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Revista Amfiteatru Economic

Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureti


Facultatea de Comer
Volumul XIII Noiembrie 2011 Nr. Special 5
Apariie semestrial



INTERFERENE ECONOMICE: CALITATE - TEHNOLOGII
INFORMAIONALE - CONSUMATOR



Revista Amfiteatru Economic este clasificat i recunoscut
de ctre Consiliul Naional al Cercetrii tiinifice
din nvmntul Superior n categoria A



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ISSN 1582-9146 www.amfiteatrueconomic.ro


EDITORIAL BOARD

Redactor-ef
Vasile Dinu, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia

Redactorii
Mdlina Alm, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Adriana Corfu, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao, Aveiro, Portugal
Irina Drgulnescu, University of Studies of Messina, Messina, Italy
Valentin Hapenciuc, Universitatea tefan cel Mare, Suceava, Romnia
Florian Kicherer, Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering, Stuttgart, Germania
Nicolae Lupu, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Alexandru Nedelea, Universitatea tefan cel Mare, Suceava, Romnia
Marieta Olaru, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Ion Schileru, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Gabriela Stnciulescu, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Ctlina Soriana Sitnikov, Universitatea din Craiova, Romnia
Traian Surcel, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Laureniu Tchiciu, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
George-Sorin Toma, Universitatea Bucureti, Romnia
Aharon Tziner, The Academic College of Netanya, Netanya, Israel
Cristinel Vasiliu, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Clin Vlsan, Bishops University, Sherbrooke, Qubec, Canada
Milena-Rodica Zaharia, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia

Consiliul stiintific
Aaron Ahuvia, University of Michigan-Dearborn School of Management Dearborn, USA
Lucian-Liviu Albu, Academia Romn - Membru Corespondent, Bucureti, Romnia
Dan-Laureniu Anghel, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Christian Aubin, Universit de Poitiers, Poitiers, France
George Babu, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA
Slobodan Cerovic, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Belgrad, Serbia
Carlos Costa, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Emilian Dobrescu, Academia Romn, Bucureti, Romnia
Jonathan Edwards, Bournemouth University, Poole, United Kingdom
Satoru Enomoto, Okayama University, Okayama city, Japan
Daniel Glaser-Segura, College of Business, Texas A&M University - San Antonio, USA
Viorel Lefter, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Petkovska Tatjana Mirchevska, University St. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia
Giovanni Palmerio, Lumsa Univiersita, Roma, Italia
Rodica Pamfilie, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Abraham Pitzam, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA
Ion Gh. Roca, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Ion Stancu, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Daniel Stavarek, Silesian Univestity, Karvina, Czech Republic
Kravciv Vasil Stepanovych, Institute for Regional Research of the Science Academy of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine
Nicola Yankov, D. Tsenov Academy of Economics, Svishtov, Bulgaria

Fondatori
Vasile Dinu, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Sandu Costache, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia

Birou de redacie
Valentin Dumitru, Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Raluca Mariana Petrescu (Secretar de redacie), Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Violeta Rogojan, Editura Academiei de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
Silvia Rcaru, Editura Academiei de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia

Amfiteatru Economic
548
Cuprins





Calitate - Tehnologii Informaionale Consumator .................................................. 550
Vasile Dinu

Impactul implementrii sistemului de management al calitii ISO 9000 asupra
procesului evalurii satisfaciei clienilor n cazul IMM-urilor din Romnia ........... 552
Marieta Olaru, Ghiorghia Stoleriu, Claudia Lang i Ionela Flood

Necesitatea implementrii unui sistem de management al calitii n unitile sanitare
din Romnia. O abordare din perspectiva pacientului ............................................. 561
Roxana Srbu i Adriana Zanfir

Succesul durabil n nvmntul superior prin schimbul celor mai bune practici ca
rezultat al unui proces de benchmarking ................................................................... 570
Anca Gabriela Ilie, Mihaela Maftei i Oana Antonia Colibanu

Bune practici premergtoare implementrii sistemului de management de mediu la
ntreprinderile Mici i Mijlocii ................................................................................... 580
Anca Atanase, Ion Schileru i Smaranda Vian

Incertitudinea cu privire la calitate ca barier n calea dezvoltrii serviciilor
pentru ntreprinderi ................................................................................................... 593
Laureniu Tchiciu, Vasile Dinu i Iacob Kerbalek

Dezvoltarea serviciilor turistice prin nvare organizaional.
Studiu de caz: Romnia i Spania .............................................................................. 608
Dan Popescu, Iulia Chivu, Alina Ciocrlan-Chitucea

i Daniela-Oana Popescu

Estimarea importanei mediei sociale n educarea i informarea consumatorilor
folosind noi tehnici ...................................................................................................... 619
Cristian Bogdan Onete, Rzvan Dina i Remus Negoi

Relaia dintre structura comunicrii i evitarea incertitudinii reflectat n designul
site-urilor web romneti ............................................................................................ 628
Doru Pleea, Rodica Pamfilie i Irina Maiorescu


Impactul tehnologiilor informaionale asupra organizrii i funcionrii firmei ...... 636
Valentin Florentin Dumitru

Mutaii n perceperea calitii alimentelor de ctre noii
consumatori din Romnia........................................................................................... 653
Dorin Popescu, Mihai Negrea i Lelia Voinea

Valoarea psihosenzorial a produselor alimentare factor declanator
al deciziei de cumprare ............................................................................................ 662
Magdalena Bobe i Roxana Procopie
Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011
549

Poteniale relaii ntre migraie i obiceiurile de consum alimentar ale imigranilor.
Cazul imigranilor romni din Andalucia, Spania ..................................................... 671
Andreea Simona Sseanu i Raluca Mariana Petrescu
550 Amfiteatru Economic

Calitate - Tehnologii Informaionale - Consumator


Firmele i consumatori, triesc ntr-o lume n care Internetul reprezint unul din
elementele sale definitorii, tehnologiile informaionale punndu-i tot mai mult amprenta
asupra tuturor activitilor desfurate de ctre acetia. Cu un acces sporit la informaii, cu
o dorin puternic de cunoatere i cu standarde tot mai crescute, att firmele ct i
consumatorii acord o importan deosebit calitii i tehnologiilor informaionale, acestea
reprezentnd, pe de-o parte, o cale sigur ctre succes pentru un ntreprinztor, iar pe de
alt parte confirmarea unei alegeri reuite pentru un consumator. Ca urmare, ntr-o societate
caracterizat tot mai mult de cuvinte i sintagme precum informaii, internet, media
social, standarde, orientarea mediului academic asupra cercetrii n sfera calitii,
tehnologiilor informaionale i consumatorului este inevitabil.
Acest numr special al revistei aduce n prim plan preocuparea unor cercettori
din domeniul economic asupra unei problematici speciale i anume cu privire la aspecte
asociate calitii, tehnologiilor informaionale i consumatorului.
Referitor la calitatea produselor i serviciilor, articolele din acest numr se
remarc prin importana acordat unor aspecte precum implementarea managementului
calitii, benchmarking, bune practici premergtoare implementrii sistemului de
management dar i asupra calitii serviciilor, astfel:
Impactul implementrii sistemului de management al calitii ISO 9000 asupra
procesului evalurii satisfaciei clienilor n cazul IMM-urilor din Romnia, evideniaz
msura n care IMM-urle valorific rezultatele evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei
clienilor n procesul reproiectrii i al mbuntirii calitii produselor i serviciilor;
Necesitatea implementrii unui sistem de management al calitii n unitile
sanitare din Romnia. O abordare din perspectiva pacientului, trateaz - din prisma
managementului calitii - problemele din sistemul sanitar romnesc i ansamblul
deficienelor care influeneaz calitatea serviciilor prestate, realizndu-se o analiz a
percepiei consumatorilor n ceea ce privete calitatea serviciilor de sntate i necesitatea
implementrii unui sistem de management al calitii n unitile prestatoare de servicii
medicale;
Succesul durabil n nvmntul superior prin schimbul celor mai bune practici
ca rezultat al unui proces de benchmarking, analizeaz principalele criterii de
benchmarking, n baza indicatorilor de calitate utilizai de instituiile de nvmnt
superior i prezint noi indicatori de referin, ca rezultat al cooperrii inter-universitare;
Bune practici premergtoare implementrii sistemului de management de mediu la
ntreprinderile mici i mijlocii, aduce n prim plan o realizare exemplar a unei organizaii
mici, care a reuit s pun la punct un sistem informal calitativ de management de mediu,
construit cu mult rigoare, implicare, respect pentru societate i mediu, cu scopul de a oferi
bune practici mediului de afaceri - din sfera IMM-urilor - i modaliti de abordare n
analiza practicilor de mediu, precum i de a accentua imperativele n aceast arie de
aciune, pentru organizaii;
Incertitudinea cu privire la calitate ca barier n calea dezvoltrii serviciilor
pentru ntreprinderi, prezint o revizuire a modelelor conceptuale de evaluare a calitii
serviciilor existente, trateaz implicaiile asimetriei informaionale i exploreaz - pe baza
Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011 551
informaiilor obinute din partea prestatorilor de servicii selectai - situaia din anumite
industrii, precum i soluii pentru depirea actualelor neajunsuri.
Dezvoltarea serviciilor turistice prin nvare organizaional. Studiu de caz:
Romnia i Spania, urmrete s stabileasc i s contureze strategii de dezvoltare a
serviciilor pentru IMM-urile care activeaz n domeniul turistic, evideniind punctele slabe
i forte ale abordrilor de management al serviciilor turistice i formulnd n acest sens o
serie de recomandri.

Articolele din acest numr care se refer la Tehnologiile Informaionale aduc
n prim plan probleme precum media social, designul site-urilor web i impactul acestora
asupra activitii firmelor, astfel:
Estimarea importanei mediei sociale n educarea i informarea consumatorilor
folosind noi tehnici, evideniaz rezultatele unei cercetri realizate cu scopul de a
evidenia relaia dintre noul consumator i mncarea bio;
Relaia dintre structura comunicrii i evitarea incertitudinii reflectat n designul
site-urilor web romneti, ofer o perspectiv asupra modului n care structura
comunicrii specific diferitelor culturi, comportamentul de evitare al incertitudinii dar i
particularitile cognitive ale sexelor influeneaz designul site-urilor web romneti;
Impactul tehnologiilor informaionale asupra organizrii i funcionrii firmei, n
baza unei cercetri empirice, evideniaz impactul IT asupra firmei.

Articolele care se refer la noul consumator pun accentul pe percepia calitii
i pe valoarea psihosenzorial a alimentelor dar i pe relaii ntre migraie i obiceiurile de
consum alimentar, astfel:
Mutaii n perceperea calitii alimentelor de ctre noii consumatori din
Romnia, prezint obiectivele unui proiect de cercetare realizat cu scopul de a evidenia
mutaiile aprute n perceperea calitii alimentelor de ctre noii consumatori din Romnia;
Valoarea psihosenzorial a produselor alimentare - factor declanator al deciziei
de cumprare, pune accent asupra necesitii modelrii valorii psihosenzoriale a
alimentelor de ctre productori i asupra importanei educrii i informrii consumatorilor
pentru o mai bun orientare pe pia i, implicit, pentru adoptarea unei decizii de cumprare
corecte;
Poteniale relaii ntre migraie i obiceiurile de consum alimentar ale
imigranilor. Cazul imigranilor romni din Andalucia, Spania - pe baza analizrii unui
set de informaii obinute n urma unei cercetri de teren conduse n perioada ianuarie-iunie
2011 n rndul imigranilor romni din Andalucia, Spania - scoate n eviden potenialele
relaii existente ntre migraie i obiceiurile de consum alimentar ale imigranilor, cu accent
asupra unei serii de factori care ar putea contribui la stabilirea acestor relaii.

Calitatea, tehnologiile informaionale i consumatorul reprezint elemente cheie
ale societii contemporane, cu implicaii n toate domeniile. Acest fapt impune ca o
abordare corect i complex a oricrui fenomen economico-social s ia n considerare
relaie sa cu cel puin unul din elementele menionate anterior.

Redactor-ef,
Vasile Dinu

AE
Impactul implementrii sistemului de management al calitii ISO 9000 asupra
procesului evalurii satisfaciei clienilor n cazul IMM-urilor din Romnia

Amfiteatru Economic

552

IMPACTUL IMPLEMENTRII SISTEMULUI DE MANAGEMENT AL
CALITII ISO 9000 ASUPRA PROCESULUI EVALURII SATISFACIEI
CLIENILOR N CAZUL IMM-URILOR DIN ROMNIA


Marieta Olaru
1
, Ghiorghia Stoleriu
2
, Claudia Lang
3
i Ionela Flood
4
1)
Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
2)
Tecnoservice Bucureti SA, Romnia
3)
Romsir SRL, Bal, Romnia
4)
Romanca Society, Marea Britanie




Rezumat
Lucrarea pune n valoare o parte din rezultatele cercetrii efectuate la nivelul
ntreprinderilor Mici i Mijlocii (IMM) din Romnia, n perioada 2007-2010.
Unul dintre obiectivele cercetrii l-a reprezentat determinarea msurii n care IMM
urile din Romnia valorific rezultatele evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor n
procesul reproiectrii i al mbuntirii calitii produselor i serviciilor. Aceste rezultate
au fost comparate cu cele obinute n cadrul unui studiu efectuat n acelai scop de autori, n
perioada 2003-2004, rezultnd un progres sensibil n ceea ce privete procesul evalurii i
monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor de ctre IMM-urile din Romnia.
Pe de alt parte, cercetarea efectuat a evideniat faptul c, mai exist nc rezerve
importante n ceea ce privete valorificarea rezultatelor acestui proces, n conexiune cu
preocuprile de asigurare a unei performane durabile n cazul acestor ntreprinderi.

Cuvinte-cheie: satisfacie client, evaluare, monitorizare, ntreprinderi Mici i Mijlocii, ISO
9000

Clasificare JEL: L15, M13


Introducere

n contextul economic actual, marcat de fenomenul internaionalizrii pieelor,
ntreprinderile sunt obligate s acorde o atenie deosebit satisfacerii cerinelor clienilor i
a celorlalte pri interesate, pentru a putea rezista pe aceste piee, n condiiile intensificrii
deosebite a concurenei (Bruhn, 2006; Olaru i Dinc, 2008; Olaru i Herlemann, 2008). Se
apreciaz c, fidelizarea clienilor, ctigarea de noi clieni, reprezint calea principal prin

Autor de contact, Marieta Olaru olaru.marieta@gmail.com



Interferene economice: Calitate - Tehnologii Informaionale - Consumator AE

Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011

553
care ntreprinderea poate crea valoare pentru acionarii si (Stoleriu i Olaru, 2007; Suditu,
Olaru, Lang i Tuclea, 2009; Zineldin, 2006).
n mod corespunztor, asistm la o orientare tot mai clar a modelelor de sisteme
de management al calitii promovate de standardele internaionale ISO 9000 ctre
reconsiderarea proceselor organizaiei din perspectiva satisfacerii exigenelor clienilor, dar
i a celorlalte pri interesate, astfel nct s se asigure o dezvoltare durabil a afacerilor
(Evans, 2008; Olaru i Dinc, 2008; Olaru, Pitic i Dodre, 2009; Olaru et al., 2010a;
Stoleriu, 2009).
Literatura de specialitate dezbate pe larg impactul implementrii modelului definit
de standardele ISO 9000 asupra performanelor n afaceri (Heras-Saizarbitoria, Casadess
i Marimn, 2011; Hongyi, 2000; Piskar, 2009; Suditu, Olaru, Lang i Tuclea, 2009),
innd seama de particularitile IMM - urilor (Bewoor i Pawar, 2010; Fotopoulos, Psomas
i Vouzas, 2010; Stoleriu, Olaru i Purcrea, 2009).
n viziunea acestor standarde organizaiile depind de clienii lor i de aceea ar
trebui s neleag necesitile curente i viitoare ale acestora, s satisfac aceste cerine,
preocupndu-se n acelai timp s depeasc ateptrile clienilor. Pe de alt parte, se
subliniaz c, succesul unei organizaii se bazeaz pe satisfacerea necesitilor i
ateptrilor prezente i viitoare ale clienilor actuali sau poteniali i a utilizatorilor finali, ca
i pe luarea n considerare a altor pri interesate (International Standards Office, 2008;
International Standards Office, 2009). De asemenea standardele menionate furnizeaz
ndrumri n vederea obinerii unui succes durabil de ctre ntreprinderi, ntr-un mediu
complex, solicitant i mereu n schimbare, printr-o abordare bazat pe managementul
calitii. Astfel, potrivit standardului ISO 9004:2009, succesul durabil al unei organizaii
poate fi asigurat prin dezvoltarea capacitii sale de a satisface necesitile i ateptrile
clienilor si i ale altor pri interesate, pe termen lung i n mod echilibrat. Un rol
important n acest sens l are conducerea organizaiei, care ar trebui s asigure
contientizarea mediului organizaiei, stimularea nvrii i implementarea
corespunztoare a msurilor de mbuntire, n corelare cu cele referitoare la dezvoltarea
capacitii de inovare a ntreprinderii (International Standards Office, 2009).
n acest demers un rol important revine evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei
clienilor, proces care permite identificarea cerinelor clienilor i determinarea gradul de
ndeplinire a acestor cerine.
Performanele n relaia cu clienii se evalueaz, de regul, n funcie de: evoluia
numrului de clieni, a numrului de clieni noi, evoluia cotei de pia, efectul pierderii
unor clieni etc., satisfacia clienilor fiind determinant pentru realizarea obiectivelor
referitoare la performanele financiare ale unei ntreprinderi, n general (Fuller i Matzler,
2008; Evans, 2008). Astfel nct ponderea clienilor satisfcui, opiniile comunicate de
ctre acetia, numrul de reclamaii, natura i coninutul acestora, reprezint surse
importante de informaii pentru ntreprindere, care pot fi utilizate pentru identificarea unor
noi posibiliti de mbuntire a produselor i serviciilor oferite, respectiv a sistemului lor
de management. Se asigur astfel premisele mbuntirii performanelor n afaceri ale
ntreprinderilor.
Avnd n vedere exigenele n continu cretere ale mediului de afaceri european,
IMMurile din Romnia recunosc necesitatea unor mutaii profunde privind performanele
lor n relaia cu clienii, ca o surs pentru mbuntirea continu a competitivitii lor
(Commission of The European Communities, 2008; Commission of The European
Communities, 2010).
AE
Impactul implementrii sistemului de management al calitii ISO 9000 asupra
procesului evalurii satisfaciei clienilor n cazul IMM-urilor din Romnia

Amfiteatru Economic

554
Actualizarea i adaptarea politicilor prioritare ale Romniei cu privire la IMMuri
la nivelul exigenelor Uniunii Europene se realizeaz prin Strategia guvernamental pentru
dezvoltarea sectorului IMM urilor pn n anul 2013, care a fost elaborat n concordan
cu politicile promovate de ctre Comisia European prin Small Business Act for Europe
(Commission of The European Communities, 2008) i prin liniile directoare Europe 2020
Strategy - a European strategy for smart, sustainable and Inclusive Growth (Commission
of The European Communities, 2010).
Unele componente cheie ale politicii includ creterea competitivitii IMM-urilor,
prin dezvoltarea unei culturi a calitii n Romnia, inclusiv pe seama favorizrii unor
structuri de susinere a afacerilor, precum i prin creterea spiritului inovativ al IMM
urilor (Ministerul Economiei, Comerului i Mediului de Afaceri, 2000).
Lund n considerare aceste aspecte, lucrarea evideniaz o parte din rezultatele
cercetrii pe baza de chestionar efectuat n perioada 2007 2010, pentru a determina n ce
msur IMMurile din Romnia valorific rezultatele evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei
clienilor n procesul reproiectrii i al mbuntirii calitii produselor i serviciilor, n
relaie cu preocuprile tot mai consistente ale acestor ntreprinderi privind implementarea
unui sistem de management al calitii ISO 9000 (Olaru et al., 2010b; Paraschiv et. al.,
2010; Stoleriu and Olaru, 2007). Aceste rezultate au fost comparate cu cele obinute n
cadrul unui studiu efectuat n acelai scop de autori, n perioada 2003-2004 (Olaru and
Stoleriu, 2006).


1. Metodologia cercetrii

Pentru evaluarea preocuprilor IMMurilor din Romnia privind implementarea
sistemelor de management al calitii i a performanelor acestor organizaii n raport cu
modelul european de management al calitii, a fost efectuat un studiu pe baz de
chestionar, n perioada 2007 -2010 (Olaru et al., 2008; Olaru et al., 2010b). Au fost
transmise 3100 de chestionare i s-au primit 1227 de chestionare completate, dintre care
830 din domeniul serviciilor (698 IMMuri i 132 de ntreprinderi mari). Pentru evaluarea
rspunsurilor a fost utilizat o scal cu cinci niveluri de apreciere, de la deloc pn la
foarte mult/n totalitate (dup caz), iar pentru o parte din ntrebri rspunsurile au avut
doua variante, afirmativ sau negativ.
n lucrarea de fa sunt prezentate rezultatele prelucrrii datelor obinute cu privire
la valorificarea rezultatelor evalurii si monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor de ctre IMM
urile chestionate. n acest scop chestionarul utilizat a inclus urmtoarea ntrebare, cu
variantele de rspuns aferente: evaluarea i monitorizarea satisfaciei clienilor au condus
la (pot fi indicate mai multe rspunsuri):
identificarea cerinelor clienilor;
reproiectarea produselor pe baza cerinelor noi ale clienilor;
creterea satisfaciei clienilor prin mbuntirea calitii produselor;
stabilirea de aciuni corective i preventive ca urmare a reclamaiilor clienilor;
stabilirea i implementarea unui program de mbuntire continu.
Aa cum rezult din figura nr. 1, circa 75% din IMM-urile chestionate din
domeniul serviciilor i 54% din cele din domeniul produciei au mai mult de cinci ani de
activitate.

Interferene economice: Calitate - Tehnologii Informaionale - Consumator AE

Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011

555

IMM-uri din domeniul servicilor
23%
29%
48%
<5 ani
5-10 ani
>10 ani

IMM-uri din domeniul productiei
37%
31%
32%
<5 ani
5-10 ani
>10 ani

Figura nr. 1: Distribuia IMM-urilor chestionate n cadrul studiului efectuat n
perioada 2007-2010, in funcie de vechimea acestora

Rezultatele studiului menionat au fost comparate cu cele obinute ca urmare a
unui studiu similar efectuat de ctre autori n perioada 2003-2004, ceea ce a permis
formularea unor concluzii privind evoluia preocuprilor IMM-urilor n acest domeniu.
Studiul respectiv a fost efectuat la nivelul unui eantion de 371 de IMM-uri, dintre care 278
din domeniul produciei i 93 din domeniul serviciilor (Olaru i Stoleriu, 2006).


2. Rezultatele cercetrii

Lund n considerare rezultatele studiului efectuat n perioada 2003-2004 i
schimbrile intervenite la nivel global, precum i consecinele aderrii Romniei la Uniunea
European, n cadrul studiului efectuat n perioada 2007 2010, ne-am propus verificarea
urmtoarele ipoteze:
Gradul de utilizare de ctre IMMurile din Romnia a datelor obinute in procesul
evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor a crescut, ca urmare a noilor exigene
generate de statutul de ar membr a UE i ca urmare a creterii exigenelor clienilor.
In domeniul serviciilor domeniu n continu dezvoltare a crescut in mod
semnificativ interesul IMMurilor pentru evaluarea i monitorizarea sistematic a
satisfaciei clienilor i pentru o mai bun valorificare a rezultatelor astfel obinute.
IMMurile din Romnia acord o important mai mare mbuntirii continue a
activitilor, ca parte integrant a procesului de mbuntire a performantelor globale a
sistemului lor de management al calitii.


2.1 Valorificarea rezultatelor evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor in
procesul reproiectrii produselor i serviciilor

Studiul efectuat n perioada 2007-2010 relev faptul c, 80% din IMM-urile
chestionate utilizeaz mult i foarte mult datele rezultate ca urmare a evalurii i
monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor pentru identificarea noilor cerine ale acestora, n timp
ce potrivit studiului efectuat anterior, ponderea acestor ntreprinderi era de 70% (figurile
nr. 2 i 3) (Olaru et al., 2008; Olaru et al., 2010b). O asemenea cretere era de ateptat n
condiiile n care concurena a devenit foarte puternic, ritmul de dezvoltare tehnologic s-a
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accelerat, exigenele clienilor au crescut, iar reglementrile referitoare la protecia
consumatorilor i a mediului nconjurtor au devenit tot mai restrictive.
Potrivit aceluiai studiu, datele obinute n procesul evalurii i monitorizrii
satisfaciei clienilor sunt utilizate mult sau foarte mult, pentru reproiectarea
produselor i serviciilor, de ctre 57% din IMM-urile chestionate din domeniul serviciilor
i 65% din cele din domeniul produciei (figura nr. 2).
De asemenea, se poate remarca faptul c IMM-urile din domeniul serviciilor i-au
mbuntit substanial gradul de valorificare a rezultatelor evalurii i monitorizrii
satisfaciei clienilor, comparativ cu anul de referin 2003, cnd, potrivit studiului efectuat
la data respectiv, numai 25% dintre IMM-urile chestionate au declarat c valorific n
mare msur aceste rezultate. Prin urmare, IMM-urile din domeniul serviciilor acord o
importan mai mare dezvoltrii unor noi servicii i mbuntirii celor existente, pe baza
cerinelor tot mai diversificate ale clienilor.
Creterea gradului de valorificare a rezultatelor evalurii i monitorizrii
satisfaciei clienilor este, pe de o parte, o consecin a evoluiei generale a IMM-urilor din
Romnia i pe de alt parte demonstreaz capacitatea acestora de a se adapta condiiilor tot
mai dificile de pe pia.
0
20
40
60
80
100
Identificarea cerinelor clienilor
Reproiectarea produselor pe baza
cerinelor noi ale clienilor
Imbuntirea calitii produselor Stabilirea de aciuni corective i preventive
Program de mbuntire continu
IMM-uri din domeniul
serviciilor
IMM-uri din domeniul
productiei


Figura nr. 2: Ponderea IMM-urilor din Romnia care utilizeaz mult i foarte
mult datele obinute n procesul evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor
(potrivit studiului efectuat n perioada 2007-2010)


2.2 Valorificarea rezultatelor evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor in
procesul mbuntirii calitii produselor i serviciilor i pentru stabilirea de aciuni
corective - preventive

Nivelul de satisfacie al clienilor este puternic influenat de calitatea produselor i
serviciilor oferite. Aa cum rezult din figurile nr. 2 i 3, interesul IMM-urilor pentru
utilizarea datelor provenite de la clieni in scopul mbuntirii calitii produselor i
serviciilor, a rmas relativ constant. Astfel, potrivit ambelor studii, marea majoritate a
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IMM-urilor chestionate (80%) sunt preocupate de mbuntirea calitii produselor i
serviciilor furnizate, lund n considerare feedback-ul de la clieni.
O cretere semnificativ a gradului de valorificare a rezultatelor evalurii i
monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor se observ n procesul stabilirii de aciuni corective i
preventive n cazul IMM-urilor din domeniul serviciilor. Astfel, dac la nivelul anilor 2003
-2004 numai 45% din aceste ntreprinderi utilizau datele respective pentru a stabili aciuni
corective i preventive, potrivit studiului efectuat n perioada 2007-2010, ponderea acestor
ntreprinderi a crescut la 66%.
Un factor important care a facilitat aceast evoluie l-a reprezentat creterea
interesului IMM-urilor pentru implementarea modelelor de sistem de management al
calitii ISO 9000. De remarcat faptul c anul 2003 a fost anul de tranziie de la ediia din
anul 1997 la ediia 2000 a standardului ISO 9001, ediie care a accentuat importan
satisfacerii cerinelor clienilor i rolul conducerii de vrf n implementarea si mbuntirea
continu a sistemelor de management al calitii (Olaru et al., 2010a; Olaru et al., 2010b).


2.3 Valorificarea rezultatelor evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor pentru
stabilirea si implementarea unui program de mbuntire continu

Ca urmare a prelucrrii datelor obinute potrivit studiului efectuat n perioada
2007-2010, a rezultat c, n cazul IMM-urilor din domeniul serviciilor a crescut substanial
preocuparea acestora de a valorica rezultatele evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor
pentru stabilirea i implementarea unui program de mbuntire continu. Astfel 55% din
IMM-urile chestionate din domeniul serviciilor utilizeaz aceste rezultate pentru stabilirea
i implementarea unor programe de mbuntire continu (figura nr. 2), comparativ cu
perioada analizat anterior, cnd ponderea acestor ntreprinderi era de numai 23% (figura
nr. 3).
0
20
40
60
80
100
Identificarea cerinelor clienilor
Reproiectarea produselor pe baza
cerinelor noi ale clienilor
Imbuntirea calitii produselor Stabilirea de aciuni corective i preventive
Program de mbuntire continu
IMM-uri din domeniul serviciilor
IMM-uri din domeniul productiei

Figura nr. 3: Ponderea IMM-urilor din Romnia care utilizau mult i foarte
mult datele obinute n procesul evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor
(potrivit studiului efectuat n perioada 2003-2004)

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Analiznd rezultatele obinute se poate spune c toate cele trei ipoteze care au stat
la baza studiului efectuat n perioada 2007-2010 au fost confirmate.
Astfel, IMM-urile din Romnia i-ai mbuntit capacitatea de a valorifica
rezultatele evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor n procesul reproiectrii
produselor i serviciilor, fiind n mai mare msur preocupate s stabileasc si s
implementeze programe de mbuntire continu, n acord cu cerinele clienilor.
De asemenea, s-a confirmat faptul c IMM-urile din domeniul serviciilor i-au
mbuntit n mod substanial capacitatea de reproiectare a serviciilor i de mbuntire a
calitii acestora, valorificnd mai bine rezultatele evalurii i monitorizrii sistematice a
satisfaciei clienilor.
Ultima ipotez referitoare la creterea preocuprii pentru mbuntirea continu a
activitilor organizaiei, ca parte integrant a procesului de mbuntire a performanei
globale a sistemelor de management al calitii, nu s-a confirmat n totalitate. Astfel, chiar
dac n cazul IMM-urilor din domeniul serviciilor a avut loc o evoluie pozitiv in acest
sens, era de ateptat ca in contextul implementrii modelului de abordare procesual a
sistemului de management ISO 9000 s se pun accentul pe utilizarea unor indicatori de
performan mai bine adaptai exigenelor acestui model.


Concluzii

Lund n considerare rezultatele studiului efectuat n perioada 2007 2010,
comparativ cu cele obinute n cadrul cercetrii referitoare la perioada 2003-2004, se
remarc un progres evident n ceea ce privete procesul evalurii i monitorizrii satisfaciei
clienilor de ctre IMMurile din Romnia, rezultatele acestui proces fiind utilizate n mai
mare msur pentru reproiectarea i mbuntirea calitii produselor i serviciilor oferite.
De asemenea, n contextul implementrii noilor modele de sisteme de management
al calitii, IMMurile din Romnia acord o importan mai mare definirii unor aciuni
corective i preventive, respectiv pentru stabilirea si implementarea unor programe de
mbuntire continu, n acord cu cerinele clienilor.
Pe de alt parte, se poate aprecia c exist nc rezerve importante n ceea ce
privete utilizarea unor indicatori de performan mai bine adaptai modelului de abordare
procesual a sistemului de management al calitii, definit de standardele internaionale ISO
9000, lund n considerare rezultatele evalurii si monitorizrii satisfaciei clienilor, dar i
dezideratul asigurrii unei performane durabile n cazul IMM-urilor, n contextul economic
actual, deosebit de complex i de dinamic.


Mulumiri

Aceast lucrare a beneficiat de sprijinul CNCSIS UEFISCSU, prin intermediul
proiectului ID 856 PN II IDEI, avnd codul 273//2007 i a proiectului PN II-RU avnd
codul TE_328/2010.



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NECESITATEA IMPLEMENTRII UNUI SISTEM DE MANAGEMENT AL
CALITII N UNITILE SANITARE DIN ROMNIA. O ABORDARE DIN
PERSPECTIVA PACIENTULUI


Roxana Srbu
1
i Adriana Zanfir
2

1) 2 )
Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia




Rezumat
Organizaiile prestatoare de servicii medicale acioneaz ntr-un mediu cu
caracteristici specifice, extrem de sensibil, dinamic i de multe ori imprevizibil. Pentru a
putea desfura activitatea la un nivel ridicat de performan, unitile sanitare trebuie s
aib capacitatea de a accepta schimbrile, de a identifica i valorifica oportunitile aprute
i de a evita pe ct posibil riscurile. n domeniul sanitar, calitatea este o variabil dificil de
cuantificat i poate fi privit ca fiind rezultatul comparaiei dintre serviciul de sntate dorit
de pacient i serviciul primit, sau msura n care serviciul primit corespunde ateptrilor
pacientului.
Prezenta lucrare face referire la problemele, din ce n ce mai numeroase, existente
n sistemul sanitar romnesc i la ansamblul deficienelor care influeneaz calitatea
serviciilor prestate. Abordarea temei este realizat prin prisma managementului calitii
fcndu-se o analiz a percepiei consumatorilor n ceea ce privete calitatea serviciilor de
sntate i necesitatea implementrii unui sistem de management al calitii n toate
unitile prestatoare de servicii medicale. Cercetarea se bazeaz pe un amplu studiu al
literaturii de specialitate, al unor articole i lucrri de referin n domeniul sanitar,
culegerea datelor realizndu-se prin aplicarea unui chestionar n rndul populaiei care a
beneficiat n ultimul an de servicii medicale.

Cuvinte-cheie: sistem de management al calitii, uniti sanitare, servicii medicale,
calitate, standarde de calitate

Clasificare JEL: I10, I18, I19


Introducere

Domeniul serviciilor de sntate este unul foarte sensibil, plin de incertitudini i cu
caracteristici specifice, desfurarea activitii organizaiilor prestatoare de servicii
medicale realizndu-se pe baza respectrii legislaiei i normelor n vigoare referitoare la
asigurarea i meninerea sntii publice. Abordarea calitii serviciilor de sntate este

Autor de contact, Roxana Srbu - sarburoxana@yahoo.com


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inevitabil, ntr-un mediu economic care a suferit n ultimii ani o serie de transformri,
unele cu o importan deosebit. Asigurarea sntii reprezint o necesitate, dar i o
condiie obligatorie pentru toate organizaiile, indiferent de dimensiune i obiect de
activitate, care doresc s obin performane pe termen lung n domeniul n care activeaz.
Calitatea s-a dovedit a fi, odat cu trecerea timpului, o noiune foarte complex i dinamic,
de multe ori fiind definit mai curnd prin ceea ce se deosebete lipsa de calitate sau non-
calitatea, dect printr-un concept cu o ncrctur proprie, reflectnd diferite viziuni
culturale, politice, naionale, regionale sau globale socio-economice (Srbu, Scurtulescu i
Bucur, 2007). Calitatea este dorit de fiecare persoan, indiferent c se refer la un produs
sau la un serviciu i reprezint un lung lan de provocri, att la nivel individual, ct i la
nivel organizaional. Serviciile de sntate sunt servicii cu caracter complex care vizeaz
ntreaga populaie a unei ri i, prin urmare, au caracteristici specifice, n sensul c acestea
nu pot fi substituite sau privite cu superficialitate i reprezint o valoare fundamental att
pentru individ, ct i pentru societatea ca ansamblu. O stare bun de sntate este o condiie
esenial pentru o bun calitate a vieii, indiferent de tipul de sntate la care facem referire
(fizic, mental, social, intelectual, spiritual). Calitatea serviciilor de sntate poate fi
privit att din perspectiva consumatorului/pacientului, ct i din perspectiva furnizorilor
sau a organizaiilor prestatoare. ns, indiferent de modalitatea de abordare a acesteia este
evident faptul c orice eroare produs n furnizarea serviciilor medicale are un impact
considerabil asupra prilor implicate (figura nr. 1).

Figura nr. 1: Calitatea serviciilor oferite de structura de sntate
Sursa: Adaptare dup Luchian, 2005, p. 183.

n domeniul sanitar, vectorii valorici purttori ai calitii sunt (Luchian, 2005):
excelent practic medical;
introducerea de tehnici i proceduri integrate, moderne, apreciate de pacieni;
reducerea sau meninerea costurilor n condiiile creterii eficienei i productivitii.
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Calitatea ngrijirii este un concept dinamic cu multe dimensiuni raportate att la
pacient, ct i la contextul social, organizaional i de mediu. Evaluarea calitii trebuie s
se bazeze pe definirea cadrului conceptual i operaional referitor la ceea ce nseamn
"calitatea asistenei medicale". La acest nivel fundamental sunt prezente o serie de
probleme, iar calitatea ngrijirilor este, evident, o noiune dificil de definit (Donabedian,
2005).
Dimensiunile calitii sunt subiecte foarte dezbtute n literatura de specialitate,
cele mai importante aprecieri n acest sens fiind fcute nc din anul 2004 (Vldescu, 2004):
Accesibilitatea ngrijirii - uurina cu care pacienii pot obine ngrijirea, atunci cnd
apare nevoia;
Specificitatea ngrijirii gradul pn la care se asigur o ngrijire corect, dat de
starea curent a activitii;
Continuitatea ngrijirii - gradul pn la care ngrijirea necesitat de pacieni este
coordonat, n timp, ntre practicieni i organizaii;
Eficacitatea ngrijirii - gradul pn la care ngrijirea este abordat ntr-o manier
corect, fr erori, n funcie de starea curent a activitii;
Efectivitatea ngrijirii - gradul pn la care un serviciu are potenialul s satisfac
nevoile pentru care este folosit;
Eficiena ngrijirii - gradul pn la care ngrijirea primit are efectul dorit, cu un
minim de efort i cheltuieli;
Orientarea spre pacient - gradul pn la care pacienii sunt implicai n procesul de
luare a deciziilor n problemele ce in de sntatea lor i gradul n care sunt satisfcui de
ngrijirea primit;
Sigurana mediului de ngrijire gradul pn la care mediul este lipsit de hazard sau
pericol;
Orarul ngrijirii - gradul pn la care ngrijirea este acordat pacienilor, atunci cnd
ea este necesar.
Recent, calitatea ngrijirilor de sntate a fost ncadrat i n alte dimensiuni, cele
mai importante fiind:
Competena profesional a personalului se refer la ansamblul de cunotine,
abiliti i performane ale profesionitilor din domeniu;
Relaiile interpersonale - interaciunea dintre actorii implicai i ansamblul de
relaii stabilite ntre pacient i organizaia prestatoare de servicii medicale;
Libera alegere a furnizorului, tipului de asigurare sau tratament;
Infrastructura i confortul curenie, confort, intimitate sau alte aspecte importante
pentru pacieni.
Un aspect deosebit de important este precizat de CoNAS (Comisia Naional de
Acreditare a Spitalelor) n Manualul de Acreditare a Spitalelor i anume echitatea n
sensul tratamentului egal i proporional cu gravitatea cazurilor pentru orice pacient
(CoNAS, 2010).
Cteva dintre principalele repere ale sistemului de sntate, ca parte a modelului
social, sunt sugerate de (Puna et al., 2007):
Dezvoltarea sistemului obligatoriu de asigurri de sntate i promovarea unui
sistem universal i social acceptabil, bazat pe principiile solidaritii i echitii i asigurnd
acces pentru grupuri sociale variate la un pachet de baz garantat de drepturi i servicii de
sntate;
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Reducerea inegalitilor i dezechilibrelor dintre ofert (calitatea i disponibilitatea
serviciilor) i cerere (cunotine despre sntate, igien i posibiliti de tratament, acces la
servicii);
Asigurarea unui sistem transparent i eficient de sntate, orientat pe promovarea
strii de sntate, prevenirea i tratarea bolilor.
Coninutul i complexitatea definirii strii de sntate a populaiei fac destul de
dificil demersul de a indica cu exactitate ce este un sistem de sntate, unde ncepe el i
unde se termin (Ristea, Stegroiu, Ioan-Franc i Dinu, 2009).
Pornind de la importana deosebit pe care o are calitatea n acordarea serviciilor
de sntate, vom ncerca s analizam necesitatea implementrii unui sistem de management
al calitii n cadrul unitilor sanitare, innd cont de faptul c pacientul este elementul
central al oricrui sistem de sntate.


1. Metodologia cercetrii

Cercetarea cuprinde mai multe etape: documentare din literatura de specialitate;
identificarea deficienelor majore din sistemul sanitar care influeneaz calitatea serviciilor
de sntate; crearea unui chestionar pentru evaluarea percepiei pacienilor asupra calitii
serviciilor primite; analiza rspunsurilor; evidenierea necesitii implementrii sistemului
de management al calitii n toate unitile prestatoare de servicii medicale. Pentru
desfurarea cercetrii i pentru obinerea unor rspunsuri care reflect ct mai bine
realitatea din domeniu am folosit, ca instrument de analiz, un chestionar aplicat n rndul
populaiei care a beneficiat n ultimul an de zile de servicii medicale, n ar. Chestionarul a
fost conceput pentru evaluarea cantitativ i calitativ a unor componente cheie, cum ar fi
deficienele existente n sistem, cu impact asupra performanei sistemului de sntate
romnesc.
Cercetarea s-a bazat pe analiza unui numr de 500 chestionare, distribuite
electronic, pentru facilitarea procesului de colectare i grupare a datelor i informaiilor.
Este important de precizat faptul c n cadrul acestei analize am inut cont doar de opinia
personalelor care au beneficiat n mod direct de servicii de sntate, n perioada 2010-2011,
n uniti prestatoare de servicii medicale din Romnia. Pentru desfurarea cercetrii nu ar
fi fost relevant s inem cont de opinia persoanelor tratate n alt ar, pentru c acestea au
tendina de a compara anumite elemente i situaii cu cele ntlnite n strintate, fapt care
ar fi influenat n mod negativ percepia acestora n ceea ce privete calitatea serviciilor
medicale primite n Romnia. Prin urmare, din totalul de 500 chestionare aplicare, am
considerat ca fiind relevante pentru cercetare 439, cu rspunsuri care vizeaz sistemul
sanitar romnesc. Un numr de 61 de chestionare au fost anulate, deoarece rspunsurile nu
se ncadrau n cerinele urmrite.
Aa cum pot fi observate (tabel nr.1), ntrebrile chestionarului au fost concepute
pentru a oferi un set de informaii relevante pentru evaluarea principalilor factori cu
influen asupra nivelului de performan din sistemul sanitar romnesc.
n total a fost utilizat un numr de 20 ntrebri, 18 cu rspunsuri pre-formulate i
dou ntrebri cu rspunsuri deschise.
Obiectivul principal al cercetrii a fost analiza necesitii implementrii unui
sistem de management al calitii n toate unitile prestatoare de servicii medicale din
Romnia, pentru a mbunti continuu calitatea serviciilor oferite i a crete astfel gradul
de ncredere al pacienilor n sistemul sanitar romnesc.
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Tabel nr. 1: Chestionar utilizat
Nr.
Crt.
ntrebri aplicate
1. n ce ar avei domiciliul stabil?
2. Sex masculin sau feminin?
3. n ce categorie de vrst v ncadrai?
4. Suntei pltitor de asigurri sociale de sntate n Romnia?
5. Ai beneficiat de servicii medicale n ultimul an de zile?
6. Avei ncredere n sistemul sanitar din Romnia?
7. Considerai c avei suficiente informaii despre sistemul sanitar din Romnia?
8. Ai fost suficient informat despre drepturile pe care le avei n calitate de pacient?
9.
Considerai c n spitalele din Romnia sunt respectate n totalitate drepturile
pacienilor?
10. Cum apreciai costul serviciilor de sntate n raport cu veniturile dvs.?
11. Serviciile de sntate primite au corespuns ateptrilor?
12. Considerai c n spitalele din Romnia exist un risc crescut de infectare intra-
spitaliceasc (nosocomial)?
13. Cum apreciai calitatea serviciilor de sntate primite?
14. Care dintre urmtoarele deficiene din sistemul sanitar, considerai c influeneaz cel
mai mult calitatea serviciilor de sntate?
- Subfinanarea unitilor sanitare;
- Gestionare neadecvat a fondurilor primite, de ctre managementul unitilor;
- Numrul redus de cadre medicale;
- Insuficienta motivare a personalului prin prisma nivelului sczut al salariilor, n
raport cu condiiile de munc.
15. Cum apreciai accesibilitatea la serviciile medicale?
16. Este necesar aplicarea unor msuri pentru mbuntirea urgent a calitii serviciilor
de sntate?
17. Considerai c orientarea ctre pacient ar trebui s reprezinte principiul de baz al
oricrei uniti prestatoare de servicii medicale?
18. n opinia dumneavoastr mbuntirea continu a calitii serviciilor de sntate
este un principiu care conduce la obinerea performanei n domeniul sanitar i la
mbuntirea calitii vieii?
19. Dac ai avea posibilitatea, ai alege pentru ngrijiri de sntate un spital din alt ar?
20. Ce ar membr a Uniunii Europene credei c are cel mai eficient i eficace sistem
sanitar?


2. Analiza i interpretarea datelor

Am implicat n acest sondaj de opinie persoane tinere aplicnd chestionarul
uniform, indiferent de nivelul pregtirii sau de condiia social. Am ncercat s surprindem
categoria de nivel mediul, pentru c nu facem referire la servicii de lux, ci la servicii care ar
trebui s fie accesibile oricrui pacient. Contientiznd impactul deficienelor din sistemul
sanitar, am alctuit acest tip de chestionar pentru a observa dac pacienii consider ca fiind
necesare msuri pentru mbuntirea serviciile medicale i dac organizaiile prestatoare de
servicii de sntate satisfac cerinele clienilor. Aspecte precum: colaborarea doctor-pacient,
care presupune, deseori, asumarea dezacordului cu pacientul, pentru a-i putea apra
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interesele, particulariznd semnificativ regulile de baz ale managementului relaiilor cu
clienii, nivelul acceptabil de ghidare a pacientului, n situaii n care el, n rol de
cumprtor, suport integral riscul, persistena asimetriei informaionale (pacienii pot fi
mai informai, dar nu neaprat mai corect informai), combinate cu nevoia real de a
ncorpora expertiza pacienilor n procesul de ngrijire, complic agenda managementului
calitii n sistemul sanitar (Prejmerean i Vasilache, 2009).
Nivelul calitii serviciilor de sntate a fost urmrit din perspectiva
consumatorului de servicii de sntate, pe care l considerm elementul esenial al oricrui
sistem sanitar. n domeniul sanitar pacientul evalueaz calitatea, prin urmare atunci cnd
serviciul primit nu este n conformitate cu ateptrile sale, indiferent c acestea sunt
subiective sau obiective, pacientul are tendina de a evalua calitatea serviciilor medicale ca
fiind nesatisfctoare, crend astfel o imagine de ansamblu, mai puin favorabil, ntregului
sistem sanitar.
Majoritatea respondenilor sunt persoane tinere, care se ncadreaz n intervalul
20-40 ani (figura nr. 2).

Figura nr. 2: Distribuia respondenilor, pe sexe

Percepia populaiei cu privirea la calitatea serviciilor medicale nu este una
favorabil. Un semnal de alarm ar trebui s l reprezinte faptul c, din totalul de 439 de
respondeni doar 27 de persoane au ncredere n sistemul sanitar din Romnia. Aceast
nencredere este generat, fie de faptul c majoritatea persoanelor nu sunt corect informate
cu privire la modul n care sunt acordate serviciile sanitare, fie nu au suficiente informaii
cu privire la drepturile pe care le au, n calitate de pacieni. Din punctul de vedere al
pacientului, accesibilitatea la servicii medicale se realizeaz cu dificultate. Aproximativ
83% consider c serviciile de sntate au costuri ridicate n raport cu veniturile. n
Romnia exist o serie ntreag de factori care conduc la diminuarea calitii serviciilor
oferite. Printre acetia amintim: lipsa unei finanri n conformitate cu nevoia de finanare,
gestionare necorespunztoare a fondurilor primite, aparatur medical neperformant,
personal insuficient i pltit necorespunztor, neconcordan ntre cerere i ofert. Aceste
deficiene sunt ct se poate de reale fiind remarcate de majoritatea persoanelor implicate n
studiu. 70% consider c exist o calitate sczut, serviciile medicale fiind mult sub
ateptrile pe care le au.
n urma interpretrii rezultatelor am constat c, din punctul de vedere al
pacienilor, subfinanarea unitilor sanitare, corelat cu gestionarea neadecvat a fondurilor
primite este principala cauz a nivelului sczut al calitii serviciilor de sntate.
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Am ajuns la concluzia c, dac ar avea posibilitatea, aproape toi cei intervievai ar
pleca pentru tratament i ngrijiri de sntate n alt ar, ntre preferine regsindu-se
Germania, Frana, Austria i Spania. n aceste ri sistemul de sntate funcioneaz innd
cont de reglementrile internaionale. n Raportul privind sntatea n lume, OMS propune
pentru prima dat un indice al performanei sistemelor de sntate naionale n realizarea a
trei mari obiective pe care acestea trebuie s le ating: ameliorarea sntii; satisfacerea
ateptrilor populaiei (reactivitatea sistemelor de sntate la ateptrile pacienilor);
repartiia echilibrat a contribuiei financiare (Stegroiu, Ristea et al., 2009).
Pentru a crete gradul de ncredere asupra activitilor pe care aceste organizaii le
desfoar trebuie ca politica referitoare la calitate s se concentreze pe cele opt principii de
baz ale managementului calitii:
Orientarea ctre client a unitilor spitaliceti, innd cont de faptul c finanarea
depinde de numrul de pacieni. Conducerea trebuie s neleag nevoile curente i viitoare
ale acestora, s le satisfac cerinele, s identifice, ndeplineasc i depeasc ateptrile
referitoare la serviciile de sntate;
Leadership n sensul crerii i meninerii unui mediu intern n care personalul
medical s devin total implicat n atingerea obiectivelor;
Implicarea personalului - fiecare cadru medical va fi motivat s participe la
activitile referitoare la calitate;
Abordare bazat pe proces - rezultatul dorit este obinut mai eficient cnd activitile
i resursele sunt conduse i administrate ca procese;
Abordarea managementului ca sistem - confer ncredere tuturor prilor interesate
cu privire la eficacitatea i eficiena unitii;
mbuntire continu a calitii serviciilor oferite - obiectiv al oricrei organizaii
deoarece conduce la obinerea performanei n domeniul sanitar;
Abordarea pe baz de fapte n luarea deciziilor se va pune accent pe analiza
datelor i informaiilor;
Relaii reciproc avantajoase cu furnizorii i beneficiarii serviciilor medicale
acordate.
De asemenea, managementul de la cel mai nalt nivel trebuie s se asigure c
politica referitoare la calitate este adecvat scopului organizaiei, include un angajament
pentru satisfacerea cerinelor i pentru mbuntirea continu a eficacitii sistemului de
management al calitii, asigur un cadru pentru stabilirea i analizarea obiectivelor
managementului calitii, este comunicat i neleas n cadrul organizaiei (International
Standards Office, 2008).


Concluzii

Cel mai important aspect pe care l-am constatat n urma aplicrii chestionarului
este necesitatea implementrii unui sistem de management al calitii la nivelul
organizaiilor prestatoare de servicii medicale. Toate persoanele chestionate au rspuns
afirmativ la ntrebrile referitoare la necesitatea aplicrii unor msuri pentru mbuntirea
urgent a calitii serviciilor de sntate i consider c orientarea ctre pacient ar trebui
s reprezinte principiul de baz al oricrei uniti prestatoare de servicii medicale. De
asemenea, aproape toi cei chestionai consider c mbuntirea continu a calitii
AE
Necesitatea implementrii unui sistem de management al calitii n unitile
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Amfiteatru Economic
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serviciilor de sntate este un principiu care conduce la obinerea performanei n
domeniul sanitar i mbuntirea calitii vieii.
Calitatea n domeniul sanitar reprezint anticiparea, identificarea i depirea
ateptrilor pacienilor n raport cu ngrijirile de sntate solicitate. Rezultatele obinute n
urma punerii n practic a actului medical sunt definitorii pentru evaluarea serviciilor de
sntate. Analiznd percepia consumatorilor de servicii medicale, pe baza chestionarului
folosit, observm c aspectele legate de calitate n acest sector sunt deosebit de importante.
Pacientul evalueaz calitatea unui serviciu medical innd cont de mai multe variabile.
Acesta nu face referire doar la actul medical i la prestaia medicului, ci privete n
ansamblu, urmrind profesionalismul i pregtirea medicului, atitudinea i comportamentul
personalului, interesul manifestat de acesta pentru rezolvarea problemelor pe care le are,
perioada de timp necesar pentru acordarea ngrijirilor (timpul de acces, timpul de
ateptare, timpul de servire).
Dup analiza informaiilor s-a constatat c prerea consumatorilor de servicii
medicale nu este una pozitiv, iar imaginea sistemului sanitar este departe de a fi
favorabil. n sistemul de sntate romnesc apar mereu pierderi nepermise care presupun
costuri ridicate pentru ntreaga populaie. Prin implementarea unui sistem de management
al calitii acestea ar putea fi inute sub control, managementul unitilor sanitare din
Romnia putnd desfura o serie ntreag de activiti pentru a realiza rezultatele
planificate i pentru a mbunti continuu procesele din interior.


Mulumiri

Aceast lucrare a fost cofinanat din Fondul Social European, prin Programul
Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013, proiect numrul
POSDRU/107/1.5/S/77213 Doctorat pentru o carier n cercetarea economic
interdisciplinar la nivel european.


Bibliografie
CoNAS, 2010. The Manual for Primary Accreditation of Hospital (2010-2015) (Unit of
Standards and Accreditation Procedures). Bucharest: Document for internal use, p. 48.
Donabedian, A., 2005. Evaluating the Quality of Medical Care. The Milbank Quarterly,
83(4), p. 692.
International Standards Office, 2008. ISO 9001:2008. Quality management systems.
Requirements. Geneva:ISO.
Luchian, M., 2005. Sanitary Management. Iai: Apollonia Faculty of Medicine and
Dentistry.
Puna, C. B. et al, 2007. European Social Model - Implications for Romania. Study no. 4.
Bucharest: European Institute of Romania.
Prejmerean, C. i Vasilache, S., 2009. Study regarding Customer Perception of Healthcare
Service Quality in Romanian Clinics, Based on their Profile. Amfiteatru Economic, XI
(26), pp. 298-304.
Interferene economice: Calitate - Tehnologii Informaionale - Consumator AE

Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011
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Ristea, A.L., Stegroiu, I., Ioan-Franc, V. i Dinu, V., 2009. Responsiveness of Health
Systems: a Barometer of the Quality of Health Services. Amfiteatru Economic, XI (26),
pp. 277-287.
Srbu, R., Scurtulescu, A.C. i Bucur, C.R., 2007. Quality in higher education. Amfiteatru
Economic, IX(22), pp. 41-46.
Stegroiu, I., Ristea, A.L. (coordonatori) et al., 2009. Distribution of health services
management. Strategies and policies for the distribution of health services. Trgovite:
Bibliotheca Publishing House.
Vldescu, C., 2004. Public health and sanitary management. Bucharest: University Book
Publishing House.

AE
Succesul durabil n nvmntul superior prin schimbul celor mai bune practici
ca rezultat al unui proces de benchmarking

Amfiteatru Economic
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SUCCESUL DURABIL N NVMNTUL SUPERIOR PRIN SCHIMBUL
CELOR MAI BUNE PRACTICI CA REZULTAT AL UNUI PROCES DE
BENCHMARKING


Anca Gabriela Ilie
1
, Mihaela Maftei
2
i Oana Antonia Colibanu
3

1) 2)
Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia
3)
STRATFOR, Statele Unite ale Americii




Rezumat
Lucrarea i propune s analizeze principalele criterii de benchmarking, n baza
indicatorilor de calitate utilizai de instituiile de nvmnt superior i s prezinte noi
indicatori de referin, ca rezultat al cooperrii inter-universitare. Odat definii aceti
indicatori, ar putea fi creat o baz de date naional i, prin procese de benchmarking, ar
putea fi stabilit nivelul performanei naionale al sistemului educaional. Mergnd mai
departe i generaliznd procesul, prin intermediul proceselor de benchmarking putem
compara sistemul educaional naional cu cele europene. Scopul final este de a stabili un
grup de universiti care s exploreze mpreun oportuniti de benchmarking i a bunelor
practici din domenii comune de interes, n scopul crerii unei culturi a calitii pentru
sistemul de nvmnt superior romnesc.

Cuvinte-cheie: benchmarking, nvmnt superior, bune practici, indicatori de calitate,
cultura calitii

Clasificare JEL: D83, I23, I21


Introducere

Istoria teoriei, a metodologiei i a aplicrii n practic a concluziilor unui proces
de benchmarking a nceput n 1981, cnd Rank Xerox a devenit inta unui atac direct din
partea competitorului su, Compania Cannon. Rank Xerox a acceptat provocarea elabornd
o nou strategie i schimbnd semnificativ modul de funcionare a activitii sale.
Compania Rank Xerox, prin directorul su general David Kearns, a fost, n mod
evident, prima care a formulat i o definiie a noii sale tehnici, ca baz a strategiei adoptate:
un proces continuu de msurare a propriilor produse, servicii i practici n comparaie cu
cei mai duri competitori sau cu acele companii recunoscute ca lideri ai industriei.
Aceast definiie a formulat pentru prima dat ideea unei comparaii a firmelor, nu numai

Autor de contact, Mihaela Maftei - mmaftei@ase.ro


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cu cei mai mari competitori de pe pia, dar i cu alte companii de la care organizaiile
interesate pot nva ceva (Bank, 1992).
n educaie, benchmarking-ul implic att un diagnostic iniial, ct i un
management bazat pe nvare, colaborare i leadership pentru a obine mbuntirea
continu a ofertei educaionale (Srbu, Ilie, Enache and Dumitriu, 2009).
Pentru nvmntul superior benchmarking-ul reprezint un instrument deosebit
de important pentru mbuntirea sistemelor educaionale, mai ales n rndul universitilor
romneti, asigurnd o comparaie a metodelor educaionale, identificarea celor de succes
i, implicit, i pregtirea unor studeni/absolveni de succes ntr-o pia global.
Cele mai multe universiti vor trebui s stabileasc drept criterii de benchmarking
noi indicatori ai calitii pentru sistemul de nvmnt superior, s introduc o serie de
schimbri, atta timp ct sistemul se ndreapt spre nvarea continu, prin care oamenii au
acces la mai multe tipuri de oportuniti de nvare i s dezvolte strategii pentru succesul
propriilor eluri de mbuntire continu a calitii (Srbu, Scurtulescu and Bucur,2007).
n domeniul educaiei, la fel ca n mai multe alte domenii de activitate, putem
dezvolta trei tipuri principale de benchmarking:
benchmarking intern al crui obiect l constituie departamentele interne, birourile,
programele, facultile etc pentru a identifica cele mai bune practici ntr-o anumit
activitate n cadrul aceleiai universiti, problemele existente i posibilitile de a le depi
pe baza experienei acumulate;
benchmarking competitiv un proces continuu care permite universitilor s se
autoevalueze n comparaie cu universitile din acelai domeniu, cu care se afl n
competiie real sau potenial, pentru a obine informaii despre programe, curricula,
domeniul administrativ, procese de predare i cercetare, rezultate, etc. pentru a le compara
cu propriile rezultate i a-i mbunti ntreaga activitate;
benchmarking generic sau funcional potenialul partener de comparaie este orice
universitate care i-a ctigat reputaia de a fi excelent n urma unor evaluri (Srbu,
2006).
n cazul benchmarking-ului generic, culegerea informaiilor despre bunele practici
este mai simpl. La nivel internaional sunt disponibile multe informaii care permit
universitilor s i compare performanele, att n termeni de input (costul unitar al
educaiei i formrii, raportul dintre numrul de profesori i studeni, timpul de predare n
activitile de nvare), ct i n termeni de output (evaluarea nvrii) (World Bank,
2004), informaii care ns nu sunt pe deplin edificatoare. Msurarea tradiional a
progresului educaional, cum ar fi numrul de nscrieri i cheltuielile publice, ca procent din
PIB, nu cuprinde o serie de dimensiuni, care se pot constitui n criterii importante de
benchmarking ale sistemului de nvmnt superior: numrul de studeni nou nscrii
msoar input-ul i nu dobndirea de noi competene; cheltuielile publice nu includ valorile
substaniale ale cheltuielilor private cu educaia din cele mai multe universiti, etc.;
indicatorii tradiionali, deseori, nu cuprind educaia informal sau nonformal, care are se
realizeaz la locurile de munc sau n afara sistemului formal de educaie i formare,
activiti care devin din ce n ce mai importante, etc., toate aceste aspecte fiind de cele mai
multe ori ignorate (Garlick and Pryor, 2007).
Calitatea procesului educaional nu poate fi apreciat doar pe baza unor indicatori
cantitativi cum ar fi: raportul dintre numrul de studeni i profesori, mrimea slilor de
clas, laboratoarelor, bibliotecilor etc. (Srbu et al., 2010). n acest domeniu exist o serie
de indicatori specifici, cum ar fi: competena academic i psihopedagogic a profesorilor,
capacitatea de a satisface nevoile i cererea, transferul valorilor morale ctre studeni;
AE
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egalitatea de anse n ceea ce privete accesul la educaie, nivelul satisfaciei studenilor;
responsabilitatea cultural, etic i social a universitii; condiiile de munc oferite
angajailor; cheltuielile universitii cu pregtirea personalului (personalul didactic i
didactic auxiliar), mobilitatea academic etc. (Fernndez, Fernndez and lvarez, 2007).
Acelai lucru este valabil i pentru indicatorii iniierii procesului, cum ar fi: numrul de
cri din biblioteci, numr de cadre didactice, numr de cldiri i spaii destinate
nvmntului, numr de calculatoare etc., care sunt mai prezeni n sistemele actuale de
evaluare dect cei ai finalizrii procesului (care sunt rezultatele, cum ar fi: numrul de
absolveni care lucreaz n domeniul de specializare, traiectoria studenilor n viaa lor
profesional etc.) (Lueger and Vettori, 2007). Toate aceste considerente susin ideea
regndirii sistemului de indicatori de calitate din nvmntul superior i crearea unor noi,
compleci, cu un grad de evaluare mai corect a ntregii activiti, care s se constituie,
totodat, i n criterii de benchmarking ale ntregului sistem academic.


1. Analiza literaturii de specialitate

Benchmarking, ca metod, definete att un diagnostic iniial, ct i un instrument
de management concentrat pe nvare, colaborare i leadership n vederea mbuntirii
continue a ofertei educaionale (Stevenson, Maclachlan i Karmel, 1999). Ca reacie la
limitarea resuselor, universitile ncheie parteneriate cu mediul de afaceri, care beneficiaz
de proiecte de marketing, instrumente organizaionale adecvate i alte metode i tehnici
realizate n scopul generrii de venituri (Clark, 1998).
n lucrarea lor despre benchmarking-ul n nvmntul superior economic din
Romnia, Ilie i alii (2010) arat c, pentru universiti, benchmarking-ul este un mijloc de
a-i analiza performana intern n comparaie cu alte universiti, de a identifica cele mai
performante sisteme de educaie i de a colabora cu alte universiti, pentru a nva din
experiena acestora i din msurile de mbuntire, care s-au dovedit a fi de succes.
Martin (2003) subliniaz, n lucrarea sa, c efectul de destabilizare al
transformrilor fundamentale continue din nvmntul superior creaz incapacitatea
multor instituii de a coopera n elaborarea i aplicarea planurilor strategice, precum i n
analiza i mbuntirea acestora.
Lucrarea autorilor McKinnon, Walker and Davis, (1999) prezint procesele de
benchmarking ntr-o abordare unic, pentru c pune n discuie cteva variabile precum
ciclul de via, localizarea, dimensiunea conducerii n cadrul i ntre universiti. Butcher,
Howard McMeniman i Thom (2002) subliniaz c activitile primare ale universitilor
pun pe primul plan procesele de benchmarking, cu referire n special la programele de
pregtire ale profesorilor. Majoritatea proceselor de benchmarking din istoria acestora s-au
concentrat pe date statistice i aplicarea acestora n procesele administrative, care a limitat
benchmarking-ul ntre funciile universitii(Urquhart, Ellis and Woods, 2002). Alt
abordare a benchmarking-ului din nvmntul superior se bazeaz pe utilizarea termenilor
precum colaborare, includere, reflecia, revizia, managementul i mbuntirea
programului de studiu (Butcher, Howard, McMeniman and Thom, 2002). Lucrarea
intitulat Indicatorii primari i secundari pentru evaluarea calitii (Miroiu et al., 2009)
propune elaborarea unor noi indicatori de perfoman n vederea proiectrii unui proces de
benchmarking pentru instituiile de nvmnt superior din Romnia.


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2. Metodologia cercetrii

Cercetarea asupra nvmntului superior este un domeniu centrat pe o gam
larg de arii, baza instituional fiind deseori foarte divers. Interesul n cercetarea
comparativ a nvmntului superior a crescut n ultimii ani i a fost consolidat de
comunitatea cercettorilor din nvmntul superior din Europa. Pentru c din punct de
vedere conceptual i metodologic poate fi solicitant i prolific, interesul crescut poate servi
ca un stimul pentru consolidarea unei identiti comune i creterea calitii. Totui, puine
modele de cercetare comparativ reprezint tipul ideal al unei agende de cercetare a unor
ipoteze clar definite pentru a fi testate i, chiar dac ar fi, de cele mai multe ori, studiul se
dovedete a fi prea simplu ca urmare a nelurii n considerare a complexitii contextului.
Mai curnd, cele mai multe proiecte comparative sunt exploratorii i productive n
evidenierea unor aspecte interne neateptate.
n general, obiectivul acestui studiu este elaborarea i implementarea unui model
durabil utiliznd benchmarking-ul n universitile socio-economice din Romnia. Prin
acest proiect ne dorim s dezvoltm un model ierarhic calitativ pentru universitile de
profil romneti i, n acelai timp, s promovm importana benchmarking-ului ca un
instrument util pentru compararea performanelor ntre instituii.
Considerm c studiile comparative privind nvmntul superior sunt cele mai
prolifice n distrugerea raionamentelor conceptuale bazate pe experiene limitate i o min
de aur pentru stadiile incipiente ale restructurrii conceptuale. Acestea sunt indispensabile
pentru nelegerea realitii modelate de: tendinele comune internaionale, reformele bazate
pe observare comparativ, activitile trans-naionale n cretere i de integrare
supranaional parial n nvmntul superior. Proiectele comparative pot fi considerate,
teoretic i metodologic, cele mai promitoare dac sunt bazate pe un model de cercetare
semi-structurat, n care punctele forte ale diverselor abordri conceptuale n explicarea
fenomenelor sunt analizate i n care, n mod sistematic, cercettorii se confrunt cu faptul
c proiectul ar putea genera informaii surprinztoare care s necesite restructurarea
cadrului conceptual iniial.
Metodologia cercetrii propuse de noi se bazeaz pe complementaritatea dintre
metodele cantitative i calitative, iar procesul este conceput ca avnd dou etape: prima,
concentrarea asupra Academiei de Studii Economice din Bucureti i a doua, concentrarea
asupra instituiilor de profil naionale.


3. Sistemul benchmark n nvmntul superior. Concept

Strategia Lisabona stabilit ca obiectiv strategic ca U.E. s devin, pn n 2010
cea mai competitiv i dinamic economie din lume bazat pe cunoatere, capabil de
cretere economic durabil, cu mai multe locuri de munc i cu o mai mare coeziune
social (APEC/OECD, 2005).
Concluziile de la Lisabona conin un numr de criterii de benchmarking i de linii
directoare n domeniul educaiei i al formrii profesionale, precum i n alte domenii. Prin
acestea, Comisia European a punctat faptul c indicatorii joac un rol important n
monitorizarea progresului ctre atingerea obiectivelor convenite. n plus, indicatorii
structurali au funcia suplimentar de a ajuta la identificarea statelor membre care
funcioneaz corect, fcnd astfel posibil identificarea politicilor lor de succes (European
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Commission, 2010). n acest sens, indicatorii ar putea fi utilizai ca un instrument pentru
stimularea schimbului de expertiz, sprijinind bunele practici i inspirnd noi abordri.
Benchmarkin-ul este un instrument critic pentru studierea educaiei n rndul
universitilor datorit urmtorilor factori (APEC/OECD, 2005):
permite unei universiti s beneficieze de experiena alteia;
creeaz o oportunitate pentru universiti i profesori de a mprti bunele practici i
de a nva din succesele altora;
la nivel global, sistemul de benchmarking internaional dezvolt multe oportuniti
pentru colaborare i comunicare intercultural de idei prin internet;
ofer, universitilor care nu au acces la modele n sistemul local de educaie, modele
de universiti de nalt performan, precum i de universiti care s-au perfecionat rapid;
creeaz un laborator naional (sau mondial) pentru idei i colaborri noi.
Procesul de benchmarking include, dar nu este limitat la urmtoarea succesiune de
etape (APEC/OECD, 2005):
Din partea unei universiti expert, din cadrul unui grup int, cum ar fi universitile
romneti, se ofer asisten tehnic pentru a: stabili criteriile de selecie partenerilor de
benchmarking, dezvolta protocoalele necesare i analiza rapoartele de benchmarking;
Studierea literaturii naionale (internaionale) referitoare la strategiile eficace din
universiti;
Pentru a veni n sprijinul universitilor mai puin performante, identificarea
universitilor nalt performante, cu politici educaionale promitoare, utiliznd
urmtoarele criterii principale:
- istoria naltei performane educaionale naionale/internaionale;
- set cuprinztor de standarde sau curriculum;
- metode pentru identificarea sistematic a universitilor cu performan constat
sczut;
- proceduri explicite pentru reformarea i mbuntirea celor cu performan sczut;
- furnizarea de resurse suplimentare i suport tehnic;
- pregtirea i dezvoltarea predrii;
- monitorizarea mbuntirii facultii, inclusiv disponibilitatea evalurii formative
sau echipelor de asisten/inspecie;
- conferine la care s fie invitai experi pentru a discuta constatrile benchmarking-
ului universitar i pentru a generaliza practicile superioare identificate.
Pentru lucrarea noastr propunem s ne concentrm n special pe trei dimensiuni
care au o relevan deosebit pentru sistemul de nvmnt superior: managementul
resurselor umane, managementul bugetului i informaiile. mpreun, aceste trei
dimensiuni, pot ajuta la caracterizarea unui sistem de guvernan precum i la msurarea
performanelor sale (World Bank, 2004).
Reformele recente de la nivelul universitar au determinat nevoia de mbuntire a
capacitii operaionale a universitilor, lund n considerare diversitatea finanrii pe care
universitile conteaz astzi i creterea n calitate a serviciilor educaionale de la nivel
naional. Avnd la baz preocuprile academice europene n domeniu, lucrarea de fa se
concentreaz pe cercetarea cilor de mbuntire a serviciilor educaionale de la nivel
universitar prin explorarea benchmarking-ului, ca instrument util pentru evaluarea
performanei organizaionale. Lucrarea are, prin urmare, urmtoarele obiective specifice:
Creterea gradului de contientizare i a interesului cadrelor didactice universitare
n propunerea de noi indicatori de evaluare, avnd n vedere principalele tendine ale
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politicilor educaionale europene (msura n care A.S.E. Bucureti particip la programe i
proiecte care s dezvolte formarea profesional continu). Cercetarea pe care o dezvoltm
ar trebui s acopere cteva dintre principalele domenii, i anume: Economie, Cibernetic i
Statistic, Relaii Economice Internaionale. Afaceri internaionale, Comer Internaional,
Marketing, Finane, Contabilitate, Informatic economic, Management, Calculatoare i
Tehnologia Informaiei, Drept.
Elaborarea unui sistem care s colecteze datele primare, avnd n vedere nivelul de
analiz i relevana datelor (coeren i flexibilitate). Vom lua n considerare indicatorii
primari, cu referire la datele comune tuturor instituiilor naionale de nvmnt superior,
indicatorii secundari: date care s permit compararea ntre instituii de nvmnt
superior n baza specializrii i a domeniului de studii i indicatori teriari care privesc
datele ce permit comparaii ntre programele individuale dezvoltate de diferite universiti,
avnd n vedere specializrile i domeniul de studii.
Analiza i interpretarea indicatorilor specifici: datelor de intrare, de proces, de
ieire, de rezultat. Indicatorii de intrare reflect dimensiunea resurselor instituiei (resurse
umane, logistice, financiare), indicatorii de proces reprezint mrimea proceselor
educaionale, de cercetare i administrative, sau aa numita ofert a serviciilor academice
de consiliere, indicatorii de ieire msoar rezultatele proceselor educaionale, de cercetare
i administrative (numr de diplome acordate, numr de brevete obinute sau de articole
publicate), n timp ce indicatorii de rezultat msoar impactul pe care instituiile nvmnt
superior l au n societate (efectul pe piaa resurselor umane, creterea productivitii, ca
rezultat al unei resurse umane bine pregtite ntr-un anumit domeniu).
n baza acestor obiective generale i specifice, un bun program pentru
mbuntirea calitii ntr-o universitate trebuie s fie caracterizat de (Garlick and Pryor,
2007):
o bun nelegere a ateptrilor stakeholderilor universitii n relaie cu zona
specific, direcionat ctre mbuntire i mediul n care funcioneaz;
inte, politici i proceduri accesibile i nelese de tot personalul, studeni i ali
staheholderi participani la procesul de mbuntire;
un proces flexibil, holistic pentru a permite o implicare activ a stakeholderilor
relevani;
msuri ale performanei activitii, cu mecanisme pe baz de date interne i externe,
inclusiv comparaii cu instituii non universitare care sunt consecvente n intele de
mbuntire convenite i schimbarea mediului n care activitatea trebuie s se desfoare;
o recunoatere convenit de toi stakeholderii c practica poate fi mbuntit;
leadership i angajament din partea managementului superior i alocarea resurselor
necesare sprijinirii programului de mbuntire;
dovezi ale mbuntirilor nregistrate;
nvarea care ntreine mbuntirea continu la scar mai larg.
O abordare general a unui program complet de mbuntire, care conine analiza
iniial, planificarea strategic, reflecia, aciunea i evaluarea, este prezentat n figura nr.
1. Principiile care stau la baza colaborrii (sau conectivitii), leadership i nvarea sunt
vzute ca influennd toate cele cinci etape.
Etapa 1: Revizuirea pe larg a situaiei curente i a mediului la care se raporteaz
activitatea intit - scopul acestei prime etape este identificarea factorilor interni i externi
n aciune (factori motrice i impedimente) i a modalitii n care acetia modeleaz i
influeneaz mediul universitii i zona de funcionare intit. Acest material poate include:
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Amfiteatru Economic
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politica i proceduri documentate; sondaje i anchete n rndul personalului, studenilor i
stakeholderilor, programe de recrutare a personalului, implicaii bugetare i ali factori i
influene mai largi. O analiz a acestor date poate evidenia lipsurile asupra crora
universitile trebuie s se concentreze;
Etapa 2: Planificarea strategic direcionat spre mbuntire aceast etap
este prevzut ca un proces care implic toi stakeholderii relevani (inclusiv pe cei externi
organizaiei) i presupune, ntr-o faz iniial, nelegerea i consensul asupra viziunii
inte specifice, limbaj, concepte, cultur, constrngeri, impedimente i oportunti care se
refer la perspectiva zonelor alese pentru mbuntire;
Etapa 3: Autoevaluarea i evaluarea extern, concentrate pe trei direcii diferite
mbuntirea metodologic i cea a a ghidurilor generale asociate cu asigurarea calitii la
nivel de sistem, n conformitate cu standardele de calitate de la nivel european; evaluarea
intern i extern a 20 de universiti de profil; construirea unei baze de date centrale care
s conin criterii, standarde i indicatori de performan pentru a oferi informaii despre
stadiul de dezvoltare al programului la nivel instituional. Baza de date va fi public.


Figura nr. 1: nvare pentru mbuntire efectele benchmarking-ului
Sursa: adaptare dup Garlick and Pryor, 2007

Etapa 4: Evaluarea calitii nvmntului superior socio-economic, prin
chestionarea anual a studenilor, profesorilor i a angajatorilor cu privire la calitatea
serviciilor universitii i, prin analiza datelor secundare, exprimarea opiniei experilor
despre sistemul calitii la nivel naional. n acest sens, dezvoltarea metodologic ar trebui
s conin trei pai: elaborarea celor trei tipuri de chestionare: unul pentru studeni, unul
pentru cadrele didactice i unul pentru angajatori, urmat de colectarea i prelucrarea
datelor i raportarea rezultatelor obinute.
Etapa 5: Stabilirea indicatorilor de referin, pe baza nevoilor curente de
susinere a instituiilor de nvmnt superior n dezvoltarea i implementarea unui sistem
intern eficace de asigurare a calitii. Obiectivul specific este acela de a elabora anual
indicatori, ce se vor constitui drept criterii de benchmarking, capabili s ofere comparaii
ntre universiti la nivel de specializare i instituional.
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Concluzii

n vederea realizrii acestor obiective, centrate n jurul dorinei de a oferi
rspunsuri solide i complexe, att conceptual ct i empiric, cercetarea noastr necesit
luarea n considerare a unor indicatori de performan care s furnizeze date comparative
despre performan, nregistrate de cteva instituii de nvmnt superior din Romnia
finanate de la bugetul public: creterea accesului la nvmntul superior, diminuarea ratei
de abandon, mbuntirea rezultatelor activitilor de predare i nvare, rezultatele
cercetrii i gradul de angajare a absolvenilor. Toate aceste elemente sunt asociate cu
creterea autonomiei instituionale, n termeni de o mai mare transparen i un
management mai bun a fondurilor. Aceti indicatori statistici sunt construii pentru a furniza
o privire obiectiv a performanei din instituiile de nvmnt superior finanate de la
bugetul de stat.
Prezenta lucrare reprezint doar un punct de pornire n consolidarea capacitii
instituionale care corespunde cerinelor unui serviciu academic de calitate, n conformitate
cu standardele europene, n concordan cu modelul Bologna i n strns relaie cu
acordurile din cadrul Agendei Lisabona.


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AE
Bune practici premergtoare implementrii sistemului de management de mediu
la ntreprinderile Mici i Mijlocii

Amfiteatru Economic
580

BUNE PRACTICI PREMERGTOARE IMPLEMENTRII SISTEMULUI DE
MANAGEMENT DE MEDIU LA NTREPRINDERILE MICI I MIJLOCII


Anca Atanase
1
, Ion Schileru
2
i Smaranda Vian
3

1) 2) 3)
Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia




Rezumat
Contextul economic actual i viitor oblig la ample reconsiderri n ceea ce
privete amploarea i coninutul demersurilor desfurate de organizaii, pentru a face fa
competiiei tot mai ascuite i rigorilor tot mai numeroase, ntre care problematica mediului
este mai mult dect imperioas.
Bunele practici n managementul de mediu devin tot mai necesare i, din fericire,
sunt furnizate tot mai frecvent de organizaii din categoria IMM-urilor, care gsesc soluii
de mare valoare n acest context ncrcat de constrngeri.
Lucrarea de fa aduce n prim plan o realizare exemplar a unei organizaii mici,
care a reuit s pun la punct un sistem informal de management de mediu, construit cu
mult rigoare, implicare, respect pentru societate i mediu.
Obiectivele autorilor vizeaz oferirea unor bune practici mediului de afaceri, din
sfera IMM-lor, modaliti de abordare n analiza practicilor de mediu i accentuarea
imperativelor n aceast arie de aciune, pentru organizaii.
Metoda de cercetare a cuprins consultarea unei liste de lucrri de specialitate,
studiu documentar n site-urile organizaiilor din categoria IMM-uri i ale organizaiilor de
profil, adaptarea unor modele de analiz consacrate (FMEA - Analiza modurilor de
defectare i a efectelor acestora), aplicarea particularizat a metodei asupra datelor privind
o organizaie din spaiul german.
Rezultatele demersului autorilor s-au concretizat n consideraii, deopotriv
teoretice i practice, prezumtiv utile pentru specialitii din domeniul managementului
mediului, mediului universitar i mediului de afaceri.

Cuvinte-cheie: bune practici, performan de mediu, IMM, sistem de management, calitate

Clasificare JEL: F18, L21, M14





Autor de contact, Anca Atanase - atanase@com.ase.ro



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Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011
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Introducere

n strns legtur cu existena i rostul afacerilor, o organizaie i dorete s aib
succes pe pia, dezvoltarea sa s fie durabil, iar rezultatul s implice eficien economic,
reflectat n economie de timp i costuri reduse.
n etapa actual, mediul de afaceri tinde s concentreze atenia pieei spre acele
firme care se dovedesc capabile s armonizeze cerinele de performan, mediu i sigurana
activitii cu cele impuse de propria activitate. Acest deziderat este extrem de important
pentru rile care trebuie s-i confirme statutul de parte a Uniunii Europene.
n domeniul sistemelor de management, statisticile realizate n cadrul
organismelor de certificare europene au prezentat faptul c cerinele impuse de pia s-au
concentrat pn acum asupra calitii, asupra satisfacerii ct mai complete i mai durabile a
cerinelor directe i previzionate ale clienilor, acesta fiind criteriul principal de concuren.
Realitatea economic actual impune, cu necesitate, integrarea n sistemul de management
al unei organizaii i a politicilor i obiectivelor privind protecia mediului. n acest sens
trebuie demonstrat permanent c se respect cerinele de mediu i c organizaiile se
perfecioneaz continuu. Ca urmare, prile interesate trebuie s devin tot mai contiente
de problemele impuse de protecia mediului.
n cazul stabilirii obiectivelor de mediu trebuie avut n vedere factorii majori ce
influeneaz mediul. Pe parcursul evalurii se poate stabili n cazul cror factori de mediu
este necesar elaborarea unui plan de criz i luarea unor msuri de prevenire, respectiv
care dintre acestea necesit reglementri prin dispoziii concrete.
Factorii de risc din activitatea unei firme, importani att din punct de vedere al
mediului ct i al securitii, sunt dependeni de sigurana proceselor. n management,
aceasta este n relaie de dependen fa de supravegherea, controlul influenelor de mediu,
determinarea concret a responsabilitilor. Sunt deci necesare reglementri i supravegheri
ale proceselor, iar de importan primordial sunt competenele factorilor umani, calificarea
forei de munc, att din punct de vedere profesional ct i din punct de vedere al
cunotinelor din domeniul proteciei mediului i al siguranei n exploatare. Trebuie
investit n fora de munc proporional cu riscul pe care activitatea fiecruia o are n acest
domeniu. Calificarea forei de munc trebuie s conduc la contientizarea riscurilor
nerespectrii instruciunilor, precum i a gravitii consecinelor.
Interpretarea corect a cerinelor sistemului de management de mediu,
determinarea influenelor factorilor de mediu, evaluarea efectelor i a performanei de
mediu urmresc s contribuie la garantarea fiabilitii sistemului de management.
Scopul demersului prezentat n articol este de a exemplifica i a demonstra c
identificarea i evaluarea aspectelor de mediu i a impacturilor asupra mediului, integrate
ntr-o viziune sistematic i aplicate ntregului sistem de management servesc att la
mbuntirea imaginii pe pia a organizaiei, ct i la prevenirea influenelor negative
asupra mediului.
Pregtirea organizaiilor n vederea implementrii i certificrii sistemului de
management de mediu este o sarcin complex, deoarece acestea trebuie s se conformeze
nu doar cerinelor standardului ISO 14001 ci i reglementrilor legale, n cadrul unui plan
de aciune realist.
Pentru o organizaie care i dorete s aib succes durabil pe pia, scopul nu trebuie
s fie obinerea certificatului, ci deprinderea de a-i propune obiective, pe care s le
urmreasc i ale cror rezultate s le analizeze, n vederea mbuntirii performanei proprii.

AE
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1. Aspecte eseniale privind sistemele de management de mediu eficiente

Sistemele de management militeaz pentru oameni activi i implicai, care s fac
propuneri de mbuntire i s realizeze obiectivele de mbuntire stabilite. Ca urmare,
adoptarea unui sistem de management al calitii sau al mediului trebuie s fie o decizie
strategic a managementului de la cel mai nalt nivel al unei organizaii. Acesta trebuie s
se asigure c n organizaia pe care o conduce funcioneaz o cultur organizaional.
Personalul de conducere din organizaie, aplicnd principiile de management,
monitorizeaz i analizeaz permanent procesele, identific neconformitile, analizeaz
riscurile i tendinele, propune msuri corective sau preventive, termene de ndeplinire i
asigur implementarea acestor msuri, pe de o parte, iar pe de alt parte verific eficacitatea
aciunilor ntreprinse i msoar nivelul real al obiectivelor formulate.
Aplicarea principiilor de management al calitii nu numai c furnizeaz beneficii
directe, dar aduce i o contribuie important n managementul riscurilor, eficiena
implicnd n acest sens managementul costurilor i bugetelor.
Riscurile sunt inevitabile, cu toate c sunt neintenionate i nedorite, reprezentnd
efecte i produse ale proceselor sistemului de management.
Aceste rezultate indezirabile fac obiectul procedurii referitoare la managementul
riscurilor. Riscurile referitoare la eficacitate se materializeaz sub form de: neconformiti,
respectiv impacturi asupra mediului, iar riscurile referitoare la eficien sub form de:
costuri i bugete. De aici interesul managerilor la cel mai nalt nivel ctre sistemele de
management eficiente.
Identificarea pericolelor/capcanelor ncepe cu descompunerea proceselor n
activiti care pot fi uor planificate, inute sub control, analizate, iar mbuntirea
performanelor (efectelor) se realizeaz prin mbuntirea modului de lucru; frecvent,
aceste activiti constituie sursele riscurilor.
mbuntirea eficacitii i eficienei proceselor se realizeaz aplicndu-le
metodologia P-D-C-A (ciclul lui Deming: planific-efectueaz-verific-acioneaz).
Pentru a putea realiza planuri de mbuntire, ar trebui analizate: rapoartele de
audit de prim, secund sau ter parte, rezultatele benchmarkingurilor, reclamaiile
clienilor, neconformitile produselor, n concordan cu cerinele legale sau modificrile
acestora, performanele financiare, productivitatea, funcionarea utilajelor i resursele
umane din cadrul organizaiei.
Planurile de aciuni corective i preventive cu rol de mbuntire ar trebui s
determine alocri de resurse, aplicarea principiilor i a instrumentelor de management al
calitii, analiza datelor, stabilirea prioritilor, a unor noi obiective i inte, evaluarea
continu i identificarea tendinelor, realizate continuu, intensiv sau extensiv.
Dac sunt formulate msuri de mbuntire, acestea trebuie nsoite de
responsabiliti clare, termene de implementare, astfel nct s poat fi verificate i
analizat eficacitatea acestora. Dar personalul implicat n mbuntire nu are doar
responsabiliti, ci i autoritate i resurse asociate.
Implicarea unui numr din ce n ce mai mare de angajai n identificarea-evaluarea,
prioritizarea aspectelor de mediu constituie unul dintre mijloacele prin care se poate asigura
c mbuntirea atitudinii fa de mediu devine un mod de via pentru toi.
Identificarea oportunitilor pentru mbuntirea i stabilirea de noi obiective i
soluii conduc la mbuntirea continu.
Traian Teodoru (2011b) relev urmtoarele etape ale principiului abordrii bazate
pe proces aplicat mbuntirii continue, specific tuturor sistemelor de management (ale
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cror caracteristici sunt prezentate n tabelul nr. 1: analiza problemelor, riscurilor i
tendinelor, selectarea zonei de mbuntire i motivarea acesteia, stabilirea condiiilor care
definesc situaia concret, evaluarea eficacitii i eficienei proceselor existente; analiza
proceselor, identificarea cauzelor neconformitilor, utiliznd de exemplu diagramele
Ishikawa i Pareto; identificarea soluiilor de rezolvare dintre care se selecteaz soluia
potrivit i evaluarea efectelor aplicrii soluiei selectate; implementarea i standardizarea
soluiei potrivite, care d rezultatele scontate; evaluarea eficacitii i eficienei aplicrii
proiectului de mbuntire, n vederea extinderii eventuale a acestuia i la alte procese din
organizaie.
Tabel nr. 1: Caracteristici ale sistemelor de management
Sistem de management al calitii de mediu informal
Produs
ncrederea
c va fi
continuu
- Realizat continuu performana
(modul de lucru stabilit = procesele
planificate) referitoare
la calitate, mediu (eficacitatea)
- mbuntite, cu scopul de a crete
satisfacia prilor interesate,
performanele
- Realizate beneficiile
economice, financiare
(eficiena)
Riscuri
privind
calitatea mediul afacerea
Metoda
pentru
Realizare
produs
Stabilire i implementare/ realizare politici/ obiective referitoare la
produse, integrate cu cele ale afacerii
Management riscuri
mbuntire
produs
mbuntirea proceselor, aplicnd
metodologia PDCA
Valorificarea metodelor
manageriale
Standarde

Referine Cerine ndrumri
SR EN ISO
9001:2008
SR EN ISO
14001:2005
SR EN ISO 9004:2010
SR ISO 10014:2007
ndrumare SR EN ISO
9000:2006;
10013:2007
SR EN ISO
14004:2010,
14031:2001
Specificaiile
metodelor manageriale
(Management)
Riscuri
SR EN ISO 19011:2003
Procedura
Identificare,
inere sub
control i
prevenire
neconformiti
Procedura
Identificare i
evaluare aspecte
de mediu
(impacturi
asupra mediului)
Chestionare de
autoevaluare
nivel de maturitate
implementare
principii de baz
management/
elemente cheie
succes durabil
SR ISO 31000:2010 Managementul riscului. Principii i definiii
Sursa: adaptare dup Teodoru, 2011b, p. 81

Succesul durabil se bazeaz pe studierea mediului de afaceri, iar asigurarea
adaptrii continue la acesta face obiectul politicii sistemelor de management integrat.
Demersurile recomandate pentru a avea succes durabil le sintetizm astfel:
asigurarea unei perspective de planificare pe termen lung;
monitorizarea constant i analiza periodic a mediului de afaceri;
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identificarea tuturor prilor interesate relevante, evaluarea impacturilor lor
poteniale asupra performanelor afacerii i stabilirea modului n care s se ndeplineasc n
mod echilibrat necesitile i ateptrile astfel identificate i clasificate;
implicarea constant a prilor interesate i inerea lor la curent cu activitile i
planurile proprii;
stabilirea unor relaii reciproc avantajoase cu furnizorii, cu partenerii i alte pri
interesate;
punerea de acord n mod echilibrat a necesitilor i ateptrilor prilor interesate;
identificarea riscurilor asociate pe termen scurt/ lung i desfurarea unei strategii
globale pentru a asigura atenuarea lor;
anticiparea viitoarelor necesiti de resurse (inclusiv de competen pentru personal);
stabilirea proceselor adecvate pentru realizarea strategiei afacerii, asigurndu-ne c
acestea sunt capabile s rspund prompt la circumstanele n schimbare;
evaluarea periodic a conformitii cu planurile i procedurile curente;
ntreprinderea de aciuni preventive/ corective potrivite;
asigurarea faptului c oamenii de afaceri au oportuniti de nvare pentru propriul
beneficiu, precum i pentru meninerea vitalitii afacerii;
stabilirea i meninerea proceselor pentru inovare i mbuntire continu.


2. Studiu de caz: compania Clemens Hrle din Leutkirch Germania

Am ales acest studiu de caz pentru rigoarea i logica demersurilor pe care le
susine, iar etapele parcurse sunt de un real folos pentru cei care urmresc s-i stabileasc
i certifice sistemele de management de mediu, prin EMAS (Sistemul comunitar de
management de mediu i audit) sau ISO 14001.
Compania Clemens Hrle, din Leutkirch a obinut n 2010 premiul pentru mediu al
landului Baden-Wrttemberg din Germania.


2.1 Profilul companiei Hrle

n compania Clemens Hrle se produce bere, de peste 40 de ani. Numeroii
productori locali sunt ntr-o competiie acerb, ca urmare calitatea berii trebuie s fie
ireproabil.
Productorii respect standarde i norme stricte de calitate pentru alimente, care se
aplic i fabricilor de bere bavareze. Materiile prime, malul i orzul, sunt achiziionate
numai de la ferme controlate de dou instituii independente.
Cei aproximativ 30 de angajai ai companiei Clemens Hrle, cuprini ntr-o
organigram flexibil, lucreaz deopotriv n producie, dar sunt implicai i n vnzri.


2.2 Preocuprile companiei pentru protecia mediului

Conducerea o deine familia Hrle, care de peste 20 de ani dovedete un interes
constant pentru calitate i mediu.
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Este notoriu angajamentul managementului pentru protecia mediului. O misiune
declarat comunic trsturile fundamentale ale viziunii i elurilor echipei. Esena valorilor
afirmate determin scopurile i responsabilitile echipei. Cnd valorile i scopurile sunt
nrdcinate n cultura echipei, misiunea acesteia nu face altceva dect s le descrie, astfel
ca prile implicate i cele interesate s fie dispuse s acioneze, avnd o nelegere clar a
contextului de desfurare a evenimentelor. Principiile genereaz atitudini corecte i
necesare unei eficiene crescute, dicteaz modul de a aciona.
Un scop declarat i urmrit constant al companiei este s realizeze o mbuntire
continu a mediului.
Proprietarii au dorit s-i evalueze ei nii, mai nti, nivelul la care se situeaz i
de aceea au realizat anual rapoarte de mediu detaliate i studii de bilan de mediu. Fiind o
afacere privat, de familie, i-au dorit un sistem mai puin formal, mai puin birocratic, mai
puin consumator de timp, ct i mai puin costisitor. Pentru nceput au alocat aproximativ
4% din cifra de afaceri pentru evaluarea performanei de mediu (echivalentul a 30.000 euro,
n anul 1995).
Compania i-a propus ca obiectiv reducerea consumului de resurse i a luat n
acest sens numeroase msuri: un nou sistem de fierbere a mustului n fabric a redus
consumul de combustibil pentru nclzire cu 25 %, un sistem de recuperare a cldurii
realizeaz anual economii de aproximativ 45.000 litri de combustibil de nclzire,
optimizarea proceselor a nlturat vrfurile de consum la electricitate, iar consumul de ap a
fost redus cu aproape 50% n ultimii 20 de ani. Deeurile organice rezultate din procesele
de producie sunt reutilizate n agricultur.
Infrastructura suport const n utiliti pentru furnizarea de energie electric i ap,
tratarea apelor uzate i returnare n emisar, precum i mijloace pentru mentenana
echipamentelor tehnice i a vehiculelor.
Produsele finite sunt depozitate la fabric pn cnd compania le transport la
clieni utiliznd propriile vehicule. Toate vehiculele utilizeaz motorin organic, rafinat
din ulei de rapi.
Problemele de poluare sonor au fost tratate prin msuri de reducere a zgomotului.
Toate aceste msuri au fost nsoite de supravegheri independente, pentru a garanta c
nivelurile de zgomot pe proprietile vecine sunt considerabil mai sczute dect limitele
legale de emisie pentru zgomot.
Preocuprile pentru protecia mediului au rolul de a promova compania, periodic
aprnd articole n media referitor la acestea.
Este remarcabil atitudinea ntregii echipe privind comunicarea transparent a
propriilor realizri pe linie de mediu ctre organele specializate de control i organele
administraiei publice locale.


2.3 Determinarea obiectivelor de mediu

Studiul de bilan de mediu la Fabrica de bere Hrle implic nregistrarea intern
anual a tuturor intrrilor i ieirilor fluxurilor de materiale i energie ale companiei.
Fluxul intrrilor include: materiile prime, materiale auxiliare, ambalaje (cu
evidenierea acelor materiale i ambalaje cu impact semnificativ pentru mediu), materiale
de birotic i publicitate, echipamente, ap i energie, iar fluxul ieirilor include: apa uzat,
emisii n aer, produse i deeuri dup producie, semifabricate, energie consumat. Acestea
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sunt nregistrate sistematic, dup un calendar riguros, pentru ntreaga companie, fiind datele
de baz pentru susinerea indicatorilor n scopul evalurii performanei de mediu.
Au fost identificate urmtoarele aspecte semnificative de mediu: consumul de ap
i energie, emisii n aer, eflueni de ape uzate i deeuri solide, posibile scurgeri de ageni
chimici din sistemul de rcire, utilizarea agenilor de curire i a dezinfectanilor,
puritatea/calitatea apei i a materiilor prime.
Consumul de ap i de energie conteaz ntr-o mare msur pentru costurile de
producie i de aceea sunt analizate cu precizie din considerente economice.
Monitorizarea sistemului de rcire, ca i utilizarea agenilor de curare i a
dezinfectanilor sunt legate de siguran. Sntatea consumatorilor trebuie s fie
garantat prin monitorizri regulate pentru a da sigurana c apa i materiile prime
ndeplinesc reglementrile pentru sigurana alimentelor.
Pentru a putea formula obiective de mediu, este deci necesar s identificm
aspectele de mediu semnificative i s evalum impacturile asupra mediului, generate de
acestea, n fapt s evalum riscurile cu care se confrunt compania, n domeniul mediului.
n urma analizei datelor, la Hrle au fost identificate trei zone de aciune, care
genereaz obiective de mediu:
conservarea energiei electrice i a cldurii;
orientarea ctre surse de energie mai prietenoase cu mediul;
utilizarea unor ageni de curare i dezinfectani profesionali.
Ierarhia acestor obiective ilustreaz un nivel nalt al realizrilor managementului
de mediu i un accent pe arii de importan viitoare acut.


2.4 Criterii asumate

Urmtoarele tabele ilustreaz modul n care au fost administrate la Hrle cele mai
importante aspecte de mediu.
Deoarece managementului la cel mai nalt nivel i aparine decizia strategic de a
implementa un sistem de management de mediu, asumarea criteriilor pentru performana de
mediu (prezentate n tabelul nr. 2) sunt de importan major.

Tabel nr. 2: Criterii pentru performana de mediu, asumate de ctre
management
Criterii pentru performana de
mediu
Punctul de vedere al managementului
Cerine legale i alte cerine Legi relevante ale landului referitoare la protecia fa de
emisii, ghiduri tehnice pentru zgomot, ghiduri tehnice despre
reglementri referitoare la aer i substane periculoase
Conformarea cu cerinele legale este evaluat regulat.
Performana trecut i prezent Date credibile sunt disponibile la Hrle, de cnd consumurile
de ap i de energie au fost sistematic nregistrate, adic din
anul 1995
Standarde i bune practici de
management
Chiar dac certificarea sistemului de management de mediu
prin EMAS sau ISO 14001 nu constituie un obiectiv, cerinele
acestora sunt documentate intern n raportul de mediu.
Date referitoare la performan, de
la asociaii industriale
Compararea cu alte fabrici de bere este o unealt
meteugreasc" tradiional n sectorul fabricrii berii
Cercetri tiinifice Rezultatele cercetrii, n msura n care sunt relevante pentru
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micile fabrici de bere, sunt utilizate pentru a stabili obiectivele
companiei (exemplu: Ghidul fabricrii de bere, emis de
Ministerul Mediului)
Sursa: Deutsches Institut fr Normung (DIN), 2005, p. 13

Evaluarea factorilor de mediu, mai ales n cazurile care implic activiti complexe
n ceea ce privete efectele asupra mediului, presupune munc n echip.
Deoarece succesul durabil presupune identificarea tuturor prilor interesate
relevante, implicarea constant a prilor interesate i inerea lor la curent cu activitile i
planurile proprii, comentariile acestora referitoare la preocuprile companiei Hrle
(prezentate n tabelul nr. 3) sunt deosebit de utile.

Tabel nr. 3: Comentariile prilor interesate referitoare la preocuprile companiei
pentru mediu
Parte interesat Comentariu
Reprezentanii managementului,
angajai
Strategia companiei variaz ntre
contientizarea problematicii de mediu i protecia mediului
prin angajamentul personal al directorului executiv.
Aa cum se ntmpl n cazul ntreprinderilor mici,
comunicarea informal este preferat fa de regulile oficiale
n cazul sugestiilor angajailor.
ntlniri speciale cu subiecte relevante despre mediu sunt
inute cu maistrul berar i eful aprovizionrii.
Clieni Interesele i preocuprile clienilor referitoare la mediu au
fost identificate prin supravegheri orientate, aleatoare ale
persoanelor fizice.
Furnizori Au loc discuii cu furnizorii i se stabilesc ghiduri pentru
aprovizionare (calitatea i sursa materiilor prime, ambalajele
care vor fi folosite).
Bnci, companii de asigurri Construirea ncrederii prin raportul de mediu.
Organisme de control i legislative Se menine un contact regulat cu autoritile.
Comunitatea local Se menine un contact regulat cu cei responsabili.
Media (i publicitate) Creterea interesului opiniei publice fa de publicarea
unor informri referitoare la activitile de mediu, acordarea
de interviuri, difuzarea unor rapoarte i date despre companie
n ziare regionale, agenii naionale de tiri i reviste
specializate n sectorul industrial i al activitilor de mediu.
Institute de cercetare Participarea activ n proiecte de cercetare.
Grupuri de mediu i alte organizaii Contactul i schimbul de informaii cu organizaiile de mediu
i efectuarea unor activiti de interes comun.
Sursa: Deutsches Institut fr Normung (DIN), 2005, p. 14


2.5 Selectarea indicatorilor pentru evaluarea performanei de mediu a companiei

Raportul de mediu al companiei descrie explicit obiectivele performanei de mediu
la Hrle. Majoritatea obiectivelor de mediu sunt orientate spre msuri tehnice i
organizatorice. Acolo unde este posibil, obiectivele sunt exprimate cantitativ.
Obiectivele referitoare la energie sunt: obiective calitative (organizaionale/
tehnice): planificarea i programarea investiiei ntr-o central combinat electric i
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termic i obiective cantitative (procese operaionale): mbuntirea eficienei electrice n
ntreaga companie cu cel puin 1 kWh per hectolitru de bere produs n urmtorii trei ani.
Indicatorii de performan operaional (IPO) derivai din controlul produciei (de
exemplu consumul de ap i de energie) i din studiul de bilan de mediu au fost selectai i
utilizai direct pentru a verifica progresul ctre obiectivele stabilite.
Urmtorii IPO referitori la aspectele de mediu semnificative, exprimai n valori
absolute, au fost comparai pentru performana de mediu din ultimii 10 ani:
electricitatea utilizat, n kilowatt or per an;
motorin utilizat, n litri per an;
combustibil de nclzire consumat, n litri per an;
ap consumat, n metri cubi per an.
Valorile absolute au fost apoi legate de numrul de hectolitri de bere produs.
Astfel a rezultat un set adiional de indicatori legai de IPO care au fost de asemenea
comparai pe o perioad de 10 ani. Prin realizarea acestei comparri i prin utilizarea unei
reprezentri grafice, modificrile n valori absolute sunt mai uor de neles.
Cteva exemple de astfel de indicatori referitori la IPO sunt:
litri de combustibil de nclzire consumat per hectolitru de bere produs;
kilowai-or de electricitate utilizat per hectolitru de bere produs;
megajoules de gaz natural consumat per hectolitru de bere produs;
litri de motorin consumat per hectolitru de bere total i alte buturi;
total ap consumat n litri per hectolitru de bere produs;
ap potabil utilizat la fabricare, n litri per hectolitru de bere produs;
apa nepotabil utilizat pentru curare, n litri per hectolitru de bere produs;
hectolitri de bere produs per metru cub de ap (pentru a msura eficiena utilizrii
apei).


2.6 Analiza datelor

Studiile de bilan de materiale i energie au necesitat cteva luni de munc,
utiliznd att consultani externi ct i personal propriu.
nainte de studiul de bilan de mediu, datele despre emisii, deeuri de materiale i
despre pierderile de cldur nu erau suficient de relevante. Existau puine date calitative
despre compoziia chimic i impactul asupra mediului ale materialelor utilizate.
Informaiile lips au fost colectate din surse externe, n special de la furnizori.
O caracteristic neobinuit a colectrii datelor la Hrle este c datele despre
volumele intrrilor i ieirilor sunt luate nu numai pentru procesul integral de fabricare al
berii, ci i pentru fiecare proces n parte. Aceasta nseamn c este posibil s se identifice
nu numai ce cantitate a fost utilizat dintr-un anume material, ci i ct, cnd i unde au fost
aceste substane utilizate sau fabricate.
Investigaiile detaliate pentru indicatorii de proces relevani implic foarte mult
munc, acetia fiind foarte interesani pentru o evaluare detaliat a performanei
operaionale i de aceea se va continua s se colecteze datele cel puin pentru consumul de
ap i de electricitate pentru fiecare proces.
Teoretic ar fi posibil s se utilizeze datele nregistrate i msurate automat din
sistemul de neutralizare pentru a identifica exact volumul de ap uzat. Aceasta cere mai
puin munc i este mai practic s utilizeze o calculare difereniat (adic apa utilizat
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minus apa utilizat n fabricaie, acolo unde sursele de eroare cum sunt apele pluviale sunt
luate n considerare).
Timpul necesar pentru nregistrarea datelor poate fi redus prin utilizarea listelor de
verificare care conin sistematizarea surselor datelor, inclusiv locaia i mediul de pstrare.
Analiza datelor referitoare la volume i cantiti a artat diferene, deoarece
acestea au fost colectate n mod diferit. De exemplu: unele cantiti au fost msurate (apa i
electricitatea), alte cantiti au fost cunoscute exact (de exemplu din facturi i reete), iar
alte volume i cantiti au fost calculate (de exemplu emisiile calculate din consumul de
combustibil); n schimb, unele volume i cantiti au fost estimate pe baz de experien,
pentru procesele care nu au fost incluse n sistemul de colectare a datelor (de exemplu
consumul de adeziv pentru etichete).
Evaluarea informaiilor a relevat creterea constant a consumului de energie
electric i a faptului c este considerabil mai mare dect n companii comparabile, acest
fapt fiind cauzat de modul de utilizare a utilajelor.
S-a determinat c, trecnd de la nclzirea cu combustibil lichid la cea cu gaze
naturale, emisiile de dioxid de carbon, oxid de azot i dioxid de sulf ar putea fi reduse
considerabil.
Prin analiza informaiilor din bilanul de mediu, referitoare la procesele relevante,
a fost posibil s se obin o privire de ansamblu asupra zonelor n care sunt utilizate
cantiti semnificative de ageni de curare.
Rezultatele evalurii au fost utilizate de ctre compania Hrle n relaiile publice.
De exemplu, a fost inut o conferin de pres care a fost preluat n ziarele regionale i
naionale, precum i la radio.
Raportul de mediu a fost distribuit clienilor int, vizitatorilor, autoritilor,
formatorilor de opinie i consumatorilor interesai. Rezultatele au fost de asemenea
publicate n jurnalele consumatorilor i n cele de mediu.


Concluzii i propuneri

Actuala conjunctur economic repoziioneaz abordrile companiilor de la
extensiv ctre intensiv. Companiile mici IMM-le sunt n situaia de a cuta formule de
nalt rigoare, laborios gndite, capabile s asigure maxim coeren aciunilor n domeniul
managementului mediului, formule care s fie totodat necostisitoare i ct se poate de
simple, astfel nct raportul efecte/costuri s fie maxim.
Spre deosebire de organizaiile din sectorul public i chiar de ctre multinaionale,
care dispun de mijloace nsemnate, distribuite prin bugete orientate, IMM-urile au de regul
mijloace limitate, succesul aciunilor lor trebuind construit pe principii de management cu
resurse puine, chibzuin i atenie la orizonturi largi.
Sunt solicitate analize ale tendinelor, analize de cost i mbuntiri intensive,
ceea ce implic o mai bun planificare i gestionare a resurselor implicate, maxim
concentrare, judecat neleapt i strategie.
Ca o ncununare a tuturor preocuprilor i eforturilor sale, imaginea companiei
Hrle a fost mbuntit prin ctigarea premiului de excelen n mediu, acordat de
Ministerul Mediului din Germania, pentru anul 2010.
Demersul companiei a constituit o nou abordare pentru optimizarea proceselor, n
special referitor la utilizarea apei, energiei i transportului, i a ajutat i la identificarea
ctorva msuri de mbuntire, privind managementul deeurilor.
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Bune practici premergtoare implementrii sistemului de management de mediu
la ntreprinderile Mici i Mijlocii

Amfiteatru Economic
590
Potenialele reduceri de costuri identificate, n cazul apei i energiei, precum i
pentru unele materii prime, materiale auxiliare i operaionale, au artat c este posibil ca i
indicatorii evalurii performanei de mediu s fie legai de costuri, ceea ce sugereaz
necesitatea extinderii gestiunii sistematice a costurilor i asupra costurilor de mediu.
Exemplul companiei germane poate aduce avantaje i altor companii i de aceea
mediatizarea pe care au dorit-o nu le aduce doar beneficii proprii, ci ofer o formul de
speran i altor antreprenori.
Din studiul realizat asupra Companiei Hrle am constat c aceasta nu a folosit o
metod consacrat pentru a stabili i prioritiza obiective de mediu, respectiv FMEA (Failure
Mode and Effects Analysis - Analiza modurilor de defectare i a efectelor acestora).
Importana i eficacitatea acestei metode este subliniat de autori precum Teodoru (2011a),
care a schiat un formular operabil n astfel de situaii, Stamatis (2003), care propune
formule de aplicare a acesteia n practic, Omdahl (1988) fiind cel care preciza c FMEA
este o tehnic utilizat pentru a identifica, prioritiza i elimina posibilele deficiene din
sistem, nainte de a duna beneficiarilor.
Fiind un instrument al managementului riscului destinat proiectrii produselor sau
proceselor, autorii articolului consider c metoda FMEA poate fi aplicat cu succes pentru
a selecta prioritile i a identifica obiectivele, elabornd un formular de tipul tabelului nr. 4
(Anexa 1)
La aplicarea acestei metode trebuie s se in seama de regimul de lucru: normal,
anormal i de urgen i de aprecierea criteriilor de evaluare a impacturilor utiliznd o scal
ordinal. Noi am optat pentru urmtoarele ipoteze: regim de lucru normal, trei niveluri ale
criteriilor de evaluare a impactului (extindere, gravitate, frecven), scala cu trei trepte
pentru fiecare criteriu. S-au stabilit empiric punctaje pentru fiecare dintre acestea, astfel:
pentru criteriul extindere (punctual = 1, local = 3, general = 5); pentru criteriul gravitate
(mic = 1, moderat = 3, major = 5); pentru criteriul frecven sau probabilitate de apariie
(redus = 1, medie = 3, mare = 5). Scorul (produsul celor trei valori) constituie indicatorul
de considerare a aciunii urmrite ca fiind n situaia de a constitui un obiectiv de mediu
(valoare peste 27) sau doar un aspect de monitorizat prin control operaional (ntre 9 i 27)
sau, respectiv, de rutin (sub 9). Pentru alt regim de lucru ales, valorile indicatorului
variaz.


Bibliografie
Deutsches Institut fr Normung, 2005. SR EN ISO 14032:2005, Environmental
management - Exemples of environmental performance evaluation. Berlin: Deutsches
Institut fr Normung (DIN).
Dinu, V., 2011. Corporate social responsibility opportunity for reconciliation between
economical interests and social and environmental interests. Amfiteatru Economic, XIII
(29), pp. 6-7.
Hrle, 2010. Environmental Commitment. [online] (Actualizat 30 aprilie 2010) Disponibil
la: <http://www.haerle.de/aktuelles.45.html> [Accesat 4 august 2011].
Kmenta, S., 2002. Scenario-based FMEA Using Expected Cost, A New Perspective on
Evaluating Risk in FMEA. [online] Disponibil la:
<http://www.fmeainfocentre.com/presentations/SFMEA-IIE.pdf> [Accesat 15 iulie
2011].
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Obrad, C., Petcu, D., Gherhe, V. i Suciu, S., 2011. Corporate Social Responsibility in
Romanian Companies - between Perceptions and Reality. Amfiteatru Economic, XIII
(29), pp. 43-55.
Olaru, M., Stoleriu, G. i andru, I.M.D., 2011. Social Responsibility Concerns of SMEs in
Romania, from the Perspective of the Requirements of the EFQM European Excellence
Model. Amfiteatru Economic, XIII (29), pp. 56-71.
Omdahl, T. P., 1988, Reliability, availability and maintainability dictionary. Milwaukee:
ASQC, Quality Press.
Schileru, I. i Atanase, A., 2007. Requirements of environmental management for the
goods of future decades, Amfiteatru Economic, [online] Disponibil la:
<http://www.amfiteatrueconomic.ro/RevistaDetalii_EN.aspx?Cod=37> [Accesat 24
iulie 2011].
Stamatis, D. H., 2003. Failure mode and effect analysis: FMEA from theory to execution.
Second Edition, revised and expanded. Milwaukee: American Society for Quality,
Quality Press.
erban, V. i Kaufmann, M., 2011. Corporate Social Responsibility: The Challenge for
Medium Sized Enterprises in the Bamberg-Forcheim Region, Germany. Amfiteatru
Economic, XIII (29), pp. 180-194.
Teodoru, T., 2011a. Quality and Management. Bucharest: Conteca.
Teodoru, T., 2011b. Management systems: from certificates to profit. Bucharest: Conteca.

























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Amfiteatru Economic
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Anexa 1

Tabel nr. 4: Formular pentru evaluarea riscurilor la Fabrica Hrle
N
r
.

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.

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Aspect de
mediu
AM
(Cauz)
Impact
asupra
mediului
(Efect)
Criterii
de
evaluare
impact
S
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S

=

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x

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x

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1
Activiti de
ntreinere i
curenie
echipamente
i sediu
Eliminare ape
menajere, cu
detergeni, n
reeaua de
canalizare
Utilizarea
reelei de
canalizare
3 3 3 27 SFM X Aprovizionare
detergeni cu
spumare
redus
biodegradabili



2

Splare
maini de
transport
Scurgerea
soluiilor de
splare a
prafului i a
impuritilor n
canalizarea
pluvial
Prezena
soluiilor de
splare, praf
i alte
impuriti n
canalizarea
pluvial
3 1 3 9 SF X Se recomand
splarea
mainilor la
uniti
specializate

3 Iluminat
intern
extern
Consum energie
electric
Utilizarea
resurselor
naturale
3 3 5 45 SFM X Utilizare
becuri
economice,
orientarea
ctre surse de
energie mai
prietenoase cu
mediul
4 Ambalaje
plastic,
sticl
Necesitatea
depozitrii
controlate, pe
sortimente
Necesitatea
eliminrii
deeurilor de
la sursa
productoare
1 1 1 1 NSF X Existen
spaiu i
condiii de
depozitare
Sursa: adaptare dup o idee a lui Teodoru, 2011a, p. 44
Interferene economice: Calitate - Tehnologii Informaionale - Consumator AE

Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011


593

INCERTITUDINEA CU PRIVIRE LA CALITATE CA BARIER N CALEA
DEZVOLTRII SERVICIILOR PENTRU NTREPRINDERI


Laureniu Tchiciu
1
, Vasile Dinu
2
i Iacob Kerbalek
3



1) 2) 3)
Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia



Rezumat
Serviciile pentru ntreprinderi, inovatoare i foarte performante, au devenit factori
importani ai competitivitii n economiile moderne, dar contribuia lor potenial este supus
unor restricii severe datorate disfunciilor pieei, acest lucru fiind raportat de companii n
timpul studiilor anterioare. Exist, de asemenea, lipsa unor politici corespunztoare, explicat
parial prin slaba fundamentare i difuzare n rndul factorilor de decizie a cunotinelor cu
privire la servicii. Dup ce s-a constatat c incertitudinea calitii limiteaz dimensiunea pieei
i accesul noilor societi i IMM-urilor la servicii comerciale de valoare, autorii fac o revizuire
a modelelor conceptuale de evaluare a calitii serviciilor existente; discut implicaiile
asimetriei informaionale i exploreaz mpreun cu prestatorii de servicii selectai situaia din
anumite industrii, precum i soluii pentru depirea actualelor neajunsuri.
Cuvinte-cheie: calitatea serviciilor, servicii pentru ntreprinderi, asimetrie informaional,
servicii pentru ntreprinderi bazate pe utilizarea intensiv a cunoaterii

Clasificare JEL: L84


Introducere

Pe msur ce serviciile au devenit dominante n economiile moderne, se manifest tot
mai mult ngrijorare n rndul economitilor i a analitilor cu privire la particularitile
tranzaciilor cu servicii i a pieelor serviciilor. Sunt nc multe de fcut n vederea reformrii

Autor de contact, Laureniu Tchiciu - laurentiu.tachiciu@gmail.com


*)
Aceast lucrare a fcut iniial obiectul unei comunicri la cea de a 20-a conferin internaional
RESER, The Resilience of the Global Service Economy, 30 septembrie -2 octombrie, Goteborg, Suedia.
AE
Incertitudinea cu privire la calitate ca barier n calea dezvoltrii serviciilor pentru
ntreprinderi


Amfiteatru Economic

594
teoriilor economice tradiionale i a practicilor de afaceri, create pentru o economie bazat pe
producia de bunuri materiale cu scopul de a rspunde la structurile economice n schimbare
(Tchiciu, Popescu, 2007). Evaluarea calitii serviciilor pare a fi unul dintre subiectele cele
mai provocatoare pentru literatura tiinific i a beneficiat de un numr mare de contribuii. Cu
toate acestea, literatura de specialitate abund de controverse, studii care invalideaz ipoteze
anterioare, avertismente cu privire la omisiuni i ncearc s ofere constructe mbuntite sau
alternative. Datorit eterogenitii serviciilor, un important efort de cercetare este dedicat
conceptualizrii i evalurii calitii n industrii de servicii specifice i categorii de industrii de
servicii, oferind, n multe cazuri, perspective utile pentru operatorii de pe pia. Atunci cnd
revizuim literatura de specialitate o serie de caracteristici sunt evidente: (1) majoritatea
cercetrilor se concentreaz pe serviciile ndreptate ctre consumator, n timp ce serviciile
pentru ntreprinderi sunt trecute cu vederea, ca s nu spunem evitate; (2) cele mai multe
cercetri vizeaz mputernicirea furnizorului de servicii n gestionarea problemelor de calitate,
prin urmare, accentul este pus pe factorii psihologici i de comportament care ajut companiile
de servicii pentru a atrage i menine clientela, n timp ce valoarea serviciului pentru client este
doar superficial considerat sau este ignorat (Gyuimothy, 2000); (3) majoritatea constructelor
referitoare la calitatea serviciilor nu reuesc s ia n considerare implicaiile asimetriei
informaionale, n ciuda faptului c muli cercettori au investigat calitatea relaiilor dintre
furnizorul de servicii i client, ca urmare a co-proiectrii i co-produciei, elemente specifice
serviciilor datorit inseparabilitii i simultaneitii acestora.
Noi suntem de prere c ar trebui fcute mai multe eforturi pentru a analiza problema
calitii serviciilor pentru ntreprinderi i pentru proiectarea, n cele din urm, a unui cadru
instrumental pentru evaluarea calitii acestora, care s contribuie la mbuntirea
funcionalitii pieei. Diverse industrii depind de consumul intermediar de servicii i ridic
probleme n special cu privire la deficitele structurale ale industriilor care n mod obinuit
recurg n mare msur de servicii bazate pe cunotine din surse externe (Pender; Kaniovski,
Dachs, 2000). Autorii insist n studiul de fundamentare elaborat pentru Raportul din anul 2000
privind competitivitatea European asupra necesitii de a depi problema informaiei
asimetrice, prin aranjamente instituionale specifice, menite s atenueze efectele economice ale
calitii incerte a serviciilor i printr-un cadru n care rspunsul creativ al clienilor s fie
ncurajat. n acelai spirit, Peter Wood analizeaz aa-numitul Paradox al Londrei, sugernd
c inovarea ce nu are la baz tiina sau tehnologia ci se bazeaz pe servicii externe axate pe
cunotine de afaceri, a avut un impact mult mai mare asupra succesului firmelor cu sediul n
Londra, dect n cazul altor locaii urbane importante din Marea Britanie (Wood, 2007).
Aceasta ridic din nou problema beneficiilor inegale aduse de serviciile pentru ntreprinderi din
perspectiva clientului. Comunicarea Comisiei Europene privind serviciile pentru ntreprinderi
(COM(2003) 747 final) recunoate faptul c exist n continuare deficiene grave n
nelegerea de ctre noi a structurii sectorului de servicii i a factorilor care influeneaz
creterea ntreprinderilor. n opinia comisiei un motiv important pentru o asemenea situaie
este faptul c serviciile sunt dificil de definit i sunt, astfel, dificil de msurat i putem aduga
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faptul c o problem evident este legat de evaluarea calitii serviciilor n timpul tranzaciilor
cu servicii. Acest lucru este n special cazul serviciilor pentru ntreprinderi bazate pe utilizarea
intensiv a cunoaterii. Leung a remarcat: abordri din ce n ce mai analitice sunt n curs de
dezvoltare, astfel nct cunotinele s poat fi incluse mai direct n factorii de producie. Cu
toate acestea, integrarea cunotinelor n factorii de producie economici standard nu este o
sarcin uoar, deoarece acest factor sfideaz unele principii economice fundamentale, cum ar
fi cazul conceptului de resurse limitate. Cunotinele i informaiile tind s fie resurse
abundente; deficitar este capacitatea de a le utiliza ntre-un mod corespunztor. Totodat,
cunotinele nu pot fi transformate cu uurin n obiecte standard ale tranzaciilor comerciale.
[6] n urma unei cercetri exploratorii pe care am realizat-o anul trecut (2009) n rndul
clienilor serviciilor de afaceri am constatat o nemulumire general generat, n primul rnd, de
imposibilitatea clientului de a ti n avans ce servicii va primi i de a compara ofertele
disponibile pe pia, n al doilea rnd, de percepia unei caliti slabe a serviciilor i, n al treilea
rnd, de tarife excesive n raport cu valoarea perceput a serviciilor (Tchiciu; Dinu, Kerbalek,
2009). Toate acestea trimit ctre bine cunoscuta asimetrie informaional specific n relaiile de
furnizare a serviciilor i ctre neputina de a msura n mod satisfctor calitatea serviciilor.


1. Limitele evalurii calitii serviciilor de afaceri

n domeniul evalurii calitii serviciilor, coexistena mai multor paradigme poate fi
identificat cu uurin. O paradigm este un construct de orice fel care se bucur de adeziunea
unui numr semnificativ de cercettori. Expresia construct teoretic ar putea nsemna conceptul,
modelul, teoria, sau orice alt tip de intelectualizare a unui obiect sau a unei noiuni (Verstraete;
Fayolle, 2005). O paradigm poate suferi transformri i poate fi nlocuit cu o alta, tranziia
succesiv de la o paradigm la alta prin revoluie este tiparul obinuit de dezvoltare a tiinei
mature, cum a spus Kuhn. Atta timp ct dezbaterea tiinific urmeaz mai multe modele
conceptuale, calitatea serviciilor nu urmeaz modelul unei tiine mature, ci pe acela al unei
tiine aflat ntr-un continuu proces de clarificare. Lucrnd pe linia paradigmelor n vigoare
reprezint o ncercare de a fora natura ntr-o caset prefabricat i relativ inflexibil pe care
paradigma o furnizeaz. Nici o parte a scopului tiinei normale nu este de a apela la noi tipuri
de fenomene; ntr-adevr, fenomenele care nu-i gsesc loc n caset, sunt adesea trecute cu
vederea.(Kuhn, 1970).
Exist cteva ncercri de a clasifica ntr-o manier cuprinztoare modelele
conceptuale utilizate n calitatea serviciilor. Susan Proctor i Gillian Wright (Proctor, Wright,
1998) identific mai multe astfel de construcii:
Modelele Importan-Performan (Fishbein, 1967; Martilla i James, 1977; Cronin i
Taylor, 1994; modelul SERVPERF), care se bazeaz pe msurarea percepiei clienilor asupra
AE
Incertitudinea cu privire la calitate ca barier n calea dezvoltrii serviciilor pentru
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performanei elementelor semnificative pentru calitatea ponderat n funcie de importana
acordat de ctre client pentru fiecare element.
Modelul calitii percepute (Gronroos 1982, 1984, 1993), cunoscut i sub numele de
modelul infirmrii, definete calitatea serviciilor ca o msur a ct de bine nivelul serviciului
furnizat corespunde ateptrilor clienilor. Acest model are meritul de a considera c
perspectiva clientului este dominant, nu cea a furnizorului. Cu toate acestea, la o analiz mai
profund, modelul servete la n mai mare msur la informarea furnizorului, dect la
informarea clientului.
Modelul proceselor de servicii, propus iniial de ctre Smith i Houston (1983), mai
trziu derivat ntr-un numr de aplicaii bazate pe msurarea calitii relaiilor dintre furnizorul
de servicii i client (de exemplu: Hsieh, Chaing, 2003).
Modelul de analiz a lacunelor (Parasuraman, Zeithaml i Berry, 1985), cunoscut, de
asemenea, sub numele de scala de msurare a calitii ulterioare, SERVQUAL, potrivit cruia
calitatea serviciilor rezult dintr-o comparaie a ateptrilor consumatorilor cu performana
real a acestora, n timp ce evaluarea se face att la nivelul procesului ct i la nivelul
rezultatului obinut n urma acestuia.
Modelul Haywood-Farmer
Modelul de analiz a lacunelor serviciilor profesionale.
Atunci cnd trecem n revist literatura de specialitate o serie de caracteristici sunt
evidente:
Majoritatea cercetrilor se concentreaz pe serviciile de consum, n timp ce serviciile
pentru ntreprinderi sunt trecute cu vederea, ca s nu spunem evitate. Este posibil ca unul dintre
motive s fie complexitatea mai mare a relaiilor dintre cele dou pri, dup cum sugereaz
figura nr. 1. Numrul i complexitatea interaciunilor ntre persoane reprezint o dificultate
foarte important n abordarea problemelor legate de calitatea serviciilor, precum au artat
aproape toi autorii. Fiecare interaciune este subiectul unei serii de prejudeci legate de
comunicare, conformitate, de cunotine, colaborare, flexibilitate, percepie, etc. Mai mult, n
relaiile dintre ntreprinderi exist o interaciune instituional suprapus relaiilor
interpersonale, natura, importana i influena creia sunt dificil de captat, n ciuda faptului c,
n unele cazuri, prezena sa este evident, ca i n cazul preferinei pe care o au filialele
multinaionale pentru filialele locale ale prestatorilor de servicii ai companiei mama. O alt
problem este faptul c satisfacia clientului, utilizat de cele mai multe modele conceptuale
pentru a msura calitatea serviciilor, este, n sine, afectat de aspecte organizaionale, cum este,
de exemplu, guvernarea.
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Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011


597
Nivel
executiv
Nivel de
execuie
Nivel
executiv
Nivel de
execuie
Nivel
executiv
Nivel de
execuie
Persoan
fizic
Furnizor de
servicii
Consumator
Furnizor de
servicii
Client
(ntreprindere)
Cazul A: ntreprindere ctre
consumator
Cazul B: ntreprindere ctre
ntreprindere

Figura nr. 1: Complexitatea relaiilor n prestarea serviciilor ntre ntreprinderi,
comparat cu prestarea serviciilor de ctre ntreprindere consumatorului final

Majoritatea cercetrilor urmresc creterea capacitii furnizorului de servicii de a
gestionarea asigurarea calitii, prin urmare, accentul este pus pe factorii psihologici i
comportamentali care ajut companiile de servicii s atrag i s menin clientela, n timp ce
valoarea serviciului pentru client este luat n seam doar superficial sau ignorat (Gyimothy,
2000).
Majoritatea constructelor calitii serviciilor nu reuesc s ia n considerare implicaiile
asimetriei informaionale, n ciuda faptului c muli cercettori au investigat calitatea relaiilor
dintre furnizorul de servicii i client, ca urmare a co-proiectrii i co-produciei care sunt
specifice serviciilor datorit inseparabilitii i a simultaneitii lor.


2. Problema asimetriei informaionale

Exist mult literatur academic privind asimetria informaional, dar implicaiile
acesteia sunt adresate nc foarte superficial n practic, excepie fcnd unele industrii
sofisticate precum cea a serviciilor financiare. Indiferena sau ignorana artat de actorii
economici i de factorii de decizie politic n legtur cu asimetria informaional este bizar,
ndeosebi n condiiile n care implicaiile sale pe pia sunt insistent dezvluite de diferii
autori din sfera academic. n articolul su notoriu, Piaa lmilor: nesigurana cu privire la
calitate i mecanismul de pia, George Akerlof arat n mod clar aceste implicaii: pe pieele
AE
Incertitudinea cu privire la calitate ca barier n calea dezvoltrii serviciilor pentru
ntreprinderi


Amfiteatru Economic

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caracterizate prin asimetrie informaional, unde vnztorii tind s aib mai multe informaii
dect cumprtorii, vnztorii sunt stimulai s vnd marf de calitate slab, din moment ce
ctigurile de pe urma calitii bune implic tot grupul a crui statistic este afectat, mai
degrab dect vnztorul individual. Astfel, produsele inferioare scot de pe pia produsele
superioare, iar preurile au tendina de a fi exagerate n comparaie cu valoarea pe care o
primete cumprtorul. Potrivit lui Akerlof acest proces micoreaz natural piaa pn la nivelul
de non-existen. Noi, n schimb, nu mergem la fel de departe, ci afirmm cu caracter mai
general c asimetria informaional inhib grav dezvoltarea unei industrii.
Este acceptat n mare msur faptul c industriile de servicii se confrunt cu o
asimetrie informaional mai pronunat dect industriile bunurilor tangibile (Skaggs i Snow,
2004; Clark, 1993; Nayyar, 1993). Aceast situaie este, de asemenea, mai greu de depit din
moment ce serviciile sunt consumate n timp ce sunt livrate, ele nu sunt nici reversibile, nici
returnabile. Prin urmare, garanii care s acopere serviciile sunt adesea dificil de administrat.
Certificarea nu este o garanie a performanei. Mai mult, cnd certificarea este rspndit, ea nu
furnizeaz un semnal distinct al performanei. Monitorizarea este adesea inadecvat din cauz
c exist asimetrie informaional ntre cel ce monitorizeaz i cel monitorizat (Nayyar, 1993).
n mod justificat, oamenii de tiin grupeaz industriile de servicii n funcie de gradul de
asimetrie informaional. Trei categorii de servicii au fost teoretizate: servicii de cutare, n
cazul n care calitatea serviciilor poate fi cunoscut nainte ca acestea s fie experimentate, de
experien, n cazul n care cumprtorul poate evalua calitatea serviciilor numai dup ce le
experimenteaz i de credibilitate, servicii a cror calitate nu poate fi evaluat n mod
corespunztor nici dup ce acestea au fost experimentate (Hsieh i Chaing, 2004). Pe ct de
folositoare pare a fi aceast clasificare, ea a fost rareori utilizat n domeniul serviciilor pentru
ntreprinderi, n opinia noastr, din cauza complexitii relaiilor dintre furnizorul de servicii i
client atunci cnd ambii sunt organizaii. n ciuda dificultilor, cutarea unor soluii la
problemele ridicate de asimetria informaional pe piaa serviciilor pentru ntreprinderi ar trebui
intensificat, n special n contextul tendinei contemporane de externalizare a serviciilor.
Anul trecut am realizat un sondaj printre 180 de directori de ntreprinderi-clieni pentru
servicii din Romnia. Am descoperit o nemulumire general n legtur cu situaia actual.
Principala preocupare a respondenilor a fost imposibilitatea cumprtorului de a ti n avans
calitatea serviciilor obinute i/sau de a evalua corespondena a ceea ce este posibil s obin cu
nevoile reale ale companiei. Muli au declarat c serviciile pe care le primesc sunt de valoare
sczut, dar la preuri ridicate. Evident, principala surs de ngrijorare a fost asimetria
informaional specific relaiilor de furnizare a serviciilor, cuplat cu lipsa transparenei pieei
de servicii, o insuficient dezvoltare instituional i o slab acoperire juridic. Dar aspectul cel
mai izbitor dezvluit indirect n timpul cercetrii noastre a fost incapacitatea, aproape
general, a companiilor-client de a msura, chiar i ex-post, valoarea pe care o primesc pentru
suma pltit ntr-o tranzacie cu servicii pentru ntreprinderi.
Recent, Rubalcaba, Gallego i Hertog au publicat un articol despre eecurile pieei i
ale sistemului n domeniul inovrii serviciilor i au descoperit c asimetria informaional este o
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problem esenial din ambele perspective. Ei discut n profunzime implicaiile asimetriei
informaionale n contextul economiei Uniunii Europene, menionnd ca efecte principale n
citirea noastr o limitare a cererii pentru servicii i lipsa unui stimulent pentru prestatorii de
servicii de a mobiliza mijloacele de care dispun i de a mbunti calitatea serviciilor
(Rubalcaba, Gallego i Hertog, 2010). Poziia lor arat c disfunciile ce pot fi observate pe
piaa serviciilor pentru ntreprinderi n economiile n tranziie, multe dintre care sunt atribuite
slbiciunilor unor astfel de sisteme de ctre autorii studiului privind firmele mici de servicii de
afaceri n Ucraina (Smallbone et al, 2010) sunt, de fapt, de o natur mai general. Fr a
subestima rolul micilor eecuri instituionale, credem c abordarea asimetriei informaionale
este o prioritate pentru valorificarea ct mai complet a potenialei contribuii a serviciilor
pentru ntreprinderi la ridicarea nivelului de performan economic general.


3. Calitatea serviciilor i piaa acestora din perspectiva furnizorilor de servicii

n timpul anchetei noastre anterioare, menionat mai sus, clienii serviciilor de afaceri
au fost rugai s anticipeze cum va evolua achiziia de servicii a companiei lor. Majoritatea
respondenilor estimeaz c n urmtorii cinci ani achiziiile de servicii vor nregistra o cretere
moderat sau o relativ stagnare. Acest rezultat confirm, ntr-o anumit msur, constrngerea
exercitat de asimetria informaional asupra dezvoltrii pieei serviciilor pentru ntreprinderi n
Romnia. Clark crede c fiecare pia are un numr de mecanisme ncorporate care ajut la
remedierea efectelor nocive asociate cu problemele legate de informaie, aranjamentele
instituionale care predomin n pe anumite piee fiind dependente de mecanismele
productoare de ncredere proprii acelor piee (Clark, 1993). Nayyar, ns dup cum am artat
mai sus susine c asimetria informaional dintre cumprtorul i vnztorul de servicii
rmne chiar i dup ce firmele iau msuri pentru reducerea acesteia (Nayyar, 1993).
Pentru a nelege n ce msur sunt furnizorii de servicii preocupai de nevoia unui
mediu mai competitiv, de mbuntirea calitii, de perfecionarea condiiilor de pia i a
perspectivelor acesteia, am efectuat un numr de interviuri n profunzime cu managerii unor
firme autohtone, furnizoare de servicii, din Bucureti i Buzu. Am luat n considerare
diversitatea industriilor de servicii, fiind ndeosebi interesai de servicii bazate pe utilizarea
intensiv a cunoaterii; aadar, am ales prestatorii de servicii n urmtoarele domenii:
contabilitate, servicii n domeniul tehnologiei informaiei, logistic (logistica de ter parte) i
consultan managerial.
Interviurile au fost realizate n jurul mai multor teme comune:
Ct de bine cunosc ei industria lor i dinamica acesteia?
Ce fac ei n scopul dobndirii unor noi clieni i modul n care potenialii clieni
selecteaz furnizorul de servicii?
AE
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Ce fel de interaciune are loc ntre furnizorii de servicii i clienii lor n faza
precontractual atunci cnd definesc obiectul contractului n conformitate cu nevoile clientului?
Ct de important este preul n tranzaciile cu servicii pentru ntreprinderi, n comparaie
cu alte criterii?
Cu ce fel de divergene se confrunt, n mod frecvent, n timpul executrii contractului?
Ce fac ei pentru a mbunti calitatea i pentru a contribui la creterea performanelor
clienilor lor?
Ct de des i ct de uor reziliaz contractul un client nemulumit, nainte ca acesta s se
ncheie, pentru a cuta un alt contractor, sau trecerea de la un furnizor la altul pentru contracte
ulterioare?
Ce se ntmpl n faza post-contractual? Exist cazuri de pretenii litigioase? Furnizorul
de servicii menine o oarecare relaie cu fotii clieni, de exemplu n scopul evalurii ex-post a
rezultatelor (mbuntirilor) realizate de client ca urmare a colaborrii lor?
n timp ce o analiz detaliat a informaiilor colectate de la persoanele intervievate se
face, n scopul pregtirii unui set de ipoteze ce vor fi ulterior testate ntr-o nou faz de studiu, o
serie de aspecte ar putea fi deja de interes n acest studiu. Acestea sunt prezentate n cele ce
urmeaz.
n niciuna dintre industriile luate n considerare de investigaia noastr nu este
implementat un sistem de informare cu privire la pia. Totui, sunt fcute unele eforturi, n
special de ctre organismele profesionale. De exemplu, organismul contabililor autorizai
furnizeaz o clasificare a firmelor de contabilitate, n raport cu anumite criterii profesionale n
clase de la A la F (companiile intervievate au fost clasificate A i B), organismul consultanilor
manageriali public un raport anual privind industria, organismul profesional de logistic
public analize a industriei i furnizeaz informaii privind evenimente din industrie. Pe de alt
parte organizaiile de afaceri, cum ar fi camerele de comer sau tere pri public clasamente
ale companiilor pe sectoare, n baza cifrei lor de afaceri. Discuiile ulterioare au artat c toate
aceste informaii sunt n mare parte adresate i utilizare de firmele din industrie i nu de ctre
potenialii clieni care, fie nu au luat cunotin cu privire la informaii, fie nu sunt interesai n
ea.
Preul nu joac un rol semnificativ n alegerea furnizorului de servicii. Singura
industrie n care s-a raportat un interes pentru pre, n raport cu calitatea perceput este
contabilitatea. n schimb, relaiile personale i reelele sociale ale executivului sau a angajailor
firmei sunt, de obicei, principalele instrumente n achiziia de noi clieni. Recomandarea de
ctre foti clieni este, de asemenea, un mijloc utilizat frecvent de a iniia noi tranzacii.
Distinct, consultanii de management n principal i, uneori, furnizorii de servicii n
domeniul tehnologiei informaiei trebuie s ctige licitaii pentru a obine contracte publice sau
contracte cu firme mari sau foarte mari, ce organizeaz proceduri de achiziii publice. Unele
persoane intervievate au comentat faptul c relaiile personale sau istoricul fostelor colaborri
pot cntri foarte mult n obinerea contractului, chiar i n cazul procedurilor de achiziii
publice. n afar de ocazionalele participri la proceduri competitive de atribuire a contractelor,
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nu exist nici o rivalitate observabil ntre componenii industriilor selectate pentru cote de
pia, nici confruntri pentru dobndirea de noi clieni.
Structura industriilor este destul de diferit:
Contabilitatea are cea mai mare pia, deoarece majoritatea IMM-urilor au preferat s
externalizeze aceast activitate, din cauza responsabilitii profesionale, precum i a dificultii
de a se conforma unui cadru juridic i fiscal ambiguu i n permanent schimbare. Industria, n
sine, const dintr-un numr mare de firme mici, multe dintre acestea fiind deinute de o singur
persoan sau de o familie. Serviciul este prestat, n principal, n aceeai localitate. Nu am gsit
nici un indiciu cu privire la vreo tendin de consolidare a pieei. Firmele de mrime medie sau
mare organizeaz contabilitatea n interiorul firmei sau o externalizeaz subsidiarelor lor sau
firmelor specializate din cadrul grupului, astfel nct nu sunt purttori activi de cerere.
Industria serviciilor din domeniul tehnologiei informaiei este mprit n dou
segmente: 1) companii mari i puternice (inclusiv filialele lor locale naionale, dealeri, agenii
sau birouri de reprezentare) care mpart o pia de contracte mari i foarte mari, avnd printre
clienii lor guvernul, bnci i alte instituii financiare, multinaionale i alte companii mari; 2)
un numr mare de ntreprinderi mici, ce servesc piaa IMM-urilor cu soluii personalizate, mai
puin costisitoare i mai puin solicitante. Cele dou grupuri strategice de ntreprinderi nu
interfereaz, n afar de colaborri ocazionale, de obicei sub form de subcontractare.
Industria de consultan n management este foarte dependent de contractele
guvernamentale sau tranzacii n contextul pregtirii de proiecte finanate cu fonduri de la
Uniunea European. O alt component a cererii de pe pia este reprezentat de filialele locale
ale companiilor multinaionale i ntreprinderi foarte mari (de stat), dar este aparent rezervat
mrcilor de renume, precum cei mari patru, de exemplu. n cazul n care marca nu este
criteriul decisiv n selectarea furnizorului de servicii, relaiile personale vor fi cel mai important
instrument n obinerea unui contract. n cazul n care obiectul contractului implic pregtirea
unei cereri de fonduri, invocarea unor relaii avantajoase n cadrul instituiei ce ofer fonduri
poate prezenta un avantaj. Ocazional, istoria colaborrii ntre client i consultant poate fi, de
asemenea, un criteriu important. Ei tiu c nu vor exista probleme ct vreme mi
ncredineaz mie o astfel de sarcin, astfel nct m vor selecta pe mine de fiecare dat, spune
un interlocutor. Cererea real pentru serviciile de consultan de management de la
ntreprinderile autohtone de dimensiuni medii i mari, legat n principal de achiziii i fuziuni,
este nesemnificativ. De fapt, printre industriile selectate, firmele de consultan managerial se
confrunt cu cea mai mare presiune. n primul rnd, deoarece pieei lor i lipsete o dinamic
natural; n al doilea rnd, deoarece firmele ce au pornit n alte industrii (contabilitate, audit,
servicii legate de computer sau juridice) au tendina s se diversifice prin furnizarea unor
servicii de consultan managerial; n al treilea rnd, din cauza serviciilor de sprijin n afaceri
pentru IMM-uri oferite de ctre actori necomerciali (ONG-uri, universiti, etc.).
AE
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Industria logisticii de ter parte, dominat de firme create prin investiii strine directe,
este ntr-o faz incipient n Romnia. Exist foarte puine firme care deservesc n principal
marii distribuitori.
Din interviurile realizate am neles c pentru furnizorii de servicii pentru ntreprinderi
calitatea nu este o preocupare de zi cu zi, ci este tratat doar ca o problem formal. De
exemplu, toi interlocutorii au declarat c serviciile lor sunt n conformitate cu standardele
industriei, fie ele formale sau informale. n unele cazuri, prestatorii trebuie s respecte
standardele profesionale necesare pentru practicarea activitii; acest lucru este valabil, n
special, n cazul contabilitii. Unii doresc o certificare ca un semn al capacitii, n ciuda
faptului c sunt sceptici cu privire la sensibilitatea pieei la ea. Este cazul consultanilor de
management i a experilor n logistic care pot obine individual o cerificare profesional
emis de ctre organismele lor profesionale, sau a prestatorilor de servicii informatice (de
exemplu Microsoft Certified Company). Ca un fapt semnificativ, consultanii lucreaz la
crearea unui standard de selectare a consultanilor de management, cu scopul de a stimula
clienii s recurg la criterii mai obiective n atribuirea contractelor. Toi cei intervievai sunt
familiarizai cu standardele din seria ISO 9000 privind sistemele de management al calitii, dar
nici unul dintre acetia nu este contient de modelele de evaluare a calitii serviciilor
SERVQUAL sau SERVPERF.
Foarte interesant, cazurile de schimbare a furnizorului de servicii de ctre client sunt
accidentale i destul de excepionale. n cazul prestatorilor de servicii de contabilitate i
informatice, cei mai muli clieni au fost dobndii la nceputul activitii lor, cu 10-16 ani n
urm i doar foarte puini noi clieni sunt adugai anual n portofoliu. Ei percep aceast situaie
ca o indicaie a satisfaciei clienilor. n realitate, cei mai muli dintre clienii lor nu au avut nici
o experien cu un alt furnizor, nu au acces la informaii de pia sau/i le lipsete capacitatea de
a evalua calitatea serviciului n raport cu preul su. De aici, am dedus c costul de schimbare a
furnizorului este foarte mare, semn al unei piee disfuncionale.
Asimetria informaional influeneaz n multe feluri relaiile dintre furnizorii de
servicii i clienii lor. Persoanele intervievate sunt de prere c este o surs de ateptri
nejustificate i ireale din partea clienilor. De exemplu, muli clieni se ateapt ca firma lor de
contabilitate s le ofere management financiar i consultan fiscal, care nu sunt parte a
serviciului contractat, dar nu este clar dac clientul nelege asta nainte sau dup ce semneaz
contractul i convin asupra preului. n cazul serviciilor informatice, n mod frecvent clientul
ateapt s i se ofere consiliere n probleme de management operaional n timp ce furnizorul
consider c acest lucru depete obligaiile sale. De la consultanii manageriali clienii se
ateapt s primeasc consultan n probleme juridice. Pe de alt parte, astfel de situaii au
instigat furnizorii de servicii s-i diversifice activitile n scopul de a exploata mai bine
portofoliul de clieni, n loc s dezvolte relaii de colaborare cu firme specializate. Putem
presupune c, n multe cazuri, aceast diversificare este realizat cel puin la nceput n
detrimentul calitii i implicit, pe cheltuiala clientului. O constatare foarte important i
oarecum contraintuitiv ce a reieit din interviuri este c procesul de nvare pe parcursul
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stabilirii contractului i derulrii acestuia, este, de obicei, n practic, foarte limitat de ambele
pri. Acest lucru ridic o preocupare serioas cu privire la pieele analizate. Ne ateptam c o
parte dintre clieni, mai bine informai, vor deveni mai exigeni, vor face alegeri mai bune, iar
furnizorii de servicii vor deveni mai inovatori ncercnd s fac fa nevoilor n schimbare ale
clienilor lor. Nu am gsit vreun semn c aceste lucruri se ntmpl cu adevrat.
Furnizorii de servicii consider c ei nu au nici o responsabilitate pentru rezultate n
termeni de valoare pentru compania client. Chiar i companiile de logistic de ter parte, ce
declar cu mndrie c serviciile oferite de ei ajut la reducerea cheltuielilor clienilor lor, nu par
a fi preocupate dac rezultatul este doar puin mai bun sau este cel mai bun posibil. Am gsit un
singur exemplu de stabilire a preurilor n baza performanelor, n cazul consultanilor. Firmele
mai mici de consultan au fost forate de presiunile pieei s accepte fixarea preurilor n
funcie de performan pentru asistena lor la pregtirea dosarelor de solicitare de fonduri, iar
aceast practic tinde s se generalizeze pentru acest tip de activitate. n evaluarea noastr, acest
tip de acord nu rezolv nc problema distribuiei echitabile a riscului ntre furnizorul de servicii
i firma client. Deoarece clientul nu este n msur s evalueze calitatea serviciului, furnizorul
are posibilitatea de a-i limita eforturile aproape de valoarea avansului, neasumndu-i nici un
risc n cazul n care cererea nu este aprobat.
n ansamblu, n urma interviurilor am primit confirmarea unor disfuncionaliti pe
pia generate de asimetria informaional n cazul mai multor industrii de servicii. Gradul de
asimetrie informaional variaz de la o industrie la alta, consultana managerial avnd
caracteristicile serviciilor de credibilitate, n timp ce celelalte servicii analizate corespund mai
bine definiiei bunurilor de experien. Calitatea, n general i evaluarea calitii nu par a fi
preocupri majore pentru prestatorii de servicii. Numai printre consultanii de management
care se confrunt cu cea mai mare presiune de pia am gsit o oarecare nelegere a
necesitii unei piee mai funcionale, n care clienii vor putea vor putea alege furnizorii pe
baza capacitilor i rezultatelor dovedite, raportate la pre.


4. Provocarea de a crea o pia sntoas a serviciilor pentru ntreprinderi

n special n domeniul serviciilor pentru ntreprinderi bazate pe utilizarea intensiv a
cunoaterii sunt necesare politici publice mai bine informate, intervenia public fiind justificat
de necesitatea corectrii eecurilor pieei i ale sistemului care duc la sub-exploatarea
potenialei contribuii a acestor servicii la creterea performanei economice de ansamblu
(Rubalcaba, Gallego i Hertog, 2010). Precum demonstreaz industria consultanei de
management, creterea rivalitii dintre furnizori, prin msuri de reglementare i instituionale
adecvate, poate determina prestatorii s-i asume voluntar o parte semnificativ a efortului de
creare a unei piee mai deschise i mai competitive. Lumea academic ar trebui ncurajat s-i
AE
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intensifice la rndul ei eforturile pentru a produce cunotine robuste, mijloace conceptuale i
instrumente analitice adecvate nevoilor sectorului, precum i pentru diseminarea cunotinelor.
Dezvoltarea unei piee sntoase a serviciilor pentru ntreprinderi este n interesul
economiei; prin urmare, ar trebui ntreprinse aciuni specifice pentru a institui un cadru care va
crete transparena pieei, va stimula o competiie autentic ntre furnizorii de servicii i va
reduce riscurile de selecie advers i hazard moral.
n opinia noastr, cadrul preconizat ar trebui s combine instrumentele de reglementare
i de auto-reglementare, iniiative i capaciti instituionale private i publice, actori i
mecanisme, att orizontale ct i specifice fiecrui domeniu. Acesta trebuie s cuprind, de
asemenea, fazele pre-contractuale, contractuale i post-contractuale ale tranzaciei, sau, cu alte
cuvinte, selecia furnizorului, termenii contractului, prestarea serviciilor i stingerea drepturilor
i obligailor ntre furnizor i client.
Cnd se dezvolt un astfel de cadru, apreciem c trebuie avute n vedere cu prioritate
urmtoarele deziderate:
Disponibilitatea informaiilor despre pia. Informaiile despre pia i ajut pe
protagonitii acesteia s ia decizii documentate i s compare ex-post rezultatele obinute cu
ceea ce ar fi de ateptat n condiii specifice, sau cu cele mai bune performane. Informaia
referitoare la pia este un bun public (greu de exclus anumii utilizatori, puin profitabil pentru
ca sectorul privat s investeasc n alimentarea ei). Aa cum a remarcat Akerlof, Ar trebui, de
asemenea, perceput faptul c, n aceste piee, veniturile sociale i cele private difer i prin
urmare, n unele cazuri, intervenia guvernului poate crete bunstarea tuturor. Prin urmare,
guvernul ar trebui s-i asume crearea unui sistem de informaii de pia cuprinztor i credibil.
Standardizarea. Standardizarea permite actorilor s compare ofertele ncepnd de la un
nivel minim comun de calitate a serviciilor i s mreasc transparena pieei. n special n
domeniul serviciilor pentru ntreprinderi, standardizarea este mult rmas n urm fa de
domeniul bunurilor tangibile.
Certificarea i ratingul. Organismele independente de certificare i ageniile de rating ar
putea reduce decalajul informaional.
Transparena structurii costurilor furnizorilor de servicii ar reprezenta o cale eficace de
diminuare a hazardului moral. Creterea acestei transparene se poate realiza prin perfecionarea
mecanismului de facturare.
Stabilirea preurilor n funcie de performane. Extinderea utilizrii tarifrii n funcie de
rezultate (de exemplu, o combinaie de pre fix i onorariu de succes) ar trebui s fie un
stimulent pentru prestatorii de servicii de a-i dedica toate eforturile n interesul clienilor lor.
Totodat, aceasta ar stimula interesul furnizorilor de a transmite cunotine relevante clienilor,
ntruct rezultatul final depinde de co-proiectare i co-producie.
Supravegherea eficient a pieei i dezdunare. Organismele publice i asociaiile
profesionale din cadrul sectorului ar trebui s colaboreze pentru a asigura punerea n aplicare a
normelor stabilite de pia, n mod prompt i credibil, precum i impunerea de remedii
echitabile atunci cnd o parte sufer o pierdere din vina celeilalte pri.
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Remarci finale

Deoarece economiile moderne sunt dominate de servicii, buna funcionare i
dezvoltare a pieelor de servicii e crucial pentru progresul economico-social. Nu numai c
serviciile au o contribuie major la PIB i ocuparea forei de munc, dar acestea contribuie n
mod decisiv la competitivitatea din alte sectoare. n acest context, serviciile pentru ntreprinderi
i n special cele care se bazeaz pe utilizarea intensiv a cunoaterii merit mai mult atenie
din partea comunitii de afaceri i a factorilor de decizie public. Literatura economic i de
afaceri a atras atenia asupra problemelor ntmpinate n dezvoltarea industriilor serviciilor
pentru ntreprinderi datorit incertitudinii calitii i asimetriei informaionale, dar o reacie
practic din partea autoritilor publice i a actorilor de pe pia se las ateptat.
Lucrarea de fa arat c formulele conceptuale propuse pentru evaluarea calitii
serviciilor sunt conduse de interesul furnizorului i sunt parial inadecvate serviciilor pentru
ntreprinderi, nefiind n msur s joace un rol n semnalizarea pieei. De asemenea, ele nu
rspund n mod adecvat problemelor generate de asimetria informaional. Asimetria
informaional favorizeaz selecia advers i hazardul moral, diminueaz ncrederea n pia i
limiteaz drastic dezvoltarea acesteia. Diminuarea incertitudinilor cu privire la calitate i
asimetriei informaionale ar putea aduce beneficii suplimentare pentru toat lumea. Am
argumentat c factorii de decizie mpreun cu comunitatea de afaceri ar trebui s ntreprind
aciuni deliberate i coordonate n vederea mbuntirii cadrului pieei de servicii pentru
ntreprinderi, i enumernd, n acest sens, ase deziderate prioritare n construirea unui astfel de
cadru.
Principalul scop al articolului de fa este de a anima dezbaterea unui subiect pe care
noi l considerm a fi unul de importan major pentru economia zilelor noastre, mai degrab
dect acela de a propune o soluie.


Mulumiri

Aceasta lucrare a fost realizat cu sprijinul CNCSIS UEFISCDI, Proiect numrul
PNII IDEI 1858/2008 Controlul de gestiune n dezvoltarea durabil a resurselor umane


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Incertitudinea cu privire la calitate ca barier n calea dezvoltrii serviciilor pentru
ntreprinderi


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Smallbone, F., Welter, F., Voytovich, A. i Egorov, I., 2010. Government and entrepreneurship
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Dezvoltarea serviciilor turistice prin nvare organizaional.
Studiu de caz: Romnia i Spania

Amfiteatru Economic
608

DEZVOLTAREA SERVICIILOR TURISTICE PRIN NVARE
ORGANIZAIONAL. STUDIU DE CAZ: ROMNIA I SPANIA


Dan Popescu
1
, Iulia Chivu
2
, Alina Ciocrlan-Chitucea
3-
i Daniela-Oana Popescu
4

1) 2) 3)4)
Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia




Rezumat
Cercetarea de fa urmrete s stabileasc i s contureze strategiile de dezvoltare
a serviciilor pentru ntreprinderile mici i mijlocii (IMM-uri) care activeaz n domeniul de
activitate turistic (hoteluri i alte forme de cazare, restaurante, transport pasageri, agenii de
turism, agenii de turism cultural etc.).
nvarea organizaional este centrat pe procesele de nvare din organizaie,
fapt care se reflect direct n bunurile i serviciile produse. Activitile de nvare,
manifestate individual, nu sunt transferate cu uurin la nivel organizaional.
Mai mult, pentru a evidenia punctele slabe i punctele forte ale abordrilor de
management al serviciilor turistice i pentru a formula recomandrile, tema noastr de
cercetare se deruleaz sub forma unui studiu comparat: asemnri i diferene privind
serviciile turistice i practicile de nvare organizaional n IMM-uri, n Romnia i n alte
ri membre ale Uniunii Europene (a fost luat n considerare exemplul Spaniei).

Cuvinte-cheie: servicii, turism, ntreprinderi mici i mijlocii (IMM-uri), nvare
organizaional, resurse umane

Clasificare JEL: M3, M31, L81


Introducere

Scopul nostru este acela de a identifica i de a formula propuneri menite s
mbunteasc activitile IMM-urilor i performanele acestora, din perspectiva
perfecionrii serviciilor turistice, ntruct apreciem c acest context situaional constituie o
incitant provocare tiinific i practic.
Am ales sfera serviciilor pentru cercetare ntruct dezvoltarea acestora (DRU) a
ctigat un rol permanent n IMM-uri (Beardwell i Holden, 2001, pp.272-273), n agenii i
la nivel naional, dezvoltndu-se nu doar ca disciplin academic, ci i ca tem central n
zona progresului, n general (Popescu et al., 2010, p.49). n spatele performanelor IMM-
urilor se afl oamenii (Vasiliu, 2009, pp.83-93). Fiind o combinaie nvare individual i
nvare organizaional, n contextul larg al politicilor de resurse umane (Sutherland i

-
Autor de contact, Alina Ciocrlan-Chitucea

- alina.ciocarlan@man.ase.ro
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Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011
609
Canwell, 2004, pp.163-168), perfecionarea serviciilor asigur mbuntirea continu i
creterea individului i a organizaiei. Drept urmare, apare o nou etap a civilizaiei
umane, un nou mod de via calitativ superior, care implic utilizarea intensiv a
informaiei n toate sferele de producie i consum, cu implicarea factorului uman n acestea
de pe poziia nu numai de productor, ci i de consumator, cu un impact economic i social
deosebit de important (Petrescu et. al., 2010, pp.267-285).
IMM-urile reprezint cea mai important i mai numeroas categorie de
ntreprinderi, cu multiple funcii economice, tehnice i sociale (Popescu et al., 2010, p.51).
IMM-urile sunt att cel mai dinamic i vital factor al progresului n societatea
contemporan, ct i unul dintre principalii generatori ai performanei economice.
Drepturile i bunstarea consumatorilor sunt din ce n ce mai importante, n special n
climatul economic actual (Dinu, Marchevski, Dobrescu i Petrescu, 2010, pp.709-710), iar
IMM-urile sunt unul dintre principalii contribuitori la realizarea PIB.
n contextul n care Uniunea European este constituit dintr-un grup de ri cu
cele mai intense preocupri i performane n sprijinirea i ncurajarea IMM-urilor, a
devenit evident c globalizarea implic o uniformizare a practicilor manageriale i a
comportamentelor organizaionale (Yamnil i McLean, 2001, pp.195-208), care, pentru
IMM-urile din domeniul serviciilor sunt n stare incipient (Olaru et al., 2010, pp.10-26).
Iat un motiv suplimentar pentru a proceda la adoptarea abordrii comparative a
problematicii DRU la nivelul unor ri din UE. Cercetarea corelaiei dintre abordarea
managerial privind motivarea resurselor umane, pe de o parte i performanele activitii
organizaionale, pe de alt parte, a constituit debutul unei cercetri care va fi extins i
ulterior acestui articol. Spre exemplu, influena resurselor umane superior calificate i bine
motivate asupra rezultatelor activitii IMM-urilor, poate fi extins i la influena acestora
supra sectorului turistic i a domeniului serviciilor, n general.
Principalul obiectiv al lucrrii: Lucrarea de fa i propune ca, urmare a
investigrii opiniei managerilor din IMM-uri privind managementul serviciilor, s analizeze
compatibilitatea dintre angajaii motivai pozitiv prin nvare individual i
organizaional, i nivelul de dezvoltare a serviciilor oferite de IMM-uri.
Obiectivele secundare ale lucrrii:
- a formula o interpretare economic pentru angajaii motivai (pozitiv sau negativ),
lund n considerare asemnrile i diferenele dintre statele membre ale Uniunii Europene
luate ca exemplu (Romnia i Spania);
- a stabili n ce msur angajaii motivai pozitiv pot determina avantajul competitiv
pentru IMM-urile din Romnia i Spania.


1. Ipotezele cercetrii

Am formulat trei ipoteze principale, relevante pentru rolul motivrii resurselor
umane i dezvoltrii n IMM-uri pe de-o parte, i performana economic sustenabil, pe de
alt parte. Pornind de la aceste obiective, cele trei ipoteze sunt urmtoarele:
- n cadrul organizaiei, angajaii reprezint o resurs important, strategic, fiind
principali creatori ai valorii economice adugate i ai performanei economice. Creterea
economiei serviciilor, fluxul crescnd al informaiei globale i creterea recunoaterii
importanei capitalului intelectual, transform cunotinele i abilitile angajailor n
resurse-cheie i n surse de avantaj competitiv pentru organizaie, n economia global.
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Amfiteatru Economic
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- Avnd la baz practicile de management al resurselor umane, managerii IMM-
urilor pot favoriza compatibilitatea dintre angajaii pozitiv motivai i performanele
superioare ale organizaiei de apartenen.
- n contextul economiei contemporane, dezvoltarea IMM-urilor i performanele
acestora pot fi obinute prin programe de dezvoltare a resurselor umane, prin activiti de
nvare i activiti bazate pe cunoatere, mai ales dac avem n vedere c nvarea
organizaional:
- depinde de nivelul de educaie a angajailor i de facilitile pe care acetia le au la locul
de munc;
- poate avea loc n cadrul organizaiei (dezvoltare de tip indoor) sau n afara ei
(dezvoltare de tip outdoor).
Pentru a testa cele trei ipoteze, am aplicat un chestionar n Romnia i n Spania,
n continuarea unei cercetri demarate nc din anul 2000, referitoare la cauzele natalitii i
mortalitii IMM-urilor din Europa. Am intervievat 117 manageri i ntreprinztori,
rezultatele fiind analizate n partea empiric a lucrrii noastre.


2. Metodologia cercetrii

Metodologia utilizat este o consecin logic a ntrebrilor folosite n cadrul
cercetrii, reprezentnd un prim pas n alegerea abordrii cantitative/calitative. Pentru
studiul nostru, ntrebarea-cheie utilizat a fost: n ce msur managerii din IMM-urile care
activeaz n turism consider c angajaii motivai pozitiv determin performane
organizaionale sporite?
Am ales metoda calitativ, deoarece aceasta are n vedere opinia managerilor
privind motivarea angajailor, respectiv, performanele acestora.


2.1 Mrimea i structura eantionului

Contientiznd importana DRU i a performanelor economice ale resurselor
umane, am realizat un studiu pe un eantion de 117 respondeni care aparin IMM-urilor din
domeniul turistic: cazare, restaurante, transport pasageri, agenii de turism i organizaii de
turism cultural, din diferite regiuni ale celor dou ri luate n considerare constituind, pe
aceast baz, 19 variabile. Rezultatele sunt consecina direct a unui studiu desfurat n
perioada septembrie-octombrie 2010 n diferite regiuni ale Romniei i Spaniei i confirm
ipotezele de cercetare formulate n ceea ce privete dezvoltarea resurselor umane i
contribuia acestora la performanele IMM-urilor.
Proiectarea cercetrii
n fundamentarea cercetrii am luat n considerare multitudinea rspunsurilor
primite la chestionarele aplicate celor 117 subieci. Fiecare ntrebare a fost astfel formulat,
nct s beneficieze de un rspuns unic, direct sau indirect, pornind de la ipotezele luate n
considerare. Chestionarul include ntrebri nchise, cu caracter general, rspunsurile putnd
fi formulate imediat, foarte facil. Cea de-a doua parte a chestionarului este rezervat
aspectelor privind profitabilitatea IMM-urilor i performanele economice ale acestora
(Howell i David, 1997, 120-129), iar cea de-a treia, performanelor resurselor umane.
Scopul principal al cercetrii este strns legat de rspunsurile din prile a doua i a treia ale
chestionarului.
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Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011
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Primul set de ntrebri (1-6) include aspecte legate indirect de scopul cercetrii.
Acestea se refer la mrimea organizaiei, la tradiia acesteia i la ali factori care
influeneaz principalele caracteristici ale mrimii IMM-urilor i activitii lor. Scopul
primului set de ntrebri a fost de a ncadra entitile analizate ntr-o zon de cercetare
specific, bine determinat (Eurostat, 2011). n contextul celor prezentate, apreciem c
factori principali, cum sunt experiena de pia, numrul de angajai sau domeniul de
activitate pot influena, n diferite modaliti, calitatea rezultatelor muncii angajailor.
Cel de-al doilea interval al chestionarului (ntrebrile 7-14) a vizat obinerea unor
rspunsuri directe, pe baza crora sunt stabilite rezultatele cuantificabile ale activitii
resurselor umane (relevate, n esen, de nivelul productivitii).
Cea de-a treia parte a chestionarului (ntrebrile 15-20) este, n mod direct, legat
de practicile existente n managementul resurselor umane (inclusiv care este opinia
managerilor privind formele de motivare) i de stimulentele materiale i nemateriale
acordate angajailor.
n primul rnd, autorii au obinut validarea chestionarului n funcie de valorile de
baz ale studiului. Versiunea iniial a interviului a fost trimis ca studiu-pilot ctre IMM-
urile din Spania, pentru a fi verificat acurateea ntrebrilor, n concordan cu variabilele
principale. Respondenilor li s-a solicitat feedback-ul, dup completarea chestionarului,
pentru a verifica claritatea ntrebrilor. Ulterior, o versiune revizuit a instrumentarului de
cercetare a fost trimis ctre IMM-urile din Romnia i din Spania.


2.2 Instrumentarul statistic

Datele obinute au fost analizate utiliznd Statistical Packages for Social Scientists
(SPSS) 16.0, fiind generate numeroase rezultate care, dat fiind volumul mare al
informaiilor, sunt prezentate sintetic. Astfel, vom prezenta datele cele mai importante
pentru cercetare, cu accent pe caracteristicile de baz i cu corelaii secundare detaliate.
Metoda de lucru: datele primare, obinute n urma aplicrii chestionarului, au fost
colectate de la un eantion de 117 respondeni (rata de rspuns fiind de 56,8%), selectate
aleator dintre IMM-urile care activeaz n turism. Chestionarul elaborat de colectivul de
cercetare include 20 de ntrebri. Cercetarea a constat n adoptarea unei metode de colectare
a datelor privind caracteristicile generale ale IMM-urilor (domeniu de activitate, form de
proprietate, experien de pia, poziie geografic, form de organizare legal),
performanele organizaiei (evoluia profitului i a cifrei de afaceri, contribuia activelor
intangibile, numrul mediu de servicii, structura cifrei de afaceri a organizaiei, importana
primilor trei clieni i furnizori) i performanele resurselor umane (nivelul de motivare a
angajailor, educaia, numrul de zile destinate formrii, salariul mediu, faciliti pentru
angajai) (Mintzberg, 2004, pp. 87-89).

Matematic descriptiv
Valorile principale ale cercetrii le-am obinut calculnd media ponderat, cu
respectarea repartiiei de frecven impus de variantele de rspuns ale chestionarului.

=
=
+ + +
=
n
i
i i
n n
v n
n n
v n v n v n
x
1
2 2 1 1
1 ...
(1)

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Amfiteatru Economic
612
ntruct datele obinute n urma interviurilor difer semnificativ n funcie de
criteriile de clasificare ale IMM-urilor, am calculat medii pariale pentru fiecare tip de
colectivitate. Mediile pariale se numesc i medii glisante sau medii mobile, care se
utilizeaz n cazul fluctuaiilor mari n irul valorilor, pentru care tendina este greu de
apreciat. Calculul se face mediind un numr m de valori alturate (Levin, 1999, pp.35-42).
m
x x x x x
x
i i i i i
m glis
2 1 1 2
,
+ +
+ + + +
= (2)
Deviaia standard () se calculeaz ca medie ptratic a abaterilor tuturor
elementelor seriei de la valoarea lor principal.
=
( )
n
x x
i

2
(3)
Acest indicator este relevant prin ridicarea la ptrat a deviaiei. Vom acorda o
importan mai mare abaterilor n valoare absolut, care influeneaz, ntr-o msur sporit,
gradul de variaie a variabilelor analizate.
Coeficientul de variaie (v) se calculeaz ca un raport ntre abaterea medie
ptratic i media aritmetic. Valorile acestui indicator sunt subunitare (Levin, 1999, pp.50-
56).
v = 100
x
o
(4)
Cu ct valoarea lui v este mai apropiat de zero cu att variaia este mai redus.
Astfel, colectivitatea este mai omogen, iar media are un grad de reprezentativitate ridicat.
Cu ct valoarea lui v este mai mare, cu att variaia este mai intens. Prin urmare,
colectivitatea este mai eterogen, iar media are un nivel de semnificaie mai sczut.


3. Rezultatele studiului

Dintre cei 117 respondeni, 86 sunt din Romnia i 36 din Spania. n cazul
ambelor ri analizate, microntreprinderile i ntreprinderile mici (sub 49 de angajai) sunt
mai bine reprezentate numeric dect cele de mrime medie (peste 50 de angajai), att
datorit faptului c numrul acestora (ca tendin general) este mai mic, ct i datorit
barierelor contextuale (accesul pentru organizarea unui interviu este, n general, mai redus).
Organizaiile care au participat la studiu au fost clasificate n dou mari categorii,
conform criteriului de mrime: ntreprinderi mici (0-49 de angajai) i ntreprinderi medii
(peste 50 de angajai). Aa cum am previzionat, studiul a demonstrat c majoritatea
rspunsurilor au provenit de la ntreprinderile mici. Succesul afacerilor din turism se
fundamenteaz necondiionat pe componenta uman i, mai ales, pe gradul de implicare a
acesteia n prestarea serviciilor turistice (Costic et al., 2008, pp.136-141).
A ncuraja armonia i confortul la locul de munc prin acordarea de avantaje
materiale egale angajailor (bonusuri, premii, faciliti profesionale i de petrecere a
timpului liber, climat agreabil de lucru) este o practic a managerilor din IMM-uri (tabelul
nr.1). Comparnd cele dou seturi de rezultate (Romnia i Spania), prima informaie indic
urmtoarele: att managerii romni, ct i cei spanioli nu sunt de acord cu tipuri identice de
motivare pentru performane diferite ale angajailor. ntre timp, n cadrul IMM-urilor
spaniole, atitudinea privind aceast ipotez este mai curnd distribuit uniform, ntre
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Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011
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alternativele neutru, de acord i total de acord (mai mult de 60% dintre respondeni pentru
toate tipurile de IMM-uri). Acest fapt indic o preocupare general a managerilor pentru
abordri diferite n motivarea personalului n concordan cu nivelurile de performan
diferite. Rezultatele chestionarului infirm ipoteza 1i susin ideea abordrilor complexe n
IMM-urile din domeniul serviciilor (turistic).

Tabel nr. 1: Ipoteza 1 a cercetrii (%)
ROMNIA

Cazare Restaurante
Agenii de
turism
Altele
Mrimea
companiei
ntreprinderi
mici
Total
dezacord
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Dezacord 1.50 0.00 0.00 0.00
Neutru 6.70 10.72 26.00 13.00
Acord 77.20 83.50 65.00 74.00
Total acord 14.60 5.78 9.00 13.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
ntreprinderi
medii
Total
dezacord 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Dezacord 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Neutru 5.80 5.30 3.10 2.00
Acord 86.40 91.30 88.70 98.00
Total acord 7,80 3.40 8.20 0.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
SPANIA Cazare Restaurante
Agenii
turism
Altele
Mrimea
companiei
ntreprinderi
mici
Total
dezacord
0.00 2.10 0.00 0.00
Dezacord 2.90 4.00 6.10 0.00
Neutru 43.00 35.00 23.20 0.00
Acord 28.40 51.30 38.30 0.00
Total acord 25.70 7.60 32.40 100.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
ntreprinderi
medii
Total
dezacord
1.00 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Dezacord 7.40 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Neutru 39.50 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Acord 43.80 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Total acord 9.30 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Sursa: studiu exploratoriu efectuat n intervalul septembrie octombrie 2010

A un acorda avantaje suplimentare angajailor, cu excepia salariului, va putea genera
aceleai performane organizaionale, ntruct niciun salariat nu va avea tendina de a-i
prsi locul de munc, date fiind condiiile sociale i economice dificile existente (tabelul
nr.2). Cum criza economic global a afectat i sectorul turismului, acest fapt este
confirmat de rspunsurile managerilor legate de elementele motivaionale suplimentare
pentru angajai: att pentru Romnia, ct i pentru Spania, cele mai multe rspunsuri
corespund variantelor neutru, de acord i total de acord. Contieni de lipsa de alternative a
propriilor angajai, managerii nu sunt preocupai de implementarea unor tehnici speciale de
motivare, ei adoptnd comportamente generate i conduse de argumente prioritar
predeterminate: angajaii nu au alte alternative pentru a-i prsi slujba, deci nu este nevoie
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ca managementul organizaiei s fac eforturi speciale n domeniul motivrii resurselor
umane. Acest tip de comportament managerial confirm ipoteza 2.
Pentru a crea un avantaj competitiv, IMM-urile trebuie s dobndeasc abilitatea de a
nva mai rapid dect competitorii lor i de a-i dezvolta o cultur receptiv (Richman-
Hirsh, 2001, pp. 105-120). n contextul acestor imperative, organizaiile moderne trebuie s
i menin cunotinele despre noile produse i procese (Wells i Schminke, 2001, pp. 135-
158), s neleag ce se ntmpl n mediul ambiant i s produc n mod creativ, utiliznd
cunotinele i abilitile tuturor angajailor din organizaie. Acest demers impune cooperare
ntre indivizi i grupuri, comunicare liber i constructiv i o cultur a ncrederii (Yamnil
i McLean, 2001, pp.73-84).

Tabel nr. 2: Ipoteza 2 a cercetrii (%)
ROMNIA

Cazare Restaurante
Agenii
turism
Altele
Mrimea
companiei
ntreprinderi
mici
Dezacord total 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Dezacord 18.20 32.80 29.70 0.00
Neutru 19.80 8.70 11.30 0.00
Acord 34.20 25.80 30.00 0.00
Acord total 27.80 32.70 29.00 100.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
ntreprinderi
medii
Dezacord total 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Dezacord 8.30 5.40 6.50 34.60
Neutru 12.40 14.00 23.00 13.00
Acord 56.30 45.60 57.00 20.00
Acord total 23.00 35.00 13.50 32.40
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
SPANIA Cazare Restaurante
Agenii
turism
Altele
Mrimea
companiei
ntreprinderi
mici
Dezacord total 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Dezacord 3.90 13.40 20.00 0.00
Neutru 45.00 23.00 29.00 0.00
Acord 23.00 36.00 34.00 80.00
Acord total 28.10 27.60 17.00 20.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
ntreprinderi
medii
Dezacord total 0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Dezacord 9.2 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Neutru 16.1 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Acord 29.4 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Acord total 45.3 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Sursa: studiu exploratoriu efectuat n intervalul septembrie octombrie 2010

A stimula competiia ntre angajai, oferindu-le avantaje materiale i nemateriale,
n concordan cu rezultatele muncii lor, este cel mai bun mod de a genera excelen i
performan organizaional (tabelul nr.3). Rspunsurile privind cea de-a treia ipotez a
cercetrii indic o preocupare activ a managerilor pentru recompensarea angajailor n
funcie de efortul de munc i performanele economice rezultate. Conform rspunsurilor
managerilor, mai mult de 85% dintre acetia decid s i motiveze angajaii numai n
conformitate cu performanele activitii desfurate. Ipoteza trei este confirmat.

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Tabel nr. 3: Ipoteza 3 a cercetrii (%)
ROMNIA

Cazare Restaurante
Agenii
turism
Altele
Mrimea
companiei
ntreprinderi
mici
La fel 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Aproape la fel 1.20 4.00 3.00 0.00
Neutru 0.60 3.80 0.50 0.00
n funcie de
performane
95.30 89.20 92.50 100.00
Alte criterii 2.90 3.00 4.00 0.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
ntreprinderi
medii
La fel 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Aproape la fel 2.00 3.70 0.20 0.00
Neutru 5.00 4.00 4.00 0.00
n funcie de
performane
91.00
88.00 94.00 100.00
Alte criterii 2.00 4.30 1.80 0.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
SPANIA Cazare Restaurante
Agenii
turism
Altele
Mrimea
companiei
ntreprinderi
mici
La fel 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Aproape la fel 0.00 2.00 2.00 0.00
Neutru 1.00 1.00 5.00 0.00
n funcie de
performane
96.00 94.00 87.00 98.00
Alte criterii 3.00 3.00 6.00 2.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
ntreprinderi
medii
La fel 0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Aproape la fel 0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Neutru 0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
n funcie de
performane
96 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Alte criterii 4 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Sursa: studiu exploratoriu efectuat n intervalul septembrie octombrie 2010

Lund n considerare toate aceste aspecte, schimbrile-cheie care implic tranziia
ctre un sector competitiv al IMM-urilor ar trebui s ia n considerare urmtoarele: crearea
i implementarea strategiilor de dezvoltare a resurselor umane ntr-un nou context
economico-social (Campo-Martinez et al., 2010, pp. 862-870). IMM-urile tind s acorde o
importan sporit resurselor umane, comparativ cu organizaiile de dimensiuni mai mari,
datorit structurii ierarhice simplificate, care faciliteaz o interaciune sporit ntre
management i personalul executant i, mai mult dect att, un interes i o fidelitate
crescnde fa de organizaie. O alt soluie const, n opinia noastr, n a sprijini inovarea
n IMM-uri, argument susinut de dezvoltarea i implementarea progresului tiinific.
Caracteristicile inovative ale IMM-urilor ar trebui evideniate i transformate n avantaje
competitive, n toate sectoarele de activitate.
Variabilele utilizate n cercetare, respectiv performana economic a organizaiei (PEO),
motivarea material a resurselor umane (MMRU), motivarea nematerial a resurselor
umane (MNRU) sunt prezentate n tabelul nr. 4, n timp ce rezultatele sunt prezentate n
tabelul nr. 5.

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Tabel nr. 4: Variabilele utilizate n cercetare
Numele
variabilei
Scala de msurare
Tipul
variabilei
Definire
PEO Numeric (1-10) Endogen Performana economic a organizaiei
MMRU Numeric (1-5) Explicatorie Motivarea material a resurselor umane
MNRU Numeric (1-5) Explicatorie
Motivarea non-material a resurselor
umane

Tabel nr. 5: Rezultatele variabilelor cercetrii
Variabilele
Eantion
total 117
Organizaii
Medii
Romnia
Organizaii
Medii
Spania
Organizaii
Mici
Romnia
Organizaii
Mici Spania
Valoarea
principal PEO
8,33 9 8,30 7,25 8,05
Deviaia
standard
1,1413 1,1265 1,396 2,527 1,322
Variana 1,996 1,600 1,949 6,385 1,748
Valoarea
principal
MMRU
3,95 4,30 4,38 3,93 3,92
Deviaia
standard
0,760 0,825 0,707 0,704 0,688
Variana 0,578 0,678 0,500 0,495 0,474
Valoarea
principal
MNRU
3,14 3,13 3,14 5,50 1,67
Deviaia
standard
3,185 2,031 2,167 8,296 1,029
Variana 10,142 4,125 4,695 68,818 1,059

Cele mai importante rezultate ale studiului au fost testate cu ajutorul deviaiei-
standard i a varianelor.
Importana acordat de managerii IMM-urilor din turism performanei
organizaionale tind s creasc, pe msur ce dimensiunea organizaiei se mrete (de la
organizaii mici, la organizaii mijlocii).
Importana acordat Motivrii materiale a resurselor umane nu este distribuit
similar la nivelul IMM-urilor; managerii tind, mai degrab, s acorde importan motivrii
materiale a angajailor, dect motivrii nemateriale a acestora. Apelul la formele de
motivare nematerial nu este corelat cu variabila principal - Performana economic a
organizaiei fapt susinut i de valoarea foarte mare a varianei (10,142). Variabila
dependent Motivarea material a resurselor umane dovedete asocierea cu variabila
independent Performana economic a organizaiei. Deviaia-standard msoar eroarea
corelaiei presupuse ntre variabila independent Performana economic a organizaiei i
Motivarea material a resurselor umane, cu un rezultat mai mic dect 1 (0,760), eroarea
fiind acceptat.




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Concluzii

Rezultatele studiului demonstreaz c opinia managerilor privind felul n care
angajaii ar trebui motivai corespunde cu ipotezele cercetrii: un tip i o form diferite de
motivare ar trebui aplicate pentru fiecare angajat n parte, conform rezultatelor muncii i
performanelor acestuia. n plus, capacitatea de nvare i mprtirea cunotinelor n
IMM-uri const n meninerea nivelurilor de inovare i n meninerea competitivitii, fiind
mai bine pregtit s rspund presiunilor externe, mbuntindu-i imaginea
organizaional, prin orientarea mai puternic ctre oameni.
La nivel organizaional, un program de succes de dezvoltare a resurselor umane va
pregti individul s accepte un nivel crescut de lucru.
Ipotezele 1 i 2 sunt confirmate.
Rezultatele cercetrii confirm ipoteza 3: nvarea organizaional pentru
domeniul serviciilor a ctigat un rol permanent n cadrul IMM-urilor i asigur, pe aceast
baz, o continu mbuntire i cretere a pregtirii profesionale a individului i
dezvoltarea la nivel organizaional.
Ca parte component a strategiei organizaionale, nvarea organizaional pentru
aria serviciilor se refer, cu prioritate, la acumularea i organizarea experienelor de
nvare, avnd ca scop final creterea la nivel organizaional.


Mulumiri

Acest articol este rezultat al proiectului de cercetare Model de nvare
organizaional n economia bazat pe cunoatere din Romnia, PN II Idei, finanat prin
contractul nr. 1844/2008. Proiectul este cofinanat de ctre Consiliul Naional de Cercetare
tiinific n nvmntul Superior i coordonat de ctre Academia de Studii Economice
din Bucureti.


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Richman-Hirsh, W.-L., 2001. Posttraining interventions to enhance transfer. The
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ESTIMAREA IMPORTANEI MEDIEI SOCIALE N EDUCAREA I
INFORMAREA CONSUMATORILOR FOLOSIND NOI TEHNICI


Cristian Bogdan Onete
1
, Rzvan Dina
2
i Remus Negoi
3
1) 2) 3)
Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia




Rezumat
Media social este compus din instrumente web uor accesibile prin care oamenii
converseaz, particip, creeaz, recomand, valorific informaiile i reacioneaz online la
tot ce se ntmpl n jurul lor. Aceste instrumente web ofer un mediu virtual dinamic, n
care utilizatorii sunt angrenai ntr-un trafic continuu, generat de informaii i
interactivitate.
Dezvoltarea Internetului i accesul n mas la informaii a dus la o schimbare a
comportamentului consumatorilor din Romnia. n acest context, trebuie s inem cont de
faptul c decizia de cumprare i decizia de a include anumite alimente n dieta zilnic este
influenat semnificativ de prerile i experienele altor consumatori, exprimate n mediul
virtual, i astfel a aprut un nou canal de comunicaie oferit de Internet (forumuri, chat,
bloguri, situri de review-uri, etc.) prin intermediul mediei sociale.
n acest sens am condus o cercetare - folosind principalele motoare de cutare cu
scopul de a analiza evoluia numrului de forumuri i bloguri, i a interveniilor pe acestea,
legat de cuvintele ou bio, ou de la gini crescute n baterii i numerotarea oulor, n
perioada decembrie 2009 - iunie 2010.

Cuvinte-cheie: media social, educarea consumatorilor , alimente ecologice, forum, blog

Clasificare JEL: D83, M31, Q13


Introducere

Media tradiional a fost reflectat la nceput prin presa scris (n secolul al XVI-
lea, au aprut primele ziare n Veneia). A urmat, apoi, revoluia telecomunicaiilor, la
sfritul secolului al XIX-lea, care a condus la apariia mediei tehnologice, prin dou
componente: media analogic (reprezentat de telefon, radio i televiziune) i media
digital (reprezentat de Internet). Tehnologia a avansat ntr-un ritm rapid, iar Internetul a
ajuns mediul cel mai propice pentru comunicare la nivel global.
Media digital se difereniaz fa de media clasic, prin mai multe caracteristici
de comunicare, cum ar fi: mediul i metodele de comunicare prin motoare de cutare,
site-uri, bloguri, reele sociale, forumuri, sau tipul interaciunii cutate cutarea unor

Autor de contact, Cristian Bogdan Onete - onete@ase.ro


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informaii, achiziionarea de produse, dialogul, experiena ntr-un anumit domeniu. Aceasta
este msurabil i flexibil, permind comunicarea n vederea mbuntirii i
eficientizrii.


1. Media social, canalul de comunicaie al secolului 21

Trim n secolul 21, era comunicaiilor i a tranzaciilor online, n care media
social i reelele de socializare au cunoscut o adevrat cretere i s-au fcut cunoscute pe
ntreg mapamondul n ultimul deceniu. Pe buzele tuturor, de la copiii de 10 ani i pn la
generaia trecut de vrsta a treia, se afl cteva cuvinte comune precum: Facebook,
Twitter, MySpace, hi5, LinkedIn, forumuri, bloguri.
Reelele sociale au aprut n urma dorinei publicului de ceva nou i antrenant.
Acestea ofereau un mediu virtual dinamic, n care utilizatorii sunt angrenai ntr-un trafic
continuu, generat de informaii i interactivitate. Ideea de a putea comunica cu uurin, cu
ajutorul unei platforme simplu de utilizat, a devenit din ce n ce mai popular, avnd drept
rezultat o explozie a mediei sociale.
n sfera on-line, social media media social este un termen complex, ce
poate lua diverse forme, fiind utilizat n special pentru a descrie aspectul social sau arta
comunicrii n media; o sintagm compus din dou cuvinte ce conduc ctre un singur
neles. Media se refer la publicitate i la transmiterea ideilor sau a informaiei prin
intermediul diverselor canale de comunicare, n timp ce social() implic interaciunea
indivizilor n cadrul unui grup sau comuniti. Sintagma media social se refer la
platformele de comunicare generate i susinute de interaciunea interpersonal a indivizilor
cu ajutorul unor mijloace sau procedee specifice.
Introducerea acestui termen i este atribuit lui Chris Shipley, co-fondator al
Guidewire Group, o companie din San Francisco ce se ocup cu studierea i efectuarea de
rapoarte asupra tendinelor i inovaiilor tehnologice. Acesta a utilizat termenul pentru a
descrie comunicarea, informarea online, participarea i colaborarea n acest mediu.
O reea social se poate defini ca o aplicaie care ajut, extinde sau capt
consisten cu ajutorul interaciunii umane, interaciune ntre grupuri care mprtesc
aceleai interese, care vin din acelai mediu cultural, geografic sau care n funcie de un
anumit criteriu se pot altura i constitui ntr-o comunitate de interese. O reea social este
locul unde pasiunea pentru ceva, interesul comun te adun. Oamenii se lipesc unei etichete,
se lipesc de o anumit promoie sau se lipesc de un grup sau pur i simplu se grupeaz doar
fiindc fac parte din aceeai regiune.
O alt definiie a mediei sociale o descrie ca fiind media pentru interaciune
social, ce utilizeaz tehnici de afiare uor de accesat. Media social utilizeaz tehnologii
web pentru a transforma comunicarea n dialoguri interactive. Companiile definesc media
social ca fiind generat de consumatori (CGM consumer-generated media).
Media social este compus din instrumente web uor accesibile prin care oamenii
converseaz, particip, creeaz, recomand, valorific informaiile i reacioneaz online la
tot ce se ntmpl n jurul lor.
Termenul media social este un termen generic care definete o serie de canale de
comunicare online, de interaciune social i de sisteme de propagare a informaiilor care
includ forumuri, grupuri, bloguri, reele sociale i platforme de content/video/audio sharing
i comunicare instant.

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Termenul se refer la genuri media online noi, caracterizate prin:
Participare media social ncurajeaz contribuia sau reacia din partea oricui este
interesat. Ascunde linia dintre media i audien;
Deschidere serviciile mediei sociale sunt deschise la reacie i participare. Ele
ncurajeaz votarea, comentariile i distribuirea informaiei. Sunt rare cazurile n care se
pun piedici la accesarea i folosirea coninutului (deoarece coninutul protejat prin parol
nu este agreat de utilizatori);
Conversaie n vreme ce media tradiional (ziare, reviste, televiziune, cri, radio)
este definit prin termenul broadcast (coninut transmis i distribuit unei audiene), media
social este vzut mai ales prin analogie cu o conversaie n dublu sens (dialog);
Comunitate media social permite comunitilor s se formeze rapid i s
comunice eficace. Comunitile mprtesc interese comune, ca de exemplu pasiunea
pentru fotografie, probleme politice sau spectacole TV favorite, etc.;
Conectivitate cele mai multe tipuri de media social se dezvolt prin
interconectarea lor fcnd posibil includerea link-urilor ctre alte site-uri, resurse sau
oameni.
Modelul de comunicaie promovat de media tradiional este monologul. Acesta
este nlocuit n media social, de dialog. Astfel, n cadrul noilor genuri media sociale,
comunicaia capt caracteristicile dialogului: este transparent, autentic, vibrant i
dirijat de consumator.
n general sunt utilizate urmtoarele genuri principale de aplicaii social media:
reele sociale, blog-uri, wiki-uri, podcast-uri, canale de tiri (RSS i Atom), comunicaii
pentru organizarea i partajarea unui anumit tip de coninut (foto, video, documente),
microblogging, forum-uri, chat i lumi virtuale.


2. Relaia dintre noul consumator i mncarea bio

Ca o consecin a dezvoltrii fr precedent a comerului electronic, cu modelele
sale de afaceri cunoscute, Internetul s-a constituit n motorul dezvoltrii noii economii. n
acest context, consumatorul, acionnd pe o pia globalizat, conectat puternic prin
intermediul Internetului, a devenit un consumator cu o existen complex, experimentat i
avizat, pe care l putem numi noul consumator.
Noul consumator manifest tendina de a avea o mai mare ncredere n informaiile
luate din mediul online. El citete opiniile altor consumatori nainte de a lua decizia de
cumprare. Pentru noul consumator este de asemenea important s consume produse bio,
deoarece este un consumator informat. Ei apreciaz produsele bio datorit faptului c
acestea conin un nivel crescut de sruri minerale i vitamine precum i datorit unei igiene
sporite folosite n producerea acestora.
n Romania, dei la o scar mai mic n comparaie cu tarile occidentale, se
observ o cretere a interesului pentru mncarea bio, consumatorii devenind mai contieni
de beneficiile aduse de aceasta pe termen lung
Dezvoltarea Internetului n Romnia a dus la schimbarea comportamentului de
cumprare al consumatorilor romni. n acest context, decizia de cumprarea a noului
consumator, care include i cumprarea de mncare, poate fi influenat din ce n ce mai
mult de prerile i experienele exprimate n mediul virtual, datorit dezvoltrii noilor ci
de comunicaie oferite de ctre Internet (forumuri, chaturi, review-uri, bloguri, etc.).
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Anticipm c exist o legtur ntre media social i deciziile luate de noul
consumator. Pentru a lmuri diferite aspecte legate de acest subiect am desfurat o
cercetare n care am urmrit:
rolul Internetului ca surs educaional i de informaii pentru noul consumator din
Romnia;
modul n care sunt prezentate i mprtite tirile din media tradiional n media
social;
posibilitile de educare a noului consumator din Romnia cu ajutorul Internetului i
a mediei sociale n ceea ce privete consumul de mncare organic.
Cercetarea s-a desfurat cu ajutorul motoarelor de cutare din Romnia i a celor
internaionale. Ne-am concentrat pe evoluia numrului de forumuri i bloguri legate de
cuvinte ca: ou bio; gini crescute n baterii (psri care nu pot niciodat s zboare sau
mcar s bat din aripi i care sunt obligate s-i petreac ntreaga via pe o suprafa mai
mic dect o coal de hrtie ntr-o hal supranclzit) i marcarea oulor, n perioada
decembrie 2009 iunie 2010.
Am ales acest subiect datorit apariiei n media tradiional a unor tiri legate de
acest subiect, precum cea a lui Gheorghe Mencinicopschi.
Gheorghe Mencinicopschi, este profesor dr. de biologie i biochimie, expert n
nutriie, siguran alimentar, dietetician, i director al Institutului Romn de Cercetare a
Alimentelor. El i-a publicat n ianuarie 2010, cartea despre sfaturi alimentare Noua
ordine alimentara - i noi ce mai mncm?
n timp ce i promova cartea a aprut ntr-un talk show n seara zilei de 3
februarie 2010. Unul din subiectele discuiei a fost marcarea oulor, iar Gheorghe
Mencinicopschi a afirmat c: cele mai sntoase ou sunt cele marcate cu cifra 0 (zero)
deoarece sunt ou organice, sau cele marcate cu 1 i 2 (care provin de la gini crescute n
curte i n ferme n aer liber). Oule marcate cu cifra 3 provin de la gini crescute n
baterii, i a declarat c ar fi bine ca acestea s fie evitate sau consumul lor sa fie ct mai
redus.
Pornind de la acest eveniment am dorit s vedem legtura dintre aceast tire, care
a fost preluat de ctre toate canalele de tiri i interesul noului consumator de mncare bio.
Dei tirea a aprut n februarie 2010, cercetarea online acoper un interval mai
mare, cu scopul de a urmrii cum se reflect n postrile online interesul pentru mncarea
bio (n special oule bio), nainte i dup apariia tirii la TV. Am dorit s urmrim dac
interesul pentru mncarea bio a crescut n rndul consumatorilor dup apariia tirii i dac
opinia unui expert este important.
Legat de subiectul privind interesul pentru mncarea bio, n spe pentru oule
bio, am fcut o cercetare n mediul online prin care am cutat s vedem numrul de discuii
pe blogurile i forumurile din Romnia. Pentru a avea o acuratee mai mare am folosit
combinaii de cuvinte, combinaii de cuvinte definite n continuare ca modele, respectiv:
Modelul 1- relaia dintre mesajul expertului i marcarea oulor
Modelul 2 - relaia ou-ou marcate-gini crescute n baterii






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3. Evoluia discuiilor de pe bloguri

Tabelul nr. 1 i nr. 2 precum i graficele lor prezint evoluia numrului de discuii
care apar pe blogurile din Romnia legat de modelul 1 i 2.

Tabel nr. 1: Evoluia numrului de discuii care apar pe blogurile din Romnia
pentru modelul nr.1 (relaia dintre mesajul expertului i marcarea oulor)

Luna
Dec.
2009
Ian.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Mai
2010
Iunie
2010
Numrul de
discuii
2 12 216 145 57 12 9

Conform reprezentrii grafice a datelor din tabelul nr. 1, se observ o cretere
brusc a numrului de discuii (216) n luna n care a aprut tirea n media tradiional
(februarie 2010), urmat de o scdere constant n urmtoarele 3 luni, ajungndu-se la
nivelul anterior apariiei tirii (figura nr. 1).


Figura nr. 1: Evoluia numrului de discuii care apar pe blogurile din Romnia
pentru modelul nr 1

Tabel nr. 2: Evoluia numrului de discuii care apar pe blogurile din Romnia
pentru modelul nr.2 (relaia dintre ou-ou marcate-gini crescute n baterii)
Luna
Dec.
2009
Ian.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Mai
2010
Iunie
2010
Numrul
de discuii
41 40 665 424 287 124 125

Conform reprezentrii grafice a datelor din tabelul nr. 2, se observ c, n luna
februarie 2010, lun n care a aprut tirea n media tradiional, a fost o cretere brusc a
numrului de discuii postate pe bloguri, respectiv 665, fa de ianuarie 2010 cnd a fost un
numr de 40 de discuii. De asemenea, n acest caz se observ c scderea este brusc n
luna martie (424 de discuii), urmat de o scdere uoar n urmtoarele 2 luni (figura nr.
2).
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Figura nr. 2: Evoluia numrului de discuii care apar pe blogurile din Romnia
pentru modelul nr. 2


4. Evoluia discuiilor de pe forumuri

Tabelul nr. 3 i nr. 4 precum i graficele acestora arat evoluia numrului de
discuii care apar pe forumurile din Romnia legat de modelul 1 i 2.

Tabel nr. 3: Evoluia numrului de discuii care apar pe forumurile din Romnia
pentru modelul nr.1 (relaia dintre mesajul expertului i marcarea oulor)
Luna
Dec.
2009
Ian.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Mai
2010
Iunie
2010
Numrul
de discuii
25 52 237 183 114 92 69

n figura nr. 3, putem observa o cretere a numrului de discuii legate de relaia
dintre mesajele experilor i marcarea oulor. Creterea interesului fa de acest subiect a
fost meninut n timpul lunii februarie (237 de discuii, fa de ianuarie 2010 cnd au fost
10 discuii), cnd au aprut tirea la televizor. De asemenea, n lunile martie, aprilie, mai i
iunie se observ o uoar scdere a interesului privind acest subiect, faa de nivelul anterior
momentului apariiei tirii n media tradiional.

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Figura nr. 3: Evoluia numrului de discuii care apar pe forumurile din Romnia
pentru modelul nr. 1

Tabel nr. 4: Evoluia numrului de discuii care apar pe forumurile din Romnia
pentru modelul nr. 2 (relaia dintre ou-ou marcate-gini crescute n baterii)
Luna
Dec.
2009
Ian.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Mai
2010
Iunie
2010
Numrul
de discuii
652 1164 845 1388 1095 883 684

Figura nr. 4 arat o evoluie n numrul de discuii care este complet diferit de
cele din figura nr. 3. Nu exista un trend clar n evoluia de discuiilor. Un interes fa de
acest subiect este nregistrat chiar nainte de apariia tirii tradiionale (n ianuarie 2010 s-
au nregistrat 1164 de discuii). Dup momentul n care a aprut tirea s-a nregistrat o
scdere a numrului de discuii n luna februarie (845 discuii) urmat de o cretere
puternic n luna martie (1388 discuii), i abia n luna iunie numrul de discuii despre
acest subiect a fost mai mic dect cel din luna februarie (respectiv 684 de discuii n iunie,
fa de 845 n februarie). Situaia poate fi explicat prin faptul c dinamica discuiilor pe
forumuri este diferit de cea de pe bloguri.


Figura nr. 4: Evoluia numrului de discuii care apar pe forumurile din Romnia
pentru modelul nr. 2
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Concluzii

Media social este un instrument de comunicare; acesta urmrete transformarea
monologului n dialog, accesul liber la informaia de orice fel i transformarea utilizatorilor
de internet din simpli cititori n creatori de coninut. Interaciunea din lumea online pentru
crearea de noi relaii n scop personal sau de business se poate face prin media social. Se
poate realiza astfel fidelizarea i participarea oamenilor, se pot cere preri, se poate face
cercetare de pia i se poate comunica mai uor la nivel global.
Aspectul comun al tuturor ncercrilor de definire a mediei sociale l constituie
mpletirea tehnologiei i a interaciunii sociale n scopul crerii de valoare. Aceast
interaciune i modul de prezentare a informaiei depinde de varietatea perspectivelor i
construirea unui sentiment de apartenen la o anumit comunitate, odat cu mprtirea
impresiilor i experienelor personale ale participanilor.
Cercetarea arat c tirile care pornesc din media tradiional au sigur un impact n
media social, chiar dac nu unul foarte mare, ceea ce demonstreaz c media social nu
poate fi nc folosit ca un instrument eficient de educare. Acest lucru ar putea fi o
consecin a faptului c Internetul este utilizat ca un mediu de divertisment i o opiune de
petrecere a timpului liber, i nu pentru a obine informaii substaniale necesare pentru
transformarea individului ntr-un consumator contient i educat, adic un nou
consumator.
n Romnia ca i n restul lumii, Internetul a devenit un instrument de educare i
informare a consumatorilor. Naterea noului consumator este o consecin a dezvoltrii
Internetului i a creterii accesului la informaii online, noii consumatori fiind o categorie
de oameni care i iau informaiile mai mult de pe Internet. Toate acestea duc la concluzia
c Internetul este o resurs educaional.
Internetul pe lng media tradiional devine o resurs important de nvare i
educare. Dei posibilitile de educare a consumatorilor cu ajutorul Internetului, ca i
creterea numrului de noi consumatori, sunt aproape nelimitate, totui interesul acestora
este prea puin reflectat n media social. Aceasta este o consecin a faptului c Internetul
este folosit pentru divertisment i c este nevoie de mai mult timp pentru ca s se realizeze
o transformare a indivizilor n consumatori educai. Totui este posibil s se ating acest el
n viitor, att n Romnia ct i n ntreaga lume.


Bibliografie
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technology and protecting the enterprise. Cornwall: MPG Books Ltd.
Comm, J., 2009. Twitter power 2.0. How to Dominate your Market one Tweet at a Time.
New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Euro RSCG Worldwide, 2010. Prosumer Report. The New Consumer in the Era of Mindful
Spending. [online] Disponibil la: <http://www.thenewconsumer.com/wp-
content/uploads/2010/11/Prosumer_Report-_The_New_Consumer_lores.pdf> [Accesat
28 septembrie 2011].
Kelsey, T., 2010. Social Networking Spaces From Facebook to Twitter and Everything in
Between. New York: Apress.
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McGregor, S. L., 2000. Consumer education and the OECD electronic commerce
consumer protection guidelines. Journal of Consumer Studies & Home Economics,
24(3), pp. 170-178.
Ministry of Economic Development, 2008. The Digital Strategy 2.0. [online] Disponibil la:
<http://www.med.govt.nz/upload/73583/Digital-Strategy.pdf> [Accesat 28 octombrie
2010].
Negrea, M., 2007. Noi modaliti de comunicare: Media Generat de Consumatori (New
style in comunication: consumer-generated media). Amfiteatru Economic, IX(21), pp.
121-126.
OECD, 2009. Promoting Consumer Education. Trends, policies and good practices. Paris:
OECD.
Onete, B., Constantinescu, M. i Filip, A., 2008. Internet buying behavior. Case study:
research of AES students' behavior regarding online shopping. Amfiteatru Economic,
X(Special issue 2), pp. 18-24.
Onete, B., Voinea, L. i Dina, R., 2010. Dimensions and evaluations of the new consumer
concept in Romania. Current Issues of Business and Law, 5(2), pp. 341-355.
Pamfilie, R., Maiorescu, I. i Vian, S., 2010. A new approach to business websites within
the framework of conceptual society-food companies reference. Current Issues of
Business and Law, 5(2), pp. 356-368.
Pierson, G., 2008. Social Media. Social Media Vision, [blog] 11 noiembrie, Disponibil la:
<http://www.socialmediavision.com/social-media/> [Accesat 29 septembrie 2011].
Popescu, D., Negrea, M., Voinea, L., i Stanciu, C., 2010, Conceptual transpositions
regarding the food quality in the mental of new consumer from Romania. n: The
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, The 17th Symposium IGWT Facing the
Challanges of the Future: Excellence in Business and Commodity Science, Bucureti,
Romnia, 21-25 septembrie 2010. Bucureti: Editura ASE.
Voinea, L., 2011. Cercetarea percepiei noii generaii de consumatori din Romnia privind
calitatea produselor alimentare ecologice. Calitatea - Acess la succes Journal, 21(1),
pp. 52-59.
Weinberg, T., 2009. The New Community Rules: Marketing on the Social Web. Sebastopol,
California: OReilly Media.
Zarrella, D., 2010. The Social Media Marketing Book. New York: OReilly Media Inc.

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RELAIA DINTRE STRUCTURA COMUNICRII I EVITAREA
INCERTITUDINII REFLECTAT N DESIGNUL SITE-URILOR WEB
ROMNETI


Doru Pleea
1
, Rodica Pamfilie
2
i Irina Maiorescu
3

1) 2) 3)
Academia de Studii Economice, Bucureti, Romnia




Rezumat
Societatea de astzi este orientat tot mai mult spre spaiul virtual. Modelarea
mediului electronic, conform realitilor din mediul real n scopul facilitrii activitilor i
proceselor din mediul online, implic un design atent elaborat al site-urilor web i al
platformelor electronice. Dimensiunile culturale reflectate n design joac un rol esenial n
perceperea informaiilor i mesajelor din spatele cuvintelor i imaginilor afiate pe site.
Lucrarea aceasta i propune s ofere o perspectiv asupra modului n care structura
comunicrii specific diferitelor culturi, comportamentul de evitare al incertitudinii dar i
particularitile cognitive ale sexelor influeneaz designul site-urilor web romneti, ca
urmare a rezultatelor unei cercetri efectuate pe un eantion reprezentativ de studeni ai
Academiei de Studii Economice din Bucureti.

Cuvinte-cheie: diferene culturale, designul site-urilor web, structura comunicrii,
particulariti cognitive masculine i feminine, consumator

Clasificare JEL: M16


Introducere

Una dintre cele mai populare teorii cu privire la diferenele culturale n aparine
lui Edward Hall, analiza acestuia conducnd la clasificarea rilor i a culturilor n funcie
de structura comunicrii specific fiecreia, precum i n funcie de percepia timpului.
Referitor la structura comunicrii, culturile sunt plasate de-a lungul unei scale ce variaz de
la comunicarea n context variat ctre comunicarea n context redus (Hall i Hall, 1990).
O alt abordare a diferenelor culturale i aparine lui Geert Hofstede. Cercetarea
impresionant a acestuia duce la identificarea unor dimensiuni culturale care se manifest
mai mult sau mai puin n comportamentul populaiei, n funcie de cutumele, specificul
cultural i tradiiile motenite de-a lungul istoriei. Cele cinci dimensiuni culturale pe care
Hofstede le consider importante pentru analiza fiecrei culturi sunt: Distana fa de

Autor de contact, Doru Pleea - pleseadoru@gmail.com


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putere, Individualismul, Masculinitatea, Evitarea incertitudinii, Orientarea pe termen lung.
(Hofstede, 1997).
O cercetare efectuat asupra studenilor romni din Academia de Studii
Economice din Bucureti din programele de studiu licen zi n anul universitar 2010
2011 a artat c designul site-urilor web are influene similare datorate dimensiunii de
Evitare a incertitudinii, dar i specificului structurii comunicrii.


1. Structura comunicrii

Referitor la aceast caracteristic, Hall ia n considerare aspecte referitoare la
comunicarea fa n fa, limbajul non-verbal, viteza de transmitere a mesajului, modul de
transmitere a informaiilor direct sau pe ocolite. Astfel, n culturile ce comunic folosind
un context variat este foarte important simbolistica, gesturile, limbajul non-verbal, oamenii
folosind n special limbajul indirect, considernd c ceilali vor desprinde mesajul ce se
dorete a fi transmis din context. Pe de alt parte, culturile ce au un context redus n
comunicare au tendina de a se exprima direct, prin fraze clare, astfel nct asculttorii s nu
aib dubii n interpretarea mesajului. Similar, acetia se ateapt la un rspuns la fel de
direct i de clar. (Hall i Hall, 1990).
Astfel, natura indirect a culturilor ce comunic n context variat, preferina
acestora pentru asimilarea de calupuri de informaii mai mici i simbolistica sunt exprimate
prin imagini, animaii, demonstraii.
Site-urile destinate culturilor ce comunic n context redus, dimpotriv, vor avea
mai puine animaii i simboluri, dar vor fi mai bine structurate i vor oferi mai mult text.
Se prefer ca informaia s fie preluat ca un ntreg, dintr-un singur loc, ct mai eficient i
direct (Wrtz, 2005).
S-a demonstrat de ctre cercettori c exist diferene ntre structura neurologic a
creierului brbailor i cea a femeilor, cortexul avnd zone i capaciti de procesare
diferite pentru activitatea cognitiv.
Biologic, ntruct creierul uman este mprit n dou emisfere, fiecare dintre ele
avnd funcii bine definite cea stng n comunicare i cea dreapt n percepie spaial.
n general, una dintre emisfere devine dominant n procesele cognitive. Experimentele
indic faptul c cele dou emisfere proceseaz informaiile ntr-o manier mai degrab
integrat n rndul femeilor i mai specializat la brbai. Astfel, creierul specializat al
brbailor proceseaz informaiile logic, secvenial, pe buci, n vreme ce creierul femeilor
proceseaz informaia ntr-un mod unitar, holistic. De aici brbaii vor aprecia ntr-o
proporie destul de mare informaii concentrate care pot fi cu uurin gsite n funcie de
anumite criterii de cutare, n anumite puncte - cheie, n vreme ce femeile vor aprecia mai
multe surse de informare, bogate n informaii.
Aceast ipotez a selectivitii sugereaz diferene ntre modul de procesare a
informaiilor de ctre sexe, traducndu-se, n cazul brbailor, prin cutarea elementului
fundamental, a schemei, a tematicii, n vreme ce, n cazul femeilor, prin detalierea
mesajului i coninutului (McCormick i Whittington, 2000).





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2. Evitarea incertitudinii

Hofstede consider c exist un anumit comportament de evitare al
incertitudinilor n toate culturile, ns ele difer n funcie de modul n care accept
nesigurana i evenimente imprevizibile, crendu-i diferite ritualuri i obiceiuri n acest
sens.
Un comportament de evitare mare a incertitudinii presupune ca situaiile neclare,
ambigue s fie evitate. Pentru aceasta sunt preferate structuri clare n organizaii, instituii
i relaii care au rolul de a minimiza apariia situaiilor neprevzute. Ceea ce este
necunoscut poate fi privit ca o ameninare.
Un site web construit pentru a corespunde unui astfel de comportament are nevoie
de informaie structurat simplu i clar. Predictibilitatea i sigurana n navigare, fr
riscuri de rtcire n site pentru gsirea informaiilor , sunt necesare. Adesea este de
ateptat ca link-urile ctre alte pagini din site s includ i o descriere suplimentar a ceea
ce urmeaz s se gseasc acolo prin accesare.
Consumatori din culturi care sunt caracterizate de un comportament de evitare n
mai mic msur a incertitudinii tind s i manifeste mai puin vizibil nelinitea,
nesigurana n faa evenimentelor neprevzute. Ceea ce este nou, neateptat poate fi privit
cu interes i curiozitate. Structura informaiilor n site-urile web construite pentru astfel de
culturi poate fi mai complex, fr a limita i previziona informaiile ce le va obine
utilizatorul n explorarea site-ului. Se pot utiliza link-uri ctre pagini care se deschid n
afara site-ului n condiiile n care informaiile oferite pe acestea sunt utile i interesante.


3. Dimensiunile culturale ale Romniei

Romnia nu a fost inclus n analizele efectuate de ctre Hall i Hofstede asupra
diferitelor ri ale lumii, particularitile culturale ale acesteia fiind cuantificate estimativ,
prin extrapolarea valorilor obinute de culturi asemntoare celui romne. Pleea i alii
(2010) au dedus n baza unei analize comparative a designului site-urilor web a cinci ri
latine, printre care i Romnia, c aceasta din urm are o structur a comunicrii orientat
mai degrab spre context variat.
Datorit faptului c cercetrile lui Hofstede s-au derulat pe parcursul unei perioade
de timp n care Romnia era sub un regim politic comunist, informaiile, pe care acesta le-a
estimat n vederea definirii particularitilor culturale romneti, nu au fost relevante.
Aproape 20 de ani mai trziu, cercetrile efectuate n Romnia democrat de ctre
Interact (2005), urmrind o metodologie similar celei utilizate de Hofstede, au avut ca
rezultat observarea unor diferene ntre valorile estimate de Hofstede i cele calculate
efectiv.
n tabelul nr. 1 sunt prezentate att valorile indicilor estimai de Hofstede, ct i
valorile rezultate n urma celor dou cercetri diferite ale Interact.







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Vol. XIII Numr Special 5 Noiembrie 2011
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Tabel nr. 1: Indicatorii Hofstede pentru Romania
ara
Distana
fa de
putere
Individualism Masculinitate
Evitarea
incertitudinii
Orientarea
pe termen
lung
ROMNIA
prima
cercetare
INTERACT
2005
29 49 39 61 42
ROMNIA
a doua
cercetare
INTERACT
2005
33 49 39 61 42
ROMNIA -
estimrile lui
Hofstede
90 30 42 90 -
Sursa : Luca, 2005


4. Obiectivele i metodologia de investigare

Prin cercetarea care susine lucrarea de fa s-a urmrit identificarea relaiei dintre
Structura comunicrii i Evitarea incertitudinii reflectat n designul unui site de e-
learning creat pentru studenii romni, precum i verificarea comportamentului de evitare
a incertitudinii studenilor romni. Astfel, s-a urmrit dac romnii tinde s evite ntr-o
foarte mare msur situaiile nesigure, imprevizibile, incerte ( conform estimrilor lui
Hofstede) sau dac acetia le evit ntr-o msur moderat (conform cercetrilor Interact).
Un alt obiectiv al cercetrii se refer la identificarea modului n care structura de
procesare a informaiilor i comunicare specific celor dou sexe este influenat de
factorul cultural.
Studiul a avut la baz analiza rspunsurilor obinute n urma completrii unui
chestionar online de ctre studeni nscrii n programele de licen - zi ale Academiei de
Studii Economice Bucureti n anul universitar 2010 2011. Eantionul a fost calculat
astfel nct s fie reprezentativ pentru Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureti. A
rezultat un minim de 375 respondeni necesar pentru un nivel de ncredere de 95%,
conform formulei (1).
)
25 . 0
( )]
1
( [
) 1 (
2 2
2

Z
N
d
p p Z N
n
(1)

unde,
n mrimea eantionului
N populaia total( n Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureti numrul studenilor
nscrii n cei trei ani ai programelor de licen zi n anul universitar 2010 2011 este N =
14910 studeni)
d marja de eroare (5% , or 0.05)
Z 1,96 pentru un nivel de ncredere de 95%
p = 0.5
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Au fost construite dou versiuni diferite ale aceluiai site de e-learning pentru a
determina dac studenii au o anumit preferin pentru structurarea informaiei n site:
vertical i simpl sau orizontal i complex (figura nr. 1 i 2). Imagini ale celor dou site-
uri au fost artate studenilor, acetia fiind rugai s indice versiunea preferata.
Att numele companiei ce ofer cursuri online, ct i siglele i informaiile folosite
n site sunt fictive; site-ul nu exist n realitate, el fiind construit special pentru scopurile
cercetrii. Au fost 439 rspunsuri valide, ndeplinindu-se astfel criteriul de
reprezentativitate al eantionului.


5. Rezultatele cercetrii

Romnia este o ar cu un indice foarte ridicat al evitrii Incertitudinii conform
Hofstede i cu unul mediu ridicat conform cercetrilor realizate de Interact. Reflectarea
unui comportament de evitare foarte mare a incertitudinii n designul site-ului web se
remarc prin preferina pentru structuri simple i clare, fr exces de informaie n pagin.
Analiznd rspunsurile primite de la studeni se poate remarca o preferin clar a
ambelor sexe pentru structura vertical, simpl a informaiilor, 73.46% din respondeni
indicnd aceast versiune a site-ului web.


Figura nr. 1: Site web de e-learning : structurare vertical, simpl i clar a
informaiilor

Acest procent ridicat al preferinelor pentru structurarea vertical, simpl a
informaiilor duce ctre concluzia c romnii au mai degrab o structur a comunicrii n
context variat. Aceasta pentru c designul site-ului cu structura vertical ofer puine
informaii dintr-o dat i nu foarte mult text.
Aceasta demonstreaz de asemenea nclinarea mai degrab moderat pentru
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evitarea incertitudinii. Ambele versiuni ale site-ului ofer informaie clar i bine
structurat, ns varianta orizontal detaliaz mai mult coninutul fiecrui curs.
Dei programele de studiu propuse n aceste versiuni de site-uri web sunt pentru
domeniul economic, al afacerilor, unele dintre acestea nu se regsesc n curricula
Academiei de Studii Economice din Bucureti.
n condiiile n care studenii romni ar fi fost caracterizai de un comportament de
evitare foarte mare a incertitudinii, ar fi fost de ateptat ca versiunea cu structur orizontal
a informaiei s fie mai degrab preferat.
Totui, analiznd distribuia rspunsurilor pentru cele dou variante ale site-ului
web n funcie de sexul respondenilor, s-a remarcat o preferin uor mai ridicat a sexului
feminin pentru structura vertical a site-ului; n acelai timp, varianta orizontal a site-ului a
fost aleas de un procent mai ridicat de respondeni de sex masculin.



Figura nr. 2: Site web de e-learning : structurare orizontal, clar i complex a
informaiilor

Aceast diferen se poate explica prin faptul c structura neuronal specific
creierului celor dou sexe este diferit.
Structura vertical a informaiilor n site-ul prezentat studenilor implic mai
puin descriere a cursurilor (de fapt, nu sunt indicate dect denumirile cursurilor cu link-
uri ctre paginile corespunztoare, fr ca alt informaie suplimentar s le nsoeasc) i
este preferat mai degrab de femei datorit faptului c acestea au un comportament de
explorare mai pronunat dect brbaii.
ntruct varianta orizontal a site-ului ofer mai mult informaie n mod
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concentrat despre fiecare curs dect versiunea vertical, brbaii au preferat ntr-o mai mare
msur dect femeile aceast form de transmitere a informaiilor. Totui, per ansamblu,
structura vertical a informaiilor este preferat, aceasta indicnd faptul c influenele
culturale sunt mai importante dect diferenele impuse de particularitile cognitive ale
celor dou sexe n ceea ce privete modalitatea optim de transmitere i comunicare a
informaiilor.


6. Limitri ale cercetrii

Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureti este cea mai mare universitate
economic din Romnia, absolvenii acestei instituii lucrnd n toate ramurile economiei.
Totui, rezultatele acestei cercetri trebuie privite cu o anumit rezerv n contextul altor
culturi sau a altui segment de vrst, dat de faptul c cercetarea este reprezentativ pentru
tineri, studeni ntre 19 26 ani, aparinnd culturii romne.


Concluzii

Astzi, companiile se bazeaz din ce n ce mai mult pe mediul virtual n eforturile
lor de a comunica eficient cu potenialii sau actualii consumatori. Site-ul web al companiei
este locul unde produsele i serviciile sunt prezentate, promovate i, adesea, este cel care i
d identitate companiei. Astfel, este esenial ca acesta s nu fie doar o simpl colecie de
text, imagini, animaie i sunet, ci s aib un design adecvat ateptrilor si necesitilor
clienilor. Cultura consumatorilor, dar i a organizaiilor este foarte important pentru
nelegerea tiparelor specifice de gndire i percepere a informaiilor. Structura comunicrii
este parte a unei moteniri culturale pe care individul o poart n el n permanen; similar,
comportamentul su de evitare a incertitudinii este dictat de amprenta cultural.
Consumatorii romni sunt caracterizai de o structur a comunicrii mai degrab
n context variat, precum i de o atitudine de evitare a incertitudinii moderat ridicat,
aceste dou dimensiuni reflectndu-se n structura site-ului n mod similar.
Dei exist diferene ntre modurile n care sexul masculin i cel feminin prefer
ca informaia s le fie transmis sau s comunice, influenele culturale prevaleaz n faa
celor date de particularitile cognitive specifice celor dou sexe.


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THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES ON THE ORGANIZATION
AND FUNCTIONING OF THE COMPANY


Valentin Florentin Dumitru

Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania




Abstract
The companies became more complex in terms of corporate structure and geographical area
because of the globalization process and they are facing a higher and higher data volume,
with a higher and higher competition level, especially during crisis moments, which makes
the use of the information technologies (IT) a competitive advantage. The objective of this
research was to prove the impact of the IT on the company. To this extent, we conducted an
empirical research. We launched five hypotheses and in the end we proved that there is a
dependency relationship between the size of a company and its degree of use of the IT,
between the decision of use of the IT within a company and the organization and the
functioning of the company, between the existence of the Internet in a company and its use
for various purposes.

Keywords: information technologies, company, empirical research, impact

JEL Classification: M15


Introduction
Currently, companies are undergoing a profound transformation that leads to an increase in
complexity of work for those involved, but also for supplies, works and services. The
process of globalization of economic markets has imposed new pressures on IT. This
circumstance requires the need for working with more sophisticated tools, including IT (IT)
to meet the challenges of a changing social reality and increasingly complex and
demanding. The relationship between these factors was investigated in the past using
contingency theory (eg, by authors Blackaby et al., 1995).
Together with the analysis of contingency factors the reference to current issues and their
influence on firm strategy is important, and requires the deployment and management of
information tools, such as to make performance easier to achieve by those responsible by
offering a set of related information.
An optimal deployment of IT by companies means better adaptation to a changing
environment, allowing the existence of long distance relationship and causing a high degree

Authors contact: e-mail: valentin.dumitru@soft-expertinfo


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of competitiveness. In this way, the dynamic nature of a firm can be improved. Even when
a company is small, it must assimilate the use of IT. Moreover, since there is a greater
number of intercommunication, the more likely it is to achieve diversification in a
traditional company, and various improvements in its departments. Using IT, it is possible
to know the risk of operations and to provide future earnings. The improvement of business
relationships outside the firm, especially with external clients connecting to the company's
website is also a significant factor. All these advantages were developed and tested in larger
firms but can be extrapolated to small and medium-sized firms. In reality, in an economy
such as the Romanian one, the use of IT is a prerequisite for development and growth.
The answer to the problems that seem to exceed us through the complexity, dynamics and
the volume of data, processing and decisions, is the implementation of IT&C systems. The
IT&C systems offer the quality of strategic resource to the electronic information, for an
advantage position in the competition of the market economy (Surcel and Bologa, 2008).
In this research I started from the idea that IT has a positive, increasing impact on the
company.
All the achievements in IT have the main purpose of reaching the global information
society, which, according to O'Brien (1999), involves confrontation of four technological
values, namely:
computer company stage, covering the period 1970-2010;
interconnected knowledgeable workers stage, which began in 1980;
interconnected global business stage, started around the years 1992-1993;
the stage of global information company, which began after 2010.
The rest of this paper is structured as it follows:
a literature review;
the presentation of the research methodology used;
the analysis of the responses received to the questionnaire;
the conclusions of the paper.

1. Literature Review
Among the systems used in the companies we considered that the most useful systems
currently are the ERPs (Enterprise Resource Planning), representing the complete and
complex solution that integrates the entire business. Among the potential effects of using IT
we retained dematerialization of documents and procedures, inter-organizational
information systems, defining roles and improving managerial processes in organizations
(Huber, 1990; Reix, 2002; Dumitru and Florescu, 2008). In our view, IT is essential for the
survival and development of the entity.
In recent years, researchers examined the design and use of management systems in relation
to the environment, IT, structure, strategy, firm size and culture. Traditionally, companies
had the disadvantage that they have more restrictions when it comes to resources, while
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they have greater flexibility to adapt to environmental changes. Some authors engaged in
empirical analysis to determine if the companies were able to align the use of IT for
financial accounting department and if it is one factor that leads to an improvement in their
financial and organizational results (Debreceney and Gray, 2001; Velcu, 2008, Locke and
Lowem 2007, Russell et al., 1999; Bollecker, 2000, Albu, 2006; Hyvonen, 2003 etc.).
Many studies (Granlund and Malmi, 2002; Verdaasdonk and Wouters, 1999, Dechow and
Mouritsen, 2005 etc.) were directed on the relationship between business development and
proper deployment of IT technologies, supporting the theory that the proper use of IT
technologies help increase labor productivity, thereby affecting the critical wealth and
prosperity of a country. According to OECD (2000), the countries with the largest IT
investment achieve the greatest productivity growth indices. Also, companies that have an
ERP are presented as a solution to the problems of dispersion and fragmentation of
information (Chtioui, 2006). Currently, IT management processes tend to optimize the
design of software packages in accordance with the best industry practices.
A large number of research is devoted to the impact of IT on the various components of the
financial and accounting information: financial accounting (Debreceney and Gray, 2001;
Velcu, 2008), financial audit (Tugui and Tugui, 2002; George, 2004; Roscoe and George,
2004; Stanciu and Mangiuc, 2006), managerial accounting and management control
(Russell et al., 1999; Bollecker, 2000; Verstegen et al., 2005; Albu, 2006), management and
exploitation of knowledge accounting (Scott, 1995; Kurunmki, 2004; Burns and
Baldvinsdottir, 2005; Hyvonen et al., 2006); performance of the company's financial
accounting department (Dewan and Kraemer, 1998, Mahmood and Mann, 2000; Jouirou
and Kalika, 2004; Florescu, 2008). In terms of financial accounting, we believe that IT
should follow the trend shown in the internationalization of accounting standards. In our
view, this can be achieved by implementing ERPs, because they use multiple currencies
and they are multilingual systems. They also follow the trend of globalization and can
integrate with applications used by customers, suppliers, state etc. With regard to financial
audits, this is a new area of application of modern IT. Some researchers believe that there is
an impact of IT on management accounting (Caglio 2003), while other studies cannot
provide such certainty and argue that the impact is indirect, through the control system
(Scapens and Jazayeri 2003, Granlund and Malmi 2002). For management accounting and
management control we concluded that the role of people working in this field changed,
including their abilities now to use IT (Albu, 2006). In regard to the management and use of
accounting knowledge, I noticed that we talk now about a hybridization of the professions,
but also about the danger of loss of jobs along with the deployment of IT. Regarding the
performance of the company's financial accounting department using IT models may be
proposed for the analysis of the financial accounting department.

2. Research methodology
The first part of our research based on fundamental research, lays in a review of the
literature on the impact of IT on organization and operation of the company. This review of
the literature helped us to structure the main widely accepted ideas on the subject, but
especially to determine how IT involvement in the company evolved in time.
Such research helped us to understand the theoretical concepts that form the basis of the
research area, but mostly helped us to convince ourselves that the substance of these
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concepts is not a rigid, but one that is modelled in relation with time or space. Literature
review provided us with the ability to understand the features of the current process of
deployment of IT and provided the foundation for applied research. On this basis we have
formulated the general hypothesis: IT has a direct impact on the organization and
functioning of the company.
To complete the research we conducted a study to illustrate the current situation for a
sample of companies in Romania. For this we formulated and tested the following research
hypotheses:
Q1: There is a relationship of dependency between the size of a firm and its degree of
computerization
Q2: There is a relationship of dependency between the domain of activity of the firm and its
degree of computerization
Q3: There is a relationship of dependency between the level of staff training and the use of
IT within the company
Q4: There is a relationship of dependency between the decision to use IT within a firm and
its impact on the organization and functioning of a company
Q5: There is a relationship between the existence of Internet within a company and its use
for various purposes.
We tested these hypotheses through an empirical research based on a population survey of
82 companies in Romania. This part of positive research of the paper aims for the
formulation of explanations about the concepts under investigation and their fundaments in
the practice of the firms. We wanted to hear the opinions of the most informed people in the
field, which we believe are the managers.
To see if there is a correlation between independent and dependent variables in the analysis
of responses to the questionnaire we chose Chi-square test (2). This method tests the null
hypothesis that two criteria of classification are independent. If two classification criteria
are not independent, there is an association between them.
Chi-square is calculated finding the difference between each observed and theoretical
frequency for each possible outcome, calculating their square, dividing them each on a
theoretical frequency and adding the results:
(1)
where: Oi = observed frequency;
Ei = expected frequency (theoretical) involved by the null hypothesis.
In our research, we used chi-square test for independence and we calculated 2 using
Statistica software. On the other hand, we determined the critical value of 2 in the statistics
table, taking the value of the degree of freedom (df) and probability (p). Statistical
significance (p level) of the result is an estimated size of the degree to which it is true
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(within the meaning of representative population). Materiality level is p = 0.05
1
. P
represents a decreasing index value level of security. When the p level is higher, the more
unlikely that the observed relationship between variables in the sample to be a reliable it is.
If 2 is equal to or greater than the critical 2 (0.05), the null hypothesis (H
0
) is rejected.
Otherwise, the null hypothesis is accepted.
Also, where possible, we conducted the tests: Fisher exact, Phi, other correlations. Fisher
exact test is interpreted similarly to 2 test, but it is exact for a smaller number of responses.

3. The results of the empirical research
Through applied research based on a questionnaire
2
we studied how the practice of firms is
reflected in respondent persons working in relation with IT. Respondents were employed in
various companies in Romania. The firms were classified according to size, establishing
criteria as the volume of turnover, the volume of assets, employment and industry
(manufacturing, services etc.). The questions help us have a better understanding of the
strategies of the firms to adopt the Internet combined with other types of computer
networks: LAN, Intranet etc.
Other questions concerned the knowledge of how to use the Internet. Simple questions with
binary response (yes or no) invited the respondent to rule on the main uses of the Internet:
the transmission of service messages, adding and / or transmission of tax documents,
consultation and deployment of banking accounts, search for information about business,
looking for information about regulations, forming on-line, and information disclosure on
the Internet. These questions focused on providing a role as mediator of these technologies
within the firm and the relationship with external partners.
The next section was devoted to collecting data on business computerization. Within it, we
addressed questions like: how to make the computerized activities, the types of systems
used for specific activities, criteria for choosing software applications, the utilization of
Excel tables, positive effects from the use of present and future computer applications, the
degree to which user needs are satisfied by IT applications.
Some of the responses did not lead to rejection of the null hypothesis from the application
of chi square and Fisher exact tests.
In order to interpret the results, we presented in a first phase the distribution of independent
variables (number of employees, distribution of turnover, total asset distribution). The
ranges considered the criteria set out in the classification of national firms. Distribution of
responses according to the three criteria is as it follows:
Distribution of employees (var. 1)
Analysing the responses to question 1 (var.1) we found that the distribution of responses is
as it follows: 44% of respondents work in a number of firms with less than 50 employees
and 56% of respondents work in firms with fewer than 50 employees.
Distribution Turnover (var. 2)

1
Sometimes a materiality level of 1.00 is accepted for two degrees of freedom
2
For the questionnaire please send an e-mail to: valentin.dumitru@soft-expert.info
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Analysing the responses to question 2 (var.2) we found that the distribution of responses is
as it follows: 53% of respondents work in firms with a turnover of less than EURO 1
million and 47% of respondents work in companies whose turnover is more than 1 million
EURO.
Distribution of total balance sheet assets (var. 3)
Analysing the responses to question 3 (var.3) we found that the distribution of responses is
as follows: 59% of respondents work in firms with a lower balance sheet total of EURO 1
million and 41% of respondents work in companies whose total assets is more than one
million EURO.
Approximately equidistant distribution of the number of responses in the two intervals for
any of the three existing criteria ensures an optimal number of responses in the two
categories for data analysis.
Percentage distribution of the work done with Excel spreadsheet processor (var. 24)
Analysing the responses to the question IV.4. (var. 24) we noticed that most respondents
use Excel spreadsheet processor for the achievement of more than 10% of the specific
tasks.
Distribution of works from the financial department (var. 25)
For the question IV.5 we received 64 responses. Our respondents use Excel spreadsheet
processor for preparing financial statements, including annexes, budgets, other reports
(sales journal, purchases journal, notes and depreciation) for management reporting,
balance the composition of analytical accounts etc.
Internet connection (var. 26)
After examining responses to the question IV.6. (var. 26), we noticed that all respondents
said that the companys network is connected to the Internet. For this reason, we excluded
the question from the statistics works.
Information processing time (var. 27)
After examining responses to the question IV.6. (var. 27), we noticed that all the
respondents said that the information was obtained in less time when using computer
applications. For this reason, we excluded the question from the statistics works.
Information processing speed (var. 28)
After examining responses to the question IV.6. (var. 28), we noticed that all the
respondents stated that the use of computer applications increased the speed of processing.
For this reason, we excluded the question from the statistics works.
Distribution of other benefits arising from the use of computer applications (var. 30)
For the question IV.6 we received eight responses. They concern the deployment and
benefits of IT: correlation to the market, ease of actual work, better access to information,
reducing the budget by reducing the actual salaries, human error reduction, better control of
staff activities since any mistake can be detected in real-time, and processing of information
in less time.
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Distribution of the problems arising in implementing IT (var. 31)
For the question IV.7 we received 29 responses. Among the most important we think that
are: delays in completing month-end reporting, the definition of integrity constraints,
difficulties in working with IT professionals, have long lead times, getting data from the old
system, lack of the domains characteristics knowledge from the software company,
overcrowding staff, the difficulty of the new system etc.
Distribution of other effects that will have in the future the use of IT (var. 37)
For the question IV.8 we received four responses. Our respondents provided as future
effects of the use of IT on business the use of a common method of reporting across the
organization, market competitiveness and business efficiency, achieve electronic archiving,
saving time and money, systematic work processes, establishing working procedures and
the possibility of implementing a quality system.
We detail according to the research hypotheses and responses received the analysis of the
study conducted:
Q1: There is a relationship of dependency between the size of a firm and its degree of
computerization
To test this hypothesis, I launched the following null hypothesis:
Q
10
: The size of a firm and its degree of computerization are independent
To test the hypothesis we formulated the following questions: Question II.1. (Var. 1), the
question II.2. (Var. 2), the question II.3. (Var. 3), the question II.5. (Var. 5), the question
II.6. (Var. 6), the question II.7. (Var. 7), the question IV.1. (Var. 21), question IV.2. (Var.
22), question IV.4. (Var. 24), question IV.5. (Var. 25). Correlations tested that led to the
rejection of the hypothesis are:
The correlation between the turnover and the type of computer applications used in
the company
The breakeven point obtained (p = 0.1688) is less than 0.05, which means that a statistically
significant correlation is obtained.
We see the preference for the use of ERPs and of independent applications for types of
activities developed by different companies, in particular for the companies with a turnover
of more than EUR 1 million. There is a preference for the use of independent applications
by type of activities designed by the same firm, for the companies with a turnover of less
than EUR 1 million. This polarization of preferences can be attributed to higher allocation
of financial resources for the computerization of the companies with a greater turnover.
The frequency distribution shows that 33.33% of companies with a turnover of less than
1,000,000 use a ERP (integrated system), 55.55% use independent applications on the types
of activities developed by the same company and 11.12% use independent applications on
the types of activities developed by different companies. As regards the companies with
turnover of less than EUR 1,000,000, 62.5% use an ERP (integrated system), 21.87% use
independent applications by type of activities developed by the same company and 15.63%
use independent applications for the types of activities developed by different companies.
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Correlation between the total balance sheet assets and the existence of a network of
computers within the company
The breakeven point obtained (p = 0.08511) is between 0.05 and 0.1 which means that a
statistically significant correlation is obtained, but the link between the two variables is
weak.
This correlation analysis revealed the existence of the same trend (the existence of a
computer network) in companies with a balance sheet total exceeding EUR 1 million and
the companies whose balance sheet asset is below this limit. However, in companies with a
balance sheet asset value of more than EUR 1 million, the IT degree is greater, fact justified
by the share of answers, reflecting the degree of inclination of the right.
The frequency distribution shows that 68.29% of the companies whose balance sheet total
is less than EUR 1 million has a computer network and only 31.71% did not use such a
network. As regards the companies with a total balance sheet assets of more than 1,000,000
in 86.21% of these there is a network of computers and in the rest not.
Correlation between the number of employees and the existence of the company
Intranet
Breakeven point obtained (p = 0.0780) is between 0.05 and 0.1 which means that a
statistically significant correlation is obtained, but the link between the two variables is
weak.
It finds that in the firms with a number of employees over 50 Intranet is used in greater
extent than in companies with less than 50 employees. This is justified by the need for a
rapid mean of communicating information between departments.
The distribution of responses shows that 47.22% of firms with fewer than 50 employees
have Intranet and the rest not. Also, 66.66% of companies with over 50 employees have
Intranet.
Correlation between turnover and the existence of the company Intranet
Materiality obtained (p = 0.0125) is less than 0.05, which means that statistically significant
correlation is obtained.
It appears that in the companies with a turnover of more than EUR 1 million an Intranet is
used more than in firms with turnover below this limit. The result is justified by the need
for a rapid mean of communicating information between departments within large
companies. The conclusion is convergent with the correlation between the use of Intranet
and number of employees.
From the distribution of responses we notice that in 48.57% of companies with a turnover
under EUR 1 million is Intranet and in the rest not. In relation to companies with a turnover
of over EUR 1 million, 78.13% have Intranet and only 21.87% do not have.
Correlation between the total balance sheet assets and the existence of the company
Intranet
Materiality obtained (p = 0.01788) is less than 0.05, which means that statistically
significant correlation is obtained.
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It appears that companies with a balance sheet total of more than EUR 1 million use
Intranet more than firms with a balance sheet total under this limit. The result is justified by
the need for a rapid mean of communicating information between departments within large
companies. The conclusion is convergent with correlation between the use of Intranet and
number of employees, and the use of Intranet and the turnover of a company.
Distribution of responses reveals that 47.5% of firms with a lower balance sheet total of
EUR 1,000,000 have Intranet and the rest do not. At the same time, 75.86% of companies
with an active balance sheet exceeding EUR 1,000,000 have Intranet and only 24.14% do
not.
After analyzing the results, we can say that the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, we affirm
that there is a relationship of dependency between the size of a firm and its degree of
computerization.
Q2: There is a relationship of dependency between the activities of the firm and its degree
of computerization
To test this hypothesis, we launched the following null hypothesis:
Q
20
: Areas of activity of firms and their degree of computerization are independent
To test the hypothesis we formulated the following questions: question II.4. (Var. 4), the
question II.5. (Var. 5), the question II.6. (Var. 6), the question II.7. (Var. 7), the question
IV.1. (Var. 21), question IV.2. (Var. 22), question IV.4. (Var. 24), question IV.5. (Var. 25).
Following statistical tests, we note that none of the correlations has been validated, and the
null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Therefore, activities of the firms and their degree of
computerization are independent. In other words, firms with different business areas may
have the same degree of computerization.
Q3: There is a relationship of dependency between the level of staff training and the use of
IT within the company
To test this hypothesis, we launched the following null hypothesis:
Q
30
: Staff training and the use of IT within the company are independent
To test the hypothesis we formulated the following questions: question II.4. (Var. 9),
question II.5. (Var. 14), question II.6. (Var. 15), question II.7. (Var. 16), question IV.1.
(Var. 17), question IV.2. (Var. 18), question IV.1. (Var. 19), question IV.1. (Var. 20),
question IV.1. (Var. 22).
Following statistical tests performed, we notice that none of the correlations could be
validated, and the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Therefore, the level of staff training
and the use of IT within the company are independent.
Q4: There is a relationship of dependency between the decision to use IT within a firm and
its impact on the organization and functioning of the company
To test this hypothesis, we launched the following null hypothesis:
Q
40
: The decision to use IT within a firm and its impact on the organization and functioning
of the company shall be independent
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To test the hypothesis I formulated the following questions: question III.3. (Var. 14),
question III.3. (Var. 15), question III.3. (Var. 16), question III.3. (Var. 17), question III.3.
(Var. 18), question III.3. (Var. 19), question III.3. (Var. 20), question IV.3. (Var. 23),
question IV.6. (Var. 29), question IV.8. (Var. 32), question IV.8. (Var. 33), question IV.8.
(Var. 34), question IV.8. (Var. 35), question IV.8. (Var. 36), question IV.8. (Var. 38). The
correlations tested that led to the rejection of the fourth null hypothesis are:
Correlation between the use of the Internet messaging service for communication
within the company department and computerization of inter-organizational relations
Materiality obtained (p = 0.03801) is less than 0.05, which means that statistically
significant correlation is obtained.
After analyzing the answers I found an obvious correlation between the use of Internet
messaging service for communication and computerization of inter-organizational relations.
The distribution of responses shows that 87.5% of respondents from companies where the
Internet is used to communicate work messages believe that in the future IT will have as an
effect the computerized inter-organizational relations. In the case of companies where the
Internet is not used for the communication of service messages, only 50% of respondents
believe that the future effects of IT will be computerized inter-organizational relations.
Correlation between Internet use for filing tax / social statements and reduced
decision time
I note that the value obtained (p = 0.06331) is between 0.05 and 1, which means that
statistically the correlation exists but is weak.
The analysis of responses reveals a correlation between Internet use for filing tax / social
statements and reduced decision time. This can be explained by reducing operating time
and increased time devoted to reporting and analysis.
From the distribution of responses I observe that 96.97% of respondents from firms that use
Internet for filing tax / social statements believe that the future effect of the use of IT on
business will be to reduce decision time. 84.62% of respondents from firms that do not use
Internet for filing tax / social statements believe that the future effect of the use of IT on
business will be to reduce decision time.
Correlation between the use of the Internet for consulting bank accounts and the
transactions and the use of IT for the dematerialization of documents and procedures
Materiality obtained (p = 0.09201) is between 0.05 and 1, which means that statistically
there is a correlation, but this is pretty weak.
The correlation can be explained by the fact that Internet use for consulting bank accounts
and the transactions is just a form of dematerialization of documents.
Analyzing the responses I see that 63.83% of respondents from companies where the
Internet is used for consulting bank accounts and the transactions deemed dematerialization
of documents and procedures will not be a result of the use of IT in the future. Only 17.86%
of respondents from companies where the Internet is used for consulting bank accounts and
the transactions deemed dematerialization of documents and procedures will not be a result
of the use of IT in the future.
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Correlation between the use of the Internet for consulting bank accounts and the
transactions and inter-organizational computerization
I note that the threshold of significance obtained (p = 0.05998) is between 0.05 and 1,
which means that statistically there is a correlation, but this is pretty weak.
The correlation can be explained by the fact that banking is a relationship with the units
inter-organizational.
From the distribution of responses I observed that 91.49% of respondents from companies
where the Internet is used for consulting bank accounts and the transactions considered that
in the future the use of computerized IT will lead to inter-organizational relations. 75.86%
of the respondents from companies where the Internet is not used for consulting bank
accounts and the transactions considered that in the future the use of computerized IT will
lead to inter-organizational relations.
Correlation between the use of the Internet for seeking information from other
businesses and inter-organizational computerization
Materiality obtained (p = 0.00276) is less than 0.05, which means that a statistically
significant correlation is obtained.
We see preference for the use of computerized inter-organizational relationships (with
customers, suppliers, state representatives etc.) for the firms that use the Internet to search
for business information. This polarization of preferences can be attributed to the fact that
people who currently use the Internet realizes that it brings advantages (ie, reducing the
time spent exchanging information with parties) in its relationship with partners.
Following analysis of responses we can say that 88.73% of respondents from companies
where the Internet is used to search for information from other businesses believes that the
future use of IT will result in the computerization of the inter-organizational relationships.
Only 40% of respondents from companies where the Internet is used to search for
information from other businesses and inter-organizational computerization consider the
same thing.
Correlation between the use of the Internet for seeking information from other
businesses and the benefits achieved by implementing software application
Materiality obtained (p = 0.09222) is between 0.05 and 0.1 which means that the
statistically significant correlation is obtained, but the link between the two variables is
weak.
It is noted that people using the Internet to search information about other businesses use
applications that have responded better to their expectations. This can be explained by the
fact that people who sought information on the Internet before the deployment of new
applications were better informed and were able to purchase a suitable system.
From the distribution of responses we notice that 55.55% of respondents who come from
companies where the Internet is used to search for information from other businesses
believe that the software applications that were implemented respond to their expectations
100%; 31.94% considered they respond to their expectations 75-99% and 0-75% the
difference in proportion. 28.57% of respondents who come from companies where the
Internet is not used to search for information from other businesses believe that the
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software applications that were implemented respond to their expectations 100%, 28.57%
considered they respond to their expectations 75-99% and 0-75% the difference in
proportion.
Correlation between the use of the Internet for seeking information concerning
regulations and the reduced time for decision
Materiality obtained (p = 0.06917) is between 0.05 and 0.1 which means that the
statistically significant correlation is obtained, but the link between the two variables is
weak
It is noted that people who use the Internet to search information about regulations
consumes less time for decision. This can be explained by the fact that people who use the
Internet are informed faster than, for example, the ones that use books, textbooks, paper,
legislation etc.
The distribution of responses showed that 96% of people who use the Internet for seeking
information on regulations that affect the company believe that the use of IT in the future
will reduce decision time. 75% of those not using the Internet for seeking information on
regulations that affect the company believe the use of IT in the future will reduce decision
time.
Correlation between the use of the Internet for seeking information on regulations
and redefining roles in organizations
Materiality obtained (p = 0.08561) is between 0.05 and 0.1 which means that a statistically
significant correlation is obtained, but the link between the two variables is weak.
The distribution of responses shows that 67.12% of respondents from companies where the
Internet is used for searching for information on regulations consider one of the future
benefits of the use of IT is redefining the roles in organizations. Meanwhile, only 25% of
those not using the Internet to search information on regulations assume the same thing.
Correlation between the use of the Internet for information disclosure and
dematerialization of the documents and procedures
Materiality obtained (p = 0.09678) is between 0.05 and 0.1 which means that a statistically
significant correlation is obtained, but the link between the two variables is weak.
It follows from this analysis that people who use the Internet for information disclosure
believe that one effect of the use of IT is the dematerialization of documents and
procedures. This is logical from our point of view, as the Internet operates with intangible
procedures and documents.
Analyzing the results of the empirical study, we notice that 80% of those who use the
Internet for information disclosure believe that the use of IT in the future will lead to
dematerialization of documents and procedures. 62.5% of the respondents from the
companies that do not use the Internet for information disclosure believe the same thing.
Correlation between the use of the Internet for information disclosure and the change
in the information system, internal control and governance
Materiality obtained (p = 0.07789) is between 0.05 and 0.1 which means that a statistically
significant correlation is obtained, but the link between the two variables is weak.
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Distribution of responses shows that 96.97% of those who use the Internet for information
disclosure believe that the use of IT in the future will have no impact on the articulation of
information systems, internal control and governance. Only 84.62% of respondents who do
not use the Internet for information disclosure responded in the same way.
Correlation between the decisive criterion in choosing computer applications
purchased in the company and the computerization of the inter-organizational relations
Materiality obtained (p = 0.07376) is between 0.05 and 0.1 which means that a statistically
significant correlation is obtained, but the link between the two variables is weak.
We believe that the reason the decisive factor in choosing software applications purchased
and inter-organizational computerization are related is that one of the criteria may be its use
by the other companies in the group, the purchase of a site may be conditioned by the
possibility that the stock of the main supplier can be seen etc.
On the basis of responses we notice that 90.24% of those who considered as the decisive
criterion in choosing software the references received considered that in future the
computerized inter-organizational relations will be used. Meanwhile, 88.89% of those who
had the decisive criterion in choosing the quality-cost ratio gave the same answer.
Correlation between the decisive factor in choosing software applications purchased
in the company and the benefits achieved by implementing software applications
We note that the threshold of significance obtained (p = 0.00092) is less than 0.05, which
means that a statistically significant correlation is obtained.
We consider that this correlation was obtained because one of the decisive criteria in
selecting software applications purchased is expected future benefits from their
deployment.
Distribution of responses allows drawing the following conclusions: 66.67% of those who
had the decisive criterion in choosing purchased computer applications the references
received considered that the benefits achieved by implementing the applications meet their
expectations 100%, 11.90% believe that they met expectations as a percentage of 75-99%
and 0-75% the difference in proportion. Of those who had the decisive criterion in choosing
applications the quality-cost ratio 33.33% believe that the benefits achieved by
implementing the applications meet their expectations 100%, 61.11% consider that they
met expectations as a percentage of 75-99% and 0-75% the difference in proportion.
After analyzing the results, we can say that the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, we state
that there is a relationship of dependency between the decision to use IT within a firm and
its impact on the organization and functioning of the company.
Q5: There is a relationship between the existence of Internet within a company and its use
for various purposes
To test this hypothesis, I launched the following null hypothesis:
Q
50
: The existence of the Internet within a company and using it for various purposes are
independent
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To test the hypothesis I formulated the following questions: question III.2. (Var. 13),
question III.3. (Var. 14), question III.3. (Var. 15), question III.3. (Var. 16), question III.3.
(Var. 17), question III.3. (Var. 18), question III.3. (Var. 19), question III.3. (Var. 20).
Correlation between the existence of the Internet within a company and using it for
consulting bank accounts and the transactions on-line
We note that the threshold of significance obtained (p = 0.0046) is less than 0.05, which
means that a statistically significant correlation is obtained.
We believe that the existence of this correlation indicates that in many companies there are
applications which help you view the transactions and bank accounts online. This can be
explained by the time savings generated by using these services, charging lower fees to the
bank, free provision of such services by the bank etc.
Distribution of responses shows that 69.23% of respondents in cases where there is Internet
answered that it is used for consulting bank accounts and the transactions online. Only
28.57% of respondents in companies where there is no Internet gave the same response.
In conclusion, we can say that there is a relationship of dependency between the existence
of the Internet within a company and using it for various purposes.

Conclusions
The objective of this study was to prove the impact of IT on the company. In this sense, the
hypotheses were launched:
Q1: There is a relationship of dependency between the size of a firm and its degree of
computerization
Q2: There is a relationship of dependency between the activities of the firm and its degree
of computerization
Q3: There is a relationship of dependency between the level of staff training and the use of
IT within the company
Q4: There is a relationship of dependency between the decision to use IT within a firm and
its impact on the organization and functioning of the company
Q5: There is a relationship between the existence of Internet within a company and its use
for various purposes.
After empirical testing, hypotheses Q1, Q4 and Q5 were confirmed, while Q2 and Q3 were
rejected. We believe that one reason for rejecting the hypothesis Q2 could be spread areas
of activity of firms, but also that all firms, regardless of the field, are using IT. Regarding
hypothesis Q3, a reason to reject it may be that staff was qualified for different types of IT
skills (for example, we included in the questionnaire the Internet and Excel, which can be
used almost by everyone).
It is not easy to determine the impact of IT on the economists profession. One thing is
certain: the traditional role of the economist is minimized because, with the ERPs, his tasks
can be easily transferred to other persons such as computer operators or secretaries. We
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believe that all employees are improving following the introduction of ERP or the impact of
IT in this sector of business.
The idea of the empirical study can be repeated in future. A study could be done on the
impact of IT to specific company divisions (eg, sales, production) or other types of entities
(eg public-sector entities).

Acknowledgements
This work was supported by CNCSIS UEFISCSU, project number ID 1779 Romania
facing a new challenge: accessing the structural funds for the sustainable development in
agriculture. The convergence of financial reporting of the native entities with the European
realities, PNII IDEI code/2008

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MUTATIONS IN THE FOODSTUFF QUALITY PERCEPTION
OF THE NEW CONSUMERS IN ROMANIA

Dorin Popescu
1
, Mihai Negrea
2
and Lelia Voinea
3

1)2)3)
Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania




Abstract
In the current context of the market, very complex and dynamic, we can observe the
crystallization of a new generation of consumers, with a specific behavior and a particular
manner of approaching the quality unlike the one of traditional consumer. The concept of
quality, perceived by the traditional consumer in the classical, deterministic and objective
sense, loses its facets nowadays and transcends into another dimension, in the vision of the
new consumer, in which the perception of quality in a predominantly subjective manner,
comes first.
This paper presents the objectives of a research project that we intend to develop, in order
to highlight the mutations that occurred in the foodstuff quality perception of the new
consumers from Romania. We focused on foodstuff because it is a customary part of our
daily lives, that shouldnt be approached merely as a common factor for meeting
physiological needs of macro and micro-nutrients, but from a holistic perspective in terms
of its social and identity functions and the effects on individual health.
Another important goal of the project is to improve the standard of education and culture in
foodstuff consumption and to give to the new consumers from Romania the skills for an
objective assessment of food quality. We believe that all these could lead to the conversion
of the new consumers of foodstuff in ethical and responsible consumers.

Keywords: new consumer, quality perception, mutations, foodstuff, ethical consumerism

JEL Classification: P46


Introduction
Consumer behavior has changed greatly over the last 25 years, but it has been evolutionary
and the seeds of change have been apparent for generations (Kar, 2010).
Mutations occurring in the new type consumers perception of quality should not be
understood as a quickly process or easy to locate in time. In any case, we believe that the
origin of these changes in consumer mind is found through the '70s, is somewhat related to
the previous occurrence of the concept of consumer protection and consumer rights
statement.

Corresponding author, Lelia Voinea - lelia.voinea@gmail.com


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So after some researchers, the quality depends on the extent to which the characteristics of
a certain product correspond with the mental representation (symbolically speaking) of the
consumer or customers preferences and expectations. Subsequently, Ishikawa (1986)
developed the definition of offering quality and consumer preferences/expectations.
Obviously, under these conditions, we talk about two distinct levels, two manifestations of
the same phenomenon: on one hand is a mostly objective, namely the inherent quality of
the product as a result of the level reached by certain characteristics (physical, chemical,
nutritional, economic, aesthetic, ergonomics etc.), often prescribed data sheets, standards
etc., and on the other side is a largely subjective, as a result of the perception of quality by
the consumer. We also believe that there can be no complete identity between the two sides.
Subjective side of the new consumer will always surpass the objective side, which is
beyond his expectations (Negrea and Voinea, 2010).
This way of thinking can be explained by the fact that the new consumer expects to receive
more than what is conventionally a generic product. Also, the trademark symbol plays a
very important role (Levy and Rook, 1999).
The novelty of the project is the research of the conceptual transpositions regarding the
definition of food quality in the mind of the new consumer of foodstuff from Romania, the
proposed project being justified by the observation of mutations occurring in addressing
quality and in the alimentary behavior.

1. Objectives and research methodology
Understanding the changes in the definition of the attribute of food quality among the new
generation of consumers requires, first, an analysis of the general concept of quality, in all
stages of its evolution: the statistical control of quality, the quality inspection, total quality
management and excellence in business.
Since the concept of food quality is a complex and integrating concept, one of the projects
objectives is researching the mutations occurred in its evolution, with emphasis on the clear
delimitation of the hypostasis in which it occurred over time: technical quality, nutritional
quality, sensory quality and hygienic and sanitary quality.
Noting the two-way relationship between the supply and demand for foodstuff, we consider
it as necessary to conduct a study regarding the development trends of food supply in
Romania. The study aims to capture the reorientation of consumer demand, to highlight the
changes in food supply in the industrial era and also to identify the new trends of
diversification of food production.
Knowing that human-food interaction is subject to objective and subjective influences, of a
personal, national and international nature, an important objective of the project is to
analyze the determinants of food behavior, starting from a series of conceptual
clarifications and then highlighting the main behavioral types of the food consumer, as well
as the contemporary food styles.
Considering that, in the current context of the foodstuffs market in Romania, we can
distinguish two types of consumers, a traditional consumer and a new type and noting that
their behavioral differences arise from the individual perception of food quality, we believe
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that one of the most important research directions is in highlighting the changes the
attribute of quality in the consumer mind, including at the same time the main elements of
synergy and antagonism.
An important contribution of the research project is the formulation of proposals regarding
the development of the current strategies of information and education of the new foodstuff
consumer in Romania, in terms of adopting a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. In this
regard, we suggest the adoption of ethical consumerism as a possible behavior model of the
new consumer, as well as developing a guide for the orientation of his food related
behavior.
To achieve the objectives, the methodologies used are reflected in appropriate and effective
methods and techniques of investigation and research, as to ensure the reproducibility and a
representative nature of the obtained results.
The interdisciplinary approach, involving the harmonious use of knowledge from different
fields such as quality science, quality management, commodity science, food commodity
science, consumer science and consumer protection, gives the project an elevated degree of
novelty and complexity, supported by combining market research techniques and of
methods of information, documentation, processing and data analysis.

2. Importance and relevance of the project
Food is one of the main carriers of environmental information, being essential in the
functioning of the human body. In this respect, the quality of food is what matters
essentially in preventing disease and maintaining health.
Thus, the concept of food quality is complex, absorbing, encompassing over time a series of
situations: technical quality, nutritional quality, sensorial quality, hygienic and sanitary
quality.
Highlighting the major shifts in the definition and perception of quality of food by
consumers is key goal of research.
Thus, in operationalizing the concept of food quality, the starting point was the technical
quality, expressed through a series of quality characteristics, among which, the primary role
was held by physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, measurable by objective
methods, usually standardized.
In this context, the attribute of food quality was perceived by the consumer according to a
referential (laws, standards and technical regulations).
The nutritional quality is a higher stage in the perception and definition of food quality,
because the satisfaction of energetic and biological needs of the consumer are the main
concerns. At this stage, the consumer no longer views the quality of the product strictly in
terms of its inherent technical characteristics, being more interested in its nutritional profile.
This mutation occurred as a result of changes in modern lifestyle, materialized, in
particular, through the consumer exposure to an intense mental demand, but also due to an
increase in degenerative diseases, as a result of various nutritional mistakes (Popescu,
2006).
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Sensorial quality is another aspect of food quality, being the one that determines
consumers sympathy for certain products, this being crucial in motivating purchase and
consumption decisions. The sensorial value is expressed through attributive and notional
quality characteristics, which cannot be always determined by objective means; hence the
high degree on subjectivity in the perception on quality by consumers. Although it is widely
known that the agreeable sensorial properties of food contributes to increasing assimilation
of nutrients in the body, we believe that absolutization of their role in evaluating quality by
the consumer may result in the appearance of a nutritional imbalance, because a food
product with special psihosensorial bonds does not always have a balanced nutritional
profile at the same time.
Currently, the hygienic quality, another dimension of food quality tends to acquire
overwhelming importance, due to repeated food crisis in industrialized states (mad cow
disease, avian influenza), which marked the last decades and generated an exacerbation of
consumer preoccupation for the hygienic and sanitary food safety. Today, the consumer
perceives in an acute way the nutrition quality through food innocuity. Thus, assuring the
hygienic and sanitary quality implies minimizing biological, chemical or allergic risks that
can seriously affect consumers health.
In this context, to ensure innocuity of food throughout the food chain (from farm to fork)
various food safety management systems were designed and implemented, some of which
are: HACCP system (Hazard Analysis in Critical Control Points) and the system promoted
by the ISO 22000/2005 standard (Food safety management systems, requirements for every
organization in the food chain). Similar to the zero defects principle from the quality
management theory, these systems desire to achieve zero risks in assuring food innocuity.
Lately noticing a watershed in the consumers attitude towards the offer of food products,
characterized by the increasing attraction for cultural and traditional food, distrust for
products obtained by genetic engineering techniques (OMG), as well as for food obtained
through intensive agricultural techniques, industrially ultra-processed and widely ranged
especially through food additives and respectively high sympathy towards organic products,
one of the projects objectives is doing a study on the development tendencies of the
Romanian food products offer.
The trend in development of cultural food supply is a response to consumers shift in
demand for organic food products. We can distinguish various categories of cultural food:
traditional food, traditional food with a controlled designation of origin and organic
traditional food.
Although the consumer tendency to shift their demand organic food products has become a
reality, today, the preponderant offer of food had its origin in the industrial period, when
intensive agricultural and animal husbandry technologies enabled the development of a
strong food industry. Also, in this period, the fast-food, cans and semi-cooked meals
industry, conquered the market, but at the same time, they brought along the modern
civilizations diseases (Olinescu, 2006).
Thus, agri-food materials, obtained through extensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, growth
hormones and antibiotics, are highly processed, which results in the production of
contaminated food that is depleted of its essential nutrients (Toma et al., 2010).
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In addition, the sensorial characteristics of food are not always natural, because of products
with artificial taste, aroma, color and texture, due to the use of food additives, the
consequence being the extension of a range of goods with an unbalanced nutritional profile
(Voinea, 2009).
Regarding the renewal of the food product offer, it relies on the application of research
and innovation results in the food industry, process in which we can distinguish the
dominant tendencies of diversification, the attainment of genetically modified food and,
respectively, of functional products (Pamfilie and Voinea, 2009).
Analysis of alimentary determinatives behavior is another project objective that is justified
by identifying the existence of a two-way relationship between supply and demand of food,
relationship that can generate a certain type of nutrition among consumers, who can opt for
a meat based alimentation, omnivorous or vegetarian. Thus, a consumers type of nutrition
is defined by a diet consistently practiced throughout life or, at least, for prolonged periods
of time, this being determined by specific physiological features or factors related to food
habits , traditions, religious beliefs, ways of access to food (Popescu, 2009).
Starting by knowing the contemporary food styles, we can distinguish between a traditional
consumer of alimentary goods and one of a new type. Thus, accepting the fact that each of
them has a specific food behavior, we state that the behavioral differences that occur due to
the particular perception of food quality, thus we propose to highlight the mutations in the
mentality of food consumers in Romania.
In the traditional consumers mentality, the quality perception is decisively influenced by
the technical aspects, the products sensorial side remaining in the second plane. This
approach is the result of knowledge and information gained successively through education
and settled through professional and personal experience. Also characteristic to this
consumer is the way of understanding non-quality, which translates into his mentality
through non-compliance with specifications and/or rules in force.
The new consumer- depicted as an individual consumer - is seduced by the sensorial side
in evaluating the food products quality. The role of sensorial perception should not be
downplayed or approached in a simplistic manner, since all that is conscious reach us
through sensorial perception (Jung, 1994).
The new consumer formed his eating habits during the time of maximum boost in the food
industry and is generally accustomed to eating products created by the modern food
industry, characterized by the special sensorial properties, but not always with a nutritional
balanced profile. These images are stored in the memory of the new consumer.
Therefore, the possibility of gaining its knowledge, which requires the comparison between
the perceived images of the food product and those from memories, is evidently limited.
This would explain the new consumers propensity to generalize the sensorial properties
role in configuring the quality of a food product and neglecting or even disdaining
nutritional and technical properties.
In the new consumers mind, the image of a food products quality can be formed as a
result of influences from the new means of communication. With the aid of Internet
facilities, the new consumer can join a group, whose members can exchange ideas about,
among other things, the quality of food they consume. This type of online conversations is
controlled by consumers. The Internet boom accelerated and intensified this behavior to
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high levels, and small group discussions developed into a mass phenomenon, which brings
together hundreds or thousands of unknown users (Negrea, 2007).
Currently, the new consumer is characterized by Internet addiction, the media that enjoyed
a growing confidence on the part of consumers and from which it gets information that it
directs the buying decision (Onete, Voinea, and Dina, 2010). Consumer choices are made
increasingly more and more on the basis of social media information. In addition to
deciphering the advertising message and reading the websites of companies, consumers use
different online formats (forums, chats, blogs, etc.) to share ideas, to form communities and
to contact their peers.
As pointed by Kozinets (2010) social media is increasingly seen as a more objective source
of information and all these communities have a real existence to their members and
therefore have effect on many aspects of behavior, including alimentary behavior.
The mutations noted in the food consumers mentality involves a certain amount of
antagonism between the traditional and the new type of consumer, manifested through the
different importance given to the technical and sensorial aspects of the food products
quality. Nevertheless, we draw attention to the fact that, at a primary level - that of meeting
nutritional needs both types of consumers manifest synergism, through the equal
importance granted to the nutritional value of food, namely the hygienic-sanitary value, the
other aspects of food quality.
In the context of contouring the new consumers mentality, we note that current consumers
are more and more sophisticated and have a more and more powerful influence, and
producers if they want to maintain their positions they must follow the market. A trend
which gains more and more amplitude among consumers, especially in the Western states,
is that of ethical consumerism (Negrea, 2008).
Currently, one can observe that ethical consumerism takes amplitude and is no longer a
niche market, as it once was considered. However, this shift in consumer behavior is visible
only in some Western countries, where the standard of living allows the development of
such behavior (Stanciu, 2008). History will confirm (or not) how quickly this current will
be transmitted to other states, which do not have the same level of development and,
especially, how the ethical consumerism model will be accepted in Romania.
Noticing that in the contemporary consumers alimentation there is a series of unhealthy
habits, manifested by excessive consumption of animal proteins, saturated fat, salt and
sugar, we consider useful to develop an orientation guide on food consumption behavior,
which can be based on proper nutrition laws (law of quantity, law of quality, law of
equilibrium, law of suitability).

3. Results
The main research results, which also constitute elements of project originality, can be
considered the following:
Elaboration of studies and syntheses, following the investigation of the literature in
the field, which will allow for the assessment of the permanent status of research on the
projects topic;
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Demarcation from a conceptual point of view of the main aspects of food quality;
Identifying future research priorities to improve food quality and safety;
Highlighting the changes in food supply in the industrial era;
Investigation of new trends to diversify the supply of foodstuff;
Making a comparative analysis of the types of behavior and the contemporary styles
of nutrition;
Identifying key elements of synergy and antagonism in the perception of the food
quality by the traditional consumer and the new-type consumer;
Highlighting the changes of the attribute of food quality in the mentality of the new
consumer in Romania;
The reorientation of the new food consumers behavior by adopting the model of
ethical consumerism;
Developing a guide regarding the development among food consumers of a balanced
food behavior, based on the laws of proper nutrition.
The project will have a powerful technical, economic and social impact and also a
considerable impact on the environment.

Conclusions
The research of conceptual transpositions occurring in the modern consumers mind will be
the starting point for generating new approaches to food quality in terms of sustainable
economic development ethics (concern for the environment, preserving resources and
traditions, etc.). Deciphering these transpositions will help us develop a model of food
consumption and, perhaps, change the mentality of consumers in the beginning of the third
millennium.
In order that new generations of consumers in Romania acquire the behavioral traits of the
new consumer from developed countries, primarily is needed to increase their education
level. An essential component of consumer education is represented by nutritional
education, through which is possible to restore the nutritional guidelines for adopting a
healthy diet, based on principles of a balanced alimentation and to transform them into
responsible consumers.
The research project will have implications for both academic and practitioners in the field
of human nutrition and alimentary behavior and could be a landmark in formulating future
strategies to improve the nutritional education level of the new consumers from Romania.

Acknowledgements
This work was cofinanced from the European Social Fund through Sectorial Operational
Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013 project number POSDRU
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/89/1.5/S/59184 Performance and excellence in postdoctoral research in Romanian
economics science domain.

References
Ishikawa, K., 1986. Guide to Quality Control.2
nd
ed. Tokyo: Asian Productivity
Organization.
Jung, C.G., 1994. Puterea sufletului. Antologie, (Prima parte Psihologia
analitic.Temeiuri). Bucureti: Editura Anima.
Kar, M., 2010. Consumer behaviour over the last 25 years. Oxirm Research Themes,
Oxford Institute of Retail Management, The Retail Digest, pp 46-53.
Kozinets, R., 2010. The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netnography For Marketing
Research in Online Communities. Journal of Marketing Research, Issue 39, pp. 61-72.
Levy, S. and Rook, D., 1999. Brands, Consumers, Symbols and Research. New York: Sage
Publications.
Negrea, M., 2007. New style in communication between consumers. In: Poznan University
of Economics, The 9
th
IComSC Current trends in Commodity Science. Poznan,
Poland, 27-29 August 2007. Poznan: The Poznan University Economics Publishing
House.
Negrea, M., 2008. Ethical Consumerism and the British Path. Amfiteatru Economic, X(23),
pp. 50-54.
Negrea, M. and Voinea, L., 2010. Quality perception in the new consumers vision. In: The
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, The 17th Symposium IGWT Facing the
Challanges of the Future: Excellence in Business and Commodity Science. Bucharest,
Romania, 21-25 September 2010. Bucharest: ASE Publishing House.
Olinescu, R., 2006. Totul despre alimentaia sntoas. Bucureti: Editura Niculescu.
Onete, B. and Popescu, D., 2010. Shifting quality concepts and paradigms. In: The
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, The 17th Symposium IGWT Facing the
Challanges of the Future: Excellence in Business and Commodity Science, Bucharest,
Romania, 21-25 September 2010. Bucharest: ASE Publishing House.
Onete, B., Voinea, L. and Dina, R., 2010. Dimensions and Evolutions of the New
Consumer Concept in Romania. Current Issues in Business and Law Journal, 5(2), pp.
341-355.
Pamfilie, R. and Voinea, L., 2009. Innovation management applications in the foodstuff
offer field. Calitatea acces la success,10(7-8).
Popescu, D., 2006. Alimentaie i igiena mrfurilor. Bucureti: Editura ASE.
Popescu, D., 2009. Mutations concerning the alimentary behavior in the context of the
actual economic crisis. Metalurgia International, XIV(11).
Stanciu, C., 2008. Managementul relaiei cu consumatorii la nivelul Uniunii Europene.
Calitatea acces la succes, Issue 94.
Todt, H., 2009. Some Aspects of the Economic Crisis. Amfiteatru Economic, XI (Special
issue 3), pp 667-674.
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Toma, S.G., Stanciu, C. and Irimia, E., 2010. Study on the Information Level of Pupils and
Parents Regarding the Effects of Unhealthy Food Consumption. Amfiteatru Economic,
XII(28), pp 420-435.
Voinea, L., 2009. tiina alimentelor o abordare din perspectiva consumatorului.
Bucureti: Editura ASE.

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THE PSYCHO-SENSORIAL VALUE OF THE FOOD PRODUCTS A
PROVOCATIVE COMPONENT IN PURCHASE DECISION


Magdalena Bobe
1
and Roxana Procopie
2

1),2)
Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania




Abstract
The psycho-sensorial value is a specific, complex and determinant concept of the food
products that is reflected by means of psycho-sensorial properties such as: shape, size,
aspect, colour, taste, smell, fragrance, bouquet, density, clarity. The assessment of these
properties by the consumers is decisive for the acceptance or the rejection of foods and
classifies the products into savoury, or non-savoury, attractive, indifferent, or unattractive.
The psycho-sensorial features of food products allow us to make quick assessments of their
qualities, but with a high degree of subjectivity among the common consumers and big
individual variations, assessments that are highly influenced by the hedonic value of food
products.
The sensory analysis of foods is part of the modern analytical methods: when correctly and
scientifically applied, it allows a real assessment of the quality of these products, evaluation
which could not be obtained only by assessing physicochemical and microbiological
methods.
However, the scientific methods for sensorial assessment have a higher degree of
objectivity and are used successfully in industry and trade, in evaluating the qualitative
level of foods by authorised and qualified people.
Otherwise, the design of the psycho-sensorial value of food products involves tests and
sensorial analyses and has as main objective the establishment of concordances among the
consumers demands and the level of the sensorial characteristics of the products.
The present paper aims at underlining the necessity to design the psycho-sensorial value of
processed foods, as well as the importance of educating and informing the consumers for a
better capacity to get oriented on the market, and implicitly, for a right purchase decision.

Keywords: food products, psycho-sensorial value, purchase decision, consumer, design

JEL Classification: D 18, L 66, L 81




Corresponding author, Magdalena Bobe - magdalena.bobe@com.ase.ro


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Introduction
The modern concept of the nutritional value of products underlines the inseparable nature
of its four components: the psycho-sensorial value, the energetic value, the biological value
and the hygienic one, playing an important role in evaluating the quality of the food
products when they reach the market.
The vital role of foods in human life is reflected by these specific aspects of the nutritive
value. Besides filling the organisms demands for energy and active biological substances,
food products also have to give psycho-sensorial satisfaction while they are consumed, to
meet hygienic and innocuity requests that ensure the populations health. These demands
are filled in a very close interdependence with the products structure, chemical
composition and features.

Modelling the psycho-sensorial value of food products represents, at present, the essential
condition in order to obtain food that can be sold, a priority of the producers in the food
industry and a basic request of consumers.
The evolution in the sciences involved in human nutrition has imposed the knowledge of
the main form by which the relation between human being and food manifests itself,
namely: giving nutritive material; the possibility to handle pathogen agents; the psycho-
sensorial bond (affective).
The ways in which the human-food relation manifests itself have presented in the order
they appeared along time, according to the historical criterion. However, if the interest in
mans health had been taken into consideration, these would have had to be ranked as
follows: salubrious, nutritive, and pleasant. Although innocuity and the nutritive value of a
foods product are essential conditions for health and life, many people rank first the
psycho-sensorial value of products, the pleasure offered by the consumption of a food
product.
In order to understand this disagreement we have to the reasons that make the consumer
give more importance to the psycho-sensorial properties of the food product than to the risk
(imperceptible) of getting ill or its trofins. Knowing the mechanism of the affective relation,
we can find solutions to correct some attitudes contrary to health and we can start peoples
education as regards food consumption behaviour, all these influencing the choice and
consumption of food products.

1. Psycho-sensorial value condition of food products attractiveness
The psycho-sensorial value of food products, the sensorial and aesthetic values,
respectively, is the one that invites one to buy a product, and gives its attractiveness. In
fact, sensorial properties are, for the common buyer, the first criterion to evaluate quality,
influencing the selection and acceptability of the food products, that, most of the times, are
highly subjective.
In order to express the psycho-sensorial value there are methods which help to quantify and
express it in a graphical manner, such as the score method, the profile method, that give us
the possibility to compare products.
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The general features that define the psycho-sensorial value of the food products are: colour,
smell, taste, fragrance, shape, aspect, size, texture, density, firmness, elasticity, freshness,
tenderness (by chewing), and palatability features (taste effects while chewing and after
chewing). There are also features specific to groups of products such as clarity for liquid
products, the juiciness of the pulp, its turgor and freshness for fruits and vegetables.
The psycho-sensorial value of food products is influenced by internal factors, specific to the
products, such as the solubility of their chemical components, their melting point, and the
products temperature. For example the structure-textural density or firmness of fruits and
vegetables is a dynamic property that represents the intensity of the connection between
their structure and texture; it is related to their maturity, the intensity of the enzyme activity,
the turgor degree.
In food products one can notice the change of the psycho-sensorial features in different
stages of the products manufacturing or life cycle, which makes it different according to
manufacturing or life cycle stage the product is in.
For example, some products undergo important changes in their maturation stage:
meat its maturation is a process that influences and improves its psycho-sensorial
value; meat gets a soft density, becoming more juicy and tender, with very pleasant taste
and its colour changes from red to light red;
cheese products their maturation gives different assortments, under certain
circumstances, the characteristic taste, smell and colour, the paste becoming softer, more
oily, with pleasant taste and smell; during this stage cheese products undergo biochemical
and physical changes. There are deep changes, when the taste, the smell are formed (due to
the accumulation of the fragrance substances), as well as the density (that is rubbery,
compact, elastic in the beginning and becomes more tender, oily); the drawing is also
formed (fermentation stitches, according to the assortment) that gives us information when
analysing the section of a slice of cheese;
fruits and vegetables get their final psycho-sensorial characteristics, getting a
harmonious psycho-sensorial value. Fruits and vegetables maturation represents a dynamic
physiological and biochemical process, that turns into shape, size, weight, pigmentation,
chemical composition, taste and smell;
wines amplify their psycho-sensorial value during the ageing process, when the
harmonization of the sensorial characteristics takes place, these becoming velvet-like, and
the wine getting a better bouquet.
The consumers reactions to the psycho-sensorial value of food products depend on:
perception the evaluation of the foods qualities and their choice is eased when the
psycho-sensorial characteristics are appropriate;
motivation can influence the consumers wish representing a motivation in the
decision-making process;
feeling- attractiveness leads to the acceptance of food products, the appropriate
psycho-sensorial value of foods, making them pleasant and wanted; for example, when
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choosing vegetal products, consumers take into account the correspondence between
colour, the maturity degree and freshness;
experience consumers express their preferences according to their experience, they
can establish which psycho-sensorial characteristics are normal, natural and indicate the
foods properties based on other similar products;
thinking new food products can be accepted by consumers if the latter are
explained the formers properties and if they can notice them personally.

2. Synergism a principle based on which the psycho-sensorial value is modelled
If consumers preferences can be modelled via large promotional campaigns and supported
by authorised socio-economic structures, producers attitude must take into account the new
issues raised by the modern requirements in human nutrition, therefore to be based on a
nutritive projection of the food products, focused on modern nutrition norms and
requirements.
The nutritive value defines the correlation between the psycho-sensorial, energetic,
biological and hygienic values, including them in a total that is the prerequisite of a food
products success on the market. The psycho-sensorial value, the first one to be perceived
by the consumers, represents an important aspect of the total quality of food products that
can weigh as much as 50% -60% from the general quality factor. The psycho-sensorial
value of food products influences their selection from the available offer and the purchasing
decision-making process. In many cases food products are selected by the consumers
exclusively based on the satisfaction they offer, leaving aside the energetic, biological and
hygienic value.
Nutritional modelling of food products is possible only if we use the most appropriate
models to determine and express the nutritional values of food products that allow their
correct evaluation. This methodology must answer the issues raised by the design both of
the psycho-sensorial and hygienic value of processed food and the biological and energetic
values.
.The more intense market segmentation, therefore of food consumption as well, makes it
necessary for the producer to know the distinct and relatively complex needs of the most
various segments of consumers, and, in order to fill these needs it is necessary to make
products that are appropriate form a qualitative point of view, which involves, in the case of
food products, underlining their psycho-sensorial value as well. Thus, it became necessary
to find out some ways to determine and express the psycho-sensorial value that can easily
be applied and can lead to a correct and useful interpretation of results.
The psycho-sensorial value of food products can be assessed by means of sensorial
examination and via methods that are specific to sensorial analysis. Although it has a
special significance, having a high degree of subjectivity, there are many methods to
quantify the psycho-sensorial value, all these methods pursuing to increase the degree of
objectivity.
The most important categories of tests used to evaluate the acceptability for consumption of
food products are: assessment, comparison and selection.
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The assessment of food products is the sensory examination of food which allows for the
discovery of various shades of their sensory characteristics by using a scale of values
(quotation). Fitting the food products into quality classes is done more accurately, as this
method of evaluation not only establishes differences but also measures them.
The comparison is the sensory examination carried out on foodstuff starting from an item
defined as basic or standard. In relation to it, analysts set the particular sensory attributes of
the other products analyzed. Thus, by relation to the base sample, table ranks of food can be
made.
The selection is the sensory examination which results in the elimination or choice,
rejection or preference.
The multiple forms of sensory examination of food led to their classification into two main
groups:
analytical testing - based on objective conditioned sensory perceptions, the
subjective assessment of the taster being negligible;
sensory quality control - relies more on purely psychological involuntary perceptions
and tends to assess the degree of subjective desire and the consumer quality of the
examined product; in other words, the control of the consumer value and the degree to
which the product will be accepted by consumers.
Table no. 1 contains a systematization of the main methods of sensory analysis.
Table no. 1: The systematization of main methods of sensory analysis
No.
Tests/control
methods
Assessment
method
Choice of
experts
No. of
experts
Main domains
where it can be
applied
1. Twin test
Physiological
Intensive
special
training
3-10
Basic research;
diversifying
assortment (variation
for the raw
materials);
assessment of the
ways of processing
and the influence of
the packaging; expert
education
2. Duo-trio test
3. Triangle test
4.
Dilution
method
Basic research:
quality assessment;
expert education
5.
Profile
method
Physiological
and
psychological
Professional
education;
obtaining the
sensory
minimum;
periodical
checks

3-10



3-10


Basic research:
warehouse
experiences; quality
assessment
6.
Comparison
method
Comparing to
samples; quality
assessment;
international contests 7. Rank sorting Needed for
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method the groups of
control
experts

1-10




1-10
Quality contests; a
condition for quality
control; international
contests
8.
Point
assessment
method
Coordination
Quality assessment;
quality control within
the company;
national and
international contests
Source: after Diaconescu and Punescu, 2003
While assessing the psycho-sensorial value of the food products, one can face aspects
related to: man sensorial abilities, the psycho-sensorial properties of foods products, the
dimensions and the influence of the social environment (education, tradition, circumstance,
fashion etc.).
The design of the psycho-sensorial value of processed food products must be done with
extreme care and should start from the study of the correlation with the other aspects of the
nutritional value, especially with the hygienic value. The design of the psycho-sensorial
value should observe several stages:
the first stage identifying the needs and demands of the real and prospective
consumers, that are in permanent change, influenced by many environmental factors
(fashion, tradition, culture, information, education etc.);
the second stage is represented by the product design itself and the establishment of
the psycho-sensorial potential of the food product;
during the third stage we decide upon the production recipe according to the pre-
established psycho-sensorial potential;
during the fourth stage we select the ingredients of the recipe: raw materials,
technological auxiliaries and additives, based on the qualitative assessment as regards
chemical composition, as well as the technological and psycho-sensorial qualities;
after we obtain the final product, it is highly important to choose the sensorial
analysis method, according to what goal there is. Sensorial analysis has the advantage that
it reflects the consumers reaction to the respective food product.
Foods psycho-sensorial value design and modelling is one main direction of research in
food industry that leads to an unprecedented expansion of the food products range. There
are many ways to intervene in modelling it, as any psycho-sensorial characteristic may
undergo changes colour, taste, smell, density but we can also act upon many
characteristics, thus getting many possible combinations. We can give only a few edifying
examples in this respect:
taste can be changed by different additives, natural or artificial; fruits, vegetables,
sugar, chocolate, leading to the appearance of improved products (cheese cream with
pepper, herbs, garlic, onion, fruit yogurt, musli yogurt, margarine tasting like cheese, ham,
peaches, strawberries) or real new ones (rice with milk and fruit salad, rice with milk and
chocolate);
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smell can be changed by adding natural or artificial fragrances (vanilla, peppermint,
cinnamon, etc);
density can be changed according to how the product is going to be used (yogurt to
drink);
colour can be changed by adding natural or synthetic dyes.
The psycho-sensorial value, very variable, can be designed and modelled experimentally, it
can be improved taking into account the consumers preferences, but also taking into
account the effects generated by the use of amendatory substances on the quality of the
product. The introduction of different additives (natural or artificial) in classical food
products changes their psycho-sensorial properties (aspect, colour, taste, smell, etc). The
change can envisage one component of the psycho-sensorial value, but it can also take
place in two, three or all the components, and thus the wide variety of variants that can be
obtained. The easy ways to model the psycho-sensorial value widely explain the assortment
boom of the food products offer.
Many basic sensorial characteristics as variables in modelling- can be combined to give
the consumer a holistic perception, resorting to synaesthesia that is the stimulation of a
sense by another one. In order to get a harmonious result we have to take into account
synergism as a principle in modelling the psycho-sensorial value of food products, as the
action of substances can be intensified by their association.
A harmonious psycho-sensorial value, designed and modelled according to rational
principles allows us to obtain products that meet consumers needs and satisfy their
demands, which will lead to their market success in competition with other products.

3. Nutritional education and information of the consumers
Preoccupations to improve the nutritional state of the population have a core position within
the programmes of health protection at national level, as well as at regional and
international level.
Nutritional education must be thought as an interference aiming to change social
communication in nutrition in order to improve the nutritional state in some segments of
population. The interferences, in order to be put into practice, claim the observance of the
action principles based on the following core ideas:
Equity : allowing a better social justice;
Participation: association of population groups in the decision-making processes;
Integrity: communication must be a support activity in the processes of development,
orientation to improve eating habits;
Rationality: interferences must rely on a deep analysis of nutritional problems.
Knowing the psycho-sensorial value is decisive criterion in assessing food products quality
as well as a starting point that permits a better correlation of the offer with demand for
goods, thus ensuring their market success.
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The product demand structure can be changed by better informing the consumers and by a
nutritional education of the population.
The diversification of the media by means of which information is spread contributes very
much to this process. The main informative sources about nutrition are television, radio,
magazines, newspapers and best sellers, together with the advertisements associated with
them. All these are important means of nutritional education. Knowledge about a good
nutrition can be found in educational and informative texts, thus being internalised more
easily. However, the messages have to take into account the populations preoccupations, as
a goo presentation of the possible choices and an exemplification of the lifestyle are vital to
ensure a satisfactory nutritional education.
Publicity campaigns and promotional activities significantly influence the demand for food
products. Mass media radio, television, and written media have not been used in
educational nutrition for a long time, despite the important influence that they can have on
consumer behaviour. Publicity is a good way to make a simple message known. Moreover,
the messages distributed by mass media permit a better knowledge of the nutritional
principles, contributing to the exchange of experience among different communities and
influencing the actions of the ones in charge. Mass media can also play another important
role, if they can benefit from total freedom of information: it can contribute to triggering
pressure on public power, making it act if necessary.
Over the last years the evolution of advertisements for food products has been spectacular,
influencing the wide mass of consumers in making the purchasing decision for some food
products. But very close attention is required, as, due to their huge impact on population,
there were quite a few cases when their qualitative features were exaggerated or there were
even exaggerated or unfounded features of the products that appeared in advertisements. In
order to get rid of these kinds of advertisement there is an appropriate legislation and
institutions that fight to defend the consumers rights and try to protect them.
Therefore, we should not neglect the fact that, at present, advertisements for food products
do not have an educational value, they being based mainly on exacerbating the psycho-
sensorial value and on selling the product. That is why only by giving population complete
and precise information can we help them choose food products correctly, and the
educational system and the health one must contribute in this respect.
The use of social marketing for a better nutritional education brought important
contributions to promoting and improving communication in nutrition by introducing some
marketing rules such as: a thorough study of the consumer; market segmenting; creativity;
multimedia strategy.
By applying the general rules in marketing it was possible to establish the main stages in
drawing up the programmes for nutritional education: market segmentation with defining of
the categories of consumers and selecting the channels of communication. It is well known
that the best results are obtained when the multimedia channels are associated (radio,
television, written media, posters).
When it comes to interpersonal communication there is the advantage of privacy, of
responsible people getting involved in it, but there is also the disadvantage that the agents
have not the capacity to be open and non-conservative when they promote new ideas.
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Mass-media communication brings new ideas and information to a large audience, it
communicates favourable attitudes.
Interpersonal education can have decisive effects, encouraging the total change of the
consumption behaviour and the eating habits.

Conclusions
In a market that is plentiful in products with a very diversified assortment structure, the
purchasing decision becomes difficult, being influenced by the qualitative differences
among products, by their package and promotion, by the financial possibilities and the
prices.
Nutritional education brings contributions to improvement of the social communication in
nutrition; therefore it is necessary to develop an efficient multimedia strategy, because a
most important part of the population is open to the audio-visual messages, against to those
of the specialists working in health.
The requirements as regards food products are different according to categories of
consumers, complex and with a high subjective connotation, without taking into account
the objective criteria. Between the food product and the consumer there grows a system of
informational connections by means of the sense perception organs man has and that,
according to the individuals personality leads to their behaviour.
Setting the quality value can be done by means of the correspondence between the
products properties, on one hand, and the psychological reflection of the available
informational consumers have, on the other. We can, thus, state that mans sensitivity is
basic to find out the psycho-sensorial value of food products, modelled by the informative-
educational system and materialised in behaviour schemes.
Mans capacity to get satisfaction as a result of food consumption represents a condition for
a normal life and correct nutrition. In fact, we can state that, as human society evolved the
psycho-physiological sensations offered by the consumption of a product have represented
the decisive criterion to accept the food product as part of the diet. Food products that
create pleasant sensations were kept for consumption, as, by just a simple memory, their
qualities produced appetite as a result of the conditioned reflexes. On the other hand,
those that create unpleasant sensations or produced digestive trouble were rejected,
becoming repulsive. Food products selection was made, therefore, taking into account
sensorial criteria that determine the consumers attitude towards food products. Even
nowadays they have an important weigh in choosing products, even if it is known that food
products assessment must be carried out by studying the nutritional value as a whole,
therefore all four values.

References
Bobe, M., 2005. Produsul alimentar abordare strategic. Bucureti: Editura ASE.
Diaconescu, I. and Punescu, C., 2003. Analiza senzorial n societile comerciale.
Bucureti: Editura Uranus.
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Dima, D., Popescu, D. and Bobe, M., 2007. Essential mutations to evaluate foodstuffs.
Amfiteatru Economic, IX(Special issue 1), pp.114-118.
Dima, D. et al., 2006. Mrfuri alimentare i securitatea consumatorilor. Bucureti: Editura
Economic.
Kotler, P. et al.,1998. Principiile marketingului. Bucureti: Editura Teora.
Mohd Rizaimy, S. et al., 2011. Innovative Food and Its Effects toward Consumers'
Purchase Intention of Fast Food Product. Canadian Social Science, 7(1), pp.110-118.
Procopie, R. and Bobe, M., 2008. The logistics of information flow in managing the quality
of food products. Amfiteatru Economic, X(24), pp. 70-83.
Procopie, R. and Bobe, M., 2008. Social communication effectiveness in nutrition by
nutritional labelling. Calitatea acces la succes, 9 (special issue 93), pp. 284-289.




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Potential Connections between Migration and Immigrants Food Consumption
Habits. The Case of Romanian Immigrants in Andalusia, Spain

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POTENTIAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN MIGRATION AND IMMIGRANTS
FOOD CONSUMPTION HABITS. THE CASE OF ROMANIAN IMMIGRANTS
IN ANDALUSIA, SPAIN


Andreea Simona Sseanu
1
and Raluca Mariana Petrescu
2
1)2)
Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania




Abstract
The paper aims to identify potential connections between migration and food consumption
habits of Romanian immigrants in Andalusia, Spain and to study a series of factors that
may contribute to the establishment of these connections. The analysis was based on a
series of information obtained through a field research carried out between January and
June 2011 among the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia (306 respondents). The analysis
results revealed the fact that after migration, the Romanian immigrants who took part in the
study felt a series of changes in their food consumption habits, mainly resulting in
consuming a higher proportion of the food products specific to the host country, compared
to the food products specific to their country of origin. The analysed factors that may
influence the relationship between migration and food consumption habits were
encountered in the specific scientific literature, namely the length of residence and
immigrants age. The analysis revealed the fact that among different groups of respondents
by length of residence and age, there are statistically significant differences in what
concerns their perception regarding the changes in their food consumption habits after
migration. The length of residence is positively correlated with the changes in food
consumption after migration, while age is negatively correlated.

Keywords: migration, immigrant, consumer, consumption, food products, consumption
habits, consumer behaviour, Romania, Spain

JEL Classification: E21, F22, O15


Introduction
A persons behaviour is the expression of the values specific to its culture, values
developed in time through the contribution of the values and culture specific to the society
it belongs to, and also of those specific to its family or different groups it belongs to. The
consumption behaviour specific to an individual can be identified as part of the culture of a
nation when it is adopted by various individuals (Luna and Gupta, 2001).

Corresponding author, Raluca Mariana Petrescu - raluca.petrescu@com.ase.ro


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Levitt (1983) cited in Rout and Senapati (2008, p. 173) argued that there are no truly
isolated cultures. Since ancient times, humans - who are mainly consumers and play a key
role in the market (Petrescu, Dinu, tefnescu and Dobrescu, 2010) - searched different
economic, social, etc. opportunities in other areas than the original ones; in recent years, the
migration process has reached great amplitude, being also emphasized by the tourism
sector. Thus, when individuals belonging to one culture intersect with others belonging to
another culture, various changes at personal, social and consumption levels occur. As a
result of the increased mobility of individuals, they become exposed to the products,
lifestyles and behaviour patterns of consumers belonging to another area (Douglas and
Craig, 1997, p. 380). However, from another perspective, individuals that move to other
areas carry different values and types of behaviour with them, exposed to individuals
originating in the area. The increasing migration phenomenon leads to a special complexity
on the markets, at global level. The more immigrants are exposed to the host culture, the
more they embrace its specific norms, values, behaviours, etc. (Luna and Gupta, 2001),
Douglas and Craig (1997) - cited by previously mentioned authors - considering that
migration represents one of the forces that are causing radical changes in consumer
behaviour. At the same time, immigrants not only adapt to the new culture, but they also
contribute to its change.
According to Hamlett, Bailey, Alexander and Shaw (2008, p. 92), immigrants
consumption behaviour represents a poorly researched phenomenon, despite the fact that
the ethnic factor is considered as a category of identity with a strong influence on
consumption decisions. However, in what concerns acculturation and consumption,
Sutton-Brady, Davis and Jung (2010) consider that there are various studies on this topic on
groups of immigrants from different areas. Even if, according to Douglas and Craig (1997),
most studies are focused on groups of immigrants in North America, especially Mexican,
Chinese or Korean, considerable efforts are being made in Europe as well, in order to
enrich studies on this subject. For example, studies concerning migration in Britain outlined
the importance of food consumption in immigrants relationship with host culture (Desai,
1963 cited in Hamlett, Bailey, Alexander and Shaw, 2008, p. 97), food consumption being
considered a key factor in the process of consumer acculturation (Rosenthal and Feldman,
1992; Penaloza, 1994; Omar et al., 2004 cited in Hamlett, Bailey, Alexander and Shaw,
2008, p. 97).
This paper aims to identify the potential relationships between migration and food
consumption habits of Romanian immigrants in Andalusia, Spain and to study a series of
factors that may contribute to the establishment of these relationships. In this sense, the
paper is structured into three main parts. The first part briefly puts forward a series of
aspects related to the migration phenomenon in Spain - in general - and in Andalusia - in
particular -, focusing on the Romanian immigrants, while the second part briefly presents
the main results of a study (Navas Luque and Rojas Tejada, 2010) regarding the
acculturation of the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia. The third part of the paper is based
on a series of information obtained through a research carried out among the Romanian
immigrants in Andalusia during January-June 2011 and it submits an analysis regarding the
potential connections between migration and food consumption habits of immigrants,
focusing on the variables that may represent key factors in establishing the connections.
The paper ends up with a series of final considerations.

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1. Aspects regarding the migration phenomenon in Spain and Andalusia - focus on
Romanian immigrants
Throughout history, and especially during the last century, migration in Spain had a
prominent role in the general evolution of population and its geographical distribution,
influencing the demographic, economic, cultural, and political behaviours in different ways.
Although migration flows have notably increased over the last century, it can be assessed
that during this period, the migration phenomenon experienced significant changes both in
its dynamics and evolution, and in terms of its features. If during the first seven-eight
decades of the 20
th
century, the migration phenomenon was marked by emigration outwards
and to industrialized areas of Spain, during the last decades of the century, the migration
phenomenon has seen significant changes, with an increase in the variety of directions of
migration flows, with a drastic reduction of migration outside Spain and a substantial
increase of migration from outside, expressed both through the return of Spanish migrants,
as well as through the migration of foreigners into Spain (Instituto Nacional de Estadistica,
2003). The latter is currently one of the main features of Spanish demography and society.
The speed with which Spain has gone from a supplier to a receiver of immigrants doesnt
have a precedent in the European demographical history. While in the northern European
countries, like France or England, this process occurred over several decades (between
1950 and 1970), for Spain the panorama has changed dramatically in less than five years.
Spain is the EU country that has experienced the highest continuous growth of immigrants
since 1997, receiving in 2006 about 45% of all immigrants in the European Union
(Gallardo San Salvador and Gomez de Enterria, 2009). Therefore, it can be assessed that
Spain has gone from a country of emigrants to a country that receives and integrates
immigrants, recognizing the benefits of their integration both economically and socio-
culturally. In this sense, a practice can be represented by the Strategic Plan for Citizenship
and Integration 2007-2010 (Plan estrategico de ciudadania e integracion 2007-2010)
which, based on principles of equality, citizenship, interculturalism, dialogue and mutual
accommodation, highlights the importance of integrating immigrants and focuses on a
comprehensive approach to citizenship and equality (Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos
Sociales, 2007).
Andalusia, the most populated autonomous community in Spain, fits the previously
described frame associated with the migration phenomenon perfectly. Thus, according to
Navas Luque and Rojas Tejada (2010), over recent years, Andalusia, an autonomous
community with a strong emigration character in most of the last century, quickly turned
into a powerful receiver of important external migration flows. For example, if in 2000 the
foreign population represented 1.76% of the total population of Andalusia, in 2010 their
share rose to 8.41% (Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, 2011a). Therefore, in accordance
with the manifestation of the migration phenomenon in Spain, it can be assessed that
Andalusia went from a provider to a receiving autonomous community of immigrants, that
focuses on the integration of immigrants considered a generating factor of economic
prosperity. A practice in this sense can be represented by The 2
nd
Integral Plan for
Immigration in Andalusia 2006-2009 (II Plan Integral para la Inmigracion en Andalucia
2006-2009) which highlights the importance of promoting social, personal and work
integration of immigrants, considered persons with rights and obligations specific to the
Andalusian society, thus ensuring the access of immigrants to mutual basic public services
(such as health care, education, social services, legal assistance, etc.) on equal terms (Junta
de Andalucia, Consejeria de Gobernacion, 2007).
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An integral component of international migration, emigration represents an extremely
important socioeconomic phenomenon for Romania; according to Ghetau (2008), during
the communist regime (before 1990), international migration in Romania consisted of a
single component, namely emigration. The economic, social and political environments in
Romania determined and still determine more and more persons to migrate in search of
economic and social opportunities outside the national borders. In recent years, Spain and
Italy represent the most important receiving countries of temporary emigration from
Romania (OECD 2006, 2008a, 2008b; Constantin, Nicolescu and Goschin, 2008). Also,
reviewing the statistics provided by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (2011b), it can be
assessed that Romania, along with Morocco, is a leading provider of immigrants for Spain,
implicitly for Andalusia. Reviewing the official data from the administrative registers
(Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, 2011a) which show a stock of the Spanish
municipalities inhabitants, it can be observed that in 2010, 831,235 Romanians were
registered as living in Spain, representing 14.46% of the total foreign population in Spain
and 1.76% of the total population of Spain. In Andalusia, according to the official data from
the administrative registers, in 2010, Romanians occupied - at very short distance - the third
position among foreigners residing in Andalusia, after the United Kingdom and Morocco;
their number was of 93,169, respectively 13.23% of the total foreign population in
Andalusia and 1.11% of the total population of Andalusia. Also, Romanians are one of the
very recent groups who have chosen Spain as a country of destination, but have
experienced a spectacular growth in recent years. A brief analysis of the evolution of
Romanians registered in Spain during 2006-2010 supports the previous statement. Thus, if
in 2006, 407,159 Romanians were registered in Spain, in 2010 their number increased more
than twice. The same situation is found also in Andalusia, where the number of registered
Romanians in 2006 - of 41,053 - increased more than twice in 2010. Some of the factors
that led to these increases can be represented by the bilateral agreements between Romania
and Spain for the regulation and organization of labour movement between the two
countries, and Romania's accession to the European Union.

2. The acculturation of the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia - results of previous
studies
Jamal and Chapman (2000, p. 365) consider that in order to explain the consumption
experiences of the consumers that come from ethnic minorities, researchers often resort to
terms such as acculturation and ethnicity . Ethnicity refers to the total of ethnic
features specific to a nation, to a culture (Academia Romana, Institutul de Lingvistica
Iorgu Iordan, 1998), while acculturation involves the learning and adoption of the
specific norms and values of a culture by a person coming from a different culture
(Cleveland, Laroche, Pons and Kastoun, 2009). Acculturation involves changes in
behavioural patterns of immigrants, patterns that may be part of the language area, clothing
area, food area, etc. For example, acculturation involves changes in consumption patterns,
causing changes in the quantities or types of purchased goods (Wallendorf and Reilly,
1983).
According to Cleveland, Laroche, Pons and Kastoun (2009), over time, researchers have
modelled a complex process of acculturation based on both the assimilation of the new
culture (the majority, host) and the preservation and promotion of the culture of origin
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(minority), the specific scientific literature outlining four patterns of acculturation (Berry,
1980 cited by the authors mentioned above):
Integration is manifested by the minority individuals (immigrants) who adopt the
new culture, and at the same time, cultivate their culture of origin.
Separation is adopted by the minority individuals (immigrants) who strongly keep
their culture of origin, and reject the norms and behaviours specific to the host culture.
Assimilation is represented by the gradual renunciation of the culture of origin in
favour of entirely adopting the host culture.
Marginalization (exclusion) occurs when the minority individuals (immigrants) lose
the cultural or psychological contact both with the society of origin and the host society.
In what concerns the process of acculturation of the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia,
Navas Luque and Rojas Tejada (2010) carried out a study that aimed to apply the Expanded
Model of Relative Acculturation on the Romanian and Ecuadorian immigrants in
Andalusia. The study was based on the participation of 600 Spaniards, 277 Ecuadorian
immigrants, and 298 Romanian immigrants. In the applied model, eight environments in
which the level of acculturation was assessed, can be distinguished, respectively: the
political environment, social welfare, work, economic (which, among other issues, includes
a series of aspects related to consumption behaviour), social, family, religious, and values
environments. The acculturation strategies implemented by the immigrant groups and
perceived by the Spaniards and the attitudes and strategies preferred by the studied groups,
were analysed focusing on the four patterns of acculturation, respectively assimilation,
integration, separation and exclusion.
The study revealed that the Spaniards perceive an overall strategy of separation in the
case of the Romanian immigrants, respectively the Spaniards believe that the Romanian
immigrants keep the habits specific to their country of origin, without embracing the ones
specific to the Spanish society. Regarding the general attitude of acculturation desired by
the Spaniards to be adopted by the Romanian immigrants, this is situated between
assimilation and integration. This means that the Spaniards would like the Romanian
immigrants to adopt the behaviours and habits specific to the Spanish society to a greater
extent, but at the same time to keep the customs and behaviours specific to their country of
origin, in a small extent. An in depth analysis of the acculturation process regarding the
eight environments mentioned above, reveals the fact that the Spaniards perceive an
acculturation strategy of assimilation in the work environment, of integration in the
social environment, and of separation in the family and religious environments, for the
Romanian immigrants. In the rest of the environments, the perceived strategies lay between
assimilation and integration in the economic environment, and between integration
and separation in the values environment. But, in terms of acculturation attitudes desired
to be adopted by the Romanian immigrants, the Spaniards appreciate an attitude of
assimilation in the political, social welfare, work and economic environments, and an
attitude of integration in the family and values environments. In the case of the social
environment, an attitude between assimilation and integration is desired, while in the
case of the religious environment, an attitude between integration and separation is
desired (Navas Luque and Rojas Tejada, 2010).
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The Romanian immigrants who took part in the study considered that they implement an
overall strategy of acculturation between separation and integration, which means that
they keep the customs and behaviours specific to their country of origin, but at the same
time, they adopt the habits and behaviours specific to the Spanish society, in a small extent.
Regarding the desired general attitude of acculturation, this is one of integration, which
indicates that the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia would like to keep the habits and
behaviours specific to their country of origin, but also to adopt the ones specific to the host
country. An in depth analysis of the acculturation process regarding the eight environments
mentioned above, reveals the fact that the Romanian immigrants implement a strategy of
integration in the social and economic environments, of separation in the family,
religious and values environments, and one between assimilation and integration in the
work environment. In terms of desired acculturation attitudes, if they could choose, the
Romanian immigrants would implement a strategy of integration in the economic, social
and work environments, of separation in more central environments such as religious and
family, of integration-separation in the values environment, of assimilation-integration
in the social welfare environment, and of assimilation in the political environment (Navas
Luque and Rojas Tejada, 2010).

3. Migration and food consumption habits of Romanians in Spain potential
connections
Generally, food consumption habits are stable and predictable but, at the same time,
paradoxically, are in a continuous change (Fieldhouse, 1995 cited in Cleveland, Laroche,
Pons and Kastoun, 2009, p. 198), Rout and Senapati (2008) revealing that, with migration,
food consumption behaviour changes drastically. Starting with the previous statement, this
part of the paper aims to analyze the potential relationships between migration and food
consumption habits of the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia, with an emphasis on the
variables that could represent key factors in establishing these relationships.
The analysis is based on a series of information obtained through a field research carried
out during January-June 2011 on Romanian immigrants in Andalusia, the autonomous
community which is among the first five communities preferred by the Romanians who
emigrate to Spain, along with Community of Madrid (Comunidad de Madrid), Valencian
Community (Comunitat Valenciana), Catalonia (Cataluna) and Castile-La Mancha
(Castilla-La Mancha). The survey was based on a questionnaire structured into four parts
- carried out among the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia (306 respondents), the present
paper being based on a series of information obtained from the first three parts. The first
part includes general information about the respondent (age, gender, marital status, etc.),
the second includes information associated with the migration process, the third includes
information associated with food consumption habits, and the fourth includes information
on the entrepreneurial intentions of respondents.
Regarding the samples structure according to gender, it can be assessed that it is balanced
(table no. 1). In what concerns age, a substantial presence of respondents aged between 26
and 45 is remarkable. This is not a surprising aspect because generally - related to
migration - the 26-40 age category is of particular interest to the labour market and it also
represents a category of already formed persons with high innovation and work potentials
and extremely flexible (Constantin et al., 2004 cited in Petrescu, Bac and Zgura, 2011).
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Table no. 1: Samples structure by respondents gender and age

Gender Age (years)
Female Male
under
16 16-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65
over
65
abs. 163 143 8 56 104 82 37 16 3
% 53.3 46.7 2.6 18.3 34.0 26.8 12.1 5.2 1.0
Note: abs. absolute value
In order to identify potential relationships between migration and food consumption habits,
in the questionnaire respondents were asked to express on a 7 levels Likert scale their
degree of agreement in connection with a statement regarding the changes in their food
consumption habits since they moved to Spain, changes shown mainly through prevalent
consumption of food products specific to the host country, compared to food products
specific to their country of origin. A descriptive analysis of the obtained results (table no. 2)
reveals that the majority of respondents (155, respectively 50.7%) totally agreed with the
fact that migration has led to some changes in their food consumption habits. This aspect
may be - to some extent - in line with the strategy of integration (which implies that
immigrants adopt the customs of the host society, but at the same time, they keep a part of
the customs specific to their country of origin) adopted in the economic environment
(which, among other issues, includes a series of aspects related to consumption behaviour)
by the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia (Navas Luque and Rojas Tejada, 2010).
Table no. 2: Respondents degree of agreement related to the changes in their food
consumption habits after migration
Type of agreement The perceived degree Frequency %
Total disagreement 0 9 2.9
Moderate agreement
1 11 3.6
2 8 2.6
3 24 7.8
4 45 14.7
5 54 17.6
Total agreement 6 155 50.7
Total 306 100.0
In order to identify a series of factors that might contribute to the establishment of
relationships between migration and food consumption habits - in this case changes in food
consumption habits after migration, primarily resulted in prevalent consumption of food
products specific to the host country, compared to food products specific to their country of
origin - after reviewing the specific scientific literature, various variables were introduced
in the questionnaire.
The length of residence in the host country
Regarding the correlation between the length of residence in the host country and the
changes in food consumption habits, following a survey, Mehta and Belk (1991, p. 407)
found that the Indian immigrants who have been living in the United States for a longer
period of time tended to adopt the American cuisine to a greater degree. Also, Bermudez
et al. (2000) cited in Verbeke and Lopez (2005, p. 827) demonstrated that the length of
residence in the host country influences dietary patterns, and that this is positively
correlated with the adaptation to dietary patterns specific to the host country. The last part
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of the previous statement is strengthened by the results of the study carried out by the
previously cited authors (Verbeke and Lopez, 2005), which refer to the fact that the length
of residence in the host country is positively correlated with the frequency of consumption
of mainstream food specific to the host country.
Thus, after reviewing the specific scientific literature and the statistical literature
(Anghelache, 2004), the first set of hypothesis of the analysis presented in this paper was
established:
H0a: The variation of the dependent variable is independent of the factor, respectively the
means are equal the factor is insignificant.
H1a: The variation of the dependent variable is dependent of the factor, respectively the
means are not equal the factor is significant.
Where:
dependent variable - respondents perception regarding the changes in their food
consumption habits after migration;
factor - length of residence in the host country.
In order to test the first set of hypotheses, the means corresponding to each category of
respondents were compared, and an ANOVA analysis was implemented. Considering the
results shown in table no. 3, it can be assessed that H0a is rejected, which means that there
are statistically significant differences between different groups of respondents taking into
consideration the length of residence, in terms of their perception on the changes in their
food consumption habits after migration. Thus, it can be assessed that the Romanian
immigrants who took part in the survey and have been living in Andalusia for a longer
period of time, perceive the changes in their food consumption habits more - primarily
resulting in prevalent consumption of food products specific to the host country, compared
to food products specific to their country of origin - compared with those who have been
living for a shorter period of time.
Table no. 3: Respondents perception regarding the changes in their food
consumption habits after migration, depending on the length of residence
Length of residence (years) 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 over 11
Average score 3.17 4.15 5.05 5.31 5.43 5.37 5.56
F 13.226
Sig. 0.000(*)
Note: (*) Significance level of 0.01.
Also, in order to identify the correlation between the changes in food consumption habits
after migration and the length of residence, between the two variables, the Spearman
correlation coefficient was implemented. For a significance level of 0.01, the correlation is
significant (sig.=0.000), and the correlation coefficient is 0.430, leading to the idea that
there is a positive relationship between the two variables. Therefore, it can be assessed that
the length of residence is positively correlated with the changes in food consumption habits
after migration.


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Immigrants age
Regarding the correlation between the immigrants age and the changes in food
consumption, following a survey, Mehta and Belk (1991, p. 407) found that, generally, the
children of the Indian immigrants who live in the United States are enthusiastic about
American foods. On the same note, Jamal (1998, p. 224), following a qualitative study on
food consumption habits of British-Pakistanis, considers that food products specific to the
host country are perceived by the young generation as convenient, and as a way to
conform to the mainstream culture. As a conclusion of the above statements, it can be
assessed that young immigrants are much more flexible and adaptable to the new culture,
while older immigrants have authenticity in food consumption (Sutton-Brady, Davis and
Jung, 2010).
Thus, after reviewing the specific scientific literature and the statistical literature
(Anghelache, 2004), the second set of hypothesis of the analysis was established:
H0b: The variation of the dependent variable is independent of the factor, respectively the
means are equal the factor is insignificant.
H1b: The variation of the dependent variable is dependent of the factor, respectively the
means are not equal the factor is significant.
Where:
dependent variable - respondents perception regarding the changes in their food
consumption habits after migration;
factor - respondents age (immigrants age).
In order to test the hypotheses, the means corresponding to each category of respondents
were compared, and an ANOVA analysis was implemented. Considering the results shown
in table no. 4, it can be assessed that H0b is rejected, which means that there are statistically
significant differences between different groups of respondents taking into consideration
the age, in terms of their perception on the changes in their food consumption habits after
migration. Thus, it can be assessed that the younger Romanian immigrants who took part in
the survey perceive the changes in their food consumption habits more - primarily resulting
in prevalent consumption of food products specific to the host country than food products
specific to their country of origin - compared with older Romanian immigrants.
Table no. 4: Respondents perception regarding the changes in their food
consumption habits after migration, depending on their age
Age (years) under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 over 65
Average score 4.88 4.96 5.16 4.94 4.16 3.44 3.67
F 4.669
Sig. 0.000(*)
Note: (*) Significance level of 0.01.
Also, in order to identify the correlation between the changes in food consumption habits
after migration and age, the Spearman correlation coefficient was implemented. For a
significance level of 0.01, the correlation is significant (sig.=0.002), and the correlation
coefficient is -0.178, which leads to the idea that there is a negative correlation between the
two variables.
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Vol. XIII Special No. 5 November 2011
799
Given the fact that according to Verbeke and Lopez (2005, p. 826), socio-demographic
characteristics, expressed in many ways, are very important determinants of the
consumption of foods, the potential correlations or the differences between the means -
among the responses to the statement about changes in food consumption habits after
migration and a series of factors like gender, marital status, educational level, or working
status - were tested. However, in the case of the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia, the
results obtained after processing did not reveal the existence of any relationships - at least
not linear - between the variables, and neither of any statistically significant differences
between the means.

Conclusions
The results obtained from the analysis presented in this paper have revealed that migration
has influenced the food consumption habits of the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia.
Respectively, after migration, the Romanian immigrants in Andalusia who took part in the
survey felt a series of changes in their food consumption habits, primarily resulting in
prevalent consumption of food products specific to the host country, compared to food
products specific to their country of origin.
Among the factors that could influence the relationship between migration and food
consumption habits, the length of residence in the host country and the immigrants age
were analysed in the paper. The analysis revealed that there are statistically significant
differences between different groups of respondents taking into consideration the length of
residence in the host country and the age, in terms of their perception on the changes in
their food consumption habits after migration. The length of residence is positively
correlated with the changes in food consumption habits after migration - changes primarily
resulting in prevalent consumption of food products specific to the host country, compared
to food products specific to their country of origin - while age is negatively correlated.
Therefore, it can be assessed that the younger Romanian immigrants perceived stronger
changes in their food consumption habits after migration, compared with the older
immigrants. Also, the longer Romanian immigrants reside in Andalusia, the more they see
changes in their food consumption habits - compared to immigrants with a shorter
residence.

Acknowledgements
This article is a result of the project POSDRU/88/1.5./S/55287 Doctoral Programme in
Economics at European Knowledge Standards (DOESEC). This project is co-funded by
the European Social Fund through The Sectorial Operational Programme for Human
Resources Development 2007-2013, coordinated by The Bucharest Academy of Economic
Studies in partnership with West University of Timisoara.

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