guided others to

such

create artworks of an exceptional artistical

Jules Ferry, Sully Prudhomme explain the

poetry

as

integrates

Theocrite,

91

naturally

Charles

into

Baudelaire,

Vas
Marius Ernest Sabino,
circa 1900

Vase
Marius Ernest Sabino,
Early 20th century

n epoc. Regina Elisabeta, sub influena

Pelior, mpreun cu alte vase achiziionate

Elenei Bibescu, se intereseaz de coala

ulterior de regina Maria.

de la Nancy i mai ales de opera lui mile


Gall. ntre artistul francez i regina poet

se nate o coresponden, n care transpare

operele emailate ocup un loc special;

preuirea reciproc. Patrimoniul Casei Regale

lor le-a consacrat o mare parte a studiilor

a Romniei se mbogete cu preioase

sale, concretizate cu perfecionarea unor

vase ale maestrului de la Nancy: Edelweis,

reete de obinere a emailurilor dure sau

pies creat de Gall pentru Camen Sylva,

transparente, n maniera arabilor, emailurilor

Cirge, Coup de miel, Clair de lune, Muza

champlevs sau a emailurilor guaate, n

paradisiac, iar autorul francez primete

manier chinezeasc. Decorurile emailate au

ca dar al suveranei un poem, pe care l va

mai ales teme japoneze: dalii, orhidee, lotus,

grava pe una dintre celebrele sale opere. O

crizanteme pictate n culori contrastante:

parte dintre lucrrile citate au fost druite

bleu i verde sau rou i bleu. Muzeul Pelior

de regina Elisabeta membrilor familiei, altele

deine o pies de valoare excepional,

nnobileaz interioarele castelelor Pele i

realizat de Gall n 1890; este vorba despre

ansamblul

92

creaiei

lui

mile

Gall,

authors intention by means of the so-called

with the mention modele et decor depose.

verreries parlantes, greatly appreciated

Apart from the exceptional artistic value of

during that age. Under the influence of Elena

the piece, it is to mention the remarkable

Bibescu, Queen Elisabeta

gets interested

quality of the material and the unique

i the Academy of Nancy and in particular

combination of the execution techniques:

in mile Galls work. Between the French

free blowing, indifferent stages, punching at

artist and the Poetess Queen there started

high temperatures, enamel painting, gilding.

a corespondence which proves mutual


admiration. The Royal Houses patrimony

Another exceptionally valuable Gall piece

enriches with precious pottery from the

housed by the Peles Castle is the vase called

Master of Nancy: Edelweis, a piece created

by the author The Paradise Muse. The

by Gall for Carmen Sylva, Cierge, Coup

ovoid-oblong body, with elegant, fluid lines

de miel, Clair de lune, The Paradise

is plastically treated, with purple gradients,

Muse, while the French author receives

with reps regions, sprayed with gold. The

as a present from the sovereign a poem,

metallic inclusions added between the layers

which he engraves on one of his famous

of glass offer the piece the elegance desired

artworks. Some of the mentioned artworks

by the artist, by the optical effects created.

were offered as gifts by Queen Elisabeta to

At the base of the body it is engraved the

the members of her family, while the others

mention Gall fecit 1895 and on the

bring honour to the interiors of the Peles and

reverse of the base the EG monogram, with

Pelisor Castles, along with other objects of

the Lorraine cross and the title of the work:

pottery subsequently purchased by Queen

Heavenly Muse.

Maria.
The industrial production started by Gall in
On the whole of mile Galls creation, the

1884 has the goal of making the art accessible

enamel artworks have a special place; he

to the poorer people, by the decrease of the

dedicated them a great part of his studies,

production prices. Gall conceives simplified

proved by the mastery of some recipes for

models, but very beautiful ones, with lively

hard or transparent enamels, in the spirit

chromatic and fully elegant and armonious

of the Arabs, of the champleves enamel,

lines as he intends to avoid the falsity and

or of the goitrous Chinese enamels. The

the oddness. The industrial pieces are blown

enamel decorations mainly have Japanese

into the pattern, in many layers of different

themes: dahlias, orchids, lotus flowers,

colours and engraved by acid attack, in

chrysanthemums

contrsating

successive stages, a technique which offers

colors: blue and green or red and blue. The

painted

in

them semi-relief and decoration depth.

Pelisor Museum houses a piece of art of an

The refinement and precision of the details

exceptional value, created by Gall in 1890,

are achieved by retouching the chemical

a glass vase called by the author clair de

engraving at wheel.

lune, whose transparency and purity which


suggest the pale rays of the moon. The

The industrial production of the Gall

decoration, partially pressed onto the hot

workshops is conducted by the artist until his

glass, still flexible, on the interior surface of

death in 1904, then by his wife, until 1914.

the vase, partially painted with enamel, at low

In the period 1904-1914, the pieces realised

temperatures, on the exterior, is of Japanese

are of good quality and a great number of

origins, with delicate ivory, rust-colored,

models created by Gall are perpetuated.

pink or pale purple chrysanthemums. On

Madame Gall adds a star to the signature

the reverse of the base it is engraved the

of the master, which allows the removal

name of the author and its origin city, along

of ambiguity and the datting of the pieces.

93

o vaz din sticla intitulat de autor clair

moartea sa, n 1904, apoi sub cea a soiei

de lune, de o transparen i limpezime ce

sale, pn n 1914. n perioada 1904 1914,

sugereaz razele diafane ale astrului nopii.

piesele realizate sunt de bun calitate i

Decorul, n parte presat n sticla fierbinte,

perpetueaz un mare numr de modele

nc plastic, pe suprafaa interioar a

create de Gall. Madame Gall adaug la

vasului, n parte pictat cu email, la rece, pe

semntura maestrului o stelu, care permite

exterior, este japonizant, cu crizanteme n

nlturarea echivocului i datarea pieselor.

nuane delicate de ivoire, ruginiu, roz, lila. Pe

Muzeul Pelior deine dou piese Gall

reversul bazei, este gravat numele artistului

cu stelu: o lamp de mas n form de

i al oraului de origine ca i meniunea

ciuperc, cu decor floral-vegetal n nuane

modle et dcor dpos. Pe lng valoarea

de maron, verde, galben, roz i o vaz nalt,

artistic excepional a piesei, este de

piriform-alungit, cu reea de flori i tije

subliniat calitatea remarcabil a materialului

vegetale verde nchis i lila pe fond glbui.

i combinarea unic a tehnicilor de execuie:


suflare liber, n mai multe etape, tanare la

Dup

cald, pictare cu email, aurire.

lui Gall, Perdrizet reia afacerea, care va

Primul

Rzboi

Mondial,

ginerele

fi lichidat n 1936, odat cu nchiderea


O alt pies Gall de valoare excepional

atelierelor.

deinut de Muzeul Naional Pele este vaza


intitulat de autor Muza paradisiac. Corpul

CHRISTIAN DSIR (1846 1907) a condus

ovoidal-alungit, cu linii elegante, fluide, este

atelierul de decorare al firmei BURGUN,

tratat plastic, n degradeuri de mov, cu zone

SCHWERER et Cie din Meisenthal, cea mai

ripsate i pulverizate cu aur. Incluziunile

important sticlrie din Lorena german.

minerale intercalate ntre straturile de sticl

mile Gall, legat nc din tineree de

dau piesei somptuozitatea dorit de artist,

Meisenthal i prieten al lui Antoine Burgun i

prin efectele optice create. La baza corpului,

al lui Christian Dsir, ncheie cu acetia n

este gravat meniunea Gall fecit 1895, iar

1886 un contract secret, prin care se stipulau

pe reversul bazei, monograma EG cu cruce

termenii unei colaborri ntre atelierele sale

de Lorena i titlul piesei: Musa Paradisiaca.

din Nancy i cele din Meisenthal. n 1889,


operele lui Christian Dsir strlucesc alturi

Producia industrial nceput de Gall n

de cele ale lui Gall la Expoziia Universal

1884 are drept scop s fac arta accesibil

de la Paris. Cinci ani mai trziu, contractul de

persoanelor cu venituri modeste, datorit

colaborare este anulat, datorit unei cderi a

scderii preurilor de execuie. Gall concepe

pieei i a restrngerii numrului de comenzi.

modele simplificate, dar foarte frumoase,

n 1901, Burgun, Schwerer et Cie este

cu cromatic vie i linii pline de armonie

transformat n societate anonim. Antoine

i elegan, prin care i propune s evite

Burgun, considerat a fi prea francofil i

falsitatea i bizareria. Piesele industriale

prea legat de prietenii din Nancy, a fost

sunt suflate n tipar, n mai multe straturi de

nlocuit de mile Wanner, deintor a ase

culori diferite i gravate prin atac acid, n

pri de capital, ca i Christian Dsir. Noua

etape succesive, ceea ce le confer semirelief

conducere a limitat producia artistic, ceea

i profunzime a decorului. Prin retuarea

ce l-a determinat pe Christian Dsir s-i

la roat a gravurii chimice se realizeaz

mute atelierul n propria cas. Dup 1903,

rafinarea i precizarea detaliilor.

fiul su, Armand i s-a asociat, iar titulatura


atelierului a devenit Christian Dsir i fiul.

Producia industrial a atelierelor Gall este

Astfel vor fi nregistrate piesele trimise la

realizat sub conducerea artistului pn la

expoziii.

94

Vas
Atelier Loetz Witwe,
circa 1900

Vase
Loetz Witwe Workshop,
Early 20th century

Pelisor Museum houses two Gall pieces

close to Meisenthal since his youth and a

with a star: a mushroom-shaped table

friend of Antoine Burgun and Christian Desire,

lamp, with floral-vegetal dcor in shades of

signs with them a secret contract in 1886,

brown, green, yellow, pink and a tall, pear-

which stipulates the terms of a collaboration

shaped, elongated vase, with flower grind

between his workshops in Nancy and those

and vegetal rods coloured in dark green and

in Meisenthal. In 1889, the works of Christian

lilla on a yellowish background.

Desire shine alongside those of Gall at the


Universal Exposition in Paris. Five years later,

After the First World War, Galls son-in-law,

the collaboration contract is cancelled due to

Perdrizet resumes the business, which will be

a market fall and a restriction in the number

closed down in 1936, at the same time with

of orders.

the closure of the workshops.


In 1901, Burgun, Schwerer et Cie is
CHRISTIAN DSIR (1846 1907) led the

transformed in an anonymous society.

decoration workshop of the BURGUN,

Antoine Burgun, considered to be too

SCHWERER et Cie company in Meisenthal,

francophile and to close to his friends in

the most important glass-making factory in

Nancy, was replaced by mile Wanner, the

German Loraine. mile Gall, who had been

holder of six parts of the capital, as well as


95

Stilul rafinat, de inspiraie simbolist al lui

talentai i la artizani foarte pricepui, care le-

Christian Dsir se recunoate cu uurin.

au devenit colaboratori permaneni. Numele

Procedeul

lor nu pot fi disociate de cel al atelierelor

decorurilor emailate, prinse ntre un fond de o

Daum: Henri Berg, Almaric Walter, Eugne

culoare luminoas i un strat exterior, incolor,

Gall, Jacques Gruber, Louis Majorelle.

su

original

de

realizare

pe care apoi roata sap degradeurile i red


relief, animnd motivul dintre straturi, face

Natura va fi principala surs de inspiraie,

din operele lui Christian Dsir adevrate

tratat dup preceptele colii de la Nancy.

minuni estetice ale stilului Art Nouveau.

Ca i n cazul lui mile Gall, arta japonez


constituie un model al simplificrii, al folosirii

Muzeul Naional Pele deine trei piese

liniilor sugerate ce las cmp liber imaginaiei.

Christian Dsir; dou dintre ele par a

n acest spirit, florile, fructele, animalele,

aparine aceleiai familii: sunt vase mici,

peisajele au mai puin rolul de a ncnta prin

piriforme, cu buza ondulat, de culoare

graia formelor sau simbolistica atitudinilor

verde, decorate cu crizanteme galbene

ct pe cel de a sublinia sclipirile sau reflexele

pe fond mtuit. La o analiz mai atent se

materialului unic, sticla. nelegerea deplin

observ c la unul dintre vase crizantemele

a calitilor acestei materii le permite s

sunt pictate pe stratul de baz mtuit prin

jongleze cu dificile tehnici de lucru la cald

acidare i acoperite cu un strat de suprafa,

(decoruri intercalate - tehnic pe care o

incolor. Tijele i centrele florilor sunt pictate

breveteaz n 1899, pudre colorate aplicate

pe stratul exterior, iar desvrirea decorului

ntre dou straturi de sticl, ce dau pieselor o

s-a

textur de pietre semipreioase), sau la rece,

sublinieri cu aur. Vasul pereche este decorat

realizat

prin

gravare

mecanic

dintre care cea a acidrii va deveni una dintre

prin pictare cu email n varianta tradiional,

particularitile atelierelor Daum. Ea va fi

pe stratul unic. Cea de-a treia pies, un vas

uneori combinat cu martelajul, mpins

piriform decorat cu friz de puni i motive

pn la limite extreme, cu gravarea la roat

florale i vegetale prezint o tehnic i mai

sau cu emailarea.

interesant: vasul din sticl colorat n mas


este suflat n tipar n dou straturi, ntre ele

n interioarele castelului Pelior pot fi

fiind intercalat decorul floral. Pe anumite

admirate piese Daum Nancy, ce ilustreaz

zone ce ocolesc motivul floral s-a presat un

n mod strlucit miestria artizanilor din

strat de past de sticl. Rezerve cu form de

aceste ateliere: o cup n opt lobi, cu decor

frunze, conturate cu email, nchid motivul

floral-vegetal n tonuri de brun, oranj, verde,

floral. Decorul este desvrit prin pictare cu

decorat prin gravare cu acizi, vasul sferoidal

aur coloidal.

intitulat Peisaj n sticl, un pahar din sticl


oranj gravat cu acizi, martelat i pictat cu

AUGUSTE i ANTONIN DAUM

email i aur coloidal, un vas piriform, cu decor

Atelierele Daum sunt fondate n 1878, cnd

degajat prin acidare i cu un aspect marmorat

Jean Daum cumpr o fabric de sticlrie

conferit de pudrele colorate intercalate ntre

de menaj, la Nancy. n 1891, fiii si, Auguste

straturile de sticl;

i Antonin deschid un atelier de decorare,

folosit i la decorarea vazei tubulare, pe

care va asigura nceputul unei producii cu

suprafaa creia sunt figurate flori i tije n

dubl vocaie: artistic i utilitar. Datorit

cromatic de galben, maron i verde.

aceeai tehnic este

copleitoarei concurene a lui mile Gall,


fraii Daum au fost nevoii s-i gseasc

Dup

propria lor modalitate de exprimare plastic,

atelierelor Daum adopt o estetic modern,

i pentru a reui au fcut apel la creatori

n conformitate cu micarea stilistic a epocii.

Primul

96

Rzboi

Mondial,

creatorii

97

98

Christian Desire. The new leadership limited

Daum Buys buys a glassware factory in Nancy.

the artistic production, which determined

In 1891, his sons, Auguste and Antonim open

Christian Desire to move his workshop in

a decoration workshop which marked the

his own house. After 1903, his son, Armand

beginningb of a production with a double

became his partner, and the name of the

function:artistical

workshop turned into Christian Desire and

the overwhelming competition with mile

son. All the pieces sent to exhibitions will be

Gall, the Daum brothers had to fiind their

branded with this name.

own means of artistic expressionand in order

and utilitarian. Due to

to do so, they fiind talented creators and


It is easy to recognise Christians Desires

very skillful craftsmen and make them their

refined,

original

permanent collaborators. Their names are

procedure of making enamelled decorations

symbolistic

style.

His

in close connection with Daum workshops:

between a light colour background and a

Henri Berg, Almaric Walter, Eugne Gall,

colourless exterior layer, on which a wheel

Jacques Gruber, Louis Majorelle.

engraves gradients and conveys reliefs,


animates the motif between the layers

Nature will become the main source of

and

inspiration ,being treated accordingly to the

makes Christian Desires works real

aesthetical marvels of the Art Nouveau.

ideas of the School of Nancy. As in the case


of mile Gall, the Japanese art represents a

The Peles National Museum houses three

model of simplification , using the suggestion

Christian Desire pieces; two of which seem

of lines meant to free the imagination. In this

to belong to the same family: they are small

spirit, the flowers, the fruits,the animals,the

pear-shaped green jars, with a wavy edge,

landscapes are meant to focus on

decorated

crysanthemums

glimpses and reflections of the unique

on a frosted background. On a closer look

material-the glass-rather than overwhelm by

you can notice that on one of the jars the

the grace of shapes or the symbolism of the

chrysanthemums are painted on the frosted

attitudes.

with

yellow

the

background by acidation and covered with a


colourless surface layer. The rods and centre

The full understanding of the properties

of the flowers are painted on the exterior

of this material allows them to juggle with

layer, and the completion of the dcor was

difficult techniques of high temperature

made by mechanical engraving and gold

manufacturing

underlining. The twin jar is decorated through

technique they patent in 1899, coloured

enamel painting in a traditional manner, on

powders

one layer. The third piece, a pear-shaped vase

glass, which give the pieces the texture of

decorated with a frieze depicting peacocks

semiprecious stones), or low temperature

and floral and vegetal motifs prove an even

manufacturing, of which techniques, the

more interesting technique: the vase of

acidification became one of the distinctive

coloured glass is blown in print in two strata

features of the Daum workshops. Sometimes

having a floral decoration between them.

it was combined with hammer-wroughting,

On some areas surrounding the floral motif

pushed until extreme limits, by wheel

there is a stratum of pressed glass paste. The

engraving or enamelling.

floral motif is closed by leaf-shaped reserves

shaped in email.

Inside the Pelisor Castle

(interwoven

decor

applied between two layers of

there are Daum

Nancy pieces which may be admired and


AUGUSTE and ANTONIN DAUM

they brilliantly illustrate ithe artistry of the

Daum Workshops are founded in 1878 when

artisans from these workshops: a goblet with

99

Vas
mile Gall, circa 1900

Vase
mile Gall,
Early 20th century

Decorurile florale devin linii, fr referin

i medalie de aur la expoziiile din Nancy, n

direct la natur.

1909 i din Bruxelles, n 1910.

ALMARIC WALTER (1870 1959), absolvent

Dup Primul Rzboi Mondial, Walter a hotrt

al cole de Svres, a prezentat n 1903

s se instaleze pe cont propriu la Nancy,

la Salon des artistes franais primele lui

continund producia de past de sticl,

paste de sticl executate dup modelele a

cu aceeai tehnic i n mare cu aceleai

diferii sculptori. Un an mai trziu, a ncheiat

modele ca la Daum. Henri Berg i va furniza

un acord prin care fraii Daum i puneau la

n continuare cele mai multe dintre modelele

dispoziie un atelier, la Nancy. Modelele vor

noi. Activitatea de producie s-a ncheiat n

fi furnizate mai ales de HENRI BERG (1870

anul 1935, cnd a fost nevoit s-i vnd

1937), decoratorul ef al atelierelor Daum.

atelierul.

Astfel, peste o sut de tipologii diferite au


fost puse n oper de Almaric Walter, pn

Castelul Pelior gzduiete, n Budoarul

n 1915. Printre realizrile sale se numr

reginei Maria, o pies din past de sticl

reproduceri dup antichiti, ale cror mulaje

semnat de Almaric Walter i de Henri Berg:

au fost aduse de Antonin Daum de la Viena,

o cup n form de floare cu patru petale, n

cteva nuduri feminine, dar mai ales motive

degradeuri de roz i mov, modelat manual, la

inspirate din faun: crabi, oareci, peti

rece. Prin ardere, materialul s-a vitrifiat doar

roii, oprle etc. Coloritul intens i profund

parial, iar compoziia a rmas neuniform,

caracterizeaz creaiile lui Almaric Walter. Ele

cu multe bule de gaz incluse. Dealtfel, acest

au fost recompensate cu diploma de onoare

fenomen este tipic pentru pasta de sticl,

la Expoziia Universal din 1900, cu diplom

material de grani ntre ceramic i sticl,

100

eight lobes, with a foral-vegetal pattern in

the production of glass paste, using the same

tones of brown, orange, green, decorated

technique and mostly the same models as

by acid engraving, the spheroidal jar named

Daum. Henri Berg still provided him most

Landscape on glass, an orange glass

of the new models. His production activity

egraved with acids, hammer-wrought and

ended in 1935 when he had to sell his

painted with enamel and colloidal gold, a

workshop.

pear-shaped jar, with free decor made by


acidification and with a grained appearance

The Pelisor Castle houses, in Queens Mary

given by the coloured powders interwoven

Boudoir, a piece made of galss paste signed

between the layers of glass; the same

by Almaric Walter and Henri Berg: a goblet

technique is also used for the decoration of

in the shape of a flower with four petals,

the tubular vase, on whose surface there are

in pink and purple gradients, manually

drawn flowers and rods in shades of yellow,

modeled, at low temperatures. By burning,

brown and green.

the material has vitrified only partially,

and its composition has remained uneven,

After the First World War, the creators of the

with many gas bubbles included. In fact,

Daum workshops adopt modern aesthetics,

this phenomenon is common for glass

pursuant to the stylistic movement of the

paste, a material between ceramics and

time. The floral decorations become lines,

glass, claimed by artists of both genres. The

without any direct reference to nature.

composition of the glass pastes includes a


certain percentage of clayey material and

ALMARIC WALTER (1870 1959), graduate

finely minced glass. Depending on the ratio

of cole de Svres, presented in 1903 at

of the two components, the object could

Salon des artistes franais his first glass

be modeled freely, when it is in a plastic

pastes made after models of different

state (the clayey component prevails), like

sculptors. A year later, he concluded an

in the case of the Walter and Berg goblet,

agreement according to which the Daum

or it could be moulded by slip casting, like

brothers offered him a workshop in Nancy.

porcelain, if the minced glass prevails. In

The models were mainly delivered by HENRI

both cases, the shaping of the object is done

BERG (1870-1937), the chief decorator of

at low temperatures. During the burning,

the Daum workshops. Thus, more than one

a bigger quantity of licquid developes

hundred different typologies have been put

compared to ceramics, but not enough to

in work by Almaric Walter until 1915. Among

obtain an homogeneous structure. That is

his achivements there are reproductions of

why glass pastes have a heterogeneous

antiques, whose casts have been brought

aspect, similar to semiprecious stones. It is

by Antonin Daum from Vienna, a few female

exactly this aspect that is exploited by the

nudes, but mostly motives inspired by fauna:

artists who work with glass paste and who

carbs, mice,red fish, lizards etc. The intense

carefully

and profound colours are characteristic

through experiments.

preserve

the recipes dicovered

for Almaric Walters creations. They were


rewarded with the honorary award at the

GABRIELE ARGY - ROUSSEAU (1885 1953)

Universal Exhibition in 1900, with a diploma

distinguishes himself, among all creators

and a gold medal at the exhibition in Nancy

of glass paste due to the material he used,

in 1909 and in Brusselles in 1910.

the perfection of his technique and the


powerful and contrasting colours. Tireless

After the First World War, Walter decided to

researcher, faultless technician, complete

move on his own in Nancy, and continued

artist, he developed a technique he later

101

revendicat deopotriv de artitii celor dou

Piesa semnat Argy Rousseau i expus

genuri. Compoziia pastelor de sticl include

la castelul Pelior, n Budoarul reginei Maria,

un anumit procent de material argilos i

este o cup gen bol, cu buz drug i corp uor

sticl fin mcinat. n funcie de raportul

godronat, decorat cu bru vegetal n volute,

dintre cele dou componente, obiectul poate

n nuane de albastru i verde. Materialul

fi modelat liber, cnd materialul se afl n

nobil, fin i translucid, cu o remarcabil

stare plastic, aa cum este cazul cupei

omogenitate pentru o past de sticl, culorile

Walter i Berg, sau turnat din barbotin, ca

perfect armonizate, decorul rafinat ofer un

un porelan, dac sticla mcinat este cea

farmec special acestei piese.

care predomin. n ambele cazuri, fasonarea


obiectului se face la rece. n timpul arderii, se

REN LALIQUE (1860 1945) este un artist

dezvolt o cantitate mai mare de faz lichid

fecund i original a crui oper considerabil

dect n cazul ceramicii, dar nu suficient

acoper perioadele Art Nouveau i mai ales

pentru a se obine o structur omogen. De

Art Deco. Ca orfevrier, la nceputul carierei

aceea pastele de sticl au aspect eterogen,

sale, Ren Lalique nnoiete conceptul de

asemntor pietrelor semipreioase. Tocmai

bijuterie, prin ideea curajoas de a combina

acest efect este exploatat de artitii care

pietre preioase, sticl, email pe forme

lucreaz n past de sticl, fiecare dintre ei

naturaliste, inspirate direct din flor i faun.

pstrnd cu grij reetele descoperite pe cale

n 1895, expune primele sale sticlrii

experimental.

mpreun cu bijuterii. Dup 1901, va renuna


la bijuterii i se va consacra n ntregime artei

GABRIEL ARGY - ROUSSEAU (1885 1953) se

sticlei. Conceptual, Lalique este mpotriva

distinge, ntre toi creatorii n past de sticl,

abundenei culorilor n sticl i prefer

prin materialul su, prin perfeciunea tehnicii

efectele date de transparena i limpezimea

i prin culorile puternice i contrastante.

materialului. Creaia sa denot o rezerv

Neobosit cercettor, tehnician desvrit,

clasic, n acord cu temperamentul lui linitit,

artist complet, va dezvolta o tehnic pe care o

dar imaginativ.

va transforma n mijloc de expresie personal


i va realiza o oper original.

n anul 1907, Lalique este solicitat de Casa


Coty s creeze noi forme de flacoane de

Gabriel Argy Rousseau a descoperit tainele

parfum. n acest domeniu introduce elegana,

pastei de sticl la Svres, unde a absolvit

frumuseea,

coala Naional de Ceramic, cu titlul de

concepute de el i lucrate n tipar urmresc

inginer ceramist. Din 1914, prezint oficial

s realizeze un contrast ntre cmpurile lise i

primele lui creaii la Salonul artitilor francezi.

suprafeele rugoase. Dac intervine culoarea,

n 1921, ntlnirea cu Gustave Moser Millot

ea este mov, verde vechi, brun spre ivoire, n

va conduce la crearea societii Les Ptes

nuane palide.

originalitatea.

Decorurile

de Verre Argy Rousseau. Operele sale


remarcabile au ca surse de inspiraie arta

Dup 1910, creaiile lui Lalique se degajeaz

din Grecia antic, Japonia, Mesopotamia.

de Art Nouveau i tind spre stilizare, spre

Temele favorite vor fi femeia i mai ales

schematizare, premize ale stilului Art Deco.

natura descompus, stilizat, abstractizat

Formele sunt din ce n ce mai ndrznee, pe

sau realist. n ceea ce privete culorile, cele

msura evoluiei lui stilistice. Tehnica devine

mai frecvente sunt violet, bleu, rou, verde.

i ea din ce n ce mai savant; cea a turnrii n

n general, combinaiile sunt contrastante:

cear pierdut se potrivete cel mai bine cu

violet pe fond alb, rou pe fond galben, violet

inteniile artistului.

sau gri.

102

turned into a means of personal epression

against the abundance of colours in glass and

and accomplished an original work.

prefers the effects given by the transparency


and clarity of the material. His creation

Gabriele Argy Rousseau discovered the

indicates a classical reserve, which illustrates

secrets of glass paste at Svres, where he

his calm but imaginative temper.

graduated the National School of Ceramics,


with the degree of ceramist engineer. From

In 1907, Lalique is appointed by the House

1914, he officially presened his creations

of Coty to create new shapes of perfume

at Salon des artistes franais. In 1921, the

bottles. In this area he introduces elegance,

meeting with Gustave Moser-Millot led to

beauty, originality. The decorations he

the establishement of the society Les Ptes

conceived were slipcasted and aim to create

de Verre Argy Rousseau. His remarkable

a contrast between smooth areas and rough

works have as a source of inspiration the

surfaces. If there is a colour which interfere ,

ancient Greek art, Japan, Mesopotamia.

it is purple, old green, aubrun towards ivoire,

His favourite themes are the woman and

in pale shades.

especially the nature decomposed, stylized,


abstracted or realistic. As far as colours are

After 1910, Laliques creations break away

concerned, the most common are violet, light

from Art Nouveau and go towards stylization,

blue, red, green. Generally, the combinations

schematization, premises of the Art Deco

are contrasting: violet on a white background,

style. The shapes ae more and more daring,

red on a yellow, violet or grey background.

as his style evolves. The technique becomes


increasingly pedantic ; the casting in lost wax

The piece signed Argy Rousseau which

suits best the intentions of the artist.

is on display at Pelisor Castle, in Queens


Mary Boudoir, is a bowl-like goblet, with an

After 1920, Ren Lalique is increasingly

extended edge for drinking and body with

requested

slight elevations, decorated with a vegetal

decorations, like those for a church in Jersey

belt in waves, in shades of bluie and green.

or the ocean liners Paris, Normandie and

The noble material, fine and translucent, with

le de France, for the trains Orient Express

a remarkable homogenity for a glass paste,

etc. The artists prestige remains untouched

the perfectly harmonized colours, the refined

until his death in 1945.

and

busy

with

orders

of

decoration give this piece a unique charm.


The Pelisor displays, in the Tea Hall, three
REN LALIQUE (1860 1945) is a prolific and

pieces of Art Nouveau created by Ren

original artist whose significant work covers

Lalique: the jar Chamarade, dated 1926,

the Art Nouveau period and especially Art

made of opaline glass, in conical shape,

Deco period. As a jeweller, at the beginning

with full circular handles decorated with

of his career, Ren Lalique renews the

elevated apple blossoms, the vase Thistle

concept of jewelery by the brave idea of

leaves, cylindrical, vertically decorated with

combining precious stones, glass and enamel

elevated thistle leave, made around the year

on naturalistic shapes, inpired directly by the

1922, by blow molding and matting with

flora and fauna.

acids, the same technique was used to create


the carafe Ctes plates, with a flattened,

In 1895, he displays his first glassware

rhombic

together with jewelery. After 1901, he gave

stripes. Queen Maries Boudoir displays the

up jewelery and he devoted himself entirely

jar Tortue with a spheric body, completely

to the art of glass. Conceptually, Lalique is

decorated with tortoiseshells, in coffee-

body,

103

decorated

with

vertical

Dup anul 1920, Ren Lalique este din

Gustav Klimt, Josef Maria Olbrich i Koloman

ce n ce mai solicitat i ncrcat cu masive

Moser, Secession-ul vienez, pe care l-a prsit

comenzi de decoraii, cum sunt cele pentru

n 1903, pentru a nfiina, alturi de Koloman

o biseric la Jersey sau pacheboturile Paris,

Moser i de bancherul Fritz Wrndorfer,

Normandie i le de France, pentru

Wiener Werksttte. Ei aspirau la o renatere a

garniturile de tren Orient Express etc.

artelor i a meteugurilor i doreau s aduc

Prestigiul artistului va rmne intact pn la

mai mult abstraciune i puritate formelor

moartea sa, n 1945.

n design, arhitectur, mobilier, sticlrie i


alte domenii ale artelor. ncepnd cu 1899,

Peliorul expune, n Salonul pentru ceai, trei

a predat la Universitatea de Arte Aplicate din

piese Art Nouveau create de Ren Lalique:

Viena, iar n 1905, Hofmann, Klimt i artitii

vasul Chamarande, datat 1926, din sticl

din Wiener Werksttte au proiectat Palais

opalin, de form tronconic, cu anse pline,

Stoclet, n Bruxelles, capitala Art Nouveau-

circulare, decorate n relief cu flori de mr,

ului.

vaza Frunze de ciulin, cilindric, decorat n


registre verticale cu frunze de ciulin reliefate,

Hoffmann este creatorul designului pentru

realizat n jurul anului 1922, prin suflare n

mai multe produse Wiener Werksttte, printre

tipar i mtuire cu acizi; n aceeai tehnic

care scaune, o lamp i servicii din sticl ce

este lucrat i carafa Ctes plates, cu

mbogesc patrimoniul unor importante

corpul aplatizat, romboidal, decorat n benzi

muzee precum Muzeul de Art Modern, sau

verticale. n Budoarul reginei Maria, este

Metropolitan Museum of Art. Prin stilul su

expus vasul Tortue, cu corp sferic godronat,

sobru i abstract constituie un precursor i

decorat n ntregime cu motiv carapace de

o surs de inspiraie pentru creatorii Micrii

broasc estoas, pe tonuri cafenii, pies

Moderniste i ai Art Deco-ului. Creaiile lui

premiat, n 1925, la Expoziia de art

Josef Hoffmann combin funcionalitatea i

decorativ de la Paris.

simplitatea formelor cu ornamentica rafinat


i inovatoare, de esen geometric.

PAUL NICOLAS, care i semneaz lucrrile


cu pseudonimul (DARGENTAL) se numr

Castelul Pelior expune, n Apartamentul

printre continuatorii stilului Art Nouveau,

reginei Maria, un serviciu de toalet creat

de la care reine principiile ornamentaiei

de Josef Hoffmann, compus din 20 de

naturaliste, mprumutat din flor i faun.

piese: flacoane, cutii, periere, savoniere,

Peliorul expune dou piese dArgental

buretiere, pahar. Toate aceste obiecte sunt

decorate prin gravare chimic: o lamp cu

dintr-un cristal de foarte bun calitate, topit

picior nalt i abajur ciuperc, ornamentat

n cuptoarele firmei Lobmeyr, n Boemia,

cu frunze de arar, n nuane de maron rocat

suflat n dublu strat: alb-rubiniu, decorat

pe fond glbui i un vas paralelipipedic, cu

prin tiere n motive geometrice n reea i

decor peisaj cu lac i arbori, n aceeai gam

lefuit n faete dreptunghiulare sau ptrate.

cromatic.

Ansamblul se remarc prin valenele estetice


deosebite, ce constau n stilul sobru i

JOSEF FRANZ MARIA HOFFMANN (1870

abstractizat, claritatea, simplitatea i logica

1956), arhitect i designer,

motivului decorativ ca i prin miestria

s-a nscut la

Pirnitz, Moravia, Austro-Ungaria i a studiat la

execuiei tehnice.

Higher State Crafts School din Brno, apoi la


Academia de Arte Frumoase din Viena, unde

FERDINAND BENEDIKT von POSCHINGER

i-a avut ca profesori pe Karl von Hasenauer i

(1867 1921) a motenit una dintre cele

Otto Wagner. n 1897, a fondat, mpreun cu

mai vechi sticlrii din pdurile bevareze,

104

coloured shades, a piece which was awarded

Vas

in 1925 at the exhibition of decorative arts

Christian Dsir,

in Paris.

circa 1910

Vase

PAUL NICOLAS, who signs his works by the


pseudonym (DARGENTAL) is one of the

Christian Dsir,

followers of the Art Nouveau style, from

Early 20th century

which he keeps the principles of naturalistic


ornamentation, borrowed from the flora
and fauna. The Pelisor displays two pieces
dArgental decorated by chemical engaving:
a lamp with a tall foot and a mushroomshaped lampshade, decorated with maple
leaves, in shades of red-brown on a yellowish
background and a rectangular jar, depicting
a lake landscape with trees, in the same
chromatic style.
JOSEF FRANZ MARIA HOFFMANN (1870
1956), architct and designer, was born in
Pirnitz, Austro-Hungary and he studied at
Higher State Crafts School in Brno, then at
the Academy of Fine Arts in Wien, where
he was taught by Karl von Hasenauer and
Otto Wagner. In 1897, he established,
together with Gustav Klimt, Josef Maria

to his sober and abstract style, he becomes

Olbrich and Koloman moser, the Wienner

a forerunner and a source of inspiration for

Secession, which he left in 1903, in order

the creators of the Modernist Movement

to establish, alongside koloman Moser and

and those of the Art Deco. Josef Hoffmanns

banker Fritz Wrndorfer, Wiener Werksttte.

creations combine functionality and the

They aspired towards the rebirth of arts and

simplicity of shapes with a refined and

craftmenships and they wanted to bring

innovative ornamentation, with geometrical

more abstraction and purity to the shapes in

essence.

design, achitecture, furniture, glassware and


other artistic areas. Strating with 1899, he

Pelisor Castle displays, in Queen Marias

lectured at the University of Applied Arts in

Apartment, a toilet service created by

Wien, and in 1905, Hoffmann, Klimt and the

Josef Hoffmann, made out of 20 pieces:

artists in Wiener Werksttte have designed

bottles, boxes, soap dishes, glasses etc.

Palais Stoclet, in Brussels, the capital of Art

All these objects are made of high-quality

Nouveau.

crystal, melted in the ovens of the Lobmeyr


company, in Bohemia, blown in a double

Hoffmann is the creator of the design of

layer: ruby white, decorated by cutting in

various Wiener Werksttte products, among

geometrical shapes in network and grinded in

which chairs, a lamp and glassware which

rectangular and square facets. The ensemble

enrich the heritage of various important

distinguishes

museums such as the Museum of Modern

aesthetical valencies, which consist in the

Art or the Metroplitan Museum of Art. Due

sober and abstract style, clarity, simplicity

105

itself

by

its

uncommon

fondat n 1629, la Hirschberg, aproape de

Art Nouveau-ului n America, prin calitile

Buchenau, i cumprat n 1808, de Benedikt

sale de artist vizionar, original i inventiv. A

von Poschinger (1785 1856), bunicul su,

practicat printre primii designul industrial i

care era deja proprietarul unor importante

a imaginat o nou estetic a luxului, adaptat

ateliere situate la Oberzweiselau i la

exigenelor stilului de via american. Creaia

Buchenau. n 1893, Ferdinand Benedikt preia

lui, foarte diversificat, s-a extins pe mai mult

conducerea sticlriei, care era deja cea mai

de jumtate de secol, din 1870 pn spre

important din Bavaria. n perioada 1898

1925.

1899, ncearc lansarea unei colecii de 1000


de piese de art, unicate numerotate, dup

Mai nti, s-a dovedit a fi un pictor nzestrat,

modelul atelierelor Tiffany i Loetz. Tentativa

apoi ca arhitect i designer a conceput

a fost un eec comercial, datorit preului

spaii peisagistice, decoraiuni interioare,

de cost ridicat. Reinnd lecia, Ferdinand

noi modele de mobilier, draperii, tapet,

Benedikt revine la producia de serie, dar

covoare. n cutarea unei viziuni artistice

continu s produc piese de nalt calitate,

unitare, a utilizat materiale diverse, ca

cu designul unor artiti valoroi, ce au

emailul, ceramica, bronzul, argintul, fierul

propus cea mai original sticlrie Jugendstil

forjat, lemnul pentru a crea o gam divers

din Germania, de un nivel comparabil cu

de obiecte de un mare rafinament. Cu toate

creaiile contemporane ale atelierelor Loetz

acestea, Tiffany rmne n istoria artei ca

Witwe. Ei au pregtit ndelung participarea

cel mai mare sticlar american. Sticla a fost

atelierelor la Expoziia Universal de la

mijlocul de expresie n care a excelat, cci

Paris, din anul 1900, efort ce s-a vzut

frumuseea intrinsec a materialului i-a

rspltit prin ctigarea medaliei de aur. Cel

oferit imense posibiliti creative i a permis

mai important dintre artitii decoratori ai

realizarea optim a concepiilor lui estetice.

atelierelor Poschinger a fost CARL GEORG

n 1865, ntreprinde prima vizit n Europa

von REICHENBACH (1872 1940), un creator

i parcurge Anglia, Irlanda i Italia. Rmne

din Mnchen, a crui oper se subsumeaz

impresionat de frumuseea sticlelor romane

Jugendstil-ului.

i siriene din Victoria and Albert Museum,


ale cror irizaii datorate secolelor de

Regina Maria a comandat, n anul 1906,

coabitare cu mineralele din solul n care

atelierelor Poschinger un serviciu de mas,

fuseser ngropate l vor inspira mai trziu n

ce urma s contribuie la ambientarea

cercetrile sale.

Sufrageriei bizantine din palatul Cotroceni.


O parte dintre aceste piese au fost aduse

ntre 1879 1883, L.C. Tiffany, mpreun

de regin la Castelul Pelior i fac parte din

cu Candace Wheeler - designer de textile i

expunerea permanent a Camerei de aur.

cu pictorii Samuel Colman i Lockwood of

Garnitura, n stil bizantin, este compus din

Forest creaz decoraiuni interioare inspirate

cupe i boluri din cristal, cu un somptuos

din culturile europene sau cele exotice ale

decor format din rezerve ce nchid motive

Japoniei, Chinei i Indiei, din arta egiptean,

animaliere trasate cu penia, n rou crmiziu

a Greciei antice sau a lumii islamice. O alt

pe fond aurit i cabooane diferit colorate:

surs de inspiraie a celor patru artiti ce

violet, verde, turcoaz, albastru, rou.

formau L.C. Tiffany and Associated Artists a


fost opera designerului britanic William Moris

LOUIS COMFORT TIFFANY (1848 1933),

(1834 1896) i a altor membri ai Arts and

fiul lui Charles Lewis Tiffany, fondatorul

Cafts Movement. Ei au decorat casele celor

celebrei Tifany & Co din New York, a

mai bogate i celebre personaliti ale epocii:

devenit cel mai important reprezentant al

Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt II,

106

and the logic of the decorative motifs, but

in Germany, at a level comparable with

Climar, detaliu

also in the mastery of the technical execution.

the contemporary creations of the Loentz

Ren Lalique, 1925

Witwe workshops. They carefully prepared


FERDINAND BENEDIKT von POSCHINGER

the participation of their workshops in the

Inkwell, detail

(1867 1921) inherited one of the oldest

Universal Exhibition from Paris in 1900,

Ren Lalique, 1925

glass

forests,

an effort which was rewarded with a gold

established in 1629, in Hirschberg, near

houses

in

the

Bavarian

medal. The most important artist of the

Buchenau, and bought in 1808, by Benedikt

Poschinger workshops was CARL GEORG

von Poschinger (1785-1856), his grandfather,

von REICHENBACH (1872-1940), a creator

who had already been the owner of various

from Munich, whose work submites to the

important workshops in Oberzweiselau and

Jugenstil.

Buchenau. In 1893, Ferdinand Benedikt took


over the management of the glass house,

In 1906 Queen Maria ordered a dinner set

which was already the most important in

from the Poschinger workshops, which was

Bavaria. In the period 1898-1899, he tried

going to contribute to the decoration of the

to launch a collection of 1000 numbered

Bizantine Dinning Room in the Cotroceni

unique art pieces, in a similar way to the

Palace. Some of the pieces were brought

Tiffany and Loents workshops. The attempt

by the Queen to Pelisor Castle and they are

was a comercial failure due to the high price.

part of the permanent display in the Gold

This experience made Ferdinand Benedikt

Chamber. The decoration, in Bizantine style,

return to serial production, but continues

is composed of crystal cups and bowls, with a

to produce high-quality pieces, with the

sumptuous decoration including reserves of

design of renowned artists, who came up

livestock motifs drawn with a pen, in shades

with the most original glassware Jugendstil

of brick-red on a golden background and

107

Henry Osborne Havemeyer, John Taylor

crizantem; lampa de alturi este o adorabil

Johnson

Metropolitan

pies Tiffany cu flori de glicin, druit mie

Museum of Art) sau a scriitorului Mark Twain.

de Pauline Astor Fraii Waldorf i Pauline

Ctre 1880, Tiffany renun la pictura pe

Astor, fiii lui William Waldorf Astor, primul

pnz sau pe lemn, pentru a se dedica

viconte de Astor, pe care tnra principes

plasticii prin intermediul sticlei. Talentul de

Maria i cunoscuse n 1901, la Cliveden, au

pictor peisagist i percepia fin a jocurilor

fost oaspeii castelului Pelior, n anii 1904

de lumin i culoare transpar n creaiile sale.

i 1905.

(preedinte

al

Artistul este captivat de textura i bogia


nuanelor materialelor vitrogene pe care le

Imensul talent de colorist i desenator al lui

va studia cu o perseveren ce l va conduce

Tiffany s-a manifestat i n sutele de modele

ctre cea mai mare descoperire a sa: sticla pe

de vesel create, ce desfoar un adevrat

care o va numi Favrile, termen ce provine

curcubeu de culori. Formele se inspir din

din latinescul fabrilis, care nseamn lucrat

sticlele antice greceti i romane, din vesela

de mn.

englezeasc, din arta decorativ chinezeasc


sau direct din natur. Regina Maria, o artist

n 1892, Tiffany deschide noua sa fabric de

nnscut, nu rmne indiferent n faa

sticl de la Corona, New York, unde continu

fascinantelor irizaii ale pieselor de sticlrie

constant cercetrile pentru ameliorarea noii

utilitar, cu forme elegante concepute de L.C.

sale invenii. Chiar dac sticla irizat fusese

Tiffany i include n colecia sa un serviciu

fabricat nc din secolul al XIX-lea, n Frana

pentru but, cu 98 de piese, ce cuprinde

de Pantin, n Anglia de Edward Webb sau n

carafe, pahare mari sau mijlocii pentru vin,

Austria de Lobmeyr, doar cnd Tiffany i mai

pahare pentru ap, lichior, vin sau ampanie,

trziu Loetz, n Boemia, o vor comercializa

cupe pentru ngheat, boluri i farfurioare.

pe scar larg la galeria Bing din Paris, ea va

Toate aceste piese sunt suflate liber ntr-o

cunoate un imens succes. Admirat mai ales

sticl nobil, de calitatea cristalului i

pentru delicateea ei, comparat cu aripi de

decorate prin gravare mecanic cu crini

fluturi sau cu pene de pun acest sticl, n

heraldici. Pe talp sau pe reversul bazei,

culori magice, deschide posibiliti att n

apare marca LC Tiffany Favrile.

domeniul artistic ct i n cel decorativ.


Este de remarcat acordul ntre designul
n Camera de aur a Muzeului Pelior,

obiectelor i preferinele estetice ale reginei

strlucete Wisteria lamp, unul dintre cele

Maria: culoarea este somptuoas, galben

ase exemplare din acest model care mai

auriu, cu irizaii sidefii, ce confer pieselor

exist n lume. Piciorul din bronz, sugernd

strlucire i le face regale; formele sunt

rdcinile i tulpina unui copac, are la partea

fine, elansate, cupele delicate se aeaz pe

superioar abajurul, cu forma coroanei

picioare subiri, nalte, iar motivul decorativ

unui arbore;

el este decorat cu motivul

este o trimitere clar spre calitatea de

florii de glicin, n tehnica vitraliului, n

suveran a proprietarei, dar i ctre preferina

gama cromatic predominant albastru i

reginei pentru aceste flori cu parfum unic.

verde. Despre felul n care regina Maria

i materialul este pe msur: un cristal fin,

intr n posesia acestei lmpi, ne ofer chiar

limpede, cu sonoritate bogat.

ea informaii, n lucrarea autobiografic


Povestea vieii mele, n paginile dedicate
descrierii Budoarului auriu (Camera de aur)
de la Pelior: cuverturile i pernele de
pe ezlong sunt toate n nuane de mov

108

cabochons in different colours: violet, green,

was his means of expression in which he

turquoise, blue, red.

exceled, as the inner beauty of the material


offered him enourmous creative possibilities

LOUIS COMFORT TIFFANY (1848 1933), the

and allowed the optimal accomplishment of

son of Charles Lewis Tiffany, the founder of

his aesthetic conceptions.

the famous Tiffany & Co from New York,


became the most important representative

In 1865, he visits Europe for the first time

of the American Art Nouvea due to his his

and covers England, Ireland and Italy. He is

qualities of visionary, original and inventive

impressed by the beauty of the Roman and

artist. He was among the first ones to practice

Sirian glass in Victoria and Albert Museum,

the industrial design and he imagined the

whose iridescences owed to the centuries of

new aesthetics of luxury, adapted to the

cohabitation with the minerals from the soil

requierments of the American lifestyle. His

they were buried in will inspire him later in

creation, highly diversified, extended over

his research.

more than half a century, from 1870 to 1925.


Between 1879-1883, L.C. Tiffany, alongside
Firstly, he proved to be a gifted painter,

Candace Wheeler textile designer- and

then as an architect and designer he

painters Samuel Colman and Lockwood of

conceived landscapes, interior decorations,

Forrest creates interior decorations inspired

new furniture, curtains, wallpaper, carpets.

by the European cultures or the exotic

Looking for a unitary artistic vision, he used

cultures of Japan, China and India, by the

different materials, like enamel, ceramics,

Egiptian, ancient Greek or Islamic art. Another

bronze, silver, wrought iron, wood to create

source of inspiration for the four artists who

a great range of objects of great refinement.

formed L.C. Tiffany and Associated Artists

However, Tiffany is remembered in the art

was the work of the British designer William

history as the greatest American glazier. Glass

Moris (1834-1896) and other members of

109

110

the Arts and Crafts Movement. They have

story of my life, in the pages dedicated to

decorated the houses of the richest and most

the description of the Gold Boudoir (the Gold

famous personalities of the time: Andrew

Chamber) from Pelisor: the covers and the

Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt II, Henry

pillows on the lounge chair are all in shades

Osborne Havemeyer, John Taylor Johnson

of chrysanthemum purple; the lamp on the

(president of Metropolitan Museum of Art)

side is an adorable Tiffany piece with glycine

or writer Mark Twain.

flowers, given to me by Pauline Astor.... The


Walorf brothers and Pauline Astor, children

Towards 1880, Tiffany gives up canvas and

of William Waldorf Astor, the first viscount of

wood painting, in order to devote himself

Astor, who the young princess Maria met in

to plasticity through glass. The talent as a

1901, in Cliveden, were guests in the Pelisor

landscape painter and the fine perception of

Castle in 1904 and 1905.

the games of lights and colours are apparent


in his creations. The artist is captivated

Tiffanys enourmous talent as a colourist

by the texture and wealth of the tones of

and painter was shown in the hundreads

the glass materials, which he studies with

of models of dishware created, which open

a perseverance that led to his greatest

a true feast of colours. The shapes found

discovery: the glass he named Favrile, a

their inspiration in the ancient greek and

term deriving from the Latin word fabrilis

roman glass, in English dishware, in Chinese

which means handmade.

decorative art or directly in nature. Queen


Maria, an inborn artist, does not remain

In 1892, Tiffany opens his new glass factory

indifferent to the fascinating iridescent

in Corona, New York, where he constantly

utilitary glassware, with elegant shapes

continues his research in order to improve

conceived by L.C. Tiffany and she includes

his

the

in her collection a dinking tableware, with

iridescent glass had been manufactured

new

invention.

Even

though

98 pieces, which includes carafes, large

since the 19th century in France by Pantin,

and medium wine glasses, water, liqueur or

in England by Edward Webb or in Austria by

champagne glasses, icecream cups, bowls

Lobmeyr, only when Tiffany and later Loetz

and small plates. All these pieces are blown

in Boemia, comercialize it at a large scale

freely in noble glass, with the same quality

at the Bing gallery in Paris, did it have an

as crystal and are decorated by mechanical

immense success. Admired mostly for its

engraving with heraldic lilies. On the base

delicacy, compared with butterfly wings or

or on its side there is the brand LC Tiffany

with peacock feathers this glass, in magical

Favrile.

colours, opens possibilities not only in art


but also in decoration.

It is worth noticing that the perfect match


between the design of the objects and Queen

The Gold Chamber of the Pelisor Museum

Marias aesthetical preferences :the colour is

displays the Wisteria lamp, one of the

somptuous, golden yellow with iridescent

six copies in the world. The bronze foot,

pearl, which gives the pieces grandeur and

suggesting the roots and trunk of a tree, has in

makes them royal; the shapes are fine, the

its superior part the lampshade, in the shape

delicate cups sit on a tall, slim foot, and the

of the crown of a tree; it is decorated with

decorative motive is an obvious reference

the motive glycine flowers, in the stained

to the royal descent of the owner, but also

glass technique, in colours of blue and green.

to the Queens preference for these flowers

Regarding the way in which Queen Maria

with an unique fragrance. The material does

acquires this lamp, Queen Mary herself offers

not fall behind: fine, clear crystal with a rich

the information in the her autobiography The

sonority.

111

112

Can, detaliu
Atelier Wrttembergische
Metallwarenfabrik,
circa 1900

Mug, detail
Wrttembergische
Metallwarenfabrik
Workshop, Early 20th
century

113

Arta metalului in
perioada Art Nouveau
arta

turntoriile artistice au fost supuse legislaiei

Corina Dumitrache

orfevrriei urmeaz aceleai tendine ale

de la finele secolului al XIX-lea, nceputul

Muzeograf

artelor

La

sfritul

secolului

decorative

al

XIX-lea,

Art

secolului al XX-lea. Pentru a descuraja

Nouveau. Meterii n prelucrarea metalului se

tributare

stilului

practica imitaiei fr limite a unei piese a

inspir din natur, fr a avea pretenia de a o

fost necesar implementarea unui sistem

imita ntocmai. n schimb, ei prefer s creeze

de numerotare

forme i aranjamente florale ori animaliere

Aceasta a combtut expresia ,,arta se termin

ntr-o manier nou. Sub considerentul c

acolo unde ncepe industria, calitatea

pn i tehnicile de prelucrare a metalului

pieselor, valoarea artei nefiind afectat.

a obiectelor dintr-o serie.

erau nvechite, precum presarea, tanarea,


filigranarea, ciocnirea, artitii erau de

Oraul Mnchen a fost considerat centrul

acord c singura modalitate de a revitaliza

de rspndire al noului stil decorativ,

aceast art era aceea ca ei s-i aduc

Jugendstil. Aici, din mbinarea elementelor

propria

prelucrare

de art japonez cu decorurile britanice i

manual inedit. Aceasta se va concretiza

interpretri ale goticului i rococoului au

prin decorarea pieselor prin tehnica ,,au

rezultat produse distincte cu aspect inedit

repouss,

foii

n artele decorative. Exponentul noii arte din

metalice din interior spre exterior, pentru a

Germania sfritului de secol XIX, nceputul

evidenia decorul n relief al pieselor, tehnic

secolului al XX-lea, artistul MAX STRBL, a

ce va cunoate o amploare deosebit. De

creat piese de mare rafinament, de o calitate

aici a pornit dilema artitilor orfevri, mprii

excepional. Cariera sa a nceput la scurt

n dou tabere, unii care susineau c

timp dup terminarea

puritatea expresiei unui produs se gsete

Regale de Arte Aplicate din Mnchen, n

numai n prelucrarea manual, deci piesele

1887, profesorul su fiind Fritz von Miller.

s fie unicate, alii care considerau

Se angajeaz n 1891 n atelierul Georg

industrializarea trebuie s precead calitatea

Sanktjohannsers, fondat la 1812. Specializat

produselor.

tabere,

n domeniul argintriei religioase, domeniu

avea s contribuie emailarea i decorarea

n care exceleaz, artistul german realizeaz

pieselor cu cabooane cu pietre preioase

obiecte de o frumusee deosebit, apreciate

i semipreioase. Bronzurile realizate n

de pasionaii artei. Operele sale erau create

contribuie

printr-o

reprezentnd

favoarea

ciocnirea

primei

114

cursurilor colii

Metalworking during
the Art Nouveau period
At the end of the 19th century, the art of

put under the rule of law starting with the end

Corina Dumitrache

metalwork follows the same tendencies as the

of the 19th century, beggining of the 20th

Curator

decorative arts tributary to the Art Nouveau

century. In order to discourage the limitless

style. The metalworkers find inspiration

copying of a single piece, it was necessary

in nature, without the intention to create

to implement a system of numbering of the

perfect copies of it. On the contrary, they

objects from each series. This contradicted

prefer to create shapes and floral and animal

the saying art ends where industry begins,

arrangements in a new manner. Considering

the quality of the pieces and the value of the

that even the techniques used for metalwork

art remaining untouched.

were outdated, such as pressing, stamping,

watermarking, hammering, the artists agreed

The City of Munich was thought to be the

that the only way to revive this art was

centre from where the new decorative style

through their own contribution by using a

Jugestil spread. Here, from the combination

new manual manufacturing process. This

of elements of Japanese art with British

takes form through the decoration of pieces

decorations and interpretations of the

using the technique ,,au repouss, which

Gothic and Rococo styles have been born

means hammering the metal sheet from the

distinctive products with a new appearance

inside out in order to emphasize the dcor,

in decorative arts. The exponent of the new

a technique which will reach an outstanding

art in late 19th century Germany, the artist

popularity. From here started the dilemma

MAX STRBL, has created pices of great

of the metal artists, divided into two

refinement and exceptional quality. His

groups, one which claimed that the purity

career begun shortly after he finished the

of expression in a product is found only by

courses of the Royal School of Applied Arts

manual manufacturing, therefore the pieces

from Munich, in 1887, his teacher was Fritz

should be unique, and another which thought

von Miller. He is employed in 1891 at Georg

that industrialization had to preceed quality.

Sanktjohannsers workshop, founded in1812.

In favour of the first group is the enamelling

Specialized in religious silverware, a field in

and decoration of the pieces with cabochons

which he excels, the German artist makes

with precious and semiprecious stones. The

objects of incredible beauty, appreciated by

bronzes made in the artistic foundries were

those with a passion for art. His works were

115

dup desene prealabile, contrar procedeului

fost contribuia de necontestat a sculptorului

folosit de profesorul Miller, fondatorul unui

i designerului Albert Mayer, care prefera s-

atelier de prelucrare a metalului din 1876,

i creeze propriile modele, din dorina de a

care renunase la desenele i modelarea

se remarca prin piese de mare originalitate.

n ceramic a pieselor din dorina de a

Realizarea unei game variate de obiecte, ce

descoperi spontan diversele efecte care

includeau printre altele i platouri, servicii

puteau s apar n timpul procesului de

de cafea i de ceai, rame de fotografii, cni

creaie. Dup 1896, domeniul de activitate

de bere, cni de ap cu suport metalic, a

al lui Max Strbl s-a diversificat, realizarea

fost determinat de o strns colaborare

bijuteriilor i accesoriilor devenind pentru

ntre atelierul WMF i ateliere de fabricare a

Strbl o nou modalitate de expresie a

sticlei din Boemia. Pentru a crete ritmul de

talentului su. Printre piesele reprezentative

fabricaie a pieselor care mbinau metalul i

pentru creaiile Jugendstil ale orfevrului

sticla, numeroi artiti din Boemia s-au mutat

german din castelul Pelior, se numr

n Geislingen, ceea ce a produs o dezvoltare

un crucifix, un potir, un pocal i o cup cu

masiv a produciei i livrrilor de piese

capac. Rafinametul artei orfevrului german

WMF att n Germania, ct i peste hotare.

este subliniat prin completarea decoraiei

Casa Regal a Romniei

pieselor cu cabooane cu pietre preioase i

produsele WMF create de-a lungul timpului,

semipreioase, lemn de esen exotic, email,

decorate n stiluri diferite. Printre piesele

motive ornamentale de inspiraie celtic, cu

Jugendstil din dormitorul sorei preferate a

entrelacuri, meandru i animale fantastice.

reginei Maria, Victoria Melita (Ducky), din

Marcate Max Strbl i Sanktjohannsers, ele

castelul Pelior, se gsete o can din metal

atest numele autorului i al atelierului

argintat, caracteristic produselor marcate

prin

intermediul

cruia

piesele

a beneficiat de

erau

WMF, prin form i decoraie. Corpul piriform

comercializate. La grania dintre obiectul laic

al cnii, cu gt lung, decorat pe ntreaga

i de cult, creaia artistului german este de o

suprafa cu irii, ansa n forma unui personaj

valoare estetic fr egal.

feminin reprezentat nud, cu pr lung ce


curge n valuri, sunt elemente decorative

Tributare Jugendstil-ului sunt i creaiile

care au definit produsele create de atelierul

atelierului

Wrttembergische Metallwarenfabrik.

WRTTEMBERGISCHE

METALLWARENFABRIK, fondat n anul 1880,

n oraul Geislingen. Firma avea reputaia

n Frana, stilul Art Nouveau a cunoscut o

de pionier n producia pieselor n stil arta

apreciere deosebit din partea iubitorilor

1900 i i marca produsele cu iniialele

de frumos. Creaiile

WMF. Atelierul s-a impus n domeniul

perioad poart amprenta inconfundabil

orfevrriei nu numai datorit produselor din

caracteristic stilului, n ce privete forma

argint , ci i a celor din metal comun argintat.

i modelele decorative specifice noii arte.

Numeroase piese din colecia castelului sunt

Ornarea obiectelor n episoade distincte,

realizate, potrivit mrcilor, dintr-un aliaj zinc-

dar care au continuitate ntre ele, era un

antimoniu-cupru, care servea ca metal de

procedeu deseori uzitat n creaiile sale de

baz pentru argintare. Se folosea un gram

ctre GUSTAVE JOSEPH CHRET. Talentatul

de argint pentru un decimetru de suprafa

sculptor, ceramist, orfevru a colaborat timp

metalic. Fabrica producea obiecte de acest

ndelungat cu Eugne Soleau, proprietarul

gen n perioada Jugendstil, de la 1900

turntoriei n care erau realizate piesele

pn la nceputul Primului Rzboi Mondial.

de orfevrrie semnate Chret. Studiile n

Determinant pentru calitatea i succesul

domeniul sculpturii l-au propulsat pe tnrul

rsuntor al produselor atelierului WMF a

Gustave Joseph, reuind s expun la Salonul

116

realizate n aceast

Ceainic, detaliu
Atelier romnesc,
circa 1900

Teapot, detail
Romanian Workshop,
Early 20th century

created after prior designs, contrary to the

in 1880 in the town of Geislingen. The

method of professor Miller, the founder of

company had the reputation of a pioneer in

a metal workshop in 1876, who had given

the production of pieces in the style of the

up the drawings and ceramic moulding

1900s and they branded their products with

of the pieces in order to spontaneously

the initials WMF. The workshop imposed

discover

appearing

itself in the field of metalwork not only

during the creation process. After 1876,

the

divers

effects

because of its silver products, but also due

Max Strbls field of activity has diversified,

to those made of common silvered metal.

the crafting od jewellery and accessories

Numerous pieces from the castles collection

becoming for him a new means to express

are crafted according to the brands from an

his talent. Among the representative pieces

alloy of zinc-antimoium-copper which served

for the Jugendstil creations of this German

as base material for silvering. They used

metalworker in the Pelisor Castle are a cross,

1 gram of silver for a decimetre of metallic

a chalice, a goblet and a cup with a lid. The

surface. The factory produced this kind of

refinement of the German artist is underlined

objects in the Jugendstil period from 1900

by the completion of the decorations with

until the beginning of the First World War.

cabochons with precious and semiprecious

The contribution of the sculptor and designer

stones, exotic wood, enamel, celtic motives.

Albert Meyer determined the quality and

Branded Max Strbl and Sanktjohannsers

outstanding success of the products of the

they certify the name of the author and the

WMF workshop, this artist preferred to create

workshop where the pieces were sold. At the

his own models from the wish to stand out

border between the laic and religious object,

through originality. In order to create a large

the creation of this German artist hold an

range of pieces, which included plates,

aesthetical value without equal.

coffee and tea tableware, photo frames, beer


cups, water mugs with metallic support, a

Tributary to the Jugendstil are also the

close collaboration was necessary between

creations

the WMF workshop and workshops which

of

the

METALLWARENFABRIK

WRTTEMBERGISCHE
workshop

founded

made Bohemia glass. In order to speed up

117

de la Paris din anul 1863. Dup acest episod

Cup

i angajarea n atelierul celebrului Bacircarat,

Max Strbl, Mnchen

cariera sa a cunoscut un mare avnt. n 1879,

circa 1900

Chret obine Premiul de la Svres pentru


realizarea unui proiect de vase nalte de 2

Cup

metri. Prin cstoria cu fiica lui Albert Ernest

Max Strbl, Munich

Carrier Belleuse, Chret devine succesorul

Early 20th century

socrului su, pentru un an, la conducerea


Direciei de Art a Manufacturii Naionale
de la Svres.

Fratele lui Gustave Joseph,

pictorul Jules Chret, exponent al stilului Art


Nouveau, l-a ajutat n promovarea pieselor,
prin realizarea afielor ilustrative. n colecia
M. N Pele, reprezentativ pentru creaia lui
Gustave Joseph Chret este piesa denumit
Idila, un vas tronconic cu decor n mezzorelief,
prezentnd n detaliu o poveste de dragoste,
format din trei episoade, dispuse n sensul
acelor de ceasornic. Deosebit este faptul c
rotirea vasului creaz impresia privitorului
c se afl n faa unui film mut de la finele
secolului al XIX-lea. Iniial, autorul a realizat
aceast oper pe trei panouri din bronz, cu
dimensiunile de 33,30 cm x 16,30 cm, toate

art. A frecventat cursurile colii Tehnice

ncadrate ntr-o singur ram, formnd un

pentru Industria Lemnului din Bozen (1885-

tablou.

1888), cizelndu-i ndemnarea mai apoi


la Colegiul de Arte i Meserii din Viena.

Merit amintite creaiile Art Nouveau ale

Sub ndrumarea profesorilor August Kuhne

firmelor pariziene MIELE & Co, CHRISTOFLE,

(1888-1891) i Otto Konig (1891-1894),

ERCUIS,

realizarea

care l-au pregtit n domeniul sculpturii,

orfevrriei domestice, precum servicii de

drumul ctre celebritate i s-a deschis. Dup

cafea, servicii de ceai, tacmuri, candelabre,

un an petrecut la Mnchen, Gurschner se

coupe-papier-uri, platouri, ct i n elaborarea

mut la Paris n 1897, intrnd n contact cu

argintriei religioase. Realizrile acestor

artiti interesai de transformarea obiectelor

ateliere,

comune, obinuite,

specializate

att

etalate cu succes la Saloanele

n piese de art. n

pariziene, au ridicat prestigiul de care se

capitala Art Nouveaului francez, tnrul artist

bucura argintria de provenien francez de

austriac se regsea n trsturile artei 1900,

la nceputul secolului al XX-lea.

a crui sensibilitate era omogen pentru


el i implementa noi funcionaliti piesei,

La Viena, GUSTAV GURSCHNER (1873-1970)

crendu-i astfel propriul stil. Admiratorii

a reuit s-i exprime inepuizabila imaginaie

operei sale, mpratul Franz Joseph, prinesa

i calitile sale artistice deosebite, prin

motenitoare Maria a Romniei, au apreciat

crearea unor piese banale precum sonerii,

miestria lui Gurschner, ns au existat i

climri, sfenice, lmpi electrice, press-

critici ai operei sale, contrariai de modelele

papier-uri, sigilii, vase pentru flori, att de

inovatoare, considerate uneori indecente,

neobinuite, dar recunoscute i apreciate

nepotrivite n art. Femeia fatal, redat nud,

nu doar pentru utilitate, ci i ca opere de

surprins n atitudini provocatoare, subiect

118

the manufacturing process of pieces which

Cheret, exponent of the Art Nouveau style,

combined metal and glass numerous artists

helped him to promote his pieces by mean

from Bohemia moved to Geislingen, which led

of illustrative posters. In the collection from

to a massive improvement in the production

the Peles National Museum representative

process and delivery of the WMF pieces both

for Gustave Josephs creation is the piece

in Germany and abroad. The Romanian Royal

called Romance, a truncated vase with a

House benefited from the WMF products over

mezzorelief dcor depicting in detail a love

time, decorated in various styles. Among the

story made out of three episodes, arranged

Jugendstil pieces from the bedroom of the

clockwise. Unusually, while spinning the jar

Queens favourite sister, Ducky, from Pelisor

you are under the impression of watching

Castle there is a mug made of silvered metal,

a silent movie from the end of the 19th

characteristic for the products branded WMF

century. Initially the author made this work

due to its shape and decorations. The pear-

on three bronze panels with the dimensions

shaped body, with a long neck, decorated

33,30 cm x 16,30 cm, all of them encased in

entirely with irises, the handle in the shape

the same fram forming a picture..

of a nude female, with long wavy hair, are all


elements which defined the products created

It is well worth remembering the Art Nouveau

by the Wrttembergische Metallwarenfabrik

creations of the Parisian companies MIELE

workshop.

& Co, CHRISTOFLE, ERCUIS, specialized in


making domestical metalwork, as coffee

In France, the Art Nouveau style has known a

and tea tableware, silverware, chandeliers,

remarkable appreciation from the art lovers.

coupe-papiers, plates, but also religious

The creations made during this period bear

silverware. The accomplishments of these

the unmistakable mark characteristic for

workshops, successfully displayed at the

this style concerning shapes and decorative

salons in Paris, made the French silverware

models of the new art. Decorating the

from the beginning of the 20th century even

objects in distinct episodes, but which prove

more appreciated.

continuity, is a method often used in his

creations by GUSTAVE JOSEPH CHRET. The

In Vienna, GUSTAV GURSCHNER (1873-1970)

talented sculptor, ceramist, metalworker has

managed to express his endless imagination

collaborated for a long time with Eugene

and wonderful artistic qualities by creating

Soleau, the owner of the foundry in which

ordinary pieces such as door bells, ink pots,

the pieces signed Cheret were created. The

candlesticks, electric lamps, press-papiers,

studies in the field of sculpture propelled

seals, flower vases, which were so unusual,

the young Gustave Joseph, who managed to

but recognized and appreciated not only for

display his work at the Paris Salon from 1863.

their usefulness, but also as works of art. He

After this episode and the employment

attended the courses of the Technical School

at the famous Bacircarats workshop, his

for Wood Industry in Bozen (1885-1888),

career has known a great take-off. In 1879,

later on honing his abilities at the College of

Cheret obtains the Prize de la Sevres for a

Arts and Crafts in Wien. Under the guidance

making a project for two-metre tall vases.

of the teachers August Kuhne (1888-1891)

As a result of his marriage with Albert

and Otto Konig (1891-1894), who prepared

Ernest Carrier Belleuses daughter, Cheret

him in the field of sculpture, he started his

becomes the successor of his father-in-

journey to fame.. After spending a year in

law for a year, at the head of the Direction

Munich, Gurschner moves to Paris in 1897,

of the National Manufacturing Art in Sevre.

meeting artists interested in transforming

Gustave Josephs brother, the painter Jules

ordinary objects into works of art. In the

119

predilect n arta de la nceputul secolului al

Viena, obiectele din patrimoniul castelului

XX-lea, motivele florale, vegetale, geometrice,

Pele sunt gravate la baz cu numele

motivele

curbele

turntoriei. Una dintre piesele lui Gurschner,

sinuoase, maniera neobinuit de tratare a

se gsete n dublu exemplar, ca dimensiuni,

subiectelor i-au asigurat succesul lui Gustav

form i decoraie, ns de acest dat,

Guschner. Membru al Secessionului vienez,

duplicatul este marcat cu numele turntoriei

membru al Hagenbund, consilier cultural

Berndorf din Berna, fondat n anul 1843, de

al Vienei, consilier de onoare al Asociaiei

ctre Alexander Schoeller i Alfred Krupp.

artitilor vienezi, muli ani preedinte al

Turntoria Berndorf s-a bucurat de atenia

Federaiei Artitilor i Sculptorilor Austrieci,

Casei Imperiale Austro-ungare, a Casei

Gurschner i gsete locul bine meritat

Regale Romne.

de

inspiraie

celtic,

pe scena artitilor vremii sale. Semnate de


Gurschner, bronzurile achiziionate de Casa

Motivele florale n volut, micile insecte,

Regal a Romniei, reprezentnd cache-pot-

dragonii, fac parte din categoria subiectelor

uri i vase decorative, sunt decorate cu motive

de

celtice reprezentnd animale fantastice,

Suchanek, talentatul artist austriac care i-a

spirale, cruci, motive geometrice pe care

desfurat activitatea la Viena. Mrturie

le regsim i n decoraia mobilierului din

n acest sens este caseta din patrimoniul

Dormitorul de Aur al reginei Maria, din Pelior.

castelului Pelior, realizat din bronz, la

Deseori, artistul austriac nu se mulumea

turntoria vienez K. K. Kunst Erz Giessenei.

s pstreze culoarea natural a bronzului.

mbinarea dintre atributele funcionaliste i

Aurirea motivelor ornamentale sau vopsirea

valenele artistice deosebite ale pieselor,

parial a acestora aveau rolul de a aduga

au asigurat succesul operei sale, clasndu-l

un caracter distinct creaiilor sale. Realizate

pe Viktor Suchanek n rndul creatorilor

n turntoria K. K. Kunst Erz Giessenei din

subscrii ideilor Secessionului austriac.

compoziiune

preferate

de

Viktor

Zaharni
Atelier Nicolau, Bucureti
1/4 sec. XX

Sugarbowl
Nicolaus Workshop,
Bucharest
Early 20th century

120

capital of the French Art Nouveau, the

Floral

young Austrian artist was drawn towards

dragons are part of the composition subjects

the 1900s art, the sensitivity of which was

preferred by Viktor Suchanek, the talented

homogenous for him and it implemented

Austrian artist who worked in Vienna. As

new functionalities to the piece, thus,

evidence stands the box from the patrimony

creating its own style. The admirers of his

of the Peles Castle, made in bronze, at the K.

work, the Emperor Franz Joseph and Princess

K. Kunst Erz Giessenei foundry. The merging

Marie of Romania, appreciated Gurschners

of the functionality and the distinguished

mastery, but there were also critics of his

artistic valences of the pieces assured the

work, annoyed by his innovative models,

success of his work, placing Viktor Suchanek

sometimes seen as indecent, inappropriate

in the line of creators subscribed to the ideas

in art. The femme fatale depicted in a nude, in

of the Austrian Secession.

motifs

in

volute,

small

insects,

provocative scenes, a favourite subject in art


at the beginning of the 20th century, floral,

The United States of America enjoyed the

vegetal, geometrical, celtic motives, sinuous

prestige gained by the TIFFANY company,

curves, the uncommon manner of treating

founded by Charles Lewis Tiffany in 1837,

subjects assured Gustav Gurschners success.

known after the year 1853 under the name

Member of the Wiener Secession, member

Tiffany & Co. The products made of noble

of Hagenbund, cultural counsellor of Wien,

metals created in the American workshop

honorary counsellor of the Association of

have participated in numerous expositions

Wiener Artists, many years president of the

organized in Paris,winning various prizes

Federation of Austrian Artists and Sculptors,

and distinctions. For his merits, in 1878, C.L.

Gurscher found his well-deserved place on

Tiffany was rewarded with the title Knight

the scene of the artists of his time. Signed

of the Honorary Legion. At the Universal

by Gurschner, the bronzes acquired by the

Exposion in Paris in 1900 he consolidated

Romanian Royal House, representing cache-

the fame of Tiffany & Co. workshop, through

pots and decorative jars, are decoratated

the decernation of four prizes for leather

with celtic motives representing fantastic

products, jewellery, silverware and precious

animals, spirals, crosses, geometrical motives

stones, in 1902, Charless son, Louis Comfort

found in the decoration of the furniture in

Tiffany takes the reigns of the business and

Queen Maries Gold Bedroom, in Pelisor.

rules the metalworks American market with

Often, the Austrian artist was not content

innovative pieces. The success of the Tiffany

with keeping the natural colour of bronze.

company determined Louis Comfort to

Gilding the ornamental motives or partially

open branches of his store in Paris. Tiffany

painting them had the role of adding a

& Co. delivered orders from some great

distinctive character to his creations. Made

personalities of the time. The American

in the K. K. Kunst Erz Giessenei foundry in

President Abraham Lincoln, Romanian Crown

Vienna, the objects from the Peles Castles

Princess Marie are only a few names on their

patrimony are engraved on the base with

list. The lavoir service made of gilded brass,

the foundrys name. One of the Gruschner

decorated with a cross, the favourite motif of

pieces, found in two copies with the same

the beautiful Romanian princess, was created

dimensions shape and decorations, but this

at her wish, holding a special place among

time the copy is branded with the foundrys

the pieces which enrich the decoration of her

name, Berndorf from Berna, founded in 1843

bedroom, in the summer residence in Sinaia.

by Alexander Scholler and Alfred Krupp. The

In England, the style Arts and Crafts

Berndorf got the attention of the Austro-

enjoyed an outstanding success, due to the

Hungarian Imperial House and the Romanian

production of metalwork in the Birmingham,

Royal House.

London, Sheffiels workshops. The fame the

121

prinesa motenitoare a Romniei, sunt


Statele Unite al Americii s-au bucurat de

doar cteva nume ce s-au regsit pe lista

prestigiul ctigat de firma TIFFANY, fondat

comanditarilor firmei americane. Serviciul

de Charles Lewis Tiffany n 1837, cunoscut

de lavoir din aram aurit, decorat cu crucea

dup anul 1853 sub denumirea Tiffany & Co.

gamat,

Produsele din metale nobile create n atelierul

principese romne, a fost creat la dorina

american au participat la numeroase expoziii

acesteia, ocupnd un loc deosebit printre

organizate la Paris, ctignd numeroase

piesele ce mbogeau decoraia dormitorului

premii i distincii. Pentru meritele sale, n

su, din reedina de var de la Sinaia.

motivul

preferat

al

frumoasei

anul 1878, C.L. Tiffany a fost recompensat


cu titlul de Cavaler al Legiunii de Onoare.

n Anglia, stilul ,,Arts and Crafts s-a bucurat

Expoziia Universal de la Paris din 1900

de un succes rsuntor, prin producia de

a consolidat faima atelierului Tiffany & Co,

piese de orfevrrie create n atelierele

prin decernarea a patru mari premii pentru

Birmingham,

produsele din piele, bijuterii, argintrie i

obiectelor din metal de sorginte englezeasc

pietre preioase. n 1902, fiul lui Charles,

s-a datorat iscusinei meterilor, care au tiut

Louis Comfort Tiffany preia ntreaga afacere

s combine n proporii echilibrate metalul cu

i domin piaa de orfevrrie american cu

materiale diverse, precum fildeul, nuca de

piese inovatoare. Succesul cunoscut de firma

cocos, sideful, lemnul. Motivele decorative

Tiffany l-a determinat pe Louis Comfort s

de inspiraie celtic, bizantin, roman,

deschid filiale ale magazinului su la Paris.

japonez, tehnicile de prelucrarea metalului,

Tiffany & Co a onorat comenzi venite din

emailarea, nnobilarea pieselor cu cabooane

partea unor mari personaliti ale epocii.

cu pietre preioase i semipreioase, corali,

Preedintele american Abraham Lincoln,

lapis-lazuli, au avut ca rezultat obiecte n

Londra,

Sheffield.

Faima

Zaharni
Atelier Miele & Co., Paris
1/4 sec. XX

Sugarbowl
Miele & Co. Workshop, Paris
Early 20th century

122

metal English objects enjoyed was owed

Associasion of the Jewellers, Watchmakers

to the skill of the metalworkers, who knew

and Similar Crafts of Romania (1923). Coffee

to combine in even proportions metal with

and tea tableware, goblets, plates, decorative

various materials, such as ivory, coconut,

mugs crafted in his workshop, in the Art

perls, wood. The Celtic, Bizantine, Roman,

Nouveau style, are the expression of harmony

Japanese decorative motives, the techniques

between shape and decoration which intends

of manufacturing, enamelling, enriching the

to display the direction of movement, in

pieces with cabochons with precious and

which prevails the floral-vegetal asymmetric,

semiprecious stones, corals, lapis-lazuli, had

imperfect

as a result objects in which the exceptional

tableware from the Peles Castles patrimony,

artistic atributes undergo functionality..

of which remains the sugar bowl and the

motives,

sinuousity.

The

tea

teapot, is decorated with a floral, iris motive


The Crown Princess of Romania had an

treated in the Art Nouveau manner. On the

important role in promoting the Art Nouveau

base of both pieces it is stamped the name

style by organizing and supporting the

of the Bucharest workshop, a pioneer of Art

Romanian artist societies. Her works of art

Nouveau in Romania at the beginning of the

were of great influence, too. Many artists in

20th century, Nicolau.

the field of woodwork and metalwork used


the models drawn by the Princess to decorate

In the name of beauty, the Romanian artists

objects characterised by originality, beauty,

worked not only noble materials,such as

innovative spirit. Romanian craftsmen found

gold and silver, but also the metal, tin, brass,

inspiration in the creation of the western

copper, bronze in order to create a wide

workshops, but the attempt to insert

range of colours, forms and exceptional

Romanian decorative elements is obvious,

decorations.

the floral-vegetal, geometrical motifs which


adorned the traditional Romanian costume

The decorative style which became famous

merges in armony with those of Celtic, Gothic

at the beginning of the 20th century found

origin creating a whole.

its inevitable decay around the beginning of


the First World War.The world conflagration

An important response was received by

put an end to the activity of many workshops

the creations in the field of ecclesiastical

as there were few which manage to continue

silverware and of daily use, in watchmaking

its activity.These ones had to adapt to the

and the production of medals created in

new decorative trends from the 20th century

the G.C. NICOLAU workshopin Bucharest,

but the pieces in Art Nouveau style were still

founded in 1853. The passion for metalwork

favoured by the ones fond of beauty.

present in the Nicolau family for three


generations and the production of metalwork
of great value, determined the Royal House
to give the Nicolau family the title of
Supplier of the Romanian Royal Court. The
outstanding merits gained following their
strenuous activity in the field of decorative
arts increased the prestige and credibility
of Gheorghe C. Nicolau, who was chosen as
a member in the Comitee of the Commerce
and Industry Chamber, member of the City
Council of Bucharest, President of the General

123

care atributele artistice deosebite se supun

Pele, din care se mai pstreaz zaharnia

funcionalitii.

i un ceainic, este decorat cu motiv floral,


iris, tratat n manier Art Nouveau. Pe baza

Prinesa motenitoare Maria a Romniei

ambelor piese este tanat numele atelierului

a avut un rol important n promovarea

bucuretean, pionier al Art Nouveaului din

stilului Art Nouveau, prin organizarea i

Romnia nceputului de secol XX, Nicolau.

sprijinirea

societilor

artitilor

romni.

De mare influen a fost nsi opera ei

Artitii romni prelucrau n slujba frumosului

artistic. Meterii n prelucrarea lemnului i

nu doar materiale nobile, precum aurul i

a metalului au preluat modelele desenate de

argintul, dar i metalul comun, cositorul,

frumoasa principes pentru a decora obiecte

almurile, cuprul, bronzul, pentru a da natere

caracterizate de originalitate, frumusee,

unei palete variate de piese cu culori, forme

spirit inovator. Acetia se inspirau din

i decoruri de excepie.

creaiile atelierelor occidentale, ns este


evident ncercarea lor de inserare a unor

Stilul decorativ consacrat de la nceputul

elemente decorative specifice romneti, n

secolului al XX-lea a cunoscut apogeul i

care motivele floral-vegetale, geometrice ce

inevitabilul declin n preajma izbucnirii

mpodobeau costumul popular romnesc se

Primul Rzboi Mondial. Conflagraia mondial

mbin armonios cu cele de sorginte celtic,

a pus capt activitii multor ateliere

gotic, formnd un tot unitar deosebit.

de prelucrare a metalului, foarte puine


reuind s-i continue activitatea. Cele care

Un rsunet important au avut creaiile din

au supravieuit vremurilor au fost nevoite

domeniul argintriei ecleziastice i de uz

s se adapteze noilor orientri ale artelor

curent, al ceasornicriei i al medalisticii

decorative din secolul al XX-lea, ns piesele

realizate

G.C.

create n stilul Art Nouveau au continuat s

NICOLAU, fondat n 1853. Pasiunea pentru

rmn printre preferinele iubitorilor de

prelucrarea metalului

frumos.

atelierul

bucuretean

prezent n familia

Nicolau vreme de trei generaii i producia


de orfevrrie de mare valoare, a determinat
Casa Regal s acorde firmei Nicolau titlul de
Furnizor al Curii Regale Romne. Meritele
deosebite ctigate ca urmare a unei activiti
struitoare n domeniul artelor decorative au
mrit prestigiul i credibilitatea lui Gheorghe
C. Nicolau, acesta fiind ales membru n
Comitetul Camerei de comer i industrie,
membru n Consiliul orenesc al oraului
Bucureti, Preedinte al Asociaiei Generale
a Bijutierilor, Ceasornicarilor

i Meseriilor

Similare din Romnia (1923).

Serviciile de

cafea, de ceai, pocalele, platourile, cnile


decorative realizate n atelierul su, n stil Art
Nouveau, sunt expresia armoniei dintre form
i decoraia ce dorete s transmit sensul
micrii, n care predomin motivele floralvegetale asimetrice, imperfecte, sinuozitatea.
Serviciul de ceai din patrimoniul castelului

124

Potir
Max Strbl, Mnchen
circa 1900

Chalice
Max Strbl, Munich
Early 20th century

125

126

Au Loup, detaliu
Louis Auguste Hiolin, 1888

Au Loup, detail
Louis Auguste Hiolin, 1888

127

Sculptura Art Nouveau


Sculptura din perioada Art Nouveau a urmat

busturilor, Fritz Storck i-a exersat talentul

Corina Dumitrache

cu precdere aceleai coordonate ca artele

n crearea statuetelor nfind alegorii,

Muzeograf

decorative, de la finele secolului al XIX-lea,

precum Tentaiunea, prezent n castelul

nceputul secolului al XX-lea, influenndu-

Pelior,

se reciproc, impulsionate n abordarea noului

Lucrarea sa nfieaz o tnra voluptoas,

stil de curentele artistice depite, precum

reprezentat nud, cu privire languroas, ce

simbolismul

Interioarele

ntinde privitorului un mr, fcnd aluzie

reedinelor regale de la Sinaia, castelele

la Eva din grdina Edenului care-l ispitete

Pele i Pelior, cuprind n decoraia lor

pe Adam s mnnce fructul interzis din

lucrri de sculptur din bronz, antimoniu,

,,pomul

ceramic semnate de artiti importani

mrul, condamnnd astfel omenirea la

subscrii Art Nouveaului. Tnra principes

vremelnicie. Storck a participat cu aceast

a Romniei, Maria, artist desvrit ea

lucrare la Expoziia jubiliar de la Bucureti

nsi, s-a remarcat ca susintoare fervent

din anul 1906. Operele sale s-au bucurat

al noului curent artistic. A ncurajat creatorii

de o apreciere deosebit att din partea

de art ai regatului Romniei i a patronat

pasionailor de art, dar i a membrilor Casei

societatea ,,Tinerimea Artistic, participnd

Regale Romne.

clasicismul.

dormitorul

cunoaterii

reginei

binelui

Maria.

rului,

cu lucrri proprii la expoziiile acesteia.


Nu de puine ori, achiziiona lucrrile

Iniiat n tainele sculpturii de ctre tatl su,

sculptorilor i pictorilor romni, pentru a-i

Hermann Gladenbeck, fondatorul turntoriei

investi ncperile preferate cu un plus de stil

n bronz berlineze cu acelai nume de la

i elegan.

1857, OSCAR GLADENBECK (1850-1921) i-a


exprimat viziunile artistice n concordan

Unul dintre fondatorii societii ,,Tinerimea

cu traiectoria artelor de la finele secolului

Artistic, FREDERIC STORCK (1872-1942)

al XIX-lea, nceputul secolului al XX-lea. n

s-a numrat printre artitii ai cror lucrri

patrimoniul castelului Pele se gsesc patru

au mbogit decoraia castelului Pelior. Fiu

lucrri din bronz, ce-i poart semntura. Ele

al celebrului sculptor Carl Storck, Frederic

reprezint alegorii ale simurilor, nfiate

a studiat la coala de Arte Frumoase din

ca tinere drapate parial sau nude, redate

Bucureti, cu profesorul Ion Georgescu.

conform canoanelor noii arte i nzestrate

Pregtirea profesional i-a desvrit-o la

cu

Munchen.

n minile sculptorului romn,

personajelor, delicateea i fineea detaliilor

bronzul s-a transpus n forma unor opere

au individualizat opera artistului german.

de art impecabile. Specializat n realizarea

Oscar Gladenbeck a realizat busturi din

atributele

128

simurilor.

Frumuseea

Art Nouveau Sculpture


The sculpture from the Art Nouveau period

professional training in Munchen. Under

Corina Dumitrache

mainly followed the same coordinates as

the influence of the Romanian sculptors

Curator

the decorative arts belonging to the period

talent, the bronze turned into impeccable

between the end of the 19th Century

masterpieces. Being specialised in carving

and the beginning of the 20th Century,

busts, Frederic Storck practiced his talent by

by influencing each other and they were

creating statuettes representing allegories,

stimulated

towards the approaching of a

such as The Temptation, which is to be

new style by the overdue artistic movements,

found in the Pelisor castle, inside Queen

such as symbolism and classicism. The

Maries

interiors of the royal residences in Sinaia,

voluptuous young woman, pictured nude,

Peles and Pelisor Castles, contain among

with a sentimental look in her eyes, who

their decorative objects sculptures made

gives an apple to the outsider, as a symbol

of bronze, antimony and ceramic signed

of Eve, from the garden of Eden, who tempts

by important artists subscribed to the Art

Adam into eating the forbidden fruit from

Nouveau movement. Young princess Marie of

the tree of knowledge of good and evil, the

Romania, fine artist herself, was distinguished

apple, in this way sentencing the mankind to

as a fervent sustainer of the new artistic

transience. Storck presented this work at the

movement. She encouraged the young artists

Jubilee Exhibition in Bucharest, in 1906. His

from the Romanian kingdom and patronized

works received an outstanding appreciation,

the Artistic Youth society by participating

not only from those who were passioned

with her own creations at the societys

by arts, but also from the members of the

exhibitions. She often buys the works of the

Romanian Royal House.

bedroom.

His

work

depicts

Romanian sculptors and painters in order to


bring a fresh breath of style and elegance to

Initiated in the misteries of sculptures,

her favorite rooms.

Hermann Gladenbeck, the founder of the


Berliner foundry in bronze wearing the same

One of the founders of the Artistic Youth

name from 1857, OSCAR GLADENBECK

society, FREDERIC STORCK (1872-1942) was

(1850-1921) expressed his artistic visions

included among the artists whose works had

concerning

enriched the decoration of the Pelisor castle.

belonging to the period between the end of

Son of the famous sculptor Carl Storck,

the 19th Century and the beginning of the

Frederic studied at the Fine Arts Academy

20th Century. There can be found four of

from Bucharest, under the guidance of

his works, made of bronze, in the patrimony

professor Ion Georgescu. He completed his

of Peles Castle. They represent allegories of

129

the

trajectory

of

the

arts

germane contemporane lui, dar s-a remarcat

Soldat roman,
detaliu

i ca important autor al unor plachete din

mile Louis Picault, circa

metal preios realizate la comanda nobilimii

1900

bronz

pentru

germane

cu

numeroase

ocazia

unor

personaliti

evenimente

de Casa Regal Romn au fost realizate n

Roman soldier,
detail

turntoria Gladenbeck n perioada 1892-

mile Louis Picault, Early

1911 i sunt fixate pe suport din lemn

20th century

importante. Plcile decorative achiziionate

mbrcat n catifea de diferite culori, copii


dup Hans Makart (1840-1884), talentat
pictor i decorator austriac.
Printre

reprezentanii

Art

Nouveaului

francez se numr i PIERRE FELIX (Fix)


MASSEAU (1869-1937). Renumitul sculptor a
studiat la coala de Arte Frumoase din Paris,
remarcndu-se prin talentul deosebit cu
care natura l nzestrase. S-a adaptat stilului
decorativ de dup 1895, devenind cunoscut
prin valoroasele sale creaii, n care esteticul
se mbina armonios cu funcionalitatea.
Fix Masseau s-a specializat n realizarea
busturilor personalitilor epocii,

ns

recunoaterea mondial s-a datorat pieselor


din ceramic i metal. Combinaiile diverselor
materiale folosite, precum lemn, filde,
ceramica, bronz, lemn exotic, mbinarea
figurilor feminine cu siluete vaporoase,
drapate sau nuduri, cu motivele floralvegetale, au avut ca rezultat obiecte de mare
finee, calitate i deosebit valoare. Pentru
materializarea

ideilor

artistice,

Masseau

a colaborat cu turntoria Siot-Decauville,


celebr n epoc, unde statuetele, lmpile,
candelabrele, vasele de diferite tipuri i
mrimi, atingeau perfeciunea. Piesele sale
au fost etalate la numeroase expoziii de art,
la Salonul Artitilor Francezi i la Societatea
Naional de Arte Frumoase, atrgnd n
mod favorabil atenia privitorilor.

Piesa

achiziionat de Casa Regal a Romniei,


prezent n Dormitorul de Aur al reginei Maria
din Castelul Pelior, denumit ,, Secretul,
ntruchipeaz o tnr, redat nud, drapat cu
vemnt lung fixat pe cap cu benti, lsnd
corpul parial descoperit vederii. Cu o mn
susine o caset dreptunghiular nchis,
bogat gravat, iar cu cealalt mn o parte a
130

the senses, pictured as partially draped or

from the Pelisor Castle, is named The Secret

naked young women, displayed according

and displays a naked young woman, draped

to the canons of the new arts and gifted

with a long garment, fixed on her head with

with the atributes of the senses. The beauty

a ribbon, letting the body partially exposed

of the characters, the gentleness and the

to the view. She sustains with one hand a

refinement of the details individualized the

closed rectangular box, richly graven, while

work of the German artist. Oscar Gladenbeck

the other hand lifts a part of the garment

made bronze sculptures of busts for many

above her mouth, betraying the intention of

German personalities of his time, but also

preserving a mistery. The enigma of feminity,

distinguished himself as an important author

symbolized by the nudity of the feminine

of some plaquettes made of precious metals,

character has been one of the main themes

crafted at the order of the German gentry

which preoccupied the artistic world of the

for the celebration of important events. The

Art Nouveau Movement.

decorative plates purchased by the Romanian


Royal House were crafted in the Gladenbeck

Not less important for the tributary decorative

foundry between 1892 and 1911 and

arts of the Art Nouveau Movement have

they are fixed on wooden pads covered in

been the members of the MOREAU family,

variously colored velvet, being copies of the

Mathurin (1822-1912), Hippolyte (1832-

art of Hans Makart (1840-1884), a talented

1927), Auguste (1834-1917), sons of the

Austrian painter and decorator.

famous sculptor Jean Baptiste Moreau. These


three brothers also embraced their fathers

Among the representatives of the French

passion for the fine arts, by managing to

Art Nouveau is also included PIERRE FELIX

reach a real professional success during

MASSEAU (1869-1937). The famous sculptor

their extremely long careers. The studies

studied at the Parisian Academy of Fine

at the Academy of Belle Arte from Paris, as

Arts, becoming noticed for his valuable

well as the apprenticeship in their fathers

creations, which harmoniously combine the

workshop defined the training of the three

aesthetic and the functionality. Fix Masseau

brothers. They distinguished themselves at

specialised

sculptures

the exhibitions from the Parisian Salons at

for the personalities of his stime, but his

young ages, Hippolyte in 1859, Auguste in

international fame was due to the ceramic

1861, displaying statuettes, table lamps,

and metalic works. The mixtures of the

chandeliers, pieces of goldsmith which

different materials used, such as wood, ivory,

highly consist in pastoral scenes, allegories,

bronze, exotic wood, the combination of the

children and specific scenes of the genre.The

feminine figures with vaporous silhouettes,

participation at the Parisian Salons took place

draped or naked, with floral motifs, resulted

regularly until 1913. The favorite material

in extremely fine art objects, quality and

used for creating the pieces of art was

high value. In order to materialize his artistic

the patinated bronze, sometimes painted,

beliefs, Masseau colaborated with the Siot-

fixed on pedestals of various geometrical

Decauville foundry, famous during that age,

forms made of brown marble. Their work is

where the statuettes, lamps, chandeliers

characterized by naturalness, the attention

and vases of different types and dimensions

given to the details, the wish to suggest the

reached perfection. His pieces of art were

movement and the life by means of static

displayed at many art exhibitions, at the

pieces, stone-still in time.

in

making

bust

French Artists Salon and at the National


Fine Arts Society, by attracting favorably

The same feature described the artistic

the onlookers attention. The piece of art

activity of the sculptor EMILE LOUIS PICAULT

purchased by the Romanian Royal House,

(1833-1915). The passion of the French

found in the Golden Bedroom of Queen Marie

sculptor for carving statuettes depicting


131

vemntului, deasupra gurii, cu intenia de a

ale artistului L. A. HIOLIN ( 1850-1912),

pstra o tain. Enigma feminitii, simbolizat

integrate curentului Art Nouveau. Originar

de

din Septmont, Aisne, Louis Auguste Hiolin se

nuditatea

personajului

feminin

preocupat lumea artistic a Art Nouveaului.

nscrie n 1864 la coala de Arte Frumoase


din Paris. Talentul su este remarcat civa ani

Nu mai puin importani pentru artele

mai trziu de arhitectul Violet-le-Duc, care-l

decorative tributare stilului Art Nouveau

coopteaz pentru realizarea unor sculpturi

au fost membrii familiei MOREAU, Mathurin

destinate Castelului Pierrefonds. Cariera

(1822-1912),

(1832-1927),

artistic a lui Hiolin, continuat de-a lungul a

fiii celebrului

patru decenii, a fost rspltit cu numeroase

Auguste

Hippolyte

(1834-1917),

sculptor Jean Baptiste Moreau. Aceti trei

premii

frai au urmat pasiunea printelui lor

Arta de a transpune dinamica aciunii, prin

artele frumoase, reuind s se bucure de

atitudinea ncordat a personajelor este

un real succes profesional de-a lungul unor

remarcabil n lucrarea ,,Au loup, realizat

cariere extrem de ndelungate. Studiile la

din bronz patinat i considerat cea mai

coala de Belle Arte din Paris, ca de altfel i

cunoscut

ucenicia n atelierul tatlui lor, au conturat

detaliile

pregtirea celor trei frai. S-au remarcat la

personajelor ce desfoar diverse aciuni,

expoziiile Saloanelor pariziene la vrste

autorul produce privitorului iluzia c asist la

tinere, Hippolyte n 1859, Auguste n 1861,

desfurarea evenimentelor.

la expoziiile Saloanelor pariziene.

pies
redate,

semnat
dinamica,

Hiolin.

Prin

concentrarea

etalnd statuete, lmpi de mas, candelabre,


piese de orfevrrie n care predomin

Curbele

scenele pastorale, alegoriile, copiii, scenele

reprezint elemente definitorii ale lucrrilor

de gen. Participarea la Saloanele de la Paris

artistice executate din fier ale celebrului

s-a desfurat cu regularitate pn n 1913.

artist vienez, VALERIAN GILLAR. Feroneria

Materialul preferat folosit pentru realizarea

balconului bibliotecii regale, ua de la

pieselor era bronzul patinat, uneori vopsit,

intrarea de onoare si grilajul din fier forjat

fixat pe socluri de diverse forme geometrice

de la castelul Pelior au fost realizate la

din

comanda Casei Regale Romne.

marmur

rocat.

Opera

lor

s-a

sinuoase,

volutele

vegetale

caracterizat prin naturalee, atenia acordat


detaliilor, dorina de a sugera micarea, viaa,

Create pentru a nfrumusea interioarele

n piese statice, ncremenite n timp.

regale de la Sinaia, piesele din bronz


tributare Art Nouveau-ului, se remarc prin

Aceeai

trstur

activitatea

combinarea echilibrat a atributelor estetice

sculptorului EMILE LOUIS PICAULT (1833-

cu cele funcionale, conferind o valoare

1915).

deosebit patrimoniului cultural naional.

Pasiunea

descris

sculptorului

francez

pentru realizarea statuetelor reprezentnd


personaje mitologice, personaje alegorice
sau eroi care s-au remarcat de-a lungul
istoriei printr-un patriotism nflcrat, este
evideniat prin lucrarea din patrimoniul
castelului Pelior, intitulat ,,Soldat roman.
Idealizarea
trstura

personajelor
definitorie

sale
operei

constituie
artistice

semnate de Picault.
Se remarc de asemenea lucrrile din bronz

132

mythological or allegoric characters or heroes

Diana, detaliu

who proved an ardent patriotism throughout

Mathurin Moreau, circa

the history is revealed by the artwork in the

1900

patrimony of Pelisor Castle, named Roman


Soldier. The idealization of his characters

Diana, detail

represents the defining feature of Picaults

Mathurin Moreau, Early 20th

artwork.

century

We should also pay attention to the bronze


artworks of the artist L. A. HIOLIN (18501912), part of the Art Nouveau Movement.
Native from Septmont, Aisne, Louis Auguste
Hiolin signs up in 1864 at the Academy of
Fine Arts in Paris. His talent is noticed several
years later by the arhitect Violet-le-Duc, who
appointed him in order to accomplish some
sculptures designed for the Pierrefonds
Castle. Hiolins artistic career

during four

decades, was rewarded with multiple awards


at the exhibitions from the Parisian Salons.
The art of representing the dynamics of the
actions by the tense attitude of the characters
is remarcable in the artwork Au Loup, made
of patinated bronze and considered the most
famous piece signed by Hiolin. By the details
displayed, the dynamics, the characters
performing different kinds of activities, the
author gives the viewer the illusion that he
actually takes part in the events.
The sinuous curves, the vegetal volutes
represent the defining elements of the steelexecuted artwork of the famous Viennese
artist, VALERIAN GILLAR. The hardware of the
balcony from the royal library, the door from
the hounour entrance and the grid made
of wrought iron from Pelisor Castle were
created at the order of the Romanian Royal
House.
Created in order to beautify the royal interiors
from Sinaia, the pieces of art made of bronze,
belonging to the Art Nouveau Movement
distinguish themselves by the balanced
combination of the aesthetic artibutes with
the functional ones, offering a remarkable
value to the national cultural heritage.

133

134

135

Ceramica Art Nouveau


Situat la grania dintre sticlrie i orfevrrie,

Salon dAutomne, n timp ce galeriile Georges

Macrina Oproiu

ceramica

dezvoltare

Petit, Drouet i Manzi-Joyart gzduiesc

Muzeograf

controlat: nu se bucur de notorietatea

expoziii temporare de ceramic. Asemenea

sticlriei

majoritii

1900

cunoate

franceze

datorat

produciilor

artelor

decorative,

ceramica

strlucite a lui Gall sau Lalique, de la

traverseaz

nceputul secolului sau de elanul industriei

majore. Prima reacie contra vechilor tipare

bijuteriei de lux, dar prestigiul su este

o reprezint ndeprtarea de motivele i

n cretere constant. Ceramicii i lipsete

formele predilecte ale stilului Louis-Philippe,

valoarea metalului preios i transparena

gest salutat n cadrul expoziiei manifest,

insinuant a sticlei. Opac, nespectaculoas,

organizat n anul 1897 i intitulat Expoziia

rspunde mai degrab unor exigene de

ceramicii de la Champs - de - Mars.

perioad

de

schimbri

natur intelectual. Cldit pe ruinele unei


societi n schimbare tot mai accelerat, Art

Mai puin pasionat de ceramica Art Nouveau,

Nouveau - ul i gsete expresia cea mai

Regele Carol I se orienteaz ctre vasele de

fidel de manifestare n domeniul artelor

serie ZsolnayPcs, unele dintre ele, inspirate

decorative. Terenul pe care se mic fusese

fr dubiu din creaia provensalului Clment

pregtit de o societate imprevizibil, care

Massier. Dominate numeric de ceramica

mprumut artei febrilitatea i versatilitatea

istorist, piesele Art Nouveau i gsesc locul

vieii politice.

lor binemeritat n interioarele amenajate la


castelul Pele, dup anul 1903. Angrenat n

Grija Art Nouveau ului pentru form este

micarea artistic de la rscrucea secolelor

relaionat ntr-o msur tot mai mare cu

XIX-XX, Principesa Maria dovedete afiniti

utilitarismul

Parisul,

estetice profunde cu ceramitii consacrai

capitala european a culturii, gzduiete

ai perioadei. n decorul insolit al castelului

evenimente n domeniu, de mare anvergur.

Pelior, alturi de rafinatele vase de sticl

ntre anii 1895 i 1914, progresele industriei

Gall i Lalique, de lmpile Daum-Nancy, de

ceramice sunt etalate n patru saloane

statuete de bronz i casete de argint stau

anuale: Salon de La Socit des Artistes

piese elegante semnate de Massier, Raoul

Franais, La Socit des Artistes Dcorateurs,

Lachenal i Zsolnay-Pcs.

funcionalitatea.

La Socit Nationale des Beaux-Arts i Le

136

Art Nouveau Ceramics


Situated on the border between glassware

was presented to the public at four annual

Macrina Oproiu

and goldsmith, the 1900s ceramic was

salons: Salon de La Socit des Artistes

Curator

characterized by a controlled developement:

Franais, La Socit des Artistes Dcorateurs,

it does not benefit from the same notoriety

La Socit Nationale des Beaux-Arts and Le

as the French glassware, which is due to

Salon dAutomne, while the Georges Petit,

the brilliant productions of Gall or Lalique

Drouest and Manzi-Joyart galleries housed

from the beginning of the century or of the

temporary ceramic exhibitions. Just like the

same enthusiasm of the industry of the

majority of the decorative arts, the ceramic

fancy jewelery, but its prestige is constantly

passes through a major changing process.

increasing.

The first reaction against the old patterns


is represented by the removal of the forms

Ceramic lacks the value of the precious

and motifs which were specific to the Louis-

metals and the insinuating transparency of

Philippe style, attitude which was acclaimed

the glass. Opaque and not so spectacular, it is

during the manifesto-exhibition, organised

more likely that it responds to the intelectual

in 1897 and entitled The Ceramic Exhibition

requirements. Built on the ruins of a society

from Champ-de-Mars.

with an accelerated rhythm of changing,


the Art Nouveau finds its most precise way

Less passionate of the Art Nouveau ceramic,

to manifest in the domain of the decorative

King Carol I had a like for the serial vessel

arts. The land on which it is evolving had

Zsolnay-Pcs, some of them certainly inspired

been prepared by an unpredictable society,

from the creation of the Provencal Clment

which lends to the art the feverishness and

Massier. Being numerically dominated by the

the versatility of the political life.

ceramic already described, the Art Nouveau


pieces of art fiind their deserved place in the

The interest

the Art Nouveau movement

interiors of Peles Castle after 1903.

proved for the form is firmly related to the


utilitarianism and functionality. Paris, the

Being involved in the artistic movement

European cultural capital city, houses large-

which took place at the crossroads between

scale artistic events. Between 1895 and

the 19th and the 20th Centuries, Princess

1914, the progress of the ceramic industry

Marie shows deep aesthetic resemblances

137

CLMENT MASSIER, unul dintre cei mai


strlucii reprezentani ai ceramicii franceze
de la nceputul secolului al XX-lea, vede
lumina zilei n anul 1844, la Vallauris, orel
pitoresc din Alpii Maritimi, nscris pe harta
cultural de geniul lui Picasso, este situat n
inima Coastei de Azur, la intersecia celebrelor
staiuni,

Cannes

Nisa.

Personalitate

dinamic, Clment i ncepe ucenicia n


atelierul tatlui su, Jacques (18011871)
la vrsta de doisprezece ani, n anul 1856.
Aici creeaz piese de serie, dar i vesel de
mare rafinament, n care se regsesc formele
i decorurile Louis-Philippe n mare vog.
n anul 1883, Clment Massier pune bazele
propriului su atelier, n localitatea Golfe Juan, la intersecia celor dou orae-far ale
loisir-ului lumii bune, Nisa i Cannes, situate
nu departe de Monaco. Primul gest de frond
fa de trecut a fost renunarea la ceramica
de serie.
Ghidat

cu

artistul

Alexandre Munroe, ceramistul Flix Optat

Vas decorativ, detaliu

ceramist Gaetano Gandolfi, Clment Massier

Milet, format n atelierul Svres, sculptorul

Clment Massier, 1900

abordeaz noi tehnici i se perfecioneaz

James Vilbert i pictorul Jules Scalbert. ntre

anii 1887 i 1895, Lucien Lvy-Dhurmer

Decorative vase, detail

producie de mare rafinament, n care se

ocup funcia de director artistic al atelierului

Clment Massier, 1900

ntrezresc

mugurii noului stil. Pentru

i amprenta sa asupra creaiei este major.

Clment Massier, piesele sale trebuie s

Cu adevrat regal, ceramica Massier este

ngemneze n ele frumuseea fr seamn a

imitat pe scar larg de o serie de ceramiti

peisajului mediteranean i exploziile florale

ai epocii, precum ZsolnayPcs, din Ungaria

ale Provensei. Artistul i seduce clientela

i Samuel Weller, din SUA.

utilizarea

pricepere

de

emailurilor,

ctre

dezvoltnd

prin strlucirea glazurilor irizate, cu reflexe


metalice, n care se regsete ntreaga

n colecia de ceramic a Muzeului Naional

palet a spectrului. n anul 1887, vine i

Pele se pstreaz patru piese semnate

primul moment de recunoatere: Casa regal

Clment Massier, Golfe Juan, dintre care

britanic i confer onorantul titlu de furnizor

dou datate 1900, iar celelalte, achiziionate

regal. Doi ani mai trziu, dup experimente

de primul Rege al Romniei n jurul anului

elaborate i cutri asidue, Clment Massier

1890. Cache-pt-urile din faian stanifer,

este mai decis ca niciodat s cucereasc

de mari dimensiuni, n monocromie de

lumea. n anul 1889, particip pentru prima

albastru-turcoaz realizeaz fuziunea perfect

oar la o expoziie de anvergur i ctig

ntre forma neoclasic i strlucirea glazurii

medalia de aur cu piese de inspiraie hispano-

de sorginte persan. Vasul decorativ din

maur. Artistul se nconjoar de o pleiad de

faian, de form tronconic, pictat manual n

personaliti, provenite din domenii diverse,

email cu ramur de struguri, care - i nfoar

a cror miestrie contribuie la ridicarea

corpul n nuane discrete de gri - violet pe

nivelului artistic al faianelor Massier. Cei mai

fond verde metalizat odihnete pe una

strlucii colaboratori sunt sculptorul scoian

dintre mesele elegante din Apartamentul


138

with the famous ceramists of that age.

Two years later, after elaborate experiments

Among the unusual decorations which enrich

and assiduous researches, Clment Massier

the vast rooms of Peles Castle, along with

is decided more than ever to conquer the

the fine Gall and Lalique vases, the Daum-

world. In 1889, he participates for the first

Nancy lamps, bronze statuettes and silver

time at an important exhibition and wins the

boxes there can also be found very elegant

golden medal with Hispanic-Moorish-like

pieces signed by Massier, Raoul Lachenal and

inspired pieces. The artist surrounds himself

Zsolnay-Pcs.

with a myriad of personalities belonging


to a variety of domains whose mastery

CLMENT MASSIER, one of the most brilliant

contributes to a rise of the artistic level of the

representatives of the French ceramics of

Massier faiences.

the early 20th Century, was born in 1844 in


Vallauris, a scenic small town in the Maritime

The most brilliant collaborators are the

Alps put on the cultural map by Picassos

Scottish sculptor Alexandre Munroe, the

genius. Its located in the central part of the

ceramist Flix Optat Milet, artistically formed

French Riviera at the crossroad between the

in the Svres workshop, the sculptor James

famous resorts Cannes and Nice. Having a

Vilbert and the painter Jules Scalbert.

dynamic personality, Clment begins his

Between 1887 and 1895, Lucien Lvy-

apprenticeship in the workshop of his father,

Dhurmer occupies the position of the artistic

Jacques (1801-1871), at the age of twelve.

director of the workshop and his mark has a


major impact over the artwork. Truly royal,

It is here that he creates serial pieces, but also

the Massier ceramic is copied on a large scale

very fine dishes, in which there are retrieved

by a number of ceramists of that age, such

the very popular Louis-Philippe forms and

as Zsolnay-Pcs from Hungary and Samuel

decorations. In 1883, Clment Massier starts

Weller from the USA.

working at his own workshop in Golfe-Juan,


at the intersection of the two city-lights of

In the ceramic collection of the National

the fashionable worlds leisure, Nice and

Museum of Peles are kept four pieces of art

Cannes, located not far from Monaco. His

signed by Clment Massier, Golfe-Juan, of

first attempt of rebelliousness was giving up

which two from 1900 and the rest of them,

mass-produced ceramics.

purchased by the first king of Romania around


1890. The cache-pots made of stanniferous

Precisely guided by the ceramic artist

faience, of great dimensions, colored in blue-

Gaetano Gandolfi, Clment Massier adopts

turquoise create the perfect fusion between

new techniques and becomes a master of

the neoclassical form and the the radience

using the enamels, developing a production

of the Persan glaze. The faience decorative

of great refinement, in which the buds of

vase of truncated form manually painted in

the new style glimpse. For Clment Massier

enamel with grapes branch, which covers its

it is necessary that his pieces combine

body in delicate shades of violet-grey on a

the stunning beauty of the Mediterranean

metallic green background rests on one of

scenery and the floral explosions of the

the elegant tables of the Appartment of Maria

Province. The artist seduces his clients

Poenaru, lady in waiting of Queen Elisabeta.

through the brightness of the iridescent

It inspires simplity and refinement.

glazes, with metallic reflexes, where the


whole palette of the spectrum ist o be found.

The most spectacular piece is represented

1887 marked his first moment of glory: the

by the faience Art Nouveau vase shaped at

English Royal House gives him the honorable

wheel and decorated with stylized details,

title of royal manufacturer.

fuchsia flowers, which cover in a uniform


139

Mariei Poenaru, doamn de onoare a reginei


Elisabeta. El respir simplitate i rafinament.
Cea mai spectaculoas pies o reprezint
vaza Art Nouveau din faian, modelat la
roat i decorat cu motive stilizate, flori
de fucsia, care-i acoper uniform corpul,
asemenea unui covor vegetal. Poziionarea
neconvenional a anselor mrunte drepte
n grupaje asimetrice i confer caracter
de modernitate. Desenul delicat, executat
manual cu tue fine de email, peste glazura
metalizat

rou

crmiziu

degrad,

las la vedere modelul. Colorat n nuane


de crmiziu cu accente violet i siclam,
decorul floral valorific forma elegant a
piesei, inspirat de vechile vase de farmacie
Albarello.
MILE DECOEUR, ceramistul al crui nume
echivaleaz n artele decorative cu elegana
i simplitatea, s-a nscut n Frana anului
de graie 1876. Marcat de un destin tragic,
Decoeur rspunde tuturor vitregiilor prin
originalitatea creaiei sale. Rmas orfan la o
vrst fraged, i ctig existena prestnd
munci umilitoare. Dup ndelungi tribulaii,
paii l poart ctre atelierul profesorului su,
dmond Lachenal (1855-1930). Discipolul
lui Thodore Deck, dmond Lachenal a
fost unul dintre maetrii Art Nouveau-ului.
Erudit i ntreprinztor, deschide primul su

Talentat pedagog, a transmis discipolilor si

atelier la Malakoff, n anul 1880, iar apte

Vas decorativ, detaliu

nu numai setea de frumos, dar i frenezia

Atelier Copenhaga,

ani mai trziu, se stabilete la Chtillon-

cutrilor de vechi reete uitate. ndrgostit

circa 1900

sous-Bagneux. Personalitate plurivalent, se

de ceramica japonez, el transpune n

formeaz n mediul artelor majore, cochetnd

lucrrile sale vitalitatea i fora unei arte n

cu sculptura i colabornd cu artiti de prim

Decorative vase, detail

faa creia ntreaga lume a Occidentului a

Copenhagen Workshop,

mn, ca Rodin.

fcut o binemeritat reveren.

Lachenal abordeaz toat varietatea de

Captivat de talentul mentorului su, mile

ceramici. Pasionat de natur, i extrage

Decoeur ajunge la adevrata maturitate

decorurile din lumea vegetal i animal

artistic dup aptesprezece ani de tenace

att de explorat i exploatat de artitii

ucenicie. Universul atelierului, cu vasele

Art Nouveau-ului. Motenirea artistic a

proaspt ieite din cuptoare incandescente,

lui dmond Lachenal a constat n tehnica

pregtite spre glazurare i decoraie, printre

foarte fin i precis de emailare. Chimist

volume de beletristic i tiine i ine loc

desvrit, a aplicat toate descoperirile

de familie i de coal. ntre anii 1890 -

personale n vederea ameliorrii glazurilor.

1907, Decoeur s-a aflat zilnic n preajma lui

140

Early 20th century

the originality of his creation. Orphan since a


young age, he earned a living by performing
humiliating jobs. After endless tribulations,
his steps led him to the workshop of his
master

dmond

Lachenal

(1855-1930).

Disciple of Thodore Deck, dmond Lachenal


was one of the masters of the Art Nouveau
movement. Erudite and enterprising, he
opened his first workshop at Malakoff in
1880, and seven years later he moved
to

Chatillon-sous-Bagneux.

Multivalent

personality, he specializes in the major arts,


flirting with the sculpture and collaborating
with first class artists such as Rodin.
Lachenal tried the whole variety of ceramics.
Passionate by nature, he extracts his decor
from the vegetal and animal world, which is
otherwise fully explored and exploited by
the artists of the Art Nouveau movement. The
artistic legacy of dmond Lachenal consisted
in his very fine and precise technique of
enamelling. Being a complete chemist, he
applied all of his personal discoveries in
order to improve the quality of the glazes.
Also a talented teacher, he transmited to
his disciples not only the thirst for beauty,
but also the frenzy into searching for old,
forgotten recipes. In love with the Japanese
ceramic, he transposes in his works the
way its body like a vegetal carpet. The

vitality and the force of an art against

unconventional positioning of the small,

which the whole western world took a well

straight devining rods in asymmetrical loads

deserved bow.

gives it a modern air. The delicate design,


manually executed with thin traces of enamel

Captivated by the talent of his mentor,

over the metallic brick-red glaze in gradient

mile Decoeur reaches the genuine artistic

lets sight of the pattern. Colored in shades

maturity after seventeen years of tenacious

of brick-red, with violet accents, the floral

apprenticeship.

decoration gives value to the elegant form

workshop, with the vesels just taken out of

of the piece of art inspired from the ancient

the incandescent ovens prepared for glazing

Albarello pharmaceutical jars.

and decorating, among volumes of fiction

The

universe

of

the

and science stands for his family and school.


MILE DECOEUR, the ceramist whose name

Between 1890-1907, Decoeur stayed daily

is the equivalent in the decorative arts of

beside Lachenal, was inspired from his

elegance and simplicity was born in France

mentors ideas, he mastered chemistry and

in 1876. Marked by a tragical destiny

drawing, studied the technique of making

Decoeur responded to all the hostilities by

faience and hone.

141

Lachenal, a respirat prin ideile sale, a deprins

al manufacturii Svres. Se stinge din via

chimia i desenul, a studiat tehnica obinerii

n anul 1953, lsnd n urma sa o oper

faianei i a gresiei. Ctre aceasta din urm

unic i personal, care i-a inut departe

se va orienta cu precdere, descoperindu-i

de potenialii imitatori. Vasele cache-pot

conotaii

su,

din colecia muzeului, realizate din gresie

Lachenal i urmrete atent evoluia, i

glazurat, modelat la roat i decorat prin

intuiete creativitatea i l sprijin atunci

incizare cu motive florale discrete, n maniera

cnd realizeaz primele piese de autor. Ctre

celadoanelor chinezeti sunt unele dintre

1900, creaiile

creaiile cele mai reprezentative ale artistului

estetice

noi.

La

rndul

lui Decoeur sunt tot mai

influenate de tendinele Art Nouveau-ului

inimitabil care a fost Decoeur.

de inspiraie extrem-oriental. Semntura sa


reprezentnd o dubl monogram, compus

Fiul lui dmond Lachenal, RAOUL LACHENAL

din iniialele numelui se regsete tot mai

(18851956) a lucrat alturi de mile

frecvent n coleciile amatorilor de art.

Decoeur n atelierul tatlui su pn n anul


1911, cnd deschide propriul su atelier la

Contient de propria valoare i dornic s se

Boulogne - sur - Seine. Se concentreaz pe

afirme, mile Decoeur prsete atelierul lui

producia de piese din porelan grand feu,

Lachenal i nfiineaz propria sa antrepriz

pe decoruri sofisticate i pe forme organice.

la

1907.

Odat cu faima numelui su, aduce cu sine

Proiectat pe orbita succesului, se instaleaz

i nevoia de independen artistic. Chiar

treptat n avangarda ceramicii Art Nouveau.

dac multe dintre piesele Art Nouveau

Piesele Decoeur poart amprenta unic a

seamn creaiilor lui dmond din punct de

talentului su. Din gresie i porelan, colorate

vedere tipologic i al glazurii, el se detaeaz

subtil n nuane neutre, decorate cu motive

treptat ca designer original. La nceputul

geometrice i florale discrete, n maniera

secolului al XX-lea, vasele semnate de Raoul

celadoanelor, ele i aduc aprecierea unanim

Lachenal ajung s concureze cu succes

a criticii de art. ntre anii 1910 i 1930,

nume consacrate ca rnest Chaplet i Albert

mile Decoeur figureaz printre cele mai

Dammouse.

Fontenay-aux-Roses,

anul

apreciate nume din breasl.


Prima

participare

personal

cadrul

n zorii ntunecai ai Primului Rzboi Mondial,

celebrelor Saloane din Paris dateaz din

creaiile sale tot mai stilizate poart n ele

anul 1904. ncurajat de succesul debutului,

germenii Art Dco-ului. Monocromia, linia

creeaz piese din gresie acoperite cu

simpl, ornamentul stilizat i friza delicat,

decoruri geometrice i vegetale. Din punct de

toate mpreun sunt menite s reduc

vedere tehnic, exceleaz la capitolul incizare.

decorul la esen, la cutarea unei materii

Fantele rezultate prin acest procedeu sunt

ceramice

umplute cu glazur colorat n nuane

pure.

Apropierea

de

capitala

luminilor din anii postbelici, l aduce n

vii, n combinaii

atenia Saloanele pariziene, pe care le

anilor douzeci, Lachenal fabric piese din

frecventeaz cu asiduitate. La mijlocul

porelan, inspirate din ceramica de Iznik, din

anilor douzeci, Decoeur atinge apogeul

cea sasanid sau din celadoanele chinezeti,

simplitii i rafinamentului cu piese de

glazurate n bleu gyptien, negru sau roz

inspiraie chinez. Un deceniu mai trziu,

somon, ca fundal pentru o ornamentaie

desenul dispare cu desvrire, glazura, fie

abstractizat. ncepnd cu anul 1914, opera

mat, fie metalic sau suprapus prelund

sa este

ntreaga sarcin decorativ. Recunoaterea

ceramica oriental. La sfritul rzboiului,

trzie a activitii sale vine n anul 1939,

vasele Raoul Lachenal sunt vndute cu

cnd Decoeur ndeplinete pn n anul

succes i pe piaa american.

1942 - funcia onorant de consilier artistic


142

insolite. La nceputul

inspirat aproape exclusiv din

He mainly focused on the latest, descovering

Vas decorativ, detaliu

its new aesthetic connotations. At his turn,

Atelier francez, circa 1900

Lachenal watched closely his disciples


evolution,

sensed

his

creativity

and

Decorative vase, detail

supported him when he started creating his

French Workshop,

first pieces of art. Around 1900, Decoeurs

Early 20th century

creations were more and more influenced


by the tendencies of the Art Nouveau
movement, of extreme-oriental inspiration.
His signature, represented by a double
monogram composed by the first letters of
his name becomes more and more frequent
among the collections of the art lovers.
Aware of his own value and eager to
rise from the ranks, mile Decoeur left
Lachenals workshop and established his
own enterprise at Fontenay-aux-Roses, in
1907. Projected on the orbit of success, he
installed himself gradually in the avantgarde
of the Art Nouveau ceramic. Decoeurs pieces
of art wear the unique touch of his talent.
Made of hone and porcelain subtly colored
in neutral shades decorated with geometrica
land discreet floral models the same way as
the celadons, they bring him the unanimous
appreciation of the art critique. Between
1910 and 1930, mile Decoeur appeared
among the most appreciated names in this
domain.
In the dark dawns of the World War I, his
increasingly stylized creations behold the
germs of the Art Dco. The monochrome
color tones, the simple line, the stylized
ornaments and the delicate curl, all together
are designed to reduce the decorations
at their essence on the research of a pure
ceramic. The closeness of the capital city of
lights from the years after the war brought
him in the spotlight af the Parisian Salons,
which he frequented assiduously. At the
middle of the 20s, Decoeur touched the
climax of the simplicity and refinement with
some pieces of art of Chinese inspiration.
A decade later, the drawing disappeared
completely, the glaze, be mat, metallic or
stacked gaining the whole decorative role.
143

Platou decorativ,
detaliu
Atelier Villeroy & Boch Mettlach, R. Fournier, 1899

Decorative plate,
detail
Villeroy & Boch - Mettlach
Workshop, R. Fournier,
1899

Pentru vasul decorativ din Apartamentul

fiul lui Mikls, Vilmos Zsolnay (18281900)

Marelui Voievod, din faian fin, cu corp

devine administratorul i apoi directorul

ovoidal, talp ngust i buz uor evazat,

companiei.

artistul a preferat o glazur craclat n nuan

firmei se diversific permanent. Cultivat i

puternic de blue gyptienne. La interior, a

ntreprinztor, Vilmos abordeaz o gam

camuflat un recipient din cositor, menit s

larg de stiluri, ns majoritatea pieselor

protejeze piesa destinat aranjamentelor

ceramice

rmn

florale diverse. Realizat n anii 20,

Adversar

al

reprezint exemplul tipic al tranziiei foarte

s includ n creaia sa motive ale artei

subtile de la Art Nouveau la Art Dco n opera

tradiionale ungureti. Combinaiile insolite

de ceramist a lui Raoul Lachenal.

ntre

Din

acest

moment,

tributare

dualismului,

elementele

locale

creaia

istorismului.
Vilmos

caut

eclectismul

victorian, dei rareori consonante, dau nota


Atelierul cu cea mai mare reprezentare n

de originalitate a stilului Zsolnay. n ultimul

colecia de ceramic Art Nouveau a Castelului

deceniu al secolului al XIX-lea, atelierul

Pele este, fr ndoial, ZSOLNAY-PECS, din

se specializeaz n fabricarea glazurilor cu

Imperiul Austro-Ungar. Fondat de Mikls

irizaii metalice, n nuane de verde, albastru,

Zsolnay (18001880) n localitatea Pcs din

violet i rou.

Ungaria, n anul 1853, se dezvolt constant


pn la nceputul Primului Rzboi Mondial.

Anul 1873 l gsete pregtit s concureze cu

Dup un deceniu de funcionare, la 1863,

numele cele mai importante din breasl. De

144

The late acknowledgement of his activity

the oriental ceramic. At the end of the war,

came in 1939, when Decoeur occupies

the Raoul Lachenal pottery is successfully

until 1942 the honorable position of

sold on the American market.

artistic counselor of the Svres manufactory.


He died in 1953, leaving behind a very

For the decorative vase from the Appartment

unique and personal work, who kept behind

of the Heir Prince, made of fine faience, with

the potential imitators. The cache-pot dishes

an ovoid form, narrow base and slightly

from the museums collection, made of

splay edges, the artist prefered using a

glazed hone, shaped at wheel and decorated

powerful shade of Egyptian blue. On the

by incision with discreet floral models,

inside, he masked a tin container, made to

as the Chinese celadons, are some of the

protect the pieces designed for a variety

most representative creations of the unique

of floral arrangements. Made during the

Decoeur.

20s, it represents the typical example of


the very subtle transition from Art Nouveau

dmond Lachenals son, RAOUL LACHENAL

to Art Dco in the ceramic artwork of Raoul

(1885-1956) worked with mile Decoeur in

Lachenal.

his fathers workshop until 1911, when he


opened his own workshop at Boulogne-sur-

The

Seine. He concentrated on the production

represented in the Art Nouveau ceramic

of a grand feu porcelain pieces of art on

collection of the Peles Castle is without

sofisticated decorations and on organic

any doubt ZSOLNAY-PCS, in the Austro-

forms. Along with the fame of his name, he

Hungarian

felt the need of artistic independence. Even

Zsolnay (1800-1880) in Pcs, Hungary

though many of his Art Nouveau pieces

in 1853 it develops constantly until the

resemble to Edmonds creations from the

beginning of World War I. After a decade of

point of vue of the typology and the glaze, he

activity, in 1863 Mikloss son, Vilmos Zsolnay

gradually detaches as an original designer.

(1828-1900) becomes the manager and

At the beginning of the 20th Century, the

eventually the director of the company. From

vases signed by Raoul Lachenal successfully

this moment on, the creation of the firm is

competed with famous names such as Ernest

permanently diversifying.

workshop

which

Empire.

is

Founded

the

by

highest

Miklos

Chaplet and Albert Dammouse.


Well-bred

and

entrepreneur,

Vilmos

His first personal participation in the Salons

approaches a vast range of styles, but most

in Paris takes place in 1904. Encouraged by

of the ceramic pieces stay tributary to

the success of his debut, he creates pieces

the historicism. Opponent of the dualism,

made oh hone covered with geometric and

Vilmos tries to include in his creation models

vegetal decorations. From the technical point

belonging to the Hungarian traditional art.

of vue he excels in incising. The slits resulting

The unusual combinations between the local

from this process are filled with vividly-

elements and the Victorian eclecticism, even

colored glaze, in unusual combinations.

though rarely consonant, bring an original

At the beginning of the `20s, Lachenal

note to the Zsolnay style. During the last

manufactures porcelain pieces, inspired from

decade of the 19th Century, the workshop

the Iznik or Sassanian ceramic or from the

gets specialized into manufacturing the

Chinese celadons glazed in Egyptian blue,

metallic-iridescent glaze, with shades of

black or salmon-pink as a background for an

green, blue, purple and red. The year 1873

abstract ornamentation. Starting with 1914,

finds him ready to compete against the most

his artwork is influenced almost entirely from

important names in the domain. That is why,

145

aceea, ncreztor n calitile produselor sale,

COPENHAGA dezvolt la cumpna veacurilor

particip la Expoziia Universal de la Viena.

XIX-XX o palet larg de producii ceramice.


Contaminate de mirajul Occidentului pentru

Hotrt s edifice la Sinaia o reedin

lumea oriental, piesele Copenhaga ajung

modern, Principele Carol viziteaz expoziia

s imite cele mai valoroase creaii Tang,

i achiziioneaz numeroase piese de art

Song sau Imari. Maetrii atelierului adopt

decorativ. Cu siguran, din acest an dateaz

formele, cromatismul i temele favorite ale

nceputul colaborrii dintre Vilmos Zsolnay

artei ceramicii din China i Japonia. ntre

i suveranul romn, al crui furnizor devine.

anii 1884 i 1891, conducerea artistic a

ncurajat de succesul primei sale prezene

atelierului este ncredinat arhitectului i

oficiale, l regsim la Expoziia Universal de

pictorului danez, Emil Arnold Krog (1856-

la Paris, din anul 1878, unde obine Marele

1931). El marcheaz o adevrat revoluie

Premiu. n anul 1893, pe fondul creterii

a ceramicii Copenhaga, pe care o consacr

comenzilor,

din

drept una dintre cele mai originale din Europa

porelan. Dup moartea prolificului Vilmos

momentului. Fin cunosctor al culturii nipone

Zsolnay, la 1900, antrepriza este transmis fiul

n special, Krog creaz un tip nou de decorare

su, Mikls, care reuete s o transforme n

a vaselor, inspirat din tehnica xilogravurilor

cea mai mare companie de profil din Imperiu.

policrome japoneze.

fabric

primele

piese

Acum sunt realizate decoraii exterioare, dar


i piese de mare rafinament artistic, inspirate

n anul 1888, particip la Expoziia Nordic

de ceramica francez Art Nouveau, dar i din

organizat n capitala Regatului Danemarcei.

cea austriac i boemian. Cu toate c baza

Aici i prezint primele lucrri, care vor

produciei atelierului o constituie piesele

influena ntreaga art scandinav. Stimulat

de serie, treptat, Mikls se orienteaz ctre

de notorietatea dobndit cu aceast ocazie,

ceramica de lux i ctre obiectele decorative

ajunge n atenia publicului francez n

cu caracter de unicat.

contextul Expoziiei Universale de la Paris


din 1889, unde pictura sa pe email i aduce

Una dintre cele mai reuite tipologii de piese

treptat recunoaterea mondial. n ciuda

ceramice Art Nouveau este cea a platourilor

caracterului internaional al curentului Art

decorative. De mari dimensiuni, ele se disting

Nouveau, Danemarca i pune peste artele

datorit texturii materialului i a decorurilor

decorative marca proprie a stilului su. Prin

diverse, inspirate cu precdere din arta

viziunea lui Krog, danezii aduc n atenia

oriental. Platoul din faian policrom, cu

Europei universul lumii nordice, grefate pe

decor amplu, dispus n evantai, compus din

o tiin a compoziiei cu rdcini adnci

buchet de flori n policromie pe fond auriu,

n arta oriental. Decorurile sale stilizate

granulat face parte din tipologia platourilor

rspund binomului gol-plin caracteristic

aa-numite ,,persane, care, n realitate, se

concepiei artistice extrem orientale. Krog

inspir din motivele florale i din cromatismul

impune pe piaa de art ,,stilul Copenhaga,

consacrate de atelierul turcesc, Iznik. Vasele

n care se regsete universul scandinav, cu

decorative Zsolnay, acoperite cu glazur

lumina lui crepuscular, cu apele, fiordurile,

metalizat sau cu motive floral-vegetale Art

peisajul hibernal i toat gama de vieuitoare

Nouveau sunt grefate pe forme din cele mai

a punilor boreale i a tundrei arctice.

diverse: vase-tulip, soliflore, cni-aiguire


etc.

Alturi de Krog, Gotfred Rode (1862-1937),


a intervenit substanial asupra produciei

Fondat la nceputul secolului al XVIII-

fabricii la nceputul secolului al XX-lea,

lea, FABRICA REGAL DE PORELAN DIN

iniiind

seria

146

figurinelor,

statuete

din

confident in the qualities of his products, he

Founded at the beginning of the 18th

participates in the Universal Exhibition in

Century, THE ROYAL PORCELAIN FACTORY

Vienna.

IN COPENHAGUE develops a large palette of


ceramic productions at the junction of the

Determined to build a modern residence in

19th and the 20th Centuries. Contaminated

Sinaia, Prince Carol visits the exhibition and

by the mirage of the West about the oriental

purchases many pieces of decorative art. It is

world, the Copenhagen pieces of art turn

certain that this is the year which marks the

to imitate the most valuable Tang, Song or

debut of the collaboration between Vilmos

Imari creations. The masters of the workshop

Zsolnay and the Romanian sovereign, whose

adopt the forms, the chromatism and the

manufacturer he becomes. Encouraged by

favorite themes of the ceramic art from China

the success of his first official presence, he

and Japan.

participates in the Universal Exhibition in


Paris in 1878, where he wins the Grand Prize.

Between 1884 and 1891, the artistic


leadership of the workshop is given to the

In 1893, due to the raise of the orders he

Danish architect and painter Emil Arnold

manufactures his first porcelain pieces. After

Krog (1856-1931). He marks a real revolution

the death of the prolific Vilmos Zsolnay in

of the Copenhagen ceramic, which he

1900, the enterprise is submitted to his

establishes as one of the most original in

son, Miklos, who manages to turn it into

Europe at that time. Trained expert of the

the greatest company of its kind in the

Japanese culture in particular, Krog creates

Empire. He begins manufacturing exterior

a new method of decorating the pottery,

decorations, but also pieces of a great

inspired

artistic refinement inspired by the French

woodcut technique.

by

the

Japanese

polychrome

Art Nouveau ceramic, but also from the


Austrian and Bohemian ones. Although the

In 1888, he participates in the Northern

production core is constituted by the serial

Exhibition, organised in the capital city of

pieces, Miklos focuses on the fancy ceramic

the Dannish Kingdom. He presents here his

and the decorative objects with an unique

first artworks, which will get to influence

character.

the whole Scandinavian art. Stimulated by


the notoriety received with this occasion,

One of the most successful types of Art

he gets the attention of the French public,

Nouveau ceramic pieces is the one of the

during the Universal Exhibition in Paris from

decorative plates. Of large dimensions,

1889, where his enamel painting brings him

they are distinguished by the texture of the

gradually the universal acknowledgement.

material and by the variety of decorations


mainly inspired from the oriental art.

Despite the international character of the

The monochrome faience plate, with rich

Art Nouveau movement, Denmark imposes

decorations, disposed under the shape of a

its own mark over the decorative arts. By

fan composed from a buquet of polychrome

Krogs vision, Dannish people bring into

flowers on a golden, grained background is

the light in front of the whole Europe the

part of the type of trays so-called Persian,

universe of the northern world, grafted on a

which, in reality find their inspiration from the

science of composition with deep roots into

floral models and chromaticism established

the oriental art. His stylized decorations are

by the Turkish workshop Iznik. The Zsolnay

the answer to the demand of the full-empty

pottery is grafted on the most various forms:

binomial, common to the extremely oriental

tulip-vases, soliflor vases, aguire-mugs etc.

artistic conception. Krog imposes on the

147

porelan menite s agrementeze interioarele

transpune ideile n realitate, utiliznd drept

scandinave.

mici

suport un tip nou de porelan, caracterizat

dimensiuni att de familiare spaiului privat

prin finee i luminozitate. Foarte subire i

fac parte integrant din cultura habitatului

de nuana fildeului, aceast nou

nordic. Epurate de detalii, acoperite cu

trimite cu gndul la cea japonez, denumit

glazur fin, lucioas, pictat cu email ntr-un

i ,,coaj de ou. Apelnd la o ornamentaie

cromatism pastelat ele constituie dovezi ale

de tip nchis deschis, inspirat din earfele

rafinamentului unei lumi aparte, cu propriile

javaneze i la o grafic liniar, estompat,

sale valori, legate de mitologia trecutului i

realizat prin pictare pe o glazur metalizat,

de cultul fa de natur, n general. Regina

lucioas, piesele sale marcheaz momentul

Maria achiziioneaz la nceputul secolului

de glorie al manufacturii.

Aceste

sculpturi

de

past

al XX-lea dou piese semnate Copenhaga,


care exceleaz prin tehnica de pictare peste

Evoluia artistic a societii de dup rzboi

glazur. De mari dimensiuni, cilindrice,

influeneaz deopotriv arta ceramicii, care

decorate unul cu cu lebede albe plutind pe

vireaz ctre formele tot mai stilizate i

oglinda lacului, printre vegetaia lacustr,

geometrizate ale Art Dco-ului. Expoziia

cellalt, cu corabie cu pnze pe mare, piesele

Internaional

confer interioarelor elegan. Pictate cu

1925, marcheaz momentul de triumf al

talent n nuane de griuri pastelate, ele sunt

Modernismului i sfritul oficial al Artei

rezultatul simbiozei perfecte ntre decorul

1900. Pe ruinele sale, se cldete ns o art,

scandinav i compoziia oriental.

care a schimbat faa secolului al XX lea.

nfiinat

anul

1883,

manufactura

ROZENBURG fabric porelanuri elegante


de factur Art Nouveau. Rzboiul pune ns
capt unei producii promitoare, care a
nscris Olanda pe harta celor mai importante
nume n domeniu. Producia Rozenburg s-a
caracterizat printr-o mare varietate formal,
de la serviciile de mas i emineu, la obiecte
i plci decorative. Intitulate ,,Interior de
catedrali ,,Peisaj la malul mrii, cele
dou plci decorative cumprate de Maria,
reprezint creaii originale, semnate de
pictorii Johannes Bosboom (1817-1891)
i H. W. Mesdag (1831-1915). Inspirat din
arta indonezian, decoraia

Rozenburg se

caracterizeaz prin bogie i culoare. Cele


mai frecvent ntlnite motive rmn fr
ndoial siluetele feminine fluide, ncadrate
de vegetaie luxuriant i de o faun
caracteristic zonei ecuatoriale.
Cel care a impus stilul Rozenburg a fost
talentatul designerul olandez Jurriaan Kok
(1881-1919), director al atelierului ntre anii
1894 i 1919. Dup ndelungi cutri, Kok i

148

de

la

Paris,

din

anul

artistic market the Copenhagen style, in

Marie represent original creations, signed by

which we retrieve the Scandinavian universe,

the painters Johannes Bosboom (1817-1891)

with its crepuscular light, with its waters and

and H.W. Mesdag (1831-1915). Inspired

fiords, the wintry scenery and the whole

from the Indonesian art, the Rozenburg art

range of creatures which populate the boreal

is known by richness and color. The most

grasslands and the arctic tundra.

frequent models remain without any doubt


the fluid feminine silhouettes framed by

Along with Krog, Gotfred Rode (1862-1937)

luxuriant vegetation and by a fauna specific

brought a substantial intervention into the

to the equatorial region.

factorys production at the beginning of the


20th Century by initiating the serial figurines

The one who imposed the Rozenburg style

- small statues made of porcelain. These

was the talented Dannish Juriaan Kok (1881-

small-dimension sculptures so familiar to

1919), manager of the workshop between

the private space are an important part of

1894 and 1919. After long researches, Kok

the culture of the northern habitat. Cleansed

turns his ideas into reality using as support

of any detail, covered in fine, shiny glaze,

a new gender of porcelain characterized

painted with enamel in a pastel chromatism,

by delicacy and brightness. Very thin and

they are the alive proofs of the refinement of

ivory colored, this new paste reminds of

a different world with its own values, firmly

the Japanese one, also named egg shell.

connected to the mythology of the past and

Using a dark-light ornamentation inspired

to the natural cult in particular.

by the Javanese scarves and a linear, blurred


graphic, resulted from painting on a metallic,

Queen Marie purchases at the beginning

shiny glaze, the pieces mark the most

of the 20th Century two pieces signed

glorious moment of manufacturing.

Copenhagen, which excel in the technique of


painting over the glaze. Of great dimensions,

The artistic evolution of the after-war society

cylindrical, one of them decorated with

influences also the ceramic, which evolves

white swans floating on the lake among its

to the more stylized and geometrical forms

vegetation and the other one with a sailing

of the Art Dco. The International Exhibition

vessel, both pieces giving an elegant breath

from Paris in 1925, marks the triumphal

to the interiors. Painted with talent, using

moment of the Modernism and the official

pastel greys, they are the result of the

ending of the 1900s art. On its ruins however,

perfect symbiosis between the Scandinavian

it is built an art which has changed the vision

decorations and the Oriental composition.

of the 20th Century.

Established

in

1883,

the

ROZENBURG

manufactory produces elegant Art Nouveau


porcelain. Unfortunately, the war puts an end
to a promising production, which had put
Holland on the map of the most important
names in this domain. The Rozenburg
production was described by a great variety
of forms, from dinner and fireplace sets up to
decorative objects and plates.
Named Cathedral Interior and Seashore
scenery, the two decorative plates bought by

149

150

ART NOUVEAU
110 ANI IN ROMANIA

CATALOG
SELECTIV
ART NOUVEAU

151

ANTONIO ARGNANI
Portretul Principesei Maria

152

ANTONIO ARGNANI
(1868 1947)
Portretul Principesei Maria
Semnat dreapta jos cu negru
Circa 1910-1012
Pastel pe carton
80 cm X 66 cm
Nr. inv. 13196

Perioada parizian a creaiei sale i prilejuiete


lui Antonio Argnani ntlnirea cu familia regal
i princiar romn, care i comand portrete la
nceputul secolului trecut, n jurul anilor 1910
1912.
Regele Carol i Regina Elisabeta, Principesa Maria
i Principele Ferdinand, copiii celor doi, Principii
Carol i Nicolae, Principesele Elisabeta, Mignon
i Ileana devin, prin mna artistului, modele
pline de elegan i gingie. Majoritatea acestor
portrete figureaz n castelul Pelior. n stilul
su binecunoscut, artistul schieaz recuzita
din cteva trsturi de penel: Maria poart o
ampl plrie cu pana, vestimentaie Belle
poque, cruce gamat la gt i buchet cu florile
preferate, crinii. Figura personajului, n schimb,
l absoarbe cu totul: fiecare detaliu conteaz
n economia compoziiei. Artistul i plaseaz
modelul deasupra perspectivei cu intenia
de a-i surprinde atitudinea

regal, confient.

Ochii sinceri, uimitor de albatri, cu scnteieri


de inteligen salveaz tabloul de pericolul
stereotipiei i obscuritii. Cromatica pastelat,
n nuane de ocru, brun i griuri colorate
contribuie la impresia general de cochetrie i
rafinament.

153

ARTHUR FERRARIS (1856-1936)


Portretul Principesei Elisabeta
Semnat, datat dreapta sus cu ocru 1901
Acuarel pe hrtie, pastel;
lemn stucat i aurit
49 cm X 35 cm
Nr. inv. 13165

La nceputul secolului al XX-lea, Principesa Maria


comand pictorului Arthur Ferraris (1856-1936)
un sensibil portret de salon, n culori pastelate, n
care se regsesc trsturile Artei 1900, precum
i portretul fiicei mai mari, Elisabeta, superb
execuie n acuarel i pastel. Prin reprezentarea
frontal, bust, cu prul prins sub panglic i
privirea cobort transpare caracterul obstinat
i interiorizat al Principesei. Chipul candid
de copil, creionat cu tue de ocru i galben i
accente de roz transmit privitorului candoarea
i ludicul vrstei. n cel mai autentic spirit Art
Nouveau, rama ampl, decorativ, din lemn aurit,
sculptat cu motivul stilizat al razelor solare vine
s completeze acuarela, ca parte integrant a
lucrrii.

154

ARTHUR FERRARIS
Portretul Principesei Elisabeta

155

TINI RUPPRECHT
Portretul Principesei Maria

156

TINI RUPPRECHT
(1868-1956)
Portretul Principesei Maria
Semnat i datat cu negru dreapta 1906
Pastel pe pnz
58 cm X 48 cm
Nr. inv. 7118; PS: 17; P: 569

Pictori i desenatoare nzestrat, Tini Rupprecht


se

specializeaz

in

portretistica

feminin,

realizat n special n tehnica pastelului. Fotograf


de talent, lucreaz cu mare acribie, realiznd nu
mai puin de 40 de cliee fotografice n dou
edine, dup care, n singurtatea atelierului,
cu mn sigur, desvrete lucrarea. Prezen
discret n mediile artistice bavareze, Tini
Rupprecht se altur nc de la nceputul carierei
sale artistice micrii mncheneze Seccesion, cu
care i descoper afiniti elective. La 1906, este
solicitat s creeze pentru a doua oar un portret
al Mariei. Suav, n culori pastelate, diadem abia
schiat pe cap i rochie vaporoas, portretul
bust reprezint o reuit a genului. Cu ochii vii i
chip mobil, Principesa surde insinuant.

157

TADEUSZ AJDUKIEWICZ
(18521916)
Cavalcad
1902 1904
Ulei pe pnz
95 cm X 571 cm
Nr. inv. 19346

Tadeusz Ajdukiewicz (18521916), unul dintre


pictorii oficiali ai Regelui Carol I, rspunde ntre
anii 1902 i 1904, unei comenzi speciale, venite
din partea Principesei Maria pentru Budoarul
su din castelul Pelior. Fiic a Albionului, Maria
i dorete ca decoraie parietal menit s
ntregeasc atmosfera de seducie i rafinament
artistic, o friz inspirat din vechile mituri celtice.

158

Atenia sa se oprete la legenda Cavalerilor mesei

Ajdukiewicz face apel la talentul su de artist

rotunde i a regelui Arthur, tem frecvent utilizat

animalier, specializat n reprezentrile ecvestre

n operele lor de William Morris i Prerafaelii.

i la aplecarea sa spre pictura orientalist,

Descurajat de dificultile tehnice ale realizrii,

izbutind s mpace preteniile simboliste ale

opteaz pentru o cavalcad, pe care o gndete

comanditarei cu realismul profund al tuei sale.

desfurat n frize dispuse n jurul scafei, n


toate cele patru anotimpuri. Departe de a trata
subiectul n maniera alegoric a lui Walter Crane,

159

FERNAND KHNOPFF
(1858-1921)
Portret de femeie cu coroan
Semnat dreapta jos cu negru, datat 1898
Creion pe carton;
lemn stucat i aurit
55 cm X 36 cm
Nr. inv. 15791

Influenat de opera lui Gustave Moreau (18261898) i mai ales de Prerafaelii, pictorul
flamand Fernand Khnopff valorific experiena
sa parizian n cadrul ,,Grupului celor Douzeci,
fondat la 1883, n Belgia natal. Figur
excentric n saloanele epocii, Khnoppf era
recunoscut deopotriv ca un dandy singuratic
i pesimist, cu preocupri oculte. Pictura sa
hieratic, dominat de o cromatic sumbr,
aflat n perpetu cutare a sensurilor ascunse
ale lucrurilor i extrage coninutul din literatura
simbolist a sfritului de secol XIX i mai ales
din cea flamand, dominat de figura lui Maurice
Maeterlinck (1862-1949). Fuga de realitate prin
vis, claustrarea, hipnotismul, mitul lui Oedip pe
care l renvie n cteva dintre cele mai valoroase
lucrri ale sale descriu pe scurt atmosfera picturii
lui Fernand Khnoppf. Reprezentat profil, bust,
cu prul prins dup moda sfritului de secol,
tnra femeie simbolizeaz misterul, fora, dar i
claustrarea, accentuat de cromatismul redus la
ocru i brunuri i de atitudinea sobr, detaat.

160

FERNAND KHNOPFF
Portret de femeie cu coroan

161

KIMON LOGHI
Orientala

162

KIMON LOGHI
(1873-1953)
Orientala
Semnat, datat 1898
Ulei pe pnz
91 cm X 79 cm
Nr. inv. 12902; P: 621

Opera pictorului simbolist, Kimon Loghi a fost


influenat de Arnold Bcklin (1827-1901) i
Franz von Stuck (1863-1928). n anul 1898,
expune ,,Orientala la Internaionala Micrii
Secession din Mnchen i ntrunete elogiile
unanime ale publicului. ncurajat de succes,
revine cu aceeai lucrare n cadrul Expoziiei
Universale de la Paris de la 1900 i obine un
binemeritat premiu secund. Un an mai trziu, se
numr printre fondatorii Societii ,,Tinerimea
artistic. La expoziia de debut, vernisat la
1 martie 1902, ,,Orientala se afla din nou pe
simeze, spre deliciul cronicarilor i al pasionailor
de art. Fin cunosctoare a Simbolismului
german i a Jugendstil-ului, al cror vocabular
l-a deprins la Darmstadt, Principesa Maria
achiziioneaz lucrarea i o pstreaz n castelul
Pelior.

163

ALEXIS MACEDONSKI
(1884-1971)
Toamna
Semnat cu rou stnga jos, circa 1900
Ulei pe pnz
135 cm X 76 cm
Nr. inv.: 13436; P: 850

Fiul cel mare al controversatului creator al


rondelurilor,

Alexandru

Macedonski

(1854-

1920), Alexis Macedonski rmne unul dintre


numele de artiti romni a cror oper este
deschis nc cercetrii. Cu o existen nvluit
n mister, marcat de tragedia dispariiei
premature a genialului su copil, pictorul Soare
Macedonski, Alexis primete o educaie artistic
timpurie. Format n mediul simbolitilor, obine
o burs de studii la Paris, la 1905, ns pstreaz
permanent legtura cu ara, unde trimite periodic
lucrri. Expune la Cercul Artistic n acelai an
i apoi la 1911, 1913, 1915 i 1916, la Salon.
Pnzele sale influenate de pictura francez
ctig aprecierea lui Nicolae Tonitza. Alexis
Macedonski a fost unul dintre cei mai populari
i mai longevivi portretiti de salon ai epocii.
Compoziia intitulat ,,Toamna este o alegorie n
cheie simbolist a abundenei vegetale specifice
anotimpului.

164

ALEXIS MACEDONSKI
Toamna

165

MANUSCRIS
Atelier Paul Telge, Berlin
Pictura Regina Maria, 1906
Argint, turnat, presat, aurit,
cabooane, acuarele, pergamoid
L: 50 cm; La: 40 cm,
Greutate brutto 24200 gr.
Inv. 9840, M 92, OV 92

Manuscrisul este alctuit din 50 de acuarele

1906; dou ncuietori traforate cu motive

pe foi de pergamoid, creaia reginei Maria

celtice prelucrate i cabooane. Cotorul i

coninut n coperi de argint aurit, decorate

ncuietorile decorate cu pietre preioase.

pe avers cu stema veche a Romniei, iar


n coluri cu simbolul preferat, crucea

n interiorul primei coperi portretul pictat

gamat. Pe revers, blazonul mrginit de

al reginei Maria n contur circular. Fiecare

Ordinul Jartierei; pe cotor se afl inscripia-

fil de pergamoid scris i pictat de Maria

dedicaie Lui Ferdinand de la Maria,

este ncadrat n rmi din argint.

166

167

ADOLPHE COSSARD (1880-1952)


Muzica sacr
Litografie color
Semnat stnga, jos; 1900
62 x 28 cm
Nr. inv. 15853

Lucrarea face parte dintr-un ansamblu, compus


din dou panouri decorative: Musique sacre
i Musique profane. Autorul s-a inspirat din
lucrrile realizate de Alphonse Mucha, n special
din seria Anotimpurilor. Compoziia, dispus
pe orizontal, reprezint o tnr, cu trsturi
delicate i de o frumusee aparte, uor drapat
cu voal, cntnd la vioar, ntr-un fundal cu
ghirland floral i crini. Chipul angelic al
interpretei, sunetul melodios al vioarei, parfumul
trandafirilor i al crinilor, conduc privitorul spre
un trm de vis, edenic.

168

169

ALPHONSE MARIA MUCHA (1860-1939)


Anotimpurile
Litografie color
Semnat dreapta, jos; 1896
Imprimeria F. Champenois, Frana
104 x 57 cm
Nr. inv. 19138

Alegorii ale succesiunii lunilor anului, personajele


feminine simbolizeaz prin elegan, frumusee
i atitudini, caracteristica fiecrui anotimp.
Compoziia

amintete

de

xilogravurile

tradiionale japoneze, i dezvluie preferina


lui Mucha pentru perfeciunea i minuiozitatea
desenului japonez. Artistul reuete prin fiecare
dintre aceste lucrri s creeze prin imaginaie i
echilibrul culorilor, adevrate capodopere Art
Nouveau.

170

171

ALPHONSE MARIA MUCHA (1860-1939)


Momentele zilei
Cromolitografie
Semnat, datat dreapta, jos; 1899
108,5 x 43 cm
Nr. inv. 19141

Lucrarea se ncadreaz n categoria panneaux,


piese decorative derivate din afiele de teatru.
Personajele feminine, tratate ca alegorii ale
momentelor zilei n maniera specific a Art
Nouveaului sunt prezentate n peisaj. Siluetele
tinerelor degaj senzualitate i delicatee,
drapajul uor i atitudinea vistoare sunt
accentuate

de

ancadramentul

arcadat

decorat cu motive floral-vegetale, simboliznd


frumuseea i optimismul unei zile.

172

173

ALPHONSE MARIA MUCHA (1860-1939)


Gismonda
Litografie color
Semnat stnga, jos; 1894
Imprimeria Lemercier, Paris
213 x 70 cm
Nr. inv. 15868

Afiul o reprezint pe actria Sarah Bernhardt,


n costumaie imperial bizantin, n rolul
Gismondei,

opera

dramatic

semnat

de

Victorien Sardou. Poart o mantie bogat,


ampl, iar pe cap o cunun de irii. Piesa de
teatru Gismonda a avut prima reprezentaie la 4
ianuarie 1895, la Thtre de la Renaissance din
Paris. Prin tehnica impecabil a desenului, tiina
compoziiei i a folosirii tonurilor de culoare, A.
Mucha rmne cel mai important reprezentant al
Art Nouveau-lui n grafica european.

MARCEL LENOIR (1872-1931)


Le Monstre (Monstrul)
Litografie
Semnat pe passe-partout,
stnga, sus; 1897
79 x 54 cm
Nr. inv. 15861

Marcel Lenoir a realizat patru afie reprezentnd


aceast tem a monstrului, ilustrat cu un personaj
feminin ca exponent al tuturor relelor. Coafat
cu o tiar simboliznd trufia puni cu cozile
desfcute, tnra este prezentat n picioare,
impasibil,

mndr

de

supremaia

asupra

brbatului. Este nconjurat de animale i psri


care sugereaz viciile i instinctele primare, un
cod aluziv la contopirea fiinei cu animalitatea.
Misogin convins, Lenoir execut aceast lucrare
n anul 1897 i o expune n cadrul salonului
Rozicrucienilor de la Galeria Georges Petit din
Paris.

174

175

PAUL MILE BERTHON (1872-1909)


Sarah Bernhardt
Litografie color
Semnat stnga, jos; circa 1900
63 x 49 cm
Nr. inv. 15786

Afi publicitar, reprezentnd bustul actriei


Sarah Bernhardt, supranumit vocea de aur a
teatrului francez, din semiprofil, ncadrat grafic
de irii, decor specific curentului Art Nouveau.
Gulerul rochiei, din dantel, este brodat cu
motiv floral. Personajul este amplasat ntr-un
decor floral-vegetal, iar culorile delicate confer
luminozitate compoziiei. Sarah Bernhard a fost
printre actriele preferate ale reginei Maria.

HENRI PRIVAT LIVEMONT (1861-1936)


Parfumul unui trandafir
Litografie color
Semnat dreapta, sus; 1900
Imprimeria Lith van Leer, Amsterdam
55 x 35 cm
Nr. inv. 19142

Afiul publicitar a fost realizat pentru casa


de parfumuri J.C. Boldoot din Amsterdam.
Compoziia, tratat cu elemente Art Nouveau,
aduce suavitatea parfumului de trandafiri prin
tonurile de roz i alburile delicate. Eminamente
feminin, decorul marginal cu desenul trasat n
linii unduitoare, de dantel, ncununeaz n mod
fericit lucrarea.

176

177

HENRI PRIVAT LIVEMONT (1861-1936)


Tropon Chocolat Cocoa
Litografie color
Semnat, datat i localizat
dreapta, jos; 1900, Bruxelles
Imprimeria O. de Rycker, Mendel, Bruxelles
50 x 30 cm
Nr. inv. 132/5882
Afi publicitar, dispus pe vertical, reprezentnd
o tnr mam mpreun cu copiii ei, poznd
pentru o reclam la ciocolata cald Tropon.
Artistul belgian, discipol al lui Mucha, reuete s
combine clasicismul desenului cu modernitatea
compoziiei specific Art Nouveau-ului.

HENRI PRIVAT LIVEMONT (1861-1936),


Bruxelles
Cocoa A. Driessen
Litografie color
Semnat, datat i localizat
stnga, mijloc; 1900, Bruxelles
50 x 30 cm
Nr. inv. 15812

Afi publicitar pentru consumul de cacao.


Personajele, mama cu copiii sunt tratate n
maniera Art Nouveau cu ornamente de flori
i frunze de vi de vie mpodobind capetele
personajelor, pe un fundal de peisaj cu arbori.
Cromatic de ocruri, brunuri i griuri colorate
sugernd tonurile fructului de cacao.

178

179

GARNITUR SALON DE CEAI


Atelier Bernhard Ludwig, Viena, sec.XX
Lemn de paltin, strunjit, lustruit, stof de
mobil

CANAPEA
I: 87 cm, L: 142 cm, La: 52,5 cm
Inv. 15903

Bernhard Ludwig, decoratorul cel mai important

mnerelor de la sertare adaug un surplus de

al ncperilor din reedinele regale de var de

frumusee pieselor. Lemnul de paltin din care

la Sinaia este autorul proiectelor de mobilier

sunt construite confer luminozitate i intimitate

pentru

interioarelor.

Salonul

de

ceai

Apartamentul

principilor din Pelior. Artist vienez, cu o tehnic


de lucru impecabil, Ludwig a adoptat designul
Secession din anii 1900, folosind elementele
unui stil geometric, funcional, cu un desen al
pieselor n linii uor curbate, coluri rotunjite,
baghete svelte, dulpioare cu ornamente din
vitraliu n culori calde. Motivele florale ntlnite
att la sculptura fin a panourilor ct i la
feroneria din alam de la ncuietorile uilor sau

180

MSUT
I: 70 cm, La: 58 cm
Inv. 4049, L. 113

SCAUN
I: 90 cm, L: 46 cm
Inv. 15885

181

GARNITUR DE SALON
Atelier Bernhard Ludwig, Viena, sec.XX
Lemn de paltin, sculptat n meplat,
vitralii, aram, presat

SERVANT
L: 180 cm, L: 135 cm, La: 62 cm
Inv. 4326, L.389

DULAP
I: 200 cm, L: 124 cm, La: 54 cm
Inv. 4318, L. 379

182

183

MAS
Atelier Bernhard Ludwig,Viena, sec.XX
Lemn de frasin, strunjit, lustruit
I: 92 cm, L: 90 cm, La: 49,5 cm
Inv.19147

Motivul decorativ spectaculos care unete

grilaje la balcoane, n creaia de mobilier sau

picioarele mesei este preluat de Ludwig din

la balustradele scrilor interioare. Frumuseea

vocabularul Art Nouveau al artistului Henri

acestora a constituit o surs de inspiraie pentru

Guimard care-l numea

vignetele ornamentale tiprite n albume,

Stilul tulpin .

Adoptat de artitii creatori ai anilor 1900, el

jurnale, apariii editoriale ale anilor 1900.

este format din mpletirea unor tije dezvoltnd


volute senzuale i lenee, n ornamentele unor

184

POSTAMENT
Atelier Viena, circa 1902
Bronz, turnat, presat, aragonit
I: 80 cm, D: 36 cm
Inv. 4544, M 756

Elementele de impact estetic la acest postament


sunt picioarele suple terminate cu volut i
ornamentele florale unduitoare de sub blat i de
la baz, ornamente Secession.

185

Garniturile de mobilier concepute de Regina


Maria n jurul anilor 1909 sunt cele mai
valoroase i inedite lucrri pstrate la castelul
Pelior din creaia suveranei. Totaliznd 20 de

GARNITUR DE DORMITOR
Atelier: coala de Arte i Meserii Sinaia
Design Regina Maria, 1908-1909
Lemn de tei, sculptat, strunjit, stucat, aurit

de piese, din lemn de tei sculptat i aurit cu foi


de aur, realizate la coala de Arte i Meserii de
pe antierul castelului Pele, ele formeaz o

Preocuparea deosebit a reginei Maria pentru

garnitur de dormitor i un ansamblu de salon

decorul sculptat al panourilor aduce elemente

pentru Camera de aur.

din motivele tradiionale romneti, mpletite cu


vechi motive celtice.

Stilul concepiei este ncadrat ca fiind neo


-romnesc,

linii

Ca ornament repetitiv, ncadrnd panourile,

mobilier

apare binecunoscutul nod celtic, entrelacul, o

voevodal ( jiluri, banchete, scaune) i al

linie sinuoas fr de nceput i fr de sfrit

panourilor de la pat i comode cu ornamente

care simbolizeaz natura i viaa n esena ei.

impozante,

cu

desenul

asemenea

ezutelor
vechiului

de arce semirotunde trilobate sau arcadate,


stlpi scuri i groi, capitele cu muchii rotunjite

Bogia motivelor sculptate i aurite de pe

inspiraie din stilul bizantin. Motivele zoomorfe

mobilierul desenat de regina Maria definete

cu ncolciri de erpi i animale fantastice sunt

aceast creaie ca fiind rodul unui spirit artistic

preluri din repertoriul decorativ al culturilor

rafinat, scormonitor, aplecat spre frumuseea

nordice.

profund a creaiilor tradiionale.

186

DULAP
I: 160 cm, L: 291,5 cm, La: 54 cm
Inv. 19268

COMOD
82 cm, L: 124 cm, La: 58 cm
Inv. 19269

187

MAS
Dim.: I: 61, 5 cm, D: 99 cm
Inv.19270

SCAUN
I: 95 cm,L: 45 cm, La: 40 cm
Inv. 19314

188

BANCHET
I: 84 cm, L: 123,5 cm, La: 59 cm
Inv. 19471

189

FOTOLIU
Atelier coala de Arte i Meserii, Sinaia;
design i pictur de Regina Maria,
circa 1903
Lemn de tei, stucat, aurit,
pictat, stof de mobil
I: 156 cm, L: 61,5 cm, La: 50 cm
Inv. 3907, adm. 77

n castelul Pelior se gsesc 2 exemplare


identice ale acestei piese de valoare. Decorul
pictat pe sptarul din lemn de tei aurit cu foi
de aur, aparine Mariei: floare de crin alb cu 5
cupe i tulpin lung, simboliznd Trinitatea i
virtuile dreptii i caritii.
Influenele din creaia arhitectului britanic,
Baillie Scott, autorul planurilor comandate de
regina Maria pentru Juniperus (Cuibul prinesei)
de la Sinaia sunt vizibile.. Panourile n linii
drepte, cotierele uor oblice i montanii sveli
i nali sunt preluri din repertoriul arhitectului
britanic.

190

FOTOLIU
Design i pirogravur Regina Maria,
circa 1903
Lemn de tei, pirogravat, stucat, aurit
I: 145 cm, L: 68,5 cm, La: 53,5 cm
Inv. 4059, adm. 810

Regina Maria desena proiectele unor piese de


mobilier mpreun cu prietenii ei, fraii Waldorf
i Pauline Astor. Acetia realizau lucrri de
pirogravur i sculptur la Sinaia, n perioada
1902-1909. Sursa de inspiraie era, n majoritatea
cazurilor, revista The Studio Magazine , nfiinat
n anul 1893, la Londra, promotoare a noului val
n arta decorativ.. Motivul crucii celtice de pe
sptarul fotoliului este preferat de Maria i n
decoraia Camerei de Aur din castelul Pelior.
Crucea

celtic

reprezint

form

protocalendarului. n momentul n care omul


privete acest calendar, el cuprinde timpul
i spaiul n ntregime. Este foarte important
de evideniat rolul pe care l are spaiul,
deoarece fr acesta timpul nu are sens. Cercul
simbolizeaz timpul (ziua, anul), iar crucea
simbolizeaz spaiul (universul), cele patru
coluri ale lumii. Vrful de sus al crucii reprezint
Nordul, cel de jos Sudul, braul din stnga
Vestul, braul din dreapta Estul. n centrul
cercului se afl divinitatea, care este n afara
spaiului i timpului.

191

SUPORT DE REVISTE
Creaie Regina Maria
Lemn de tei, pirogravat
: 78 cm, la: 26 cm
Inv. 17531, C. 1278

Aceast tipologie de suport este ntlnit la


musulmani. Construit pentru a menine deschis
cartea sfnt, Coranul, suportul este adaptat
de Maria ntr-o frumoas pies Art Nouveau
prezent n salonul din apartamentul regal.

SUPORT PENTRU CORESPONDEN


coala de Arte i Meserii Sinaia, Design
Regina Maria, circa 1902
Lemn de tei, pirogravat,
traforat, parial aurit
I : 92 cm, La 36,5 cm
Inv. 4062, L. 117

Pies singular cu elemente inedite : centur


decupat, festonat, gen oriental; deasupra
blatului, un suport de coresponden rotativ, n
form de cruce gamat cu braele decorate cu
motive florale stilizate i cruce. Inscripia gravat
n limba englez conine versuri ale poetului
englez, William Wordsworth.

192

SUPORT PENTRU CRI


Creaie Regina Maria, 1903-1909
Lemn de tei, pirogravat, aurit
I: 71, 5 cm, L: 53 cm, La: 34 cm
Inv. 3989, adm. 191

Pies realizat de regina Maria cu decor de cruci


gamate i cruci stilizate. Prezena suportului
de cri alturi de regina Maria n numeroase
fotografii de epoc, ofer certitudinea preferinei
acesteia pentru stilul anilor 1900.

193

PIANIN
Atelier F.Ehrbar, Viena, 1900
Lemn de tei, pictat, aurit, filde
I: 137 cm; L: 158,5 cm; La: 69 cm
Inv. 15880

Friedrich Ehrbar (1827-1905), creator de piane,


de origine german i-a desfurat activitatea
la Viena. n expoziiile de la Mnchen (1854),
Londra (1862) i Paris (1867 i 1878) a fost
onorat cu numeroase distincii, devenind o
celebritate n domeniu.Compozitorul Gustav
Mahler a fost un fidel admirator al pianelor
fabricate de Ehrbar.

194

Pianina din colecia reginei Maria, realizat n


jurul anilor 1900, este o pies extrem de rar.
Regina Maria a personalizat-o, comandnd
pictarea panourilor instrumentului cu motivul
cozilor de pun, ornament preferat de numeroi
creatori Art Nouveau, simboliznd manifestarea
Phoenix-ului ceresc pe pmnt. Punul are pe
coada sa o mie de ochi ce activeaz norocul,
dragostea, promoveaz admiraia public. De
asemenea ca simbolistica n hinduism cei o mie
de ochi protejeaz casa de dezastre i pericole.
Regina Maria comandase pentru interioarele din
palatul Cotroceni esturi cu decorul cozilor de
pun pentru draperii i tapierii de mobilier.

195

MNER Uroboros de la ua
Camerei de aur
Bronz, turnat, aurit, cizelat
D: 10,5 cm

Uroboros este unul dintre cele mai vechi

de cele mai multe ori unitatea primordial, ciclul

simboluri mistice din lume. El apare n credinele

nesfrit al timpului i al universului. n secolul

aztecilor, chinezilor, scandinavilor.

al XIX-lea a fost interpretat dup unii psihologi,


cum ar fi Carl Gustav Jung, ca avnd o influen
pozitiv asupra psihicului

Uroboros (cunoscut i sub numele de Uroborus


sau Ouroboros) este un simbol antic asemntor
unui arpe sau dragon care i nghite propria
coad formnd cu ajutorul corpului un cerc. A
fost folosit de-a lungul istoriei pentru a nfia,

196

ORNAMENT DE U
DE LA DORMITORUL REGINEI MARIA
Autor G.Gurschner, Viena,circa 1902
Bronz, turnat, cizelat

Artitii perioadei 1900 primeau comenzi pentru


lucrri mici, precum acest ornament-siren,
realizat cu imaginaie i talent de vienezul
Gurschner. n creaia artistic Secession fiecare
pies devine o oper de art, chiar dac vorbim
de o clan de la ua unei ncperi.

197

UA GLISANT DE LA
SALONUL REGINEI MARIA

Ua din lemn, cptuit cu alam este ornat


n stilul Art Nouveau cu friz de crini, motivul
rozetei stilizate i grupaje de linii verticale.
Liniile unduitoare subliniaz feroneria cu mner
a ncuietoarei, o oper de art n sine.

198

UA DE LA
APARTAMENTUL REGINEI MARIA

Sculptat

lemn

de

stejar,

cu

motive

brncoveneti i elemente de heraldic, ua


majestuoas de la apartamentul suveranei se
integreaz armonios n acest interior palaial.

199

mile Louis Picault (1833-1915)


Soldat Roman
1/4 sec. XX
Bronz, turnat, patinat
I: 81 cm; L: 34 cm; La: 19,5 cm
Nr. inv. 10994 P.777 S. 45

,,Soldat roman, opera realizat de mile


Louis Picault (18331915), reflect pasiunea
sculptorului francez pentru realizarea statuetelor
reprezentnd personaje mitologice, personaje
alegorice sau eroi care s-au remarcat de-a lungul
istoriei printr-un patriotism nflcrat. Tnrul cu
coif pe cap, nfiat n picioare, cu corpul torsadat,
trgnd sabia din teac, idealizeaz soldatul
roman curajos, care nu ezit s lupte fr team
mpotriva dumanului. Ca o confirmare a vitejiei
sale, pe lespedea de la picioarele lupttorului
este scris inscripia ,, Pro aris et focis, deviza
mai multor familii nobiliare, regimente militare,
tradus prin sintagma ,, pentru Dumnezeu i
patrie, cu semnificaie asemntoare cu cea de
pe soclul dreptunghiular, dispus frontal ,,Honor.
Patria

200

Mathurin Moreau (1822-1912)


Diana
1/4 sec. XX
Antimoniu, turnat, patint
I: 64 cm; DB: 15 cm; La: 38 cm
Nr. inv. 11018 P.173

Descendent al unei familii de artiti, Mathurin


Morreau (1822-1912), s-a bucurat de apreciere
deosebit n perioada Art Nouveau, etalnd
lucrri valoaroase, create n stilul anilor 1900,
asemntoare celor realizate de fraii si,
Hippolyte (1832-1927) i Auguste (1834-1917).
Personajele mitologice, copiii, scenele pastorale
sau scenele de gen au constituit sursele de
inspiraie pentru lucrrile semnate Moreau Math.
Sculptura din antimoniu, o nfieaz pe Diana,
zeia vntorii, nzestrat cu atributele specifice,
arcul i tolba cu sgei, n atitudine marial, pe
soclu circular cu rmi aurit. Dorina autorului
de a sugera micarea, este evident prin postura
personajului uor drapat, cu degetele fine ce par
s culeag o sgeat din tolb i privirea aintit.
Diana ntruchipeaz graia feminin, frumuseea,
nenfricarea, caracteristici de baz ale tipologiei
personajului feminin Art Nouveau.

201

Fix Masseau (1869-1937)


Secretul
Turntoria Siot Decauville, Frana
1894 -1900
Bronz, turnat, cizelat
I: 30 cm; La: 9 cm
Nr. inv. 12701 P. 758

Gustul marcant pentru figura feminin, asociat


motivelor florale, fascinaia pentru insolit i
straniu, definesc creaia acestui artist ca fiind
reprezentativ Art Nouveau-ului cu puternice
accente simboliste.
Secretul este o ilustrare perfect: o mantie
acoper

nuditatea

unei

siluete

feminine,

graioase, cu figura ascuns pe jumtate sub


drapaj, sporind misterul. S fie oare o preoteas
sau o magician, acest personaj misterios ?
Atenia privitorului este atras de caseta pe
care o ine n mna cu degete fine, prelungi :
motivele decorative orientalizante, dispuse n
friza cu portrete puin vizibile, probabil de sfini
nconjurai de arcade floral-vegetale, conduc
spre adncirea tainei. Lucrarea de o deosebit
importan n creaia artistului este printre cele
mai valoroase i frumoase piese din colecia
reginei Maria.

202

203

Louis Auguste Hiolin (1846-1910)


Dup Lup / Au Loup
1888
Bronz, turnat, cizelat
I: 53 cm; L: 42 cm
Nr. inv. 12727 P. 686

Arta de a transpune dinamica aciunii, prin


atitudinea

ncordat

personajelor

este

remarcabil n lucrarea ,,Au loup, realizat din


bronz patinat i considerat cea mai cunoscut
pies semnat Hiolin. nclinaia spre naturalism
transpare din bogia elementelor ce surprind
n cele mai mici detalii intensitatea momentului,
prin postura tnrului cu toiag n mn, cei ndeamn cinele s pornesc n urmrire.
Tensiunea personajelor implicate, acurateea
detaliilor,

creeaz

impresia

privitorului

este martor la desfurarea evenimentului.


Postamentul

oval

supranlat

permis

amplasarea a dou plcue gravate n limba


francez, care atest datele piesei ,, Au loup par
Hiolin hors concours precum i evenimentul la
care a participat i numele proprietarului ,,Salon
1888 Acquis par la ville Paris. Dup Expoziia
Universal din anul 1889 de la Paris s-au realizat
numeroase reproduceri ale sculpturii originale.

204

Auguste Moreau (1834-1917)


Lamp de mas
circa 1900
Bronz turnat, patinat; alam presat;
marmur, lefuit
I: 80 cm; DB: 15 cm; La: 31 cm
Nr. inv. 6214 M. 751

Influenat de Art Nouveau, artistul francez


Auguste Moreau (1834-1917) transform cu
talent obiecte de art n obiecte funcionale.
Urmnd tiparul noului stil decorativ de la
nceputul secolului al XX-lea, el ntruchipeaz
un personaj feminin, cu prul strns n cunun
de trandafiri, mbrcat cu

rochie decoltat,

sprijinindu-i braele pe tija prelung a unei


plante, ce constituie lampa cu corol abatjour.
Formele vibrante ale siluetei, drapajul usor, tija
prelung i plastica redrii corolei de floare sunt
realizate cu sensibilitatea specific nceputului
de secol XX.. Acest tip de lmpi de mas s-au
regsit din abunden n perioada de glorie a
Art Nouveaului, contribuind la propagarea artei
n mediile largi sociale.

205

Oscar Gladenbeck (1850-1921)


Simurile
dup Hans Makart (1840-1884)
sec. XX
Bronz, turnat, cizelat; lemn; catifea
I: 40 cm; L: 14 cm/cu ram I: 56,5 cm;
L: 27 cm
Nr. inv. 6073 P. 778, 6074 P.779, 6075
P.780, 6076 P.781

206

Basoreliefurile n bronz semnate de Oscar

cu forme voluptoase, senzuale sunt amplasate

Gladenbeck

reprezentnd

n peisaj, nsoite de atributele specifice fiecrui

patru alegorii ale simturilor: mirosul, auzul,

sim. Reliefurile sunt redate conform canoanelor

gustul, vzul, cu latura superioar arcadat,

Jugendstil-ului. Influena lui Makart nu s-a

sunt inspirate dup opera cunoscutului pictor

rsfrnt doar asupra operei lui Gladenbeck, ci i

austriac din a doua jumtate a secolului al XIX-

a altor artiti, amintind aici pe Gustav Gurschner

lea, Hans Makart. Lucrrile lui Makart, uleiuri

i Gustav Klimt. Lucrrile sunt fixate pe suport

pe pnz intitulate Cele cinci simuri, create

trapezoidal din lemn, mbrcat n catifea de

n perioada 1872-1879 se gsesc la Galeria

mtase.

(1850-1921),

Belvedere din Viena. Personajele feminine nude,

207

FRITZ STORCK (1872-1942)


Eva sau Tentaiunea
Semnat, circa 1905
Turnat la
MCH 98 GUSS V.A. BRANDSTETTER
Bronz turnat, parial aurit, patinat
I: 75 cm; La: 31 cm; D soclu: 15 cm
Nr. inv. 12726; P: 765

Descendentul unei familii de artiti, care a dat


Romniei nume mari, precum Karl Storck (18261887) i Carol Storck (1854-1926), Frederic
Storck (1872-1942) este creatorul unei opere
complexe, pus sub semnul academismului, dar
i al curentelor moderne. A realizat deopotriv
sculptur monumental, de for public, dar i
piese de tipul statuariei mici. n anul 1901, se
numr printre fondatorii Societii ,,Tinerimea
artistic, n saloanele creia expune pn la
sfritul vieii. La 1900 se orienteaz ctre noile
tendine ale artei i creeaz opere circumscrise
curentului Art Nouveau. ,,Eva sau Tentaiunea
este una dintre cele mai valoroase piese
semnate de Fritz Storck. Reprezentat nud,
ronde-bosse, n atitudine languroas, cu mna
stng ntins spre a oferi fructul pcatului, Eva
apare mai ispititoare ca niciodat. Postura de
,,femme fatale, menit s amgeasc i s atrag
damnarea perpetu este subiectul consacrat de
arta plastic a momentului. Storck l exploateaz
cu talent i cu deplina nelegere a epocii sale.
Piesa a fost prezentat n cadrul Expoziiei
jubiliare de la Bucureti, din anul 1906.

208

H. Haase (1879-1960)
Amazoan pe cal
circa 1905
Bronz, turnat, patinat; metal, vopsit
I: 64,5 cm; L: 40 cm; La: 20 cm
Nr. inv. 12710 P. 760

Sculptorul

berlinez

Hermann

Otto

Haase

Ilsenburg (1879-1960) a realizat n anul 1905


grupul statuar ce reprezint o tnr amazoan
lundu-i rmas bun de la o copil. Caracteristicile
Jugendstilului transpar din desenul senzual al
trupului amazoanei, gestul delicat i feminitatea
mngierii copilului i tematica aleas.

209

OSCAR SPTHE (1875 -1944)


Sculptur
Melancolia sau Florentina
Semnat stnga, jos 1901
Marmur tiat, sculptat, lefuit
I : 52 cm; L : 47 cm; La : 21 cm
Nr. inv. 15546

Sculptor romn de origine german, Oscar

ofer n numele Societii preedenia onorific

Spthe a fost profesorul de desen al Principesei

a ,,Tinerimii artistice. Melancolia, sentiment

Maria. La 1901, se numr printre fondatorii

ce a caracterizat universul picturii prerafaelite

Societii ,,Tinerimea artistic, n saloanele

i care a obsedat nceputul secolului al XX-lea,

creia expune mare parte din lucrri. Absolvent

preia chipul unei tinere, reprezentate bust, cu

al Academiei Regale de Arte Frumoase din

privirea cobort. Vemintele de Renatere

Mnchen, debuteaz n anul 1898 cu opere

timpurie, prul revrsat pe umeri, crinii sculptai

de factur simbolist. Realizeaz deopotriv

n uor relief pe baz, toate sunt elemente care

sculptur monumental i statuaria mic. La

trimit ctre arta lui Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-

nceputul anului 1902, sculptorul merge n

1882).

audien la Principesa motenitoare, creia i

210

211

212

ISIDORE DE RUDDER (1855 - 1943)


Daphn
Atelier Ixelles, Bruxelles, Belgia
Semnat stnga jos, circa 1900
Faian modelat n
tipar, pictat, glazurat, parial aurit
I : 44 cm; L : 33 cm; Db 17,5 cm
Nr. inv. 17572

Lucrarea ,,Daphn, realizare artistic de mare


sensibilitate, l-a consacrat pe de Rudder printre
cei mai talentai artiti de la 1900. Reprezentat
bust, cu chipul diafan, cu avalana

prului,

cuminit de prezena unei panglici, privind


peste umr, Daphn pare imortalizat de
un obiectiv fotografic, n plin metamorfoz
vegetal. Braele retezate la nivelul umerilor,
las loc imaginaiei: acoperite cu ramuri, ele se
nal ca s implore. Haituit de Apolo, nimfa
devine arbore sub privirile noastre. Inspirat de
neoclasicism i stimulat de cuceririle artistice
de ultim or, de Rudder creeaza ns o oper
ambigu: snii tineri, impudic dezgoliti, strigtul
de spaim devin tot attea arme de seducie.
Cntrit ca oper n sine, fr conotaii
mitologice, Daphn ntruchipeaz feminitatea n
stare pur. Imaginea aceasta i-a urmrit obsesiv
parcursul artistic: surprins sub diverse chipuri,
n bronz sau n porelan, Vener sau Madon, ea
este o prezen recurent.

213

214

Vas
Muza paradisiac
mile Gall, 1895
sticl colorat i pigmentat, suflat
liber, decor intercalat, ripsat,
pulverizat cu aur
I 52 cm; D 15 cm
nr. inv. 17519, semnat

215

216

Vas
Clair de lune
mile Gall, Nancy, 1890
sticl colorat n mas, suflat liber,
pictat manual cu email
I 27 cm; D 17,5 cm
nr. inv. 9272
semnat, datat, localizat, meniune
modle et dcor dpos.

217

218

Lamp Wisteria
L. C. Tiffany
1902
bronz turnat, cizelat, sticl favrile
turnat, plumb laminat
I 68 cm; D 47,5 cm
nr. inv. 14101, marcat

n Camera de aur a Muzeului Pelior, strlucete


Wisteria lamp, unul dintre cele ase exemplare
din acest model care mai exist n lume. Piciorul
din bronz, sugernd rdcinile i tulpina unui
copac, are la partea superioar abajurul, cu forma
coroanei unui arbore; el este decorat cu motivul
florii de glicin, n tehnica vitraliului, n gama
cromatic predominant albastru i verde. Despre
felul n care regina Maria intr n posesia acestei
lmpi, ne ofer chiar ea informaii, n lucrarea
autobiografic Povestea vieii mele, n paginile
dedicate descrierii Budoarului auriu (Camera de
aur) de la Pelior: cuverturile i pernele de pe
ezlong sunt toate n nuane de mov crizantem;
lampa de alturi este o adorabil pies Tiffany
cu flori de glicin, druit mie de Pauline Astor
Fraii Waldorf i Pauline Astor, fiii lui William
Waldorf Astor, primul viconte de Astor, pe care
tnra principes Maria i cunoscuse n 1901, la
Cliveden, au fost oaspeii castelului Pelior, n
anii 1904 i 1905.

219

Lamp de mas;
atelier Gall;
1904 1914;
sticl colorat stratificat, suflat liber,
gravat cu acizi i la roat;
I 85 cm; D 30 cm;
nr. inv. 12692; marcat

220

Lamp de noptier
atelier Gall
4/4 sec. XIX
sticl colorat stratificat, suflat n
tipar, gravat cu acizi i la roat
I 27 cm; D 27,5 cm
nr. inv. 15224, semnat
Pudrier
atelier mile Gall
circa 1900
sticl colorat stratificat, suflat n
tipar, gravat cu acizi i la roat
I 5 cm; D 11 cm
nr. inv. 15442, semnat

221

222

Vas
mile Gall
circa 1900
sticl colorat stratificat, suflat liber,
decor aplicat, gravat cu acizi i la roat,
I 29,5 cm, D 14 cm
nr. inv. 15244, semant

Salatier
atelier german (sticla),
atelier Wollenweber (argintul)
4/4 sec. XIX
sticl suflat n tipar, martelat, gravat
cu acizi i la roat, pictat cu email,
argint presat, decupat, patinat, parial
aurit
I 15 cm, D 24 cm
nr. inv. 9624, marcat

223

224

Lamp de mas
dArgental (Paul Nicolas)
1/4 sec. XX
sticl colorat stratificat, suflat n
tipar, gravat cu acizi i la roat; metal
comun, turnat, presat
I 44 cm, D 24 cm
nr. inv. 16000, semnat

Vas
dArgental (Paul Nicolas)
circa 1900
sticl colorat stratificat, suflat n
tipar, gravat cu acizi i la roat
I 8 cm, L 14 cm, LA 8,5 cm
nr. inv. 18779, semnat

225

226

Vas
atelier Murano
sec. XX
sticl colorat n mas, suflat liber,
modelat, decor aplicat, pulverizat cu
aur
I 28 cm, D 22 cm
nr. inv. 14110

Cup
Gabriel Argy Rousseau
sec. XX
past de sticl, barbotin, turnat n
tipar, pigmentat
I 11 cm, D 16 cm
nr. inv. 12615, semnat

227

Cup
Almaric Walter i Henri Berg
circa 1925
past de sticl modelat manual,
pigmentat, cear pierdut
I 14 cm, D 13,5 cm
nr. inv. 12628, semnturi: A Walter,
Berg

228

Vas
Jean Sala
sec. XX
past de sticl colorat n mas,
modelat manual, decor aplicat
I- 13,5 cm, D 14,5 cm
nr. inv. 12676

229

230

Vaz
atelier Antonin Daum
1910
sticl stratificat, suflat liber, pudre
intercalate, gravat cu acizi i la roat,
pictat cu email
I 33 cm, D 16 cm
nr. inv. 19140, semnat

Pahar
atelier Auguste Daum
circa 1893
sticl colorat n mas, suflat n tipar,
martelat, degajat cu acizi, pictat
cu email i aur coloidal, argint presat,
cizelat
I 12,5 cm, D 6 cm;
nr. inv. 9281, semant

231

232

Vas
Paysage de verre
atelier Antonin Daum
circa 1904
sticl colorat stratificat, suflat n
tipar, gravat cu acizi i la roat
I 19 cm, D 24,5 cm
nr inv. 19143, semnat

Vas berluze
atelier Antonin Daum
circa 1910
sticl colorat n mas, suflat liber,
pigmentat
I 39 cm, D 10 cm
nr. inv. 12691, semnat

233

Vas
Christian Dsir
atelier Meisenthal
sec. XX
sticl suprapus, suflat liber, decor
intercalat, modelat, gravat cu acizi i
la roat, pictat cu email, parial aurit
I 16 cm, D 9 cm
nr. inv. 9282, marcat

Vas
Christian Desir
atelier Meisenthal
sec. XX
sticl i past de sticl, suflat n tipar,
respectiv presat, decor intercalat,
pictat cu email i aur coloidal;
I 17 cm, D 11 cm
nr. inv. 9280, semnat

234

235

Vas
Tortue
Ren Lalique
1925
sticl suflat n tipar, pigmentat
I 27 cm, D 15,5 cm
nr. inv. 14102, marcat

236

Vas
Frunze de ciulin
Ren Lalique
1922
sticl suflat n tipar, matisat cu acizi
I 16 cm, D 14 cm;
nr. inv. 14125, semnat

237

Cup
Pomul vieii
Karl Faberg
circa 1900
argint turnat, trefilat; email, cloisonn,
pietre semipreioase, cabooane
I 15,5 cm, D 12,5 cm
nr. inv. 14704, marcat

238

Cup
J. Tostrup, Oslo
circa 1900
argint turnat, trefilat, email, cloisonn
I 18 cm, D 12 cm
nr. inv. 9843, marcat

239

240

Piese serviciu bizantin


Carl Georg von Reichenbach
atelier Ferdinand Benedikt von
Poschinger
1906
sticl suflat n tipar, parial aurit,
pictat, email, cabooane
bol: I 6,5 cm; D 14 cm
cup: I 10 cm; D 12,5 cm
cup: I 16 cm; D 9 cm
cup; I 15,5 cm; D 12,5 cm
nr. inv. 18755, 18756, 18757, 18758

241

Serviciu pentru but


L. C. Tiffany
sec. XX
cristal colorat n mas, suflat liber, irizat tip
favrile, gravat mecanic
pahar pentru ap: I 14 cm, D 8,5 cm
pahar pentru vin: I 11 cm, D 7 cm
pahar pentru ampanie: I 14 cm, D 8,5 cm
pahar pentru lichior: I 7 cm, D 4 cm
bol: I 10 cm, D 15 cm
farfurioar: I 3 cm, D 17 cm
nr. inv. 13027, semnat

242

Vaz
atelier Loetz Wietwe
sec. XX
Phenomen glass, suflat liber,
modelat, decor aplicat, irizat
I 24,5 cm, D 14 cm
nr. inv. 9251, marcat

243

Serviciu de toalet
Josef Hoffmann
circa 1905
cristal dublu strat, suflat n tipar, tiat, lefuit
flacoane: I 24,5...14 cm; D 7,5...5,5 cm;
perier: I 6 cm; L 23,5 cm; LA 7,5 cm
cutii: I 7...5,5 cm; DL 8,2...7 cm; DLA: 5 cm
nr. inv. 13672

244

Can aiguiere
atelier german (sticl)
atelier Wrttembergische
Metallwarenfabrik (metal)
sec. XX
cristal colorat n mas, suflat n tipar,
alam turnat, presat, cizelat,
argintat
I 39,5 cm, D 13 cm
nr. inv. 18796, marcat

245

VAS
Autor Gustav Gurschner, Viena
1/4 sec. XX
Bronz, turnat, presat, cizelat
I: 23 cm; DB: 23 cm; DG: 21 cm
Nr. inv. 12752 M. 631

Renumitul artist austriac Gustav Gurschner,


reuete s nnobileze banalul cache-pot de
form bulbar, cu o palet larg de elemente
decorative de sorginte celtic i scandinav.
mbinarea formei vasului cu medalioanele lise,
simboluri ale cunoaterii depline, surprinse
n patru cartue dreptunghiulare, alternate
cu

benzi verticale ornate cu spirale, motive

geometrice,

cruci,

motive

perlate,

confer

echilibru i armonie creaiei ce poart amprenta


stilului Secession.

246

VAS
Autor Gustav Gurschner; Turntoria K.K.
Kunst Erz Giessenei, Viena
1/4 sec. XX
Bronz, turnat, cizelat, patinat, aurit
parial
I: 13 cm; D: 18 cm
Nr. inv. 12609 +433

Vasul de form tronconic, patinat n jumtatea


inferioar, ornat din loc n loc cu bumbi,
cu dou registre suprapuse aurite, formate
din casete ptrate cu spirale alternate cu
motive florale stilizate, terminate cu piciorue
n triunghi, plaseaz lucrarea n tendinele
curentului Secession. Numele autorului i al
turntoriei vieneze dispuse la partea inferioar
augmenteaz valoarea piesei.

VAS
Autor Gustav Gurschner, Viena
1/4 sec. XX
Aram turnat, cizelat, patinat, aurit
parial
I: 18,5 cm; DL: 18 cm; DLa: 8,5 cm
Nr. inv. 12608 + 432

nzestrat

cu

un

talent

deosebit,

Gustav

Gurschner, abordeaz n creaiile sale formele


i ornamentele mai puin obinuite pentru
nceputul secolului al XX-lea. Urmndu-i crezul
artistic, Gurschner decoreaz vasul cu motive
decorative de sorginte celtic, precum animale
fantastice, entrelacuri, cruci, realizate pe banda
central i bordur. Fundalul patinat, n contrast
cu motivele decorative aurite confer piesei
valene artistice remarcabile.

247

SONERIE PENTRU BIROU


Autor Gustav Gurschner, Viena
1/4 sec. XX
Bronz, turnat, cizelat, patinat; marmur,
lefuit; catifea
L: 14 cm; La: 8 cm
Nr. inv. 15738

Sonerie pentru birou, pe plac mic de marmur


verde nchis, cu aplicaie din bronz, reprezentnd
cap de tnr cu diadem i pr lung, semiprofil
dreapta. La baz, butonul circular confer
funcionalitate soneriei. Piesa reflect crezul
artistic al autorului, reprezentant de seam al
Secessionului, pentru care orice obiect uzual
trebuie s fie nainte de toate o oper de art.

PAHAR
Atelier Nrnberg, Germania
1/4 sec. XX
Argint presat, incizat, cizelat
I: 12,2 cm; DB: 5 cm; DG: 7,5 cm; G: 110gr
Tl: 800
Nr. inv. 12334 M.103

Atelierele din Nrnberg s-au remarcat de-a


lungul

istoriei

orfevrriei

prin

ncercarea

reuit de a se integra n tiparul urmat de artele


decorative. Stilul decorativ consacrat de la
nceputul secolului al XX-lea a fost asimilat cu
uurin n arta prelucrrii metalului, orfevrii
germani punnd n slujba frumosului talentul
i imaginaia lor. Paharul decorat cu motive
vegetale stilizate, poart amprenta caracteristic
Jugendstil-ului.

248

POTIR
Atelier german
1/4 sec. XX
Argint turnat, ciocnit, cizelat, parial
aurit
I: 24 cm; DB: 9,3 cm; DG: 6,5 cm; D: 13,5
cm; G: 408gr; Tl: 800
Nr. inv. 8865 M. 524 A. 261

Ideile inovatoare ale orfevrilor germani sunt


relevante n forma i decoraia potirului atribuit
Jugendstil-ului. Inspirat din natur, potirul
simbolizeaz un arbore. Talpa circular, decorat
cu un bru perlat, supranlat este ornat
cu striuri ce sugereaz rdcinile unei plante.
Tulpina este reprezentat prin piciorul redus,
decorat cu patru ornamente decupate. Pe corpul
bulbar se continu inciziile asimetrice, ramurile,
iar bumbii din partea superioar semnific
fructele

copacului.

Capacul

bombat

reia

decoraia de pe corpul potirului, fiind terminat


cu un buton de prindere oval, decupat, cu dou
locauri pentru pietre. Aurit interior, potirul
beneficiaz de caliti estetice remarcabile, iar
fineea cizelurii este caracteristic noului stil
decorativ german de la nceputul secolului al
XX-lea.

249

CUP CU CAPAC
Atelier Max Strbl, Mnchen
1/4 sec. XX
Argint, turnat, ciocnit, presat, tanat,
parial aurit; cabooane
I: 55 cm; D: 14 cm; G: 1028 gr; TL: 800
Nr. inv. 18298

Cup cu capac, creaie a renumitului atelier


mnchenez Max Strbl, cu baz circular, ornat
cu patru medalioane cu motiv entrelac. Piciorul
lung faetat i cele patru brae subiri susin
corpul cilindric, decorat la partea inferioar cu
patru medalioane entrelac profilate. Capacul
cupol detaabil, se termin cu bulb cu patru
cabooane turcoaze cu motiv entrelac, susinut
de patru brae n ronde bosse. Spiritul inovativ
al decoraiei specifice orfevrului german Max
Strbl i-a asigurat un loc de frunte printre
reprezentanii Jugendstilului.

250

CASET
Autor Viktor Suchanek, Viena
1/4 sec. XX
Bronz, turnat, patinat
I: 26 cm; L: 26,5 cm; La: 21 cm
Nr. inv. 13718

Caseta realizat de Viktor Suchanek n turntoria


vienez K. K. Kunst Erz Giessenei nglobeaz toate
elementele definitorii ale stilului Secession.
Picioarele n volut spre interior ornate cu
motive florale, panselue, se continu pe corpul
paralelipipedic al casetei, cu capac prins n
arnier i ncuietoare cu lact. Motivele floralvegetale, insectele ( rdaca, gndacul rinocer),
ca de altfel si animalele fantastice, precum
dragonul cu trei capete, redate n ronde bosse,
fac parte din categoria motivelor preferate de
artistul austriac.

251

252

SFENIC
Atelier vienez
1/4 sec. XX
Metal comun, turnat, presat, argintat
I: 61,5 cm; La: 41 cm
Nr. inv. 17472

COUPE-PAPIER
Atelier german
1/4 sec. XX
Bronz, turnat, presat, patinat
L: 32 cm; La: 4 cm
Nr. inv. 12652 Z. 191

Decoraia vegetal, reprezentnd vi de vie,

Coupe-papier din bronz, realizat n mainera

realizat n maniera stilului decorativ de la

Jugendstil, n care ,,La femme fatale constituie

nceputul secolului al XX-lea, continuat pe

subiectul

corpul sfenicului, ce susine cele 6 brae

atitudinea lasciv a tinerei reprezentat nud,

laterale n volut i unul central, supranlat,

induc piesei valene artistice deosebite. Pana

terminate cu loca pentru lumnare n form

de pun, simbol al perfeciunii, al cunoaterii

de mici urne, ncadreaz lucrarea n categoria

impune nsuiri funcionale depline obiectului

pieselor reprezentative ale curentului Secession.

de art.

253

predilect.

Formele

voluptoase,

254

VAS
Autor Joseph Chret; Turntoria E. Soleau;
Paris
1/4 sec. XX
Bronz turnat, cizelat
I: 21,5 cm; DB: 7,5 cm; DG: 8 cm; D: 9,5
cm
Nr. inv. 12667 + 441

Talentatul sculptor, ceramist i orfevru francez,


Gustave Joseph Chret, mbrieaz cu succes
n piesele realizate ctre sfritul carierei sale
elementele Art Nouveaului. Ornarea obiectelor n
episoade distincte, dar care au continuitate ntre
ele, era un procedeu deseori uzitat n creaiile
semnate Joseph Chret. Vasul din bronz realizat
la Paris n turntoria Eugene Soleau, cu decorul n
mezzorelief dispus n sensul acelor de ceasornic,
prezint n detaliu o poveste de dragoste, ntre
o tnr i un amora. Naraiunea este compus
din trei episoade redate independent unul
de altul, ns rotirea vasului creeaz impresia
privitorului c se afl n faa unui film mut de la
finele secolului al XIX-lea.

255

VAZ
Autor: Clment Massier (1844 1917)
Atelier Golfe-Juan, Provence, Frana
Semnat, datat 1900
Faian modelat la roat, pictat cu
ablonul, glazurat, barbotin
I : 33 cm; Db : 20 cm; Dg : 12 cm; Dt : 22
cm
Nr. inv. 14574; C. 248

Piesa Art Nouveau din faian a fost modelat


la roat i decorat cu motive stilizate, flori de
fucsia, care-i acoper uniform corpul, asemenea
unui covor vegetal. Poziionarea neconvenional
a anselor mrunte drepte de o parte i de alta a
corpului, aproape de baz, n grupaje asimetrice
de una i patru anse i a altor trei, aproape de
gur, confer piesei caracter de modernitate.
Desenul delicat, executat manual cu tue fine de
email, peste glazura metalizat rou crmiziu
n degrade, las la vedere modelul. Colorat n
nuane de crmiziu cu accente violet i siclam,
decorul floral valorific forma elegant a piesei,
inspirat de vechile vase de farmacie Albarello.

256

VAS DECORATIV
Autor: Clment Massier (1844 1917)
Atelier Golfe-Juan, Provence, Frana
Semnat, datat 1900
Gresie modelat la roat, pictat
manual cu email peste glazur
I : 13 cm; Db : 19 cm; Dg: 12 cm;
Nr. inv. 9763; LC. 862

Vasul decorativ din faian, de form tronconic,


cu ramur de struguri ncolcit n jurul corpului,
pictat manual n email n nuane discrete de
gri-violet pe fond verde metalizat reprezint una
dintre creaiile cele mai reuite ale lui Clment
Massier. Piesa respir simplitate i rafinament.
Glazura mat, cu accente irizate, distribuite cu
parcimonie pe suprafaa vasului sintetizeaz att
opacitatea organic a faianei, ct i strlucirea
magic a sticlei.

257

VAS PENTRU CIOCOLAT CALD


Atelier francez
Nemarcat, circa 1901
Semnat pe baz cu albastru : ,,Chocolate
de Royat
Faian modelat la roat, barbotin,
pictat manual, glazurat
I: 14,5 cm; Dt : 22,5 cm
Nr. inv. 1606

n anul 1898, familia Rouzaud deschidea celebra


ciocolaterie ,,La Marquise de Svign n orelul
Royat din regiunea Auvergne. Devenit celebr
n Frana i n strintate, ciocolateria profit
de cele mai noi mijloace publicitare ale vremii
pentru a-i face o binemeritat reclam. n
topul preferinelor ntreprinztorilor stau afiele
epocii Art Nouveau, ns nu sunt neglijate nici
atelierele ceramice. Acestea primesc comenzi
de recipiente de ciocolat, pe care le semneaz
,,Chocolate de Royat. Vasul pentru ciocolat
cald din colecia de ceramic a muzeului
reprezint un exemplu n acest sens. Din faian
policrom, cu corp tronconic mult ngustat spre
gur, urur amplu i ans supranlat piesa se
remarc datorit tipologiei elegante a stilului
Art Nouveau i a decorului inspirat de afiele
publicitare. Pe un fundal floral n nuane de ocru,
verde i albastru se proiecteaz conturul perfect
al siluetei unei tinere cu trsturile i coafura ,,
la grecque a actriei Sarah Bernard.

258

BOL CU CAPAC
Eugne Baudin (1853-1918)
Atelier Saint Briac
Semnat, circa 1905
Faian modelat n tipar, glazurat
I : 7 cm; Db: 9,3 cm; Dg: 11 cm; Dt: 14,5
cm
Nr. inv. 12630

Experimentatul ceramist francez de la cumpna


secolelor XIX-XX, Eugne Baudin deschide n
anul 1897 o fabric de faian la Saint-Briac, pe
care o conduce pn n anul 1906. Intervalul
coincide cu perioada de maxim elan creator
al atelierului. Fiul unui mrunt fabricant de
porelan, se nate la Vierzon, lng Paris, unde
avea s pun bazele primei sale ntreprinderi.
Evenimentele de dup abdicarea lui Napoleon
al III-lea l surprind n celebrele manufacturi
din Anglia, Stoke-on-Trent i Lambeth. Aici
acumuleaz cunotine care i aduc titulatura
de maestru ceramist. La 1889, figureaz alturi
de ali artiti n cadrul Expoziiei Universale de
la Paris. Pn n jurul anului 1900 i semneaz
piesele cu numele fratelui su, Ernest, director
al Manufacturii Naionale Svres. Se impune pe
pia datorit tipologiiilor originale i a glazurii
de o puritate extraordinar. Spre sfritul vieii,
deschide un atelier de ceramic la Monaco i
devine furnizorul micului Principat. Inspirat din
formele vegetale, bolul cu capac din colecia
muzeului reprezint un exemplu elocvent al
rafinamentului la care ajunsese arta lui Eugne
259

Baudin n anii de glorie ai Art Nouveau-ului.

VAS DECORATIV
Atelier francez
Nemarcat, circa 1900
Faian modelat la roat i n tipar,
glazurat; bronz turnat, cizelat
I: 40 cm; Db: 20 cm; Dg: 10 cm
Nr. inv. 9224; LC: 200

Unul dintre cele mai frecvente modele de


inspiraie ale ceramicii Art Nouveau l-a constituit
arta ceramicii persane. Fascinai de strlucirea
glazurii turcoaz, tipice produciei sasanide i de
decorurile ei naturaliste, n uor relief, artitii
francezi au creat adevrate capodopere ale
genului. Vasul decorativ din colecia muzeului,
cu corp bulbar i gt nalt, cilindric a fost aezat
pe un elegant soclu din bronz, sprijinit pe cinci
piciorue trilobate intercalate de decupaje
simetrice.

Distribuit

registre

orizontale,

decorul alterneaz frize florale, motive vegetale


i

arabescuri.

Corpului

i-a

fost

rezervat

scena principal. Realizat n mezzorelief, ea


nfieaz dou egrete n peisaj lacustru,
ncadrate de vegetaia specific.

260

VASE DECORATIVE
Atelier Knigliche Porzellan Manufaktur,
Berlin, Germania
Marcate, circa 1890
Porelan modelat n tipar, glazurat,
emailat, aur coloidal
I: 22 cm; Db: 5,5 cm; Dg: 3,5 cm; Dt: 10,
5 cm
Nr. inv. 9227; LC: 203; C: 413
9228; LC: 204; C: 414

cu expresia sa artistic, istorismul, mpratul


Wilhelm al II-lea se vede treptat pus n faa unui
fapt mplinit. nfiinate n veacul al XVIII-lea,
atelierele de ceramic din Berlin produc piese
diverse ca tipologie i stil. n deceniile 70 -80
ale secolului al XIX-lea, cucerii de micarea
Arts&Crafts din Anglia, i adapteaz decorurile
noilor tendine. Vasele decorative din colecia
muzeului reprezint dou exemple n acest
sens. Din porelan fin, cu glazur metalizat,
a crei dispunere imit granulaiile marmurei,
cu siluete svelte, piesele se remarc n special

Apariia i proliferarea noii arte n capitala

datorit decoraiei moderne. Acoperite simetric

Imperiului german, la Berlin, a fost marcat

n uor relief cu motive floral-vegetale obinute

la sfritul secolului al XIX-lea de disputa

prin emailare i prin utilizarea cu miestrie a

artistic cunoscut sub sintagma ,,Jugendstil

aurului coloidal, piesele Manufacturii regale de

versus wilhelmism. Refractar la tot ce intra

porelan anticipeaz produciile Jugendstil ale

n contradicie cu ideologia Grnderzeit i

nceputului de secol al XX-lea.

261

PLATOURI DECORATIVE
Autor R. Fournier
Atelier Mettlach, Villeroy & Boch,
Germania
Semnat en creux ,,R. Fournier,
circa 1898 - 1899
Pe revers, marca de atelier: ,,Mettlach
Ges Gesch 2545.
Gresie, modelata n tipar, incizat,
pictata manual
D : 51 cm
Nr. inv. 18627
262

Unul dintre cele mai importante nume n

inspir din vechile stampe japoneze. Bordura

domeniul ceramicii, atelierul Villeroy&Boch

n culori neutre, decorat cu ghirland vegetal

adopt la cumpna secolelor XIX-XX toat gama

stilizat, peisajul cu nori din fundal i aerul

motivelor i tipologiilor Jugendstil. Cu o tradiie

solemn al personajelor feminine din prim-plan

de peste dou secole, antrepriza lanseaz pe

recompun tonalitatea elegant a artei nipone.

piaa mondial piese de autor, inspirate din arta

Liniile precise ale desenului, coafurile severe,

extrem-oriental. R. Fournier, pictor i decorator

cu prul controlat de diademe i agrafe, gestica

de talent, cooptat de ctre Mettlach Villeroy &

rafinat, reprezentarea din profil, erupia floral

Boch execut n anii 1898-1899, seria foarte

a trandafirilor i a macilor de grdin, nuanele

cutat a platourilor cu portrete feminine n

de gri nviorate de ocru i violet constituie

peisaj. Lucrate n gresie de calitate superioar,

amprenta personal a stilului lui R. Fournier.

fin incizate i pictate n policromie, piesele se


263

VAS AIGUIRE
Ernst Wahliss (1837-1900)
Atelier Turn-Teplitz, Boemia
Marcat, circa 1900
Porelan modelat n tipar i manual,
pictat, parial aurit, barbotin
I: 45 cm; D: 15,5 cm
Nr. inv. : 1605

Ernst Wahliss (1837-1900), artistul german


stabilit n Viena anilor de glorie ai Secessionului,
s-a remarcat printr-o creaie ceramic de mare
versatilitate stilistic i formal. n anul 1894,
deschide un atelier n oraul Turn-Teplitz din
Boemia, unde dezvolt o producie care va
inspira arta ceramicii din Imperiu. Vasulaiguire
din colecia muzeului se remarc datorit
formei elegante, complementate de aplicaii
n ghirland din porelan aurit, distribuite
vertical pe corp, ca prelungiri organice ale ansei
supranlate i ale ururelui larg. Motivele
florale pictate n policromie de verde i violet cu
accente aurite, desenul n mezzorelief, asimetric
distribuit pe extremitile vasului, calitatea
superioar a pastei fine constituie amprenta
personal a stilului lui E. Wahliss.

264

VAZ
Atelier W. Schiller & Sone, Bodenbach,
Boemia
Marcata pe baz, circa 1900
Faian modelat n tipar, decor aplicat,
barbotin, pictat sub glazur
I : 37 cm; Db : 10,5 cm; DG : 8,8 cm; Dt :
16,5 cm
Nr. inv. 17515; CUST: 425

Pies Secession de la nceputul secolului al


XX-lea, tipic produciei atelierului boemian,
condus de Wilhelm Schiller, cu siluet organic,
baz circular i corp cilindric, a crui jumtate
inferioar pare esut ntr-o reea asimetric
de tulpini i frunze n relief, dezvoltate median
n dou anse elegante. Invadat de vegetal,
gura vasului ia forma corolelor unite a patru
irii nflorii. Vaza este remarcabil prin atenia
special acordat detaliilor: frunzele au nervuri,
iar florile, petale, stamine i pistiluri. Cu o palet
divers de piese, antrepriza Wilhelm Schiller,
fondat n anul 1829, n orasul Bodenbach
din Boemia i pune amprenta asupra artei
ceramicii

nceputului

de

secol,

fabricnd

vase, lmpi i sfenice din faian i porelan.


ntrerupt definitiv de rzboi, creaia atelierului
supravietuiete astzi n colecii i muzee.

265

PLATOU DECORATIV
Atelier Zsolnay-Pcs, Ungaria
Marcat, circa 1900
Faian modelat la roat, pictat,
aurit, glazurat metalizat
D : 45,5 cm
Nr. inv. 9640

Una dintre cele mai reuite tipologii de piese


ceramice Art Nouveau create de atelierul
Zsolnay-Pcs este cea a platourilor decorative.
De mari dimensiuni, ele se disting datorit
texturii materialului i a decorurilor diverse,
inspirate cu precdere din arta oriental. Platoul
din faian policrom, cu bordura pictat cu
motiv denticuli, n albastru cobalt i auritur,
cu decor amplu, dispus n evantai, compus din
buchet de flori n policromie de verde, maron,
pe fond auriu, granulat face parte din tipologia
platourilor

aa-numite

,,persane,

care,

realitate, se inspir din motivele florale i din


cromatismul consacrate de atelierul anatolian,
Iznik.
266

CANA AIGUIRE
Atelier Zsolnay-Pcs, Ungaria
Nemarcat, circa 1900
Faian modelat n tipar, pictat
manual, pictat cu aur, barbotin,
glazur
I : 44,5 cm; La: 30,5 cm
Nr. inv. 1477

Inspirai de formele i decorurile atelierului


turcesc Iznik, meterii de la Zsolnay-Pcs
adapteaz cu succes formele i decorurile
consacrate ale Asiei Mici, tipologiilor elegante i
fluide ale Artei 1900. Cana aiguire din colecia
muzeului trimite prin forma bulbar a corpului
prelungit cu gt cilindric, ansa n ,,S, capac
cupol de moschee i turtur larg la ceainicele
orientale din aram. Tratate n maniera Art
Nouveau, motivele arabescuri acoper simetric
ntreaga suprafa a vasului. Valoarea artistic
a piesei este augmentat de prezena anourilor
mici, aplicate, a lobilor n relief dispusi simetric
pe corp i a decupaiei vegetale a piciorului
circular. Glazura metalizat las la vedere
decorul n policromie de verde turcoaz pe fond
ocru, cu sublinieri n aur.

267

VAS TULIPIER
Atelier Zsolnay-Pcs, Ungaria
Marcat, circa 1900
Faian modelat la roat i manual,
cu decor aplicat prin barbotin,
pictat manual, metalizat
I : 20,5 cm; Db : 8,5 cm; Dt : 20,5 cm
Nr. inv. 12666

Pies reprezentativ pentru maniera n care


maetrii atelierului Zsolnay-Pcs au adaptat
formele clasice, consacrate ale ceramicii n
acest caz, o tulipier la exigenele stilistice i
decorative ale Artei 1900. Pornind de la o baz
circular i un corp sferic, cele trei guri tubulare
se unesc simetric printr-o ans ampl n arc de
cerc. Decorul asimetric, tipic Art Nouveau-ului se
compune din motive florale stilizate, n nuane
de ocru, verde metalizat pe fond albastru-violet,
printr-o glazur irizat. Procedeul de irizare
pe care manufactura l-a utilizat pe scar larg
i cu rezultate spectaculoase confer piesei
268

modernitate i elegan.

VAS DECORATIV
Atelier Zsolnay-Pcs, Ungaria
Marcat, circa 1900
Faian modelat manual, glazurat
I: 27 cm; Db: 11 cm
Nr. inv.: 12721

Tipologia revoluionar a vasului decorativ creat


la 1900 de ctre atelierul Zsolnay-Pcs a fost
preluat n epoc de manufacturi de prestigiu
din Statele Unite i de ceramiti celebri, ca
George Ohr (1857-1918). Plecnd de la o
form prismatic simpl, corpul a fost deformat
manual de ctre artist n intenia vdit de a
obine o siluet asimetric, acoperit cu glazur
metalizat. Prin nuanele de verde, violet,
albastru i auriu piesa dobndete caracter
complex, iar prin irizri se apropie de plastica
fluid a sticlriei de art.

269

270

Ceas de emineu i vase


Atelier Rozenburg, Haga, Olanda
Marcate, circa 1900
Faian modelat n tipar, pictat
manual, colorat n mas, glazurat
I : 32 cm ; L :34,5 cm ; La : 10,5 cm
Vase : I : 25 cm
Nr. inv.: 61; 1435 a,b

Producia manufacturii Rozenburg din Haga s-a


caracterizat printr-o mare varietate formal, de
la serviciile de mas i emineu, la obiecte i
plci decorative. Inspirat din arta indonezian,
decoraia Rozenburg surprinde prin bogie i
culoare. Cele mai frecvent ntlnite motive rmn
fr ndoial siluetele feminine fluide, ncadrate
de vegetaie luxuriant i de o faun specific
zonei ecuatoriale.

271

VASE DECORATIVE
Atelier Copenhaga, Danemarca

Regina Maria achiziioneaz la nceputul secolului


al XX-lea dou piese semnate Copenhaga, care
exceleaz prin tehnica de pictare peste glazur.

a) Nemarcat, circa 1900


Porelan modelat la roat, pictat,
glazurat
I: 33 cm; D: 17 cm;
Nr. inv.: 12697; 14103

De mari dimensiuni, cilindrice, decorate unul cu


corabie cu pnze pe mare, cellalt, cu lebede
albe plutind pe oglinda lacului, printre vegetaia
lacustr, piesele confer interioarelor elegan.
Pictate cu talent n nuane de griuri pastelate, ele
sunt rezultatul simbiozei perfecte ntre decorul

b) Marcat, circa 1900


Faian modelat la roat, pictat
manual peste glazur
I: 43 cm; D: 29 cm
Nr. inv.: 14103

scandinav i compoziia oriental.

272

VAS DECORATIV
Atelier Sankt-Petersburg
Marcat, datat 1915
Faian modelat la roat, pictat
manual peste glazur
I : 43,5 cm; La : 14 cm
Nr. inv. 14116

Manufactura imperial de la Sankt-Petersburg


se lanseaz pe piaa de art ctre sfritul
secolului al XIX-lea cu porelanuri fine, de mare
rafinament artistic, dar i cu piese din faian,
lucrate la roat i influenate ca decoraie de
ceramica scandinav n general i de producia
Fabricii Regale de Porelan de la Copenhaga,
n special. Vasul nalt, cilindric, decorat peste
glazur cu lujer floral de mari dimensiuni, n
cromatic pastelat de verde i ocru pe fond
alb poart marca Manufacturii din epoca arului
Nicolae al II-lea al Rusiei, ,,N-ul urmat de cifra II
roman, surmontate de coroana imperial.

273

274

275

276