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Alba Iulia,

n anul milenar al arhidiecezei noastre,


de Srbtoarea nlrii la cer,
Arhiepiscop

Jakubinyi Gyrgy
Editura ALTIP
Alba Iulia

9 789731 172200

ISBN 978-973-117-220-0

CATEDRALA ROMANO-CATOLIC I
PALATUL EPISCOPAL DIN ALBA IULIA
ARHEOLOGIE I ISTORIE

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL AND


THE EPISCOPAL PALACE IN ALBA IULIA
ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY

A GYULAFEHRVRI RMAI KATOLIKUS


SZKESEGYHZ S PSPKI PALOTA
RGSZET S TRTNELEM

Exhibition honoring
The Millennium Jubilee of the
Catholic Episcopacy of Transylvania
The National Union Museum
Alba Iulia, June-July 2009

Primria Municipiului
Alba Iulia

Arhiepiscopia romano-catolic
Alba Iulia

Asociaia Cultural Hieronymus


Braov

Muzeul Naional al Unirii


Alba Iulia

Direcia Judeean pentru Cultur,


Culte i Patrimoniu Cultural Naional - Alba
Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei
CATEDRALA ROMANO -CATOLIC I PALATUL EPISCOPAL DIN
ALBA IULIA :ARHEOLOGIE I ISTORIE. EXPOZIIE
(2009 ; Alba-Iulia)
Catedrala Romano-Catolic i Palatul Episcopal din Alba Iulia :
arheologie i istorie = The Roman Catholic Cathedral ant the Episcopal
Palace in Alba Iulia : archaeology and history = A Gyulafehrvri Rmai
Katolikus Szkesegyhz s Pspki Palota : rgszet s trtnelem :
exihibition honoring The Millennium Jubilee of the Catholic Episcopacy of
Transylvania : Alba Iulia, The National Union Museum, June -July 2009 /
ed.: Daniela Marcu Istrate ; trad. maghiar: Kerekes Gyrgy, Andrea Gll,
Kmenes Mnika, trad. eng.: Delia Maria Roman. - Alba-Iulia : Altip, 2009
ISBN 978-973-117-220-0
I. Marcu Istrate, Daniela (ed.)
II. Kerekes Gyrgy (trad.)
III. Gll Andrea (trad.)
IV. Kmenes Mnika (trad.)
V. Roman, Delia Mar ia (trad.)
94(498 Alba-Iulia)

Editura ALTIP
Alba Iulia

CATEDRALA ROMANO-CATOLIC I
PALATUL EPISCOPAL DIN ALBA IULIA
ARHEOLOGIE I ISTORIE
catalog de expoziie

Editor:
Daniela Marcu Istrate

Alba Iulia 2009

Expoziie organizat de:


Daniela Marcu Istrate, Angel Istrate, Anca Mati
Autorii textelor:
Mihaela Ciauescu (MC), Sorin Coci (SC), Monica Dejan (MD), Tams
Emdi (TE), Cristian Gzdac (CG), Angel Istrate (AI), Daniela Marcu Istrate
(DMI), Anca Mati (AM), Daniela Tnase (DT), Pter Levente Szcs (SPL)
Fotografii:
Clin uteu (CS), George Dumitriu (GD), Angel Istrate (AI)
Grafic:
Clin uteu
Restaurare - conservare:
Dan Anghel, Daniela Ciugudean, Sorin erban
Traducere n limba englez:
Delia Maria Roman
Traducere n limba maghiar:
Kerekes Gyrgy, Gll Andrea, Kemenes Mnika, Tams Emdi

Coperta: Statuet din sec. XIII - XIV. Foto Clin uteu.

copyright Daniela Marcu Istrate et alii, 2009


copyright Asociaia Cultural Hieronymus 2009
www.hieronymus.ro

A GYULAFEHRVRI RMAI KATOLIKUS


SZKESEGYHZ S PSPKI PALOTA
RGSZET S TRTNELEM
killtsi katalgus

Kiad:
Daniela Marcu Istrate

Gyulafehrvr 2009

Killts rendezi:
Daniela Marcu Istrate, Angel Istrate, Anca Mati
Szerzk:
Mihaela Ciauescu (MC), Sorin Coci (SC), Monica Dejan (MD), Emdi Tams
(TE), Cristian Gzdac (CG), Angel Istrate (AI), Daniela Marcu Istrate
(DMI), Anca Mati (AM), Daniela Tnase (DT), Szcs Pter Levente (SPL)
Fotk:
Clin uteu (CS), George Dumitriu (GD), Angel Istrate (AI)
Grafika:
Clin uteu
Restaurls - konzervls:
Dan Anghel, Daniela Ciugudean, Sorin erban

Angol fordts:
Delia Maria Roman
Magyar fordts:
Kerekes Gyrgy, Gl Andrea, Kemenes Mnika, Emdi Tams

Bort: Szobor, XIII - XIV. szzad. Fot: Clin uteu

copyright Daniela Marcu Istrate et alii, 2009


copyright Asociaia Cultural Hieronymus 2009
www.hieronymus.ro

85

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL AND


THE EPISCOPAL PALACE IN ALBA IULIA
ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY
exhibition catalogue

Editor:
Daniela Marcu Istrate

Alba Iulia 2009

Exhibition organized by:


Daniela Marcu Istrate, Angel Istrate, Anca Mati
Authors:
Mihaela Ciauescu (MC), Sorin Coci (SC), Monica Dejan (MD), Tams
Emdi (TE), Cristian Gzdac (CG), Angel Istrate (AI), Daniela Marcu Istrate
(DMI), Anca Mati (AM), Daniela Tnase (DT), Pter Levente Szcs (SPL)
Photos:
Clin uteu (CS), George Dumitriu (GD), Angel Istrate (AI)
Graphics:
Clin uteu
Conservation, preservation:
Dan Anghel, Daniela Ciugudean, Sorin erban
English translation:
Delia Maria Roman
Hungarian translation:
Kerekes Gyrgy, Gll Andrea, Kemenes Mnika, Tams Emdi

Cover: XIII - XIVth Century statuette. Photo Clin uteu.

copyright Daniela Marcu Istrate et alii, 2009


copyright Asociaia Cultural Hieronymus 2009
www.hieronymus.ro

161

CUPRINS
CUVNT NAINTE .............................................................. 7
DESPRE CETATEA ALBA IULIA ........................................ 9
DESPRE CERCETRILE ARHEOLOGICE........................ 11
MONEDELE DESCOPERITE.............................................. 14
RESTAURAREA MATERIALELOR ................................... 17
BIBLIOGRAFIE SELECTIV .............................................. 21
DESPRE ORGANIZAREA CATALOGULUI..................... 23
CATALOGUL MATERIALELOR ....................................... 24

depete cu mult dimensiunile lor reale. Altele sunt ns

CUVNT NAINTE

destul de sugestive pentru a transmite o parte din mesajul


pe care l poart fr a avea nevoie de intermedierea unui

Obiectele descoperite n spturile arheologice

specialist. Majoritatea sunt fragmentare, puine pot fi

reprezint argumentul material al unui trecut pe care

reconstituite n forma lor iniial. Dar, n ansamblu, aceste

ncercm s l reconstituim apelnd la aceast tiin

obiecte descriu istoria de dou milenii a cetii Alba Iulia i

auxiliar a istoriei: arheologia.

istoria de un mileniu a cldirilor episcopiei catolice, fr s

Spturile arheologice sunt de multe feluri i

fie necesare prea multe cuvinte.

deseori ntmplarea joac un rol mai important dect ne-

n al treilea rnd, este cu siguran o mare ans s

am putea atepta. Sunt spturi srace, din care reuim s

putem

recuperm puine obiecte, iar ncheierile de specialitate

arheologice ntr-un moment aniversar, cnd srbtorim

trebuie s se bazeze n principal pe analiza depunerilor de

mplinirea unui mileniu de la nfiinarea Episcopiei

pmnt i eventual a ruinelor. Sunt, desigur, spturi

catolice a Transilvaniei. Expoziia ncearc s creioneze

bogate, n care avem ansa s descoperim obiecte

istoria acestui mileniu cu ajutorul obiectelor pe care cei

arheologice care ne ajut n interpretri i alctuiesc

legai ntr-un fel sau altul de aceast instituie le-au folosit

totodat un patrimoniu important pentru generaiile

la un moment dat, le-au depus n morminte, le-au pierdut,

viitoare.

le-au ascuns sau le-au aruncat. Fiecare dintre aceste piese

prezenta

publicului

rezultatele

spturilor

Spturile arheologice din colul sud-vestic al

reprezint o treapt n plus n efortul nostru de a

cetii Alba Iulia au fost de trei ori norocoase. A fost o

reconstitui epocile trecute, despre care mereu ni se pare c

mare ans pentru arheologi s se poat apropia, chiar i

nu suntem destul de informai.

cu restricii, de cldiri a cror importan istoric, artistic

***

i arhitectural se pstreaz intact de attea secole. A fost

Organizarea

unei

expoziii

cu

rezultatele

o mare ans ca din cercetarea unor suprafee att de mici

cercetrilor arheologice este o ntmplare fireasc, la

s rezulte att de multe obiecte arheologice, monede,

captul a 10 ani de la deschiderea antierului, timp n care

podoabe, arme, unelte, vase, cahle de sob sau plci

au fost organizate tot attea campanii de cercetare

decorative. Multe dintre acestea au o valoare care

preventiv i supraveghere arheologic. Propunerea pe

care am fcut-o n acest sens a fost susinut constant i cu

Tuturor celor care se regsesc n paginile acestei

mult interes de Arhiepiscopia romano catolic, chiar i n

cri le sunt recunosctoare pentru efortul depus i sper ca

condiiile n care finalizarea s-a dovedit mai complicat

aceast experien s fie benefic att celor care au

dect ne-am fi ateptat. Sunt onorat s mulumesc i n

construit-o ct i celor crora li se adreseaz.

acest mod excelenei sale domnului arhiepiscop Jakubinyi


Gyrgy pentru ncrederea acordat n aceast mprejurare.
De asemenea sprijinul domnului director Szsz Jnos a fost
un suport moral important pe tot parcursul derulrii
acestei misiuni.
Proiectul expoziiei nu putea ajunge la final fr
participarea i ajutorul constant al Muzeului Naional al
Unirii, care gzduiete de altfel acest eveniment n primele
luni ale verii anului 2009. Mulumiri speciale se ndreapt
ctre conducerea muzeului, ctre specialitii laboratorului
de restaurare, ctre ceilali colegi care au fost aproape de
noi ntr-un fel sau altul.
Prelucrarea i selecia materialului, conservarea i
restaurarea pieselor, realizarea i prelucrarea fotografiilor,
redactarea acestui catalog i organizarea expoziiei
nsumeaz munca susinut a unui mare numr de
specialiti, care au ncheiat o astfel de performan ntr-un
timp nu foarte generos. nchiderea ediiei a fost susinut,
cu mult druire, de Anca Mati, Clin uteu, Delia Maria
Roman, Andrea Gl i Teleki Gbor, ctre care se ndreapt
mulumirile speciale ale editorului.

Daniela Marcu Istrate

DESPRE CETATEA ALBA IULIA


Alba Iulia are o rezonan magic n istoriografia
noastr, cu o ncrctur material i spiritual creia nu i
putem opune nimic comparabil. Prin incredibila
continuitate de locuire, att de evident din epoca roman
i pn n prezent, prin refolosirea castrului roman pn n
jurul anului 1700, prin faptul c n mod repetat a fost un
centru de putere pentru o regiune cu limite geografice
variabile, Alba Iulia este fr ndoial un sit unic. Cele mai
semnificative momente din istoria acestor inuturi izvorsc
sau cel puin graviteaz n jurul Albei: a fost ntr-o
perioad locul cel mai important al provinciei romane, a
fost centrul unei formaiuni politice locale i poate al
voievodatului Transilvaniei, a jucat un rol strategic n
extinderea regatului maghiar n zon, devenind sediul
Episcopiei catolice a Transilvaniei, apoi centrul politic al
principatului i unul dintre cele mai importante centre
militare habsburgice - pentru a nu puncta dect acele
momente de vrf pn n zorii epocii moderne.
Cetatea propriu-zis i are nceputurile certe n
epoca roman, cnd pe terasa nalt a Mureului, ntr-un
loc ales cu o inspiraie desvrit, s-a nceput edificarea
castrului Legiunii XIII Gemina, ce avea s devin cea mai
important fortificaie roman din Dacia.
Dup abandonarea provinciei, viaa a continuat
att n interiorul fortificaiei ct i n exterior, fiind
documentate numeroase vestigii din perioada postroman pn n sec. al XI-lea. Urme de locuire din sec.
VIII-IX au fost identificate i pe teritoriul cetii, iar
numeroasele descoperiri funerare atest i ele o
continuitate de locuire, o populaie dens i majoritar
cretin nc din secolul al IX-lea.
Amplasarea strategic ntr-o zon foarte circulat,
prezena nc impuntoare a fortificaiei albe, faptul c
avea aproape o tradiie ca i centru de putere, acestea i
probabil altele care ne scap au determinat regalitatea

maghiar s fac din Alba un important punct de sprijin


pentru extinderea i organizarea sa. Aici au fost
concentrate cele mai importante forme de administraie
precum i cele de organizare ecleziastic: sediul episcopiei
Transilvaniei, cetate regal, centrul celui mai ntins comitat
i foarte probabil sediul oficial al primilor voievozi.
nfiinarea episcopiei este atribuit n mod
tradiional regelui tefan I (1009), dar primul episcop
menionat n documente este abia Simion n anul 1111.
Primele construcii legate de episcopie reprezint un
subiect asupra cruia literatura de specialitate nu s-a pus
n totalitate de acord. Se pare c primul lca de cult a fost
o bisericu-sal construit pe platoul din faa catedralei
actuale n secolul al XI-lea. n secolul urmtor a funcionat
o catedral edificat n stil romanic, avnd pe partea
sudic o rotond-baptisteriu, iar nainte de anul 1200 a fost
deschis antierul catedralei actuale. n legtur cu acestea
s-au dezvoltat celelalte construcii care fac posibil
funcionarea unei instituii de acest rang, n principal
palatul episcopal i anexele sale.
Prima meniune a cetii medievale dateaz din
1206, dar ce nsemna exact termenul de cetate n acel
moment istoric, rmne deocamdat mai mult o ntrebare.
Faptul c la mijlocul secolului al XIII-lea la Alba Iulia nu
exista o cetate puternic rezult de altfel i din uurina cu
care ttarii au ocupat-o provocndu-i distrugeri
catastrofale.
Cercettorii sunt de acord c fortificaia medieval
a suprapus castrul roman n diferite proporii. Iniial, este
foarte probabil c locuirea medieval s-a dezvoltat n
special n colul de sud-vest al acestuia, izolndu-se un
perimetru mai mic, care putea fi aprat mai uor. n anul
1349 este de altfel menionat cetatea sus zisei biserici
din Alba Iulia, ceea ce sugereaz de asemenea o zon
restrns n jurul catedralei i palatului episcopal. La
mijlocul sec. XV este menionat n documente cetatea de
la Alba Iulia prevzut cu ziduri i anuri, iar n 1461 sunt
menionate porile de pe laturile de est (poarta Sf.

Gheorghe, numit poarta capitlului) i de vest (poarta Sf.


Mihail, a episcopului), ceea ce arat extinderea fortificaiei
spre nord i est, pn la o limit ce nu o putem preciza, dar
o presupunem identic cu cea roman.
De la mijlocul sec. al XVI-lea Alba Iulia a devenit
n mod firesc centrul principatului Transilvaniei, iar prin
secularizare proprietile episcopiei au revenit principelui.
Dup aceast dat informaiile noastre despre cetate
sporesc considerabil, pe baza documentelor scrise i a
releveelor. Cele din urm sunt de altfel i cele mai
importante izvoare pentru istoria cetii n veacurile XVIXVIII, n mod special cele datorate lui Luigi Ferdinando
Marsigli (1687), Giovanni Morando Visconti (1711) i
Conrad Ferdinand Weiss (1736).
n epoca principatului s-a avut n vedere un
proiect grandios de fortificare, cu platforme de pmnt
pentru tunuri n cele patru coluri i un eventual bastion
pentagonal n colul de sud-vest, dar lucrrile se pare c au
fost doar ncepute pe latura sudic. Cetatea a suferit mai
multe distrugeri n anii 1600-1603, n legtur cu
evenimentele promovate de Mihai Viteazul, i a rmas n
paragin pn n timpul principelui Gabriel Bethlen, care
s-a ocupat de refacerea i ntrirea fortificaiilor nc de la
nceputul domniei. Cea mai fastuoas realizare a acestui
principe se regsete ns n remodelarea palatului
episcopal care a fost extins spre est i transformat ntr-un
monumental palat princiar. Lucrrile au fost continuate i
de urmaii si, prima jumtate a sec. XVII fiind ntr-adevr
o perioad de maxim dezvoltare a cetii i mai ales a
acelor cldiri ce ne intereseaz aici n mod deosebit. Din
pcate aceast strlucire a avut o existen scurt, cetatea i
cldirile fiind grav afectate de atacul turcesc din 1658 i de
cele care i-au urmat n 1661 i 1662. Cronicarii au fost
impresionai de distrugerile masive petrecute ntr-un timp
relativ scurt, n urma crora cetatea rmas n paragin nu
i-a mai revenit niciodat, astfel c principele Mihail Apafi
a preferat s locuiasc la Fgra.

10

Starea cetii de la finele secolului al XVII-lea poate


fi reconstituit pe baza releveului din 1687. Fortificaia de
form ptrat o suprapunea fr ndoial pe cea roman,
refolosind chiar o parte dintre turnurile ei. Pe latura de sud
se afl cele dou bastioane din etapa Bethlen iar pe latura
de nord sunt desenate dou turnuri interioare cu plan
rectangular. n aceast form se prezenta cetatea atunci
cnd a fost cedat armatei habsburgice n 1687 (tratatul de
la Blaj), cu puin timp nainte de deschiderea antierului
fortificaiei n stil Vauban.
Planurile pentru realizarea acesteia au fost
aprobate n 1714 iar lucrrile efective au fost ncepute la 4
noiembrie 1715, n prezena generalului Steinville.
Fortificaia medieval a fost n mare parte distrus, ca de
altfel i o parte a oraului. Din amenajrile defensive
anterioare s-a pstrat latura de sud cu cele dou bastioane,
parial afectate de includerea lor n sistemul Vauban, iar
din latura de vest doar acele fragmente ce coincid cu
peretele palatului episcopal. Colul de sud-vest,
corespunznd complexului romano-catolic (actuala
catedral i palatul episcopal) a traversat aceast epoc
fr deranjamente majore i a rmas pn astzi podoaba
cea mai important a cetii.
Daniela Marcu Istrate

DESPRE CERCETRILE
ARHEOLOGICE
Lucrrile de restaurare efectuate n anii 2000-2008
asupra cldirilor ce aparin Arhiepiscopiei romano-catolice
au fost asistate de o echip de arheologi, care s-a ngrijit de
ocrotirea, cercetarea i gestionarea patrimoniului
arheologic din colul sud-vestic al cetii Alba Iulia. Nu s-a
realizat o cercetare arheologic propriu-zis, sistematic,
care s urmreasc obiective tiinifice organiznd o
sptur coerent, ci doar investigaii minimale specifice
monumentelor istorice. Programul cercetrilor a fost
mereu dependent de celelalte lucrri, de prioritile
antierului de restaurare, de refacerea sistemului de
instalaii i de reorganizarea terenului din jurul catedralei.
Interveniile efectuate sub nivelul terenului au fost de
obicei precedate de o cercetare arheologic preventiv i
deseori supravegheate de specialiti pn la finalizare.
antierul a debutat n anul 2000, cnd principalul
front de lucru s-a aflat n interiorul turnului de nord-vest
al catedralei, cteva sondaje fiind de asemenea efectuate pe
latura de sud a sacristiei i pe faada dinspre catedral a
palatului. Campania din anul 2001 s-a desfurat n dou
etape, concentrat fiind n principal n aceleai sectoare,
sacristia catedralei i faada nordic a palatului episcopal.
Spturi ample s-au desfurat n anul 2002 pe faada
nordic a palatului episcopal, legate de amenajarea unui
dren i de refacerea canalizrilor pluviale. Aceast
campanie a fost deosebit de important deoarece, prin
desfacerea unor suprafee mai mari, s-a permis
arheologilor s acumuleze un set amplu de informaii pe
baza crora a fost construit matricea stratigrafic a sitului.
n anul 2003 s-a lucrat n exteriorul sacristiei
baroce, ale crei fundaii au fost subzidite, iar n 2004 a fost
finalizat cercetarea acestei ncperi prin spturi
interioare. n acelai an s-a efectuat un prim sondaj n

interiorul capelei Lzai i au fost realizate cteva spturi


pe latura de sud a palatului episcopal, n grdina acestuia.
Anul 2007 a adus o alt ocazie favorabil
arheologiei, datorit spturilor extinse din jurul catedralei
i dintre aceasta i palat pentru refacerea canalizrii
principale. Excavaiile realizate de constructor pe traseul
vechii canalizri, au fost supravegheate arheologic; n
condiiile descoperirii unor vestigii, sptura a fost uor
extins pentru delimitarea i nregistrarea corect a
acestora. Traseele noi, inclusiv racordurile dinspre cldirile
palatului princiar (cazarma) au fost precedate de o
cercetare preventiv. Campania din anul 2008 s-a limitat la
interiorul palatului episcopal, fiind cercetat corpul cel mai
vechi al acestuia, care poate fi pus n relaie direct cu
nceputurile episcopiei.
Pe ansamblu, n cei 10 ani de la re-deschiderea
antierului arheologic, au fost cercetate suprafee mici,
limitate cu mare strictee la interesul general al cldirilor
episcopale. Dei acestea abia se observ pe un plan general
al sitului, rezultatele obinute au fost consistente:
numeroase vestigii, fie ele ruine, morminte, straturi,
complexe sau obiecte au fost scoase din pmnt, luminnd
astfel unghere mai puin sau deloc cunoscute din istoria
complicat a colului sud-vestic al cetii din Alba Iulia,
ncepnd din epoca roman i pn n zorii secolului al
XVIII-lea. Aceast suprafa pare s fi fost permanent
preferat de ctre constructori, astfel c numeroase
structuri se suprapun i se nlocuiesc una pe cealalt
fcnd epocile deseori greu de delimitat. Cele mai
importante contribuii se refer fr ndoial la cele dou
cldiri legate de funcionarea episcopiei romano-catolice.
Din epoca roman a fost cercetat un fragment din
latura de vest a castrului i s-a descoperit c aceasta era
prevzut cu un turn intermediar uor decroat n planul
exterior. S-a stabilit c zidul de incint a fost meninut ca
fortificaie pn cel puin n secolul al XIV-lea, cnd
sistemul de aprare a fost extins n afara lui. Colul de sudvest al castrului a fost inclus n cldirile palatului

11

episcopal, fiind folosit ca fundaie pentru pereii exteriori


ai acestuia. n interiorul castrului au fost evideniate
urmele mai multor cldiri romane, a cror planimetrie
rmne a fi completat prin cercetri viitoare.
Epoca migraiilor este reprezentat prin cteva
obiecte metalice i fragmente de ceramic databile n
secolele V-VI. O aplic de centur decorat cu psri
afrontate dateaz de la sfritul secolului al VI-lea i
nceputul secolului al VII-lea. Din perioada medieval
timpurie (sec. IX-X) au fost descoperite urmele unor
locuine cu podine din lut, o instalaie menajer format
dintr-un cuptor pietrar i groapa de deservire, precum i
fragmente ceramice lucrate manual sau la roata nceat i
decorate prin incizie cu ornamente geometrice. n anul
2002 spturile au scos la iveal un mormnt cu ofrand
animal (oase de cal i bovin) n apropierea cruia se
gseau mai multe fragmente de obiecte din fier i un cercel
lunular aparinnd culturii materiale sud-dunrene i
databil n secolele IX-X.
Urmtorul nivel de locuire se leag de primele
construcii medievale cu mortar, aparinnd bazilicii ale
crei ruine sunt cuprinse n interiorul bisericii actuale.
antierul celei din urm a fost organizat la finele secolului
al XII-lea derulndu-se pe tot parcursul veacului urmtor,
dup cum sugereaz cele mai recente studii de specialitate.
Planimetria catedralei Sfntul Mihail este cunoscut de
mult vreme i prea exclus ca investigaiile recente s
determine modificri sau completri semnificative n
aceast direcie. i totui, un compartiment medieval situat
pe partea de sud a bisericii s-a lsat descoperit abia acum:
o sacristie gotic, construit nainte de finele secolului al
XIII-lea. Foarte probabil aceast cldire a avut dou nivele,
iar colurile sudice erau susinute de contraforturi dispuse
oblic. Parterul a fost acoperit cu o bolt n cruce pe ogive, a
crei amprent se pstreaz pe peretele romanic.
Alte informaii noi rezultate din spturile din
jurul bisericii se refer la turnul de nord-vest, corul gotic i
sacristia baroc: detalierea modului n care au fost

12

construite, ce transformri au suferit, cum a evoluat


nivelul interior de clcare i sistemul de pardoseli.
Spturile au evideniat de asemenea sistemul de aerisire a
fundaiilor bisericii, realizat n antierul de restaurare de la
nceputul secolului XX.
Cele 190 de morminte descoperite aparin mai
multor orizonturi cronologice, fapt dovedit de
numeroasele ntretieri i suprapuneri observate n special
n partea de vest a catedralei i n apropierea sacristiei.
Analiznd succesiunea vertical a nhumrilor i relaiile
acestora cu straturile i cu structurile zidite, au fost
delimitate cinci orizonturi cronologice, corespunznd unui
interval cuprins ntre cea de-a doua jumtate a sec. IX i
epoca modern. Cele mai vechi morminte conin depuneri
rituale, ofrande de animale, i pot fi datate n secolele IX-X,
ele aflndu-se ntr-o relaie nc obscur cu prezena unei
populaii sud-dunrene la Alba Iulia. Cele mai multe
morminte sunt ns legate de cimitirul primei catedrale,
datat ntre sfritul secolului al XI-lea i nceputul
secolului al XIII-lea cu ajutorul obiectelor descoperite n
conexiune cert cu scheletele, respectiv: cercei de tmpl
cu un capt n S, (depui cte unul, doi sau chiar trei),
cercei simpli, inele pentru deget, brri, aplice, mrgele,
catarame i mai rar monede.
Cel de-al treilea orizont cuprinde mormintele cu
sarcofag din crmid sau piatr prevzut cu o mic ni
pentru cap, datate la finele secolului al XII-lea i n prima
jumtate a secolului al XIII-lea. Ele aparin unei populaii
occidentale, probabil meterilor adui pentru construirea
catedralei actuale. Celelalte morminte se ealoneaz pn
n jurul anului 1700.
Sub denumirea de palat episcopal/princiar se
ascunde un ansamblu de cldiri despre trecutul crora nu
cunoatem dect foarte puine lucruri, deoarece sursele
scrise le menioneaz rar i fr amnunte, iar cercetrile
directe au fost limitate. Sptura arheologic din ultimii
ani a ajuns n apropierea palatului n special din exteriorul
corpului nordic, pe segmente mici, dar totui au fost

obinute informaii extrem de importante pentru istoria


acestui ansamblu. Vom meniona aici doar faptul c n
structura corpului nordic au fost delimitate patru
segmente edificate independent n diferite momente
istorice, ncepnd de la finele secolului al XII-lea i pn n
secolul XX. Componenta cea mai important este palatul
gotic a crui construcie o putem data n ultima parte a
secolului al XIV-lea. Ulterior aceast cldire a fost
prevzut cu diferite anexe (fntn, latrin, un turn
circular de scar) i extins spre vest pn la zidul de
incint al castrului roman, refolosit de cetatea medieval i
parial de cea modern.
Din sptur au rezultat numeroase obiecte, n
special fragmente de vase i cahle, dar i obiecte din metal,
os i sticl, de asemenea peste 300 de monede, acoperind
n linii mari ntreg intervalul cronologic cuprins ntre
epoca roman i secolul XX. Cele mai multe vestigii
aparin evului mediu i epocii moderne, reflectnd
intensitatea maxim de locuire de dup nfiinarea
episcopiei catolice. Din apropierea catedralei sau din
contexte legate de aceasta au aprut n mod special obiecte
legate de inventarul funerar, iar din interiorul sacristiei
provin mai multe obiecte legate de practica religioas.
Numeroase alte obiecte reflect dotrile palatului
episcopal i viaa cotidian a celor care fceau posibil
funcionarea episcopiei.
Daniela Marcu Istrate

13

MONEDELE DESCOPERITE
Monedele descoperite cu ocazia spturilor
arheologice de la Alba Iulia-Catedrala Romano-Catolic i
Palatul Episcopal reflect importana pe care a oraul nc
de a cptat-o de timpuriu n istoria Ungariei, fapt reflectat
i de procentul covritor pe care l reprezint monedele
ungureti n cadrul descoperirilor numismatice. Numrul
mare de piese numismatice, aproximativ 300 de
exemplare, la care se adaug i un tezaur monetar, n cea
mai mare parte material de dimensiuni reduse, dovedete
volumul impresionant de munc pe care l-a presupus
sptura arheologic ntins de-a lungul a mai multor
campanii.
Alturi de cele romane, monedele aparinnd
straturilor medievale ofer noi informaii si se adaug
celor deja tiute din documente, dar i din descoperirile
arheologice, importana lor constnd n posibilitatea de a
oferi indicii de datare a fazelor de construcie pentru
edificiile cercetate, dar i a necropolei dezvoltate de
timpuriu n jurul Catedralei.
Cele mai vechi monede medievale sunt cele
ungureti i se dateaz n secolule XI-XII acoperind
domniile regilor Koloman (1095-1116), Bela II (1131-1141),
Geza II (1141-1162) i Bela III (1172-1196). La acestea se
adaug un numeros lot de dinari anepigrafi emii pe
parcursul secolului XII, numii astfel pentru c monedele
de acest tip nu conin legende prin care s poat fi atribuite
n mod cert unuia dintre regii perioadei.
Aparinnd acestei etape, remarcm dou rariti
numismatice, prima este moneda de bronz (follis) n
timpul domniei lui Bela III (1172-1196). Piesa este o
apariie unic n numismatica maghiar prin faptul c a
avut ca surs de inspiraie moneda bizantin de bronz.
Legturile dintre Imperiul Bizantin i Regatul Ungariei n
aceast perioad sunt binecunoscute i au avut urmri att
politice, ct i economice. Faptul c ducele Bela a locuit la

14

Constantinopol i a fost logodit cu fiica lui Manuel I, n


calitate de pretendent la tronul Bizanului, i-a oferit
posibilitatea de a cunoate modul de via bizantin cu
instituiile i moravurile sale. Naterea unui motenitor
care s-i urmeze la tron lui Manuel I i moartea regelui
tefan III, l-au readus pe Bela n Ungaria ca rege. A doua
pies este reprezentat un dinar care are pe avers un
dragon spre stnga, iar pe revers dou psri cu capul
ntors una spre cealalt i ntre ele un lujer cu floare de
crin. Piesa are reversul asemntor cu o moned emis n
timpul domniei lui tefan V (1270-1272), unde apar
figurate dou psri n aproximativ aceeai ipostaz, dar
ntre ele se afl litera ebraic Alef (HL 357). Aversul este
complet diferit.
Domnia lui Carol Robert de Anjou (1308-1342) a
nsemnat o schimbare radical n politica monetar o dat
cu introducerea monedei de aur, dar i al transformrilor
suferite de ctre moneda de argint. Prin documentul emis
la Timioara la nceputul anului 1323, regele ntiineaz
capitlul de Alba Iulia de hotrrea pe care a luat-o, la
cererea nobilimii nemulumite de haosul monetar din
regat. Se hotra introducerea unei monede unitare, cu
valoare general acceptat n regat. Dei a fost nevoie de
dou etape de msuri, 1323 i 1338, reforma a avut, n
parte, succesul scontat, dup cum o arat i descoperirile
de la Alba Iulia unde monedele emise n timpul domniei
lui Carol Robert sunt cele mai numeroase i variate ca
nominal. Prezena unor piese de nominal mic arat o
amplificare a comerului mrunt, necesar unui ora n
plin dezvoltare La acestea se adaug i faptul c la Alba
Iulia se nfiineaz, n aceast epoc, o monetrie.
Activitatea pe plan monetar este intens i n
epoca urmaului lui Carol Robert, Ludovic cel Mare (13421382). Dei numeroase, monedele acestuia sunt
reprezentate de un singur tip monetar: dinarii cu cap de
sarazin sau cap de maur, denumii n acest mod datorit
prezenei pe aversul monedei a unei figuri de maur, dup
cum o dovedete caracteristica fizionomic a personajului

gravat. Prezente n numr mare n descoperiri se datoreaz


rolului lor de bani folosii n tranzaciile de zi cu zi i care
implicau activiti comerciale curente ntr-un ora
medieval.
Lunga domnie a lui Sigismund de Luxemburg
(1387-1437) este mai puin reprezentat n descoperirile de
la Alba Iulia, dei participarea sa activ la rzboaiele
antiotomane a reclamat ederea sa un timp ndelungat n
Transilvania. Tocmai aceast atitudine energic n
confruntarea cu Imperiul otoman a sectuit finanele
statului, moartea regelui inaugurnd o epoc de
nesiguran politic i financiar care se va extinde pe
parcursul mai multor ani. n plus, atacurile otomane care
s-au succedat cu repeziciune dup moartea lui Sigismund
I, cnd mai multe orae transilvnene printre care i Alba
Iulia sunt atacate i jefuite i gsesc reflectarea n
ascunderea mai multor tezaure compuse din piese
mrunte adunate ntr-o perioad scurt de timp. Acesta
este i cazul tezaurului monetar descoperit n campania
arheologic a anului 2007. Depozitul are n componen un
numr de 37 de dinari, din argint sau din bronz argintat
emii n timpul domniei regilor Ungariei, Albert (14371439) i Vladislav I (1440-1444).
O nou reform monetar se produce n anul 1467,
prin aceasta se introduc noi monede de argint cu valoare
stabil avnd ca reprezentare distinctiv Fecioara Maria cu
Pruncul. Printre descoperirile de la Alba Iulia avem
monede ante i postreform. Monedele emise ntre anii
1458-1467 se disting net de cele ulterioare prin calitatea
proast a argintului folosit, baterea neglijent, unele
monede au legenda ilizibil i sunt realizate din bronz,
posibil falsuri.
Dup moartea lui Matia Corvin (1490), avem un
hiatus de mai bine de 50 de ani n descoperirile
numismatice. Dac se au n vedere evenimentele care se
scurg cu repeziciune n prima jumtate a secolului XVI,
situaia apare ca fireasc. Dup btlia de la Mohcs, o
parte a Ungariei, inclusiv monetria de la Kremnitz-

Kremnica, ajunge sub stpnirea lui Ferdinand I de


Habsburg, iar aceast monetrie devine principalul atelier
monetar al regatului.
Perioada urmtoare este dominat de monedele
avndu-l ca emitent pe Ferdinand I de Habsburg (15261564). A doua jumtate a secolului XVI a nsemnat o
agravare a situaiei ca urmare a conflictelor deschise ntre
habsburgi i otomani ceea ce s-a repercutat direct n
circulaia monetar. Moneda mrunt se bate n cantiti
reduse, din aceast cauz, monedele lui Ferdinand vor fi
cutate n Transilvania. Aceast circulaie va fi mai intens
n deceniul al aselea cnd la Sibiu se intensific emiterea
de dinari cu efigia lui Ferdinand. Urmaii lui sunt
reprezentani cu una sau dou emisiuni: Maximilian (15641576), Rudolf II (1576-1608) i Mathias II (1608-1619).
Cercetarea unor tezaure descoperite anterior pe teritoriul
oraului Alba Iulia certific modul n care moneda local i
strin
ptrunde
pe piaa
importantului ora
transilvnean. Se poate observa lipsa general a monedei
transilvnene i utilizarea pe scar larg a monedei
poloneze i a celei emise de ctre Ferdinand de Habsburg
n numele coroanei maghiare. O dat cu scderea cantitii
de piese poloneze spre sfritul secolului XVII, se observ
infiltrarea treptat a monedei austriece i mpreun cu
aceasta a monedei de argint din provinciile germane, cum
este i piesa de un greschl aparinnd principatului de
Liegnitz-Brieg emis n anul 1670 din descoperirile
noastre. De altfel, la scurt timp (1675) acest principat este
alipit la Imperiul Austriac
n secolul XVII, se constat ptrunderea frecvent
a monedei poloneze pe pia n detrimentul dinarului
maghiar, care sfrete prin a fi substituit de ctre moneda
mrunt polonez. Cele dou emisiuni, ambele din anul
1624 sunt legate de apogeul deprecierii monetare
manifestat n Transilvania n epoc. Participarea lui
Gabriel Bethlen la rzboiul de 30 de ani a sporit nevoia de
moned care s-a manifestat prin baterea mai intens a
monedei locale, singurele monede transilvnene din

15

secolul XVII n descoperirile de la Alba Iulia aparin


acestuia, dar prin ptrunderea de moned depreciat
strin, n special polonez. ntre cele dou piese de trei
groi de la Sigismund III Wasa i cea de ase groi de la
Ioan Cazimir nu avem nici o emisiune polonez, absena
fiind cauzat de restriciile impuse de ctre Seim pentru a
mbunti situaia financiar din Polonia, dar i de
eforturile lui Gabriel Bethlen de a scoate din circulaie, de
la sfritul anului 1625, groii polonezi devalorizai prin
nlocuirea lor cu emisiuni proprii avnd n componen
argint bun. Efectul reformei sale a fost, doar n parte, cel
scontat deoarece monedele locale erau permanent retrase
de pe pia tocmai datorit calitii lor superioare.
Cea mai timpurie moned strin este un pfennig
vienez de la sfritul secolului XIII i nceputul secolului
XIV, fiind dovada existenei unor relaii comerciale, dar i
politice. De altfel, n anul 1312 este introdus plata vmii la
vadul de la Valea lui Mihai n dinari vienezi.
Monedele emise n ara Romneasc sunt o
apariie mai puin ntlnit n Transilvania, dar totui
explicabil, dac se are n vedere situaia economic, dar i
politico-militar de la sfritul secolului XIV, n care
Mircea cel Btrn a fost un participant activ. Mai mult, n
anul 1395 se ncheie un tratat de alian ntre Sigismund I,
regele Ungariei, i Mircea cel Btrn, domnul rii
Romneti n contextul cruciadei antiotomane pe cale s
nceap. Aceast alian avea i un al doilea scop, acela de
a apra interesele negustorilor maghiari n drum spre sud
i spre est, la Dunre i Marea Neagr. La acestea se pot
aduga mult mai vechile relaii economice stabilite de
ctre domnii valahi cu Sibiul i Braovul, ntre care
amintim privilegiu oferit de Vladislav braovenilor pe
baza nelegerilor de demult. Din ara Romneasc avem
trei monede aparinnd urmtorilor domnitori: Vladislav I
i Radu I (circa 1377), Dan I (1383-1386) i Mircea cel
Btrn (1386-1418). Secolului XV i aparin dou monede
emise n Patriarhatul de Aquileia, patriarhul Anthonius II
di Panciera (1401-1411) i n Imperiul Otoman, sultanul

16

Bayezid II (1481-1512). Urmeaz cronologic monedele


poloneze care aparin secolului al XVII, Sigismund III
Wasa (1587-1632) i Ioan Cazimir (1649-1668). Cea mai
recent moned strin este un greschl emis n Principatul
Liegnitz-Brieg n anul 1670.
Prezentarea descoperirilor numismatice se ncheie
cu o piesa de 10 poltura emis n timpul lui Francisc
Rkczi (1703-1711) i cu emisiunea (1 kreuzer) a
Imperiului Romano-German pentru Ungaria din anul
1763.
Monica Dejan

RESTAURAREA MATERIALELOR
n vederea realizrii expoziiei i a catalogului
aferent acesteia, piesele arheologice au necesitat intrarea
ntr-un proces de restaurare realizat n cadrul
Laboratorului de restaurare ceramic metal al Muzeului
Naional al Unirii din Alba Iulia.
Din punct de vedere istoric, artefactele descoperite
aparin mai multor nivele de locuire ncepnd cu perioada
roman i pn n epoca modern (sec. XVIII-XIX)
prezentndu-se n diverse stri de conservare datorate
proprietilor fizico-chimice a materialelor din care sunt
confecionate, a cauzelor care au dus la acoperirea lor cu
straturi de sol (incendieri, aruncarea lor n gropi menajere,
depunere ca inventar funerar etc) i a interaciunilor
suferite n contact cu mediul n care s-au pstrat de-a
lungul timpului. Materialele suport care au stat la baza
confecionrii obiectelor sunt, i ele, foarte diverse, ntre
acestea evideniindu-se o cantitate mare de obiecte din fier
cu diferite destinaii (unelte, arme, etc), bijuterii i obiecte
uzuale din bronz, podoabe din argint, ceramic, obiecte
din os fiind prelucrate prin metode diverse caracteristice
epocilor din care provin.
Obiectele confecionate din fier. n cadrul pieselor din
metal, procentul cel mai ridicat este cel al artefactelor
confecionate din fier. Datorit proprietilor specifice
acest metal oxideaz foarte rapid, iar produii de
coroziune sunt neaspectuoi i deformeaz substanial
aspectul obiectului. n momentul dezvelirii din straturile
de sol n care s-au pstrat, obiectele din fier sufer o
nrutire brusc a strii de conservare datorit ruperii
echilibrului cu mediul, timpul necesar reactivrii
coroziunii fiind de doar 0,05 secunde. Starea de conservare
poate fi mult agravat dac piesele au suferit n vechime
incendieri prin care s-au produs modificri ale legturilor
metalice formate n procesul de prelucrare (n majoritatea

cazurilor obiectele fiind confecionate prin deformare


plastic la cald (forjare).
Astfel artefactele confecionate din fier se
prezentau n diferite stri de conservare care puteau varia
de la o transformarea total a miezului metalic n produi
de coroziune, mineralizri pariale sau doar oxidri
superficiale. Cantitatea mare a materialelor nu a permis
realizarea unor investigaii aprofundate pentru fiecare
obiect n parte, prin urmare fiind necesar aplicarea unor
metode i tratamente de restaurare compatibile pentru
toate aspectele strii de conservare n care acestea se
prezentau.
Depunerile de sol i produii de coroziune
superficiali au fost ndeprtai prin curiri mecanice
uscate cu instrumentar adecvat (bisturie, chiurete dentare,
MTS, etc), pentru piesele masive fiind aplicat i o curire
prin sablare controlat la presiuni cuprinse ntre de 2 i 4
atmosfere. Pe parcursul derulrii acestor operaii a putut fi
restabilit forma iniial a obiectelor, mult denaturat de
straturile ngroate ale produilor de coroziune amestecai
cu depuneri de sol, cenu, var etc. Totodat au fost
evideniate, n unele cazuri, elemente decorative de pe
suprafaa lor (intarsii cu argint pe mecanismul unei arme
de foc, ornamente de bronz i mnere din os ale unor
cuite etc).
Conservarea a fost realizat prin taninare cu
soluie de tanin 20% i alcool etilic de 15% n ap distilat,
aplicat prin pensulare n dou sau trei straturi n funcie de
fiecare pies, urmat de nglobarea lor n rin epoxidic
de tip Araldite AY 103 cu ntritor HY 991, iar pentru o
protecie suplimentar a mai fost aplicat prin pensulare un
strat de lac nitocelulozic sau rin acrilic de tip Paraloid,
n concentraie de 10% n aceton.
Unele obiecte au necesitat ntregiri ale formei, att
n scopul refacerii ct i al consolidrii obiectelor, operaie
realizat prin turnare cu rin epoxidic n masa creia au
fost adugai, pentru obinerea unei tente cromatice

17

apropiate, oxizi metalici rezultai n urma proceselor de


curire mecanic.
Piese confecionate din bronz i argint. Obiectele
confecionate din aliaje ale cuprului sau din argint au
suferit i ele diferite procese de degradare, n special
oxidri, care au dus la deteriorarea miezului metalic n
diferite proporii sau doar acoperirea obiectelor cu un strat
subire, uniform i cu o culoare plcut caracteristic
patinelor nobile. Ulterior dezvelirii din straturile de sol n
care s-au pstrat unele dintre piese au suferit o nrutire
a strii de conservare soldat cu reiniierea proceselor de
coroziune manifestate n special prin apariia compuilor
metalici asociai clorului i sulfului, oxizi care se manifest
prin atacuri active, violente, punctiforme care pot duce n
scurt timp la deteriorarea ireversibil a pieselor.
Pentru obiectele din bronz s-a preferat n cele mai
multe cazuri pstrarea patinei nobile, depunerile de sol i
produii de coroziune cu aspect cornos fiind ndeprtai
prin curire mecanic manual cu un instrumentar
adecvat, sau cu ajutorul MTS-ului pentru piesele masive.
Ulterior acestea au fost supuse unui tratament de
stabilizare chimic n soluie alcoolic de BTA 3%, urmat
de uscare, ndeprtarea surplusului de soluie i
impregnare prin pensulare sau imersie n soluie de lac
nitrocelulozic diluat n solvent compatibil sau rin
acrilice.
n unele cazuri, n special pentru obiecte masive a
fost utilizat un tratament de reducere chimic a produilor
de coroziune n soluii de acid sulfuric i/sau EDTA,
perieri cu baton din fibr de sticl, neutralizare n ap
distilat, uscare n alcool i conservare final prin
peliculizare. Acelai tip de tratament a fost aplicat i n
cazul pieselor confecionate din argint pentru a se
evidenia luciul metalului, acesta fiind acoperit de cele mai
multe ori cu produi de coroziune de culoare verde,
specifici cuprului, prezent n compoziia aliajului i care
datorit diferenelor de potenial electrochimic au suferit
procese de coroziune selectiv.

18

Obiectele fragmentate au fost lipite cu rin


epoxidic bicomponent de tip Bison cu priz rapid
pentru piesele mici i Bison Power pentru cele masive,
uneori punctele de lipire fiind armate cu pnz din fibr
de sticl.
Anumite probleme au fost ridicate de piesele
composite confecionate prin alturarea mai multe tipuri
de materiale (fier, bronz, lemn i os) acestea implicnd
tratamente specifice pentru fiecare tip de material.
Tratamentele pentru acest lot de piese a fost realizat fie n
ansamblu prin intervenii locale, dac piesele nu puteau fi
demontate fie pentru fiecare material n parte, separat,
dac artefactele respective au permis desfacerea
elementelor componente.
Piese confecionate din materii dure animale (os, corn).
Dei prezente cu o frecven mai redus n cadrul
materialului arheologic supus restaurrii, aceste piese
prezentau degradri specifice care constau din depunerilor
mecanice de sol i de natur chimic (carbonai de calciu)
pe suprafa, fragmentri, ptri cu oxizi metalici etc.
Piesele au fost curite prin metode mecanice
umede sau uscate n funcie de starea de conservare n care
se gseau, urmate de asamblare cu adeziv de tip Aracet
fr plastifiant i conservare final prin peliculizare cu
lacuri de tip nitrocelulozic sau Paraloid b 72 n aceton.
Obiecte
confecionate
din
sticl.
Datorit
caracteristicilor specifice i a condiiilor de ngropare, acest
tip de material a suferit o serie de degradri evideniinduse n special pocesele de devitrifiere aprute ca urmare a
nerespectrii la confecionare a proporiilor optime ale
materialelor de baz, soldate cu apariia de irizaii i
exfolieri ale suprafeelor precum i fragmentri datorate
spargerii n vechime sau a presiunii solului etc. n funcie
de starea de conservare artefactele confecionate din sticl
au fost supuse unui tratament chimic n soluie de acid
azotic urmat de neutralizare n ap distilat i uscare n
alcool. Obiectele fragmentate au fost asamblate cu rin
epoxidic, fiind realizate doar completri minore ale

lacunelor acolo unde s-a necesitat consolidarea pieselor.


Din cadrul obiectelor confecionate din sticl se
evideniaz un vas de mari dimensiuni puternic
fragmentat care a necesitat operaii mai complicate i de
lung durat pentru asamblarea celor peste 50 de
fragmente pentru refacerea formei.
Ceramica. Obiectele confecionate din ceramic
sunt reprezentate n special din vase de uz comun, mici
obiecte cu utilitate casnic (fusaiole, capete de pip) i o
serie de cahle i elemente decorative din ceramic
glazurat. O parte din materialul ceramic prezenta, la
intrarea n laborator, diferite intervenii de restaurare
efectuate anterior care au constat din ndeprtarea parial
sau total a depunerilor de sol sau de natur chimic
(carbonai de calciu, depuneri de oxizi metalici),
asamblarea n diferite proporii a fragmentelor cu un
adeziv de tip Aracet compatibil cu materialul ceramic. n
funcie de acurateea acestor intervenii s-a hotrt fie
continuarea restaurrii din punctul unde aceasta fost
stopat fie desfacerea fragmentelor i reluarea fluxului
tehnologic din etapa incipient, starea relativ bun de
conservare n care se prezenta materialulul ceramic
permind aceast abordare.
Depunerile de sol au fost nlturate prin curire
mecanic umed (periere sub jet de ap) n cazul
fragmentelor neasamblate sau care au necesitate
desfacerea, fie prin tamponare cu buretele umed i curiri
mecanice uscate pentru vasele asamblate corect, dar care
mai prezentau mici urme de depuneri, n special de natur
chimic.
n cazul a dou vase acoperite parial cu
depunerile masive de carbonai de calciu amestecate cu
pmnt, var i cenu a fost necesar efectuarea unui
tratament chimic n acid clorhidric 5%, timp de cteva
minute urmat de neutralizare n bi repetate de ap
distilat.
Pentru ceramica decorat cu angobe sau glazuri au
fost realizate doar curiri mecanice umede i/sau uscate
pentru ndeprtarea depunerilor, un tratament chimic

putnd afecta att compoziia chimic a oxizilor metalici


care stau la baza realizrii stratului pictural ct i aderena
lui la suprafaa ceramicii. Obiectele aflate n stare
fragmentar au fost asamblate cu adeziv de tip Aracet fr
plastifiant, iar lacunele completate cu ipsos de modelaj
prin tehnici specifice (amprente interioare, copieri n forme
de ipsos etc).
Suprafeele completate au fost integrate cromatic,
pentru reducerea contrastului, cu guae sau culori tempera
pentru obinerea unor efecte cromatice, distincte, dar
apropiate de nuanele originale ale obiectelor. Ulterior
suprafeele au fost peliculizate pentru protecie cu soluie
din lapte de aracet sau lacuri nitrocelulozice.
Din contextul materialului ceramic se evideniaz
cahlele i elementele decorative glazurate descoperite, n
cele mai multe cazuri fragmentar. La confecionare cahlele
erau realizate prin presare n acelai tipar, sau o serie de
negative obinute prin amprentate dup acelai prototip.
Prin urmare acestea vor prezenta aceleai carateristici
dimensionale ale decorului, fiind posibil, prin aceasta,
refacerea formei i a decorului iniial prin copierea prior
lips de dup alte piese similare. Acest tip de intervenie
este posibil doar daca cahlele respective provin din acelai
context, prin aceasta crescnd posibilitatea realizrii lor
dup aceleai tipare, probabil chiar n cadrul aceluiai
atelier i nu sunt rezultatul unor copieri succesive sau
imitaii prin care pot aprea unele diferene.
Dup ndeprtarea depunerilor de sol, asamblarea
fragmentelor i protejarea suprafeelor prin peliculizare cu
lac nitrocelulozic, au putut fi ridicate diferite mulaje din
plastelin, cauciuc siliconic sau ipsos n funcie de
caracteristicile spaiale sau descorative a diferitelor
elemente. Ulterior acestea au putut fi transpuse n ipsos,
prin turnare n cadrul unor piese similare care prezint
anumite lacune. Prin aceast tehnic s-au efectuat i
diferite completri paralele ntre dou piese similare prin
aceasta reuind s se reface astfel forma lor intiial cu o
mare acuratee. Ulterior, completrile din ipsos au fost

19

integrate cromatic i protejate prin peliculizare cu lacuri


nitrocelulozice (Foto: 5, 6).
Complexa activitate de restaurare i conservare a
celor cteva sute de artefacte confecionate din ceramic,
metale, sticl sau meterii dure animale a condus la
salvarea i recuperea prin metode stinifice a unor vestigii
patrimoniale ealonate cronologic din epoca roman i
pn n zori secolului al XIX-lea. Interveniile lizibile i
reversibile au avut ca finalitate asigurarea unei protecii
durabile a tuturor obiectelor care vor putea s transmit
mesajul lor estetic i istoric n vederea valorificrii
tiinifice i expoziionale.
Dan Anghel, Daniela Ciugudean, Sorin erban

20

BIBLIOGRAFIE SELECTIV
ANGHEL, GHEORGHE
1975 Cetile medievale de la Alba Iulia. Apulum XIII, 1975, pag. 245-273.
BERCIU, ION POPA, ALEXANDRU URSU, HORIA
1968 Cetatea Alba Iulia, ed. II. Bucureti, 1968.
EMDI TAMS
2003 The Tiled room in the palace of the Ruling Prince at Gyulafehrvr, n vol. Archaeology of the ottoman period
in Hungary, Budapesta 2003.
ENTZ GZA
1958 A gyulafehrvri szkesegyhz. Budapest, 1958.
1958b La cathdrale de Gyulafehrvr (Alba Iulia). ActaHistArt V/1-2, 1958, pag. 1-40.
HEITEL, RADU
1985 Principalele rezultate ale cercetrilor arheologice din zona sud-vestic a cetii de la Alba Iulia (19681977). I. SCIVA
36/3, 1985, pag. 215231.
1986 Principalele rezultate ale cercetrilor arheologice din zona sud-vestic a cetii de la Alba Iulia (19681977). II. Piesele
de metal. SCIVA 37/3, 1986, pag. 233-248.
1995 Die Archlogie der ersten und zweiten Phase des Eindrigens der Ungarn in das innerkarpatische Transilvanie. Dacia
N.S. XXXVIIIXXXIX, 1994-1995.
IAMBOR, PETRU
2005 Aezri fortificate din Transilvania (secolele IX-XIII). Cluj Napoca 2005.
KOVCS ANDRS
1984 Construcii patronate de Gabriel Bethlen. Tez de doctorat, Cluj Napoca 1984.
1992a Die mittelalterliche Topographie der Burg von Alba Iulia (Weissenburg), n vol. Bischfliche
Burgen und Rezidenzen im Mittelalter, 3. Castrum BeneKonferenz, 1013. Juni 1992, Pcs, pag. 120-122.
1992b Humanista epigrfusok adalkai Gyulafehrvr kzp- s kora jkori helyrajzhoz, n vol. Szamoskzy Istvn
(Stephanus Zamosius): Analecta lapidum vetustorum et nonnullarum in Dacia antiquitatum. 1593. Inscriptiones
Romanae in lapidibus antiquis Albae Juliae et circa locorum. Szerk. Balzs Mihly, Monok Istvn (Adattr XVIXVIII. szzadi szellemi mozgalmaink trtnethez. Szerk. Keser Blint) Szeged 1992, pag. 25-35.
1996 Gyulafehrvr, az erdlyi pspkk kzpkori szkhelye, n vol. Mrton ron emlkknyv szletsnek 100.
vforduljn. Cluj-Napoca 1996.

21

1996b Gyulafehrvr, Szent Mihly-szkesegyhz. Cluj Napoca 1996, n seria Erdlyi memlkek nr. 26.
2003 Ks renesznsz pitszet Erdlyben 1541-1720. Budapesta-Cluj Napoca 2003.
MARCU ISTRATE, DANIELA
2008 A gyulafehrvri rmai katolikus szkesegyhz s pspki palota. Rgszeti kutatsa (2000-2002). Budapesta 2008.
2009 Catedrala romano-catolic Sfntul Mihail i palatul episcopal din Alba Iulia. Cercetri arheologice (20002002). Alba Iulia 2009.
MARCU ISTRATE, DANIELA ISTRATE, ANGEL
2005 Morminte cu ni cefalic descoperite la Alba Iulia (sec. XII-XIII). Contribuii privind istoria oaspeilor occidentali n
Transilvania, n vol. Relaii interetnice n Transilvania (sec. VI-XIII), coord. Z.K.Pinter, I.M.iplic, M.E.iplic,
Bucureti 2005, pag. 229-245.
MOGA, VASILE
1998 De la Apulum la Alba Iulia. Castrul Roman de la Apulum. Cluj Napoca 1998.
PSTA, BLA
1917 A gyulafehrvri szkesegyhz srleletei. Dolgozatok VIII, 1917, pag. 156-158.
PROTASE, DUMITRU
1954 Cercetrile arheologice din 1953 n cetatea de la Alba Iulia. Raport preliminar. SCIV V/1-2, 1954, pag. 222-224.
1956 Cercetrile arheologice din 1953 n cetatea de la Alba Iulia. Studii i cercetri de istorie, Cluj Napoca, VII/1-4,
1956, pag. 15-19 .
RUSU, MIRCEA
1979 Castrul roman Apulum i cetatea feudal de la Alba Iulia. AIIA XXII, 1979, pag. 47-70.
VTIANU, VIRGIL
1959 Istoria artei feudale n rile Romne. Bucureti 1959.
1987 Studii de art veche romneasc i universal. Bucureti 1987.

22

DESPRE ORGANIZAREA
CATALOGULUI
Expoziia este organizat cronologic, obiectele
fiind grupate pe epoci: epoca roman, epoca migraiilor,
evul mediu i epoca modern. Descrierea obiectelor este
fcut dup urmtorul punctaj:
Denumirea piesei
Contextul descoperirii. Este descris la modul general,
prin raportare la cele dou cldiri, palatul episcopal i
catedrala romano-catolic, indicndu-se de asemenea anul
descoperirii. Am considerat c aceste date sunt suficiente
pentru o orientare general a vizitatorului expoziiei i a
cititorului acestui catalog.
Materialul, descrierea formei i a decorului. Descrierea
piesei se limiteaz, n majoritatea cazurilor, la strictul
necesar, avnd n vedere faptul c toate obiectele sunt
ilustrate. Uneori am procedat la gruparea obiectelor i
prezentarea lor ntr-o singur voce, evideniind
caracteristicile generale ale grupului i eventual
rezonanele istorice ale artefactelor respective (cldrile
din lut, plcile de Iznik, ochiurile de sticl etc.). Piesele se
afl n custodia Arhiepiscopiei romano-catolice din Alba
Iulia, constituind un patrimoniu n curs de inventariere.
Din acest motiv catalogul nu conine numere de inventar.
Dimensiuni.
Datare. n marea majoritate a situaiilor, cronologia
pieselor este sinteza a numeroase informaii rezultate din
analiza contextului descoperirii, a poziiei stratigrafice i a
relaiilor cu alte obiecte i structuri existente n sit. Atunci
cnd piesele au fost descoperite n poziii secundare,
dislocate din poziia lor iniial de alte intervenii mai mult
sau mai puin apropiate n timp, am apelat la analogii din
regiuni apropiate i contexte istorice asemntoare. Atunci
cnd, din diferite motive, nu am reuit s restrngem
intervalul cronologic, am indicat epoca din care provine
obiectul.

Autorul fiei, autorul fotografiei. Cantitatea foarte


mare de materiale prelucrate i ilustrate n expoziie i
catalog a necesitat participarea mai multor specialiti, ale
cror contribuii au fost destul de inegale, n funcie de
ponderea diferitelor specialiti i abiliti. Din acest motiv
am considerat necesar s precizm att autorii textelor ct
i pe cei ai fotografiilors.
Spturile efectuate n anii 2000-2002 au fost
publicate ntr-o monografie de specialitate, aprut n anul
2008 n ediie maghiar i n anul 2009 n ediie romn.
Pentru obiectele descoperite n acest interval am preluat
textele din carte. Materialele descoperite n anii 2003, 2004,
2007 i 2008 sunt n ntregime inedite.

Abrevieri folosite n descrierea pieselor


AOI (S, C) ardere oxidant incomplet (superficial,
complet)
AS ardere secundar
AR ardere reductoare
d. diametru
dg. Diametrul gurii
df. Diametrul fundului
gr. grosime
h. nlime
l. lime
L. lungime
max. maxim ()
min. minim ()
p. pstrat ()

23

CATALOGUL MATERIALELOR

24

EPOCA ROMAN
1. int cu disc ornamental
2003, n apropierea sacristiei.
Bronz; piesa se compune dintr-un disc ornamentat prin
gravare reprezentnd stilizat chipul unui personaj feminin
care are n jurul capului raze. Tija de prindere este de
seciune dreptunghiular, la captul liber avnd un orificiu
pentru fixare dreptunghiular.
L. total 3,1 cm, d. disc 2,9 cm.
Epoca roman.
AI, foto CS
2. int de scut
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz; capul este tronconic. L. 2,2 cm.
Sec. II-III p. Chr.
SC, foto GD
3. int de scut
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz; capul este rotund avnd marginile zimate, piciorul
se termin cu un orificiu pentru prinderea de scut. L. 3 cm,
d. 3 cm.
Sec. II -III p. Chr.
SC, foto CS
4. Vrf de suli (pilum)
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Fier; tub de nmnuare conic, pstrat parial.
L. 15 cm; d. sup. 2,5 cm; d. vrf 0,8 cm.
Epoca roman.
AI, foto AM
5. Vrf cu tub de nmnuare
2004, n apropierea palatului.

Bronz, este de form conic cu decor la partea larg i cu


un orificiu pentru blocarea cozii. La captul subire este
rotunjit. L. 5,4 cm, d. max. 0,9 cm.
Epoca roman?
AI, foto GD
6. Aplic
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, piesa are form dreptunghiular, fiind traforat cu
motive n form de pelta i dou margini zimate.
L. 3 cm, l. 2,5 cm.
Sec. II-III p. Chr.
SC, foto CS
7. Spatul sond
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz; captul lamei rupt, mnerul rupt. L. 5,6 cm.
Epoca roman.
SC, foto GD
8. Sond de ureche
2003, n apropierea sacristiei.
Bronz; spatula are un capt n form de lingur, coada este
format dintr-o band de metal poziionat vertical cu
partea median torsadat; captul de prindere aplatizat,
terminat n form de romb. L. 5,9 cm, l. 0,4 cm.
Epoca roman.
AI, foto GD
9. Penset
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, mnerul scurt, braele se rotunjesc spre capete.
L. 5 cm.
Epoca roman.
SC, foto GD
10. Penset
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.

25

Bronz. L. 8,5 cm.


Epoca roman.
AI, foto CS
11. Fibul de tip Aucissa
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz; capul fibulei este dreptunghiular, corpul puternic
curbat avnd la baz trei nervuri. Piciorul se termin ntrun buton. Sistemul de nchidere prin balama. L. 5,6 cm.
A doua jumtate sec. II-primele dou dec. sec. III d. Chr.
SC, foto GD
12. Fibul cu piciorul ntors pe dedesubt
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, sistemul de nchidere prin resort, format din 16
spire, corpul ndoit semicircular, piciorul ntors pe
dedesubt.
L. 6 cm.
Prima jumtate a secolului III d.Chr.
SC, foto CS
13. Ac de fibul
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. L. 4,9 cm, gr. 7 mm cu zone subiate la 2 mm.
Epoca roman.
AI, foto CS
14. Cui de sanda
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier; capul piesei este mic semicircular. L. 1,5 cm.
Sec. II -III p. Chr.
SC, foto GD
15. Verig
2001, n apropierea sacristiei.
Fier. d. 2 cm.
Epoca roman.
AI, foto GD

26

16. Aplic
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Aliaj de argint. Hp. 3 cm.
Epoca roman?
AI, foto CS
17. Aplic
2007, n apropierea catedralei.
Bronz. Tij de seciune aprox. dreptunghiular, cu una
dintre fee plat iar cealalt modelat n form de torsad.
L. 3,5 cm.
Epoca roman?
AI, foto GD
18. Aplic
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Bronz. Plcu cu o urm de nit pe spate, marginile
zimate. L. 2,2, l. 1,4 cm.
Epoca roman?
AI, foto GD
19. Garnitur
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, fragment de plac pliat i prins cu un nit.
L. 1,6 cm.
Sec. II -III p. Chr.
SC, foto GD
20. Armtur
2001, n apropierea sacristiei.
Fier. Piesa este format dintr-o tabl curbat semicircular
pe lungime, pstrnd trei nituri cu care a fost montat pe
un suport din lemn. L. 15 cm.
Epoca roman.
AI, foto CS
21. Armtur
2001, n apropierea corului.

Fier. Piesa a fost montat cu nituri groase care au capete


semisferice. L. 14,3 cm, l. 3,4 cm, gr. 0,55 cm.
Epoca roman.
AI, foto GD
22. Mner
2007, n apropierea catedralei.
Bronz, pies de form conic de la un mner, fragment.
h. 1,5 cm, d. inf. 1,5 cm, d. prii superioare 1,2 cm.
Epoca roman.
AI, foto CS
23. Bra de prindere
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Fragmentul pstrat este de seciune rotund i se
subiaz treptat spre capt. Vrful se termin cu o zon
aplatizat gurit, precedat de o ngroare decorativ n
form de cub cu colurile tiate.
L. 11,2 cm.
Epoca roman.
AI, foto CS
24. Ac de cusut
2007, n interiorul palatului.
Bronz. Uor curbat din vechime. L. 5,5 cm.
Epoca roman?
AI, foto GD
25. Nasture ornamental
2004, n interiorul sacristiei.
Bronz, are form de plrie cu partea central bombat;
este plin pe dinuntru. D. 2,4 cm, gr. 0,2 cm, h. 0,8 cm.
Epoca roman?
AI, foto CS
26. Piron
2007, n interiorul palatului.
Fier, dou exemplare. L. 7/7,5, d. cap 2,5/3 cm.

Epoca roman.
AI, foto GD
27. Piron
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Tij ptrat, capul este aproximativ discoidal.
L. 8,9 cm, d. 18 cm; tija 0,5x0,5 cm.
Epoca roman.
AI, foto GD
28. AugustusClaudius I?
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Metal: bronz.
Nominal. AS.
D: 25 mm; G: 7,38 gr. Axa:
Datare: prima jumtate a secolului I p. Chr.
CG, foto GD
29. Traian?
2001, n apropierea catedralei.
Metal: argint.
Nominal. Denar.
D: 1,81x1,6 mm; G: 2,51 gr. Axa: 6.
Datare: 103111.
30. Antoninus Pius pentru Marcus Aurelius caesar?
2001, n partea de vest a catedralei.
Metal: argint.
Nominal. Denar.
D: 1,7 mm; G: 3,30 gr. Axa: 1.
Datare: 145147.
CG, foto GD
31. Septimius Severus pentru Iulia Domna
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Metal: argint.
Nominal. Denar.
D: ; G: 2,51 gr. Axa: 6.

27

Datare: 195.
CG, foto GD
32. Macrinus
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Metal: argint.
Nominal. Denar.
D: 1,9 mm; G: 3,10 gr. Axa: 6.
Datare: 217218.
CG, foto GD
33. Elagabal?
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Metal: argint.
Nominal. Denar subaerat.
D: 1,8 mm; G: 2,16 gr. Axa: 12.
Datare: 218222 sau ulterior.
CG, foto GD
34. Severus pentru Iulia Mamaea
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Metal: bronz acoperit cu argint.
Nominal. Denar subaerat.
D: ; G: 2,31 gr. Axa: 6.
Datare: 222235 sau ulterior.
CG, foto GD
35. CERAMICA ROMAN
Fragmentele provin din nivelurile de drmtur i
straturile medievale sau moderne, foarte puine fiind
descoperite in situ, cercetarea castrului roman fiind
ngreunat de poziia sa stratigrafic n raport cu edificiile
existente. n ciuda caracterului rezidual, acest grup este
unul din cele mai largi analizate de pe acest castru i ofer
o imagine general a tipurilor ceramice n uz.
Majoritatea ceramicii de uz comun este gri, doar ceramica
fin este ars predominant oxidant (19%) i doar 8%
reductant. A fost nregistrat un repertoriu de forme

28

aproape complet, predominante fiind oalele i recipientele


pentru lichide. O gam larg de decoruri sunt utilizate,
lucru deja observat pentru siturile militare, ca cele cu
firnis, decor marmorat, barbotinat, glazurat, excizat sau
alte tehnici.
Majoritatea formelor observate corespund
tipurilor
cunoscute la nivel local mai ales n prima jumtate a sec.
III. Oalele, ulcioarele, castroanele ce reprezint mare parte
din fragmentele analizate, ilustreaz variante ce nu au fost
utilizate nainte de sfritul secolului al II-lea, dar care n
secolul al III-lea reprezint formele cele mai comune n alte
complexe locale, precum sanctuarul lui Liber Pater de la
Parto. Cteva fragmente n schimb se dateaz mai ales n
sec. II i nu sunt specifice complexelor de sec. III: bolurile
norrico-panonice sau ulcioarele cu gt inelar.
MC, foto CS, GD
PERIOADA POSTROMAN
36. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale.
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past grosier. AR complet, gri. Gtul scurt este mult
subiat, marginea evazat iar buza ngroat i faetat.
Decor: incizii subiri pe umr. Dg. 28 cm.
Sec. III-IV.
DMI, foto CS
37. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale.
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past de calitate medie, ardere superficial, negru cu pete
crmizii. Gtul scurt, marginea evazat, buza ngroat i
faetat. Decor: incizii subiri pe umr. Dg. 19 cm.
Sec. III-IV.
DMI, foto CS
38. Margine de vas
2003, n apropierea sacristiei.

Past de calitate medie, ardere reductoare, cenuiu


deschis.
Decor: incizii superficiale.
Sec. III-IV.
DMI, foto CS
39. Margine de vas
2003, din apropierea sacristiei.
Past grosier, ardere reductoare, negru cenuiu. Dg. 33
cm.
Sec. III-IV.
DMI, foto CS
40. Fragment de vas de provizii
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past grosier, ardere superficial, crmiziu glbui.
Fragment de perete. Decor: linii orizontale i n val,
incizate.
Sec. III-IV.
DMI, foto CS
41. Margine de vas
2003, n apropierea sacristiei.
Past de calitate medie, ars reductor, cenuiu. Dg. 13 cm.
Sec. III-IV.
DMI, foto CS
42. Fragment de capac
2003, n apropierea sacristiei.
Past semifin, ardere reductoare complet, cenuiu
deschis.
Dg. 13,5 cm.
Sec. III-IV.
DMI, foto CS
43. Margine de vas
2003, n apropierea sacristiei.

Past semifin, ardere reductoare, cenuiu deschis. Dg. 15


cm.
Sec. III-IV.
DMI, foto CS
44. Margine de vas
2003, n apropierea sacristiei.
Past semigrosier, ardere reductoare, cenuiu deschis.
Decor: linii orizontale incizate. Dg. 13 cm.
Sec. III-IV.
DMI, foto CS
45. Fragment de vas
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Ceramic de culoare cenuiu-deschis, lucrat la roat
dintr-o past semifin; buza uor evazat. Decor: pe umr
are incizat o linie. Dg. 17 cm.
Sec. III-IV.
DMI, foto CS
EPOCA MIGRAIILOR
46. Pandantiv
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, turnat. Pandantiv rotund cu o ureche de prindere;
piesa are nervuri radiale i chenarul profilat, iar n mijloc
un orificiu, probabil pentru a fi fixat o piatr
semipreioas sau preioas.
d. 1,5 cm.
Sec. V-VI.
DT, foto GD
47. Cataram
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Cataram oval, fr plac, are spinul ncovoiat,
nepenit n afara verigii. D. 1,9 cm.
Sec. V-VI.

29

DT, foto GD
48. Plac de centur
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, turnat. Placa are forma unui scut, una dintre laturi
este rotunjit i are marginea arcuit, iar n interior au fost
ajurate motive n form de semilun. La captul rupt s-a
mai pstrat unul dintre orificiile care serveau la fixarea
plcii de cureaua centurii. l. 3 cm.
Sec. V-VI.
DT, foto GD
49. Pies de centur
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, turnat. Capt de curea. Piesa are dou nituri care
fixeaz pe spate o plcu din cupru.
Decor: motiv ornitoform, dou psri afrontate, cu
ciocurile deschise i unite astfel nct formeaz un cerc,
posibil pentru un dispozitiv de fixare. Penajul psrilor
este sugerat de linii sinuoase. L. 2,7 cm, l. 1,65 cm.
Sfritul secolului VI - prima jumtate a secolului VII.
DT, foto AI
50. Pieptn bilateral
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Os, pstrat fragmentar. Format din dou plcue fixate
ntre ele cu nituri din fier. Decor: pe una dintre fee decor
incizat, motive geometrice.
Secolele V-VI.
DT, foto GD
51. Ceramica.
Cele mai numeroase obiecte provenite din aceast epoc
sunt fragmente de la vase din ceramic utilizate n viaa de
zi cu zi, de diverse forme i mrimi, din care se pot
distinge cteva categorii:
Ceramic de uz comun, format din vase de culoare brun
sau cenuie, lucrat cu mna sau la roata rapid, dintr-o

30

past semifin, care avea adesea i pietricele n compoziie,


ceea ce i ddea un aspect zgrunuros. Aceste vase utilizate
la gtit, la servit masa sau pstrarea hranei aveau diverse
forme: oale bitronconice sau n form de par, castroane,
cni sau ulcioare. Vasele erau decorate prin incizare cu
linii vlurite i linii drepte, orizontale, dar erau i fr
decor.
Ceramic fin, lucrat la roata rapid, dintr-o past fin,
bine frmntat, n principal colorat n diverse nuane de
cenuiu, sau neagr. Aceast ceramic putea fi decorat
prin tampilare sau prin lustruire.
Ceramica tampilat, de culoare cenuie i neagr, mai rar
galben, este specific gepizilor, acest tip de decor fiind
utilizat mai ales la ornamentarea vaselor folosite pentru
but: ulcele, pahare, cni cu tub de scurgere. n ceea ce
privete motivele decorative, se observ preferina pentru
triunghiuri ordonate n iruri sau dispuse astfel nct s
formeze romburi, precum i pentru motive n form de
frunz.
Ceramica lustruit este de culoare cenuie i neagr,
realizat exclusiv la roat, dintr-o past fin; poate fi fr
decor, sau decorat cu linii dispuse n reea, linii n zig-zag
dispuse vertical sau orizontal, intercalate de linii drepte. n
ceea ce privete forma vaselor, din ceramic lustruit au
fost confecionate pahare, unele cu picior, cni, castroane,
oale bitronconice i n form de par, vase mari de
provizii, numite i chiupuri.
Ceramica din vremea regatului gepid este produsul unei
contopiri ntre tradiia roman provincial, n ceea ce
privete felul n care erau confecionate vasele, formele
acestora i motivele decorative i influenele olriei
germanice mai ales n ceea ce privete modul de decorare a
vaselor.
DT, foto CS, GD, AI

EPOCA MEDIEVAL TIMPURIE

DT, foto GD

52. Cercel lunular


Probabil inventar funerar.
Bronz. Piesa este decorat n tehnica filigranului, chenarul
su fiind compus din trei iruri de fire mpletite prinse de
o plcu lunular, firele fiind apoi nfurate n jurul
capetelor i a protuberanei din mijlocul lunulei; un fir
mpletit care nconjura unul dintre capete este rupt. Lunula
3x1,7 cm, veriga 0,1 cm.
Sec. IX-X.
DT, foto GD

55. Cataram
Inventar funerar.
Fier. Cataram dreptunghiular cu coluri rotunjite. 3x2
cm.
Sec. IX-X.
AI, foto GD

53. Inel pentru deget


Inventar funerar.
Plumb. Veriga este format dintr-o band lat de 0,65 cm,
decorat cu 2-3 caneluri inegale. Chaton oval n care a fost
turnat past de sticl incolor. Chatonul este ncadrat de
un ornament din boabe metalice care coboar uor pe
verig.
d. 2,15 cm.
Sec. IX-X.
AI, foto GD
54. Pandantiv
2007, n apropierea palatului
Bronz. Pies romboidal prins cu un lnior. Piesa
romboidal este format din dou foie de tabl legate cu
un nit la unul dintre capete, iar la cellalt fixate prin veriga
lanului. Sunt decorate perimetral cu mici proeminene
circulare. Una dintre foie, probabil cea vizibil, are partea
din mijloc decupat n form circular. Lanul este format
din patru verigi n form de 8, cu capetele apropiate. Este
fixat de piesa romboidal printr-o verig asemntoare, iar
la captul opus are un element de siguran, o bucl cu
braele alungite.
L. 5 cm; 5x2,8 cm.
Sec. IX-X.

56. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past grosier, ardere superficial, negru pe toate feele.
Urme de ardere secundar. Gtul scurt, marginea evazat
cu buza teit oblic. Decor: linii n val incizate la distane
regulate, ncepnd imediat sub gt i continund probabil
pe tot corpul vasului. Dg. 11,5 cm.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto AI
57. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, ardere reductoare, gri, ardere secundar.
Roata nceat, cu intervenii manuale. Probabil un corp
ovoidal, gtul scurt. Marginea evazat, buza modelat
manual i rotunjit. Decor: o linie n val sub gt, linii
orizontale pe corp.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto CS
58. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale.
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier cu multe pietricele. AR. AS foarte
puternic. Gtul scurt, marginea mult evazat, subiat,
buza rotunjit. Decor: fascicul de linii orizontale suprapus
de o band de linii n val.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto CS

31

59. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past grosier. ARC, negru. Diametrul maxim al vasului n
zona median, gtul slab pronunat. Marginea tras spre
exterior i teit oblic este uor canelat pe faa interioar.
Decor: o linie n val sub buz. Dg. 17,5 cm.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto DMI
60. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas
2000, n apropierea sacristiei.
Past medie, degresat cu nisip, mic i rar pietricele. AOI.
AS. Marginea tras brusc n afar formeaz cu umrul un
unghi ascuit.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto CS
61. Fragment de perete de vas
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI, cenuiu glbui. Decor: linii paralele
realizate cu rotia.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto CS
62. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas
2000, n apropierea sacristiei.
Past medie, degresat cu nisip, mic i pietricele. AS.
Vasul modelat pe o roat cu turaia foarte nceat,
pstreaz multe urme de degete. AOI. Corpul ovoidal,
gtul abia conturat.
Decor: benzi de linii n val, realizate destul de neglijent.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto CS
63. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, degresat cu nisip i mic. AOI. AS. Form
probabil tronconic, strmtat la gur. Marginea ngroat,

32

subliniat printr-o nervur la exterior, buza rotunjit.


Decor: alveole circulare grupate cte cinci, oblic sub buz.
Dg. 15,5 cm.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto CS
64. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. AR. AS. Marginea arcuit spre exterior,
buza ngroat i articulat prin dou caneluri nguste.
Decor: fascicule de incizii orizontale, parial suprapuse de
incizii oblice. Decor superficial, cu o mturic. Dg. 16,4 cm.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto AI
65. Fragment din marginea unui vas
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. AOS. Umrul proeminent, gtul scurt.
Marginea subiat, teit vertical. Dg. 17 cm.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto AI
66. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past grosier. AOS. AS, negru pe toate feele. Gtul scurt,
marginea evazat cu buza teit oblic. Decor: linii n val
incizate la distane regulate. Dg. 12,5 cm.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI
67. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. Fragmentul pstrat a fost modelat
manual. AOI, cu pelicule rocate la interior i exterior.
Peretele vasului se subiaz mult n dreptul gtului.
Marginea este evazat, buza ascuit. Decor: linii n val
executate neglijent, pe umr i pe interiorul buzei. Dg. 18
cm.

Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto AI
68. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale cu toart.
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past grosier. AOI, crmiziu nchis. Suprafaa exterioar
finisat manual i decorat prin lustruire. AS parial.
Marginea evazat, buza rotunjit i ngroat. Gtul slab
pronunat. Toarta cu seciune oval. Decor: reea de linii
lustruite.
Sec. IX-X.
DMI, foto AI
EPOCA MEDIEVAL
69. Inel
2000, inventar funerar.
Argint, srm groas rsucit, capetele aplatizate n band.
d. 2,6 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS
70. Inel
2007, n apropierea catedralei.
Argint. Verig cu capetele ntrerupte, subiate i petrecute.
Captul care rmne vizibil este mai subiat i uor ascuit.
Pies ntreag, de form oval, uor deformat din
vechime.
d. 1,7x1,2 cm; veriga din platband: l. 0,4 cm, gr. 0,1 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS
71. Inel
2007, inventar funerar.
Argint. Verig din srm de argint, circular. Pare s
provin dintr-un cercel de tmpl cu capt n S, a crui

extremitate a fost rupt. Piesa descoperit pe o falang la


M.123. D. 1,65 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto GD
72. Inel
2003, n apropierea catedralei.
Bronz. Inel masiv fr urme vizibile de sudur, ngroat la
unul dintre capete. D. 2,6 cm; gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. X-XIII
AI, foto GD
73. Inel
2004, n grdina palatului.
Bronz, pstrat fragmentar, aproximativ jumtate din pies;
are ambele capete rupte. D. tijei 0,25 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
AI, foto CS
74. Inel
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Aliaj de argint. Inel cu veriga ntrerupt lucrat din
platband. Decorat cu cerculee n care se afl cte un
punct nscris. D. 1,8 cm.
Sec. XI-XII.
AI, foto CS
75. Inel
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Band simpl, cu o canelur lat pe mijloc. D. 1,8
cm, l. 0, 42 cm.
Sec. XI-XIII.
AI, foto CS
76. Inel
2007, inventar funerar.
Argint; verig cu capetele subiate i ntrerupte. D. 2,3 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.

33

AI, foto GD
77. Inel
2007, n apropierea catedralei.
Fier. Inel cu veriga ntrerupt. Partea superioar are form
oval, realizat prin lirea i ngroarea verigii (chaton).
Decor incizat, o cruce, ntre braele linii oblice subiri.
D. 1,8 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
AI, foto AM
78. Inel
2000, n interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Bronz. Fragment de verig, probabil de la un inel.
d. 2,4 cm, d. srmei 0,3 cm.
Sec. X-XII.
AI, foto CS
79. Verig
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, band de seciune dreptunghiular variabil. Partea
superioar rsucit n form de inel, captul apropiat de
tij i uor subiat. Partea inferioar are tija rupt.
D. 1,15 cm.
Sec. X-XII (?) .
AI, foto GD
80. Verig
2007, n apropierea catedralei.
Argint; verig tiat la jumtate. Bar de seciune
aproximativ dreptunghiular, cu partea exterioar faetat.
D. 2,4 cm.
Sec. X-XII.
AI, foto GD
81. Inel sigilar
2001, n apropierea palatului.

34

Argint. Verig simpl ale crei capete se sudeaz pe un


chaton discoidal n grosimea cruia sunt incizate
decorurile. Partea central este ocupat de un scut antic n
jurul cruia s-a incizat un cerc format din mici linii oblice;
la dreapta i la stnga scutului, n interiorul cercului,
spaiul a fost umplut cu mici frunze stilizate. Compoziia
reprezentrii de pe scut are central o floare de crin
stilizat, la care partea de sus a petalei din mijloc se
transform ntr-o cruce maltez. n partea stng este
reprezentat o stea n ase coluri iar la dreapta o
semilun. Fragmentat, piesa a fost distrus prin presare. D.
chaton 0,8 cm, gr. 0,22 cm, inelul propriuzis este executat
dintr-o band de 0,6x0,15 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto AI
82. Cercel de tmpl
2000, inventar funerar.
Argint. Veriga rsucit din dou srme, unul din capete
este aplatizat i ntors ca o bucl. Banda decorat cu o
nervur median.
D. 2,1 cm, d. tij 0,25 cm, partea lit 0,38 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS
83. Cercel de tmpl cu capt n S
2000, inventar funerar.
Argint. D. 1,8 cm, d. tijei 0,2 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS
84. Cercel de tmpl cu capt n S
2000, inventar funerar.
Argint. Partea lit este lat de 0,3 cm i are trei caneluri
longitudinale superficiale. D. 1,6 cm, d. tijei 0,15 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS

85. Cercel de tmpl cu capt n S


2000, inventar funerar.
Argint. D. 1,7 cm, d. tijei 0,15 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS
86. Cercel de tmpl cu capt n S
2002, inventar funerar.
Argint. D. 2 cm, d. tijei 0,18 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS
87. Cercel de tmpl cu capt n S
2000, inventar funerar.
Argint; la captul rsucit se transform n band cu patru
caneluri fine. D. 1,85 cm, d. tij 0,15 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS
88. Cercel de tmpl cu capt n S
2001, inventar funerar.
Argint. D. 1,9 cm, d. tijei 0,3 cm, partea lit 0,6 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto GD
89. Cercel de tmpl cu capt n S
2001, inventar funerar.
Bronz. D. 2 cm, d. tijei 0,18 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS
90. Cercel de tmpl
2001, inventar funerar.
Bronz. Verig simpl cu capetele subiate.
d. max. 2,3 cm, d. tij 0,22 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto GD

91. Cercel de tmpl cu capt n S


2007, inventar funerar.
Argint. ase exemplare, unul pstrat parial.
d. 1,8 cm, d. tijei 0, 15 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto GD
92. Cercel de tmpl cu capt n S
2003, n apropierea sacristiei.
Argint; cercel cu capt n S, captul rupt, veriga rentregit
la restaurare. D. 0,15 cm, d. tij 0,16 cm.
Sec. XI-XIII.
AI, foto GD
93. Cercel
2000, inventar funerar.
Argint. Cercel simplu din srm circular,
exemplare.
d. max. 3,8 cm (1); d. max. 3,5 cm (2), d. tij 0,25 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS

dou

94. Brar
2002, Inventar funerar.
Bronz. Bar cu seciunea romboidal. D. 5,9 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI?
AI, foto GD
95. Brar torsadat
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Argint, srm inegal ca grosime. Brar format din
dou srme mpletite, cu capt n form de bucl.
Fragmente din dou exemplare. D. 4,6 cm, d. tij 0,35 cm
(1); d. 5,4 cm, d. tij 0,4 cm (2).
Sec. XI-XII.
AI, foto CS

35

96. Brar
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. L. 4 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV?
AI, foto CS

Piatr semipreioas. Form sferic cu orificiul lrgit la


extremiti, culoare maro-rocat marmorat cu intruziuni
albe. d. 1,75 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto GD

97. Lnior din srm


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Zalele sunt realizate din spirale de srm, la unul
dintre capete prezint o bucl. L. 5 cm.
Sec. XIV.
AI, foto GD

102. Pandantiv sferic cu agtoarea rupt


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl. Turnat, gol pe dinuntru, de culoare maro cu ape de
culoare alb. D. 1,1 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto GD

98. Pies de podoab


2000, n interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Bronz. Fragment dintr-un obiect de podoab din band de
bronz; captul rsucit n S. Posibil ac de pr. L. 1,8 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
AI, foto CS

103. Accesoriu vestimentar


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl i metal. piesa este fragmentar; este realizat prin
mbrcarea unui miez metalic cu o past alb glbuie.
L. 3,8 cm, l. 0,9 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS

99. Mrgic cu ochiori


2001, n apropierea sacristiei.
Past de sticl de culoare maronie, proeminene (ochiori)
marcate cu galben. D. max. 1 cm.
Sec. X-XII.
AI, foto CS
100. Mrgic
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl. Past de sticl verzuie, piesa a fost realizat sub
forma unui tub segmentat. L. 1,6 cm, d. 0,55 cm.
Sec. X-XII.
AI, foto CS
101. Mrgic
2002, n apropierea palatului.

36

104. Pies de podoab


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl; form neregulat, fcut dintr-o fie ngust de
sticl nfurat. d. 0,5 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto CS
105. Ac de voal
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz; ac cu gmlie circular. L. 4,5 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
AI, foto GD
106. Nasture
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, format dintr-o parte bombat sudat cu placa
discoidal de care este prins toarta. D. 2,9 cm.

Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto GD
107. Cataram
2007, inventar funerar.
Fier; cataram circular cu spin. D. 3,7 cm/4,4 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
AI, foto CS
108. Cataram
2007, inventar funerar.
Cataram circular din bronz, cu un spin de form conic
lucrat din fier. Catarama lucrat dintr-o verig cu
seciunea rotund uor aplatizat.
D. 3,8 cm. Verig gr. 0,35 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
AI, foto CS
109. Cataram dreptunghiular
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. l. 1,7 cm, l. 2,75 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
Sec. X-XII.
AI, foto GD
110. Aplic
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, aplic de form triunghiular cu trei orificii de
prindere i cu nit pstrat. L. 2,5 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
AI, foto GD
111. Aplic
2000, inventar funerar.
Bronz. Aplic din tabl de bronz, cu nituri marginale;
partea central este circular, uor lit i prevzut cu un
orificiu.
L. 2 cm, l. 1,3 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.

AI, foto CS
112. Aplic
2000, inventar funerar.
Bronz. Aplic din tabl de bronz, cu nituri marginale;
partea central este circular, uor lit, decorat cu
striuri.
L. 2 cm, l. 1,3 cm.
Sfritul sec. XI - nceputul sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS
113. Aplic
2000, n interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Bronz, turnat. Prevzut cu nituri de fixare, decorat prin
caneluri oblice pe toat suprafaa.
L. 2,2 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. X-XII.
AI, foto GD
114. Aplic
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Aliaj de argint. Pies turnat cu un decor traforat.
Gr. 0,25 cm.
Sec. X-XII, posibil mai veche.
AI, foto GD
115. Aplic
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz; la mijloc are un orificiu pentru fixare, este modelat
prin presare n form de frunz. D. max. 1,2 cm.
Sec. XIV.
AI, foto CS
116. Aplic n form de inim
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Aliaj de argint. Central piesa are un nit pentru fixare.
1,7x1,95 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
Sec. XIV.

37

AI, foto GD
117. Aplic
2004, n apropierea catedralei.
Aplic din bronz cu aspect floral i seciune ogival
ascuit. Pe interior se observ un mic nit din bronz pentru
prindere. d. 1,8 cm, h. 0,6 cm, g. 0,1 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV?
AI, foto CS
118. Aplic
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, cu un cerc bombat ntre margini i mijloc, la mijloc
are un orificiu de prindere. D. 0,9 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
AI, foto CS
119. Aplic
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Dreptunghiular, cu trei orificii pentru nituri.
1,75 cm x 0,9 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
AI, foto CS
120. Aplic
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Este prelucrat din tabl presat n form de floare
i are la mijloc un orificiu pentru cuiul de fixare. 3,2x3 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
AI, foto GD
121. Plac de centur
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Fragment dintr-o pies din tabl, de form
neregulat, lucrat prin batere; orificii pentru nituri, decor
perimetral cu mici cerculee. Probabil de la o centur.
Sec. X-XIII.
AI, foto GD

38

122. Statuet
2003, interiorul sacristiei.
Argint aurit. Personaj feminin nvelit ntr-o mantie, se
sprijin cu mna dreapt pe o spad. Piesa a fost fixat pe
un suport.
h. 4,5 cm
Sec. XIII-XIV.
AI, foto CS
123. nchiztoare de carte
2004, interiorul sacristiei.
Cupru sau alam. Piesa este realizat dintr-o band care
are prelucrat la unul din capete un sistem de prindere cu
flan i nituri; la captul opus este realizat un mic crlig
dintr-o prelungire ngustat a corpului piesei. Partea
vizibil este decorat prin incizare cu un brad stilizat care
are n vrf un decor din cercuri dispuse concentric. La
partea central decor din linii transversale cu un X ntre
ele. L. 12,5 cm; l. 2,00 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto GD
124. nchiztoare de carte
2004, interiorul sacristiei.
Cupru sau alam. Piesa este realizat dintr-o band care
are prelucrat la unul din capete un sistem de prindere cu
flan i nituri; la captul opus este realizat un mic crlig
dintr-o prelungire ngustat a corpului piesei. Piesa 4 a fost
distrus ntr-un incendiu. Decor geometric incizat.
L. 7,5 cm, l. 1,1 cm (1); L. 7 cm, l. 1,2 cm (2).
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS
125. nchiztoare de carte
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Piesa este compus din dou plcue cu nituri care
se fixau pe curea, articulate cu o pies decorativ turnat.

La capt se observ un nit cu gaur, deci piesa original


mai avea o articulaie, probabil un pandantiv. 3,9x1,15 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS
126. nchiztoare de carte
2004, interiorul sacristiei.
Bronz, decorat aproape de baz cu linie zimat i linii
paralele. Pe revers, n jumtatea superioar, corpul
nchiztorii este dublat de o a doua plcu de form
trapezoidal (L. 2,00 cm; l. 1,4-0,8 cm; g. 0,1 cm) prins cu 2
nituri ( L. 0, 1 cm; l. 0,1 cm). Se termin cu un crlig
transformat din corpul piesei care se ngusteaz ( 0,8 cm) i
se ntoarce. L. 4,6 cm, l. 1,8 cm; g. 0, 1 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS
127. nchiztoare de carte
2004, interiorul sacristiei.
Cupru sau alam. Piesa este realizat dintr-o band care
are prelucrate la unul din capete un sistem de prindere cu
flan i nituri; la captul opus este realizat un mic crlig
dintr-o prelungire ngustat a corpului piesei. Partea
vizibil este decorat prin incizare. L. 1,9 cm; l. 0,5 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS
128. Aplic de carte
2004, interiorul sacristiei.
Bronz. Piesa se compune dintr-o plac decupat decorativ
care are pe dos o flan prins n nituri; aceasta avea rolul
de a fixa ntre ea i corpul piesei un material moale,
probabil piele.
L. 2,1 cm; l. 1,00 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS

129. Nit ornamental


2004, interiorul sacristiei.
Argint aurit, piesa se compune dintr-o tij despicat i un
capt ornamental n form de floare cu patru petale.
L. 2,4 cm, l. 0,7 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS
130. Nit ornamental
2004, interiorul sacristiei.
Argint aurit, piesa se compune dintr-o tij i un capt
ornamental simplu.
L. 2,4 cm, l. 0,7 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto GD
131. Vrf de sgeat cu peduncul
2000, n interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. Vrful este romboidal iar la baza pedunculului are un
umr de sprijin. L. 6,2 cm, l. 1,9 cm.
Sec. X-XII.
AI, foto CS
132. Vrf de sgeat
2003, n apropierea sacristiei.
Fier, forjare; form de frunz, cu lama de seciune
romboidal i peduncul de prindere. L. 8,00, g. 0,3x0,5cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
AI, foto CS
133. Bol de arbalet
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. Tub de nmnuare, vrf piramidal; se observ o
deviere a vrfului rezultat n urma impactului cu un corp
dur.
L. 4,5 cm, d. tub 0, 9 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
AI, foto CS

39

134. Vrf de lance


2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. Fragmente, reconstituit la restaurare.
L. pstrat 12,7 cm, d. tubului de nmnuare 2,1 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
AI, foto CS
135. Stilet
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. Lama triunghiular ngust. Mnerul are captul
rotunjit i ngroat, pentru o stabilitate mai bun n palm.
Plcile mnerului erau din lemn, fixate cu nituri din fier
care se pstreaz. De la mijlocul lamei se observ un an
pentru scurgerea sngelui. L. 37,5 cm, l. max. 2,5 cm, L.
mner 9,7 cm.
Sec. XV (-XVI?).
AI, foto GD
136. Fragment de armur combinat din plci i zale
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Plcue dreptunghiulare cu unul dintre capete
rotunjit.
Pentru o plcu: 1,6x3 cm, dreptunghi; gr. tabl 0,1 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV (?).
AI, foto CS
137. Pinten cu roti
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Pinten cu braele accentuat arcuite, ntoarse la
extremiti astfel nct formeaz o bucl prin intermediul
creia era fixat pe nclminte. n punctul de ntlnire a
braelor se formeaz un ieind ascuit; suportul rozetei,
format din dou plcue, este relativ lung; rozeta pierdut
din vechime. L. 9 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS

40

138. Zbal?
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 10,7 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
AI, foto CS
139. Teac
2003, n apropierea sacristiei.
Fier. L. 28 cm; l. 2,9 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto CS
140. Potcoav
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. L. 9 cm, l. max. 2,9 cm (1). L. 6,7 cm, l. max. 2,9 mm
(2).
Sec. XIII-XV.
AI, foto GD
141. Potcoav
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei;
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Fragment de potcoav pentru cal; cramponul din
spate stnga. L. 10,9 cm, l. 3,4 cm (1). L. 12,7 cm (2).
Sec. XV-XVI.
AI, foto GD
142. Potcoav
2007, n apropierea catedralei.
Fier, pstrat fragmentar. L. 13 cm, l. 3 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto CS
143. Fragment de cuit
2008, n interiorul palatului.
Fier, cu orificii pentru nituri. L. 10 cm; l. 1,3 cm; gr. 0,3 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
AI, foto GD

144. Cuit
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Lama de seciune triunghiular,
nmnuare. Fragment. L. 8 cm, l. 1,2 cm.
Sec. XIII.
AI, foto GD

AI, foto CS
cu

tij

de

145. Lam de cuit


2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 7,5 cm, l. 1,5 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
AI, foto GD
146. Capt de cuit
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, tabl groas de 0,15 cm, prelucrat bombat avnd
forma unui smbure; central are un orificiu
dreptunghiular (0,25x0,18 cm) pentru nituirea tijei
mnerului. D. max. 2,2 cm.
Sec. XIV.
AI, foto GD
147. Capt de cuit
2000,din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Bronz. Capt de cuit cu orificiu central, de form
ovoidal, pstrat cu marginile rupte. L. 1,6 cm, l. 1,1 cm.
Sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS
148. Mner de cuit
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier i argint. Mnerul este lucrat din dou plci de lemn
prinse cu patru nituri; la captul dinspre lam se pstreaz
un inel lat din argint decorat cu trei linii circulare fine, iar
la captul opus doar nitul n care a fost montat un capt
metalic.
L. mner 5,9 cm, l. max. 1,25 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.

149. Cuit.
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier i os. Mnerul are seciune romboidal i este
prelucrat din dou plci de os lefuite drept. L. 27 cm.
Sec. XIV.
AI, foto CS
150. Cuit
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Lama are seciune triunghiular, iar mnerul se
prindea ntr-o tij de nmnuare. L. 10,6 cm.
Sec. XIV.
AI, foto GD
151. Fragment de cuit
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. Garda este turnat odat cu lama i tija de
nmnuare.
L. 3 cm, l. lam 1,5 cm, l. gard 1,75 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto GD
152. Mner de cuit
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Piesa este subiat la unul din capete iar la cellalt
este evazat cu patru franjuri, exteriorul este gravat cu
motive vegetale stilizate. L. 4,4 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
AI, foto CS
153. Armtur de teac
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. L. 4,7 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
AI, foto CS

41

154. Mner octogonal din rondele


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Os i metal; piesa a fost realizat prin montarea unor
rondele din os pe un miez din fier sau bronz. n montur
exista i cupru, acum transformat n oxid verde;
fragmentul 1 este prins ntr-un conglomerat de oxizi de
fier i cupru. L. 4,1 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
AI, foto CS

Sec. X-XIII.
AI, foto GD

155. Garnitur
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. L. 5,1 cm. Epoca medieval.
AI, foto CS

160. Cuit
2003, n apropierea palatului.
Fier; are pstrat doar zona mnerului cu trei nituri i
dou plci de montare a mnerului. S-a pstrat i o parte
dintr-o buterol sau teac din fier. L. 12,5 cm; l. 2,00 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto CS

156. Garnitur
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Alam; ciocnire, gravare; decorat cu motive geometrice,
incizii foarte fine care formeaz registre dreptunghiulare.
A funcionat ca o garnitur de teac sau mner i a fost
montat cu nituri lungi. 2,1x2,15 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI?
AI, foto CS
157. Torti
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Piesa este format dintr-o band decorat, lat de
0,4 cm, ale crei capete sunt prinse cu un nit foarte lung. D.
3,2 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto GD
158. Pies cu mner
2003, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz; piesa are un mner aplatizat cu o gaur la mijloc
prins de un disc ce putea folosi fie ca dop pentru flacon fie
ca sigiliu.
d. 1,00 cm, g. 0,3 cm.

42

159. Toart
2007, n apropierea catedralei.
Bronz. Pies dreptunghiular, strns la unul dintre capete
cu un nit lung. L. 4,3 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto CS

161. Amnar
2000, n interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier, lucrat prin forjare; pe braul mai gros este vizibil o
mbinare (coad de rndunic) la cald executat defectuos.
Braele au dimensiuni inegale: 9 cm/gr. 0,7 cm, respectiv
6,5 cm/gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. X-XII.
AI, foto GD
162. nchiztor
2000, n interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. Piesa este compus dintr-un inel i o scoab de
prindere.
d. inel 3,5 cm, L. scoab 5,9 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
AI, foto GD
163. Unealt pentru scobit linguri
2000, n interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.

Fier. Piesa are o tij de nmnuare de seciune ptrat,


dup care urmeaz o lam curb ascuit pe ambele pri.
L. 11 cm, seciunea tijei 0,75x0,75 cm, L. tij 7,5 cm.
Sec. XI-XIII.
AI, foto CS
164. Unealt
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Fragment. L. 23 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
AI, foto GD
165. Foarfec
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. piesa a fost lucrat prin forjare, capetele mnerelor
sunt ntoarse n form de spiral. L. 18,8 cm, limea la
mnere 6,3 cm.
Sec. XIII (-XIV?).
AI, foto GD
166. Fragment de lam de topor
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. 6,6x3,5 cm.
Sec. XIV-XVI.
AI, foto GD
167. Sfredel
2003, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, este realizat n form de T cu partea activ torsadat
la cald. Unul din brae este rupt iar cel care se pstreaz
este ndoit pentru a forma un mner.
L 11,9 cm; l. 7,3 cm.
Sec. XIV-XVI.
AI, foto CS
168. Sfredel
2007, n apropierea palatului.

Fier, form de T, partea de sus aplatizat, tija ptrat.


L. 10,3 cm.
Sec. XIV-XVI.
AI, foto CS
169. Sfredel
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, cu unul dintre brae rupt.
L. 12,5 cm. Braul pstrat 8 cm.
Sec. XV-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
170. n
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Capt de n prelucrat sub forma unei frunze, cu
un orificiu pentru cuiul de prindere. Fragment. 11,9x5 cm.
Sec. XIV.
AI, foto CS
171. Cheie
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. Seciunea tijei este aproximativ hexagonal, mnerul
este aplatizat. L. 20,4 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
AI, foto CS
172. Pies de lact
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier i cupru. L. 6,3 cm, l. max. 1,18 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto GD
173. Pies n form de melc, posibil de la un lact
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. L. 4,3 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS

43

174. Ferectur
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz; trei orificii de fixare pe suport.
2,7x1,3 cm, gr. 0,1 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS
175. Armtur
2001, n partea de est a catedralei.
Bronz, tabl subire care mbrca o pies. L. 2,4 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto CS
176. Armtur de a
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 12 cm, d. 0,5 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto GD
177. Armtur
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Tabl de bronz ; fragment dintr-o armtur, n form
elipsoidal, fixat la capete (la unul dintre capete?) printrun nit. Faa vizibil decorat cu o nervur reliefat. L. 2
cm, l. 1,7 cm, gr. 0,15 cm. Gr. piesei pe care era aplicat
armtura 0,5 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto GD
178. Tub
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, pstrat fragmentar. L. 13,5 cm, d. 1,5 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto GD
179. nchiztoare
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 5,7 cm, platband (gr. 0,25 cm, l. 0,9 cm).

44

Epoca medieval.
AI, foto CS
180. Cui
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Capul este prelucrat prin batere i este puternic
excentric.
L. 7 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
AI, foto CS
181. Cuie
2000, din interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Fier. Capul aplatizat pe vertical (1) sau oval (2). L. 6,5 cm
(1), 5,7 cm, d. 2,15 cm (2), L. 7 cm (3); d.cap 3 cm, tija
0,5x0,5 cm (4); d. cap. 2,5 cm, tija 0,4x0,5 cm.
Sec. XIII.
AI, foto CS, GD
182. Cuie
2000-2002.
Fier. L. 7 cm, tija cu grosimea maxim 0,8x0,45 cm. L. 6,5
cm, tija 0,3x0,3 mm, cu cap conic.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto GD
183. Cuie
2000, n apropierea palatului
Fier. Cuie forjate, cu tija de seciune ptrat sau
dreptunghiular. L. 4-8 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
AI, foto GD
184. Cuie
2003, n apropierea palatului.
Fier; cuie de diferite dimensiuni forjate.
Sec. XV-XVI.
AI, foto GD

185. Cui cu inel de prindere


2003, n apropierea palatului.
Fier; fragmentar, partea din cui care are o gaur de
prindere dintr-o ngroare a tijei.
L. 6,00 cm; l. 2,8 cm; gr. 0,9 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
AI, foto GD
186. Cui cu nas
2008, n interiorul palatului.
Fier, form de L, partea scurt lit.
L. 15,8 cm; picior l. 0,8 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto GD
187. Cuie
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 6,2 cm, d. cap 1,5 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto GD
188. Piron
2008, n interiorul palatului.
Din fier cu capt simplu circular. L. 16,2 cm; g. 0,7 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto GD
189. Fragment de vas
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cupru. Cazan prelucrat prin ciocnire, buza este realizat
dintr-o tivitur lat de 0,6 cm, are dou orificii laterale
provenite de la niturile unei tori, acum disprute.
L. 9,2 cm, gr. tabl 0,1 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
AI, foto CS
190. Pies de feronerie
2000, n apropierea palatului.

Fier. L. 16,2 cm, l. max. 2,4 cm.


Epoca medieval.
AI, foto CS
191. Pies de feronerie
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, tija principal formeaz la unul din capete o bucl
care ine o verig elipsoidal. L. 9,8 cm, l. tij 8 cm.
Epoca medieval.
AI, foto CS
192. Zdrobitor
2007, n apropierea catedralei.
Piatr, unealt de form circular. D. 9,5 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
AM
193. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI, crmiziu rocat. AS. Gtul scurt,
marginea arcuit, buza tiat vertical i faetat. Decor:
registru de alveole pe umr. Dg. 15,5 cm.
Sec. X-XII.
DMI, foto AI
194. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas borcan
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. AOC. AS. Marginea evazat scurt,
buza teit oblic i canelat. Decor: band de linii n val la
baza gtului. Dg. 16 cm.
Sec. XII.
DMI, foto CS
195. Fragment de vas
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. AOI. AS. Decor: linii orizontale
neregulate realizate cu rotia.
Sec. XII.

45

DMI, foto CS
196. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas borcan
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI. AS. Gtul scurt, marginea arcuit spre
exterior. Decor: linii n val cu bucla inegal, ncepnd din
zona gtului, probabil pe tot corpul vasului. Dg. 18 cm.
Sec. XII.
DMI, foto CS
197. Fragment de vas
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Past grosier. AOI. AS. Df. 8,3 cm.
Sec. XII.
DMI, foto CS
198. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. AOS, cu suprafeele maronii. AS foarte
puternic n exterior. Gtul aproape inexistent, marginea
tras brusc spre exterior, buza lit i teit oblic. Decor:
linie n val.
Dg. 15,5 cm.
Sec. X-XII.
DMI, foto AI
199. Fragment de vas borcan
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI. AS. Marginea slab arcuit spre exterior,
buza teit oblic. Decor: trei linii n val pe umr.
Dg. 17,3 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
DMI, foto CS
200. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas
2000, n apropierea palatului.

46

Past grosier. AOI. AS. Gtul pronunat, marginea


ngroat i canelat superficial la exterior. Decor: linie n
val cu meandre scunde pe umr. Dg. 15,5 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
DMI, foto CS
201. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI. AS. Gtul subiat, marginea evazat,
buza marcat la interior de o nuire pentru capac, tiat
drept i canelat superficial. Decor: alveole realizate cu un
instrument cu trei dini (pieptn?) dispuse pe umr, iar pe
restul corpului incizii orizontale superficiale, dese.
Dg. 17,3 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
DMI, foto CS
202. Oal borcan
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin cu nisip fin cernut, ardere superficial,
miezul peretelui negru. Oal cu umrul pronunat, gt
scurt, marginea evazat i buza rotunjit. Decor: pe gt un
fascicul de incizii superficiale; pe umr grupuri de linii
oblice realizate cu un instrument cu cinci dini i o band
de linii orizontale. Dg. estimat 21 cm, 10x5 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
DMI, foto CS
203. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Gtul nalt, marginea evazat i tiat drept. La interior o
uoar nuire pentru capac. Past medie, degresat cu
nisip i rare pietricele mijlocii. AOI. AS. Dg. 18,2 cm.
Sec. X-XIII.
DMI, foto CS
204.Fragment de perete de vas
2007, n apropierea palatului.

Past semigrosier, ardere superficial, crmiziu glbui;


ardere secundar. Decor: incizii orizontale i n val.
Sec. X-XIII.
DMI, foto CS

dou linii n val inegal trasate. Incizii superficiale, abia


vizibile. Dg. 14 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
DMI, foto AI

205. Fragment de vas


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. AOI, crmiziu. AS parial. Gtul
scurt, marginea evazat, buza tiat drept. Decor: alveole
oblic pe gt, incizii orizontale superficiale pe corp.
Dg. 15,5 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
DMI, foto CS

209. Fragment din fundul unui vas


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, modelat pe roata nceat. AOI, pelicul
roie la interior, subire. AS la exterior. Marc de olar
reliefat, roat cu spie. Df. 7,8 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
DMI, foto GD

206. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. AOI, crmiziu glbui. AS puternic.
Gtul scurt, marginea arcuit, buza tiat drept. Decor:
alveole dispuse oblic pe gt, un ir de alveole pe umrul
slab pronunat. Dg. 15,5 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
DMI, foto AI
207. Fragment din partea superioar a unui amforidion
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI, crmiziu deschis. Gtul nalt, marginea
arcuit, amprenta unei tori circulare. Suprafaa exterioar
a fost lustruit cu micri preponderent verticale. Dg. 8,5
cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
DMI, foto AI
208. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI, cenuiu glbui. AS parial. Corp
ovoidal cu diametrul maxim n zona median, gtul slab
pronunat, dar destul de nalt. Marginea arcuit i tiat
vertical. Decor: un registru de alveole pe umr, ncadrat de

210. Fragment din fundul unui vas


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin cu mult mic. AOI, pelicule exterioare
subiri roii ncadrnd un miez gri. Df. 7,7 cm.
Sec. XII-XIII.
DMI, foto AI
211. Fragmente din marginile sau corpul unor cldrue
2000-2008.
Past de calitate medie sau semifin, ars oxidant n grade
variabile. Este documentat tipul clasic cu fundul bombat,
marginea rotunjit i ngroat, cu partea superioar tiat
drept i lit din loc n loc pentru a permite formarea
orificiilor pentru agat. Decor: deseori preiau ornamentele
ceramicii de uz comun, chiar mrcile de olar.
Sec. XI-XIII.
DMI, foto AI, GD
212. Fragment gur caraf
2001, n apropierea sacristiei.
Past semifin, cu nisip i mic. AOI. AS. Profilul vasului
este tronconic, gura se strmteaz gtul fiind marcat
printr-o nervur. Decor bogat, combin diferite elemente
ale epocii arpadiene trzii: rotia, alveole de forme i

47

dimensiuni diferite, banda de valuri. Decorul acoper tot


fragmentul, ncepnd de pe marginea buzei. Dg. 6 cm.
Sec. XIII.
DMI, foto CS

superficial. Decor: registru de alveole pe umr, n zona de


maxim diametru. Dg. 16,2 cm.
Sec. XIII.
DMI, foto CS

213. Fragment gur vas borcan


2000, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie, degresat cu nisip, mic, pietricele mici i
mijlocii. AOI. AS. Gtul slab pronunat, marginea
articulat. Decor: la baza gtului alveole suprapuse cte
dou, iar pe corp incizii orizontale superficiale. Dg. 14 cm.
Sec. XIII.
DMI, foto CS

217. Fragment gur vas borcan


2000, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. AOI. AS Suprafaa exterioar netezit
superficial. Gtul pronunat, marginea evazat, cu buza
lit i teit drept. Decor: linie n val cu meandre inegale
la baza gtului, urmat de un registru de incizii inegale,
asemntoare unor crestturi. Dg. 16 cm.
Sec. XIII.
DMI, foto CS

214. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas borcan


2000, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin. Ardere oxidant incomplet, ardere
secundar. Gtul scurt, marginea ngroat arcuit n
form de S, buza lit i teit oblic. Suprafaa exterioar
netezit superficial. Decor: mici crestturi oblice la baza
gtului i un portativ format din trei incizii orizontale pe
umr. Dg. 16 cm.
Sec. XIII.
DMI, foto CS
215. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas borcan
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI. AS. Marginea simpl, evazat i tiat
drept, gtul scurt. Decor: pe umr o band de incizii
orizontale, urmat de valuri neregulate. Dg. 16,2 cm.
Sec. XIII.
DMI, foto CS
216. Fragment gur vas borcan
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. AOI. AS. Gtul scurt, marginea
ngroat cu buza faetat. Suprafaa exterioar netezit

48

218. Fragment de vas


2000, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI. AS. Suprafaa exterioar netezit.
Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas borcan; gtul
pronunat, marginea evazat, ngroat fa de perete i
uor profilat. Decor: alveole dispuse oblic pe umrul
vasului. Dg 13,3 cm.
Sec. XIII.
DMI, foto CS
219. Jumtatea inferioar a unui vas mic
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fundul profilat poart o marc de olar n form de
zvastic. Past semigrosier. AOI. AS. Df. 4 cm.
Sec. XIII.
DMI, foto CS
220. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. Suprafaa aspr. AOI, cenuiu glbui. AS
puternic. Decor: o linie n val superficial incizat.
Dg. 13 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.

DMI, foto CS
221. Fragment dintr-o can cu toart
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, de calitate foarte bun. AR. Diametrul
maxim n zona median, marginea nclinat spre interior.
Decor: geometric, realizat cu ruloul. Dg. 8 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
DMI, foto AI
222. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past fin, AOI, cenuiu glbui. AS. Gtul scurt, marginea
evazat. Buza subiat, articulat la exterior de o nervur
rotunjit. Decor: o linie n val la baza gtului. Dg. 16 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
DMI, foto AI
223. Fund de vas
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past fin. AOC, rou crmiziu. Marc de olar reliefat: o
cruce cu brae inegale nscris ntr-un cerc. Df. 8,3 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
DMI, foto CS
224. Fragment din partea superioar a unei oale
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semigrosier. AOI, cenuiu glbui. Vasul modelat pe
roata nceat. Gtul scurt, marginea arcuit, buza modelat
n form de sgeat. Decor: band de incizii foarte fine la
baza gtului. Dg. 12,5 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
DMI, foto CS
225. Complex ceramic din sec. XIV
2002, n apropierea palatului.

Materialul ceramic, n majoritate aparinnd categoriei


ceramicii comune, se remarc prin cteva caracteristici
unitare:
- lutul din care se realizeaz vasele este prelucrat rapid
fr a se putea elimina din el toate impuritile i bulele de
aer.
- pasta este condiionat cu nisip cernut n cantiti destul
de mari, aceasta fiind i cauza unor suprafee finale
rugoase.
- piesele sunt realizate la roata rapid folosindu-se pentru
netezire mult ap.
- arderea este de regul oxidant incomplet, focul rapid
din cuptor i fluxul de oxigen care trece prin cuptor
nefiind suficiente pentru ptrunderea unor perei de vase
mai groi de 2,5-3 mm. Din aceast cauz la majoritatea
vaselor miezul pereilor are o culoare cenuiu-vineie.
Se pot distinge trei categorii de ceramic separate dup
compoziia pastei: semigrosier, semifin i fin.
Forme:
Oala borcan (oala fr toarte) este tipul cel mai des ntlnit,
foarte probabil ntregul lot provenind din deeurile unei
buctrii (1). Vasele cu toart sunt documentate prin ase
fragmente, dintre care dou aparin unor oale iar alte patru
unor vase de mici dimensiuni, probabil unor cni.
Remarcm toarta modelat din past fin, ars incomplet
la crmiziu glbui i decorat cu mici rozete tanate (2).
Au mai fost documentate capace n form de clopot (3),
castroane i un urcior.
Vasul de provizii (4) este reprezentat de un singur
fragment din past semi grosier, prelucrat la roata rapid
fr urme de decor. Elementul special n execuie l
reprezint o band de lut aplicat n zona buzei i netezit
la roat la interior. Forma vasului era fr gt, globular
sau alungit, cu gura mult mai mic dect diametrul
maxim (cu diametru la gur de 31 cm), cu pereii groi de
cca. 7-8 mm.
Creuzet (5) O pies special din categoria ceramicii pentru
folosit pe foc este un fragment de la un vas ars reductor.

49

Pasta este realizat cu lut i nisip ns ntr-o tehnic


special, produsul finit fiind foarte compact cu aspect
cimentos foarte rezistent. Arderea s-a fcut ntr-un cuptor
nchis rezultnd o ardere reductoare complet de foarte
bun calitate vasul avnd culoarea gri. Forma vasului este
asemntoare unui creuzet cu o buz foarte groas
rsfrnt spre exterior, dup care pereii continu
aproximativ vertical. Pe partea de sus a buzei ntr-o zon
aplatizat sub forma unui cioc de curgere are aplicat
puternic apsat o stampil cu litera T. Cel mai apropiat ca
form de categoria creuzetelor, acest vas are totui un
diametru relativ mare (26 cm la buz). La exterior se poate
constata un strat consistent de materii carbonizate dovada
unei ndelungi folosiri deasupra focului. Piesa de fa
provine cel mai probabil de la Tulln an der Donau
(Austria), localitate care pstreaz i azi T n stema
oraului.
AI, foto AI
226. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI, crmiziu. AS. Decor: caneluri
superficiale. Dg. 11,3 cm.
Sec. XIV.
DMI, foto CS
227. Fragment din partea superioar a unui vas
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Past de calitate medie. AOI, pelicule exterioare subiri
cenuii-glbui. AS. Gtul arcuit, marginea ngroat
modelat n form de sgeat. Suprafaa exterioar
zgrunuroas. Decor: coaste proeminente ncepnd de la
baza gtului. Dg. 17 cm.
Sec. XIV.
DMI, foto CS
228. Fragment de vas, picior de can?
2002, n apropierea palatului.

50

Past medie. AOI, crmiziu glbui. Df. 5,5 cm.


Sec. XIV.
DMI, foto CS
229. Fragment de can cu cioc
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI, crmiziu glbui.
Sec. XIV.
DMI, foto CS
230. Fragment de creuzet
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie cu mult mic. AR. Fund cu inel de susinere.
Smal verde n exterior, direct peste past. Df. 3,6 cm.
Sec. XIV.
DMI, foto AI
231. Sfenic?
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI, crmiziu glbui. Fragmente dintr-un
vas mic cu toart, asemntor unui urcior n miniatur.
Fundul profilat, peretele vasului retras n trepte. Decor:
benzi de linii orizontale incizate. Df. 4,7 cm.
Sec. XIV.
DMI, foto CS
232. Sfenic?
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie. AOI, crmiziu glbui. Vas mic cu corp
tronconic, gura strmt, toart, asemntor unui urcior
mic. Df. 4 cm.
Sec. XIV.
DMI, foto CS
233. Fusaiol
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Past de calitate bun, ars reductor la negru. Pies de
form bitronconic. D. 2,9 cm, h. 1,8 cm.

Sec. X-XII.
DMI, foto CS
234. Fusaiol
2000, n interiorul turnului de nord-vest al catedralei.
Ceramic. Pies de form bitronconic.
D. 2,4 cm, h. 1,2 cm.
Sec. XIII-XIV.
DMI, foto CS
235. Fusaiol
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Ceramic. D. max 2,6 cm.
Sec. XIV-XV.
DMI, foto CS
EPOCA MODERN
236. Inel torsadat, posibil o montur
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Argint. Pies de form oval, prelucrat prin rsucirea a
dou fire i apoi sudarea capetelor n aa fel c acestea nu
se mai pot vedea. D. max. 2,2 cm .
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto GD
237. Inel
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Metal galben. D. 1,8 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto GD
238. Ac de pr
2001, n partea de vest a catedralei.
Bronz, ac cu gmlie circular.
L. 3,3 cm, gr. 1 cm; d. 0,25 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.

AI, foto GD
239. Copc de hain
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Argint. Srm groas de 0,16 cm, aplatizat puternic n
zona urechiuelor de prindere; partea bab. 1,5x1,3 cm.
Sec. XV-XVII.
AI, foto GD
240. Nasture
2001, n apropierea sacristiei.
Bronz. Pies de form emisferic, are ataat la interior o
toart solid din srm. D. 1,6 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
241. Nasture
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Metal galben, cu decor gravat - floral. D. 1,5 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto GD
242. Nasturi
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Discul este sudat de o toart din srm groas (1)
sau este retras puin n partea central i lipsete toarta de
prindere (2). D. 1,8 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto GD
243. Cataram
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz. Cataram dreptunghiular din bar de seciuni
variabile. Deformat din vechime. L. 3 cm, l. 1,7 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS

51

244. Cataram
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Cataram dreptunghiular. L. 3,6 cm.
Sec. XVII.
AI, foto GD
245. Aplic
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, turnat; decorat cu nervuri oblice ce imit motivul
frnghiei, orificii de fixare la capete. L. 4,5 cm, gr. 0,6 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto GD
246. Aplic
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, turnat, cu un orificiu de prindere la mijloc.
Modelat n form de floare. D. max. 1,5 cm, gr. 0,1 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto GD
247. Ferectur de carte
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Aliaj de argint. Tabl decupat, la mijloc cu un blat prins
cu nituri care inea o bucat de piele. L. 2,4 cm, l. 1,15 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
248. Ferectur de carte
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, tabl subire decupat, la unul din capete se
pstreaz dou nituri. L. 3,2 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
249. Nit ornamental
2001, n apropierea sacristiei.
Bronz. L. 0,5 cm d. 0,65 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVIII.

52

AI, foto GD
250. Pinten
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Fier. Profilele de prindere sunt semicirculare; umr nalt
de sprijin, o tij lung terminat cu roti.
L. 10,1 cm; gr. 0,7 cm.
Sec. XV-XVII.
AI, foto CS
251. Pinten
2001, n partea de vest a catedralei.
Fier. Braele de seciune semicircular, capetele fiind
prinse de nclminte cu ajutorul unor cuie; coada are
seciune dreptunghiular. Unul dintre braele care
susineau rotia lipsete, la fel i rotia.
Deschiderea braelor 8 cm; tija 0,7x0,55 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
252. Cataram de ching
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Tija de prindere la curea dreapt iar cadrul
semicircular.
L. 6,5 cm, l. max. 3,2 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto GD
253. Potcoav
2008, interiorul palatului episcopal.
Fier, cu orificii pentru nituri. L. 12,8 cm; l. 11,6 cm.
Sec. XV-XVII
AI, foto GD
254. Potcoave pentru nclminte
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 5,3 cm, l. 5,2 cm (1); L. aprox. 6,4 cm (2).
Sec. XVII-XVIII.

AI, foto GD
255. Zbal
2008, n interiorul palatului.
Fier; are dou orificii dreptunghiulare pentru curele i
dou mai mari rotunde pentru lan. L. 16,3 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
256. Teac de cuit
2007, n apropierea catedralei.
Fier. L. 26,6 cm.
Sec. XVIII-XIX.
AM, foto GD
257. Partea metalic de la o arm de foc
2001, n partea de vest a catedralei.
Fier cu intarsii de argint. L. 25 cm.
Sec. XVIII.
AM, foto GD
258. Cuit
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, fragment de cuit haban sau de Stiria; mbrctur din
cupru pentru mner, decor gravat. L. 6,6 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto CS
259. Mner (de cuit?)
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier i lemn. Fragment dintr-un obiect cu mner din lemn,
cioplit i lustruit. L. 4,8 cm, din care mnerul din lemn 3,3
cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto GD
260. Cuit
2001, n apropierea palatului.

Fier. Se pstreaz doar tija de nmnuare i o mic parte


de la baza lamei. L. 8,5 cm, l. 2,7 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
261. Cuit
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 8,3 cm, l. 1,9 cm.
Sec. XVIIXIX.
AI, foto CS
262. Briceag
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Prseaua din corn (sau filde) n form de felin, aspect
lustruit i lama din fier pstrat n interior. L. 7,5 cm, l.
max. 1,9 cm.
Epoca modern.
AM, foto GD
263. Briceag
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Fier, cu mner din os. Mnerul este realizat din dou plci
de metal peste care s-au montat dou plsele din os cu cte
dou nituri mici din fier. ntre niturile de prindere se
pstreaz dou guri pariale care probabil iniial
conineau elemente decorative. L. 10,5 cm.
Epoca modern.
AM foto GD
264. Briceag
2007, din apropierea palatului.
Fier, cu mner din dou plci de cupru placate cu plsele
de lemn, prinse cu nituri. Lp. 4,7 cm.
Epoca modern.
AI, foto GD
265. Degetar
2002, n apropierea palatului.

53

Bronz, cu urme pentru ac. Hp. 1,2 cm, d. 1,3 cm.


Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto GD
266. Satr
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 18,5 cm, l. 6,5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
267. Sfenic sau mucarni
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier; form cilindric, gol pe dinuntru, are o coad de
prindere de seciune dreptunghiular rupt din vechime.
Fragment. H. 4,8 cm, d. tub 2,7 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto CS
268. Scoab
2003-2004, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, un capt lit prevzut cu dou orificii de prindere,
cellalt ascuit. L. 21,5 cm; l. 10 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto GD
269. nchiztoare
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, verig cu scoab de ataare. D 3,6 cm, veriga 0,6 cm.
Sec. XVII.
AI, foto CS
270. Scoab de pietrrie
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier; prelucrate dintr-un profil dreptunghiular (1,5x0,55
cm). Fragmente din trei exemplare. L. 16/17 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto CS

54

271. Ciocan de pietrrie


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Partea pentru btut are seciune ptrat (2,8x2,8 cm)
iar partea pentru cioplit este mult lit (7,1 cm).
L. 19,2 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto CS
272. pi
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, are seciune ptrat cu colurile rotunjite n zona n
care se ine cu mna, seciune ptrat n zona ascuit. L.
10,2 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto CS
273. Dalt
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Pies are o form aproximativ dreptunghiular
subiat la unul dintre capetele scurte.
L. 15,7 cm, l. 6 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto GD
274. Ram pentru vitralii
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Plumb, pies de form neregulat, deformat din vechime,
veriga are forma unui profil I. Era folosit pentru fixarea
pieselor din sticl de la vitralii. 2,65x2,2 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto GD
275. int de sicriu
2001, n partea de vest a catedralei.
Bronz. D. 1,2 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto GD

276. Cuie i crlig de u, fragmente de feronerie


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 11-14 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII?
AI, foto GD
277. n
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 14 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto GD
278. Balama
2000, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. L. 15 cm.
Epoca modern.
AI, foto CS
279. Cui cu nas
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, cu un orificiu. L. 6,8 cm, l. max. 2,2 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
280. Pies de feronerie
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Fier, piesa este n forma cifrei 4, cu unul din brae mult
alungit i ndoit n form de spiral.
L. total 17,3 cm, diam. 4,7 cm.
Sec. XV-XVII .
AI, foto GD
281. Lan cu nchiztoare
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Fier, se pstreaz o bucat format din 11 zale parial
torsadate, la care n capt este ataat o mic bar care
servea la nchiderea unei bucle prin montarea ntr-o verig
suplimentar mai mare, care este ataat pe lan.

L. 23,5 cm.
Sec. XV-XVII
AI, foto CS
282. Armtur de col
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, decupat din tabl. L. 10,5 cm; l. 2 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto GD
283. Cuie i piroane
2000-2008.
Fier, diferite forme i dimensiuni.
Sec. XVI-XVIII.
AI, foto CS, GD
284. Fragment de vas
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Bronz, tabl groas de 0,12 cm. Este tiat poligonal pe
patru laturi (octogon, latura 2,4 cm), posibil petec de vas.
6x5,5 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
285. Toart de vas
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Fier. Fragment. L. 14,5 cm; seciune variabil, d.max. 0,8
cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto GD
286. Tij
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Fier, n form de crlig, seciune dreptunghiular. L. 17,5
cm; l. 1,2 cm; g. 0,4-0,6 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto GD

55

287. Oal borcan


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past de culoare rou deschis, degresat cu nisip fin, AOI
Buz evazat, rsfrnt i alveolat. n interior un an
superficial pentru capac, care corespunde n exterior la
mijloc cu o nervur. Gt scurt, corp bombat, diametrul
maxim se afl n treimea superioar. Pe exterior decolorri
rou-nchis de la ardere secundar. Decor: dou linii
incizate orizontale pe umr.
Dg.: 14 cm, Dmax.: 15 cm, Df.: 8 cm, h.: 15 cm.
Sec. XVI.
SPL, foto GD
288. Oal cu toart
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past de culoare rou-glbuie, degresat cu nisip (boabe
mari). AOI. Buz evazat, n interior un an superficial
pentru capac, care corespunde n exterior cu o nervur.
Marginea buzei este pronunat cu o nervur. Gt scurt,
corp bombat, fund plat. Toart n band, scurt, mprit
de un an n dou registre. Pe exterior mai mult de
jumtate din vas este acoperit de negru de fum. Decor:
dou linii incizate orizontale pe umr.
Dg.: 13,5 cm, Dmax.: 16,5 cm, Df.: 8 cm, h.: 16,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
SPL, foto GD
289. Oal cu toart
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past de culoare rou deschis, degresat cu nisip, AOI.
Buz evazat, rsfrnt i alveolat. n interior un an
superficial pentru capac, care corespunde n exterior cu o
nervur. Gt scurt, corp bombat, diametrul maxim se afl
n treimea superioar spre mijloc. Toart n band, scurt,
mprit de un an n dou registre. Pe exterior pete de
negru de fum i decolorri rou-nchis de la ardere
secundar.

56

Decor: trei linii incizate, orizontale, pe mijlocul gtului.


Registru format din caneluri n val combinate cu linii
incizate orizontale, aezat pe diametrul maxim.
Dg.: 14,5 cm, Dmax.: 15 cm, Df.: 9 cm, h.: 18 cm.
Sec. XVI.
SPL, foto GD
290. Oal cu toart
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past de culoare rou crmiziu, degresat cu nisip, AOI.
Buz evazat, pronunat cu o nervur. Gt scurt, la mijloc
o nervur. Corp bombat, diametrul maxim se afl n
treimea superioar spre mijloc, toart n band, scurt,
mprit de un an n dou registre. Pe exterior pete de
negru de fum.
Decor: nceputul umrului marcat cu o linie incizat,
orizontal. Dg.: 14,5 cm, Dmax.: 18 cm, Df.: 9 cm, h.: 20 cm.
Sec. XVI.
SPL, foto GD
291. Oal cu toart
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past compact cu nisip i pietricele, AOI. Suprafa
cleioas i neregulat. n interior cenuiu/negru, n
exterior rou deschis spre galben/cenuiu. Buz evazat,
n interior un an superficial pentru capac, care
corespunde n exterior cu o nervur lat, rotunjit.
Marginea buzei este pronunat cu o nervur. Gt scurt.
Corp bombat, diametrul maxim se afl n treimea
superioar spre mijloc. Fund plat. Toart n band, scurt.
Pe exterior negru de fum. Decor: Umrul este decorat cu
un registru de caneluri orizontale.
Dg.: 18 cm, Dmax.: 21,5 cm, Df.: 11 cm, h.: 22,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
SPL, foto GD
292. Tigaie
2002, n apropierea palatului.

Past de culoare rou crmiziu, degresat cu nisip, AOI.


Buz evazat puternic, uor rsfrnt, rotunjit. Perei uor
curbai, corp bombat spre fund, trei picioare, manevrat cu
ajutorul unei tori. Toart n band, de la buz pn la
fund, mprit de un an n dou registre. Pe fund negru
de fum.
Decor: Suprafa interioar acoperit cu smal verzuigalben, uniform, gros, fisurat, aplicat peste un strat de
angob alb. Gtul i corpul decorate cu linii incizate,
orizontale.
Dg.: 18 cm, Df.: 14 cm, h.: (fr picioare): 7 cm.
Sec. XVI.
SPL, foto GD
293. Oal cu toart
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past compact, cu nisip i pietricele, de culoare rou
deschis, AOI. Suprafa cleioas, neregulat. Buz evazat
puternic, partea superioar teit. n interior un an
superficial pentru capac, care corespunde n exterior la
mijloc cu o nervur ascuit. Gt scurt. Corp bombat,
diametrul maxim fiind situat la treimea superioar al
nlimii. Toart n band, scurt, mprit n dou
registre. Fund plat. Exterior puternic ars, decolorat n rou
nchis, acoperit cu pete de negru de fum.
Dg.: 22,2 cm, Dmax.: 28 cm, Df.: 12,5 cm, h.: 25 cm.
Sec. XVI.
SPL, foto GD
294. Oal cu toart
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past cu nisip, de culoare rou crmiziu, interior cenuiu,
AOI. Suprafa aspr. Buz evazat puternic, n interior un
an superficial pentru capac, n exterior o nervur
ascuit. Gt scurt, la mijloc o nervur. Corp bombat,
diametrul maxim situat la mijlocul nlimii. Toart n
band, scurt, mprit de un an n dou registre. Fund

plat. Exteriorul puternic ars, decolorat n rou nchis i


acoperit cu pete de negru de fum.
Decor: Umrul decorat cu un registru de caneluri
superficiale, orizontale. Dg.: 20 cm, Dmax.: 26 cm, Df.: 12,5
cm, h.: 28,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
SPL, foto GD
295. Puculi n form de ceap
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past de culoare rou crmiziu intens, cu nisip, suprafa
aspr. Corp sferic turtit, fund plat, partea superioar se
termin ntr-o proeminen. Pe umr o ni. L.: 2,2 cm, l.:
0,15 cm.
Sec. XVI.
SPL, foto GD
296. Ulcic cu toart
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie cu nisip i mic, AOC, crmiziu maroniu.
Oal cu gt scurt, marginea evazat, buza tiat drept.
Decor: n zona median linii orizontale superficial incizate.
Interiorul acoperit cu smal verde. Pete de smal verde pe
toart.
Dg. 12 cm, df. 8,5 cm, h. 15 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto GD
297. Oal
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, AOC, crmiziu rocat. Oal cu pntec
globular, diametrul maxim n zona median. Gtul scurt
dar puternic arcuit, margine evazat. Se observ urma unei
tori.
Decor: geometric pictat alb, ncadrat de linii orizontale
incizate superficial, grupate cte dou. Dg. 17 cm, df. 9 cm
h. 22 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.

57

DMI, foto GD
298. Oal cu toart
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past de calitate medie, ardere variabil, crmiziu glbui.
Gt scurt. Vasul uor deformat nainte de ardere,
deschiderea asimetric. Marginea evazat, la interior o
nuire pentru capac creia i corespunde la exterior o
canelur subire. Toart de dimensiuni mici cu profil
dreptunghiular. Decor: pe umr cteva incizii superficiale
accentuate cu vopsea alb.
Dg. 16 cm, df. 9 cm, h. 23 cm, l. toart 2 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto CS
299. Oal cu toart
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, ardere oxidant variabil, crmiziu nchis.
Vas cu pntecul bombat, diametrul maxim n zona
median. Gtul scurt, marginea evazat, buza rotunjit. O
toart lat leag pntecul de buz. Descoperit ntreag.
Decor: linii incizate superficial, orizontale i n val,
accentuate cu vopsea alb.
Dg. 13,8 cm, df. 8,5 cm, h. 20,8 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto GD
300. Oal cu toart
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past semi-fin, ardere oxidant complet, crmiziu
cenuiu. Corp bombat cu diametrul maxim n partea
superioar, gtul scurt, marginea puternic tras spre
exterior, buza subiat. Se pstreaz urmele unei tori de
mici dimensiuni. Fragmentar, reconstituit la restaurare.
Decor: registru de incizii superficiale accentuate cu vopsea
alb. Dg. 15,4 cm, df. 8 cm, h. 15,2 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto GD

58

301. Oal
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, ardere superficial, crmiziu nchis. Vas
n form de par cu umerii slab pronunai, gtul uor
arcuit i marginea evazat. Toart pstrat parial. Decor:
n interior smal verde nchis, alternnd cu dungi verticale
de culoare mai deschis. n exterior incizii fine, cele de pe
umr subliniate cu vopsea alb. Dg. 12 cm, df. 8 cm, h. 16
cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto GD
302. Crati
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, ardere superficial la crmiziu deschis.
Vas asemntor unui castron, corpul puternic bombat n
jumtatea superioar, marginea evazat mult spre exterior.
se pstreaz urmele unei tori. n jumtatea inferioar
urmele foarte puternice de arsur arat c vasul se afla n
contact direct cu focul. Decor: n exterior incizii
superficiale. n interior smal verde nchis alternnd cu
dungi verticale mai deschise.
Dg. 15 cm, df. 6,4 cm, h. 7,6 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto GD
303. Crati
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie, ardere complet, crmiziu glbui. Crati cu
trei picioare nalte, corpul aproximativ cilindric, marginea
evazat i lit. Mner de form bitronconic, gol n
interior. Urme superficiale de utilizare. Decor: n interior
smal maroniu strlucitor. n exterior decor geometric
incizat i pictat cu vopsea alb. Pete de smal galben. Dg.
17,6 cm, h. 11 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto GD

304. Tigaie
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie, ardere oxidant complet, rou-crmiziu.
Tigaie cu trei picioare i mner tubular. Pstrat
fragmentar, reconstituit la restaurare. Decor: n interior
smal negru-maroniu. Dg. 14,3 cm, h. 10 cm (fr picioare),
L. mner 7 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto GD
305. Crati cu mner
2004, n apropierea palatului
Past medie, ardere complet, rou crmiziu. Vas
asemntor unei oale, cu pntecul uor bombat, gt scurt
arcuit, marginea evazat cu buza rotunjit modelat ca o
dantel. Se sprijin pe 3 picioare scunde, realizate manual
i aplicate dup ridicarea vasului de pe roat, nainte de
uscare. Manevrat cu ajutorul unei tori. Urme de ardere
secundar n exterior. Pstrat parial, reconstituit. Decor: n
interior smal verde. n exterior trei linii orizontale incizate
superficial. Dg. 18,2 cm, df. 8,5, h. 13 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto GD
306. Capac
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, ardere superficial, crmiziu glbui.
Capac de form conic, aplatizat, cu mner scurt pentru
manevrare. Dmax. 14 , h. 5,2 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto GD
307. Can
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past de calitate medie, ardere complet, crmiziu glbui.
Vas cu corpul ovoidal, gtul slab pronunat, marginea
subiat i evazat. Toart supranlat, aplicat.

Descoperit ntreag. Decor: linii orizontale incizate


superficial. Dg. 8 cm, df. 5,5 cm, h. 7,5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto GD
308. Cup
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past fin din caolin, ardere complet, alb-glbui. Cup cu
picior scurt segmentat printr-o nervur ascuit, talp de
form conic. Corpul evazat. Fragmentar, reconstituit la
restaurare. Decor: n interior smal galben maroniu, foarte
corodat. n exterior smal albastru deschis, peste care s-a
realizat un decor cu smal galben auriu, constnd din
benzi de diferite dimensiuni. Smalul exterior bine pstrat.
Dg. 12,5 cm (pstrat), h. picior 5 cm, hp. 9,8 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto CS
309. Oal cu toart
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semi-fin ars oxidant complet la crmiziu nchis.
Corp ovoidal cu diametrul maxim n jumtatea inferioar,
marginea evazat, buza rotunjit. La interior marginea
formeaz un lca pentru capac. Toarta lat, cu o canelur
pe mijloc.
Decor: n interior smal verde maroniu aplicat n strat
subire direct pe ceramic, fr suport de angob. n
exterior cteva incizii superficiale. Dg. 16 cm, df. 8 cm, h.
20 cm, gr. 0,8-1 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto CS
310. Castron
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past fin, AOC, crmiziu cenuiu. Castron decorativ,
form aproximativ conic, interiorul segmentat printr-un
umr. Marginea tras vertical este articulat prin dou
caneluri. La exterior dou tortie cu ajutorul crora vasul

59

era fixat. Pstrat parial, rentregit la restaurare. Decor: n


interior smal alb-glbui peste care s-a intervenit cu un
decor floral pictat cu verde-cenuiu i albastru nchis. Dg.
26 cm, df. 17 cm, h. 8 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
311. Pahar
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, AOC, crmiziu-rocat. Decor: n interior i
exterior acelai tip de smal, alb, aezat n strat subire
direct pe ceramic. Corp ovoidal cu diametrul maxim n
zona median, gt scurt, marginea evazat i subiat. Dg.
5,4 cm, df. 3,4 cm, dmax. 5,9 cm, h 7,3 cm. Pereii foarte
subiri, 0,3-0,4 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
312. Crati
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past fin, AOC, crmiziu rocat. Vas de form cilindric
cu pereii uor evazai, cu dou tori pentru manevrare.
Decor: smal alb glbui de calitate relativ bun att n
interior ct i n exterior. Dg. 16 cm, df. 12 cm, h. 7,9 cm, gr.
perete 0,6 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
313. Tigaie
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past de calitate medie, cu nisip i mic, AOC, crmiziu
rocat. Tigaie cu trei picioare i mner tubular cu ajutorul
cruia era manevrat. Se folosea direct pe foc: fundul i
picioare pstreaz urme de funingine. Rentregit la
restaurare.
Decor: n interior smal maroniu, n exterior incizii
superficiale.
Dg. 30 cm, df. 20 cm, h. 16 cm. Mnerul 11,7x5 cm.

60

n jurul anului 1700.


DMI, foto GD
314. Tigaie
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, AOC, crmiziu nchis. Vas de form
cilindric cu trei picioare i mner tubular. Pstrat parial,
ntregit la restaurare. Decor: n interior smal verde nchis,
lucios, bine conservat. Dg. 25 cm, df. 22 cm, h. 17 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
315. Capac
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past de calitate medie, ardere complet, crmiziu rocat.
Capac de form conic cu mner profilat. Decor: la exterior
decor geometric pictat cu alb; parial decor cu smal verde
deschis. Dmax. 28,2 cm, h. 11,4 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
316. Capac
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past de calitate medie, ardere complet, crmiziu glbui.
Capac de form conic cu mner scurt, asemntor unui
buton. Pe marginea buzei urme de funingine. Decor: la
exterior decor geometric pictat cu alb; parial decor cu
smal verde deschis.
Dmax. 19,1 cm, h. 8 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
317. Capac
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, AOC, crmiziu rocat. Capac cu mner
scurt. Urme de arde secundar. Decor: geometric pictat cu
alb, pete de smal verde. D. 12,8 cm, h. 4,8 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.

DMI, foto GD
318. Capac
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, AOC, crmiziu rocat. Capac de form
conic cu mner scurt, asemntor unui buton. Decor:
geometric pictat alb; parial smal verde deschis. Dmax. 9
cm, h. 4,5 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
319. Capac
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, AOC, crmiziu glbui. Capac de form
tronconic manevrat cu ajutorul unei tori. Urme puternice
de ardere secundar n partea inferioar. Decor: decor
geometric pictat cu rou i alb. Dmax 17 cm, h 5,5 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
320. Capac
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, AOC, crmiziu rocat. Capac de form
conic cu mner scurt, asemntor unui buton. Decor:
decor geometric pictat cu alb, peste care s-au aplicat pete
de smal verde. Dmax. 9 cm, h. 4,5 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
321. Urcior
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past semifin, AOC, crmiziu rocat. Corp piriform, gt
nalt segmentat printr-un bru ascuit, gura evazat.
Manevrat cu ajutorul unei tori cu seciune trapezoidal.
Decor: pe corp se observ mai multe fascicule de linii
orizontale incizate superficiale. Toarta decorat cu alveole
realizate prin presare manual. Vasul este smluit n

exterior pn aproape de fund cu smal maro peste care s-a


aplicat un decor cu smal galben.
Dg. 4,2 cm, dmax. 14 cm, h. 20,5 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
322. Tava
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Past medie, AOC, crmiziu nchis. Tav cu marginile
nalte, cioc de scurgere pe una dintre laturile scurte i un
mner pe una dintre laturile lungi. Smal verde nchis
peste care au fost aplicate dungi mai deschise.
L. 33 cm, l. 17,5 cm, h. 5 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto CS
323. Mojar
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Pasta fin de caolin, ars complet la alb. Vas de form
semi-sferic cu pereii groi i fundul uor profilat. Folosit
probabil ca mojar. Dg. 5,8 cm, df. 3,6 cm, h. 2,4 cm.
n jurul anului 1700.
DMI, foto GD
324. Creuzete
2000-2008, n interiorul i exteriorul palatului.
Past grafitat, compact, ars reductor. Dup ardere
capt o culoare neagr cu luciu metalic. Vase de diferite
dimensiuni, n general cu pereii groi, folosite pentru
prelucrarea metalelor. Sunt produse n ateliere austriece i
de regul pstreaz tampilele atelierelor. Df. 15 cm, gr.
perei 1,7-2,3 cm, fundul mai subire (1). Df. 9 cm (3).
Sec. XV-XVII.
DMI, foto CS
325. Creuzete de prob
2000-2008, interiorul i exteriorul palatului episcopal.

61

Past de calitate bun, ardere oxidant, crmiziu. Vase


mici cu corpul tronconic, pereii groi, interiorul parial
smluit. Folosite pentru prelucrarea metalelor.
Df. ntre 3 i 5 cm; h. 4-5 cm, dg. 3-4 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVIII.
DMI, foto CS, GD
326. Pip
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Past fin, alb, lucrat n tipar. Band decorat cu
mpunsturi. L. 4,8 cm, d. 21 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
327. Pip
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Past glbuie rocat. Decor incizat. D. 2,7 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
328. Pip
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Past cenuiu glbuie. L. 5,3 cm, d. 2,2 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
329. Pip
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Past cenuiu glbuie. Decor incizat, motive florale.
Suprafaa lustruit. L. 5,8 cm, d. 3,1 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
330. Pip
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Past fin, ardere reductoare, ceramic neagr.
D. max. 2,4 cm, L. p. 5,5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.

62

AI, foto CS
331. Cahl triunghiular pentru acoperiul sobei
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form triunghiular, fr picior, fragment.
Past medie, AOS, lucrat n tipar, lutul presat cu un
obiect din lemn. Smal verde nchis peste angob. Decor:
geometric, motive gotice sugernd traforuri nscrise ntrun ochi de pete. O propunere de reconstituire.
Lp. 11cm, lp. 7 cm, gr. 0,7 cm.
A doua jumtate a sec. XV - nceputul sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
332. Cahl triunghiular pentru acoperiul sobei
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form triunghiular, fragment din zona
median. Past grosier cu mult nisip i mic, ardere
oxidant complet la crmiziu nchis, lutul presat n tipar
cu lemn. Smal verde complet irizat, aproape complet
exfoliat.
Decor: motive gotice, fragment dintr-o
compoziie asemntoare celei de la nr. 332. Lp. 10,3 cm,
lp. 9,1, gr. 0,7-1,1 cm.
A doua jumtate a sec. XV - nceputul sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
333. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form neprecizat (probabil triunghiular),
fr picior, fragment. Past grosier, AOI, lucrat n tipar,
lutul presat cu o pnz. Smal verde deschis peste angob,
de calitate proast, complet irizat n argintiu. Urme de
funingine pe spate. Decor: motive gotice, propunere de
reconstituire. Lp. 7,4 cm, lp. 8,6 cm, gr. 0,8-1 cm.
A doua jumtate a sec. XV - nceputul sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
334 Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.

Cahl plac de form probabil triunghiular, fr picior,


fragmente. Past grosier cu mult mic, AOC, lucrat n
tipar, lutul presat cu lemn. Smal verde deschis peste
angob, de calitate proast, parial exfoliat, parial irizat n
auriu. Parial ardere secundar. Pe spate urme de
funingine. Decor: motive gotice, probabil o compoziie
asemntoare celei de la nr. 333.
Lp. 16,3 cm, lp. 12,6 cm, gr. 1-1,8 cm.
A doua jumtate a sec. XV - nceputul sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
335. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form rectangular, fr picior, fragment.
Past grosier cu mult mic, AOC, lucrat n tipar, lutul
presat cu lemn. Smal verde aezat direct peste past,
complet irizat n auriu. Urme de funingine pe spate. Decor:
geometric, probabil o compoziie gotic.
Lp. 9 cm, lp. 7,2 cm, gr. 1 cm.
A doua jumtate a sec. XV - nceputul sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
336. Cahl pentru coronamentul sobei
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Past fin degresat cu mic, ardere superficial, lucrat n
tipar, lutul presat cu lemn. Smal verde peste angob, strat
de grosime inegal, relativ bine pstrat. Decor: registrul
inferior traforat n forme gotice, registrul superior decupat
pe conturul unor flori de crin reliefate.
Lp. 4,5 cm, lp. 3 cm, gr. 1 cm.
A doua jumtate a sec. XV - sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
337. Cahl pentru acoperiul sobei
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form triunghiular. Past semigrosier,
AOC, crmiziu rocat. Urme de ardere secundar. Fondul

smluit verde, decorul alb. Smalul verde irizat n argintiu


se pstreaz parial. Fragment. Decor: motive gotice.
H.p. 19 cm, l. max. 6,5 cm.Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI, foto AM
338. Cahl pentru coronamentul sobei
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl de coronament cu partea superioar decupat. Past
fin, AOC, crmiziu rocat; lutul presat n tipar cu o
spatul din lemn i cu mna. Smal verde i galben
maroniu peste angob, aproape complet irizat n argintiu,
parial exfoliat. Pete de smal albastru. Decor: geometric. n
partea de jos o succesiune de arcade cu terminaii
semicirculare sau ascuite (ogivale). Jumtatea superioar
decorat cu motive geometrice reliefate, parial traforat.
Pies reconstituit la restaurare.
L. 13,5 cm, h. 9,4 cm, gr. 0,7 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto CS
339. Cahl triunghiular pentru acoperiul sobei
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form triunghiular, fr picior, fragmente.
Past medie, AOC, lucrat n tipar, lutul presat cu un
obiect din lemn i cu mna. Smal verde nchis peste
angob, de calitate proast, aproape integral exfoliat. Urme
de funingine pe spate. Decor: geometric, reea de nervuri
n care sunt nscrise triunghiuri reliefate, cte unul sau
alturate cte dou. Fragmentul ilustrat: 8,4x7,9x1-1,7 cm.
A doua jumtate a sec. XV - prima jumtate a sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
340. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form rectangular, fr picior, fragmente.
Past medie, AOI, lucrat n tipar, lutul presat cu o spatul
din lemn. Smal verde deschis peste angob, de calitate
proast, aproape integral exfoliat. Decor: reea de nervuri

63

n care sunt nscrise triunghiuri reliefate de dimensiuni i


forme variabile.
14x10,1x0,8-1,4 cm.
A doua jumtate a sec. XV - prima jumtate a sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
341. Cahl pentru coronamentul sobei
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form triunghiular. Past medie, AOC,
crmiziu rocat. Smal verde deschis, cu nuane mai
nchise, n strat subire peste angob. Lutul presat cu o
spatul. Decor: geometric, reea de nervuri reliefate.
7x7,6 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AM
342. Cahl de sob
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form neprecizat. Past grosier, AOI,
crmiziu rocat. Lutul presat n tipar cu o pnz, urme
superficiale de ardere secundar. Piesa a fost smluit
verde, smalul de calitate proast a disprut aproape
complet, deteriorndu-se din vechime. Fragmente. Decor:
reea de nervuri reliefate. 11,5x6,5 cm, gr. 1 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AM
343. Cahl pentru acoperiul sobei
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form triunghiular. Past semigrosier,
AOC, crmiziu nchis. Ardere secundar puternic. Smal
galben mutar, verde i alb. Fragment.
Decor: vegetal-geometric, combinat cu o inscripie din care
se pstreaz cifra 4. Motivele decorative formau o
compoziie unitar, continundu-se de la o cahl la alta.
Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI, foto AM

64

344. Cahl pentru acoperiul sobei


2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form triunghiular. Past grosier, AOI,
crmiziu nchis. Smal verde, alb i albastru. Fragment.
Decor: vegetal-geometric. 7,5x3,5 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI, foto AM
345. Cahl de sob
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac cu picior scurt. Past de calitate medie, ardere
oxidant complet, crmiziu rocat. Urme superficiale de
ardere secundar. Fondul smluit verde, relieful cu alb i
albastru. Smalul verde irizat n argintiu sau auriu, se
pstreaz parial. Fragment.
Decor: probabil o reprezentare religioas cu o inscripie n
partea superioar, din care se pstreaz literele O i T. Din
decor se pstreaz marginea unei aripi posibil o
reprezentare a Sfntului Mihail. 9,5x9 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI, foto AM
346. Cahl de sob
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac cu picior scurt. Past fin, AOC, crmiziu
rocat; lutul presat n tipar cu o pnz. Urme de ardere
secundar. Fondul smluit verde, relieful cu alb. Smalul
verde irizat n argintiu, se pstreaz parial. Fragmente.
Decor: un personaj ncadrat de un registru cu motive
vegetale. Fragmente. 20x11 cm, gr. 0,7 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI, foto AM
347. Cahl pentru coronament
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form dreptunghiular, cu partea
superioar decupat pe conturul unor creneluri ptrate i
cu traforuri pariale. Past medie, AOC, crmiziu rocat.

Smal policrom, verde, albastru i alb, parial pstrat.


Fragmente, piesa reconstituit.
L. 14 cm, h. 13 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI, foto GD
348. Cahl de sob
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac. Past grosier, ardere oxidant incomplet,
crmiziu. Lutul presat n tipar cu o spatul din lemn.
Urme superficiale de ardere secundar. Smal galben
maroniu, verde nchis, alb i albastru. Fragmente.
Decor: ilustreaz legenda pelicanului care i sfie pieptul
pentru a-i hrni puii. Fragmente din corpul i capul
pelicanului. 8x5 cm; 5x3,5, gr. 0,7 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI, foto AI
349 Cahl pentru coronamentul sobei
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac cu o talp de susinere. Past medie, ardere
oxidant complet, crmiziu. Lutul presat n tipar cu o
spatul din lemn. Urme superficiale de ardere secundar.
Smal galben maroniu, verde i alb, acoperit ulterior cu o
pelicul groas de var. Smalurile se afl ntr-o stare de
conservare destul de proast. Fragment.
Decor: vegetal. 9,5x5,5, gr. 0,5 cm; h.picior 3,5 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI, foto AM
350. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac cu faa vizibil adncit, fragmente. Past fin
cu mult mic, ardere complet, lucrat n tipar, lutul
presat cu lemn i cu mna, reversul foarte denivelat. Smal
verde peste angob, parial irizat n argintiu i exfoliat, pe
unele fragmente opacizat. Pe spate urme de funingine.

Decor: personaj masculin (?), cu braul drept ridic o


spad. Scena se desfoar ntr-un cadru vegetal, delimitat
n partea superioar de o succesiune de rozete, iar acest
cmp central este ncadrat de borduri marginale cu vrejuri.
Fragmente. 9x10,2x0,8 cm; 11x5x0,9; picior rupt 2,5x0,6 cm.
A doua jumtate a sec. XV- nceputul sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
351. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl traforat, fragmente. Past de calitate medie
degresat cu mic, ardere complet, lucrat n tipar, lutul
presat cu mna. Smal verde nchis peste angob, parial
bine pstrat, parial exfoliat.
Decor: cavaler n armur.
8,5x5,3x1,1-1,7 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI, foto AI
352. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului
Cahl plac fr picior, fragment. Posibil o pies n form
de medalion. Past fin, ardere superficial, lucrat n
tipar, lutul presat cu lemn. Pe faa vizibil pstreaz urme
de var, probabil de la o mprosptare a sobei. Pe spatele
piesei se pstreaz o pelicul subire de smal. Decor:
rozet. 7,8x5,7 cm, gr. 0,6 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI
353. Cahl de la colul sobei
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl de col format din mbinarea a dou piese ntr-un
unghi ascuit, fragment din zona de contact. Past de
calitate bun presat n tipar cu mna, ardere incomplet.
Smal verde peste angob. Pe spate urme de funingine.
Decor: mici rozete reliefate.
Sec. XV-XVI.

65

DMI, foto AI
354. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac de form rectangular, lucrat din past fin
cu mult mic, ars complet la rou crmiziu. Lutul a fost
presat n tipar cu mna i cu ajutorul unei spatule din
lemn. Smal verde peste angob, pe unele fragmente bine
pstrat, pe altele complet irizat n argintiu. Pe spate urme
de funingine.
Decor: cavaler n armur, ecvestru, ncadrat de un portal
gotic. Sub burta calului dou capete umane, unul cu
turban i cellalt cu fes. Portalul n acolad este mpodobit
cu frunzi bogat, att pe intrados ct i pe extrados. Pe
extrados ntre vrejuri sunt suspendate alte dou capete cu
turban. l. 26-27 cm.
n jurul anului 1500.
DMI, foto AI
355. Cahl triunghiular pentru acoperiul sobei
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac de form triunghiular, fr picior, fragmente.
Piesa a fost lucrat din past degresat cu mult mic,
presat n tipar cu o spatul din lemn. Faa vizibil a fost
acoperit cu smal verde peste angob, astzi complet
irizat. Pe spate pstreaz urme de utilizare de intensitate
variabil. Decor: combinaii de vrejuri. l.max. pstrat 18,5
cm; h.p. 11,21 cm, gr. 0,8-1,2 cm; h. estimat: peste 50 cm.
n jurul anului 1500.
DMI, foto AI
356. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac cu picior semicircular, fragmente. Past fin
presat n tipar cu o spatul din lemn, ardere complet.
Piciorul piesei a fost lucrat la roat, tiat dintr-un cilindru.
Faa vizibil este acoperit cu smal verde, galben

66

maroniu i alb peste angob, culorile difuzate, relativ bine


pstrate.
Decor: Cavaler reprezentat clare spre stnga, pe un cal
relativ static, sub un portal gotic trziu ncrcat cu mult
vegetaie. Pe cap poart o plrie cu boruri largi. Relieful
plcii este foarte slab, astfel nct citirea detaliilor este
dificil, dar compoziia poate fi reconstituita pe baza
analogiilor. Cavalerii de acest fel poart de obicei o mantie
scurt drept costumaie i sunt narmai cu o arbalet
aezat pe umr.
n jurul anului 1500.
DMI, foto AI
357. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac de form rectangular. Past de calitate medie
cu mult mic, ardere complet, lucrat n tipar, lutul
presat cu lemn. Smal verde peste angob, aproape
complet desprins.
Decor: vrejuri. 10,3x6,7 cm, gr. 0,5-0,8 cm.
Prima jumtate a sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
358. Cahl de sob
2001, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac fr picior, fragmente. Past de calitate medie
degresat cu mult nisip, uscat n straturi, ardere
incomplet, presat n tipar cu o pnz. Ardere secundar.
Smal verde de calitate bun peste angob, straturi de
grosime inegal care produc mari diferene de culoare pe
aceeai pies, de la verde glbui la verde nchis spre negru.
Decor: o compoziie cu portal semicircular, interiorul
decorat cu motive geometrice, formate din arce
intersectate. 10,6x13,5 cm, gr. 1,2 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI

359. Cahl de sob


2001, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form rectangular, fragment. Past
grosier cu mult mic, ardere superficial, lucrat n
tipar, lutul presat cu lemn. Smal verde peste angob,
irizat n argintiu. Pe spate urme de funingine. Decor: arip
de pasre, dintr-o compoziie cu Hercule i vulturul lui
Zeus. 11,5x9 cm, gr. 0,4-0,8 cm.
Prima jumtate a sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
360. Cahl pentru coronamentul sobei
2001, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl pentru coronament traforat, cu partea superioar
decupat n creneluri triunghiulare, fragmente.
Past fin degresat cu mic, ardere complet, lucrat n
tipar, lutul presat cu lemn. Aversul a fost acoperit cu smal
verde peste angob, strat de grosime inegal, relativ bine
pstrat; o alt variant a fost decorat cu smal galben
maroniu. Reconstituit. Decor: registrul inferior a fost
decorat cu psri stilizate, partea superioar poart motive
geometrice.
Exemplar reconstituit: l. 13 cm, L. 24 cm.
Prima jumtate a sec. XVI.
DMI, reconstrucie grafic AI, foto CS
361. Cahl pentru cornia sobei
2000-2002.
Cahl pentru corni cu picior scurt, fragmente. Past
medie/grosier, ardere superficial, lucrat n tipar, lutul
presat cu pnza sau cu o spatul din lemn. Smal verde
complet irizat n argintiu. Variant cu aversul simplu. Pe
spate urme groase de funingine. Dou variante
reconstituite.
Decor: registrul inferior este decorat cu balutri, registrul
superior este marcat prin caneluri adnci, aezate
orizontal.
19x19,5 cm; 20x17 cm; picior scurt 2,5x1 cm.

Prima jumtate a sec. XVI.


DMI, foto GD
362. Cahl plac
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac cu picior scurt. Past fin, AOC, crmiziu
rocat. lutul presat cu o spatul. Urme superficiale de
ardere. lem rocat. Decor: geometric.
19x12 cm, gr. 0,5 cm. h. picior 3,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
363. Cahl plac
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac fr picior. Past fin, AOC, crmiziu rocat.
Lutul presat n tipar cu o pnz. Urme superficiale de
folosire pe spate. Faa vizibil acoperit cu un strat de
smal verde calitate bun, strlucitor, bine pstrat. ntr-o
alt etap piesa a fost acoperit cu un strat gros de
vruial, pstrat parial. Decor: vegetal-geometric.
11,5x9 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
364. Cahl de sob
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form dreptunghiular, cu picior scurt.
Past semi-grosier, cu mult mic, AOC, galben
crmiziu. Lutul presat n tipar cu o spatul. Faa vizibil
presrat cu mic. Fragment. Decor: vas cu flori.
10,5x4,5 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
365. Cahl plac
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac cu picior scurt. Past fin, presat cu o spatul
din lemn, AOC, crmiziu glbui. AS parial. Faa vizibil

67

a fost acoperit cu un strat gros de angob alb-glbuie.


Fragmente. Decor: vegetal-floral, ncadrat de o bordur cu
motive geometrice. Fragmente.
15x10 cm, gr. 0,4 cm, h. picior 4,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI

lemn (prile marginale). Smal verde, galben maroniu i


alb. Urme de funingine pe spate. Decor: pe partea plan a
cahlei decor vegetal-geometric reliefat, n partea central
adncit triunghiuri pictate. 10x9 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI

366. Cahl de sob


2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac, fragment. Past medie, ardere oxidant
complet, ardere secundar foarte puternic. Smal verde
irizat n argintiu. Decor: vegetal. 6,5x5 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI

369. Cahl de sob


2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl oal cu deschiderea ptrat. Past grosier, ardere
superficial, lucrat la roat. Urme superficiale de ardere
secundar n exterior. Piesa este lucrat pe roata olarului,
partea superioar fiind modelat cu ajutorul unui ablon.
La ridicarea de pe roat fundul vasului a fost modelat n
form de floare, prin presare manual dinspre exterior
spre interior. Decor: bru reliefat, tras din past, modelat
n form de torsad.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI

367. Cahl de sob


2001, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac cu partea din mijloc, de form circular,
adncit. Past de calitate bun sau medie, degresat cu
mic, ardere superficial; presat n tipar cu o pnz. Faa
vizibil a piesei este decorat prin smluire, cu smaluri
de diferite culori: smal verde cu nuane variate, n general
de calitate bun i bine conservat; smal galben maroniu; o
combinaie de smal maro pe cmpul plcii, galben n zona
central, iar n partea adncit sunt pictate triunghiuri cu
smal maro ntr-un cadru verde. Toate fragmentele
pstreaz pe spate urme de funingine. Decor: n colurile
plcii proeminene circulare ncadrate de triunghiuri, n
partea central adncit pot s apar decoruri geometrice
pictate. Piese ptrate cu latura de 20-22 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto AI
368. Cahl plac cu partea din mijloc, de form circular,
adncit
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Past de calitate bun sau medie, degresat cu mic, ardere
complet; presat n tipar cu o pnz i cu o spatul din

68

370. Cahl de sob


2008, n interiorul palatului.
Cahl oal modelat pe roata olarului, marginea tras cu
un ablon din lemn pn la forma ptrat. Past semifin,
AOI, crmiziu rocat. Piesa era ncastrat n peretele
sobei, aflndu-se n contact direct cu focul. Jumtatea
inferioar pstreaz urme groase de funingine. Fragmente.
Decor: n interior decor geometric incizat. 12,5x11 cm, gr.
0,5 cm.
Sec. XV-XVII.
DMI, foto AI
371. Cahl de sob
2008, n interiorul palatului.
Cahl oal modelat pe roata olarului, marginea tras cu
un ablon din lemn pn la forma ptrat. Past medie,
AOI, crmiziu rocat. Urme de ardere secundar.
Fragmente. Decor: o nervur ascuit, proeminent,

marcheaz limita de la care vasul se evazeaz brusc,


formndu-se deschiderea ptrat.
Latura estimat 23 cm, df. 7 cm, gr. 0,6 cm.
Sec. XV-XVII.
DMI, foto AI
372. Cahl de sob
2008, n interiorul palatului.
Cahl dreptunghiular asemntoare unei nie, cu picior
scurt. Pasta fin, AOC, crmiziu rocat. Smal verde
strlucitor, pstrat parial.
7,5x5 cm, gr. 0,5 cm, h. picior 3 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto AM
373. Cahl pentru coronamentul sobei
2008, interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl de form semicircular, cu o talp pentru sprijin.
Past medie, AOC, crmiziu glbui. Lutul presat cu o
pnz. Smal verde, pelicul subire parial pstrat.
Fragment. Decor: vegetal, asemntor unei palmete.
13x12,5 cm, gr. 0,8 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto AM
374. Cahl pentru coronamentul sobei
2008, interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl plac de form dreptunghiular, partea superioar
decupat i traforat, fr picior. Past fin, AOC,
crmiziu rocat. Lutul presat cu o spatul. Smal verde
strlucitor, n mare parte czut. Fragment.
10,5x4,5 cm, gr. 1 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto AM
375. Cahl de sob
2008, interiorul palatului episcopal.

Cahl plac cu picior scurt. Past medie, AOC, crmiziu


glbui. Lutul presat cu o spatul din lemn. Faa vizibil
acoperit cu fulgi de mic. Ardere secundar intens.
Fragmente. Decor: geometric.
12x5,5x0,5 cm, h. picior 4,5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto AM
376. Cahl de sob
2008, n interiorul palatului.
Cahl plac cu picior scurt. Past medie, AOC, crmiziu
rocat. Ardere secundar. Smal verde strlucitor, bine
pstrat.
Decor: vegetal geometric. 10,5x10,5 cm, h. picior 7,5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto AM
377. Cahl de sob
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac cu picior scurt. past medie, ardere oxidant,
crmiziu rocat. Ardere secundar superficial. Smal
verde parial exfoliat, parial acoperit cu var. Decor:
vegetal.
13x7 cm; gr. 0,6 cm; h. picior 3,5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto AI
378. Cahl de sob
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac de form dreptunghiular, fr picior. Past
fin, AOC, crmiziu glbui. Ardere secundar puternic.
Smal verde pstrat parial. Decor: geometric.
L. 23 cm, l 16,5 cm, gr. 0,6 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto AI
379. Cahl de sob
2008, n interiorul palatului.

69

Cahl plac cu picior scurt. Past semi-fin, ardere


oxidant incomplet, crmiziu glbui. Urme superficiale
de ardere secundar. Fondul smluit verde, relieful cu alb
i albastru. ntr-o a doua etap, piesa a fost acoperit cu
vopsea roie. Smalul de calitate proast s-a exfoliat.
Fragment.
Decor: vegetal. Fragment dintr-o pies de form ptrat,
decorat cu masc feminin. 9,5x7,5 cm, gr. 2,5 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
380. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac, fragment. Past medie, ardere complet,
lucrat n tipar, lutul presat cu lemn i cu mna. Urme
superficiale de utilizare. Smal verde (fondul i turnurile
intermediare) i maroniu (turnurile centrale) peste angob.
Decor: cetate.
8,2x4,8 cm, gr. 0,6 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
381. Cahle de sob
2000-2008.
Cahl plac de form ptrat cu picior scurt. Past cu
granulaie variabil, dar n general compact i bine
omogenizat, presat n tipar cu o spatul din lemn sau cu
o pnz. Ardere oxidant, crmiziu cu nuane din gama
rocat-glbui. Faa expus a cahlelor poate fi tratat n mai
multe feluri, prin micasare (pulverizarea unui praf obinut
din mic), angobare (aplicarea unui strat fin de angob
alb, eventual cu nuane glbui) sau smluire (de obicei
smal verde, mai rar galben maroniu). Piese smluite n
mai multe culori, de regul pe un fond alb, de o frumusee
deosebit, au produs meteugarii habani de la Vinu de
Jos. n medii mai modeste aceste cahle pstreaz forma
ceramicii obinuite, fr s li se aplice tratamente speciale.

70

Decor: n relief, reea de figuri geometrice n care sunt


reprezentate elemente vegetale, deseori cu aluzie la pomul
vieii. n cmpurile centrale sunt figurate deseori motive
stilizate, la limita dintre vegetal i geometric. Aceste
ornamente sunt numite frecvent tapet, compoziia
bazndu-se pe repetarea acelorai elemente. Este de
asemenea caracteristic faptul c decorul se leag de la o
cahl-plac la alta, imprimnd ansamblului sobei un
aspect unitar.
Latura medie n jurul a 20 cm, piciorul ntre 4 i 7 cm, gr.
0,7-1,2 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI, AM
382. Cahl de sob
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac, fragment. Past fin degresat cu mic, ardere
complet, lucrat n tipar, lutul presat cu o pnz, o
spatul din lemn sau cu mna. Fondul piesei a fost
acoperit cu smal alb iar motivele decorative cu smal
albastru deschis. Pe spate urme de funingine.
Decor: vegetal, probabil o compoziie care repeta aceleai
elemente i continua de pe o cahl pe alta.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
383. Cahl pentru coronamentul sobei
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl de coronament decupat, cu o talp n partea
inferioar pentru sprijin. Registrul inferior este plin,
registrul superior era probabil decorat n forme arcuite.
Past de calitate medie, AOC, lutul presat n tipar cu o
spatul din lemn i cu mna. Smal verde peste angob,
aproape complet irizat n argintiu.
Decor: vegetal, vrejuri dispuse n volute, alternativ mici
rozete cu cte trei petale. Inscripie copiat n oglind din
care se pot citi literele D i F.
4,8x0,7 cm, fragment 6,9x21,3x0,7 cm.

Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
384. Cahl de sob
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac de form dreptunghiular, cu picior lung.
Placa lucrat n tipar, piciorul modelat pe roata olarului i
cu ajutorul unui ablon din lemn; cele dou piese au fost
asamblate nainte de uscare. Past de calitate medie, AOI,
crmiziu glbui. Pe spate ardere secundar foarte
puternic. Smal policrom, alb, verde, galben i albastru.
Fragmente, pies reconstituit.
Decor: geometric, motivul central continua de la o pies la
cealalt.
l. 14 cm, Lp. 11 cm, gr. 0,5 cm; picior: h. 12, gr. 0,8 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto CS
385. Cahl de sob
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac, posibil dintr-o pies de coronament. Past
medie, AOC, crmiziu glbui. Lutul presat cu o spatul.
Smal galben i alb pe un fond verde. Fragmente. Decor:
vegetal floral.
7x5,5x1,2 cm; 6,5x4,5x0,5 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
386. Cahl de sob
2008, n interiorul palatului.
Cahl plac cu picior scurt, past medie, AOI, presat cu o
spatul din lemn. Ardere secundar. Relieful evideniat cu
smal albastru i galben pe fond alb. Decor: tapet, parial
reliefat, parial pictat. 9x8 cm, gr. 0,7 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI

387. Cahle de sob


2000-2008.
Cahle plci cu picior scurt. past de calitate variabil, dar
n general fin sau semi-fin, ars oxidant, culori din gama
crmiziu. Piesele au fost n contact direct cu focul, astfel
c pstreaz pe spate urme mai mult sau mai puin
compacte de funingine. Faa vizibil poart smaluri
policrome, de obicei pe fonduri albe cu reflexe verzi sau
albastre, crpate fin nc din procesul arderii. Decorul
reliefat este evideniat prin smaluri albastre, albe, verzi i
galbene. n general smalurile erau frumoase, strlucitoare,
dar rareori se pstreaz n forma originar. Gradul de
conservare a smalurilor depinde att de calitatea tehnic a
atelierului unde sunt produse dar i de mediul n care
piesele s-au aflat pn n momentul descoperirii. Aceste
piese erau socotite produse de lux, fiind destinate
locuinelor cu un standard ridicat de confort i amenajare.
Fragmente. Decor: vegetal-florale, n diferite combinaii.
4,5x7 cm, gr. 0,4-1 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
388. Cahle de sob
2000-2008, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahle plci cu picior scurt. Past de calitate variabil, n
general medie i semigrosier, AOI. Piesele pstreaz
urme de ardere secundar. Partea vizibil este smluit
alb (de obicei cu reflexe albastre), iar decorul este
accentuat cu albastru nchis.Decor: vegetal, deseori n
compoziii simetrice (tapet). Rar decor geometric. Decorul
este de regul n relief, uneori apar i componente pictate.
Frecvent piese fr decor.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
389. Cahle de sob
2000-2008, n apropierea palatului episcopal

71

Cahle plci cu picior scurt. past de calitate variabil, n


general medie i semifin, ars oxidant incomplet. Piesele
pstreaz urme de ardere secundar. Fondul pieselor este
acoperit cu smal verde peste angob, iar decorul este
accentuat cu alb cu reflexe verzi. Decor: vegetal, reliefat,
deseori n compoziii simetrice (tapet). Frecvent piese fr
decor.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
390. Cahl de sob
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac cu picior scurt. Past medie, ardere oxidant
complet, crmiziu glbui. Ardere secundar. Smal
marmorat, maro i galben. Pstrat fragmentar,
reconstituit la restaurare. Decor: geometric, format prin
jocurile de smal.
19,5x20 cm, gr. 0,7 cm. picior: h. 5,5 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto GD
391. Cahl pentru colul sobei
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl de col cu terminaii triunghiulare, fragment.
Past de calitate medie, ardere complet, lucrat n tipar,
lutul presat cu lemn. Fondul cu smal alb verzui, relieful
cu smal albastru i galben. Pe spate urme de funingine.
Decor: vegetal-geometric. 14x12x0,71,2 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
392. Cahl pentru coronamentul sobei
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl pentru coronament decupat, fragment. Past de
calitate medie cu mult nisip, ardere complet, lucrat n
tipar, lutul presat cu lemn; pe avers urme de la tiparul din
lemn. Fondul a fost acoperit cu smal alb (cu reflexe
albastre), iar motivele decorative reliefate cu smal

72

albastru, galben i verde. Smalurile de calitate


excepional, strlucitoare, se pstreaz foarte bine. Spatele
cahlei a fost de asemenea smluit, o pelicul groas de
smal alb de cositor fiind aplicat direct peste past. Decor:
vegetal. 6,6x4x1,5 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
393. Cahl pentru coronament
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac n form de blazon. Past de calitate medie,
ardere oxidant complet, crmiziu glbui. Lutul
imprimat n tipar cu o spatul din lemn; lebedele au fost
modelate separat i aplicate pe suport nainte de uscarea
acestuia. Smaluri policrome aezate n strat subire (alb,
verde, galben, negru) pe un fond maroniu. Dou
exemplare reconstituite la restaurare.
Decor: stema principelui Gabriel Bethlen, dou lebede al
cror gt este strpuns de aceeai sgeat.
L 22. h. 23 cm, gr. 1,5 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto GD
394. Cahl pentru coronament
2003, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac decupat pe contur, form oval. Past de
calitate medie, ardere oxidant complet, crmiziu rocat.
Lutul presat n tipar cu o spatul din lemn. Smal galben,
alb i verde, parial pstrat. Decor: vegetal, slab reliefat.
8x7,5 cm, gr. 1,5 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AI
395. Cahl pentru coronament
2003, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac decupat pe contur, form oval. Past de
calitate medie, ardere oxidant complet, crmiziu rocat.

Lutul presat n tipar cu o spatul. Smal galben, alb i


verde, parial pstrat. Fragmente. Decor: vegetal.
7,5x7,5 cm, gr. 1 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto AM
396. Cahl pentru coronamentul sobei
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl de coronament cu o talp de sprijin. Past fin,
ardere complet, lucrat n tipar, lutul presat cu lemn.
Fondul decorat cu smal alb (crpat fin), relieful cu smal
albastru deschis. Decor: vegetal.
h. 10,3 cm; L.p. 22 cm; gr. 0,7-1 cm; picior 4,9x0,8 cm.
Sec. XVII.
DMI, foto GD
397. Cahle pentru soclu
2000-2008.
Cahle pentru soclu cu un picior perimetral, de nlimi
variabile, pentru fixare n corpul sobei. Past de calitate
medie, ardere oxidant, nuane din gama crmiziu.
Ardere secundar. Faa vizibil este acoperit cu smaluri
specifice habanilor, n culorile alb, albastru i verde, mai
rar galben maroniu. Decor: vegetal, pictat cu albastru (1,
2), geometric, pictat cu galben i maroniu (3). Frecvent
piese fr decor (4, 5).
5x3,5 cm (1); 2,5x6,5 cm (2); 7x9 cm (3); 4,5x3,5 cm (4); gr.
0,7 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto AI, AM
398. Cahl pentru soclu
2000-2008.
Cahl cu un picior perimetral, de nlimi variabile, pentru
fixare n corpul sobei. Past grosier, ardere oxidant,
nuane din gama crmiziu. Piesele se aflau n contact cu
focul, n majoritatea cazurilor pstreaz pe spate urme
consistente de funingine. Faa vizibil este acoperit cu

smal verde, galben maroniu sau pstreaz aspectul


ceramicii obinuite. Decor: faa vizibil este modelat cu
toruri i cavete. De regul nu poart alt decor.
13,5x11,5 cm, gr. 0,5/1 cm; hmax. picior 6,5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVIII.
DMI, foto AI, AM
399. Cahl de la colul sobei
2008, n interiorul palatului episcopal.
Cahl de col cu terminaii triunghiulare. Past fin, ardere
oxidant incomplet, crmiziu-glbui.
Decor: geometric.
7,5x6 cm, gr. 0,7 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVIII.
DMI, foto AM
400. Cahl pentru coronament
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Cahl plac decupat pe contur, partea inferioar de form
dreptunghiular iar partea superioar n form de inim.
Pe spate era prevzut cu o talp ngust cu ajutorul creia
era fixat n sob. Past fin, crmiziu glbui. Lutul
presat n tipar cu o spatul din lemn. Smal verde parial
pstrat. Reconstituit la restaurare. Decor: vegetal compus
din lalele i flori de crin.
L. 15,5 cm, gr. 0,8 cm. talpa: 2x1 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto GD
401. Cahl pentru colul sobei
2004, n apropierea palatului episcopal.
Cahl format din dou plci mbinate n unghi de 90,
prevzut pe spate cu un picior perimetral pentru fixare.
Past fin, AOC, crmiziu rocat. Smal verde de calitate
proast, parial exfoliat. Decor: vegetal, simetric dispus pe
cele dou plci. Muchia de contact este modelat n form
de balustru.
L. 8,5 cm, h 7,3 cm. L picior 7,3x1 cm.

73

Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto GD
402. Sob haban
Piesele componente ale sobei: cahle plci i cahle de col,
cu ram de prindere perimetral, piese de coronament de
dou tipuri i cornie. Past fin presat n tipar.
Decor: Faa vizibil a cahlelor plci este decorat cu motive
vegetale stilizate, ordonate simetric fa de dou axe
perpendiculare ntre ele. La cahlele de col s-a folosit
jumtatea decorului, iar faa teit prezint o rozet
stilizat, ncadrat de frunze. Colurile feei oblice sunt
deasemenea teite la 45. Piesele mari de coronament au
forma unui bulb de ceap aplatizat i sunt decorate cu un
vas cu flori stilizat, iar cele de dimensiuni mai mici,
prevzute cu talp i formate din vrejuri decupate,
constituiau o friz continu ce atrna peste cornia
superioar a sobei. Corniele sunt formate din toruri i
cavete, o parte din ele fiind decorate cu vrejuri, respectiv
un ir de astragalos stilizat.
Toate piesele sunt acoperite pe feele vizibile cu smal:
fondul este alb spre albastru deschis, fiind format dintr-un
smal pe baz de oxid de cobalt i de staniu, iar decoraiile
n relief ct i chenarele au culoare turqoise, avnd la baz
o proporie mai mare de oxid de cobalt. Una din piesele de
corni poart monograma meterului: C. R.
Plcile: 32x43 cm; piesele de coronament mari: l. 19 cm., h.
23 cm; piesele de coronament-friz: l. 22 cm., h. 10 cm;
corniele: l. 20,5 i 21,5 cm., h. 11 cm.
Avnd n vedere numrul mare de fragmente
recuperate i plcile ntregibile, a fost posibil
reconstrucia sobei. Aceasta avea arhitectura clasic a
sobelor renascentiste trzii, fiind format dintr-un soclu,
camera de ardere/nclzire, o corni superioar i un
coronament dublu i a fost realizat de meterii habani
stabilii la Vinul de Jos. Judecnd dup raportul dintre
proporiile i dimensiunile plcilor i ale cornielor, soba
avea doar o singur camer de combustie-nclzire. Plcile

74

folosite sunt dintre cele mai mari cunoscute n Transilvania


i ntregul Bazin Carpatic.
cca. 1666-1687.
TE (text, reconstrucie)
403. Ornament din ceramic, probabil de la o sob
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Pies n form de frunz de acant. Pasta semigrosier din
lut alb, bine omogenizat, compact. Ardere oxidant
complet la alb rocat. Pe ambele fee smal alb cu reflexe
albastre, crpat. 11x6x1 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto AI
404. Plci ceramice de Iznik
2000-2008, n interiorul i exteriorul palatului.
Past argiloas de culoare alb spre crem, cu adaos de frit
i cuar. Suprafaa pieselor este acoperit cu motive
vegetale, vopsite policrom, n verde, turqoise, albastru de
cobalt, i vermilion-maroniu, de nuana cerii roii de
sigiliu. Contururile decoraiilor sunt marcate cu o vopsea
neagr, pe baz de oxid de mangan. Plcile sunt acoperite
cu un smal de plumb transparent, de foarte bun calitate.
Decor: Fond alb sau albastru, ornamente vegetale compuse
din vrejuri, frunze de palmier, rozete, flori de iacint, lalele,
garoafe precum i palmete stilizate i cartuuri cu
arabescuri. Unele fragmente fac parte din plci cu rol de
chenar sau bordur, altele formeaz decoraii de tip tapet,
compuse din patru plci aezate simetric fa de un punct
central. Plcile au decorat pereii aa-numitei sli cu
teracot smluit a palatului princiar, care avea
funciunea de sal de audiene i se afla n aripa nordic a
palatului, la etaj, n vecintatea apartamentului principelui
i al principesei, n zona porii.
Dimensiuni: grosimea plcilor variaz ntre 1,3-1,5 cm.
Placa ptrat avea, conform reconstruciei grafice,
dimensiuni de 25x25 sau 26x26 cm.
1623-1624

TE (text, reconstrucie grafic)


405. Plci ceramice habane
2000-2008, n interiorul i exteriorul palatului.
Past fin, ars complet la rou crmiziu. Piesele sunt
acoperite cu un strat de angob din oxid de cobalt de
culoare alb spre albastru deschis, peste care s-au pictat
motive vegetale, policrome, cu oxizi metalici, n culorile
verde, albastru de cobalt, i brun-glbui. Contururile
decoraiilor sunt marcate cu o vopsea de culoare violet de
mangan. Plcile sunt acoperite cu un smal de plumb
transparent.
Decor: fond alb spre albastru deschis, ornamente vegetale
compuse din vrejuri, frunze de palmier, rozete, flori de
iacint, lalele, precum i palmete stilizate i cartuuri cu
arabescuri. Toate fragmentele aparin unor plci ce
formeaz decoraii de tip tapet, compuse din patru plci
aezate simetric fa de un punct central. Piesele au fost
destinate completrii sau nlocuirii cptuelii slii de
audien, afectat probabil cu ocazia distrugerii palatului
n 1658 de ctre trupele ttare.
Plcile aveau dimensiuni de 25x25 sau 26x26 cm, gr. 1,3-1,5
cm.
Cca 1666
TE (text, reconstrucie grafic), foto AI
406. Flacon.
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb verzuie cu exfoliaii albe. Corp cilindric, gt
scurt, marginea evazat, deschiderea asimetric. Fundul
concav, formeaz un con n interiorul vasului. ntreg. h. 8,5
cm, dg. 1,8 cm, df. 2,7 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
AI, foto GD
407. Flacona pentru parfum
2002, n apropierea palatului.

Sticl alb transparent cu irizaii. Corp paralelipipedic,


exteriorul lefuit octogonal. Decor: dou stelue dispuse
median. H. 4,4 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
AI, foto GD
408. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb cu reflexe cenuii, irizat. Gtul scurt n form
de plnie, marginea tras spre exterior este ngroat la
extremitate. Fragment. Dg 2,4 cm, gr. 0,3 cm.
Sec. XV-XVI.
DMI, foto AM
409. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb opac, puternic irizat, cu depuneri cenuii.
Gtul unui flacon cu inel decorativ, prevzut cu o toart.
Fragmente.
4,1x1,4, gr. 0,7 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto CS
410. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl maro opac. Gt subire cu buza sub form de
plnie. Corp bitronconic segmentat printr-un inel care
formeaz o bucl spre interiorul vasului. Gtul se arcuiete
elegant, este relativ nalt, iar marginea este de obicei
ngroat formnd un inel mai mult sau mai puin
proeminent n jurul deschiderii. n partea inferioar vasul
prezint o talp a crei margine se ntoarce n bucl, iar
fundul se dezvolt conic spre interior. Pereii sunt subiri,
de culoare maro sau alb cu diferite nuane.
Df. 45 mm. dg 24 mm, median 6,75 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI (text, reconstrucie grafic), foto CS

75

411. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl maro opac. Flacon de form dreptunghiular, cu
fundul rotunjit i concav, gt scurt. Fragmente din dou
exemplare.
Fundul ptrat 8x8 cm.
Sec. XVI
DMI, foto CS

DMI, foto AM

412. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl verzuie opac cu un nveli negricios. Flacon de
form dreptunghiular, gtul lung, elegant arcuit, uor
bombat. Marginea lipsete. Hp 13,5 cm, gr. 0,2 cm (gt).
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto CS

417. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl neagr mat. Gtul scurt, marginea subiat i
evazat, ntoars spre exterior. Fragment.
Dg. 3 cm, gr. 0,4 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto CS

413. Cup
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl de calitate bun, opac, verzuie cu reflexe aurii,
parial cu o depunere de culoare maro. Fragmente din
piciorul unei cupe cu decor aplicat. h. picior 8 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto CS

418. Flacon
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl semitransparent, uor verzuie. Gt cilindric,
marginea ngroat n form de inel, tras spre exteriorul
vasului. Fragment. Dg. 3,1 cm.
Sec. XVI.
AI, foto CS

414. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl de calitate bun, opac, verzuie cu reflexe aurii,
parial cu o depunere de culoare maro. Fragmente din
corpul unei cupe, cu decor aplicat. Hp. 5,5 cm.
Sec. XVI.
DMI, foto CS

419. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb irizat; gtul scurt, uor arcuit, marginea n
form de plnie cu buza simpl. Dg. 2,5 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto CS

415. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl maronie opac. Fund de flacon cu marginile
rotunjite, mijlocul concav. Fragment. Df. 5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.

76

416. Flacon
2008, n interiorul palatului.
Sticl neagr cu irizaii. Fragment de gt. Hp. 7 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS

419a. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb transparent, cu strat gros de exfoliaii irizate;
gtul scurt, uor arcuit, marginea cu un inel ngroat.
Dg. 3,1 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.

DMI, foto CS
420. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl transparent verde albstruie. Gt scurt, cioc de
scurgere, corpul probabil bombat. Fragment.
Dg. 2,8 cm, hp. 4,5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto CS
421. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl verzuie cu irizaii. Flacon cu gt scurt sub form de
plnie, marginea subiat, gura asimetric, aproape oval.
Fragment. Dg. 2,5 cm.
Sec XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto CS
422. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb verzuie. Corpul cilindric, umerii pronunai se
dezvolt oblic spre gt. Fundul concav are marginile
rotunjite i formeaz un con nalt n interiorul vasului.
Partea superioar lipsete. Hp. 5,5 cm, df. 2,5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
423. Butelie
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb transparent, irizaii albe. Gtul n form de
plnie, marginea rsfrnt n exterior, uor ngroat i
rotunjit. Deschiderea asimetric.
D. 4,6 cm, gr. perete 0,4 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
424. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.

Sticl alb irizat. Flacon cu corpul dreptunghiular, umeri


pronunai, gt lung n form de plnie; marginea subiat
este tras spre exterior formnd un guler n jurul
deschiderii. Fragment. Hp. 7,1 cm, dg. 2 cm. gr. 0,3 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AM, foto AM
425. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb irizat. Recipient cu corpul rotunjit, gt arcuit,
marginea tras spre exterior formnd un guler n jurul
deschiderii. Fragment.
Hp. 3,2 cm, dg. 1-8 cm. gr. 0,4 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto CS
426. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb translucid, irizat. Flacon cu gt scurt,
marginea evazat. Diam. 2,4 cm, hp. 3,5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto CS
427. Butelie
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb transparent cu irizaii albe. Gt cilindric,
marginea rsfrnt spre exterior i aplatizat.
Dg 4,3 cm. h. 6,3 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
428. Butelie
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb transparent, irizaii albe. Gt n form de
plnie, marginea rsfrnt n exterior, ngroat i
rotunjit. Fragment.
Hp. 6 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.

77

AI, foto CS
429. Pahar
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl verzuie aproape opac, irizat, pe sprturi s-a depus
o pelicul de materie alb. Corp ovoidal, gt scurt slab
pronunat, marginea evazat. Fragment. Dg. 5 cm, hp 5,3
cm, gr. 0,4 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto AM
430. Can
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb irizat; gtul scurt, marginea rotunjit tras spre
exterior i ntoars. Fragment.
Hp 5 cm, dg 10 cm; gr. 0,4 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
DMI, foto CS
431. Bol
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb cu irizaii; bol (?) sprijinit pe o talp profilat.
Fragment. Df. 5,9 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
432. Bol
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl verzuie cu depuneri albe la exterior. Vas aezat pe o
talp profilat, cu fundul conic spre interior. Fragment.
Df. 5 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVII.
AI, foto CS
433. Flacon
2001, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl verzuie transparent, de calitate destul de bun.
Fragment din partea superioar a unui flacon, cu mici

78

fragmente din gt. Buza lit mult n afar, inegal ca


lime i diametre. Dmax. 2,3 cm.
Sec. XVI-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
434. Vas din sticl
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb-verzuie de calitate bun, relativ transparent.
Vas cu pntec globular, gt nalt, marginea evazat.
Fundul cu marginile rotunjite spre exterior, mijlocul
concav formeaz un con n interiorul vasului.
Dg. 14,6 cm, df. 16,5 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto GD
435. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb translucid cu exfoliaii; recipient cu gt
tubular, uor ngustat spre capt. Marginea simpl.
Fragment.
Hp. 8 cm, dmin. 1,5 cm, dmax. 1,85 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
436. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb verzuie transparent. Fragment din partea
superioar a unui flacon cu corp ptrat, gt cilindric,
marginea uor ngroat. Dg. 2 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
437. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb verzuie, opac. cu irizaii puternice. Fund
concav, n exterior cu litere imprimate (D, S, O, C?).
Fragment.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.

AI, foto CS
438. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl. transparent alb cu exfoliaii. Corp cilindric, gt
nalt, marginea lit formeaz un guler n jurul
deschiderii.
H. 4,8 cm, df. 2,8 cm, dg. 2,4 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto GD
439. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb verzuie. Flacon cu gt scurt cilindric, marginea
lit. Fragment. Dg. 32 mm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
440. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb verzuie. Flacon cu gt scurt cilindric, marginea
lit. Fragment. Dg. 2,5 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
441. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb verzuie. Flacon cu gt scurt cilindric, marginea
lit. Fragment. Dg. 2,65 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
442. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb cu irizaii. Fragment de fund. Df. 2,8 cm, gr. 0,4
cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS

443. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb cu irizaii. Flacon cu gt n form de plnie,
marginea lit tras spre exterior. Fragment. Dg. 3,2 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
444. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb verzuie. Fragment de flacon cu gt nalt, ngustat
spre deschidere; marginea ngroat formeaz un mic inel
n jurul gurii. Dg. 3,1 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
445. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl verzuie. Flacon cu corp cilindric, mijlocul fundului
este puin bombat iar partea de jos a pereilor este evazat.
Fragment. Hp. 6 cm, df. 5 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
446. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb glbuie translucid, irizat. Partea inferioar a
unui flacon cilindric cu fundul rotunjit, asemntor unei
eprubete.
Hp. 15 cm, d. 2 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto GD
447. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb cu reflexe roietice, irizat. Flacon cu gt nalt,
marginea subliniat printr-un inel. Dg. 2,8 cm, hp. 11 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.

79

AI, foto GD
448. Flacon
2002, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb verzuie translucid, irizat. Partea inferioar a
unui flacon cilindric cu fundul rotunjit, asemntor unei
eprubete.
Hp. 18 cm, d. 2 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
AI, foto GD
449. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului
Sticl verzuie semitransparent. Corpul bombat, gtul
scurt, marginea evazat. Hp. 4,5 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto CS
450. Flacon
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl maro opac, de calitate proast, cu depuneri albe la
exterior. Fragment de gt. D. 2,4 cm, gr. 0,1 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto CS
451. Flacon
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl verzuie, translucid, irizat. Fragment.
Dg. 2,5 cm; hp. 6,3 cm; gr. 0,2-0,4 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto CS
452. Flacon
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb transparent, irizat. Fragment din partea
superioar. Dg. 2,5 cm; gr. 0,2 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto CS

80

453. Capac
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl transparent alb. Capac n form de clopot, cu
mner scurt, cilindric, pentru manevrare. Decor format din
cteva linii slab reliefate. Fragment.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto GD
454. Can
2008, n interiorul palatului.
Sticl alb transparent.
Fragment de fund, form
aproximativ oval; modelat n relief, decor realizat cu
cletele, prin prindere din loc n loc, la cald. 5,2x5,7 cm, gr.
1,2 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto CS
455. Can
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb verzuie transparent. Fund de vas modelat n
relief, decor realizat cu cletele, prin prindere din loc n loc,
la cald. Fragment. D. 8 cm, gr. 0,3/2 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto AM
456. Can
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb irizat. Can cu gt scurt, puternic arcuit,
marginea ntoars spre exterior i rotunjit formeaz un
guler n jurul deschiderii. Fragment.
Dg. 10-11 cm, Hp 7,2 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto CS
457. Can
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb-verzuie irizat; gt cilindric nalt, marginea
rotunjit i tras spre exterior. Fragmente.

Dg. 7 cm, Hp 5,5 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.


Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto CS

Sticl alb transparent. 3,5x2,3 cm.


Sec. XVIII-XIX.
DMI, foto CS

458. Flacon
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb, irizaii argintii, n interior este depus o materie
alb. Partea superioar a unei butelii cu corp
dreptunghiular. Gt scurt, uor evazat, marginea lit.
Hp 2,7 cm, gr. 0,3 cm.
Sec. XVIII-XIX.
DMI, foto CS

463. Ochi de fereastr


2000-2008.
Sticl alb (deseori cu nuane galbene sau verzi) de calitate
bun, semitransparent, uneori cu depuneri albe sau negre
pe suprafa. Pies n form de triunghi isoscel, cu laturile
arcuite spre interior. marginile formate cu un cletior.
Latura 3-5 cm.
Sec. XV-XVIII.
AI, foto CS, GD

459. Butelie
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl verzuie semitransparent cu reflexe albastre,
depunere albicioas mat. Recipient cu gt lung, drept,
marginea subliniat printr-un inel. Fragment. Lp 9,2 cm,
gr. 0,4 cm.
Sec. XVIII-XIX.
DMI, foto AM
460. Butelie
2004, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb irizat. Recipient cu gtul lung, marginea
subliniat printr-un inel. Fragment. Hp. 11 cm, dg. 2,7 cm.
Sec. XVIII-XIX.
DMI, foto CS
461. Can
2007, n apropierea palatului.
Sticl alb, transparent, irizat. Fragment.
Dg. 8 cm; gr. 0,1 cm.
Sec. XVII-XVIII.
DMI, foto CS
462. Dop
2004, n apropierea palatului.

464. Ochi de fereastr


2000-2008.
Sticl maronie, opac. Pies n form de triunghi isoscel, cu
laturile arcuite spre interior. marginile formate cu un
cletior.
Latura 3-5 cm.
Sec. XV-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
465. Ochi de fereastr
2000-2008.
Sticl alb (deseori cu nuane galbene sau verzi) de calitate
bun, semitransparent, uneori cu depuneri albe sau negre
pe suprafa. Form circular cu marginea simpl sau
ntoars, uneori formnd o bucl.
Diam. 9-10 cm, gr. 0,15-0,3 cm.
Sec. XV-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
466. Ochi de fereastr
2000-2008.
Sticl maronie, opac. Form circular cu marginea simpl
sau ntoars. Fragmente.
D. mediu. 9-10 cm, gr. 0,15-0,4 cm.

81

Sec. XV-XVIII.
AI, foto CS
467. Ungaria, Koloman (1095-1116), Dinar.
0,27 g, 12 mm.
468. Ungaria, Bla III (1172-1196), moneda de bronz
(follis).
2,90 g, 27 mm.
469. Ungaria, dinar arpadian anonim, secolul XII.
0,19 g, 13 mm.
470. Ungaria, Bela IV (1235-1270), dinar.
0,31 g, 13 mm.
471. Ungaria, sfritul sec. XIII-nceputul sec. XIV, dinar.
0,27 g, 11 mm.
472. Ungaria, Carol Robert (1308-1342), parvus.
0,20 g, 12 mm.
473. Ungaria, Ludovic I (1342-1382), dinar cu cap de
maur.
0,23 g, 11x13 mm.
474. Imperiul Romano-German, Ungaria, Ferdinand de
Habsburg, dinar.
0,42 g, 14x16 mm.
475. Imperiul Romano-German, Ungaria, Leopold (16571705), 3 kreuzer.
1,83 g, 20 mm.
476. Imperiul Romano-German, Friedrich der Schne
(1314-1330, ca rege), pfennig, Viena.
0,38 g, 13 mm.

82

477. Patriarhatul de Aquileea, Anthonius II di Panciera


(1401-1411), dinar.
0,40 g, 18 mm.
478. ara Romneasc, Dan I (1383-1386), ban.
0,20 g, 9x13 mm.
479. Imperiul Otoman, Bayezid II (1481-1512), aspru.
0, 55 g, 11 mm.
480. Polonia, Sigismund III Wasa (1587-1632), 3 groi.
0,84 g, 19 mm.
481. Polonia, Ioan Cazimir (1649-1668) 6 groi.
0,88 g, 14x16 mm.
482. Principatul de Liegnitz-Brieg, Christian (1663-1672),
greschl.
0,48 g, 16 mm.
483. Tezaurul monetar
descoperit n campania arheologic a anului 2007.
Depozitul are n componen un numr de 37 de dinari,
din argint sau din bronz argintat, emii n timpul domniei
regilor Ungariei, Albert (1437-1439) i Vladislav I (14401444).
(Pentru monede: MD, text i fotografii)

83

84

85

TARTALOM
BEVEZET .......................................................................... 87
A GYULAFEHRVRI VR RVID ISMERTETSE ..... 88
A RGSZETI KUTATSOKRL ..................................... 90
PNZRMEK ...................................................................... 93
A LELETEK RESTAURLSA ......................................... 96
A KATALGUS FELPTSE ........................................... 99
LELETKATALGUS ........................................................ 100

86

BEVEZET
A rgszet satsok sorn feltrt leletek beszdes trgyi
bizonytkai annak a mltnak, amelyet a trtnettudomny egyik
segdtudomnya, a rgszet segtsgvel igyeksznk
rekonstrulni.
Rgszeti sats tbbfle lehet, s a vletlen gyakran fontosabb
szerepet jtszik benne, mintsem gondolnnk. Vannak szegnyes
eredmnyekkel
zrul
satsok,
m
a
szakszer
kvetkeztetseknek mindig a rtegek, esetleg a romok
vizsglatbl kell kiindulniuk. Vannak persze leletanyagban igen
gazdag satsok is, amelyek lehetv teszik olyan trgyak
feltrst, amelyek komoly segtsget nyjthatnak a jelensgek
rtelmezsben, egyszersmind rtkes rksget kpeznek a jv
nemzedkek szmra.
A gyulafehrvri vr dlnyugati szegletben vgzett
satsok hromszorosan is a szerencss kimenetel satsok kz
tartoznak. Nagy szerencse volt mindenekeltt az, hogy a
rgszek olyan pletek kzelbe juthattak ha bizonyos
korltozsok rn is , amelyek trtneti, mvszeti vagy
ptszeti jelentsge hossz vszzadokon t, rintetlenl
megrzdtt. Nagy szerencse volt tovbb, hogy ilyen kis feltrt
terletrl oly sok lelet: pnzek, dszek, fegyverek, ednyek,
klyhacsempk vagy dsztlapok kerltek el, s hogy ezek
jelentsge messze meghaladja mreteiket. Ms trgyak viszont
tlsgosan is szugesztvek ahhoz, hogy szakrti magyarzat
nlkl is ne kzvettenk felnk az ltaluk hordozott zenetet. A
legtbb lelet tredkes, keveset lehet eredeti llapotnak
megfelelen helyrelltani. sszesgkben azonban ezek a
trgyak szavak nlkl is Gyulafehrvr kt vezredes
trtnetrl, a Rmai Katolikus rseksghez tartoz pletek
ezerves mltjrl beszlnek.
Vgl, de nem utols sorban igen nagy szerencse, hogy
kutatsaink eredmnyeit a Gyulafehrvri Rmai Katolikus
rseksg alaptsnak ezredik vforduljn, nnepi keretek kztt
mutathatjuk be a kznsgnek. A killts gy prblja felvzolni
ennek az ezredvnek a trtnett, hogy azokat a trgyakat mutatja

meg, amelyeket ehhez az intzmnyhez valamilyen formban


szemlyesen ktd emberek hasznltak, helyeztek el a srokban,
vesztettek el, rejtettek el vagy egyszeren csak elhagytak. Klnkln minden egyes lelet jabb lpcsfokot jelent az elmlt korok
rekonstrulsban, mikzben mgis az az rzsnk, hogy mg
mindig nem tudunk rlunk eleget.
Most, hogy az satsok megkezdse ta eltelt tzves
idszak vgre jutottunk, s idkzben szm szerint ugyanennyi
leletment s ellenrz satsi idnyt szerveztnk, valahogy
kzenfekvnek tnik, hogy eredmnyeink bemutatsra killtst
rendezznk. Erre vonatkoz javaslatunkat kvetkezetesen s
klns rdekldst mutatva karolta fel a Gyulafehrvri Rmai
Katolikus rseksg, noha tet al hozsa a vrtnl bonyolultabb
feladatnak bizonyult. Ezton is ksznm nagymltsg
Jakubinyi Gyrgy rsek rnak jelen krlmnyek kztt
szmomra nyjtott, megtisztel bizalmt. Ugyanakkor Szsz
Jnos igazgat r segtsge a feladat megoldsa folyamn
mindvgig fontos erklcsi tmaszt jelentett.
Msrszt a killts terve nem valsulhatott volna meg a
Nemzeti Egyesls Mzeumnak kitart tmogatsa s
hozzllsa nlkl, s a killts hzigazdja is a Mzeum lesz
2009 nyri hnapjaiban. Kln ksznet illeti ezrt a Mzeum
vezetsgt, a restaurl laboratrium hozzrt munkatrsait,
valamennyi kollgnkat, akik mindig megtalltk a mdjt, hogy
tmogassanak bennnket.
Az anyag kivlogatsa s feldolgozsa, a leletek
konzervlsa s helyrelltsa, a fnykpek elksztse s
kivitelezse, a katalgus megszerkesztse s a killts
megszervezse tbb szakember kitart kzs munkjnak az
eredmnye, noha a rendelkezsnkre ll id meglehetsen szkre
szabott volt. A kiadvny elksztst nagy odaadssal tmogattk
Anca Mati, Clin uteu, Delia Maria Roman, Gl Andrea s Teleki
Gbor, akiknek a szerkeszt kln ksznetet mond.
Ksznetet mondok mindazoknak, akik munkjukkal
hozzjrultak a knyv elksztshez, kifejezve remnyemet,
hogy erfesztseink nem csupn a magunk szmra jrtak
haszonnal, hanem azok szmra is, akikhez szlunk.
Daniela Marcu Istrate

87

A GYULAFEHRVRI VR RVID
ISMERTETSE
Gyulafehrvrhoz olyan pratlan anyagi s
szellemi rtkek kapcsoldnak, amelyek mgikus
hangzsv teszik nevt trtnetrsunkban. Lakott
teleplsknt val hihetetlen folytonossga, mely a rmai
kortl napjainkig kzenfekv evidencia maradt, az, hogy a
rmai castrumot 1700 krlig jra s jra felhasznltk,
nemklnben az a tny, hogy ismtelten egy vltoz
fldrajzi hatrok kzt elhelyezked trsg hatalmi
kzpontja volt, a maga nemben egyedlll satsi
sznhelly teszi. A rgi legjelentsebb trtnelmi
mozzanatai Gyulafehrvrhoz fzdnek, vagy legalbbis
krltte gravitlnak: egy idben a rmai provincia
legfontosabb teleplse volt, egy helyi llamalakulat
kzpontja s taln az erdlyi vajdasg szkhelye is,
stratgiai szerepet jtszott a Magyar Kirlysg trsgbeli
terjeszkedsben, az erdlyi katolikus pspksg, majd az
Erdlyi Fejedelemsg szkhelye, vgl pedig a
Habsburgok egyik legfontosabb katonai kzpontja lett
hogy csak a modern kor hajnalig idzzk fel a telepls
trtnetnek cscspontjait.
Magnak a vrnak a kezdetei a rmai korba
nylnak vissza, amikor a Maros magas teraszn, egy
zsenilisan kivlasztott helyen hozzlttak a XIII. Gemina
lgi castrumnak felptshez, amely ksbb a
legfontosabb rmai erd lett Dciban.
Miutn a rmaiak feladtk a provinct, az let
tovbb folyt mind az erdtmnyen bell, mind falain
kvl, errl elegend bizonytkkal szolglnak a
posztrmai kortl a IX. szzadig terjed idszakbl
szrmaz pletek romjai. VIIIIX. szzadi teleplsnyomok a vr terletn is napvilgra kerltek, de a feltrt
srok is azt bizonytjk, hogy a telepls srn lakott volt,
a lakossg zme pedig mr a IX. szzadtl keresztny.

88

Az a tny, hogy nagy forgalm, stratgiai helyen


fekdt, ahol mg llt a tekintlyt parancsol fehr vr, s
a vrost hagyomnyosan hatalmi kzpontnak tekintettk,
de ms szmukra nem egszen tlthat okok is a Magyar
Kirlysgot arra ksztettk, hogy Gyulafehrvrt terleti
terjeszkedse s a feudlis llam megszervezse rdekben
fontos tmpontjv tegye. Ide sszpontostottk a
legfontosabb llami s egyhzi intzmnyeket: itt volt az
erdlyi pspksg, a legnagyobb kirlyi vrmegye s
minden valsznleg szerint az els vajdk szkhelye is.
A pspksg alaptst (1009) Szent Istvnnak
tulajdontjk, az els pspk, Simon nevt azonban csak
1111-ben emltik a forrsok. A pspksghez tartoz els
pletek keletkezsi ideje sokat vitatott krds, amelyet
illeten a szakirodalom mig sem tudott kzs nevezre
jutni. gy tnik, az els istenhza egy kis teremtemplom
volt, melyet a XI. szzadban ptettek a jelenlegi
szkesegyhz eltti platn. A kvetkez vszzadban mr
mkdtt a romn kori szkesegyhz, amelynek a dli
oldaln rotonda-keresztelkpolna llt, 1200 eltt pedig
elkezddtt a jelenlegi szkesegyhz ptse, s vele
prhuzamosan fejldtt a tbbi plet, a pspki palota s
a hozz tartoz mellkpletek, melyek egyttesen
lehetv tettk ennek a nagy fontossg intzmnynek a
mkdst.
A vrrl elszr egy 1206-ban kelt okiratban esik
emlts, de hogy az adott idszakban mit rtettek a vron,
egyelre nyitott krds maradt. Az, hogy a XIII. szzad
derekn nem valamilyen ers vr llott itt, abbl is kitnik,
hogy a tatroknak nem okozott gondot a bevtele, s
katasztroflis puszttst vgeztek benne.
A kutatk egyetrtenek abban, hogy a kzpkori
vr kzvetlenl rplt a rmai castrumra, s klnbz
arnyban lefedte azt. Nagyon valsznnek ltszik, hogy a
kzpkori telepls, a castrum dlnyugati szegletben,
viszonylag kis terleten alakult ki, ez ugyanis knnyebben
vdhet volt. 1349-ben a gyulafehrvri fent nevezett
templom vrrl szolnak a forrsok, ami szintn a

szkesegyhz s a pspki palota krli szkebb krzetet


sugallja. A XV. szzad kzepn a forrsok tansga
szerint Gyulafehrvr vrt falakkal s sncokkal vettk
krl, 1461-ben pedig a keleti s vele szemben, a nyugati
oldalon lv kt kaput emltik, vagyis a prpost kapujnak
nevezett Szent Gyrgy-kaput s a pspk kapujnak
mondott Szent Mihly-kaput, ami azt mutatja, hogy a vr
szak fele terjeszkedett, de hogy meddig, azt nem tudjuk
pontosan megmondani. A XVI.
szzad kzeptl
Gyulafehrvr termszetszerleg az Erdlyi Fejedelemsg
szkvrosa lett, s a szekularizci nyomn a pspksg
tulajdonai a fejedelem birtokba kerltek. Ezt kveten a
vrra vonatkoz fljegyzsek jelents mrtkben
megszaporodtak, a vrat szmos forrs emlti, s tbb
zben elksztettk alaprajzt is. Utbbiak klnsen
fontos forrsai a vr XVIIXVIII. szzadi trtnetnek,
elssorban Luigi Fernando Marsigli (1687), Giovanni
Morando Visconti (1711) s Conrad Ferdinand Weiss
(1736) alaprajzai s tervrajzai.
A fejedelemsg korban nagyszabs terv
irnyozta el fldbl emelt gyllsok s egy tszglet
bstya felptst a dlnyugati sarokban, m a munklatok
ppen csak elindultak a dli oldalon. Mihly vajda
idejn,16001603 kztt a vr tbb helyen is slyos krokat
szenvedett, s Bethlen Gbor uralkodsig romos maradt,
viszont fejedelemsge kezdeteitl nagy gondot fordtott
a vr jjptsre s megerstsre. Leglenygzbb
mve azonban a pspki palota tptse, melynek sorn a
kelet fel kibvtett pletet monumentlis fejedelmi
palotv alaktottk t. A munklatokat utdai is
folytattk, s ennek ksznheten a XVI. szzad els fele a
vr s mindenekeltt a bennnket rdekl pletek
fejldsnek legszmottevbb idszaka lett. Ez a ragyog
idszak azonban sajnos csak rvid ideig tartott, az 1658-as
trk tmads slyosan rintette a vrat s az pleteket,
amiknt az 1661-es s 1662-es dlsok is. Az esemnyekrl
beszmol trtnetrkra mly benyomst gyakorolt a
rvid id alatt vgbement pusztuls, melynek nyomn a

vr romokban hevert, nem is nyerte vissza soha rgi


fnyt, gyhogy Apafi Mihly fejedelem t is kltztt
Fogarasra.
A vr XVII. szzad vgi llapott az 1687-es
felmrsi rajz nyomn rekonstrulhatjuk. A ngyszg
alaprajz j erd ktsgkvl a rmai castrumra plt r,
s annak egyes tornyait is magban foglalta. A dli oldalon
a Bethlen-idszakban plt kt bstyt talljuk, az szaki
oldalra pedig kt, tglalap alaprajz torony van berajzolva.
gy nzett ki a vr, amikor 1687-ben, nem sokkal a
Vauban-erdrendszer ptsnek megkezdse eltt, a
balzsfalvi szerzdsnek megfelelen az osztrk
hadseregnek tadtk.
A Vauban-erdtmny ptsi terveit 1714-ben
hagytk jv, magt az ptst 1715. november 4-n
kezdtk el Steinville tbornak jelenltben. A korbbi
vdelmi berendezsekbl mindssze a dli vrfal maradt a
Vauban-rendszerbe val beilleszts sorn nmileg
mdostott kt bstyval, a nyugati vrfalbl pedig csak
azok a falrszletek, amelyek egybeesnek az rseki palota
falaival. Az rseksgi pletegyttest magban foglal
dlnyugati szeglet, a jelenlegi szkesegyhz s az rseksgi
palota szmottev mdostsok nlkl vszelte t az
ptkezs idszakt, s maradt meg mindmig a vr
legkesebb dsznek.
Daniela Marcu Istrate

89

A RGSZETI KUTATSOKRL
A Gyulafehrvri Rmai Katolikus rseksghez
tartoz pletek 20002008 kztt vgzett helyrelltsi
munklatai egy rgszekbl ll csapat rszvtelvel
folytak, ez a csapat gondoskodott a vr dlnyugati
szegletben feltrt rgszeti leletek vdelmrl, kutatsrl
s kezelsrl. Nem szisztematikus, meghatrozott
tudomnyos clokat kitz, szablyos satsokrl volt sz,
hanem csupn a trtneti memlkek krl vgzett
munklatokkor szoksos minimlis vizsglatokrl. A
kutatsi program mindig a tbbi munklattl fggtt, a
helyrellts prioritsaitl, berendezsek, hlzatok
talaktstl,
illetve
a
szkesegyhz
krli
terletrendezsektl. A fldfelszn alatti beavatkozsokat
rendszerint megelztk a rgszeti vizsglatok, az egyes
munkafzisok pedig leggyakrabban rgszek felgyelete
alatt folytak egszen a befejezsig.
A kutatmunka 2000-ben indult, f satsi
helynk ebben az vben a szkesegyhz szaknyugati
tornynak a belsejben volt, de a sekrestye dli oldaln s
a palota szkesegyhz felli homlokzata mentn is stunk
nhny kutatrkot. A 2001. vi satsi idny kt
szakaszban zajlott, s az sats ekkor is nagyjbl
ugyanarra a kt szektorra sszpontosult: a sekrestyre s
az rseki palota szaki homlokzatra. 2002-ben
nagyszabs fldmunkk folytak a palota szaki
homlokzatnak elterben az alagcs lefektetse s az
esvz-elvezet csatornahlzat tptsekor. Ez az satsi
idny klnsen fontosnak bizonyult: mivel a fldmunkk
sorn nagyobb felleteket bolygattak meg, a rgszek
egsz sor olyan informci birtokba jutottak, amelyek
alapjn elkszthettk a lelhely rtegszerkezeti mtrixt.
2003-ban a barokk sekrestye krl dolgoztunk, ekkor
ugyanis alfalazssal erstettk meg az plet alapozst,
2004-ben pedig feltrsokkal fejeztk be a sekrestye
kutatst. Ugyanebben az vben vgeztk el els

90

prbasatsunkat a Lszai-kpolna belsejben, s nhny


tovbbi feltrsra is sor kerlt az rseki palota dli oldaln,
a palota kertjben.
A 2007. vben jabb kedvez felttelek
teremtdtek a rgszeti kutats folytatshoz: a fcsatorna
tptse miatt nagymret fldmunkkat vgeztek a
szkesegyhz krl, valamint a szkesegyhz s a palota
kztti terleten. Az ptk ltal a rgi csatornzs
nyomvonaln vgzett kotrsokat vgig rgszek
felgyeltk, s mivel rgi falmaradvnyok bukkantak el,
az sst valamennyivel kinnebb terjesztettk, hogy a
falmaradvnyt pontosan felmrhessk s regisztrlhassuk.
Az j nyomvonalak, illetve a fejedelmi palothoz
(laktanyhoz) vezet csatlakozsok rkainak kisatst is
leletment kutatsok elztk meg. A 2008. vi satsok az
rseki palota belsejre korltozdtak, az plet legrgibb, a
pspksg
alaptshoz
visszavezethet
szrnyait
vizsgltuk.
Egybevetve: A rgszeti kutatsok jraindulsa
ta eltelt tz v alatt az satsok az rseksghez tartoz
pletek vdelmnek rdekben szigoran krlhatrolt
kis terletrszeken folytak. Noha ezek lelhely sszest
alaprajzn alig szreveheten jelennek meg, az
eredmnyek jelentsek: pletmaradvnyok, romok, srok,
rtegek, egyb objektumok s trgyak kerltek el a fld
all, fnyt vetve a gyulafehrvri vr dlnyugati szeglete
trtnetnek eddig kevsb vagy egyltaln nem ismert
mozzanataira, a rmai kortl a XVII. szzad hajnalig. gy
tnik, ezt a terletrszt a mindenkori ptk is elnyben
rszestettk, emiatt szmos struktra egymsra plt,
egymst vltja, gyhogy gyakran nagyon nehz az egyes
korszakokat klnvlasztani. A legfontosabb informci
ktsgkvl a Rmai Katolikus rseksghez tartoz
pletekre vonatkoznak. A rmai korbl a castrum
nyugati oldalnak egy rszlett trtuk fel, s
megllaptottuk, hogy a falat itt egy enyhn kiugr
kzbls toronnyal erstettk meg. Megllaptottuk
tovbb, hogy a kertfal legalbb a XIV. szzadig rsze

volt a vdelmi rendszernek, ekkor a vrfalakat kinnebb


toltk. A castrum dlnyugati szeglete beplt a pspki
palotban: alapul hasznltk, s erre rptettk a palota
kls falait. A castrumon bell tbb rmai pletnyomait
azonostottuk, alaprajzuk pontos meghatrozsa azonban
elkvetkez kutatsokra vr.
A npvndorls kort nhny VVI. szzadi
fmtrgy s kermiatredk kpviseli. Egy vveret, amely
kt, egymssal szembeszegl madarat brzol, a VI.
szzad vgrl, a VII. szzad elejrl szrmazik. A kora
kzpkor idszakbl (IXX. szzad) nhny agyagpadls
lakhz nyomait fedeztk fel, tovbb egy kvekbl
ptett fzkemenct talltunk a hozz tartoz
ftgdrrel, illetve kzzel formzott vagy lass korongon
ksztett kermiatredket. 2005-ben egy srt trtunk fel
ldozati
llatmaradvnyokkal
(ls
szarvasmarhacsontokkal), melynek kzelben vastrgy
tredkeket s egy a Duntl dlre fekv terletek
kultrjra jellemz, a IXX. szzadra keltezhet, flhold
alak flbevalt talltunk.
A kvetkez szint a kzpkori habarcsos
ptkezsekhez kapcsoldik, a jelenlegi szkesegyhz
belsejbe foglalt bazilika romjairl van sz. A bazilika
ptst a XII. szzad vgn kezdtk el, s amint j kelet
tanulmnyok sugalljk, az pts a kvetkez szzadra is
tterjedt. A Szent Mihly-szkesegyhz planimetrijt a
legrgibb idktl pontosan ismerjk, s kizrtnak tartjuk,
hogy az jabb kutatsok ebben a tekintetben jelentsebb
eltrseket
tudnnk
kimutatni.
Mindazonltal a
templomplet dli oldaln lv, a XIII. szzad vgefel
emelt gtikus sekrestyt csupn most sikerlt feltrni. A
sekrestye minden bizonnyal ktszintes volt, dli sarkait
pedig ferdn hozzptett falpillrek tmasztottk. A
fldszinti helyisget cscsves keresztboltozat fedte,
amelynek a nyomai tisztn kivehetek a romn kori
falakon.
Az satsok sorn napvilgra kerl tovbbi j
adatok az szaknyugati toronyra, a gtikus szentlyre s a

barokk sekrestyre vonatkoznak: az pts mdjnak


rszleteire vilgtanak r, arra hogy milyen mdostsokon
mentek keresztl, s mikppen alakult a jrszint s a
padlzat szintje. Ugyanakkor fny derlt a templomalapok
szellztet rendszerre, amelyet a XX. szzad eleji
restaurls alkalmval ptettek ki. A feltrt 190 sr tbb
kronolgiai rtegszinthez tartozik, amint ezt a
szkesegyhz krl, elssorban a nyugati oldalon s a
barokk sekrestye kzelben vizsglt, egymsra helyezett
vagy egymst metsz srok is bizonytjk. Elemezve a
srok vertiklis egymsutnisgt, illetve a rtegekhez s
az ptmnyekhez val viszonyt, t idrendi szintet
sikerlt egymstl elklntennk, melyek a XI. szzad
msodik fele s az jkor kztti idintervallumba
illeszkednek. A legrgibb srok, amelyekben ritulis
srmellkleteket s ldozati llatmaradvnyokat talltunk,
a IXX. szzadra keltezhetek, s egy a Duntl dlre es
terletrl Gyulafehrvrra szrmazott npesg tisztzatlan
jelenltvel fggnek ssze.
A legtbb sr azonban az els szkesegyhz
temetjhez tartozik, amelyet a srokban tallt, a
halottakhoz
kzvetlenl
kapcsold
mellkletek:
egyesvel, kettesvel vagy hrmasval elhelyezett. S vg
hajkarikk, egyszer flbevalk, gyrk, karktk,
veretek, gyngyk, vveretek s ritkbban pnzrmk
alapjn a XI. szzad vgre, a XII. szzad elejre
korszakolhatunk.
A harmadik szinten a tgla- vagy kszarkofgos,
fejflks srokat talljuk, amelyek a XII. szzad vgrl, a
XIII. szzad elejrl valk. Ezek Nyugatrl jtt,
valsznleg a jelenlegi szkesegyhz ptshez idehozott
mesteremberek srjai. A tbbi srt az 1700-ig terjed
hosszabb idszakba tagolhatjuk be.
A pspki/ fejedelmi palota elnevezs mgtt egy
nagyobb pletegyttes rejtzik, amelynek a mltjrl
nagyon keveset tudtunk, az rott forrsok ugyanis csak
ritkn s a rszletek mellzsvel tesznek rla emltst,
kzvetlen vizsglatra pedig csak nagyon kevs esetben

91

kerlt sor. Az utbbi vekben folytatott rgszeti satsok


elssorban az szaki szrny eltti terletrl kzeltettk
meg a palott, rvidebb szakaszokon, az gy szerzett
informcik
azonban
rendkvl
fontosak
az
pletegyttes-trtnet szempontjbl. Itt most csupn azt
emeljk ki, hogy az szaki szrny struktrjban ngy
nll, a XII. szzad vgtl a XX. szzadig terjed
klnbz idszakokban ptett rszt klntettnk el. Az
egyttes legfontosabb rsze a gtikus palota, amelynek
ptst a XIV. szzad msodik felre tehetjk. Ksbb ezt
az pletet tbb mellkplettel (kttal, latrinval,
lpcsfeljrknt szolgl kerek toronnyal) egsztettk ki,
nyugat fel pedig egszen a rmai kertfalig kibvtettk,
amelyet a kzpkori s rszben az jkori vrptsekkor is
hasznostottak.
Az satsok sorn nagy mennyisg trgylelet
kerlt napvilgra, elssorban edny- s csempetredkek,
de fmekbl, csontbl, vegbl ksztett trgyak is,
valamint hromszznl tbb pnzrme, a rmai kortl a
XX. szzadig terjed valamennyi idszakbl. Az
pletmaradvnyok zme a kzpkorbl s az jkorbl
szrmazik, s a rmai katolikus pspksg alaptsa utni
idk
maximlis
pletsrsgt
illusztrlja.
A
szkesegyhz kzvetlen kzelbl srmellkletek trgyai, a
sekrestybl pedig nhny kegytrgy kerlt el. Igen sok
trgy vagy eszkz a pspki palota ilyen trgyakkal val
elltottsgt,
illetve
azoknak
az
embereknek
mindennapjait tkrzi, akik a palota mkdsrl
gondoskodtak.
Daniela Marcu Istrate

92

PNZRMEK
Gyulafehrvron,
a
rmai
katolikus
szkesegyhznl s az rseki palotnl folytatott rgszeti
feltrsok sorn tallt pnzrmk rvilgtanak arra a
jelents szerepre, amelyet a vros kezdettl fogva jtszott
Magyarorszg trtnetben; ezt fejezi ki az a tny is, hogy
a feltrt pnzek legnagyobb hnyada magyar veret. A
nagyszm, kzel 300 rme, amelyekhez a tbbnyire
kisebb darabszm eddigi pnzleletek is csatlakoznak,
arrl a lenygz volumen munkrl tesz bizonysgot,
amelyet az egymst kvet satsok sora megkvnt.
A rmai pnzrmk mellett a kzpkori rtegekbl
szrmaz pnzek j informcikkal gazdagtjk a trtneti
forrsokra, de az satsi eredmnyekre csakgy
tmaszkod eddigi ismereteink trt: fontossguk egyebek
kztt abban ll, hogy tmpontokat nyjtanak a vizsglt
pletek egyes ptsi szakaszainak, de a szkesegyhz
krl mr a legrgibb idben kialakult temet
korszakolsban is.
A legrgebbi kzpkori pnzrmk a XII. szzad
folyamn uralkod magyar kirlyok, Klmn (10951116),
II. Bla (11311141), II. Gza (11411162) s III. Bla (1172
1196) pnzei. Ezekhez hozzadhatunk tovbb egy sor XII.
szzadi anepigrf pnzrmt, br ezek nem tartalmaznak
olyan feliratot, amelybl pontosan meg lehetne llaptani,
hogy a szban forg idszak melyik uralkodja verette.
A korszak pnzei kzl kiemelnk kt
numizmatikai ritkasgot. Az egyik egy rzpnz (follis) III.
Bla (11721196) idejbl. Ez az rmefajta egyedlll a
magyar numizmatikban, kibocstshoz ugyanis a
biznci bronzrmk szolgltak modelll. A Biznci
Csszrsg s a Magyar Kirlysg korabeli kapcsolatai jl
ismertek, hatsuk pedig mind a politikai, mind a
gazdasgi viszonyokra kiterjedt. Bla herceg I. Manuel
csszr lenynak jegyeseknt s mint a biznci trn
vromnyosa Bizncban nevelkedett, gy kzvetlenl

megismerhette az itteni letmdot intzmnyeivel s


erklcseivel
egytt.
Mivel
azonban
Manuelnek
trnrkse szletett, s III. Istvn kirly elhallozott, Bla
immr kirlyknt visszatrt Magyarorszgra. A msodik
darab egy dnr, amelynek az ellapjn balra nz
srkny, htlapjn kt, fejt egyms fel fordt madr,
kzttk pedig egy liliomszl lthat. Az rme htlapja
hasonlt V. Istvn (12701272) egyik pnzhez, amelyen
szintn madr lthat nagyjbl ugyanebben a
belltsban, kzjk azonban a hber alef bet bekelve
(HL 357). A kt pnz ellapja teljesen klnbzik
egymstl.
Az Anjou-hzbeli Kroly Rbert (13031342)
uralkodsa gykeres vltozst hozott az orszg
pnzgyeiben: bevezettk az aranypnzt, de az ezstpnz
rtkt is nveltk. 1323 elejn, Temesvrott kelt levelben
a kirly arrl a dntsrl rtesti a gyulafehrvri
kptalant, amelyet az orszgban uralkod pnzgyi
helyzettel elgedetlen nemessg krsre hozott. Ennek
rtelmben egysges, az egsz orszgban elfogadott pnzt
vezetett be. Noha az intzkedseket kt lpcsben, 1323ban s 1338-ban kellett vgrehajtani, a reform rszben
sikerrel jrt, amire bizonytk a gyulafehrvri leletanyag
is: a feltrt pnzek kzl a legtbbet s a legvltozatosabb
nvrtkeket Kroly Rbert idejn bocstottk ki. A kis
rtk pnzrmk gyakori jelenlte egy erteljesen fejld
vros
letben
nlklzhetetlen
kiskereskedelem
felvirgzsrl tanskodik. A fejldshez mindezek felett
az is hozzjrult, hogy Gyulafehrvron ebben az
idszakban pnzverde kezdte el mkdst.
Intenzv pnzkibocstsi tevkenysg folyt Kroly Rbert
utda, Nagy Lajos (13421382) uralkodsa idejn is. Br
Nagy Lajos szmos rmt veretett, ezeket mindssze
egyetlen tpus kpviseli, az n. szerecsenfej dnr,
amely a nevt onnan kapta, hogy ellapjn egy
jellegzetesen szerecsen fiziognmij emberfej lthat.
Azt, hogy ezek a pnzek nagy szmban fordulnak el a
pnzleletekben, a pnzgyi tranzakcikban jtszott

93

jelents szerepk magyarzza, ami egyszersmind


folyamatos kereskedelmi tevkenysget felttelez a
kzpkori Gyulafehrvron.
Luxemburgi Zsigmond (13871437) hossz
uralkodsa idejn kibocstott pnz kevesebb szerepel a
gyulafehrvri leletekben, noha a kirly aktv rszvtele a
trkellenes harcokban szksgess tette, hogy olykor
hosszabb ideig Erdlyben tartzkodjon. ppen az Ottomn
Birodalommal val energikus szembenllsa vezetett az
llamkincstr teljes kirlshez, s emiatt halla utn
politikai s pnzgyi bizonytalansg ksznttt be, mely
hossz ideig elhzdott. Radsul Zsigmond utn gyors
egymsutnban trk tmadsok rtk az erdlyi
vrosokat, gy Gyulafehrvrt is. A fosztogats ellen a
lakossg gy vdekezett, hogy rvid id alatt
aprpnzekbl sszegyjtott pnzt igyekezett elrejteni.
Ez trtnt a 2007. vi satsok sorn feltrt pnzlelet
esetben is, mely 37 darab ezst-, illetve ezstztt, Albert
(14371439) s I. Ulszl (14401444) magyar kirlyok
idejn vert dnrt tartalmaz.
1467-ben ismt pnzgyi reform zajlott, amelynek
sorn j, stabil rtk ezstpnzeket bocstottak ki. Ezek
megklnbztet jegye Szz Mria s a kisded Jzus kpe.
A Gyulafehrvron tallt anyag egyarnt tartalmaz a
reform eltt s a reform utn vert rmket. Az 14581467
kztti pnzeket egyrtelmen a gyenge minsg ezst
s a hanyag vers jellemzi, egyes veretek felirata
kiolvashatatlan, st a bronzbl kszltek valsznleg
hamistvnyok.
Mtys kirly halla utn (1490) a pnzleletek tbb
mint tvenves pnzkibocstsi hitust mutatnak. Ha a
XVI. szzad els felben bekvetkezett esemnyre
gondolunk, a helyzetet magtl rtetdnek tekinthetjk.
A mohcsi csata utn Magyarorszg egy rsze I. Habsburg
Ferdinnd uralma al kerlt a krmcbnyai pnzverdvel
egytt, amely ezutn a kirlysg legfontosabb pnzver
mhelyv lpett el.

94

A kvetkez idszakot az I. Ferdinnd (15261564)


ltal veretett pnzek uraljk. A XVI. szzad msodik
felben az ltalnos helyzet slyosbodott: A Habsburgok
s a trkk kztti nylt konfliktusok rzkenyen
rintettk a pnzforgalmat. Aprpnzt csak kis
mennyisgben lltottak el, emiatt Ferdinnd veretei
keresettekk vltak Erdlyben; forgalmuk a hatodik
vtizedben volt a legintenzvebb, amikor Szebenben
fokoztk a Ferdinnd kpmsval elltott dnrok
kibocstst. Utdai, Miksa (15641576), II. Rudolf (1576
1608) s II. Mtys (16081619) egy vagy kt kiadssal
vannak jelen. Korbbi pnzleletek vizsglata igazolja,
mikppen hatolt be a helyi s a klfldi pnz ennek a
fontos erdlyi vrosnak a piacra. Megfigyelhet az
erdlyi pnzek ltalnos hinya, ezzel szemben a lengyel
s a Ferdinnd ltal a magyar korona nevben veretett
pnzek szles krben elterjedtek. A lengyel pnz
mennyisgnek XVII. szzad vgi megcsappansval
szrevehetjk az osztrk pnz s ezzel egytt a nmet
tartomnyok ezstpnzeinek fokozd beramlst, gy
kerlt Gyulafehrvrra az ltalunk feltrt, 1670-es veret,
Liegnitz-Brieg hercegsgbl szrmaz garas (greschl). A
hercegsget egybknt nem sokkal ezutn (1675-ben) az
Osztrk Birodalomhoz csatoltk.
A XVII. szzadi erdlyi kereskedelemben egyre
gyakrabban hasznltk a lengyel pnzt, a magyar dnr
httrbe szorult, mg vgl teljesen felvltotta a lengyel
aprpnz. A kt 1624-es veret kibocstsa arra az idre
esett, amikor a pnz elrtktelenedse a korabeli
Erdlyben a tetpontra hgott. Bethlen Gbor rszvtele a
harmincves hborban rengeteg pnzt emsztett fel, ami
az erdlyi pnzvers felgyorsulst eredmnyezte. XVII.
szzadi gyulafehrvri pnzleleteink majdnem kizrlag
ezekbl a veretekbl kerltek ki, de persze az
elrtktelened
klfldi,
fleg
lengyel
pnzek
beramlsbl is. Leletanyagunkban a Wasa-hzbeli III.
Zsigmond kt hromgarasosn s II. Jnos Kzmr
hatgarasosn kvl nincs ms lengyel pnz. Ennek az az

oka, hogy a szejm Lengyelorszg pnzgyi helyzetnek


javtsa rdekben megszort rendeleteket lptetett letbe,
msfell 1625 vgtl Bethlen Gbor is komoly
erfesztseket tett annak rdekben, hogy az rtkket
vesztett lengyel garasokat kivonjk a forgalombl, s
helyettk j minsg ezstt tartalmaz sajt pnzeket
vezessenek be. Reformja azonban csak rszben jrt sikerrel,
a helyi pnzeket ugyanis ppen minsgk miatt
folyamatosan visszatartottk a piaci forgalomtl.
Legkorbbi klfldi pnzleletnk egy XIII. szzad
vgi, XIV. szzad eleji bcsi pfennig, amely a fennll
kereskedelmi, de politikai kapcsolatoknak is bizonytka.
Egybirnt 1312-ben bevezettk, hogy az rmihlyfalvi
tkelnl a vmot bcsi dnrokban kellett lefizetni.
A Havasalfldn kibocstott rmk kevsb
gyakoriak Erdlyben, jelenltk mgis teljesen indokolt, ha
a XIV. szzad vgi pnzgyi, illetve politikai-katonai
viszonyokat tekintjk, melyeknek Mircea cel Btrn,
Havasalfld uralkodja cselekv rszese volt. Mi tbb,
1395-ben Zsigmond magyar kirly s Mircea cel Btrn
Havaselve fejedelme az indul trkellenes keresztes
hbor jegyben szvetsget kttt. E keresztes hbornak
termszetesen egy msik clja is volt: megvdeni a magyar
kereskedk rdekeit a dlre s keletre, a Dunhoz s a
Fekete-tengerhez vezet tjaikon. Mindezekhez jrulnak
azok a sokkal rgebbi kereskedelmi kapcsolatok,
amelyeket a havasalfldi fejedelmek tartottak fenn
Szebennel s Brassval, kzttk azok a kivltsgok,
amelyeket korbbi egyezmnyek alapjn Vladislav
adomnyozott a brassiaknak. Havasalfldrl hrom rme
szerepel leleteinkben a kvetkez uralkodktl: I.
Vladislav s I. Radu (kb. 1377), I. Dan (13831386) s
Mircea cel Btrn (13861418). A XV. szzadbl kt rme
szrmazik: az egyiket az Aquileai Ptrirchtusban II.
Anthonius di Pancera ptrirka veretett, a msik az
Oszmn Birodalombl, II. Bajezid szultn (14811512)
pnze. Idrendben a XVII. szzadi lengyel pnzek
kvetkeznek, a Wasa-hzi III. Zsigmond (15871632) s II.

Jnos Kzmr (16491668) veretei. Legjabb kelet klfldi


pnznk a Leignitz-Brieg hercegsgben 1670-ben
kibocstott garas.
Pnzleleteink bemutatst egy II. Rkczi Ferenc (1703
1711) idejn vert tzpoltrssal s egy a Nmet-rmai
Csszrsg ltal 1763-ban Magyarorszg rszre
kibocstott egykrajcrossal zrjuk.
A gyulafehrvri rmai katolikus szkesegyhz s
az rseki palota krl folyatott nagyszabs satsok
eredmnyeknt feltrt pnzlelet sszessgben kiteljesti az
eszekre az pletekre vonatkoz, az idk sorn
felhalmozdott ismereteinket, egyszersmind szmos j
adatot szolgltat ennek a jelents erdlyi vrosnak a
pnzforgalmrl.
Monica Dejan

95

A LELETEK RESTAURLSA
Ahhoz, hogy megszervezhessk a killtst, s kiadjuk
annak katalgust, a Gyulafehrvri Rmai Katolikus
szkesegyhz s a pspki palota terletn 2000 s 2008 kztt
feltrt rgszeti leleteket szksgszeren restaurlni kellett, a
Gyulafehrvri Nemzeti Egyesls Mzeumnak Kermia- s
fmrestaurl laboratriumban.
A tallt trgyak trtnelmi szempontbl tbb
lakszinthez tartoznak, a rmai korral kezdden egszen a
modern korig (XVIIIXIX. szzad), s konzervldsi llapotuk
vltozatos,
ami
a
nyersanyagok
fizikai-kmiai
jellegzetessgeinek, a talajrtegek rrakdsi krlmnyeinek
(tzvsz rte, vagy szemetesgdrbe dobtk a trgyakat,
srmellkletknt szolgltak), valamint az j kzeggel val, hossz
idn t tart klcsnhatsnak tulajdonthat.
A leletek alapanyaga szintn fokozottan vltozatos,
skljukbl kiemelkedik a szmos funkcit ellt (szerszmok,
fegyverek stb.), nagy mennyisg vastrgy, a bronzbl ksztett
kszerek s hasznlati trgyak, az ezstdszek, a kermia,
valamint a csonttrgyak, melyeket szrmazsi korukra jellemz,
klnfle technikkkal dolgoztak ki.
Vasbl ksztett trgyak. A fmleletek kztt
legszmosabbak a vasbl ellltott trgyak. Ez a fm
jellegzetesen gyorsan oxidldik, a korrzitermkek pedig
visszatasztak, s lnyegesen megvltoztatjk a trgy klalakjt.
Amikor a fldrtegeket eltvoltjuk rluk, a vastrgyak
konzervldsi llapota hirtelen romlik, mivel megsznik a
krnyezetkkel
kialakult
egyenslyuk,
a
korrzi
jraindulshoz szksges id pedig csupn 0,05 msodperc. A
gyenge konzervldsi llapotot slyosbthatja, ha a mltban a
trgyak meggtek, aminek kvetkeztben mdosultak azok a
fmktsek, melyek elksztskkor alakultak ki (ezeket a
trgyakat tbbnyire melegmegmunklssal kovcsolssal
lltottk el).
gy a vasbl ksztett trgyak klnbz konzervldsi
llapotban lehettek a fmmag korrzis termkk val teljes

96

talakulstl a rszleges vagy csak felsznes oxidciig. A


leletanyag tekintlyes mennyisge nem engedte meg, hogy
minden trgyat kln, alaposan megvizsglhassunk, gy olyan
restaurlsi mdszerekhez s kezelshez folyamodtunk, melyek a
vastrgyak konzervldsi llapotnak teljes sklja szmra
megfelelnek mutatkoztak.
A talajlerakdsokat s a felsznes korrzitermkeket
mechanikus mdon, szrazon tvoltottuk el, megfelel eszkzk
segtsgvel (szike, fogorvosi szemz, MTS stb.), a masszv
trgyak esetben ellenrztt homoksugaras tiszttst is
alkalmaztunk 2 s 4 atmoszfra kztti nyomssal.
Ezeknek az eljrsoknak a folyamn megllaptottuk a
trgyak eredeti alakjt, melyet nagyban mdostottak a
korrzitermkek megvastagodott, talajjal, hamuval, msszel stb.
kevered rtegei. Ugyanakkor egyes esetekben megmutatkoztak
a trgyak felszni dsztsei (ezst intarzik egy lfegyver
szerkezetn, bronzdsztsek s csontnyelek a kseken stb.) (1., 2.
kp).
A konzervlst 20%-os taninos s 15%-os etilalkoholos,
desztillltvz-oldattal vgeztk el, melyet ecsettel vittnk fel, kt
vagy hrom rtegben, a trgy sajtossgaitl fggen, ezt
kveten Araldite AY 103 tpus, HY 991 ersts epoxigyantval
vontuk be a felletet. Vdbortsknt ecsettel felvittnk mg egy
rteg nitrocellulz lakkot vagy Paraloid tpus akrilgyantt,
acetonban feloldva, 10%-os koncentrciban.
Egyes leletek szksgess tettk a kiegsztst, mind
eredeti alakjuk visszalltsa, mind a trgyak megerstse
cljbl. Az eljrst epoxigyanta ntsvel valstottuk meg,
amelybe a minl tallbb sznhats elrse rdekben
fmoxidokat kevertnk ezeket a mechanikus tisztts sorn
nyertnk.
Bronzbl s ezstbl ksztett trgyak. A vrsrz-tvzetekbl vagy
ezstbl ellltott trgyak szintn megrongldtak, fknt
oxidlds lpett fl, amelynek eredmnyekppen a fmmag
klnbz mrtkben krosodottt vagy csupn a leletek felsznn
kpzdtt egy vkony, sszefgg oxidcirteg, melynek szne
kellemes, a nemes patinra jellemz. Miutn a rtegekbl
kiemeltk, egyes leletek konzervldsi llapota megromlott,

mivel a korrzifolyamatok jraindultak. Ez fknt a klrral s


knnel sszekapcsoldott fmsszetevk megjelensben
nyilvnult meg, olyan oxidokban, melyek aktv, erszakos,
pontszer tmadsoknak vetik al a fmfelletet, s amelyek
rvid id alatt a leletek visszafordthatatlan megrongldshoz
vezethetnek.
A bronztrgyak esetben legtbbszr a nemes patina
megrzse mellett dntttnk, ezrt a talajlerakdsokat s a
szaruszer korrzitermkeket kzzel, mechanikus ton
tvoltottuk el, megfelel eszkzkkel vagy a masszv trgyak
esetben MTS segtsgvel. Utlag ezeket kmiai stabilizcis
folyamatnak vetettk al, 3%-os BTA alkohololdattal, melyet
szrts kvetett s az oldatflsleg eltvoltsa, majd ecsettel
vagy merts tjn beitattuk megfelel oldszerben feloldott
nitrocellulz lakkal vagy akrilgyantval.
Egyes esetekben, fknt a masszv trgyaknl kmiai
ton cskkentettk a korrzitermkeket, knsavas oldatban
s/vagy EDTA-val, vegszlas rddal drzsltk, desztilllt
vzben semlegestettk, alkoholban szrtottuk, a vgs
konzervlst pedig filmser bevonattal rtk el. Ugyanolyan
tpus kezelst alkalmaztunk az ezsttrgyaknl is, hogy
kihangslyozzuk a fm csillogst, amelyet legtbb esetben zld
szn, a vrsrzre jellemz korrzitermk fedett, mivel az
tvzetben vrsrz is volt. Elektrokmiai potencilklnbsgk
miatt az tvzet komponensei szelektv korrzis folyamatokon
estek t.
A tredkes trgyakat ktkomponens epoxigyantval
ragasztottuk ssze, gyors hats Bison tpust hasznltunk a kis
daraboknl, Bison Powert a masszvaknl, a ragasztsi
pontokat nhny helyen vegszlas vszonnal erstettk meg
(3., 4. kp).
Nmi gondot okoztak a kompozittrgyak, melyeket
tbbtpus anyagbl lltottak el (vas, bronz, fa s csont), mivel
ezek minden anyagtpus szmra eltr kezelst feltteleztek.
Ezeket a trgyakat egyben, helyi beavatkozsok tjn kezeltk,
ha a leletet nem lehetett sztszedni, vagy minden anyaggal kln
foglalkoztunk, ha a trgy jellege megengedte az sszetevk
elklntst.

Kemny llati eredet anyagokbl (csontbl, szarubl)


ksztett trgyak. Br arnyuk a restaurlsnak alvetett rgszeti
anyagban nem jelents, ezek a leletek sajtos krosodsokat
szenvedtek, mint a felszni mechanikus talajlerakdsok,
valamint a kmiai jelleg rtegek (klcium-karbontok)
megjelense, tredkessg, fmoxid-foltok stb.
A darabokat mechanikus mdszerekkel, szrazon vagy
nedvesen tiszttottuk meg, a konzervldsi llapotuk
fggvnyben, majd az sszelltsuk kvetkezett, plasztifins
nlkli, Aracet tpus ragasztval, valamint a vgs konzervls,
egy filmszer rteg kialaktsa rvn, amely acetonban oldott
nitrocellulz lakkal vagy Paraloid B 72-vel trtnt.
veg trgyak. Az alapanyag sajtossgainak s a talajba
kerls krlmnyeinek tulajdonthatan ezek a trgyak szmos
krosodst szenvedtek, melyek kzl kiemelkedik az tltszsg
elvesztse, ami azrt kvetkezett be, mert az ellltskor nem
tartottk be a nyersanyagok optimlis arnyait, gy irizlsok
jelentek meg, s a felsznk felpattogzott. A ronglds
ugyanakkor a tredkessgben is megnyilvnul, amely
ltrejhetett a mltban bekvetkezett trs vagy a talaj nyomsa
folytn stb. A konzervldsi llapot fggvnyben az vegbl
ksztett trgyakat saltromsavas kmiai kezelsnek vetettk al,
melyet semlegests kvetett, desztilllt vzben, valamint
alkoholos szrts. A tredkes leleteket epoxigyantval
rogasztottuk ssze, s csak a kismret hinyokat egsztettnk
ki ott, ahol a trgyak megerstsre szorultak. Az vegtrgyak
kzl kiemelkedik egy nagymret, fokozottan tredkes edny,
amely bonyolultabb s hossz idt ignyl eljrst tett
szksgess, mivel alakjt tbb, mint 50 darab sszeragasztsval
lltottuk helyre.
Kermia. A kermialeletek fknt konyhai ednyek, hzi
hasznlatra sznt kis trgyak (orsnehezkek, pipafejek), egy sor
klyhacsempe, valamint mzas dszkermik.
A kermiaanyag egy rsze mr a laboratriumba
rkezsekor klnfle restaurlsi beavatkozsok nyomait
hordozta, mint a talaj- vagy a kmiai lerakdsok (klciumkarbontok, fmoxidok) teljes vagy rszleges eltvoltsa, illetve

97

a tredkek klnbz mrtkben val sszeraksa Aracet


tpus, a kermival kompatibilis ragaszt segtsgvel.
Attl fggen, hogy ezek a beavatkozsok mennyire
szakszeren voltak elvgezve, vagy a restaurls folytatsa
mellett dntttnk, attl a ponttl, ahol abbahagytk, vagy
sztbontottuk a tredkeket, s a technolgiai folyamatot elejtl
jrakezdtk. A kermialeletek viszonylag j konzervldsa
elehetv tette ezt az eljrst is.
A talajlerakdsokat a klnll tredkekrl s azokrl
az sszerakott darabokrl, melyeket szt kellett szedni, nedves
mechanikus tiszttssal tvoltottuk el (kefvel, vzsugr alatt).
Azokat a darabokat, melyeket helyesen raktak ssze, de
felletkn mg maradtak kisebb, fknt kmiai lerakdsok,
nedves szivaccsal s szrazon tiszttottuk meg. Kt olyan edny
esetben, melyeket rszlegesen masszv, talajjal, msszel s
hamuval kevert klcium-karbont rteg fedett, szksgesnek
mutatkozott az 5%-os ssavas oldattal val kezels, mely nhny
percig tartott, utna ismtelten desztilllt vzbe mertettnk, a
semlegests rdekben.
Az angbbal vagy mzzal dsztett kermit ktszer
tiszttottuk meg mechanikus ton, szrazon s/vagy nedvesen,
hogy a lerakdsokat eltvoltsuk, a kmiai kezels ugyanis mind
a festkrteg alapjt kpez fmoxidok kmiai sszettelt, mind
a rteg kermiafellethez val tapadst mdosthatta volna.
A tredkes leleteket plasztifins nlkli Aracet tpus
ragasztval lltottuk ssze, a hinyokat gipsszel ptoltuk, a
jellegzetes technikkkal (negativok ksztse, gipszformk
msolsa stb.).
A kiegsztett felleteket a kontraszt cskkentsnek
rdekben kromatikusan integrltuk gouache-sal vagy
temperval, hogy olyan sznatsokat hozzunk ltre, melyek
lthatan kivlnak, de kzeltenek a trgyak eredeti szneihez.
Utlag a felleteket vdborts gyannt filmszer rteggel
vontuk be, amelyet aracetbl vagy nitrocellulz lakkokbl
ksztettnk.
A kermialeletek kzl kiemelkednek a klyhacsempk,
valamint a mzas, dszt csempelapok, amelyek legtbbszr
tredkesen kerltek el. A klyhacsempket prselssel

98

ksztettk, ugyanazzal a dccal, azonos prototpus


felhasznlsval. Kvetkezskppen a csempk dsztsei
ugyanolyan mretek, gy lehetsgess vlt az eredeti formk s
dekorci feljtsa, a hinyz rszek lemsolsa hasonl
darabokrl. Az effajta beavatkozs csak akkor lehetsges, ha a
klyhacsempk azonos kontextusbl szrmaznak, ezltal ugyanis
megnvekszik annak a valsznsge, hogy ugyanazokkal a
dcakkol ksztettk ket, valsznleg egyazon mhelyben, s
nem egymst kvet msolatok vagy utnzs termkei, melyek
sorn bizonyos klnbsgek jelenhetnek meg.
Miutn a talajlerakdsokat eltvoltottuk, a tredkeket
sszelltottuk s a felletet nitrocellulz lakkbl ll filmes
vdrteggel vontuk be, klnfle plasztilin-, szilikonkaucsuk- s
gipszlenyomatokat ksztettnk, az elemek mretbeli s
dekorcis sajtossgainak fggvnyben. Utlag ezeket t
lehetett tenni gipszre, olyan, hasonl darabokba ntve,
melyeknek bizonyos hitusai voltak. Ezzel a technikval kt
hasonl darab kztti prhuzamos kiegsztseket is
elvgezhettnk, gy sikerlhetett fokozott pontossggal
jrapteni a trgyak eredeti alakjt. A gipszkiegsztseket
utlag kromatikusan integrltuk, s nitrocellulz lakkos
vdrteggel vontuk be (5., 6. kp).
A nhny szz kermibl, fmekbl, vegbl vagy
csontbl, szarubl ksztett trgy restaurlsnak s
konzervlsnak komplex folyamata lehetv tette a
patrimonilis rtk pldnyok tudomnyos mdszerekkel val
megmentst s feljtst, melyek kronologikus csoportostst,
a rmai kortl a XIX. szzad elejig. A lthat s visszafordthat
beavatkozsok eredmnyekppen hossz idre tartstottuk az
sszes trgyat, gy ppen gy kzvetthetik eszttikai s trtnelti
zenetket tudomnyos s killtsokon val rtkestsk
rdekben.
Dan Anghel, Daniela Ciugudean, Sorin erban

A KATALGUS FELPTSE
A killts rendez elve a kronolgia, a killtott trgyakat
korszakonknt csoportostottunk: rmai idszakot a
npvndorls kora, a kzpkor, majd az jkor kveti. A
killtott trgyak lersa az albbi pontok szerint trtnik:
A trgy megnevezse
A feltrs krlmnyei. A krlmnyeket ltalnossgban, a
kt f plethez, az rseki palothoz s a rmai katolikus
szkesegyhzhoz rendelve rjuk le, tovbb megadjuk a
trgy megtallsnak vt. gy hisszk, ennyi adat
elegend a killtst megtekint ltogatk s a katalgus
olvasi szmra.
A trgy anyaga, alakja s dsztse. A lers ltalban a
legszksgesebb
tudnivalkra
szortkozik,
hiszen
valamennyi trgyrl fnykpillusztrci is kszlt.
Esetenknt a trgyakat csoportostottuk, s egytt
mutatjuk be valamennyit, kiemelve a csoport ltalnos
ismertetjegyeit,
esetleg
a
kzmvestermkek
(cserpbogrcsok, izniki csempelapok, festett vegszemek
stb.) trtneti rezonancijra is kitrnk. A killtsi
trgyak a Gyulafehrvri Rmai Katolikus rseksg
megrzsben vannak, felleltrozsuk folyamatban van.
Emiatt a katalgus nem tartalmazza a leltri szmokat.
Mretek.
Keltezs. Legtbb esetben a keltezs az elfordulsi
krlmnyek, a stratigrfiai llapot s a lelhelyen feltrt
ms trgyakhoz s struktrkhoz fzd viszony
vizsglatbl nyert informcik szintzisnek az
eredmnye. Ha a trgyak msodlagos helyzetben kerltek
el, idben kzelebbi vagy tvolabbi beavatkozsok
kvetkeztben elsodrdtak az eredeti helykrl, kzelebbi
lelhelyeken elfordul analgikra vagy hasonl trtneti
sszefggsekre hagyatkoztunk. Amikor klnbz okok
miatt nem tudtuk a szkebb idhatrokat megadni, csak a
tgabb korszakot neveztk meg, amelybl a trgy
szrmazik.

A kartotk szerzje, a fnykp ksztje, a fordt. A killtott


trgyak ltal, illetve a katalgusban szemlltetett
rendkvl gazdag leletanyag feldolgozsa klnbz
szakemberek kzremkdst tette szksgess. Az egyes
szakemberek hozzjrulsa az adott tudomnyg
fontossgi sorrendje, illetve a kutat szemlyes
rtermettsge miatt nem egyenl mrtk. Emiatt
szksgesnek lttuk, hogy kln feltntessk a szvegek
szerzinek, a fnykpek ksztinek s termszetesen a
fordtknak a nevt.
A
20002002
kztt
folytatott
satsok
eredmnyeit szakmonogrfiban tettk kzz, amely 2008ban magyar, 2009-ben romn nyelven jelent meg. Az ebben
az idkzben feltrt leletek lershoz a knyvben
megjelent szvegeket hasznltuk. A 2003, 2004, 2007 s
2009 sorn feltrt leletek teljessggel kiadatlanok.
A trgylersokban hasznlt rvidtsek:
sz. szlessg
h. a trgy hossza
vast. vastagsga
megm. megmaradt (megrzdtt)
legn. legnagyobb
tm. tmr
szny. szjnyls
ftm. fenktmr
NtO. nem teljes, oxidcis gtes
M. msodlagos gs
Daniela Marcu Istrate

99

LELETKATALGUS

100

RMAI KORI
1. Dszszeg
2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Bronz; a darab egy bevssekkel dsztett korongbl ll,
amely sugarakkal krlvett, stilizlt ni arcot brzol. A
rgzt szr metszete ngyszglet, a szabad vgn lev,
ngyszglet lyuk felerstst szolglja. tm. lemez 2,9
cm, teljes h. 3,1 cm.
Rmai kori.
AI, fot CS
2. Pajzsszeg
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz; feje knuszos. H. 2,2 cm.
Kr. u. IIIII. sz.
SC, fot GD
3. Pajzsszeg
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz; feje kerek, fogazott szlekkel, a szeg vgn lyuk
felerstshez. H. 3 cm, tm. 3 cm.
Kr. u. IIIII. sz.
SC, fot CS
4. Lndzsahegy (pilum)
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Vas; kp alak, tredkesen maradt meg. 15 cm; tm. k.
2,5 cm; a hegy tm. 0,8 cm.
Rmai kori.
AI, fot AM
5. Hegy kpvel
2004, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, kp alak, szlesebb rszn dsztett s
tlyukasztott a nyl blokkolsra. Keskenyebb vgn
lekerektett. H. 5,4 cm, max. tm. 0,9 cm.
Rmai kori?
AI, fot GD

6. Veret
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz; tglalap alak, pelta formj motvumokkal
tlyuggatott, kt szle fogazott. H. 3 cm, tm. sz. 2,5 cm.
Kr. u. IIIII. sz.
SC, fot CS
7. Spatula
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz; a penge vge s nyele letrtt.
H. 5,6 cm.
Rmai kori.
SC, fot GD
8. Flszonda
2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Bronz; a spatula egyik vge kanl alak, nyelt egy
fmpnt kpezi, amely merleges a kzps, sodrott
rszre, fogantyjnak vge ellaposodik, rombusz alakban
vgzdik. H. 5,9 cm, sz. 0,4 cm.
Rmai kori.
AI, fot GD
9. Csipesz
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. Nyele rvid, karjai a vgk fel lekerektettek. H. 5
cm.
Rmai kori.
SC, fot GD
10. Csipesz
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Bronz. H. 8,5 cm.
Rmai kori.
AI, fot CS
11. Aucissa tpus fibula
2002, a palota kzelben.

101

Bronz; feje tglalap alak, kengyele erteljesen hajltott, a


kengyel tvnl hrom borda. Lba gombban vgzdik.
Csuklpnttal zrdik. H. 5,6 cm.
Kr. u. II. szzad msodik fele, a III. szzad els kt
vtizede.
SC, fot GD
12. Alhajltott lb fibula
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz; 16 menetbl ll, rugval zrdik, kengyele
felkrsen hajltott, lba alhajlik. H. 6 cm.
Kr. u. III. sz. els fele
SC, fot CS
13. Fibula kengyele
2000, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. H. 4,9 cm, vstg. 0,7 cm, 0,2 cm-re vkonytott
rszekkel.
Rmai kori.
AI, fot CS
14. Saruszeg
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas, a feje kicsi, flkr alak. H. 1,5 cm.
Kr. u. III. sz.
AI, fot GD
15. Karika
2001, a sekrestye kzelben.
Vas. tm. 2 cm.
Rmai kori
AI, fot GD
16. Veret
2000, a palota kzelben.
Ezsttvzet. Mmg. 3 cm.
Rmai kori?
AI, fot CS

102

17. Veret
2007, a szkesegyhz kzelben.
Bronz. Megkzeltleg tglalap keresztmetszetszrnal,
egyik oldala lapos, msik zsinrdszesre modelllt. H. 3,5
cm.
Rmai kori?
AI, fot GD
18. Veret
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Bronz. Kis lemezke, amelynek a htn szegecsnyom
ltszik, szlei recsek. H. 2,2 cm, sz. 1,4 cm.
Rmai kori?
AI, fot GD
19. Rtt
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz; kettbe hajtott s szegeccsel sszefogott lemez.
H. 1,6 cm
Kr. u. IIIII. sz.
SC, fot GD
20. Altt
2001, a sekrestye kzelben.
Vas. Flkr alakra grbtett lemezbl kszlt, s
megmaradt hrom szegecse is, amelyekkel felerstettk a
fafelletre. H. 1,5 cm.
Rmai kori.
AI, fot CS
21. Vasals
2001, a szently kzelben.
Vas. A darabot vastag szegecsekkel fogtk fel, melyeknek
flgmb alak fejk van. H. 14,3 cm, sz. 3,4 cm, vstg. 0,55
cm; szegecsek vstg. 0,6 cm.
Rmai kori.
AI, fot GD

22. Foganty
2007, a szkesegyhz kzelben.
Bronz foganty kp alak tredke. H. 1,5 cm, als rsz
tm. 1,5 cm, fels rsz tm. 1,2 cm.
Rmai kori.
AI, fot CS
23. Fogkar
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, a megmaradt tredk kr keresztmetszet, a vge
fel fokozatosan elvkonyodik. A kar vge laptott s lyuk
van frva r, ezt megelzen dsztsknt kpszeren
elvastagodik, a kp le levgott. H. 11,2 cm.
Rmai kori.
AI, fto CS
24. Varrt
2007, a palota belsejben.
Bronz. Mr a rgisgben enyhn meggrblt. H. 5,5 cm.
Rmai kori?
AI, fot CS
25. Dszgomb
2004, a sekrestyben.
Srgarz, kalap formj, kzprsze dombor; tmr.
tm. 2,4 cm, vstg. 0,2 cm; mag. 0,8 cm.
Rmai kori?
AI, fot CS
26. Kampsszeg
2000. a palota kzelben.
Vas, kt pldny. H. 7,5 cm/7 cm, tm. 3 cm/2,5 cm..
Rmai kori.
AI, fot GD
27. Kampsszeg
2000, a palota kzelben.

Vas. Feje nagyjbl korongszer, szra ngyszg. H. 8,9


cm, tm. 18 cm; szr 0,5x0,5 cm.
Rmai kori.
AI, fot GD
RMAI PNZRMK
28. AugustusCludius I?
2002, a pspki palota kzelben.
Fm: bronz.
Pnznem: AS.
tm.: 25 mm; S: 7,38 gr. Tengely:
Keltezs: Kr. e. I. sz. els fele.
CG, fot GD
29. Traianus?
2001, a szkesegyhz kzelben.
Fm: ezst.
Pnznem: denar.
tm.: 1,81x1,6 mm; S: 2,51 gr. Tengely: 6.
Keltezs: 103111.
CG, fot GD
30. Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius csszrnak?
2001, a szkesegyhz nyugati rszben.
Fm: ezst.
Pnznem: denar.
tm.: 1,7 mm; S: 3,30 gr. Tengely: 1.
Keltezs: 145147.
CG, fot GD
31. Septimius Severus Iulia Domnnak
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fm: ezst.
Pnznem: denar.
tm: ; S: 2,51 gr. Tengely: 6.
Keltezs: 195.

103

CG, fot GD
32. Macrinus
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fm: ezst.
Pnznem: denar.
tm: 1,9 mm; S: 3,10 gr. Tengely: 6.
Keltezs: 217218.
CG, fot GD
33. Heliogabalus?
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fm: ezst.
Pnznem: blelt denar.
tm: 1,8 mm; S: 2,16 gr. Tengely: 12.
Keltezs: 218222 vagy ksbb.
CG, fot GD
34. Severus Iulia Mamaenak
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fm: ezsttel bortott bronz.
Pnznem: blelt denar.
tm. S: 2,31 gr. Tengely: 6.
Keltezs: 222235 vagy ksbb.
CG, fot GD
35. Rmai kermia
A tredkek zme a trmelkbl s kzpkori vagy jkori
rtegekbl szrmazik, s csak nagyon kevs az in situ tallt
darab, a castrum kutatst ugyanis megneheztette a
jelenleg ll pletekhez viszonytott stratigrfiai helyzete.
A bemutatott kermiaanyag hulladkjellege ellenre is
egyike a castrum legtekintlyesebb leletegytteseinek, s j
rltst nyjt a hasznlt cserpednyek klnbz
tpusaira.
A konyhai kermia tbbsge srke szn, mg a
finom kermit nagyrszt oxidlva gettk (19%), s 8%-t
reduklva. Leletanyagunkban a kermiaednyek majdnem

104

teljes skljt figyelhetjk meg, melyben dominnsak a


fazekak s a trol-ednyek. A dsztsek sklja szintgy
rendkvl szles, ezt a jelensget tbb katonai lelhelyen is
megfigyeltk, ahol egyknt kedveltk a firniszbevonatos,
mrvnyos, barbotinos, mzas, bekarcolsokkal vagy ms
technikval dsztett tpusokat.
Az azonostott formk tbbsge megfelel a
helyileg is ismert, fleg a III. szzad els felben elterjedt
tpusoknak. Az elemzett formk tbbsgt kpez fazekak,
korsk s mlytlak olyan vltozatokat kpviselnek,
amelyeket a II. szzad vge eltt nem hasznltak, de a III.
szzadi ms helyi objektumokban, pldul a partosi Liber
Pater-szentlyben a legismertebb formk kz tartoztak.
Nhny tredkk azonban inkbb a II. szzadra
keltezhet, s nem jellemz a III. szzadi leletegyttesekre,
ilyenek a noricum-pannniai csszk vagy a gyrs nyak
korsk.
MC, fot CS, GD
POSZTRMAI KOR
36. Fazk fels rszbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Durva agyag, teljes R, szrke. Az edny rvid nyaka
ersen elvkonytott, pereme kiugrik, szja vastag s
facettlt. Dszts: a vllon vkony bekarcolsok. Szny.
28 cm.
IIIIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS.
37. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, felletes gets fekete tglapros foltokkal.
Nyaka rvid, pereme kihajlik, szja vastag s facettlt.
Dszts: a vllon vkony bekarcolsok. Szny. 19 cm.
IIIIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS

38. Edny pereme


2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, redukcis gets, vilgos hamuszrke.
Dszts: felletes bekarcolsok.
IIIIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS
39. Edny pereme
2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Durva agyag, redukcis gets, szrksfekete. Szny. 33 cm.
IIIIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS
40. Troledny tredke
2002, a palota kzelben.
Durva agyag, felletes gets. Srgs tglapros.
Oldaltredk. Dszts: bekarcolt egyenes s hullmvonalak.
IIIIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS

IIIIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS
44. Edny pereme
2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Fldurva agyag, redukcis gets, vilgos hamuszrke.
Dszts: bekarcolt vzszintes vonalak. Szny. 13 cm.
IIIIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS
45. Ednytredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vilgos hamuszrke, flfinom agyagbl korongolt kermia,
szja enyhn kihajlik. Dszts: a vllon bekarcolt vonal.
IIIIV.sz.
DMI, fot CS
NPVNDORLS KORA

41. Edny pereme


2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, redukcis gets, hamuszrke. Szny. 13
cm.
III-IV.sz.
DMI, fot CS

46. Fgg
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, nttt, kerek fllel; sugarasan bordzott, pereme
profillt, kzepn egy lyuk tallhat, melybe valsznleg
egy fldrga- vagy drgakvet rgztettek. tm. 1,5 cm.
VVI. sz.
DT, fot GD

42. Fedtredk
2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes redukcis
hamuszrke. tm. 13,5 cm.
IIIIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS

47. vcsat
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. Ovlis vcsat, szjszort nlkl, rhajl pecekkel, a
mely kereten kvlre szorult. tm. 1,9 cm.
VVI. sz.
DT, fot GD

gets,

vilgos

43. Edny pereme


2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, redukcis gets, vilgos hamuszrke.
Szny. 15 cm.

48. vlemez
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, nttt. A lemez pajzs alak, egyik oldala
lekerektett, szle velt, belsejben flhold alak,

105

tlyukasztott motvumok. Letrtt vgn megrzdtt az


egyik lyuk, amellyel a lemezt az v szjhoz rgztettk.
Sz. 3 cm.
VVI. sz.
DT, fot GD
49. v eleme
2007, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, nttt. Szjvg. Kt szegecs van rajta, melyek egy
vrsrz lemezkt fognak a hthoz. Dszts: kt,
szemben elhelyezked madr, nyitott csrrel s egyestve
gy, hogy krt kpezzenek, taln egy rgzt elem
szmra. A madarak tollazatt hullmv vonalak adjk.
Sz. 1,65 cm, h. 2,7 cm.
VI. sz. vgeVII. sz. els fele.
DT, fot AI
50. Ketts fs
2007, a palota kzelben.
Csont, tredkesen maradt meg. Kt lemezkbl ll,
melyeket vasszegecsekkel fogattak ssze. Dszts: egyik
lapjn bekarcolt mrtani alakzatok.
VVI. sz.
DT, fot GD
51. Kermia.
Miutn a hun birodalom a Nedanl 454-ben lezajlott
csatt kveten sztesett, a germn gepidk sajt
kirlysgot alaptottak, amely Erdlyre is kiterjedt, s 567ig llt fenn, amikor a trk eredet avarok s a germn
longobrdok elpuszttottk. A megtelepedett gepidk
faluszer teleplseken laktak, de amint a gyulafehrvri
vrban vgzett rgszeti kutatsok is bizonytjk, az
egykori rmai vrosok s castrumok romjai kz is
bekltztek.
Az ebbl az idszakbl val trgyleletek kztt
leggyakoribbak a klnbz alak s mret, napi
hasznlatra
kszlt
cserpednyekbl
szrmaz

106

tredkek. Ezeket az ednyeket kt kategriba


sorolhatjuk.
Hzi kermia; barna vagy hamuszn ednyek, amelyeket
kzzel vagy gyorskorongon formztak finom, de apr
kavicsokat is tartalmaz agyagbl, emiatt felletk rdes.
A fzsre, az tel felszolglsra vagy trolsra szolgl
ednyek alakja tbbfle: ketts csonka kp vagy krte
alak fazekak, bogrcsok, bgrk vagy korsk. Az
ednyeket
vzszintesen
bekarcolt
egyenes
vagy
hullmvonalakkal dsztettk, de voltak dsztetlenek is.
Gyorskorongon, alaposan sszegyrt finom agyagbl
korongolt, ltalban valamilyen szrke rnyalat vagy
fekete finomkermia. Ezt a kermit pecstlvel vagy
fnyezssel dsztettk.
A pecstlvel dsztett, hamuszrke vagy fekete,
ritkbban srga szn kermia jellegzetesen gepida
ksztmny; ezt a fajta ornamentikt elssorban
ivednyek: bgrk, poharak, csrs kancsk dsztsre
hasznltk. Ami a dsztmotvumokat illeti, azt
figyelhetjk
meg,
hogy
fleg
a
bepecstelt
hromszgecskket
kedveltk,
amelyeket
sorokba
rendeztek, vagy gy raktak fel, hogy rombuszokat, illetve
levlmotvumokat kpezzenek ki velk.
A fnyezett kermia szrke vagy fekete, kizrlag
korongon kszlt finom agyagbl, lehet dsztetlen vagy
dsztett, a dszts vonalhl, fgglegesen vagy
vzszintesen felvitt, egyenes vonalak kz zrt cikcakkos
vonalak, metopra emlkeztet vonalrendszerek.
Formjukat tekintve a fnyezett kermia kategrijba
tartoz ednyek lehettek poharak (nhny talpas), bgrk,
bogrcsok, ketts csonka kp vagy krte alak fazekak,
kannnak is nevezett, nagy gabonatrol ednyek.
A gepida kirlysg kori kermia az ednyek ksztsi
mdjt, formit s dsztmotvumait tekintve a
provincilis rmai hagyomnyok, illetve a germn
fazekassg elssorban az ednyek dsztsi mdozataiban
megmutatkoz hatsai sszefondsnak a termke.
DT, fot CS, GD, AI

KORA KZPKOR
52. Flhold alak flbeval
Valsznleg srmellklet.
Bronz. A darabot filigrn technikval dsztettk, kerete
hrom sor fonott szlbl ll, melyeket egy flhold alak
lemezre erstettek, a szlakat aztn a flhold vgei s a
kzepn lev dudor kr csavartk; a holdacska egyik
vgt krlfog szl elszakadt.
Flhold 3x1,7 cm, karika 0,1 cm.
IXX. sz.
AI, fot GD
53. Gyr
Srmellklet.
A gyrabroncs 0,65 cm szles, 23 egyenetlen vjattal
dsztett pntbl kszlt. kkfoglalatt szntelen
vegpasztval
tltttk
ki.
A
foglalatot
apr
fmgmbcskkbl ll dsztmny keretezi, amely
enyhn lefut a gyrabroncsra is. tm. 2,15 cm.
IXX. sz.
DT, fot GD
54. Fgg
2007, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. Lncocskval sszefogott rombusz alak darab. A
rombusz alak fgg kt vkony lemezbl kszlt
levelecske, amelyek egyik vgt szegecs, a msikat a
lncocska gyrje fogja ssze. A levelecskket kerletk
menten kis kerek kidudorodsok dsztik. Az egyik
valsznleg a lthat levelecske kzepn kr alak
kivgs. A lncocska ngy, 8-as alakra hajltott
lncszembl ll. A rombusz alak fgghz egy ezekhez
hasonl szemmel van hozzfzve, a msik vghez pedig
biztost elem kapcsoldik, egy meghosszabbtott kar
hurok. H. 5 cm. sz. 52,8 cm.
IXX. sz.
DT, fot GD

55. vcsat
Srmellklet.
Vas. Tglalap alak vcsat, sarkait lekerektettk. tm. 3x2 cm.
IXX. sz.
AI, fot GD
56. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Durva agyag. FO. M, kvl-bell fekete.
Nyaka rvid, pereme kihajlik, szja ferdn lemetszett.
Dszts: kzvetlenl a nyak alatt kezdd s valsznleg
az egsz testen folytatd, egymstl szablyos kzkben
elhelyezett karcolt hullmvonalak. Szny. 11,5 cm.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot AI
57. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, redukci gets, szrke, msodlaos
gsnyomok. Lass korong, szabad kzzel val
beavatkozsok. Az ednytest valsznleg tojsdad volt
nyaka rvid. Pereme kiugr s legmblytett. Dszts a
nyak alatt hullmvonal, az ednytesten vizszintes vonalak.
tm. 18,2 cm.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot CS
58. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka rvid, elvkonytott pereme ersen kiugrik, szja
legmblytett. Dszts: vzszintes vonalnyalb, amelyet
hullmvonal sv fed le. Fldurva agyag sok kaviccsal.
R. Nagyon ers M.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot CS
59. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.

107

Durva agyag. TR, fekete. Legnagyobb tmr a fazk


dereka tjn, nyaka gyengn velt. A kifel hzott, csapott
perem bels oldaln enyhn besimtott kanellra. Dszts:
hullmvonal a szj alatt. Szny. 17,5 cm.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot DMI

csoportostott, a szj alatt ferdn elhelyezett, kr alak


bepecstelsek. Szny. 15,5 cm.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot CS

60. Edny fels felbl szrmaz tredk


2000, a palota kzelben.
A hirtelen kihajl perem hegyesszget zr be a vllal.
NtO. M. Csillmos homokkal s ritka apr kavicsokkal
sovnytott kzepes agyag.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot CS

64. Fazk fels felnek tredke


2002, a palota kzelben.
Fldurva agyag. R. M. Dszts: vzszintes bekarcolsok
ktege, amelyet rszint ferde bekarcolsok metszenek t. A
dszts felletes, seprcskvel vgeztk. Pereme kihajlik,
szja elvastagtott, s kt besimts teszi hangslyoss.
Szny. 16,4 cm.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot AI

61. Oldaltredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag. NtO, srgsszrke. Dszts: rolnival
meghzott prhuzamos vonalak.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot CS

65. Peremtredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fldurva agyag. FO. Nyaka rvid. Vlla kill. Pereme
elvkonytott, fgglegesen lecsapott. Szny. 17 cm.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot AI

62. Edny fels felbl szrmaz tredk


2000, a sekrestye kzelben.
Csillmos homokkal s apr kavicsokkal sovnytott
kzepes agyag. A nagyon lass korongon mintzott
ednyen sok ujjnyom maradt meg. NtO. M. Az edny
tojsdad alak, nyaka alig kirajzold. Dszts: elgg
gondatlanul bekarcolt hullmvonalsvok.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot CS

66. Fazk fels felnek tredke


2002, a palota kzelben.
Durva agyag. FO. M. Kvl-bell fekete. Nyaka rvid,
pereme kihajlik, szja ferdn lemetszett. Dszts:
kzvetlenl a nyak alatt kezdd felletesen bekarcolt
vonalak. Szny. 12,5 cm.
IXX. sz.
DMI

63. Edny fels felbl szrmaz tredk


2000, a palota kzelben.
Csillmos homokkal sovnytott flfinom agyag. NtO.
M.
Valsznleg csonka
kp alak, szjnl
sszeszktett forma. Elvastagtott peremt kvl vkony
borda hzza al, szja legmblytett. Dszts: tsvel

108

67. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk


2002, a palota kzelben.
Fldurva agyag. A megmaradt tredket kzzel mintztk.
NtO, a cserp kls s bels felletn vkony pirosas
rteg. Az edny oldala a nyaknl ersen elvkonyodik.
Pereme kiugr, szja hegyes. Dszts: gondatlanul

meghzott hullmvonalak a vllon s a szj bels feln.


Szny. 18 cm.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot AI
68. Fles fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Durva agyag. NtO, stt tglapiros. Klseje kzzel
elsimtott, ezutn fnyeztk. Dszts: fnyezett vonalhl.
Kiugr perem, az elvastagtott szj legmblytett. A nyak
alig krvonalazott. A fl ovlis keresztmetszet. Rszleges
M.
IXX. sz.
DMI, fot AI
KZPKOR
69. Gyr
2000, srmellklet.
Ezst, vastag, sodrott
ellaposodnak.
tm. 2,6 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS

huzal,

vgei

szalagszeren

70. Gyr
2007, a szkesegyhz kzelben.
Ezst. A karika megszaktott vgeit elvkonytottk s
egymsba fztk. A lthat vg vkonyabb s enyhn
kihegyezett. Tojsdad alak, mr a rgisgben enyhn
deformldott teljes darab. tm. 1,71,2 cm; a
gyrabroncs lemezpntbl kszlt; ennek sz. 0,4 cm,
vastagsga 0,1 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS

71. Gyr
2007, srmellklet.
Ezsthuzalbl kikpzett karika. Vlheten egy S vg
hajkarikbl szrmazik, amelynek a vge letrtt. A
gyrt az M.123-as srban fekv halott ujjn talltuk.
tm. 1,65 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot GD
72. Gyr
2003, a szkesegyhz kzelben.
Bronz, masszv gyr, lthat hegesztsnyomok nlkl,
egyik vge elvastagodik. tm. 2,6 cm; vstg. 0,5 cm.
XXIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
73. Gyr
2004, a palota kertjben.
Bronz, tredkesen maradt meg, megkzeltleg a trgy
fele; mindkt vge letrtt. A sn tm. 0,25 cm.
XXIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
74. Gyr
2002, a palota kzelben.
Ezsttvzet. Lapos szalagbl ksztett gyrabroncs,
vgei nem rnek ssze. Apr krkkel dsztettk,
melyekbe egy-egy pontot tttek. tm. 1,8 cm.
XIXII. sz.
AI, fot CS
75. Gyr
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. Egyszer pnt, kzpen szles bemlytssel. Sz. 0,
42 cm, tm. 1,8 cm.
XIXIII. sz.
AI, fot CS

109

76. Gyr
2007, srmellklet.
Ezst; a karika ssze nem r vgei elvkonytottak. tm.
2,3 cm.
XIIXIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
77. Gyr
2007, a szkesegyhz kzelben.
Vas. A karika vgei nem rnek ssze. Fels fele tojsdad
alak, amit a karika ellaptsval s megvastagtsval
rtek el. Dszts: egy kereszt, melynek szrai kz vkony
ferde vonalak vannak bekarcolva. tm. 1,8 cm.
XIIXIII. sz.
AI, fot AM
78. Gyr
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Bronz. Karika rszlete, valsznleg gyrbl szrmazik.
tm. 2,4 cm, a huzal tm. 0,3 cm.
XXII. sz.
AI, fot CS
79. Karika
2000, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, vltoz tglalap keresztmetszet pnt. Fels vge
gyr alakban behajltott, vge a pnthoz kzelt, s
enyhn elvkonyodik. Als vgn a pnt letrtt.
tm. 1,15 cm.
XXII. sz.?
AI, fot GD
80. Karika
2007, a szkesegyhz kzelben.
Ezst; kzpen kettbe vgott. Megkzeltleg ngyzet
keresztmetszet karika, kls fele facettlt. Dsztetlen.
tm. 2,4 cm.
XXII. sz.

110

AI, fot GD
81. Pecstgyr
2001, a palota kzelben.
Ezst. Egyszer karika, melynek vgeit egy korongra
forrasztottk r, a dsztst is ebbe vstk bele. A kzponti
rszen elhelyezett antik pajzsot ferde vonalkkkal brzolt
kr lelikrl, jobb- s baloldalt a pajzs s a kr kztti rszt
kis stilizlt levelek tltik ki. A pajzs kzepn egy stilizlt
liliom lthat, melynek kzps szirma mltai keresztt
alakul t, bal oldaln egyhatszg csillag, jobb oldaln pedig
egy flhold lthat. Tredkes, a nyoms miatt tnkrement.
tm. korong 0,8 cm, sz. 0,22 cm, maga a gyr 0,6x0,15
cm-es szalagbl kszlt.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot AI
82. Halntkgyr
2000, srmellklet.
Ezst. Kt huzalbl sodort karika, egyik vge ellapostott,
s hurokszeren visszafordul. A pnt kzepn erezet.
tm. 2,1 cm, a sn tm. 0,25 cm, elszlestett rsz 0,38 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS
83. S vg hajgyr
2000, srmellklet.
Ezst. tm. 1,8 cm, a sn tm. 0,2 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje
AI, fot CS
84. S vg hajgyr
2000, srmellklet.
Ezst. Az elszlestett rsz 0,3 cm-es s hrom felsznes
bemlytssel dsztettk. tm. 1,6 cm, a sn tm. 1,5 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS

85. S vg halntkgyr
2000, srmellklet.
Ezst. tm. 1,7 cm, a sn tm. 0,15 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS
86. S vg halntkgyr
2000, srmellklet.
Ezst. tm. 2 cm, a sn tm. 0,18 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS
87. S vg hajgyr
2000, srmellklet.
Ezst. A megcsavart vgnl szalagg szlesedik, ngy
finom bemlyts. tm. 1,85 cm, a sn tm. 0,15 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS
88. S vg halntkgyr
2001, srmellklet.
Ezst.
tm. 1,9 cm, a sn tm. 0,3 cm, elszlestett rsze 0,6 cm.
XI. sz. vge XIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS
89. S vg halntkgyr
2001, srmellklet.
Bronz. tm. 2 cm, a sn tm. 0,18 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS
90. Halntkgyr
2001, srmellklet.
Bronz. Egyszer karika elvkonytott vgekkel. Max. tm.
2,3 cm, a sn tm. 0,22 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot GD

91. S vg halntkgyr
2001, srmellklet.
Ezst. Hat azonos pldny, az egyik csak rszben maradt
meg. tm. 1,8 cm, a sn tm. 0, 15 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot GD
92. S vg halntkgyr
2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Ezst; S vg gyr, vge letrt, a karikt restaurlskor
egsztettk ki. tm. 0,15 cm, a sn tm. 0,16 cm.
XXIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
93. Flbeval
2000, srmellklet.
Ezsttvzet. Egyszer flbeval kr keresztmetszet
huzalbl, kt pldny. Max. tm. 3,8 cm (1). Max. tm. 3,5
cm (2), a sn tm. 0,25 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS
94. Karperec
2002, srmellklet.
Bronz. Romboid keresztmetszet sin. tm. 5,9 cm.
XI. sz. vge?
AI, fot GD
95. Sodrott karperec
2000, a palota kzelben.
Ezst, egyenltlen vastagsg huzal. Kt, sszesodort
huzalbl ll karperec, vge hurok formj. Kt pldny
tredkei. (1) tm. 4,6 cm, a sn tm. 0,35 cm; (2) tm. 5,4
cm, a sn tm. 0,4 cm.
XI-XII. sz.
AI, fot CS

111

96. Karperec
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. Tredk. H. 4 cm, vstg. 0,2 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.?
AI, fot CS

Fldrgak. Gmb alak, a bemenetnl kiszlesed


lyukkal,
vrsesbarna,
mrvnyos
szn,
fehr
benyomdsokkal. tm. 1,75 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot CS

97. Huzallncocska
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. A szemek csigavonalba hajltott huzalbl vannak
kialaktva, a lnc egyik vgn hurok. H. 5 cm.
XIV. sz.
AI, fot GD

102. Gmbfgg, fle letrtt


2002, a palota kzelben.
vegbl ntttk, bell res, barna, fehr vizek sznak
benne. tm. 1,1 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot GD

98. kszer
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Bronz. kszer tredke, melyet bronzspntbl ksztettek;
S alakban visszahajtott vg. Valsznleg hajt. H. 1,8 cm.
XIIXIII. sz.
AI, fot CS

103. kszertredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
veg s fm. Tredkes; srgsfehr pasztval bevont
drtbl kszlt. H. 3,8 cm, vstg. 0,9 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot CS

99. Gyngy, rajta szemecskk


2001, a sekrestye kzelben.
Barna szn vegpaszta, srgval jelzett kiemelkedsek
(szemecskk). Max. tm. 1 cm.
X XII. sz.
AI, fot CS

104. kszer
2002, a palota kzelben.
veg; alakja szablytalan, egy megcsavart vegcskbl
kszlt. tm. 0,5 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot CS

100. Gyngy
2002, a palota kzelben.
veg. Zldes vegpaszta, a darabot felaprzott csvecske
formjban ksztettk. H. 1,6 cm, tm. 0,55 cm.
XXII. sz.
AI, fot CS

105. Ftyolt
2007, a palota kzelben.
Bronz; kerek gombos t. H. 4,5 cm.
XXIII. sz.
AI, fot GD

101. Gyngy
2002, a palota kzelben.

112

106. Gomb
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, egyik fele kidudorodik, ehhez forrasztottk a
koronglapot, a korongra pedig a flet. tm. 2,9 cm.
XIVXV. sz.

AI, fot GD
107. vcsat
2007, srmellklet.
Vas; kr alak vcsat pecekkel. tm. 3,7 cmx4,4 cm.
XIIXIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
108. vcsat
2007, srmellklet.
Kr alak bronzcsat, knuszos nyelve vasbl kszlt.
Karikja enyhn ellaptott kr keresztmetszet. tm. 3,8
cm, a karika vastagsga 0,35 cm.
XIIXIII. sz.
AI, fot CS

112. Veret.
Srmellklet.
Bronz. Bronzlemezbl ksztett veret, szln szegecsek;
kzps rsze kr alak, enyhn elszlesedik s egy lyuk
lthat benne. H. 2 cm, sz. 1,3 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS
113. Veret.
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Bronz, nttt. Rgzt szegecsekkel lttk el, egsz fellete
ferde bemlytsekkel dsztett. H. 2,2 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
XXII. sz.
AI, fot GD

109. Ngyszglet csat


2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. sz. 1,7 cm, sz. 2,75 cm, vstg. 0,2 cm.
XXII. sz.
AI, fot GD

114. Veret
2001, a palota kzelben.
Ezsttvzet. nttt darab, lyuggatott dsztssel.
Vstg. 0,25 cm.
XXII. sz.
AI, fot GD

110. Veret
2000, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, hromszglet lemez hrom lyukkal s megmaradt
szegeccsel. H. 2,5 cm.
XXIII. sz.
AI, fot GD

115. Veret
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz; kzepn lyuk van a felerstshez, prselssel
kszlt, levl alak. Max. tm. 1,2 cm.
XIV. sz.
AI, fot CS

111. Veret.
2000, srmellklet.
Bronz. Bronzlemezbl ksztett veret, szln szegecsek;
kzps rsze kr alak, enyhn elszlesedik, s egy lyuk
lthat benne. H. 2 cm, sz. 1,3 cm.
XI. sz. vgeXIII. sz. eleje.
AI, fot CS

116. Szv alak veret


2002, a palota kzelben.
Ezsttvzet. A darab kzepn tallhat szegeccsel
erstettk fel. tm. 1,7x1,95 cm, vstg. 0,2 cm.
XIV. sz.
AI, fot GD
117. Veret
2004, a szkesegyhz kzelben.

113

Virszer bronzveret, melynek keresztmetszete hegyes


cscsv (?). Kzepn a rgztst szolgl kis bronzszegecs.
tm. 1,8 cm; m. 0,6 cm; vstg. 0,1 cm.
XIV-XV. sz.?
AI, fot CS

Aranyozott ezst. Kpenybe burkolzott ni alak, jobb


kezvel kardra tmaszkodik. Talapzatra rgtettk.
Mg. 4,5 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
AI, fot CS

118. Veret
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, a szlei s kzepe kztt elhelyezked, dombor
krrel, kzepn lyukkal a felerstshez. tm. 0,9 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
AI, fot CS

123. Knyvkapocs
2004, a sekrestye belsejben.
Vrs- vagy srgarz. Egy pntbl ksztettk, melynek
egyik vgre kapcsot dolgoztak ki, karimval s
szegecsekkel; msik vgre egy kis kampt formltak a
darab elvkonytott meghosszabbtsbl. Lthat rszt
bekarcolt, stilizlt feny dszti, melynek cscsn
koncentrikus krkbl ll dsz ll, kzepn keresztirny
vonalak, kztk egy X. H. 12,5 cm, sz. 2,00 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot GD

119. Veret
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. Tglalap alak, hrom szegecslyuk.
1,75 cm x 0,9 cm.
XV-XVI. sz.
AI, fot CS
120. Veret
2000, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. Prselt lemezbl kszlt, virg formj, kzepn
szegecslyuk van. 3,2x3 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
AI, fot GD
121. veret
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. Lemezbl ksztett darab tredke, szablytalan
formj, verssel ksztett; szegecslyukakkal elltott,
kerlett apr krk dsztik.Valsznleg egy vrl
szrmazik.
XXIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
122. Szobrocska
2003, a sekrestye belsejben.

114

124. Knyvkapocs
2004, a sekrestye belsejben.
Vrs- vagy srgarz. Egy pntbl ksztettk, melynek
egyik vgre kapcsot dolgoztak ki, karimval s
szegecsekkel; msik vgre egy kis kampt formltak a
darab elvkonytott meghosszabbtsbl. A 4-es darab
tnkrement egy tzvszben. Bevsett, mrtani dszts. H.
7,5 cm, sz 1,1 cm (1); H. 7 cm, sz. 1,2 cm (2).
XIV-XV. sz.
AI, fot CS
125. Knyvkapocs
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. A darab kt lemezkbl ll, amiket szegecsekkel
szjra erstettek, a lemezeket nttt dszts emeli ki. A
lapok vgn szegecs helye ltszik, a darabnak teht volt
mg egy tagja, valsznleg egy fgg. 3,9x1,15 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot CS

126. Knyvkapocs
2004, a sekrestye belsejben.
Bronz, az alapjhoz kzel reczett s prhuzamos
vonalakkal dsztett. A zr trzst a ht fels rszn egy
msodik, trapezoid alak lemezke duplzza meg. h. 2,00
cm; sz. 1,4 0,8 cm; vstg. 0,1 cm kt szegecs fogja (h. 0, 1
cm; sz. 0,1 cm). A darab az elvkonyod trzsbl
kialaktott kampban vgzdik (0,8 cm), s visszafordul.
H. 4,6 cm, sz. 1,8 cm; vstg. 0, 1 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot CS
127. Knyvkapocs
2004, a sekrestye belsejben.
Vrs- vagy srgarz. Egy pntbl ksztettk, melynek
egyik vgre kapcsot dolgoztak ki, karimval s
szegecsekkel; msik vgre kis kampt formztak a darab
elvkonytott meghosszabbtsbl. Lthat rszt bevss
dszti. H. 1,9 cm; sz. 0,5 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot CS
128. Knyvveret
2004, a sekrestye belsejben.
Bronz. A darab egy dekoratvan kivgott lemezbl ll,
melynek htn szegecsekkel odafogott karima tallhat;
puha anyagokat, valsznleg, brt fogtak fel vele a
knyvtblra. H. 2,1 cm; sz. 1,00 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot CS
129. Dszszegecs
2004, a sekrestye belsejben.
Aranyozott ezst, a darab egy kettnyl szrbl s
aranyozott dszfejbl ll, melyet ngyszirm virg alakra
formztak. H. 2,4 cm, sz. 0,7 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot CS

130. Dszszegecs
2004, a sekrestye belsejben.
Ezstztt, szrbl s egyszer dzfejbl ll.
H. 2,4 cm; sz. 0,7 cm.
XIVXV sz.
AI, fot GD
131. Nylhegy kpvel
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. A hegy romboid alak, a kp alapjnl
tmasztvllal. H. 6,2 cm, sz. 1,9 cm.
XXII. sz.
AI, fot CS
132. Nylhegy
2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Vas; kovcsolssal levl alakra formltk, romboid
keresztmetszet, megmaradt a vessz rgztsre szolgl
kp is. H. 8,00 cm; vstg. 0,3x0,5cm.
XXIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
133. Szmszerjhoz val nyl hegye
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. Gla alak kpvel; a gla cscsa valamilyen
kemny trggyal val tkzs kvetkeztben elhajlott. H.
4,5 cm, kptm 0, 9 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
AI, fot CS
134. Lndzsahegy
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. Tredkek, restaurlskor kiegsztett. Megmaradt h.
12,7 cm, kptm. 2,1 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
AI, fot CS

115

135. Tr
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. Keskeny pengje hromszglet. A markolat vge
legmblytett s elvastagtott, hogy jobban simuljon a
tenyrbe. A markolat lapjai fbl kszltek, s
szegecsekkel fogtk fel ket, a szegecsek megrzdtek. A
penge kzeptl megfigyelhet a vrcsatorna. H. 37,5 cm,
legn. sz. 2,5 cm, nyl h. 9,7 cm.
XV (XVI.?) sz.
AI, fot GD
136. Fmlemezekbl s sodronyszemekbl sszelltott
vrt tredke
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Tglalap alak apr lemezek, egyik vgk
lekerektett, verssel ksztettk. Egy lemezke: 1,6x3 cm,
tglalap alak; lemezvstg 0,1 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot CS
137. Tarajos sarkanty
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Hangslyosan velt szrai vannak, melyek a vgeken
gy hajlanak vissza, hogy hurkot alkotnak, amellyel a
lbbelihez erstettk. A szrak tallkozsnl hegyesen
kill rsz tallhat; a forgtarj alttje, amely kt kis
lemezbl ll, viszonylag hossz, a tarj a mltban
elveszett. H. 9 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot CS
138. Zabla?
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 10,7 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
AI, fot CS

116

139. Hvely
2003, a sekrestye kzelben.
Vas. H. 28 cm; sz. 2,9 cm.
Kzpkori?
AI, fot CS
140. Patk
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. H. 9 cm, legn. sz.. 2,9 cm (1); H. 6,7 cm, legn. sz. 2,9 cm (2).
XIIIXV. sz.
AI, fot GD
141. Patk
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben;
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Lpatk tredke; bal hts patksarok. H. 10,9 cm,
sz. 3,4 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
AI, fot GD
142. Patk
2007, a szkesegyhz kzelben.
Vas, tredk.H. 13 cm, sz. 1,3 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot CS
143. Kstredk
2008, a palota belsejben.
Vas. Szegecslyukakkal. H. 10 cm; sz. 1,3 cm; vstg. 0,3 cm;
lyukak tm. 0,2 cm
XIIXIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
144. Ks
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. A penge keresztmetszete hromszg, nylszrral
kszlt. Tredk. H. 8 cm, sz. 1,2 cm.
XIII. sz.

AI, fot GD
145. Kspenge
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 7,5 cm, sz. 1,5 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
AI, fot GD
146. Ksgomb
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, 0,15 cm vastagsg lemez, hasas formja miatt
gymlcsmagra emlkeztet, kzepn ngyszg lyuk
(0,25x0,18 cm), mely a nyl snjnek szegecselsre
szolglt. Legn. tm. 2,2 cm.
XIV. sz.
AI, fot GD
147. Ksgomb
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Bronz. Ks vge, kzepn lyukkal, tojsdad alak, szlei
mra letrtek. H. 1,6 cm, sz. 1,1 cm.
XIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
148. Ksnyl
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas s ezst. A nyelet kt falemezbl lltottk ssze,
melyet ngy szegeccsel fogtak meg; a penge felli vgn
hrom finom, krbefut vonallal dsztett, vastag
ezstgyr maradt meg, a msik vgn csak a horony,
amelybe fmgombot szereltek. H. nyl 5,9 cm, legn. sz.
1,25 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
AI, fot CS
149. Ks.
2002, a palota kzelben.

Vas s csont. A ksnyl romboid keresztmetszet s kt


egyenesre lecsiszolt csontlapbl lltottk ssze. H. 27 cm.
XIV. sz.
AI, fot CS
150. Ks
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. A penge hromszg keresztmetszet, a nyl a
ksszrra volt rerstve. H. 10,6 cm.
XIV. sz.
AI, fot GD
151. Kstredk
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. Az tkztrcsa egybe van ntve a pengvel s a
ksszrral. H. 3 cm, a penge sz. 1,5 cm, tkztrcsa sz.
1,75 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot GD
152. Ksnyl
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. Egyik vge elvkonytott,
szeglydsszel kiszlestett, oldalt
motvumokkal dsztettk. H. 4,4 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
AI, fot CS

a msik ngy
vsett nvnyi

153. Kshvely szerelke


2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. H. 4,7 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
AI, fot CS
154. Ksnyl
2002, a palota kzelben.
Hatszg korongokbl sszelltott nyl.

117

Csont s fm. Egy vas- vagy bronzmagra csonttrcskat


szereltek, a foglalatban rz is volt, amely zld oxidd
alakult; a nylnek csak ez a 4,1cm-es tredke maradt meg
vas- s rz-oxid konglomertumba belefogva. H. 4,1 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
AI, fot CS

159. Ednyfl
2007, a szkesegyhz kzelebn.
Bronz. Ngyszg alak darab, egyik vgn szegecs.
H. 4,3 cm.
Kzpkori
AI, fot CS

155. Ksnyl vge


2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz?. H. 5,1 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot CS

160. Ks
2003, a palota kzelben.
Vas; csak a hrom szegeccsel elltott ksszr rzdtt meg,
valamint a nyl kt rgzt lemeze. Egy szegecsgym vagy
egy ktok rszlete is megmaradt. H. 12,5 cm, sz. 2,00 cm
Kzpkori?
AI, fot CS

156. Lemez
2002, a palota kzelben.
Srgarz; verssel ksztettk; mrtani motvumokat
karcoltak bele, nagyon finom karcolsokkal ngyszg
vonalegytteseket alaktottak ki. Tokknt vagy nylknt
szolglt, hossz szegecsekkel lttk el. 2,1x2,15 cm.
XVXVI.? sz.
AI, fot CS
157. Kis ednyfl
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. 0,4 cm-vastag szalagbl ksztett k, vgeit nagyon
hossz szegecs fogja ssze. tm. 3,2 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot GD
158. Nyllel elltott trgy
2003, a palota kzelben.
Bronz; a laptott nyl, kzepn lyuk van, ebbe korongot
fogtak be, amit dugknt vagy pecstlknt hasznltak?
tm. 1,00 cm, vstg. 0,3 cm.
XXIII. sz.
AI, fot GD

118

161. Csihol
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas,
kovcsolt;
vastagabb
karjn
(fecskefarkas)
sszeilleszts lthat, melyet melegen kezeltek, hibsan. A
karok mretei nem egyformk: 9 cm, vstg. 0,7 cm, illetve
6,5 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
X-XII. sz.
AI, fot GD
162. Akaszt
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. A darab karikbl s kampbl ll. A karika tm. 3,5
cm, a kamp h. 5,9 cm.
X-XIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
163. Fakanl kivjsra szolgl eszkz
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. Az eszkznek ngyszglet nyltart szra van, maga
a szerszm mindkt oldaln kilezett grbe penge. H. 11
cm, szr keresztmetszete 0,75x0,75 cm, szr h . 7,5 cm, a
penge legn. sz. 1,9 cm.
XI-XIII. sz.

AI, fot CS
164. Szerszm
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Meghatrozatlan eszkz tredke. H. 23
XIII-XIV. sz.
AI, fot GD
165. Oll
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. H. 18,8 cm, sz. a fogantyk mellett 6,3 cm;
kovcsolssal ksztettk, a fogantyk vge csigavonalban
megcsavart.
XIII (-XIV.?) sz.
AI, fot GD
166. Fejsze tredke
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. 6,6x3,5 cm.
XIV-XVI. sz.
AI, fot GD
167. Fr
2003, a palota kzelben.
Vas. T formjra kialaktott, fur rszt melegen
meneteztk. A T egyik karja letrtt, a megrzdtt kart
fogantyszeren behajltottk. H. 11,9 cm, sz. 7,3 cm.
XIV-XVI. sz.
AI, fot CS
168. Fr
2007, a palota kzelben.
Vas. T alak, fels fele ellaptott, szra ngyzet alak.
H.10,3 cm.
XIVXVI. sz.
AI, foto CS

169. Fr
2007, a palota kzelben.
Vas, egyik karja letrtt. H. 12,5 cm. A megmaradt kar
hossza 8 cm.
XVXVIII. sz.
AI, foto CS
170. Ajtsarok
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Levl alakban kikpzett ajtsarok szeglyukkal.
Tredk. 11,9x5 cm.
XIV. sz.
AI, fot CS
171. Kulcs
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. Keresztmetszete megkzeltleg hatszg, fogja
ellapostott. H. 20,4 cm.
XIII-XIV. sz.
AI, fot CS
172. Lakatalkatrsz
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas s vrsrz. H. 6,3 cm, legn. sz. 1,18 cm.
XI XV. sz.
AI, fot GD
173. Csiga alak darab, valsznleg lakat rsze
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. H. 4,3 cm
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot CS
174. Vasals
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz; hrom lyukkal lehetett felersteni.
2,7x1,3 cm, gr. 0,1 cm.
XIVXV. sz.

119

AI, fot CS
175. Vasals
2001, a szkesegyhz keleti rszben.
Bronz, vkony lemez, amely valamilyen darab bevonsra
szolglt. H. 2,4 cm
Kzpkori.
AI, fot CS
176. Nyeregvas
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 12 cm, sz. 0,5 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot GD
177. Pnt (?)
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronzlemez; ellipszis alak pnt tredke, amelyet kt
vgn (az egyik vgn?) szegeccsel rgztettek. Lthat
oldala kidomborod erezettel dsztett. H. 2 cm, sz. 1,7 cm,
vstg. 0,15 cm, a trgy vastagsga, amire felfogtk, 0,5 cm.
Kzpkori?
AI, fot GD
178. Cs
2007, a palota kzelben.
Vas, tredkesen maradt meg. H. 13,5 cm, tm. 1,5 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot GD
179. Zr
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 5,7 cm, lemez 0,25 cm, vstg. 0,9 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, foto CS
180. Szeg
2000, a palota kzelben.

120

Vas. Fejt verssel ksztettk, s ersen klpontos.


H. 7 cm.
X-XIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
181. Szegek
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. A fejek ellapostottak (1) vagy ovlisak(2). H. 6,5 cm
(1), 5,7 cm, tm. 2,15 cm (2), H. 7 cm (3); a. fej tm. 3 cm,
szr 0,5x0,5 cm (4); a. fej tm. 2,5 cm, szr 0,4x0,5 cm.
XIII. sz.
AI, fot CS,GD
182. Szeg
2000, a szkesegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Vas. H. 7 cm, szrnak legnagyobb tmrje 0,8x0,45 cm,
h. 6,5 cm, szr 0,3x0,3 cm, fej kp alak.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot GD
183. Szegek
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Kovcsolt szegek, szruk ngyzet vagy tglalap
keresztmetszet. H. 4-8 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
AI, fot GD
184. Szegek
2003, a palota kzelben.
Vas; klnbz mret kovcsolt szegek.
XVXVI. sz.
AI, fot GD
185. Gyrfejszeg
2003, a palota kzelben.
Vas; csak az a szegrsz rzdtt meg tredkesen,
amelyen a szr megvastagtsval kialaktott gyr van.
H. 6,00 cm; sz. 2,8 cm; vstg. 0,9 cm.

XVXVI. sz.
AI, fot GD
186. Fogasszeg
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Vas. L alak, az L talpa ellaptott. H. 6,2 cm; sz. 0,7 cm;
vstg. 0,3 cm; a fej H. 3,00 cm, sz. 0,9 cm; vstg. 0,4 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot GD
187. Szegek
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 6,2 cm, a fej tm. 1,5 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot GD
188. Kampsszeg
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Vas, egyszer kerek fej. H. 16,2 cm; vstg. 0,7 cm; fej tm.
1,3 cm; vstg. 0,5 cm.
Kzpkori.
AI, fot GD
189. Edny tredke
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vrsrz. Verssel ksztett st, peremn 6 mm szles
szegly, oldaln szegecslyuk, a szegecsek azonban
elvesztek. H. 9,2 cm, vstg. lemez 0,1 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
AI, fot CS
190.Vas alkatrsz
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 16,2 cm, legn. sz. 2,4 cm.
Kzpkori?
AI, fot CS

191. Vas alkatrsz


2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas a szr egyik vgn hurok, amely a karikt tartja. H. 9,8
cm, sz. 8 cm.
Kzpkori?
AI, fot CS
192. Tr
2007, a palota kzelben.
K, kr alak eszkz. tm. 9,5 cm
XXIII. sz.
AM
193. Edny fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka rvid, pereme kihajlik, szja fgglegesen levgott
s facettlt, dszts: benyomkodsregiszter a vllon.
Kzepes agyag.. NtO, vrses tglapiros. M.
Szny. 13 cm.
XXII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
194. Fletlen fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2001, a palota kzelben.
Pereme rviden kiugrik, csapott szja besimtsos.
Dszts: hullmvonal sv a nyak tvn. Fldurva agyag..
TO. M. Szny. 16 cm.
XII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
195. Oldaltredk
2001, a palota kzelben.
Dszts: karikval meghzott vonalak. NtO. M.
XII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
196. Fletlen fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2001, a palota kzelben.

121

Nyaka rvid, pereme kihajlik. Dszts: egyenltlen


grblet hullmvonalak a nyak tjktl kezdden, a
dszts valsznleg vgigment az egsz testen. Kzepes
gyurma. NtO. M. Szny. 18 cm.
XII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
197. Aljtredk
2001, a palota kzelben.
Durva agyag. NtO. M. Ftm. 8,3 cm.
XII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
198. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka szinte nincs is, pereme hirtelen kifel hzott,
csapott szja elszlestett. Dszts: hullmvonal. Fldurva
gyurma. felletes O barns felletekkel. Kvl nagyon
ers. M. Szny. 15,5 cm.
XXII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
199. Fletlen fazk szjtredke
2000, a palota kzelben.
Pereme enyhn kihajlik, szja csapott. Dszts: hrom
hullmvonalbl ll sv a vllon. Kzepes agyag. NtO.
M. Szny. 17,3 cm.
XIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
200. Edny fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2000, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka elvkonytott, pereme kiugr, egyenesre vgott
szjn felletes besimts, bell snc a fednek. Dszts:
hromfog
szerszmmal
(fsvel?)
vgzett
benyomkodsok a vllon, az ednytest tbbi rszn pedig
sr, vzszintes bekarcolsok. Kzepes agyag. NtO. M.
Szny. 17,3 cm.

122

XXIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
201. Edny fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2000, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka markns, pereme elvastagtott, kvl felletes
besimts fut krbe rajta. Dszts: hullmvonal alacsony
grbletekkel a vllon. Durva agyag. NtO. M. Szny.
15,5 cm.
XXIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
202. Fletlen fazk
2004, a palota kzelben.
Finomra szitlt homokkal sovnytott flfinom agyag,
felletes gets, az ednyfal belseje fekete. Kiemelked
vll, rvid nyak edny, pereme kihajlik, szja
legmblytett. Dszts: nyakn felletesen bekarcolt
vonalkteg, vlln tfog eszkzzel hzott ferde vonalak
s egy vzszintes vonalakbl ll sv.
Becslt szny. 21 cm, 105 cm.
XXII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
203. Edny fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2000, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka magas, pereme kiugr s egyenesen levgott, bell
enyhn bemlytett snc a fednek. Homokkal s kevs
kzepes kaviccsal sovnytott agyag. NtO. M. Szny. 18,2
cm.
XXIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
204. Oldaltredek
2007, a palota kzelben.
Fldurva agyag, felletes gets, srgs, tglapiros;
msodlagos gsnyomok. Dszts: bekarcolt egyenes.
XXIII. Sz.

DMI, foto CS
205. Aljtredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fldurva agyag, TOE, tglapiros. Msodlagos gsnyomk.
Nyaka rvid, pereme kiugrik, szja egyenesre levgott.
Dszts: a nyakon ferdm felrakott benyomkodsok, az
edny testn felletesen mghzott vzszintes vona lak.
Szny. 15,5 cm.
XIIXIII. sz.
DMI, fot, CS
206. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka rvid, pereme kihajlik, szja egyenesen levgott.
Dszts: benyomkodsok a nyakon s egy ferdn
elhelyezett benyomkodssor a gyengn kiemelked vllon.
Fldurva agyag. NtO, srgs tglapiros. Ers M.
Szny. 15,5 cm.
XIIXIII. sz.
DMI, foto AI
207. Amforaszer edny tredke
2002, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka hossz, pereme kihajlik, szja egyenesen levgott,
kerek fl nyoma ltszik rajta. Klsejt fleg fggleges
mozdulatokkal fnyeztk. Kzepes agyag. NtO, vilgos
tglapiros. M. Szny. 8,5 cm.
XIIXIII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
208. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Felletes, alig lthat bekarcolsok. Kzepes agyag. M,
NtO, srgsszrke. Teste tojsdad, legnagyobb tmrje
kzps rszn tallhat, nyaka kevsb kirajzold, de
elg hossz. Pereme kihajlik s fgglegesen levgott.

Dszts: vlln kt, egyenltlenl meghzott hullmvonal


kz zrt benyomkodssorok. Szny. 14 cm.
XIXIII.(?) sz.
DMI, fot AI
209. Ednyszjtredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Gallros perem, bell fedhorony. Kzepes agyag. NtO.
M. Szny. 13 cm.
XIVXV. sz.
DMI, fot GD
210. Szjtredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Az enyhn kiugr peremnek kvl besimtsos kis gallrja
van, bell pedig snc a fed szmra.
TO. M. Szny. 7,7cm.
XIVXV. sz.
DMI, fot AI
211. Kis kondrok peremeinek vagy trzsnek tredkei.
2000-2008
Kzepes vagy flfinom paszta, klnbz fok oxidl
gets. A klasszikus, dombor fenek tpus dokumentlt,
pereme lekerektett vagy elvastagtott, fels rszt
egyenesen vgtk le, s helyenknt kiegyenestettk, hogy
a felakasztshoz szksges lyukakat ki lehessen alaktani.
Dszts: gyakran tveszik a kzhasznlati kermia
dsztseit, mg a fazakasjegyeket is.
XI-XIII. sz.
DMI, fot AI, GD
212. Vizeskancs szjtredke
2001, a sekrestye kzelben.
Az edny csonka kp alak, szja sszeszkl, nyakt
vkony borda nyomatkostja. Dsztse gazdag, a ks
rpd-kor jellegzetes elemeit kombinlja: krcskket,
klnbz alak s nagysg benyomkodsokat,

123

hullmvonal svokat. A dszts a szj peremtl kezdve


az egsz tredket bebortja. Csillmos homokkal
sovnytott flfinom agyag. NtO. M. Szny. 6 cm.
XIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
213. Fletlen fazk szjtredke
2000, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka gyengn krvonalazott, pereme tagolt. Dszts: a
nyak
tvn
kettesvel
egymsra
helyezett
benyomkodsok, az edny testn felletesen bemetszett
vzszintes vonalak. Csillmos homokkal, apr s kzepes
kavicsokkal sovnytott kzepes agyag. NtO. M.
Szny. 14 cm.
XIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
214. Fletlen fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2000, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka rvid, pereme S alakban kihajlik, csapott szja
elszlestett. Kvl felletesen fnyezett. Dszts: kis ferde
rovsok a nyak tvben s hrom vzszintes bemetszsbl
ll vonalsor a vllon. Flfinom agyag. NtO. M.
Szny. 16 cm.
XIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
215. Fletlen fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2000, a palota kzelben.
Kiugr egyszer pereme egyenesen levgott, nyaka rvid.
Dszts: nyakn vzszintes bemetszsek, amelyeket
szablytalan hullmvonalak kvetnek. Kzepes agyag.
NtO. M. Szny. 16,2 cm.
XIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
216. Fletlen fazk szjtredke
2000, a palota kzelben.

124

Nyaka rvid, pereme elvastagtott, szja facettlt.Kvl


felletesen fnyezett. Dszts: benyomkodsregiszterek a
vllon, a legnagyobb tmr tjkn. Fldurva agyag.
NtO. M. Szny. 16,2 cm.
XIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
217. Fletlen fazk szjtredke
2000, a palota kzelben.
Markns nyak, kiugr perem, elszlestett s egyenesen
levgott szj. Kvl felletesen fnyezett. Dszts: nem
egyforma hajlat hullmvonal a nyak tvn, ami utn
rovtkkra
emlkeztet
egyenltlen
bemetszsek
regiszterei kvetkeznek. Fldurva agyag. NtO. M.
Szny. 16 cm.
XIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
218. Fletlen fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2000, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka hangslyozott, kihajl pereme az ednyfalhoz
kpest ersen elvastagtott s enyhn profillt. Kvl
elsimtott.
Dszts:
a
vllra
ferdn
felrakott
benyomkodsok. Kzepes agyag. NtO. M. Szny. 13 cm.
XIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
219. Kis edny als fele.
2000.
Profillt fenekn horogkereszt alak fazakasjegy lthat.
Fldurva pasztbl kszlt. AOI. AS. Ftm. 4 cm.
XIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
220. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Dszts: felletesen bekarcolt hullmvonal. Kzepes agyag.
A cserp fellete rdes. NtO, srgsszrke. Ers M.

Szny. 13 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
DMI, fot, CS
221. Fles fazkbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Legnagyobb tmrje a dereka tjkn, pereme befel
hajlik. Dszts: rolnival benyomott mrtanias motvumok.
Nagyon j minsg flfinom agyag. R. M. Szny. 8 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
DMI, fot AI
222. Edny fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Finom agyag NtO, M, srgs tglapiros. Nyaka rvid,
pereme kiugr. Szja elvkonytott, kls feln
legmblytett
borda
nyomatkostja.
Dszts:
hullmvonal a nyak tvn. Szny. 16 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
DMI, fot AI
223. Ednyfenk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Kidomborod fazekasjegy: krbe zrt egyenltlen szr
kereszt. Finom agyag. TO, vrsbe hajl tglapiros.
Ftm. 8,3 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS
224. Fazk fels felbl szrmaz tredk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Nyaka rvid, pereme hegyes, szja nylhegy alakra
formzott. Dszts: nagyon finom bekarcolsokbl ll sv
a nyak tvn. Fldurva agyag. NtO, srgsszrke. Lass
korongon mintzott darab. Szny. 12,5 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS

225. A XIV. szzadi objektum


2002, a palota kzelben.
A kermialeleteket, amelyek tbbsgkben a hztartsi
ednyek
kategrijba
tartoznak,
nhny
kzs
ismertetjegy klnbzteti meg:
az agyagot, amibl az ednyeket korongoltk, gyorsan
ksztettk
el,
emiatt
nem
sikerlt
minden
szennyezdstl s lgbuborktl megtiszttani;
az agyagot elg sok szitlt homokkal sovnytottk, ez az
oka annak, hogy egyes ednyek fellete tlsgosan is
rdes tapints;
a darabok gyorskorongon kszltek, elsimtsukhoz sok
vizet hasznltak;
az ednyeket ltalban nem teljes gs oxidl tzben
gettk ki, a gyorsan ellobog tz s a kemencn thalad
lgram nem volt elgsges ahhoz, hogy a 2,53 cm vastag
ednyfalak teljesen tgjenek, ezrt a cserepek
tbbsgnek a belseje szrks lila sznezet.
A
fazekasagyag
sszettele
szerint
hrom
kermiacsoportot klnbztethetnk meg. A gyurma
lehet:
fldurva (rdes);
flfinom;
finom.
A fl fazk. Ez a leggyakrabban elfordul tpus,
vlhetleg egsz llomnyunk valamelyik konyha
hulladkbl szrmazik. A fles ednyeket hat tredk
dokumentlja, kzlk kett fazkbl szrmazik, a tovbbi
ngy pedig kismret ednyekbl, valsznleg bgrkbl.
Ezek kzl a 125. ednyfl ragadja meg a figyelmnket,
ez finom agyagbl kszlt, nem teljes getse utn srgs
tglasznt nyert, s bepecstelt rozettkkal dsztettk, ami
kvltkppen a szrke kermia dsztsre jellemz
De szep szmmal jelen vannak leletanyagunkban a harag
alak fedk, bogrcsok meg egy kors is.
A trolednyek tpust egyetlen, fldurva
agyagbl gyors korongon mintzott ednytredk
kpviseli, amelyen nyoma sincs dsztsnek. Klnleges

125

ismertetjegye a szj tjkn elhelyezett agyaggallr,


amelynek a belsejt korongon elsimtottk. Az ednynek
nem volt nyaka, teste gmblyded vagy hosszks,
szjnylsa (31 cm) sokkal kisebb, mint legnagyobb
tmrje, falvastagsga 0,70,8 cm.
A nylt tzn val fzsre sznt ednyek kategrijnak
klnleges darabja egy redukcis gets ednytredk.
Alapanyagt agyagbl s homokbl lltottk el, de
klnleges technolgiai eljrssal, ennek folytn a
vgtermk rendkvl tmr, cementszer s nagyon
rezisztens. Az getst zrt kemencben vgeztk, aminek
az eredmnye a nagyon j minsg, teljes redukcis
tget s az ednyfal szrke szne. Az edny
olvaszttgely alak, nagyon vastag pereme kihajlik,
oldala innen szinte fgglegesen halad lefel. A szj fels
szln, a kifolycsrszeren ellapostott rszen mlyen
bepecstelt T bet lthat. Noha alakja olvaszttgelyre
emlkeztet, az edny tmrje viszonylag nagy (26 cm a
szjnylsa). Oldalra klnbz anyagok konzisztens
rtege gett r, ami azt bizonytja, hogy sokig hasznltk
nylt lng fltt.
A mi darabunk minden bizonnyal Tulln am
Donaubl szrmazik, amelynek vroscmerben ma is
megtallhat a T bet.
AI, fot AI

NtO, vkony, szrkssrga rtegecskk a cserp kls


oldaln. R. Szny. 17 cm.
XIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS
228. Ednytredk, bgre talpa?
2002, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag. NtO, srgs tglapiros. Ftm. 5,5 cm.
XIV. sz.
DMI, foto CS
229. Csrs bgre tredke
2002, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag. NtO, srgs tglapiros.
XIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS
230. Olvaszttgely tredke
2002, a palota kzelben.
A fenken tartkarika. Kvl kzvetlenl az agyagra rvitt
zld mz. Kzepes agyag sok csillmmal. R.
Ftm. 3,6 cm.
XIV. sz.
DMI, fot AI

226. Edny fels felbl szrmaz tredk


2002, a palota kzelben.
Dszts: felleti besimtsok. Kzepes agyag. NtO,
tglapiros. M. Szny. 11,3 cm.
XIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS

231. Fles ednybl (kis korsbl?) szrmaz tredk


2002, a palota kzelben.
Alja profillt, oldala lpcszetesen visszaugrik. Dszts:
bekarcolt vzszintes vonalsvok. Kzepes agyag. NtO,
srgs tglapiros. Szny. 4,7 cm.
XIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS

227. Edny fels felbl szrmaz tredk


2000, a palota kzelben.
Pereme kihajlik. Elvastagtott nyaka nylhegy alakra
formzott. Kls fellete rdes. Dszts: az edny
nyaktl kezdden kiemelked bordk. Kzepes agyag.

232. Gyertyatart
2004, a palota kzelben.
Kzepos agyag. NtO, srgs tglapiros. Csonnka kp
alak , szk szj, kis edny, miniatr korshoz hasonlit.
Ftm. 4 cm.

126

XIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS
233. Orsnehezk
2007, a palota kzelben.
J minsg agyag, redukcisan feketre gett. Ketts
csonka kp alak. tm. 2,9 cm, mag. 1,8 cm.
XXII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
234.Orsnehezk
2000, a szkedegyhz szaknyugati tornynak belsejben.
Kermia. ketts csonka kp alak. tm. 2,4 cm, mag. 1,2
cm, a lyuk tm. 0,7 cm.
XIIIXIV. sz.
DMI, fot CS
235. Orsnehezk
2000, a palota kzelben.
Kermia. tm. 2,6 cm
XIVXV. sz.
DMI, fot CS
JKOR
236. Sodort huzalgyr, taln foglalat
2002, a palota kzelben.
Ezst. Ovlis alak darab, kt szl sszesodrsval
ksztettk, a vgeket sszehegesztettk gy,
hogy nem lthatak. Legn. tm. 2,2 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
237. Gyr
2002, a palota kzelben.
Srga fm. tm. 1,8 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot GD

238. Hajt
2001, a szkesegyhz nyugati felben.
Bronz, kerek fej t. H. 3,3 cm, vstg. 1 cm; tm. 0,25 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
239. Ruhakapocs
2002, a palota kzelben.
Ezst. 0,16 cm-es, a flek tjn ersen ellapostott huzalbl
kszlt; csak a nstnykapocs maradt meg.
tm. 1,5x1,3 cm.
XVXVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
240. Gomb
2001, a sekrestye kzelben.
Bronz. Flgmb alak, belsejhez, huzalbl kszlt ers fl
kapcsoldik. tm. 1,6 cm.
XVIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
241. Gomb
2002, a palota kzelben.
Srga fm, bekarcolt virgmotvummal. tm. 1,6 cm
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
242. Gombok
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. A koronghoz vastag huzalbl ksztett flet
forrasztottak (a), vagy kzepe kiss behorpasztott, s nincs
fle (b). tm. 1,8 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
243. vcsat
2000, a palota kzelben.

127

Bronz. Tglalap alak csat, vltoz keresztmetszet


anyagbl. Mr a rgisgben deformldott.
H. 3 cm, sz.1,7 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
244. vcsat
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Tglalap alak csat. H. 3,6 cm.
XVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
245. Veret
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. nttt darab, a zsinrmotvumot utnz ferde
bordkkal, szegecslyukak vannak rajta. H. 4,5cm, vstg. 0,6 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
246. Veret
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, nttt, kzepn lyuk van a felerstshez. Virg
alak. Legn. tm. 1,5 cm, vstg. 0,1 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot GD
247. Knyveret
2001, a palota kzelben.
Ezsttvzet. Kivgott lemezbl ksztettk, kzepre egy
lapot szegecseltek, amely
egy brdarabot tartott. H. 2,4 cm, sz. 1,15 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
248. Knyveret
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, kivgott vkony lemez, egyik vgn kt szegecs
rzdtt meg. H. 3,2 cm.

128

XVIXVII. sz.?
AI, fot CS
249. Dszszegecs
2001, a sekrestye kzelben.
Bronz. H. 0,65 cm, tm. 0,5 cm.
XVIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
250. Sarkanty
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Vas; a rgzt profilok flkrsek, egy magas tmasztja s
hossz karja van, amely tarajban vgzdik.
H. 10,1 cm; vstg. 0,7 cm
XVXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
251. Sarkanty
2001, a szkesegyhz nyugati rszben.
Vas. A sarkanty karjainak keresztmetszete flkr alak,
vgeit sarkantyszegekkel fogtk a lbbelire; nyaka
ngyszg keresztmetszet. Az egyik tarajt tart kar s
maga a taraja is hinyzik. A karok kztti nyls 8 cm;
nyak 0,7x0,55 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
252. Nyereghevedercsat
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Nyelve egyenes, kerete flkr alak. H. 6,5 cm, legn.
sz. 3,2 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
253. Patk
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Vas, szegecsnylsokkal. H. 12,8 cm, sz. 11,6 cm.
XVXVII. sz.

AI, fot GD
254. Csizmapatkk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 5,3 cm, sz. 5,2 cm (1); H. kb. 6,4 cm (2).
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
255. Zabla
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Vas. A szjak szmra kt tglalap alak lyukkal van
elltva, illetve a lncok szmra kt kerekebb alakval. H.
16,3 cm.
XVII-XVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
256. Kshvely
2007, a szkesegyhz kzelben.
Vas. H. 26,6 cm
XVIIIXIX. sz.
AM, fot GD
257. Lfegyver fmrsze
2001, a szkesegyhz nyugati rszben.
Vas, ezstintarzikkal. H. 25 cm.
XVIII. sz.
AM, fot GD
258. Ks
2002, a palota kzelben.
Habn vagy striai ks tredke; a nyl vas (vagy
vrsrz?) bevonata, bevsett dszts. Tredk. H. 6,6 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot CS
259. Nyl (ksnyl)
2002, a palota kzelben.

Vas s fa. Valamilyen, trgy a fbl kszlt, faragott s


csiszolt nyelnek tredke. H. 4,8 cm, melybl a nyl 3,3
cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot GD
260. Ks
2001, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Csak a ks szra rzdtt meg s a penge tvnek egy
kis rszlete. H. 8,5 cm, sz. 2,7 cm.
XVI-XVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
261. Ks
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 8,3 cm, sz. 1,9 cm.
XVIIXIX. sz.
AI, fot CS
262. Zsebks
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
A nyl bortsa szaru (vagy elefntcsont), nagymacska
alak, fnyezett, pengje becsukva, a nylbe. H. 7,5 cm;
legn. sz. 1,9 cm.
jkori.
AM, fot GD
263. Zsebks
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Vasbl, csontnyllel. A nyelet kt bels fmlemezbl
alaktottk ki, melyre kt-kt vasszegeccsel kt csontlemezt
erstettek. A szegecsek kztt kt flig kifrt lyuk lthat,
amelyekbe valsznleg dszeket ersitettek. H. 10,5 cm.
jkori.
AM, fot GD
264. Zsebks
2007, a palota kzelben

129

Vas. Nyele kt vrsrz lemezbl ll,


szegecsekkel falemezeket erstettek. H. 4,7 cm.
Modern kori.
AI, fot GD

melyekre

265. Gysz
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, tnyomokkal. Megm. 1,2 cm, sz. 1,3 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
266. Brd
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 18,5 cm, sz. 6,5 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
267. Gyertyatart vagy gyertyakoppant
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas; hengeres formj, bell res, ngyszg szra
letrtt. Tredk. Mg. 4,8 cm, a cs tm. 2,7 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot CS
268. cskapocs
2003-2004, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Egyik vge elszlesedik,s kt lyuk van rajta a
rgztshez, msik vge hegyes. H. 21,5 cm, sz. 10 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
269. Knyvkpocs
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz. Gyr kp alak horoggal. tm. 3,6 cm, gyr 0,6
cm.
XVII. sz.
AI, fot CS

130

270. Kfaragkapocs.
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Tglalap alak profilvasbl alaktottk ki (1,5x0,55
cm). Hrom pldny tredkei. H. 16 cm/17 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot CS
271. Kfarag-kalapcs
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Az tfellet keresztmetszete ngyzet alak (2,8x2,8
cm), farag rsze nagyon elszlesedik (7,1 cm). H. 19,2 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot CS
272. Kfarageszkz
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas, ngyszglet idomvasbl kszlt, ahol fogtk, az lek
vannak kerektve, a kilezett vgn az lek rintetlenek.
H. 10,2 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot CS
273. Vs
2004, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Alakja megkzeltleg ngyszglet, rvidebb vge
elvkonyodik. H . 15,7 cm, sz. 6,00 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
274. Ablakszem kerete
2002, a palota kzelben.
lom, szablytalan alak darab, mely a rgisgben
elformtlanodott, a karika I profil. A festett vegablakszemek rszeinek rgztsre hasznltk.
tm. 2,65x2,2 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot GD

275. Koporsszeg
2001, a szkesegyhz nyugati felben.
Bronz. tm. 1,2 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
276. Ajthorog s szegek
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 11-14 cm.
XVIXVII?. sz.
AI, fot GD
277. Ajtsarok
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 14 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot GD
278. Sarokvas
2000, a palota kzelben.
Vas. H. 15 cm.
Modern kori.
AI, fot CS
279. Fogasszeg
2004, a palota kzelben.
Vas, egy lyukkal. H. 6,8 cm; sz. max 2,2 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
280. Dszvas
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Vas, 4-es szmjegy alak. Egyik karja nagyon hossz,
csigavonalban megcsavart. H. teljes 17,3 cm, tm. 4,7 cm.
XVXVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
281. Kapcsos lnc
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.

Vas, 11 rszint svrott lncszembol ll rsze maradt meg,


vghez egy kis rudacskt erstettek, amely hurok
bezrsra szolglt egy nagyobb szembe val beptsvel,
mely a lnchoz van fogva. H. 23,5 cm.
XVXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
282. Sarokvasals
2004, a palota kzelben.
Vas, lemezbl vgtk ki derkszg alakra.
H. 10,5 cm; sz. 2 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
283. Szegek es kampsszegek
2000-2008.
Vas, klnbz formk s mretek..
XVIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS, GD
284. Edny tredke
2002, a palota kzelben.
Bronz, 0,12 cm-es vastag lemez, nyolcszgletre vgva
oldala 2,4 cm, taln ednyfolt lehetett. 6x5,5 cm.
XVII-XVIII sz.
AI, fot CS
285. Ednyfl
2001, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Tredk.
H. 14,5 cm; vltoz keresztmetszet, legn. tm. 0,8 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot GD
286. Rd
2004, a palota kzelben.
Vas. Kamp alak, keresztmetszete ngyszg.
H. 17,5 cm; sz. 1,2 cm; vstg. 0,4-0,6 cm

131

XVI-XVII. sz.
AI, fot GD
287. Fletlen fazk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vilgosvrs, apr homokkal sovnytott agyag. Nem
teljes oxidcis gets. Pereme kiszlesedik, kihajlik s
fodrosan kikpezett. Bell sekly fedhorony, melynek
kvl kzpen egy borda felel meg. Nyaka rvid, az
ednytrzs dombor, legnagyobb tmrje a fels
harmadnl tallhat. Kvl sttvrs elsznezdsek
lthatak a msodlagos gs miatt. Dszts: a vllon kt
vzszintes bekarcolt vonal. Szny. 14 cm, legn. tm. 15 cm,
ftm. 8 cm, m. 15 cm
XVI. sz.
SPL, fot GD
288. Fles fazk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Srgsvrs, nagy szem homokkal sovnytott agyag.
Nem teljes oxidcis gets. Pereme kiszlesedik, belsejn
keskeny fedhorony, melynek a kls fellet kzepn egy
borda felel meg. A perem szlt egy borda emeli ki. Nyaka
rvid, az ednytrzs dombor, alja lapos. Tredkes
szalagfle rvid, besimts osztja kettbe. Kvl az edny
felletnek tbb mint felt korom bortja. Dszts: a vllon
kt vzszintes bekarcolt vonal. Szny.13,5 cm, legn. tm.
16,5 cm, ftm. 8 cm, m.16,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
SPL, fot GD
289. Fles fazk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Vilgosvrs, homokkal sovnytott agyag, nem teljes
oxidcis gets. Pereme kiszlesedik, kihajlik s fodrosan
kikpezett. Bell sekly fedhorony, melynek kvl
kzpen egy borda felel meg. Nyaka rvid, az ednytrzs
dombor, legnagyobb tmrje a fels harmad kzepe

132

tjn tallhat. Rvid szalagflt besimts osztja kettbe.


Kvl korom s sttvrs elsznezdsek lthatak a
msodlagos gs miatt. Dszts: hrom bekarcolt
vzszintes vonal a nyak kzepn. A legnagyobb tmrnl
hullmos bekarcolt vonalkteg vzszintesen bekarcolt
vonalakkal kombinlva. Szny.14,5 cm, legn. tm. 15 cm,
ftm. 9 cm, m.18 cm
XVI. sz.
SPL, fot GD
290. Fles fazk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Tglavrs, homokkal sovnytott agyag, teljes oxidcis
gets. Pereme kiszlesedik, szlt egy borda emeli ki.
Nyaka rvid, kzepn egy borda lthat. Az ednytrzs
dombor, legnagyobb tmrje a fels harmad kzepe
tjn tallhat. Szalagfle rvid, egy besimts osztja kett.
Klsejn koromnyomok. Dszts: a vll kezdett egy
bekarcolt, vzszintes vonal jelli. Szny.14,5 cm, legn. tm.
18 cm, ftm. 9 cm, m. 20 cm.
XVI. sz.
SPL, fot GD
291. Fles fazk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Tmr, homokot s kavicsokat tartalmaz agyag, nem
teljes oxidcis gets. Fellete skos s egyenetlen. Szne
bell szrksfekete, kvl vilgosvrs, mely helyenknt
srgba/szrkbe hajlik. Pereme kiszlesedik, bell sekly
fedhorony, melynek a kls fellet kzepn egy szles,
lekerektett borda felel meg. A perem szlt borda emeli ki.
Nyaka rvid. Az ednytrzs dombor, legnagyobb
tmrje a fels harmadnl tallhat. Alja lapos. Szalagfle
rvid. Klsejn koromnyomok. Dszts: a vllat vzszintes
bekarcolt vonalkteg dszti. Szny.18 cm, legn. tm. 21,5
cm, ftm. 11 cm, m. 22,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
SPL, fot GD

292. Fles s lbas serpeny


2002, a palota kzelben.
Tglavrs, homokkal sovnytott agyag, nem teljes
oxidl gets. Pereme ersen kiszlesedik, kiss kihajlik,
lekerektett. Oldala enyhn, az alja fel ersebben
domborodik, hrom lba van, egy fl segtsgvel
kezeltk. Szalagfle a peremtl az aljig r, egy besimts
osztja ktfel. Aljn koromfoltok. Dszts: Bell
zldessrga,
egyenletes,
vastag
mz,
amely
megrepedezett, alatta egy rteg fehr angb tallhat.
Nyakt s trzst vzszintes, bekarcolt vonalak dsztik.
Szny.18 cm, ftm. 14 cm, mag. (lbak nlkl): 7 cm.
XVI. sz.
SPL, fot GD
293. Fles fazk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Tmr, homokot s kavicsokat tartalmaz, vilgosvrs
agyag, nem teljes oxidcis gets. Fellete skos,
egyenetlen. Pereme erteljesen kiszlesedik, fels rsze
egyenes. Bell sekly fedhorony, melynek kvl kzpen
egy les borda felel meg. Nyaka rvid. Oldala dombor,
legnagyobb tmrje a magassg fels harmadnl
helyezkedik el. Szalagfle rvid, besimts osztja kt
rszre. Alja lapos. Kvl ersen meggett, gy sttvrsre
sznezdtt, s koromfoltok bortjk. Szny. 22,2 cm, legn.
tm. 28 cm, ftm. 12,5 cm, m. 25 cm.
XVI. sz.
SPL, fot GD
294. Fles fazk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Homokot tartalmaz, tglavrs agyag, bell szrke, nem
teljes oxidcis gets. rdes fellet. Pereme erteljesen
kiszlesedik, bell sekly fedhorony, kvl les borda.
Nyaka rvid, kzepn bord. Dombor ednytrzs,
legnagyobb tmrje a magassg kzepnl helyezkedik
el. Rvid szalagflt besimts osztja kett. Lapos alj. Kvl

erteljesen meggett, sttvrsre sznezdtt s


koromfoltok bortjk. Dszts: a vllat felsznesen
bekarcolt, vzszintes vonalkteg dszti. Szny. 20 cm, legn.
tm. 26 cm, ftm. 12,5 cm, m. 28,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
SPL, fot GD
295. Hagyma alak persely
2002, a palota kzelben.
Homokot tartalmaz, lnk tglavrs szn agyag, rdes
fellet. Kiss behorpasztott, gmbszer trzs, lapos alj,
fels rsze egy kiugrsban vgzdik. Vlln nyls. H. 2,2
cm, sz. 0,15 cm.
XVI. sz.
SPL, fot GD
296. Fles bgre
2004, a palota kzelben.
Homokkal s csillmmal sovnytott agyag, teljes
oxidcis gets, szne tglapirosas barna. Rvid nyak
edny, pereme kiugrik, szja egyenesen levgott. Dszts:
kzps rszn felletesen bekarcolt vzszintes vonalak.
Belsejt zld mz bortja. A fln zld mzfoltok. Szny. 12
cm, ftm. 8,5 cm, mag. 15 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
297. Fazk
2004, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, szne vrses
tglapiros. Hasas edny, legnagyobb tmrje a kzepn.
Nyaka rvid, de ersen velt, pereme kiugrik. Egy fl
nyoma ltszik rajta.
Dszts: fehr festkkel felfestett mrtanias idomok
felletesen bekarcolt ketts vzszintes vonalak kztt.
Szny. 17 cm, ftm. 9 cm, mag. 22 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD

133

298. Fles fazk


2004, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, vltoz gets, srgs tglapiros. Nyaka
rvid. Az edny gets eltt kiss deformldott,
szjnylsa aszimmetrikus. Pereme kiugrik, bell
fedhorony, amelynek kvl vkony besimts felel meg.
Ngyszgletes profil kis fl. Dszts: a vllon nhny
felletes
bekarcols,
amelyeket
fehr
festkkel
hangslyostottak.
Szny. 16 cm, ftm. 9 cm, mag. 23 cm, a fl sz. 2 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD

301. Fazk
2004, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, felletes gets, stt tglapiros. Krte
alak edny enyhn kiemelt vllal, nyaka knnyedn velt,
pereme kiugrik. Fle csak rszben maradt meg. Dszts:
belsejt sttzld mz bortja, amelyben fggleges irny
vilgosabb svok vltjk egymst. Kvl finom
bekarcolsok, az edny vlln levket fehr festk emeli ki.
Szny. 12 cm, ftm. 8 cm, mag. 16 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD

299. Fles fazk


2004, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, vltoz oxidcis gets, stt tglapiros.
Gmblyded, hasas edny, legnagyobb tmrje a kzepe
tjn. Nyaka rvid, pereme ersen kiugrik, szja
legmblytett. Hast szles fl kti ssze a szjval.
psgben kerlt felsznre. Dszts: felletesen bekarcolt
vzszintes egyenes s hullmvonalak fehr festkkel
hangslyostva. Szny. 13,8 cm, ftm. 8,5 cm, mag. 20,8 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD

302. Lbas
2004, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, felletes gets, stt tglapiros.
Bogrcshoz hasonl edny, oldalnak fels fele ersen
gmblyded, pereme ersen kiugrik, egy fl nyoma ltszik
rajta. Az als feln lthat ers gsnyomok azt mutatjk,
hogy kzvetlen rintkezsben volt a tzzel. Dszts: kvl
felletes bekarcolsok. Belsejt sttzld mz bortja,
amelyben fggleges vilgosabb svok vltjk egymst.
Szny. 15 cm, ftm. 6,4 cm, mag. 7,6 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD

300. Fles fazk


2004, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, tglapirosas
szrke. Gmblyded forma, legnagyobb tmr a has
tjkn, nyaka rvid, pereme ersen kifel hzott, szja
elvkonytott. Kismret fl nyoma ltszik rajta.
Tredkes, a restaurls sorn rekonstrultuk. Dszts:
felletesen bekarcolt s fehr festkkel kiemelt vonalsorok.
Szny. 15,4 cm, ftm. 8 cm, mag. 15,2 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD

303. Lbas
2004, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, teljes gets, tglapirosas srga. Az
ednynek hrom magas lba van, teste megkzeltleg
henger alak, pereme kiugr s ellaptott. Ketts csonka
kp alak nyele bell res. Felleti hasznlati nyomok.
Dszts: bell csillog barna mz. Kvl bekarcolt s fehr
festkkel megfestett mrtanias motvumok. Srga
mzfoltok. Szny. 17,6 cm, mag. 11 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD

134

304. Serpeny
2004, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, vrs- tglapiros.
Csnyel, hromlb serpeny. Dszts: bell barnsfekete mz. Szny. 14,3 cm, mag. (lbak nlkl) 10 cm, a
nyl hossza 7 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
305. Nyeles lbas
2004, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, teljes gets, vrs-tglapiros. Fazkra
emlkeztet edny, hasa kiss kidomborodik, velt rvid
nyak, pereme kiugr, a perem szle csipksen kikpzett.
Hrom tmzsi, kzzel ksztett lbt akkor ragasztottk az
edny fenekre, amikor mg nedvesen levettk a
korongrl. Egy fl segtsgvel lehet megfogni. Belsejn
msodlagos gsnyomok. Csak rszben rzdtt meg,
rekonstrultuk. Dszts: bell zld mz. Kvl hrom
felletesen bekarcolt vonal. Szny. 18,2 cm, ftm. 8,5 cm,
mag. 13 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
306. Fed
2004, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, felletes gets, tglapirosas srga.
Lelaptott kp alak, rvid fogantyval lehetett mozgatni.
Legn. tm. 14 cm, mag. 5,2 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
307. Bgre
2004, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, teljes gets, pirosassrga. Tojsdad alak
edny, nyaka enyhn hangslyozott, pereme elvkonytott
s kiugr. A perem fl emelked flet ragasztottak r.
Egszben kerlt el.

Dszts: felletesen bekarcolt vzszintes vonalak.


Szny. 8 cm, ftm. 5,5 cm, mag. 7,5 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
308. Kehely
2004, a palota kzelben.
Finom kaolin, teljes oxidcis gets, srgsfehr. Kp
alak rvid talpt les borda osztja ktfel. Oldala kihajlik.
Tredkesen rzdtt meg, a restaurlskor egsztettk
ki. Dszts: bell barnssrga, ersen korrodlt mz.
Klsejt vilgoskk mz bortja, amelyre aranysrga
mzbl klnbz szlessg svokat vittek fel. A kls
mz j llapotban rzdtt meg. Szny. 12,5 cm (ami
megmaradt), a talp mag. 5 cm, teljes mag. 9,8 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
309. Fles fazk
2002, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, sttpiros. Az edny
teste tojsdad alak, legnagyobb tmrje a fels feln,
pereme kiugrik, szja legmblytett. A perem bels oldaln
fedhoronyt alaktottak ki. Szles fl, kzepes besimts.
Dszts: bell angb alapozs nlkl kzvetlenl a
kermira felvitt vkony, barnszld mz. Kvl nhny
felleti bekarcols. Szny. 16 m, ftm. 8 cm, mag. 20 cm,
falvastagsga 0,81 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
310. Bogrcs
2002, a palota kzelben.
Finom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets. Dekoratv, nagyjbl
kp alak bogrcs, belsejt vll szegmentlja. Fgglegesen
felhzott peremt kt besimts teszi hangslyoss. Kvl, a
vll magassgban kt flecske, amelyek segtsgvel
tartra lehetett akasztani. Rszben maradt meg,

135

restaurlskor egsztettk ki. Dszts: bell srgsfehr


mz, amelyre szrkszld s sttkk virgmotvumokat
festettek. Szny. 26 cm, ftm. 17 cm, mag. 8 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
311. Pohr
2002, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, vrses tglapiros.
Dszts: kvl-bell ugyanaz a fajta, vkony rtegben
kzvetlenl a kermira felvitt fehr mz. Tojsdad
ednytest, legnagyobb tmrje a dereka tjn, nyaka
rvid, kihajl pereme elvkonytott. Szny. 5,4 cm, ftm. 3,4
cm, legnagyobb tm. 5,9 cm, mag. 7,3 cm. Oldalfala
rendkvl vkony, 0,30,4 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
312. Lbas
2002, a palota kzelben.
Finom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, vrses tglapiros.
Henger alak edny (oldala enyhn kihajlik), kt fltl
lehetett megfogni. Dszts: kvl-bell viszonylag j
minsg srgsfehr mz. Szny. 16 cm, ftm. 13 cm, mag.
7,9 cm, falvastagsga 0,6 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
313. Serpeny
2002, a palota kzelben.
Homokkal s csillmmal sovnytott kzepes agyag, teljes
oxidcis gets, vrses tglapiros. Hromlb, csnyel
serpeny. Nylt tzn hasznltk: aljn s lbain msodlagos
gsnyomok. Restaurlskor egsztettk ki. Dszts: bell
barna mz, kvl felletes bekarcolsok. Szny. 30 cm, ftm. 20
cm, teljes magassg 16 cm. A nyl 11,75 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD

136

314. Serpeny
2002, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, sttpiros.
Hromlb, henger alak, csnyllel elltott edny.
Restaurlskor egsztettk ki. Dszts: bell fnyes, jl
konzervldott sttzld mz.
Szny. 25 cm, ftm. 22 cm, mag. 17 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
315. Fed
2002, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, teljes gets, vrses tglapiros. Kp alak
fed profillt fogantyval. Dszts: tetejn fehr festkkel
festett mrtanias motvumok; rszben vilgoszld mz.
Legn. tm. 28,2 cm, mag. 11,4 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
316. Fed
2002, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, teljes gets, srgs tglapiros. Kp alak
fed, tetejn gombhoz hasonl rvid fogantyval.
Peremnek szln msodlagos gsnyomok. Dszts:
tetejn fehrrel felfestett geometrikus dsz; rszben
vilgoszld mz. Legn. tm. 19,1 cm, mag. 8 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
317. Fed
2002, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, vrses tglapiros.
Rvid fogantys fed. Msodlagos gsnyomok. Dszts:
fehrrel felfestett geometrikus dsz, zld mzfoltok.
tm. 12,8 cm, mag. 4,8 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GM

318. Fed
2002, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, vrses tglapiros.
Kp alak fed, rvid, gombra emlkeztet fogantyval.
Dszts: tetejn fehrrel felfestett mrtanias dszts;
rszben vilgoszld mz. Legn. tm. 9 cm, mag. 4,5 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GM
319. Fed
2002, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, srgs tglapiros.
Fllel elltott, ketts csonkakp alak fed. Bels feln ers
msodlagos gsnyomok. Legn. tm. 17 cm, mag. 5,5 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
320. Fed
2002, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, vrses tglapiros.
Rvid, gombra emlkeztet fogantyval elltott, kp alak
fed. Dszts: fehrrel felfestett geometriai dszts,
amelyre zld mzfoltok kerltek.
Legn. tm. 9 cm, mag. 4,5 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
321. Kors
2002, a palota kzelben.
Flfinom agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, vrses tglapiros.
Krte alak edny, magas nyakt les v osztja ktfel, szja
kihajlik. Trapz keresztmetszet flnl lehetett megfogni.
Dszts: oldaln tbb, felletesen bekarcolt vzszintes
vonalkteg lthat. Flt krmbenyomkodsok dsztik.
Az ednyt majdnem az aljig barna mz bortja, amelyre
srga mzdszeket vittek fel.
Szny. 4,2 cm, legn. tm. 14 cm, mag, 20,5 cm.
1700 krli.

DMI, fot GD
322. Lapos tl
2002, a palota kzelben.
Kzepes agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, stt tglapiros.
Magas perem lapos tl, rvidebb. oldaln kifolycsr,
hosszabb oldaln foganty. Dszts: sttzld mz,
amelyre vilgosabb svokat vittek fel.
H. 33 cm, sz. 17,5 cm, mag. 5 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
323. Mozsr
2002, a palota kzelben.
Finom kaolin, teljes gets, fehr. Flgmb alak, vastag
fal, enyhn profillt alj edny. Valsznleg mozsrknt
hasznltk. Szny. 5,8 cm, ftm. 3,6 cm, mag. 2,4 cm.
1700 krli.
DMI, fot GD
324. Olvaszttgelyek
2000-2008, a palotn kvl s bell.
Tmr, grafitazott agyag, mely az gets utv fekete sznt
s fmes fnyt kap. Redukcis gets. Az ednyek
klnbz mretek, faluk vastag, fmeket olvasztanak
bennk.
Osytrak
mhelzekben
kszlnek,
s
rendszerintljuk rajtuk a mkely, pecztjet. Szny. 15 cm,
falvastagsg 1,7-2,3 cm, az edny alja vkonyabb (1).
Ftm. 9 cm (3).
XVXVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
325. Prba-olvaszttgelyek
2000-2008, a palotn kvl s bell.
Fminsg agyag, oxidcis gets, tglapiros. Kp
alak, vastag falu kis edmyek, belsejk mzazott. Fmek
megolvasztssa kasznltk. zm. s ftm. 3 s 5 cm
kzt, mag. 4-5 cm, szny. 3-4 cm.

137

XVIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS, GD
326. Pipa
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fehr kermia; beszurklsokkal dsztett sv.
M. 4,8 cm, tm. 2,1 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
327. Pipa
2002, a palota kzelben.
Srgsszrke agyag. H. 5,3 cm, nylstm. 2,2 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
328. Pipa
2002, a palota kzelben.
Srgs-vrses agyag, bekarcolt dszts, nylstm.
M. 2,7 cm
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
329. Pipa
2002, a palota kzelben.
Cserep; srgsszrke agyag bekarcolt
virgmotvumok. Fellete fnyezett.
M. 5,8 cm, nylstmr 3,1 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
330. Pipa
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fekete kermia, bepecstelt dsztssel.
tm. 2,4 cm, 5,5 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS

138

dsztssel,

331. Klyha tetejrl szrmaz klyhacsempe


2002, a palota kzelben.
Hromszg alak, befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe
tredke kzepes finomsg, felleti, oxidcis gets
kermibl, melyet faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba.
Ellapjn angbra felvitt sttzld mz. Dszts:
geometrikus, hlhlyagos, ttrt formkat utnz dszts.
A 110. brn lthat rekonstult klyhacsempe rszlete. A
tredk mretei: 11x7x0,7 cm.
Keltezs: XV. sz. msodik fele, XVI. sz. els fele.
DMI, fot AI
332. Klyha tetejrl szrmaz klyhasempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Hromszg alak klyhacsempe kzponti tredke,
homokkal s csillmpalval sovnytott, durva agyag,
teljes, oxidcis folyamat sorn stt tglavrsre getett
kermibl, melyet faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba.
Ellapjn teljesen irizlt zld mz, nagyrszt levlva.
Dszts: geometrikus, halhlyagos, ttrt formkat utnz
dszts. A 110. brn lthat rekonstult klyhacsempe
rszlete. A tredk mretei 10,3x9,1x0,71,1 cm.
Keltezs: XV. sz. msodik fele, XVI. sz. eleje.
DMI, fot AI
333. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Megfejtetlen
formj
(felteheten
hromszg),
befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe tredke durva agyag,
rszleges, oxidcis gets kermibl, melyet szvettel
prseltek a dcba. Ellapjn az angbra felvitt, rossz
minsg, vilgoszld mz, teljesen ezstsre irizldva,
htlapjn koromnyomokkal. Dszts: gtikus motvumok.
A 111. brn lthat rekonstult klyhacsempe rszlete. A
tredk mretei: 7,4x8,6x0,81 cm.
Keltezs: XV. sz. msodik fele, XVI. sz. eleje.
DMI, fot AI

334. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Hromszg alak, befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe
tredke csillmpals, durva agyag, teljes oxidcis
gets kermibl, melyet faszerszmmal prseltek a
dcba. Ellapjn az angbra felvitt, rossz finomsg,
vilgoszld mz, rszben levlva, rszben aranysznre
irizldva. Helyenknt msodlagos gsi nyomokkal,
htlapjn koromnyomokkal. Dszts: gtikus motvumok,
nagyrszt a 110.111. brn lthat klyhacsempkhez
hasonl dszts. A tredk mretei: 16,3x12,6x11,8 cm.
Keltezs: XV. sz. msodik fele, XVI. sz. eleje.
DMI, fot AI
335. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Tglalap alak, befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe
tredke durva, csillmpals agyag, teljes, oxidcis
gets kermibl, melyet faszerszmmal prseltek a
dcba. Ellapjn az angb nlkl felvitt zld mz, teljesen
aranysznre irizldva, htlapjn koromnyomokkal.
Dszts: felteheten gtikus motvumok, a 110.111. brn
lthat klyhacsempkhez hasonl dszts. A tredk
mretei: 9x7,2x1 cm.
Keltezs: XV. sz. msodik fele, XVI. sz. eleje.
DMI, fot AI
336. Oromcsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Metszett szl oromcsempe tredkei finom agyag,
csillmpals, felletben getett kermibl, melyet
faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba. Ellapjn angbra
felvitt, klnbz vastagsg zld mzrteg, arnylag j
llapotban. Dszts: als mezjben ttrt gtikus formk,
fltte liliom formban metszett lezrs. A tredkek
mretei: 4,5x3x1 cm, 6x5,1 (teljes) x1,4 cm.
Keltezs: XV. sz. msodik fele, XVI. sz. els fele.
DMI, fot AI

337. A klyha tetejt alkot elem


2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Hromszg formj klyhacsempe. Kzepesre sovnytott
agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs. Msodlagos
gsi nyomok. Zld mz alapon fehr formk. A zld mz
ezstsre irizldott, rszben levlt. Tredk.Dszts:
gtikus formk. Megm. 19 cm, max. sz. 6,5 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot AM
338. Oromcsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Fels rszn metszett szl oromcsempe. J minsg
agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs; az agyagot
faszerszmmal s kzzel prseltk a dcba. Angbra felvitt
zld s barnssrga mz, majdnem teljesen ezstsre
irizldva, rszben levlva. Kk mzfoltok.
Dszts: geometrikus. Als rszn flkrves vagy
cscsves zrds rkdsor, kidomborod, geometrikus
dsz fels fele rszben ttrt. Restaurlt pldny.
H. 13,5 cm, m. 9,4 cm, vstg. 0,7 cm.
XVI. sz..
DMI, fot CS
339. A klyha tetejrl szrmaz klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Hromszg alak, befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe
tredkei kzepes finomsg, teljes oxidcis gets
kermibl, melyet faszerszmmal s kzzel prseltek a
dcba. Ellapjn az angbra felvitt, rossz minsg
sttzld mz, nagyrszt levlva, htlapjn koromnyomok.
Dszts: geometrikus dszt rcshlba foglalt dombor
hromszgek s hromszgprok alkotjk. A tredk
mretei: 8,4x7,9x11,7 cm.
Keltezs: XV. sz. msodik fele, XVI. sz. els fele.
DMI, fot AI

139

340. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Tglalap alak, befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe
tredkei, kzepes finomsg, rszleges oxidcis gets
kermibl, melyet faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba.
Ellapjn angbra felvitt rossz minsg, vilgoszld mz,
majdnem teljesen levlva. Dsztse: rcshlba helyezett
klnfle formj s mret hromszgek. A tredk
mretei: 14x10,1x0,81,4 cm.
Keltezs: XV. sz. msodik fele, XVI. sz. els fele.
DMI, fot AI
341. Oromcsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Hromszg formj klyhacsempe. Kzepes minsg
agyag, teljes, oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs. Angbra
felvitt vkony, sttebb rnyalatokat is mutat vilgoszld
mz. Az agyagot faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Dszts:
geometrikus, bordk alkotta rcshl. 7x7,6 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot AM
342. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Ismeretlen formj klyhacsempe. Durva agyag, rszleges
oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs. Az agyagot szvet
segtsgvel prseltk a dcba. Enyhe gsi nyomok. A
rossz minsg zld mzbortsa teljesen eltnt. Tredk.
Dszts: geometrikus, bordk alkotta rcshl.
11,5x6,5 cm, vstg. 1 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot AM
343. A klyha tetejt alkot elem
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Hromszg formj klyhacsempe. Kzepesre sovnytott
agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, stt tgla-vrs. Erteljes
msodlagos gsi nyomok. Mustrsrga, zld, fehr mz.

140

Tredk. Dszts: nvnyi-geometrikus dsze kztt


elhelyezett feliratbl egy 4-es lthat. Egysges
kompozcij, egyik csemprl a msikra terjed
motvumrendszer (terlmustra).
XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot AM
344. A klyha tetejt alkot elem
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Hromszg formj klyhacsempe. rdesre sovnytott
agyag, rszleges oxidcis gets, stt tgla-vrs. gsi
nyomok. Zld, fehr, kk mz. Tredk. Dszts: nvnyigeometrikus. 7,5x3,5 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot AM
345. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Rvid befogrms klyhacsempe. Kzepes minsg
agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs. Felleti,
msodlagos gsi nyomok. Zld mz alapon fehr s kk
formk. A zld mz ezstsre s aranyosra irizldott,
rszben levlt. Tredk.
Dszts: felteheten vallsos tmj brzols, a fels
rszn elhelyezett feliratbl O s T betk olvashatk. A
formkbl egy szrny rszlete lthat felteheten Szent
Mihly-brzols rsze. 9,5x9 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot AM
346. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Rvid befogrms klyhacsempe. J minsg agyag,
teljes oxidcis gets; az agyagot szvet segtsgvel
prseltk a dcba. Msodlagos gsi nyomok. Zld mzzal
bortott alapon fehr formk. A zld mz ezstsre
irizldott, rszben levlt. Tredkek. Dszts: egy alak
nvnyi ornamnetika alkotta keretben. 20x11x0,7 cm.

XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot AM
347. Oromcsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Tglalap formj klyhacsempe, fels rszn ngyzetes,
rszben ttrt prtk mentn metszve. Kzepes minsg
agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs. Rszben
megmaradt tbbszn mz: zld, fehr, kk. Tredkek,
rekonstrult darab. H. 14 cm, m. 13 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot GD
348. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Durva agyag, rszleges oxidcis gets, tglavrs,
faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Enyhe msodlagos gsi
nyomok. Barnssrga, sttzld, fehr s kk mz.
Tredkek. Dszts: A fiait etet pelikn. A pelikn
fejnek s testnek rszleteit tartalmaz tredkek. 8x5 cm;
5x3,5, vstg. 0,7 cm;
XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI
349. Oromcsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Klyhacsempe, als rszn egy kis talppal. Kzepes
minsg agyag, teljes, oxidcis gets, tglavrs,
faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Enyhe msodlagos gsi
nyomok. Barnssrga, zld, fehr mz, melyet utlag
vastag mszrteggel bortottak. Rossz llapotban
fennmaradt mzrtegek. Tredk. Dszts: nvnyi.
9,5x5,5, vstg. 0,5 cm; befogrma m. 3,5 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot AM
350. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.

Szablytalanul mlyl mezj klyhacsempe tredkei


csillmpals finom agyag, teljes gets kermibl,
melyet kzzel s faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba,
egyenltlen htlapot formzva. Ellapjn az angbra
felvitt zld mz, rszben ezstsre irizldott, levlt s
egyes tredkeken oplosodott, htlapjn koromnyomok.
Dszts: jobb kezvel kardot emel frfi (?) alakjnak
tredke. Az brzolst keretel nvnyi ornamentika
fels rszn kis rozettasorral zrul, kt szln indadszes
plcatagok szeglyezik. A tredk mretei: 9x10,2x0,8 cm;
11x5x0,9; levlt befogrma 2,5x0,6 cm.
Keltezs: XV. sz. msodik fele, XVI. sz. eleje.
DMI, fot AI
351. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
ttrt klyhacsempe tredke kzepes finomsg, teljes
gets, csillmpals kermibl, melyet kzzel prseltek a
dcba. Ellapjn angbra felvitt sttzld mz, rszben
levlva. Dszts: pnclos lovag. 8,5x5,3x1,11,7 cm.
Keltezs: XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI
352. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe, felttelezheten egy
medalionos csempe tredke. Finom anyag, felleti
gets kermibl kszlt, faszerszmmal prseltk a
dcba. Az ellapjn lthat msznyomok a klyha
jjptsrl, javtsrl tanskodnak. A htlapon egy
vkony mzrteg is megfigyelhet. Dszts: rozetta.
Mretek: 7,8x5,7x0,6 cm
Keltezs: XV. sz. els fele, XVI.
DMI
353. Sarokcsempe
2001, a palota kzelben.

141

Kt
klyhacsempe
hegyes
szgben
trtn
sszeillesztsvel ltrehozott sarokelem, finom agyag,
rszlegesen tgett kermibl, melyeket kzzel prseltek
a dcba. Ellapjn angbra felvitt zld mz htlapjn
koromnyomok. Dszts: kis rozetts pecstdszek.
Keltezs: XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI
354. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Tglalap alak, rvid befogrms klyhacsempe
csillmpals finom agyag, teljes gets kermibl,
melyet kzzel s faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba.
Ellapjn az angbra felvitt zld mz nhny tredken j
megmaradt, msokon teljesen ezstsre irizldott, a
htlapon koromnyomok lthatk. Dszts: gtikus
rkdba helyezett pnclos lovas. A l hasa alatt kt
emberfej, egyik turbnos, a msik fezes. A szamrhtves
rkdot kvl-bell gazdag nvnydsz ksri. A kls
indahajlatokban tovbbi kt turbnos fej lthat.
Vstg. 2627 cm.
Keltezse: 1500 krl.
DMI, fot CS
355. A klyha tetejrl (lezrsbl) szrmaz
klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Hromszg alak, befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe,
kzepes finomsg, csillmpals agyag, teljes gets
kermibl, melyet faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba. Az
angbos ellapjra felvitt zld mz, teljesen irizldott,
htlapjn vltoz intenzits hasznlati nyomokkal.
Dsztse: indadszek. Mrhet legnagyobb sz. 18,5 cm; m.
11,21 cm, vstg: 0,81,2 cm; a hromszg szraibl
kikvetkeztethet m. nagyobb mint 50 cm.
Keltezse: XVI. sz. els fele.
DMI, fot AI

142

356. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Dongs ht klyhacsempe tredkei finom agyag, teljes
gets kermibl, melyet faszerszmmal prseltek a
dcba. Korongolt befogjt kettszelt hengerbl
ksztettk. Ellapjn angbra felvitt zld, barnssrga s
fehr mz; sszemosdott sznek, j llapotban
fennmaradt mz. Dsztse: gazdag nvnyi ornamentika
ks gtikus keretben, szles perem kalapot visel, balra
tart lovag, statikus helyzetben brzolt lovon. A darab
rossz plasztikja miatt nehezen olvashat rszletek az
analgik alapjn rekonstrulhatk. A hasonl emlkeken
rvid kpenyt visel lovag lthat, vlln szmszerjj.
Keltezse: 1500 krl.
DMI, fot AI
357. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Tglalap alak, befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe kzepes
finomsg, csillmpals, teljes gets kermibl, melyet
faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba. Ellapjn az angbra
felvitt zld mz, majdnem teljesen levlva. Dszts:
indadszek. A tredk mretei: 10,3x6,7x0,50,8 cm.
Keltezs: XVI. sz. els fele.
DMI, fot AI
358. Klyhacsempe
2001, a palota kzelben.
Befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe tredke. Sok
homokkal sovnytott, kzepes minsg agyag,
rtegeiben kiszrtva, rszleges gets, szvet segtsgvel
prseltk a dcba. Msodlagos gsi nyomok. Angbra
felvitt, j minsg zld mz, klnbz vastagsga miatt
tbb rnyalatban a srgszldtl a sttzldig, feketig.
Dszts: flkrves rkdba szerkesztett, egymst metsz
vek alkotta geometrikus minta rszlete. A tredk
mretei: 15,513,5x1,2 cm.
XVI. sz.

DMI, fot AI
359. Klyhacsempe
2001, a palota kzelben.
Tglalap alak klyhacsempe tredke durva agyag,
csillmpals, felletben getett kermibl, melyet
faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba. Ellapjn az angbra
felvitt zld mz, rszben ezstsre irizldott, htlapjn
koromnyomok.
Dszts: madrszrny; Herkulest s Zeusz sasjt
megjelent brzols rszlete (analgik alapjn
meghatrozva). A tredk mretei: 11,5x9x0,40,8 cm.
Keltezs: XVI. sz. els fele.
DMI, fot AI
360. Oromcsempe
2001, a palota kzelben.
Hromszg prtasorral lezrt, ttrt klyhacsempe
tredkei finom agyag, csillmpals, teljes gets
kermibl, melyet faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba.
Ellapjn az angbra felvitt, klnbz vastagsg zld
mzrteg arnylag j llapotban; ms vltozatait angbra
felvitt barnssrga mz bortja. Dszts: fels rszn
geometrikus motvumok, als mezjben stilizlt
madrbrzolsok. A rekonstult pldny mretei: sz. 13,1
cm, m. 23,5 cm.
Keltezse: XVI. sz. els fele.
DMI, fot CS
361. Prknycsempe
2000-2002.
Kis befogrmval elltott prknyelem tredke, durva
agyag, felletben getett kermibl, melyet szvettel
vagy faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba. Ellapjnak zld
mzbortsa ezstsre irizldott. Mzatlan formban is
hasznltk. Htlapjn vastag koromnyomok. Dszts:
Fels mezjt mly, vzszintes kannelrk, als rszt

baluszterek
tagoljk.
A
befogrmja: 2,5x1 cm.
Keltezs: XVI. sz. els fele.
DMI, fot GD

rekonsturlt

pldny

362. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Kis befogrmval elltott klyhacsempe. J minsg
agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs,
faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Enyhe msodlagos gsi
nyomok. Ellapjt vrs fldfests bortja. Dszts:
geometrikus.
19x12 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm. befogrma m. 3,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI
363. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Befogrma nlkli klyhacsempe. J minsg agyag,
teljes oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs, szvet segtsgvel
prseltk a dcba. Htlapjn enyhe hasznlati nyomok.
Ellapjn j minsg, fnyes zld mz, jl megmaradt.
Egy kvetkez hasznlati fzisban vastag mszrteggel
bortottk. Dszts: nvnyi-geometrikus.
A tredk mretei: 11,5x9 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI
364. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Kis befogrms, tglalap alak klyhacsempe. Sok
csillmpalval kzepesre sovnytott agyag, rszleges,
oxidcis gets, srgs tglavrs. Az agyagot
faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Ellapjn csillmpala.
Tredk. Dszts: korsbl kihajl virgok. A tredk
mretei: 10,5x4,5 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI

143

365. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Kis befogrmval elltott klyhacsempe. J minsg
agyag, teljes, oxidcis gets, srgs tglavrs,
faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Rszleges msodlagos
gsi nyomok. Ellapjt vastag srgsfehr angbrteg
bortja. Tredkek.
Dszts: virgos nvnyi dszt geometrikus keret
szeglyezi. 15x10 cm, vstg. 0,4 cm.; befogrma m. 4,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI

368. Klyhacsempe mlytett, kerek formj kzponti


rsze
2004, a palota kzelben.
J vagy kzepes minsg, csillmpalval sovnytott
agyag, teljes gets; szvet s faszerszm (a szleken)
segtsgvel prseltk a dcba. Zld, srgsbarna s fehr
mz. A htlapon koromnyom. Dszts: nvnyigeometrikus dsz csempe kzponti rsznek mlytett,
kr alak mezjben festett hromszgek. 10x9x0,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI

366. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Klyhacsempe tredke. Kzepes minsg agyag, teljes
oxidcis gets, erteljes msodlagos gsi nyomok.
Ezstsre irizldott zld mz. Dszts: nvnyi.
6,5x5 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI

369. Klyhaszem
2002, a palota kzelben.
Ngyzetes nyls klyhaszem. Durva agyag, felleti
gets, korongolt. Klsejn enyhe msodlagos gsi
nyomok. A korongon ellltott klyhaszem ngyzetes
nylst keret segtsgvel formztk. A korongrl val
leemelskor kzzel virgformra alaktottk, kvlrl
befel nyomkodva. Dszts: fonatdsz formjban
kialaktott plasztikus borda.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI

367. Klyhacsempe
2001, a palota kzelben.
Kzponti medalionos klyhacsempe j s kzepes
finomsg, csillmpals, felleti kigets kermibl,
melyet szvettel prseltek a dcba. Ellapjt tbbfle mz
bortja: j minsg, mrvnyos zld mz az egsz
felleten; j minsg sttzld mz; angbra felvitt,
vastag zld mzrteg, helyenknt ezstsre irizldva; az
ellapon barna mz, a kzponti rsz krl srga, a
medalion zld mezjben barna szn hromszgek;
egyenetlenl felhordott, fnyes, zld mz; barnssrga
mz. Mindegyik tredk htlapjn koromnyomok.
Dszts: a sarkakban apr gmbk, hromszgekkel
szeglyezve, a kzponti medalionban helyenknt
geometrikus formj fests. H. 20 cm.
Keltezs: XVI. sz.
DMI, fot AI

144

370. Klyhaszem
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Fakerettel ngyzetesre formlt szl, korongon kszlt
klyhaszem. Kzepes minsg agyag, rszleges oxidcis
gets, stt tglavrs. A klyha falban elhelyezett elem
hts rsze kzvetlenl rintkezett a tztrrel. Hts
rszn vastag koromnyomok. Tredkek. Dszts:
belsejben vsett geometrikus formk.
12,5x11 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.
XVXVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
371. Klyhaszem
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.

Fakerettel ngyzetesre formlt szl, korongon kszlt


klyhaszem. Kzepes minsg agyag, rszleges oxidcis
gets, stt tglavrs. Msodlagos gsi nyomok.
Tredkek. Dszts: les, kiugr borda jelzi azt a rszt
ahonnan erteljesen sztnylik a perem. Ennek ngyzetes
formjt keret segtsgvel formztk. Felttelezett hossza:
23 cm, ftm. 7 cm, vstg. 0,6 cm.
XVXVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
372. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Rvid befogrms, flke formj csemphez hasonlt
tglalap alak klyhacsempe. J minsg agyag, teljes,
oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs. Fnyes zld mz,
rszben levlva.
7,5x5 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm, befogrma m. 3 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot AM
373.Oromcsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejbl.
Flkrves formban metszett klyhacsempe, als rszn
kis talppal. Kzepes minsg agyag, teljes, oxidcis
gets, srgs tglavrs. Az agyagot szvet segtsgvel
prseltk a dcba. Vkony rteg, zld mz, rszben
levlva. Tredk. Dszts: nvnyi, palmettadsz.
13x12,5 cm, vstg. 0,8 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot AM
374.Oromcsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Befogrma nlkli, tglalap alak klyhacsempe,
metszett szl fels rsze ttrve. J minsg agyag,
teljes, oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs. Az agyagot
faszerszm segtsgvel prseltk a dcba. Fnyes zld
mz, nagyrszt levlva. Tredk. 10,5x4,5 cm, vstg. 1 cm.

XVXVII. sz.
DMI, fot AM
375. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Kis befogrmval elltott klyhacsempe. Kzepes
minsg agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, srgs tglavrs.
Az agyagot faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Ellapjt
csillmpala bortja. Erteljes msodlagos gsi nyomok.
Tredk. Dszts: geometrikus.
12x5,5x0,5 cm; befogrma m. 4,5 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot AM
376. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Kis befogrmval elltott klyhacsempe. Kzepes
minsg agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, vrses stt
tglavrs. Erteljes msodlagos gsi nyomok. Fnyes
zld mz, jl megmaradt. Dszts: nvnyi-geometrikus.
Mretek:10,5x10,5 cm, vstg. 0,5 cm.; befogrma m. 7,5 cm.
XVI-XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AM
377. Klyhacsempe
2004, a palota kzelben.
Kis befogrmval elltott klyhacsempe. Kzepes
minsg agyag, oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs.
Enyhe msodlagos gsi nyomok. Ellapjn zld mz,
rszben levlva, rszben mszrteggel bortva. Dszts:
nvnyi. Mretek: 13x7 cm; vstg. 0,6 cm; befogrma m.
3,5 cm.
XVI-XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
378. Klyhacsempe
2004, a palota kzelben.

145

Befogrma nlkli, tglalap alak klyhacsempe. J


minsg agyag, teljes, oxidcis gets, srgs tglavrs.
Erteljes msodlagos gsi nyomok. Rszben megmaradt
zld mz. Dszts: geometrikus. M. 23 cm, sz. 16,5 cm,
vstg. 0,6 cm.
XVI-XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
379. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Rvid befogrms klyhacsempe. Kzepes minsg
agyag, rszleges, oxidcis gets, srgs tglavrs.
Felleti, msodlagos gsi nyomok. Zld mz alapon fehr
s kk formk. Egy ksbbi hasznlati peridusban az
ellapot piros festkkel vontk be. A rossz minsg zld
mz nagyrszt levlt. Tredk. Dszts: nvnyi. Ni
maszkot brzol, ngyzetes klyhacsempe tredke.
Mretek: 9,5x7,5 cm, vstg. 2,5 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
380. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Klyhacsempe tredke. Kzepes minsg agyag, teljes
gets, kzzel s faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Enyhe
hasznlati nyomok. Angbra felvitt zld (az alap, a szls
tornyok) s barns mz (a kzponti tornyok). Dszts: vr.
Mretek: 8,2x4,8x0,6 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
381. Csempelap vgtelen mustrs
2000-2008
Ngyzetes csempelap rvid befogrmval. Vltoz
szemcsj agyag, ltalban jl tmrtett s homogn,
faszerszmmal vagy szvettel prseltk a dcba. Oxidns
gets, tglavrs, a vrsk s srgk klnbz
rnyalataival. A kls felletet tbbflekppen kezeltk:

146

csillmporoztk (csillmporral beszrtk), angboztk


(egy vkony fehr, esetleg srgs angbot hordtak fel r),
vagy mzaztk (ltalban zld mzzal, ritkbban
srgsbarnval).
Klnlegesen
szp,
sznesmzas
darabokatltalban fehr alapon ksztettek az alvinci
habnok. Szernyebb krnyezetbe kszlt daraboknl az
egyszer fazekasagyagot nem fedtk. Dszts: dombor,
geometrikus formk rcsozata, melyben nvnyi elemek
jelennek meg, utalsokkal az letfra. A kzps
mezkben ltalban stilizlt elemek vannak, a nvnyi s
geometrikus brzolsok hatrvonaln. Ezeket vgtelen
mustrs dszeknek nevezzk, tekintve, hogy azonos
elemek ismtldsbl tevdnek ssze. Jellemz
ugyanakkor, hogy a dsztelemek tfutnak a szomszdos
csempkre, s ezzel a klyhnak egysges megjelenst
klcsnznek. A lapok tlagos mrete 20 cm, a befogrma
47 cm, vstg. 0,71,2 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI, AM
382. Klyhacsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Klyhacsempe szltredke finom agyag, csillmpals,
teljes gets krmibl, melyet kzzel, szvettel s
faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba. Ellapjnak fehr mzas
alapjn vilgoskk formk, htlapjn koromnyomok.
Dszts: nvnyi dsze valsznleg terlmustra rszlete.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
383. Oromcsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Metszett szl oromcsempe als rszn talpszer
befogrmval (4,8x0,7 cm). Als mezje tmr, fels
rszt nvnyi ornamentika mentn ves zrdsra
metszettk. Kzepes finomsg agyagbl kszlt, teljes
oxidcis getssel; kzzel s faszerszmmal prseltk a
dcba. Ellapjn az angbra felvitt zld mz, majdnem

teljesen
ezstsre
irizldva.
Dszts:
nvnyi,
hromszirm rozettkkal vltakoz voluts indadszek. A
tkrbe rt feliratbl a D s F betk lthatk. Mretek:
4,8x0,7 cm; 6,9x21,3x0,7 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
384. Klyhacsempe
2004, a palota kzelben.
Mly befogrmval elltott, tglalap alak klyhacsempe.
Az ellapot dccal, a befogrmt fakeret segtsgvel,
korongon ksztettk; a kt rszt szrads eltt illesztettk
ssze. Kzepes minsg agyag, rszleges, oxidcis
gets, srgs tglavrs. Htlapjn erteljes msodlagos
gsi nyomok. Fehr, zld, srga, kk mz. Tredkek,
rekonstrult darab. Dszts: geometrikus, kzponti eleme
egyik klyhacsemprl a msikra terjedt. Sz. 14 cm, fh. 11
cm, vstg. 0,5 cm; befogrma sz. 12, v. 0,8 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
385. Klyhacsempe
2004, a palota kzelben.
Csempelap, valsznleg koronzprkny alkoteleme.
Kzepes minsg agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, srgs
tglavrs. Az agyagot faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba.
Srga s fehr mz zld alapon. Tredkek. Dszts:
nvnyi s virg. Mretek: 7x5,5x1,2 cm; 6,5x4,5x0,5 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
386. Klyhacsempe
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Rvid befogrms klyhacsempe, kzepes minsg
agyag, rszleges, oxidcis gets; faszerszm segtsgvel
prseltk a dcba. Msodlagos gsi nyomok. Fehr mzas
alapon kk s srga mzzal kiemelt formk. Dszts:

terlmustrs, rszben plasztikus, rszben festett. Mretek:


9x8 cm, vstg. 0,7 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
387. Klyhacsmpe
2000-2008
Kis befogrmval elltott klyhacsempk. Vltoz, de
fleg kzepes s j minsg agyag, oxidcis gets, a
tglavrs rnyalatai. A darabok kzvetlenl rintkeztek a
tztrrel, ezrt htlapjukon tbb-kevsb sszefgg
koromnyomokat riznek. Az ellapon tbbszn mzak,
ltalban zld vagy kk rnyalat fehr alapon, melyeken
mr az gets alatt hajszlrepedsek keletkeztek. A
formkat kk, fehr, zld s srga sznekkel emeltk ki. Az
egykori szp, fnyes mzak csak ritkn maradtak meg j
minsgben. Ezek konzervldsi llapota az elllt
mhelyek technikai adottsgaitl is fgg, ugyanakkor
szmt, hogy milyen krlmnyek kztt voltak
feltrsukig. A luxuscikknek szmt emlkeket fleg a
magasabb igny belskhz kthetjk. Tredkek.
Dszts: klnbz kombincij virgos nvnyi dszek.
Mretek: 4,5x7 cm, 4x6 cm, 8,5x12,5 cm, 14,5x4 cm, vstg.
0,41 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
388. Klyhacsempe
20002008, a pspki palota kzelben.
Kis befogrmval elltott klyhacsempk. Vltoz, de
fleg kzepes s rossz minsg agyag, rszleges,
oxidcis gets. Msodlagos gsi nyomok. Ellapjn
fehr mz (ltalban kkes rnyalatban), a formkat
sttkk sznnel rajzoltk. Dszts: nvnyi, gyakran
terl mustrs kompozcikban. Ritkn geometrikus
ltalban dombor formk, ritkn festett dszek is.
Gyakori a dszts nlkli darab.
XVII. sz.

147

DMI, fot AI
389. Klyhacsempe
20002008, a pspki palota kzelben.
Kis befogrmval elltott klyhacsempk. Vltoz, de
fleg kzepes minsg agyag, rszleges, oxidcis gets.
Msodlagos gsi nyomok. Az ellapon angbra felvitt
zld alapmz, a formkat zldes rnyalat fehr mzzal
emeltk ki. Dszts: nvnyi, gyakran terl mustrs
kompozcik. Gyakori a dszts nlkli darab.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
390. Klyhacsempe
2004, a palota kzelben.
Rvid befogrmval elltott csempelap. Kzepes
minsg agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, srgs tglavrs.
Msodlagos gsnyomok. Mrvnyozsos, barna s srga
mz. Tredkes darab, restaurlva, kiegsztve. Dszts:
mzzal formzott geometrikus. Mretek: 19,5x20 cm, vstg.
0,7 cm. befogrma: m. 5,5 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
391. Sarokcsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Hromszg lezrs sarokelem tredke kzepes
finomsg,
teljes
gets
kermibl,
melyet
faszerszmmal prseltek a dcba. Ellapjnak zldesfehr
mzas alapjn srga s kk formk. Htlapjn
koromnyomok. Dszts: nvnyi-geometrikus. Mretek:
14x12x0,7-1,2 cm.
Keltezs: XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
392. Oromcsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.

148

Metszett szl oromcsempe tredke sok homokkal


sovnytott, kzepes finomsg, teljes gets kermibl,
melyet fval prseltek a fadcba (ennek nyomai lthatk
az ellapon). Az ellap kkesfehr rnyalat vilgos
alapmzn a formkat kkre, srgra s zldre festettk. A
j llapotban megmaradt, kivl minsg, szp fny
mzak felletn az gets sorn apr hajszlrepedsek
keletkeztek. A htlapon az agyagra felvitt fehr mz
lthat. Dszts: nvnyi. Mretek: 6,6x4x1,5 cm.
Keltezs: XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
393. Koronzprkny alkoteleme
2004, a palota kzelben.
Cmerpajzs alak csempelap. Kzepes minsg agyag,
teljes oxidcis gets, srgs tglavrs. Az agyagot
faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. A hattykat kln
formztk meg, s a szrads eltt illesztettk a lapra.
Vkonyan felhordott sznes mz (fehr, zld, srga, fekete)
barna alapon. Kt teljes darab restaurlva. Dszts:
Bethlen Gbor fejedelem cmere, kt, a nyakuknl egyazon
nyllal tltt hatty.
Mretek: sz. 22 cm. m. 23 cm, vstg. 1,5 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
394. Oromcsempe
2003, a palota kzelben.
vlis formj, metszett szl klyhacsempe. Kzepes
minsg agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs.
Faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Rszben megmaradt
srga, fehr s zld mz. Tredkek. Dszts: enyhn
dombor, nvnyi dsz. Mretek: 8x7,5 cm, vstg. 1,5 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
395. Oromcsempe
2003, a palota kzelben.

vlis formj, metszett szl klyhacsempe. Kzepes


minsg agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, stt tglavrs.
Faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Rszben megmaradt
srga, fehr s zld mz. Tredkek. Dszts: nvnyi.
Mretek: 7,5x7,5 cm, vstg. 1 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot AM
396. Oromcsempe
2002, a palota kzelben.
Befogrms oromcsempe tredke finom agyag, teljes
gets kermibl,
melyet faszerszm segtsgvel
prseltek a dcba. Ellapjnak fehr mzas alapjn (apr
hajszl-repedsek), a formkat vilgoskk mzzal festettk
ki. Dszts: nvnyi. Mretek: m. 10,3 cm; sz. 22 cm; vstg.
0,71 cm; befogrma 4,9x0,8 cm.
XVII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
397. A klyha lbazati eleme
2000-2008
Klyha lbazati eleme, rgztsre szolgl, vltoz
mlysg befogrmval. Kzepes minsg agyag,
oxidcis gets, a tglavrs rnyalatai. Msodlagos gsi
nyomok. Ellapjt a habn emlkekre jellemz mzak
bortjk, fehr, kk s zld, ritkbban barnssrga
sznekben. Dszts: nvnyi, kkkel festve (1, 2),
geometrikus, srgval s barnval festve (3). Gyakori a
dszts nlkli darab (4,5). Mretek: 5x3,5 cm (1, 2); 2,5x6,5
cm (3); 7x9 cm (4); 4,5x3,5 cm (5); vstg. 0,7 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot AI, AM
398. A klyha lbazati eleme
2000-2008
Klyha lbazati eleme, rgztsre szolgl, vltoz
mlysg befogrmval. Durva agyag, oxidcis gets, a
tglavrs rnyalatai. A darabok kzvetlenl rintkeztek a

tztrrel, ezrt htlapjukon legtbb esetben sszefgg


koromrtegek lthatk. Ellapjt zld vagy barnssrga
mz bortja, de mzatlan formban is elfordul. Dszts:
profilozott prknyt formz plcatagok s horony.
ltalban nincs ms dszk. Mretek: 13,5x11,5 cm, vstg.
0,5/1 cm; befogrma max. m. 6,5 cm.
XVIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot AI, AM
399. A klyha sarokeleme
2008, a pspki palota belsejben.
Hromszg lezrs sarokelem. J minsg agyag,
rszleges, oxidcis gets, srgs tglavrs. Dszts:
geometrikus. Mretek: 7,5x6 cm, vstg. 0,7 cm.
XVIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot AM
400. Oromcsempe
2004, a palota kzelben.
Als rszn tglalap alak, fels feln szv formban
metszett klyhacsempe. Htlapjhoz keskeny talpat
illesztettek, ennek segtsgvel rgztettk a klyhatestbe.
J minsg agyag, teljes oxidcis gets, srgs
tglavrs. Faszerszmmal prseltk a dcba. Rszben
megmaradt zld mz. Restaurls alkalmval kiegsztett.
Dszts: tulipnok s liliomok alkotta nvnyi dsz.
Mretek: m. 15,5 cm, vstg. 0,8 cm, befogrma m. 2x1 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
401. Sarokcsempe
2004, a palota kzelben.
Kt csempelapbl, 90 fokos szgben sszeillesztett darab,
htlapjn befogrma. Finom agyag, teljes, oxidcis
gets, stt tglavrs. Gyenge minsg, rszben levlt
zld mz. Dszts: nvnyi, szimmetrikus elhelyezsben.
Az sszeillesztsi lt egy baluszter kpezi. Mretek: 8,5 cm,
m. 7,3 cm, befogrma m. 7,3x1 cm.

149

XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot GD
402. Habn klyha
A
klyha
alkotelemei:
befogrmkkal
elltott
mezelemek s sarokelemek, ktfle prtzati ele illetve
prknydarabok. Anyaguk finom, dcba prselt agyag.
Dszts: A csempk fellett tengelyszimmetrikusan
elhelyezett stilizlt nvnyi motvumok dsztik. A
sarokcsempken a motvum fele szerepel, mg az lszeds
fellett kt levlkteg ltal kzrefogott rozetta tlti ki.
Ezek sarkait 45 fokos szgben szeltk le. A nagyobb
mret, lapos, ll prtaelemek hagyma alakak, s egy
vzba helyezett stilizlt virgcsokor dszti ket, mg a
kisebb, a prkny eltt lelg prtaelemek karjos
levlktegekbl llnak, melyek egy folytonos frzt
alkotnak. A prknydarabokat hengertagokbl s
homorlatokbl ll klasszikus tagozat profillja, egy
rszkre levlktegeket s aszstragalosz-sort festettek.
A csempket fehres-halvnykkes, kobaltoxidos
nmz bortja, a reliefdsztseket s a kereteket tbb
kobaltoxidot tartalmaz trkizkk mz fedi. Az egyik
prknydarabon a mester C.R. monogramja olvashat.
A csempelapok mrete 32x43 cm, a nagyobb prtaelemek
19 cm magasak, szlessgk 23 cm; a lelg prtaelemek
22 cm hosszak s 10 cm magasak; a prknydarabok 20,5
cm, illetve 21,5 cm hosszak s 11 cm magasak.
A nagyszm csempetredk lehetv tette a
klyha teljes rekonstrukcijnak elvgzst. Ez a ks
renesznsz klyhk klasszikus felptst kvethette:
lbazati prknybl, hasbos tzeltrbl, fels prknybl,
ketts prtzatsorbl llt. Ksztjket az alvinci habnok
kzt kereshetjk. A prkny-, illetve mezelemek szlessgi
arnyaibl tlve a klyha egyhasbos volt. A csempk az
Erdlyben s a Krpt-medencben ismertek kzt a
legnagyobb mretek kz tartoznak.
Keltezs: 16661687 krl.
TE

150

403. Kermibl kszlt dszelem, felteheten klyhrl


2004, a palota kzelben.
Akantuszlevl formj darab. Kzepesre sovnytott,
homogn, tmr, fehr agyag, teljes, oxidcis gets sorn
vrses fehr rnyalat lett. Mindkt oldaln repedezett,
kkes rnyalat fehr mz. Dszts: levl formj darab.
Mretek: 11x6x1 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot AI
404. Izniki csempelapok
2000-2008
Ngyzetes s tglalap alak csempelapok tredkei;
anyaguk krmfehr szn agyag, frittel s kvarccal
elegytve. A darabokat sznes mzas (zld, trkiz,
kobaltkk s pecstviasz vrs) nvnyi dsz bortja,
kontrjaikat mangnoxidbl kszlt fekete festkkel
hztk ki. A lapok fellett j minsg, tltsz lommz
bortja.
Dszts: fehr vagy halvnykk alapszn, indkbl,
plmalevelekbl, rozettkbl, jcintvirgbl, tulipnokbl,
szegfvekbl s stilizlt palmettkbl, illetve kartusokbl
s arabeszkekbl ll motvumok. A tredkek egy rsze
szeglylapokbl, ms rszk
vgtelen terlmustrt
formz, ngyzetes lapokbl szrmazik, melyek
pontszimmetrikusan elhelyezve, ngyesvel alkotjk a
dszts moduljt. Tredkeink legfeljebb 4-5 klnbz
tpus csempe rszei voltak.
Mretek: a csempelapok tlagos vastagsga 1,31,5 cm. A
legnagyobb szmban szerepl ngyzetes lap mretei a
grafikai rekonstrukci alapjn 25x25 vagy 26x26 cm.
A csempk a fejedelmi palota n. boklyos hznak falt
bortottk, mely audienciateremknt mkdtt a palota
szaki szrnynak emeletn, a fejedelem s a
fejedelemasszony lakosztlynak kzelben, a kapu
krnykn. Ezzel a megnevezssel forrsainkban tbbszr
is tallkozunk az 16341703 kztti idszakban. A lapokat
Bethlen Gbor fejedelem rendelte meg 1623-ban,

konstantinpolyi kvete, Tholdalagi Mihly ltal s, 1624ben kerltek a falakra.


Azt a tnyt, hogy darabjainkat ppen az oszmn
kermiagyrts kzpontjban, Iznikben ksztettk, kesen
bizonytja, hogy pontos analgijuk az Esref Rumi Zade
iszlm misztikus hamvait rz, 16231629 kzt tptett
itteni pletegyttes romjai kzl kerlt el.
TE
405. Habn csempelapok
2000-2008
Ngyzetes csempelapok tredkei, anyaguk finom,
tglavrsre
getett
fazekasagyag.
Felletket
kobaltoxidos, fehr vagy halvnykk angb bortja, melyre
fmoxid alap zld, kobaltkk, illetve srgsbarna
festkkel nvnyi dsztseket festettek. A kontrt
mangnlila festkkel hangslyoztk, a csempelapokat
tltsz lommzzal vontk be.
Dszts: fehr vagy halvnykk alapszn, indkbl,
plmalevelekbl, rozettkbl, jcintvirgbl, tulipnokbl,
szegfvekbl s stilizlt palmettkbl, illetve kartusokbl
s arabeszkekbl ll motvumok. A tredkek
mindegyike ngyzetes lapokbl szrmazik, melyek
ngyesvel, pontszimmetrikusan elhelyezve adnak ki egy
vgtelen terlmustrt.
Mretek: a csempelapok tlagos vastagsga 1,31,5 cm. A
ngyzetes lap mretei 25x25 cm, illetve 26x26 cm.
A csempelapok valsznleg 1666 utn kszltek a Bethlen
Gbor fejedelem ltal Alvincre teleptett habnok
mhelyeiben. k az izniki csempket msoltk tbbkevesebb hsggel, azonban mind az alapanyag, mind a
dszts elmarad amazok minsgtl. A lapokat az 1658as tatr betrs okozta puszttskor megsrlt audiencis
hz burkolatnak ptlsra vagy javtsra szntk.
TE
406. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.

Zldesfehr veg fehr felpattogzsokkal. Hengeres test,


rvid nyak, kiszlesed szj, aszimmetrikus szjnyls.
Felfele domborod fenk, kpot alkot az edny belsejben.
Egsz. Mag. 8,5 cm, szny. 1,8 cm, ftm. 2,7 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
AI, fot GD
407. Illatszeres vegcse
2002, a palota kzelben.
tltsz fehr veg sznjtszsokkal. Teste hasbos, oldala
hatszgre csiszolt. Dszts: kt csillagocska a kzepe
tjkn. Mag . 4,4 cm
XVXVI. sz.
AI, fot GD
408. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Fehr veg szrks sznjtszsokkal, irizlt. Rvid nyaka
tlcsr alak, kifel hzott peremnek szle elvastagtott.
Tredk. Szny. 2,4 cm, vstg. 3 cm.
XVXVI. sz.
DMI, fot AM
409. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Ersen
irizlt,
homlyos
fehr
veg,
lerakdsokkal. Dsztgyrvel s fllel
palacknyak. Tredk. tm. 4,1x1,4, vstg. 0,7 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot CS

szrke
ellttott

410. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
tltszatlan barna veg. Vkony nyak, pereme tlcsr
alak. A ketts knuszos palackot egy gyr tagolja,
amely az edny belseje fel hurkot forml. A nyak
elegnsan ve, viszonylag magas, pereme ltalban
elvastagtott, tbb-kevsb kiugr gyrt kpez a

151

szjtlcsr krl. Hurok formban visszafordtott, gyrs


talpszegllyel
elltott
aljnak
belseje
kposan
megemelkedik. Fala vkony, klnbz rnyalat barna
vagy fehr. Ftm. 4,5 cm, szny. 2,4 cm, kzpen 6,75 cm.
XVI. sz.
AI, fot CS

J minsg, homlyos, veg, szne zldes aranyl


sznjtszsokkal helyenknt barna lerakds. Kehely
testnek tredkei, appliklt dsztssel.
Megm. mag. 5,5 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot CS

411. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Homlyos
barna
veg.
Ngyszglet
palack
legmblytett szl s kzpen feldomborod fenkkel,
rvid nyakkal. Kt pldny tredkei. A ngyszglet
fenk 8x8 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot CS

415. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Barna, homlyos veg. A palack legmblytett szl
feneke kzpen feldomborodik. Tredk. Ftm. 5 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot AM

412. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Homlyos zldes veg, fekete sznezds bortja.
Ngyszglet palack, rvid nyaka elegnsan velt, enyhn
domborodik. Pereme hinyzik. Megmarndt m. 13,5 cm,
vstg. 0,2 cm (a nyakon).
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot CS
413. Kehely
2004, a palota kzelben.
J minsg, homlyos, zldes szn veg aranyos
sznjtszsokkal, helyenknt barna lerakds. A kehely
testnek s talpnak tredkei, appliklt dsztssel.
A lb m. 8 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot CS
414. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.

152

416. Palack
2004, a palota belsejben.
Irizlt fekete veg. Nyaktredk. Megm. mag. 7 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
417. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Fekete matt veg. Nyaka rvid, kifel hajltott pereme
elvkonytott. Tredk. tm. 3 cm, vstg. 0,4 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
418. Palack
2001, a palota kzelben.
Flig tltsz, enyhn zldes veg. Hengeres nyak,
gyrszeren megvastagtott perem, kihztk az edny
klseje fel. Tredk. Szny. 3,1 cm.
XVI. sz.
DMI, fot CS
419. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.

Irizlt fehr veg. Rvid, enyhn velt nyak palack


tredke. Pereme tlcsr alak, szja egyszer. Szny. 2,5
cm, vstg. 0,2 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
419.a. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
ttetsz fehr veg, vastag, az irizls miatt felpattogzott
rteggel. Rvid, enyhn velt nyak palack tredke.
Peremn vastag gyr.
Szny. 3,1 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
420. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Kkeszld ttetsz veg. Nyaka rvid, kifolycsrrel
elltott szja modelllt, teste valsznleg gmblyded
volt. Tredk. Szny. 2,8 cm, megm. m. 4,5 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
421. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Zldes, irizl veg. Rvid, tlcsrszer
aszimmetrikus szj, majdnem ovlis. Tredk.
Szny. 2,5 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS

nyak,

422. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
Zldesfehr veg. Hengeres test, a hangslyos vllak
ferdn a nyak fel tartanak. Feldomborod feneknek
szlei legmblytettek, s az edny belsejben magas
kpot kpez. Fels rsze hinyzik.
Megm. m. 5,5 cm, ftm. 2,5 cm.

XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
423. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
tltsz fehr veg, fehres irizlssal. Tlcsr alak nyak,
pereme kihajlik, enyhn elvastagtott s legmblytett.
Szja aszimmetrikus. Szny. 4,6 cm, falvastagsg 0,4 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
424. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Irizl fehr veg. Npgyszgletes palack kiugr vllal,
hossz nyaka tlcsr alak; elvkonytott peremt kifel
hzva gallrt kpeztek ki a szja kr. Tredk. Megm. m.
7,1 cm, szny. 2 cm, vstg. 0,3 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AM, fot AM
425. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Irizl fehr veg. Kerek vegedny, nyaka velt, kifel
hzott pereme gallrt kpez a szja krl. Tredk. Megm.
m. 3,2 cm, szny. 1,8 cm, vstg. 0,4 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
426. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Irizl, ttetsz fehr veg. Rovid nyak, kihajl perem
palack. tm. 2,4 cm, megm. m. 3,5 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
427. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.

153

tltsz fehr veg, fehr irizlssal. Hengeres nyak,


pereme kihajlik s ellapostott. Szny. 4,3 cm. mag. 6,3 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
428. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
tltsz fehr veg, fehr irizlssal. Tlcsr alak nyak,
pereme kihajlik, elvastagtott s legmblytett. Tredk.
Megm. mag. 6 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
429. Pohr
2004, a palota kzelben.
Majdnem homlyos, zldes irizl veg, a trsekre
vkony fehr rteg rakdott. Tojsdad pohr, rvid nyaka
alig kiemelt, pereme kihajlik. Tredk. Megm. m. 5,3 cm,
szny. 5 cm, vstg. 0,4 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot AM
430. Bgre
2004, a palota kzelben
Irizl fehr veg. Rvid nyak, legmblytett peremt
kifel hztk, majd visszahajltattk az ednytest fel.
Tredk. Megm. m. 5 cm, szny. 10 cm, vstg. 0,4 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
431. Pohralj
2001, a palota kzelben.
Fehr veg, irizl; profillt talpra tmaszkod pohralj
(?). Tredk. Ftm. 5,9 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS

154

432. Kehely
2002, a palota kzelben.
Zldes veg, kvl fehr lerakodsokkal. Profillt talpon
ll, a fenk befel kpszeren kidudorodik. Tredk.
Ftm. 5 cm.
XVIXVII. sz.
AI, fot CS
433. Palack
2001, a palota kzelben.
Zldes, ttetsz, viszonylag j minsg veg. Az veg
fels felbl szrmaz tredk a nyak apr tredkeivel.
Szja ersen kihajlik, szlessgt s tmrit tekintve
egyenetlen. Legn. tm. 2,3 cm.
XVI (XVIII.?) sz.
AI, fot CS
434. vegedny
2002, a palota kzelben.
J minsg, viszonylag ttetsz, zldesfehr veg. Hasas,
magas nyak, kihajl, perem edny. Aljnak szle kifel
gmblydik, kzepe kposan kiemelkodik. Szny. 14,6
cm, ftm. 16,5 cm.
XVII-XVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
435. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fehr, tltsz veg felpattogzsokkal; csves nyak, vge
fel enyhn keskenyedik. Egyszer perem. Tredk.
Megm. mag. 8 cm, legkisebb tm. 1,5 cm, legn. tm. 1,85
cm.
XVII-XVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
436. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.

Zldesfehr ttetsz veg. Ngyszglet test veg fels


rsznek tredke, hengeres nyak, enyhn megvastagtott
perem. Szny. 2 cm.
XVII-XVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
437. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
Zldesfehr, homlyos veg, ersen irizl. Felfel
domborod fenk, benne nyomtatott betk (D, S, O, C?).
Tredk.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
438. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fehr, tltsz veg felpattogzsokkal. Hengeres test,
magas nyak, az elszlestett perem gallrt forml a
szjnyls krl. Mag. 4,8 cm, ftm. 2,8 cm, dg. 2,4 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
439. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Zldesfehr veg. Rvid, hengeres nyak, szlestett perem.
Tredk. Szny. 3,2 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
440. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
Zldesfehr veg. Rvid, hengeres nyak, szlestett perem.
Tredk. Szny. 2,5 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
441. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.

Zldesfehr veg. Rvid, hengeres nyak, szlestett perem.


Tredk. Szny. 2,65 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
442. Palackalj
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fehr, irizl veg. Fenktredk.
fenkvastagsg 0,4 cm
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD

Ftm.

2,8

cm,

443. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fehr, irizl veg. Tlcsres nyak palack kifel hzott,
szlestett peremmel. Tredk. Szny. 3,2 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
444. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
tltsz, fehr veg. Magas nyak, a szja fel keskenyed
palack; a megvastagtott perem kis gyrt kpez a
szjnyls krl. tm. 3,1 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
445. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
Zldes veg. Hengeres trzs palack, a fenk kzepe
enyhn kidomborodik, az veg oldalnak als fele
kiszlesedik. Tredk. Megm. m. 6 cm, ftm. 5 cm.
XVII-XVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
446. veg
2002, a palota kzelben.

155

Srgsfehr tltsz veg. Legmblytett fenek hengeres


edny, kmcshz hasonlt. Megm. m. 15 cm, tm. 2 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD

Tisztn ttetsz, irizl, zldes veg. Tredk. Szny. 2,5


cm, megm. m. 6,3 cm, vstg. 0,2-0,4 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS

447. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
Fehr veg, vrses sznjtkkal, irizl. Magas nyak,
peremt gyr hangslyozza. Szny. 2,8 cm, megm. m. 11
cm.
XVII-XVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD

452. Palack
2007, a palota kzelben.
ttetsz, irizl fehr veg. Tredk az edny fels
rszbl. Szny. 2,5 cm, vstg. 0,2 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS

448. Palack
2002, a palota kzelben.
Zldesfehr tltsz veg, irizl. Legmblytett fenek,
hengeres edny als rsze, kmcshz hasonlt. Megm. m.
18 cm, tm. 2 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
AI, fot GD
449. vegedny
2004, a palota kzelben
Flig ttetsz zldes veg. Gmblyded, rvid nyak
edny, pereme kihajlik. Megm. m. 4,5 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
450. Palack
2007, a palota kzelben.
Rossz minsg, homlyos barna veg, kvl fehr
lerakdsokkal. Nyaktredk. tm. 2,4 cm, vstg. 0,1 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
451. Palack
2007, a palota kzelben.

156

453. Fed
2007, a palota kzelben.
Fehr, tltsz veg. Haranga lak fed, a kezelst
szolgl rvid, hengeres nyllel. Nhny gyengn
kirajzold vonallal dsztett. Tredk.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
454. Kanna
2008, a palota belsejben.
ttetsz fehr veg. Aljtredk, megkzeltleg ovlis
alak. Fogval modellltk egymsutn kvetkez
benyomkodsokkal mg melegen. 5,2x5,7 cm, vstg. 1,2 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
455. Bgre
2004, a palota kzelben.
ttetszt zldesfehr. Az edny kzptt feldomborod
alj, fogval egymst kvet benyomkadsokkal
dsztettk mg melegen. Tredk.
tm. 8 cm, vstg. 0,3-2 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS

456. Bgre
2004, a palota kzelben.
Irizl fehr veg. Ersen velt nyaka rvid, kihajtott
pereme gallrt kpez a szja krl. Tredk. Szny. 10-11
cm, megm. m. 7,2 cm, vstg. 0,2 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
457. Bgre
2004, a palota kzelben.
Irizl zldesfehr veg. Henger alak bgre, kihzott
perememnek a szle legmblytett. Tredkek. Szny. 7
cm, megm. m. 5,5 cm, vstg. 0,2 cm.
XVIIXVIII. sz.
DMI, fot CS
458. Palack
2004, a palota kzelben.
Ezstsen irizl fehr veg, bell fehr lerakds.
Ngyszgletes palack fels rsze. Kiss kihajl rvid nyak,
kiszlestett perem. Megm. m. 2,7 cm, vstg. 0,3.
XVIIIXIX. sz.
DMI, fot CS
459. Butlla
2004, a palota kzelben.
Flig ttetsz zldes veg kkes sznjtszsokkal,
fnytelen fehres lerakods. Hossz, egyenes nyak
edny, peremt gyr emeli ki. Tredk. Megm. m. 9,2 cm,
vstg.0,4 cm.
XVIIIXIX. sz.
DMI, fot AM
460. Butlla
2004, a palota kzelben.
Irizl fehr veg. Hossz nyak edny, peremt gyr
emeli ki. Tredk. Megm. m. 9,2 cm, vstg. 0,4 cm.
XVIIIXIX. sz.

DMI, fot CS
461. Bgre
2007, a palota kzelben.
ttetsz, irizl, fehr veg. Tredk. Szny. 8 cm, vstg. 0,1
cm.
XVIIIXIX. sz.
DMI, fot CS
462. Dugtredk
2004, a palota kzelben.
ttetsz fehr veg. 3,5x2,3 cm.
XVIIIXIX. sz.
DMI, fot CS
463. Ablakszem
20002008.
J minsg, flig, ttetsz (nha srga vagy zld
rnyalat) feher veg, helyenknt fehr vagy fekete
lerakdsok a felletn. Egyenl szr hromszg alak
darab, oldalai befel hajlanak, szleit fogval alaktottk.
Oldala 35 cm.
XVXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS, GD
464. Ablakszem
20002008.
Barns homlyos veg. Egyenl szr hromszg alak
darab, oldalai befel hajlanak, szleit fogval alaktottk.
Oldala 35 cm.
XVXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
465. Ablakszem
20002008.
J minsg, flttetsz, gyakran srga s zld rnyalat
fehr veg, felletn helyenknt fehr vagy fekete

157

lerakdsok. Egyszer vagy hurokszeren visszatrtt


sul kerek ablakszem. Tredkek.
tm. 91 cm, vstg. 0,150,3 cm.
XVXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
466. Ablakszem
20002008.
Homlyos barna veg. Kerek, egyszer vagy visszatrtt
szl ablakszem. Tredk. Ksptm. 910 cm, vstg. 0,15
0,4 cm.
XVXVIII. sz.
AI, fot CS
467. Magyarorszg, Klmn (1095-1116), dnr.
0,27g, 12 mm.
468. Magyarorszg, III. Bla (1172-1196), rzpnz (follis).
2,90 g, 27 mm.
469. Magyarorszg, rpd-kori dnr, XII. sz.
0,19 g, 13 mm.

474. Nmet-rmai Birodalom, Magyarorszg, Habsburg


Ferdinnd, dnr.
0,42 g, 14x16 mm.
475. Nmet-rmai Birodalom, Magyarorszg, Lipt (16571705), kromkrajcros.
1,83g, 20 mm.
476. Nmet-rmai Birodalom, Izp Frigyes (1314-133o,
mint kirly), pfennig, Bcs.
0,38 g, 13 mm.
477. Aquileai Patriarchtus, II Anthonius di Panciera
(1401-1411), dnr.
0,40 g, 18 mm.
478. Havasalfld, I. Dan (1383-1386), bani.
0,20 g, 9x13 mm.
479. Ottomn Birodalom, II. Bajezid (1481-1512), aszper.
0,55 g, 11 mm.
480.
Lengyelorszg,
hromgarasos.
0,84 g, 19 mm.

II.

470. Magyarorszg, IV. Bla (1235-1270), dnr.


0,31 g, 13 mm.
471. Magyarorszg, XIII. szzad vge, XIV. Szzad eleje,
dnr.
0,27 g, 11 mm.

481.
Lengyelorszg,
hatgarasos.
0,88 g, 14x16 mm.

Inos

472. Magyarorszg, Kroly Rbert (1308-1342), parvus.


0,20 g, 12 mm.

482. Liegnitz-Brieg Hercegsg, Keresztly (1663-1672),


garas (greschl).
0,48 g, 16 mm.

473.
Magyarorszg,
szerecsenfej dnr.
0,23 g, 11x13 mm.

158

Nagy

Lajos

(1342-1382),

Zsigmond

(1587-1632),

Kzmr

(1649-1668),

483. A 2007. vi satsok sorn feltrt pnzlelet. A lelet 37


darab, I. Albert (1437-1439) s I. Vlszl (1440-1444)
magyar kirlyoh ltal kibocstott ezst-vogy ezstztt
rdmrt foglal magban.

159

160

161

ABSTRACT
FOREWORD ...................................................................... 163
BRIEF PRESENTATION OF ALBA IULIA THE FORTRESS
AND THE SITE .................................................................. 164
ABOUT THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH .............. 166
ABOUT THE MEDIEVAL COINS ..................................... 169
ABOUT THE ARTIFACTS RESTORATION .................... 172
THE CATALOGUE ........................................................... 175
CATALOGUE OF MATERIALS ...................................... 185

162

FOREWORD
The artifacts discovered in an archaeological
research represent the material argument of a past that we
try to reconstruct by turning to this auxiliary discipline of
history: archaeology.
There are many kinds of archaeological
excavations and, sometimes, chance discoveries have a
more important part that wed like to expect. There are
scarce excavations from which we manage to recover only
a few artifacts while the specialty conclusions must be
based on the analysis of the earthen deposits and,
sometimes, of the still existing ruins. Of course there are
also rich excavations from which we have the chance to
recover artifacts that help us to interpret the past and form
an important heritage for the generations to come.
The archaeological excavations in the southwestern corner of the fortress of Alba Iulia have been three
times lucky. It was a great opportunity for archeologists to
approach, even restricted, some buildings whose
historical, artistic and architectural importance is still
intact over all the centuries. A great chance was that so
many artifacts (coins, ornaments, weapons, tools,
earthenware, stove tiles or decorative ceramic plates) were
discovered in such a small excavated area. Many of these
objects have a lot more value than their actual sizes. Others
are suggestive in transmitting their message without the
presence of a specialist. Most of them are fragmentary and
only a few could be restored. But mostly, these artifacts
talk about two thousands years of history in Alba Iulia,
and a millennium of history of the catholic buildings,
without the need of too many words.
It is surely a great chance we have to present to the
public the results of the archaeological research on the eve
of one thousand years since the Episcopacy of
Transylvania was established. This exhibition is trying to
highlight the history of this millennium by means of

objects that the ones connected somehow to this institution


used at one point, placed in graves, lost, hidden or thrown
away. Each of these artifacts represents one more step in
our efforts to reconstruct past eras, that we feel we never
know too much of.
***
Assembling an exhibition with the results of the
archaeological research is a very natural thing to do 10 years
after the beginning of the excavations, a time when just as
many salvage and survey campaigns were organized. Our
suggestion was constantly and with great preoccupation
supported by the Catholic Archdiocese, even if finalizing
this operation proved to be a little more complicated than
we have expected. I am honored to bring my gratitude
again to His Excellency Archbishop Jakubinyi Gyrgy for
his faith in me. Also Mr. Szsz Jnos has been a great moral
support for the duration of this mission.
The project of this exhibition could not have been
finalized without the constant support and participation of
the National Unification Museum in holding this event in
the summer of 2009. So special acknowledgment goes to
the management of the Museum, the restorers of the
laboratory and other colleagues that have helped us one
way or the other.
The treatment and selection of the material, the
reservation and restoration of the artifacts, the making and
arrangement of the photos, the editing of this catalogue
and the organization of the exhibition colligate the work of
a large number of specialists that accomplished it in a not
so generous amount of time. The closing of the print
edition has been devotedly supported by Anca Mati,
Clin uteu, Delia Maria Roman, Andrea Gll and Teleki
Gbor. To them gos the editors special aknowledgment.
To all that worked for this, many thanks for their
efforts and my hope that this endeavor will prove benefic
for them as well as for the ones these pages are addressed
to.
Daniela Marcu Istrate

163

BRIEF PRESENTATION OF ALBA


IULIA THE FORTRESS AND THE SITE
Alba Iulia holds a magical allure in our
historiography, with a material and spiritual background
that cannot be compared to anything else. Because it was
continually inhabited from the Roman Age up to this day;
because the Roman castrum was re-used up until 1700;
because is was a repeated center of power of a
geographically variable region Alba Iulia is without a
doubt a one of a kind site. The most important moments in
the history of the region come from or revolve around
Alba Iulia: at some point it was the hot spot in the Roman
province; it was the center of a local political formation
and, maybe, of the Voievodate of Transylvania; it had a
strategic part in the expansion of the Hungarian Kingdom
in the area; it became the seat of the Catholic Episcopacy of
Transylvania and then the political center of the
Principality and one of the most important Habsburg
military centers. And that is to only note the peak of Albas
important moments.
The fortress has begun its history in the Roman
Age. On the high terrace of the Mure river the castrum of
the 13th Legion Gemina was being built. It was to become
the most important Roman fortification in Dacia.
Even after the province was abandoned, life
thrived both inside and outside the fortification; numerous
artifacts from the post-Roman period up until the 11th
century were discovered to prove this. Traces of habitation
in the 8th and 9th centuries were identified on the territory
of the fortress. A dense and Christian population
continued to live here from the 9th century, as it is proven
by the numerous funerary finds.
The Hungarian Kings decided to transform Alba
Iulia into an important support of the extension and the
organization of the Kingdom because the White fortress

164

was placed in an intensely circulated area , it was still


imposing, it had a tradition as a power center and possibly
other reasons than elude us right now. The most important
forms of administration and ecclesiastic organization were
concentrated here: the seat of the Episcopacy of
Transylvania, royal fortress, the center of the most
extended county, and, as it was most likely, the first
Voievodes headquarters.
The installment of the Episcopacy is traditionally
attributed to King Steven I (in 1009), but the first bishop
that was mentioned in documents was Simon in 1111. The
first constructions of the Episcopacy are still not agreed
upon by the scholars. Apparently the first halidom was a
hall church, built in the 11th century on the plateau in front
of the current cathedral. During the following century a
Romanesque cathedral functioned instead. On the
southern side it had a baptistery-rotunda. The current
cathedral started being built before 1200. In connection, the
other buildings that add to the functionality of such a high
rank institution were added: the bishops palace and its
annexes.
The first mention of the medieval fortress goes
back to 1206, but what exactly is this fortress still remains
an unanswered question. The fact that the Tartars almost
entirely and very easily destroyed Alba Iulia in the middle
of the 13th century proves that the defenses of Alba were
not powerful at all.
Scholars agree that the medieval fortress
overlapped the Roman castrum in various proportions. It
is very likely that the medieval habitation initially
developed in the castrums south western corner. In 1349
the fortification of the said church in Alba Iulia is
mentioned, suggesting a small inhabited area around the
cathedral and the Episcopal palace. The fortress in Alba
Iulia, with walls and moats, is named in documents of the
mid 15th century and a 1461 document refers to the gates
on the eastern (Saint Georges gate, also called the
chapters gate) and western (Saint Michaels gate, also

called the bishops gate) sides; this shows that the


fortification extended north and east up to a limit that we
cannot specify, but could assume is identical to the Roman
one.
Since the middle of the 16th century Alba Iulia
became the center of the Principality of Transylvania,
while the impropriation brought the episcopacys estates
to the prince of Transylvania. After this, our information
increase considerably with documents and mappings. The
latter are the most important sources on the development
of the fortification in the 16th-18th centuries and we name
here Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli (1687), Giovanni Morando
Visconti (1711) and Conrad Ferdinand Weiss (1736).
At the time of the Principality a grand project
started: earthen platforms for canons at the four corners of
the fortification, a pentagonal bastion in the south-western
corner. Apparently the works had begun only on the
southern side. The most numerous destructions the
fortification suffered were between 1600-1603, during the
Michael the Brave events, and it remained a ruin up until
the time of Prince Gabriel Bethlen, who rebuilt and
strengthened the fortification since the beginning of his
reign. His most pompous accomplishment lays in the
remodeling of the bishops palace, extended toward east
and transformed into a monumental princely palace. The
works were carried out by Bethlens descendants. The first
half of the 17th century was indeed a period o growth of
the fortification and especially of the buildings that interest
us here. Unfortunately this shining period was short-lived,
the fortress and the buildings being destroyed by the
Turkish attacks in 1658, 1661 and 1662. The cronicars were
impressed by the massive destructions that happened over
a very short time. The city was abandoned and never
recovered, so that Prince Michael Apafi was forced to
move to Fgra.
The state of the fortification at the end of the 17th
century can be seen on the 1687 mapping. The square
fortification undoubtedly overlapped the Roman one, even

reusing some of its towers. Two bastions from the Bethlen


period are on the southern side while on the northern side
two inner, rectangular towers are depicted. The fortress
had this shape when it was given to the Habsburg army by
the 1687 treaty of Blaj, a little while before the beginning of
the Vauban fortification system. The plans for the Vauban
fortification were approved in 1714 and the works begun
on November 4th 1715 in the presence of General Steinville.
Most of the medieval fortress and part of the town were
destroyed, but the southern side, with the two bastions
was kept, though affected by their inclusion in the Vauban
fortification. The western side only preserved the
fragments that coincided with the Episcopal palace. The
south-western corner that corresponds to the catholic
buildings (the current cathedral and the bishops palace)
didnt suffer major disturbance by the Vauban
fortification. These monuments still are the crown jewel of
Alba Iulia.
Daniela Marcu Istrate

165

ABOUT THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL


RESEARCH
The restorations works undertaken in 2000-2008 on
the buildings that used to belong to the Catholic
Archdiocese were also assisted by a team of archaeologists
that made sure the south-western corner of the fortress
was protected, researched and the patrimony was properly
administrated. A systematic archaeological research that
could have organized a coherent scientifical research of the
place has never occurred but only small investigations
were done. The program of the research was always
dependant on the other works, on the priorities of the
restoration works, on the reestablishment of the plumbing
system and on the reorganization of the terrain around the
cathedral. The interventions under the current upper level
were usually preceded by an archeological survey and
often supervised by specialists until they were finalized.
The research started in 2000, when the works were
concentrated inside the north-western tower of the
cathedral; a few surveys were also taken on the southern
side of the sacristy as well as on the palace faade facing
the cathedral. The 2001 campaign had two stages,
concentrated on the same sectors, the sacristy of the
cathedral and the northern faade of the Episcopal palace.
In 2002 ample excavation were done on the northern
faade of the Episcopal palace when a drain was built and
the pluvial canalization was reestablished. This campaign
was very important because the works allowed us to open
bigger surfaces and thus allowed the archaeologists to
form an opinion that led to the building of the
stratigraphic matrix of the site.
In 2003 we researched the exterior of the baroque
sacristy, whose foundations were underpinned. In 2004 the
research on this annex was finished with inner surveys. In
the same year we made a first survey inside the Lzai

166

chapel as well as some excavations on the southern side of


the bishops palace and its gardens.
The year 2007 brought another favor to
archaeology due to the extended excavations around the
cathedral and of the space between the cathedral and the
palace in order to remake the sewerage system. The
excavations that the constructor has done were
archaeologically supervised; when some vestiges were
discovered, the excavation was slightly extended in order
to correctly register and delimit them. The new lines,
including the connections toward the palaces buildings
(the barrack) were preceded by an archaeological survey.
The campaign of 2008 was limited to the inside of the
Episcopal palace; its older wing (which can be directly
related to the beginnings of the episcopacy) was
researched.
On the whole during the 10 years we just
presented, only small surfaces were researched, limited
strictly to the interest of the Episcopal buildings. Although
these excavations are barely noticeable on a general plan of
the site our results have been consistent: numerous
vestiges (ruins, tombs, layers, complexes, artifacts) were
taken out of the dirt, shedding light in less known corners
of the complicated history of the south-astern corner of the
fortress of Alba Iulia, starting with the Roman Age and
continuing up to the beginning of the 18th century. This
surface seemed to be preferred by builders, so numerous
monuments overlap and sometimes replace each other,
thus making the eras difficult to discern. The most
important contributions refer, of course, to the two
buildings that were linked to the function of the Catholic
Episcopacy.
From the Roman Age, a fragment of the western
side of the castrum was researched. It was discovered that
it had an intermediary, slightly everted, tower. It was
established that the curtain wall was maintained as a
fortification up at least until the 14th century, when the
defense system was actually pushed away from it. The

north-western corner of the Roman castrum was included


in the buildings that belonged to the bishops palace, being
used as a foundation for the palaces outer walls. Inside
the castrum several traces of Roman buildings were
identified (but their mapping is to be established by future
studies).
The Migration Age is represented by some metallic
artifacts and some earthenware shards that ca be traced
back to the 5th-6th centuries. A belt decorative element,
ornate with facing birds can be dated at the end of the 6th
and the beginning of the 7th century. From the Early
Middle Ages (9th-10th centuries) a few dwellings were
discovered; they had clay floors, a house appliance made
of a stone kiln and its pit; a few manually or slow wheel
turned shards were also discovered (they were decorated
with incised geometrical ornaments). In 2002 the research
came up with a tomb with an animal offering (horse and
cattle bones); next to it there were several fragmented iron
artifacts and a moon shaped earring that belonged to the
southern Danube culture and was dated in the 9th-10th
centuries.
The next dwelling level is connected to the first
mortar based medieval constructions (the basilica whose
ruins are imbedded inside the current cathedral). The
research of this was established at the end of the 12th
century and it worked on the duration of the 13th century
(thus suggested by the latest studies). The plan of Saint
Michaels Cathedral has been known for a long time and it
seemed as if the current research could have brought some
new information. Still, a new medieval, compartment on
the southern side of the cathedral was now being
discovered: a gothic sacristy that must have been built
before the end of the 13th century. It is very likely that this
building had two levels, while its southern corners were
supported by oblique buttresses. The ground level was
covered with a ceiling that crosses some ogives. Its
negative still lies on the Romanesque wall.

New information from the excavations around the


cathedral refers to the north-western tower, the gothic
choir and the baroque sacristy; how they were built, their
transformations, how did the floorings evolved. The
excavations also evidenced the churchs foundation
ventilation system that was done here by the restores of
the beginning of the 20th century.
The 190 tombs that were discovered here belong to
many chronological horizons, this fact being proven by the
numerous endings and overlappings that were mostly
noticed in the western side of the cathedral and next to the
sacristy. By analyzing the vertical succession of the burials
with the layers and the walls, five chronological stages
were delimited from the second half of the 9th century up
until the Modern Age. The oldest tombs contain ritual and
animal offerings and can be dated in the 9th-10th centuries;
they still have an obscure relation to the presence of a
south-Danubian population in Alba Iulia. Most of the
tombs are connected to the cemetery of the first cathedral,
dated from the end of the 11th century to the beginning of
the 13th century. These burials are dated with artifacts that
are clearly in relation to the skeletons: S ended hair rings
(placed by one, pairs or even by three), simple earrings,
digital rings, bracelets, ornaments, beans, buckles or, more
rare, coins.
The third chronological horizon has tombs with
brick or stone sarcophagi, with a small head niche, dated
at the end of the 12th-first half of the 13th centuries. They
belong to a western population, probably masters that
were to build the current cathedral. The other burials go
up to the 1700 hundreds.
The name Episcopal/Princely Palace hides a few
buildings that we know very little about. The documents
mention them rarely and with no details and the direct
researches were limited. The archaeological excavation of
the latter years reached near the palace, especially inside
the northern wing, on small sections. A few vital data were
obtained about the history of this place. We will just note

167

the fact that in the structure of the northern wing we could


delimit 4 segments that were independently build starting
from the end of the 12th century up until the 20th century.
The most important component is the gothic palace, dated
at the end of the 14th century. Later on, this building had
different annexes added (well, latrine, staircase circular
tower) and it was extended westward all the way to the
curtain of the Roman castrum (re-used by the medieval
and the modern fortress).
A lot of artifacts were discovered during the
excavations (earthenware and stove tiles especially, metal,
bone and glass objects and over 300 coins) that extend
from the Roman age to the Modern one. Most of the
vestiges are medieval and modern and they reflect the
maximum intensity of the habitation here after the
establishment of the Catholic Episcopacy. A lot of funerary
inventory artifacts appeared around the cathedral or in
contexts that were related to it while a number of cult
related objects were discovered in the sacristy. Other
artifacts show the endowment of the bishops palace and
the daily life of those that made the episcopacy functional.
Daniela Marcu Istrate

168

ABOUT THE MEDIEVAL COINS


The coins that were discovered during the
excavations in Alba Iulia-The Catholic Cathedral and the
Bishops Palace reflect the importance that this city had
since early in the Hungarian history. There is a
predominant percent of Hungarian currency in the coin
findings in this site. The great work of the archaeological
research, undertaken in several campaigns is also reflected
in the number of coins discovered, approximately 300 and
hoard (consisting mostly in small pieces).
The Roman and medieval coins, as well as the
artifacts discovered, present new information, other then
from documents: new clues in dating the construction
stages of the researched monuments and of the necropolis
which developed early around the Cathedral.
The oldest medieval coins are Hungarian (11th-12th
centuries) issued by Kings Koloman (1095-1116), Bela II
(1131-1141), Geza II (1141-1162) and Bela III (1172-1196).
Also in this category fall a large number of anepigraphic
dinars issued in the 12th century (they do not present
legends by which we could attribute them to any kings of
the time).
There are also two numismatic rarities from this
age: a bronze coin (follies) issued by King Bela III (11721196). This piece is unique for the Hungarian numismatics.
It was inspired by the bronze Byzantine coin. The
connections between the Byzantine Empire and the
Hungarian kingdom in this period are very well known
and they were both political and economical. The Duke
Bela lived in Constantinople as a candidate to the
Byzantine throne and was engaged to be married to
Manuel Is daughter. This offered him the possibility of
knowing the Byzantine way of life, with its institutions
and manners. The birth of an heir to the throne of Manuel I
and the death of King Steven III brought Bela back to
Hungary as a king. The second piece is a dinar. On the

obverse it shows a dragon looking to the left and on the


reverse two birds looking at each other; between them a
lily flower. The reverse looks similar to a coin issued by
Steven V (1270-1272) were two birds appear but between
them there is the Hebrew letter Alef (HL 357). The obverse
is completely different.
The reign of Charles Robert of Anjou (1308-1342)
meant a radical change in the financial politics as the gold
coin was introduced and the silver coin was transformed.
With the document emitted in Timioara at the beginning
of 1323 the King informed the Chapter in Alba Iulia of his
decision following the complaints of the nobility about the
monetary chaos in the kingdom. He decided to introduce a
unitary coin with its value generally accepted in the realm.
Although it needed two stages, in 1323 and 1338, the
reform was successful (this is also shown by the
discoveries in Alba Iulia, were the coins minted during
Charles Robert of Anjous reign were the most numerous
and varied in values. The presence here of some small
value coins proves the growth of small commerce,
necessary to a developing town. In this age a mint is
established in Alba Iulia.
The monetary activity is intense during the reign
of Charles Robert of Anjous descendant Louis the Great
(1342-1382). Although numerous, his coins are represented
by a single group: the dinars with Saracen or Moor head,
named like this because a Moorish character (thus proven
by the physiognomic features of the character) was minted
on the obverse of the coin. This kind of coins is present in
large numbers because they were used in every day
transactions and implied commercial activities that were
normal for a medieval city.
Sigismund of Luxemburgs long reign (1387-1437)
is less represented in the discoveries from Alba Iulia,
although his active participation in the anti Ottoman wars
demanded his prolonged stay in Transylvania. This
energetic attitude toward the Ottoman Empire drained the
states finances, Sigismunds death opening a financial and

169

political uncertainty era of several years. The Turkish


attacks that rapidly followed Sigismund of Luxembrugs
death, when several cities, amongst which Alba Iulia, were
attacked and robed are reflected in hoards of small value
coins, gathered over short time and hidden. Such a hoard
was discovered in the 2007 campaign in Alba Iulia. It
consists of 37 silver or bronze dinars issued by Kings
Albert (1437-1439) and Vladislav I (1440-1444).
A new monetary reform, in 1467, introduces new
silver coins with a stable value. They have a distinctive
representation: Virgin Mary with baby Jesus. Among the
coins in Alba Iulia we have pre- and post- reform issues.
The coins minted from 1458 to 1467 are clearly
differentiated from the ulterior ones by the poor quality of
silver, the negligent minting, some of them have an
illegible legend, they are made of bronze and they are
probably forgeries.
There is a 50 and more years hiatus in numismatic
discoveries following King Matthias Corvinus death in
1490. This is a very natural situation if we take into
account the events of the first half of the 16th century. After
the battle at Mohcs part of Hungary, including the mint
in Kremnitz-Kremnica, become part of Ferdinand I of
Habsburgs rule and Kremnitz-Kremnica becomes the
main mint of the kingdom.
The period (1526-1564) is dominated by coins
issued by King Ferdinand I of Habsburg. The second half
of the 16th century coincides with a worsening of the
situation because of the open conflicts between the
Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire, which reflected also
in the monetary circulation. The small value coin is scarce
and therefore Ferdinands coins are valued in
Transylvania. The circulation increases in the 7th decade of
the century when in Sibiu dinars issued by Ferdinand
intensify in minting. Ferdinands followers are represented
with one or tow issues: Maximilian I (1564-1576), Rudolf II
(1576-1608) and Matthias II (1608-1619). The research of
hoards previously discovered in Alba Iulia certify the way

170

in which local and foreign coin introduces itself on the


market of this very important Transylvanian city. One can
notice the lack of the local coin and large amounts of
Polish coins and pieces issued by Ferdinand of Habsburg
in the name of the Hungarian Crown. Toward the end of
the 17th century the Polish coins reduce and the Austrian
coin is introduced together with the silver coin from the
German provinces (like the 1 greschl from the LiegnitzBrieg Principality issued in 1670 discovered in our
archaeological research). As a matter of fact this
Principality is shortly after the issue of this coin
incorporated to the Austrian Empire (1675).
In the 17th century the Polish small value coin
widely spreads so the Hungarian dinar is substituted. The
two emissions, both from 1624, are linked to the peak of
the monetary depreciation in Transylvania at this time.
Gabriel Bethlens participation in The 30 Years War
increased the need of money, which was minted locally.
Most of the Alba Iulia finds for this period are issued by
Gabriel Bethlen but also there are depreciated foreign
coins, especially Polish. There are two pieces of three groi
from Sigismund III Wasa and the one of six groi from
Ioan Cazimir. Other than that there is no Polish emission,
because of the Seims restrictions in order to improve the
financial status of Poland but also because Gabriel Bethlen
started to remove, since the end of 1625, the depreciated
Polish groi and introduced his own coins, minted with
good quality silver. The effects of his reform were just
partial because his coins were permanently removed from
the marked because of their superior qualities.
The earliest foreign coin discovered is a Viennese
pfennig dated at the end of the 13th century and the
beginning of the 14th. It is the proof for the existence of
some commercial and political connections. As a matter of
fact the payment of the customs in Valea lui Mihai is done
in Viennese dinars starting from 1312.
The coins issued in Walachia are a rarer apparition
in Transylvania, but still explainable if we are to take into

account the political, military and economical situation at


the end of the 14th century. Mircea cel Btrn (Mircea the
Old) was an active participant to this situation. In 1395 he
and the king of Hungary, Sigismund of Luxemburg sign
an alliance, in the context of the anti-Ottoman crusade that
was about to begin. This alliance had a second purpose,
that to protect the interests of the Hungarian merchants on
their way south and to the east, to the Danube and the
Black Sea. We can add to this the much older economic
relations established by the Walachian voivodes with the
towns of Sibiu and Braov, such as the privilege Valdislav
offered to the merchants from Braov, based on older
agreements. From Walachia we have three coins from
Vladislav I and Radu I (about 1377), Dan I (1383-1386) and
Mircea cel Brtrn (1386-1418). From the 15th century we
have two coins issued by the Patriarch of Aquileia,
Anthonius II di Panciera (1401-1411) and from the sultan
Bayezid II (1481-1512). Chronologically these coins are
followed by the Polish coins of the 17th century, issued by
Sigismund III Wasa (1587-1632) and Ioan Cazimir (16491668). The most recent foreign coin is a greschl issued in
the Liegnitz-Brieg Principality in 1670.
This presentation of the numismatic finds ends
with a 10 poltura piece issued by Francisc Rkczi (17031711) and the 1 kreuzer piece issued by the RomanGerman Empire for Hungary in 1763.
The entire lot of coins, found during the ample
archaeological works of the Catholic Cathedral and the
Bishops Palace in Alba Iulia, completes the information on
these monuments gathered along the years and offers new
data about the monetary circulation in this important city
in Transylvania.
Monica Dejan

171

ABOUT THE ARTIFACTS


RESTORATION
The archaeological finds discovered at the Catholic
Cathedral and the Bishops Palace from 2000 until 2008
that are included in the exhibition and its catalogue
needed to be restored by the Pottery-metal restoration
laboratory of the National Unification Museum in Alba
Iulia.
Historically, the artifacts belong to several
dwelling levels, from the Roman era until the Modern
period (18th-19th centuries). Because of the physicalchemical qualities of the materials, of the causes that led to
covering them with earth (fires, tossing them in garbage
pits, depositing them as funerary inventory etc) and of
their interactions with the environment along the time
these objects are in different preservation stages.
The materials of which the artifacts were made are
heterogeneous: a huge quantity of iron objects (tool,
weapons etc), jewelry, ordinary bronze items, silver
ornaments, pottery and bone objects. All of them were
manufactured by characteristic methods for the time they
belong to.
Iron made objects:
They are prevalent among the metal artifacts.
Because of its specific features iron oxidizes very fast; also
the corrosion products are ugly and they substantially
affect the aspect of the artifact. When they are taken from
the soil which preserved them, the iron objects are very
poorly preserved and the time necessary for the
reactivation of the corrosion is of only 0,05 seconds. The
conservation status can be much worsened if the objects
were fired, in which case the metallic links that were
formed by processing were broken (most of the cases the
objects were made by heated plastic deformation forged).
The iron objects presented had different stages of
preservation, varying from a total transformation of the

172

metallic core into corrosion products to partial


mineralization or just superficial oxidation.
The soil contamination and the superficial
corrosion were eliminated by mechanical, dry cleaning
with tools such as scalpels, dental tools, MTS etc. The
massive pieces were also cleaned by controlled sanding,
pressurized at 2-4 atmospheres.
With these procedures we could recreate the
original shape of the objects (which was much altered by
the corrosion and soil, ash, quick or slaked lime
precipitations). In some cases we highlighted decorative
elements on the objects surface (silver inlays on a firearm
mechanism, bronze ornaments and bone handles of knives
etc.).
The artifacts preservation was done with a
solution of 20% tannin and 15% ethyl alcohol in distilled
water, brushed in 2 or 3 layers, according to each piece.
Then the artifacts were impregnated with epoxy resin
(Araldite AY 103 with its intensifier HY 991). For special
protection we brushed the artifacts with a layer of
nitrocellulose lacquer or Paraloid acryl resin applied in a
10% solution of acetone.
Some objects needed to be both reconstructed and
consolidated. This was done by pouring epoxy resin mixed
with metallic oxides resulted from the mechanical
cleaning.
Bronze and silver objects:
The artifacts made of copper alloys or of silver also
suffered degradations, mostly oxidations that led to
damaging the metallic core in different proportions or just
the covering of the pieces with a thin, uniform, layer,
specific for the patina. When the objects were excavated
they were degraded; the corrosion reappeared and so
metallic compounds which are associated with chlorine
and sulphur violently and actively attacked the objects and
soon led to their irreversible destruction.
We most of the times preferred to preserve the
patina. The soil precipitations and the corrosion products

were removed by manual, mechanical cleaning with


adequate tools or with MTS for the massive objects. Next
the objects underwent a treatment of chemical stabilization
in an alcoholic solution of 3% BTA then dried and by
impregnating or sinking them in a solution of
nitrocellulose lacquer diluted with a compatible solvent or
acryl resin.
In some cases, mostly for large objects, we used a
treatment of chemical reduction of the corrosion in
sulphuric acid and/or EDTA, brushing them with a soft
glass bristle brush. They were also neutralized in distilled
water and dried in alcohol. The artifacts were finally
preserved with a protective coating. The same treatment
was done for the silver pieces. We tried to highlight the
metallic lustre. Most of the pieces were covered with
green, copper typical corrosion products; they are part of
the chemical composition of the silver alloy. Because of the
differences in the electrochemical potential the objects
were selectively corroded.
The fragmented small items were glued together
with quick hold Bison bicomponent epoxy resin. The large
objects were glued with Power Bison epoxy resin.
Sometimes the soldering was reinforced with fiber glass
fabric.
We had some problems with the artifacts that were
created by mixing or joining many types of materials (iron,
bronze, wood and bone) with special treatments for each
of them. The treatment was therefore done either entirely,
with local interventions (if the pieces could not be
demounted) or separately, for each material, if the pieces
could be demounted.
Pieces made of tough animal materials (bone, antler):
Although few in this lot of restored artifacts, these
objects had specific degradations: soil and chemical
(calcium carbonate) precipitations on their surface,
fragmentations, stains of metallic oxides etc.
The pieces were wet or dry mechanically cleaned,
according to their preservation status, assembled with

Aracet adhesive and finally conserved by applying a


protective coating of nitrocellulose or Paraloid B 72
lacquers mixed with acetone.
Glass made artifacts:
Because of their specific characteristics and how
they were covered with earth, these objects suffered the
following degradations. Devitrification: because the
manufactures did not respect the optimum proportions of
the basic materials in fabricating the objects, surface
iridescences and exfoliations appeared. Also, the objects
were fragmented of age or because of the soil pressure etc.
According to their preservation status the glass
artifacts were chemically treated with a solution of nitric
acid, neutralized in distilled water and dried in alcohol.
The fragmented objects were assembled using
epoxy resin. Were we needed to consolidate the pieces we
made some minor additions.
One of the most interesting glass pieces was a
large vessel, broken in more than 50 fragments that needed
long and complicated operations to assemble.
Pottery:
The ware is represented mostly of vessels, small
domestic items (spindle heads, tobacco pipes), stove tiles
and decorative elements made of glazed ceramic.
Some of the pottery had different restoration
procedures already performed: the soil or chemical
(calcium carbonate, metallic oxides) precipitates were
partially or totally removed; some of the fragments were
assembled with Aracet adhesive (which is compatible with
the ceramic material).
According to these interventions, and because the
condition of the artifacts allowed it, we either decided to
continue the restoration or to disassemble the fragments at
start anew.
The soil precipitates were removed by mechanical,
wet cleaning with water (for the disassembled pieces) or
dabbing the glued fragments with a wet sponge. We dry,

173

mechanically cleaned the correctly assembled vessels that


still had some chemical precipitates.
Two vessels, partially covered with massive
precipitates of calcium carbonate, dirt, lime and ash
needed to be chemically treated with a solution of 5%
hydrochloric acid and neutralized afterwards with
repeated baths in distilled water.
The pottery decorated with engobes or glazes was
only dry and/or wet, mechanically cleaned in order to
remove the precipitates. A chemical treatment could have
affected both the chemical compound of the metallic
oxides used to create the painted layer and its adherence to
the surface of the ceramic.
The fragmented items were assembled using
Aracet adhesive and the missing parts were done with
mould cast (using inner prints, copying the form in cast
etc).
The cast parts were color integrated with gouache
or tempera, in order to reduce contrast and to obtain
chromatic effects that are close to the original color of the
artifacts. Later the surfaces were protected with a coat of
Aracet milk or nitrocellulose lacquers.
Some of the finest ceramic items were stove tiles
and the decorative elements made of glazed ceramic; most
of them were fragmented.
The stove tiles were created by pressing the clay in
the same moulds or with a series of negatives impressed
following the same prototype. Therefore they will have the
same characteristic of the dcor and the copying of the
missing fragments and dcor from similar items is
possible. But this kind of intervention is possible only if
the stove tiles are from the same context, thus increasing
the possibility of them being created with the same
moulds, maybe in the same workshop and they are not the
products of successive copying or imitation, which leads to
some differences.
The soil precipitates were removed, the fragments
were assembled and the surfaces were protected with

174

nitrocellulose lacquers. Then we could create moulds


made of plasticine, silicone rubber or cast, according to the
spatial or decorative characteristics of the fragments. Later
on the moulds could be poured in cast in order to
complete the missing parts. This was also done for similar
pieces, thus managing to accurately recreate the initial
form. Later the cast fillings were color integrated then
protected with a protective coating of nitrocellulose
lacquers.
The complex restoration and conservation of some
hundreds of ceramic, metal, glass, bone or antler artifacts
helped to salvage and scientifically recover valuable
patrimony from the Roman era up until the early 19th
century. The interventions, both noticeable and reversible,
assured a durable protection of the objects, thus allowing
the artifacts in transmitting their esthetic and historical
message while displayed in exhibitions and studied.
Dan Anghel, Daniela Ciugudean, Sorin erban

THE CATALOGUE
The exhibition is chronologically organized and the objects
are thus grouped: Roman, Migration, Middle and Modern
Ages. The description of the artifacts follows:
Name of the piece
Discovery context. Generally described in its connection
with the two buildings, the Episcopal palace and the
cathedral. We also noted the year of the discovery. We
considered that these data are enough to help the visitors
and the readers of this catalogue to orient themselves
around the exhibition.
Material, shape and decoration description. The description is
generally limited to the minimum, considering that all the
artifacts have images. Sometimes we grouped the objects
and their presentation in one, pointing to the general
characteristics of the group and the historical importance
of those items (the clay buckets, the Iznik ceramic plates,
the window glass and so on). The artifacts are in the
custody of the Catholic Archdiocese of Alba Iulia and they
are being currently inventoried. Therefore the catalogue
does not include an inventory number.
Sizes.
Dating. In most of the cases the artifacts chronology is a
synthesis of numerous data that resulted from the analysis
of the contexts, the stratigraphic position and the relation
to other artifacts and structures that were discovered
elsewhere in the site. When the objects were discovered in
secondary positions, dislodged from their original position
by other interventions we tried to make analogies with
close regions and similar historical contexts. When,
because of various reasons, we could not narrow the
chronology we only noted the time frame.
Author of the chart, author of the photo, translator. The great
amount of artifacts that needed to be processed and
illustrated in the exhibition and the catalogue needed a
great number of specialists. Their contributions were

unequal because of the balance of different specialties and


abilities. This is why we thought necessary to mention the
authors of the texts and of the photos and, of course, the
translators.
The excavations of 2000-2002 were published in a
monographic paper edited in 2008 in Hungarian and in
2009 in Romanian. The descriptions of the objects that
were discovered in this interval are taken from the book.
The artifacts that were discovered in 2003, 2004, 2007 and
2008 are entirely novelties.
Abbreviations in the description of the materials
AOI (S, C) incomplete oxidizing burning (superficial,
complet)
AS secondary burning
AR reduction burning
d. diameter
dg. opening diameter
df. base diameter
gr. thickness
h. height
l. width
L. length
max. maximum
min. minimum
p. preserved

175

CATALOGUE OF MATERIALS

176

1. Tack with an ornamental disc


2003, next to the sacristy.
Bronze; the piece is made of a disc, engraved with the
stylized woman head surrounded by rays. The fixture had
a rectangular section; the free end has a rectangular fitting
hole. d. disc 2,9 cm, L. total 3,1.
Roman Age.
AI, photo CS.
2. Shield tack
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze; conical head. L. 2,2 cm.
2nd-3rd centuries A.D.
SC, photo GD.
3. Shield tack.
2002, next to the Palace.
Bronze; rounded head with dented edges; the leg ends
with an orifice for fitting it to the shield. L. 3 cm, d. 3 cm.
2nd-3rd centuries A.D.
SC, photo CS.
4. Spear head (pilum)
2008, inside the palace.
Iron; with a conical shaft attachment.
The shaft attachment is partially broken. L. 15 cm; d. sup.
2,5 cm; d. tip 0,8 cm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo AM.
5. Head with a fitting tube
2004, next to the Palace.
Bronze; conical shape; decoration on the larger part; shaft
fitting hole; rounded thin end. L. 5,4 cm, d. max. 0,9 cm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo GD.

6. Decorative fitting piece


2002, next to the Palace.
Bronze; the piece is rectangular, traceried with pelta motifs
and it has dented edges. L. 3 cm, l. 2,5 cm.
2nd-3rd centuries A.D.
SC, photo CS.
7. Probe spatula
2002, next to the Palace.
Bronze; the end of the blade is broken, as well as the
handle. L. 5,6 cm.
Roman Age.
SC, photo GD.
8. Ear probe
2003, next to the sacristy.
Bronze; it has a spoon shaped head, the rod is formed of a
vertically positioned metal band; its mid section is twisted; the
fitting head is flattened, rhomb ended. L. 5,9 cm, l. 0,4 cm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo GD.
9. Pincers
2002, next to the Palace.
Bronze. Short handle, the arms are rounded toward the
ends. L. 5 cm.
Roman Age.
SC, photo GD.
10. Pincers
2008, inside the palace.
Bronze. L. 8,5 cm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo CS.
11. Aucissa fibula
2002, next to the Palace.
Bronze; the end of the piece is rectangular; the body is
strongly crowned, with three ribs toward its base. The leg

177

is ended with a button. The attachment system is a hinge


type. L. 5,6 cm.
Second half of the 2nd century- first two decades of the 3rd
century A.D.
SC, photo GD.
12. Fibula with an inside turned leg
2002, next to the Palace.
Bronze; lock system with a spring made of 16 wires; the body is
bended and semicircular; the leg is turned inside out. L. 6 cm.
First half of the 3rd century A.D.
SC, photo CS
13. Fibula pin
2000, next to the Palace.
Bronze. L. 4,9 cm, gr. 7 mm with areas thinned to 2 mm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo CS.
14. Sandal nail
2002, next to the Palace.
Iron; small, semicircular head. L. 1,5 cm.
2nd-3rd centuries A.D.
SC, photo GD.
15. Link
2001, next to the sacristy.
Iron. d. 2 cm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo GD.
16. Decorative fitting piece
2000, next to the Palace
Silver alloy. Hp. 3 cm.
Roman Age?
AI, photo CS
17. Decorative fitting piece
2007, next to the cathedral.

178

Bronze. Approximately rectangular rod; one face is flat while


the other is modeled as a twist. L. 3,5 cm.
Roman Age?
AI, photo GD.
18. Decorative fitting piece
2008, inside the palace.
Bronze. Plate with the trace of a rivet on the back, indented
edges. L. 2,2, l. 1,4 cm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo GD.
19. Fitting
2002, next to the Palace.
Bronze; fragment of a folded, riveted plate. L. 1,6 cm.
2nd-3rd centuries A.D.
SC, photo GD.
20. Fitting
2001, next to the sacristy.
Iron. The piece is made of a semicircular curved
plate; it still preserves three rivets that used to
attach it to a wooden support. L. 150 mm.
Roman Age
AI, photo CS
21. Fitting
2001, next to the choir
Iron. The piece was fitted with thick, semispherical ended
rivets.
L. 14,3 cm, l. 3,4 cm, gr. 0,55 cm; gr. rivets 0,6 cm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo GD.
22. Handle
2007, next to the cathedral.
Bronze, conical handle piece, fragment. H. 1,5 cm, d. inf.
1,5 cm, d. upper part 1,2 cm.
Roman Age.

AI, photo CS.


23. Fitting arm
2002, next to the Palace
Bronze. The preserved fragment has a round section and it
is gradually thinned toward the end. The tip ends with a
flattened area, with holes, but before that the piece is
decoratively thickened like a cube with cut off corners.
L. 11,2 cm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo CS.
24. Sewing needle
2007, inside the palace
Bronze. Slightly curved in the old age. L. 5,5 cm.
Roman age.
AI, photo GD.
25. Ornamented button
2004, inside the sacristy.
Brass; made by pressing the material on the lathe; shaped
like a hat with crowned central part; the piece is full on the
inside. D. 2,4 cm, g. 0,2 cm; h. 0,8 cm.
Roman age.
AI, photo CS.

28. AugustusClaudius I?
2002, next to the palace.
Metal: bronze.
Nominal. As.
D: 2,5 cm; G: 7,38 gr. Axe:
1st half of the 1st century A.D.
CG, photo GD.
29. Traian?
2001, next to the cathedral.
Metal: silver.
Nominal: Denarius.
D: 1,81x1,6 cm; G: 2,51 gr. Axe: 6.
103111 A.D.
CG, photo GD.
30. Antoninus Pius for Marcus Aurelius Caesar?
2001, west side of the cathedral.
Metal: silver.
Nominal. Denarius.
D: 1,7 cm; G: 3,30 gr. Axe: 1.
145147 A.D.
Mint: Rome.
CG, photo GD.

26. Spike
2007, inside the palace.
Iron, two pieces preserved. L. 7,5, d. head 3 cm.
L. 7 cm, d. 2,5 cm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo GD.

31. Septimius Severus for Iulia Domna


2002, next to the palace.
Metal: silver.
Nominal. Denarius.
D: ; G: 2,51 gr. Axa: 6.
195 A.D.
CG, photo GD.

27. Spike
2000, next to the palace.
Iron. Square rod; the head is approximately disc shaped. L.
8,9 cm, d. 18 cm; rod 0,5x0,5 cm.
Roman Age.
AI, photo GD.

32. Macrinus
2002, next to the palace.
Metal: silver.
Nominal. Denarius.
D: 1,9 cm; G: 3,10 gr. Axe: 6.

179

217218 A.D.
CG, photo GD.
33. Elagabal?
2002, next to the palace.
Metal: silver.
Nominal. Subaerated Denarius.
D: 1,8 cm; G: 2,16 gr. Axe: 12
218222 A.D. (or later).
CG, photo GD.
34. Severus for Iulia Mamaea
2002, next to the palace.
Metal: silver plated bronze.
Nominal. Subaerated Denarius.
D: ; G: 2,31 gr. Axe: 6.
222235 A.D. (or later).
CG, photo GD
35. ROMAN EARTHENWARE
Most of the fragments come from the demolishment layers
as well as the medieval or modern levels. Very few of them
were discovered in situ since the research of the Roman
castrum is hard, given its stratigraphic position reported to
the current edifices. In spite of its residual character this
group is one of the most analyzed in this castrum and
present us with a general image of the used ceramic types.
The graphics indicate similar numbers for the fine and
coarse grained pottery. Most of the common earthenware
is gray. Only the fine pottery is predominantly oxidizing
fired (19%) while 8% is reduced fired. The shape repertoire
is almost complete for these finds; most of the shapes are
the pots and liquid preserver vessels. A large palette of
decorations is used, as it was also observed in military
sites: lacquered decorations, mottled ones, barbotines,
glazes, excised ornaments and so on.
Most of the shapes that we have are known locally, mostly
during the half of the 3rd century. The pots, pitchers and

180

the bowls are variants that were not used before the end of
the 2nd century, but they are the most common shapes
used in local complexes (such as Liber Paters sanctuary in
Parto) during the 3rd century. Some of the fragments can
be dated especially in the 2nd century and they are not
specific for the following century: Norric-Pannonic bowls
or ring shaped necked pitchers.
(MC, photo CS, GD)
POST ROMAN AGE
36. Fragment of the upper part of a pot.
2002. next to the palace.
Coarse grained paste. Completely fired to a gray color. The
short neck is substantially thinned, the rim is everted and
the lip thickened and facetted. Decoration: thin incisions
on the shoulder. Dg. 28 cm.
3rd-4th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
37. Fragment of the upper part of a pot
2002. next to the palace.
Medium paste; superficially fired; color: black with bricky
spots. Short neck, everted rim, thickened and facetted.
Decoration: thin incisions on the shoulder. d. 19 cm.
3rd-4th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
38. Vessel rim
2003, next to the sacristy.
Medium paste; reduced firing; color: light bricky.
Decoration: superficial incisions.
3rd-4th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
39. Vessel rim
2003, next to the sacristy.

Coarse grained paste, reduced firing, color: grayish black.


d. 33 cm.
3rd-4th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
40. Fragment of a provisions vessel
2002, next to the palace.
Coarse grained paste, superficially fired, color: yellowish bricky.
Fragment of the body. Decoration: incised horizontal and wavy lines.
3rd-4th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
41. Vessel rim
2003, next to the sacristy.
Medium paste, reduced firing, color: gray. d. 13 cm.
3rd-4th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
42. Lid fragment
2003, next to the sacristy.
Medium paste, complete reduced firing, color: light gray.
d. 13,5 cm.
3rd-4th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
43. Vessel rim
2003, next to the sacristy.
Medium paste, reduced firing, color: light gray. d. 15 cm.
3rd-4th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
44. Vessel rim
2003, next to the sacristy.
Semi-coarse paste, reduced firing, color: light gray.
Decoration: incised horizontal lines. d. 13 cm.
3rd-4th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.

45. Vessel fragment


2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste, wheel turned, color: light gray. The lip is
slightly everted. Decoration: an incised line on the
shoulder. d. 17 cm.
3rd-4th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
MIGRATION AGE
46. Pendant
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze, cast, round pendant with an attachment ear; the
piece has radial ribs and a profiled border; in the mid
section there is an orifice, maybe to set a gem. d. 1,5 cm.
5th-6th centuries.
DT, photo GD.
47. Buckle
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. Oval buckle, without a plate; the spike is bended,
stuck outside the link. d. 1,9 cm.
5th-6th centuries.
DT, photo GD.
48. Belt plate
2002, next to the palace.
Cast in bronze. The plate is shaped like a shield, one of the
sides is arched; on the inside new moon motifs were
hemstitched. Toward the broken end the piece still preserves
one of the orifices used to fit the plate to the belt. l. 3 cm.
5th-6th centuries.
DT, photo GD.
49. Belt item
2007, next to the Palace

181

Cast in bronze. Belt ending. The piece still preserves two


rivets that fix a copper plate on the back.
Decoration: two facing birds, with open beaks, thus united as to
form a circle; it is probably used as a fitting device. The birds
feathers are suggested by sinuous lines. l. 1,65 cm, L. 2,7 cm.
End of the 6th century -first half of the 7th century.
DT, photo AI.
50. Bilateral comb
2007, next to the palace.
Bone, fragmented. Made of two plates fitted with iron rivets.
Decoration: on one of the faces, incised geometrical motifs.
5th-6th centuries.
DT, photo GD.
51. Pottery.
Most of the objects from that time are fragments of day to
day earthenware, with different shapes and sizes, which
can be thus categorized:
Common earthenware. Brown or grey pottery, hand made
or fast wheel turned, medium paste, often with pebbles
which give it a grained aspect. These vessels were used to
cooking food, eating or preserving food. They had
different shapes: by-tronconic or pear-shaped pots, bowls,
mugs or pitchers. The vessels were decorated with
incisions of wavy, straight or horizontal lines but there
were also vessels with no decoration.
Fine pottery. Fast wheel turned, fine paste, well beaten,
colored mainly in different shades of grey or black. This kind
of pottery could be decorated by stamping or polishing it.
Stamped pottery, grey or black (rarely yellow) is a
particularity of the Gepids. Stamps were used to decorate
mostly drinking vessels: pipkins, goblets, mugs with
leaking tubes. As for the decorative motifs, the Gepids
apparently preferred rows of triangles, triangles disposed
in rhombic patterns or leaf motifs.
Polished earthenware is grey or black, exclusively fast wheel
turned. Its made of a fine paste. It can have no decoration or it

182

can be decorated with networks of lines, zig zag vertical or


horizontal lines inlaid with straight lines or lines that form
some kind of a metope. The shape of the polished earthenware
can be: goblets (some with foot and stem), mugs, bowls, bytronconic and pear-shaped pots, large provisions vessels.
The earthenware in the Gepidic kingdom is the product of
a mlange of the Roman provincial tradition of the way
vessels were made, their shapes and decoration and the
influences of the Germanic crockery, mostly in the
decoration of the vessels.
DT, photo CS, GD, AI.
EARLY MIDDLE AGES
52. Moon shaped earring/lunula
Probably it was a funerary inventory.
Bronze. The piece is decorated by filigree; the border is
made of three rows of knitted wires that were attached to a
moon shaped plate; the wires were then wrapped up
around the ends and around the protuberance in the
middle of the plate; one of these wires is now broken.
lunula 3x1,7 cm, link 0,1 cm.
9th-10th centuries.
DT, photo GD.
53. Digital ring
2007, funerary inventory
Led, 2,15 cm d. The link was formed of a 0,65cm wide
band, decorated with 2-3 unequal cannelures. Tintless
glass paste poured into an oval chaton. The chaton is
framed by an ornament made of metal beads that are also
slightly descending on the band.
12th- 13th centuries.
AI, photo GD
54. Pendant
2007, next to the palace.

Bronze. Rhomboidal piece, attached to a chain. The


rhomboidal piece is made of two plates; one of the heads is
fixed with a rivet while the other one is fitted to the chain
link. The plates are decorated with small, circular
protuberances on the edges. One of the plates, probably
the visible one, is cut in the middle section in a circular
shape. The chain is made of 4 links shaped like 8 with
fitted heads. It is fixed to the pendant with a similar link.
At the opposite head the chain has a safety element, a curl
with elongated arms.
L. 5 cm. 5x2,8 cm.
9th-10th centuries.
DT, photo GD.
55. Buckle
Funerary inventory
Iron. Rectangular, with rounded corners.
3x2 cm.
9th-10th centuries.
AI, photo GD
56. Fragment of the upper part of a pot
2002, next to the palace
Coarse grained paste. Superficial oxidized firing.
Secondary burning. Color: black.
Decoration: wavy lines incised at regular distances; they
start bellow the neck and probably continued all over the
body. Dg. 11,5 cm.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo AI
57. Fragment of the upper part of a pot
2002, next to the palace
Medium paste; reduced firing, color: gray; secondary
burning. Slow wheel turned with manual interventions. A
probably oval body, short neck. Everted rim, manually
modeled, rounded lip. Decoration: wavy line under the
neck; horizontal lines on the body.

9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
58. Fragment of the upper part of a pot
2002, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste, tempered with a lot of small pebbles.
Reduced firing, strong secondary burning. Short neck,
strongly everted rim, rounded lip. Decoration: a fascicle of
horizontal lines overlapped by a band of wavy lines.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
59. Fragment of the upper part of a pot
2002, next to the palace.
Coarse grained paste. Complete reduced firing. Color:
black. The maximum diameter of this vessel is in the mid
section. Obliquely splayed, everted rim. The rim has
superficial cannelures on the inner face. Decoration: one
wavy line under the lip. Dg. 17,5 cm.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo DMI.
60. Fragment of the upper part of a pot
2000, next to the sacristy
Medium paste, tempered with sand, mica and a few small
pebbles. Incomplete oxidized firing. Secondary burning.
The rim is brusquely everted, forming a sharp angle with
the shoulder.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
61. Body fragment
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste. Incomplete oxidized firing. Color:
yellowish-bricky. Decoration: parallel lines made with a
small wheel.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.

183

62. Fragment of the upper part of a pot


2000, next to the sacristy.
Medium paste, tempered with sand, mica and a few small
pebbles. Incomplete oxidized firing. Secondary burning.
The vessel was slow wheel turned and it still preserves
traces of fingers. Oval body, barely contoured neck.
Decoration: pretty careless bands of wavy lines.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.

66. Fragment of the upper part of a pot


2002, next to the palace.
Coarse grained paste. Superficial oxidized firing.
Secondary burning. Color: black.
Decoration: wavy lines incised at regular distances; they
start bellow the neck and probably continued all over the
body. Dg. 11,5 cm.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI.

63. Fragment of the upper part of a vessel


2000, next to the palace.
Medium paste, tempered with sand and mica. Incomplete
oxidized firing. Secondary burning. Probable tronconic
shape, narrowed at the rim. Thickened rim, highlighted
with an exterior rib. Rounded lip. Decoration: groups of
five small circular alveoli obliquely grouped under the lip.
Dg. 15,5 cm.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.

67. Fragment of the upper part of a pot


2002, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. The preserved fragment was manually
modeled. Incomplete oxidizing firing, with red pellicles on
the inside and on the outside. The wall is very thinned in
the neck area. Everted rim, sharp lip.
Decor: careless wavy lines on the shoulder and on the
inside of the lip. Dg. 18 cm.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.

64. Fragment of the upper part of a pot


2002, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Reduced firing. Secondary burning.
Everted, arched rim articulated with two narrow cannelures.
Decoration: fascicules of horizontal incisions partially
overlapped by oblique lines. Superficial decoration, made
with a little broom. Dg. 16,4 cm.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.

68. Fragment of the upper part of a pot, with a handle


2002, next to the palace.
Coarse grained paste. Incomplete oxidized firing. Color:
dark bricky. The surface is manually finished. Partial
secondary burning. Everted rim, rounded, thickened lip.
The neck is slightly pronounced. The handle has an oval
section. Decoration: network of polished lines.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.

65. Fragment of a vessel rim


2002, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Superficial oxidized firing. Prominent
shoulder, short neck. Thinned, vertically splayed rim. Dg.
17 cm.
9th-10th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.

184

MIDDLE AGES
69. Ring
2000, funerary inventory.
Silver, thick twisted wire; the ends were flattened in a
band. d. 26 mm.

The end of the 11th century-beginning of the 13th.


AI, photo CS.
70. Ring
2007, next to the cathedral.
Silver. A link with interrupted heads that were thinned
and placed one on top of the other. The visible head is
thinner and slightly sharpened. Complete piece, ovoid,
slightly deformed in the old age.
1,7x1,2 cm d; wide band link: 0,4 cm wide, 0,1 cm thick.
10th- 12th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
71. Digital ring
2007, funerary inventory.
A link made of a circular, silver wire. Apparently the piece
is part of a hair ring with an S shaped head that was
broken. The piece was discovered on the phalange of tomb
M.123. d. 1,65 cm.
End of the 11th-beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo GD.
72. Ring
2003, next to the cathedral.
Bronze; massive ring, with no traces of soldering; one of
the heads is thickened. d. 2,6 cm; gr. 0,5 cm.
10th-13th centuries.
AI, foto GD
73. Ring
2004, in the palace garden.
Bronze, only about half of the piece is preserved while
both of the ends are broken. d. of the rod 2,5 mm.
10th-13th centuries.
AI, foto CS
74. Ring
2002, next to the palace.

Silver alloy. Ring made of an interrupted band. Decorated


with little circles with a dot in the middle. d. 1,8 cm.
11th-12th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
75. Ring
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. Simple band with a wide cannelure on the middle.
l. 0, 42 cm, d. 1,8 cm.
11th-13th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
76. Ring
2007, funerary inventory.
Silver; link with thinned and interrupted heads. d. 2,3 cm.
12th- 13th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
77. Ring
2007, next to the cathedral.
Iron. Ring with an interrupted link. The upper part is
ovoid shaped, by widening and thickening the link
(chaton). Decoration: a cross; between its arms thin,
oblique lines. Incised. d. 1,8 cm.
12th 13th centuries.
AI, photo AM.
78. Ring
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Bronze. Link fragment, probably from a ring.
d. 2,4 cm, d. wire 0,3 cm.
10th-12th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
79. Link
2000, next to the palace.
Bronze, a rectangular band. The upper part is twisted as a
ring; the head which is closer to the band is slightly
thinned. The rod in the lower part is broken. d. 1,15 cm.

185

10th-12th centuries (?)


AI, photo GD.

End of the 11th-beginning of the 13th century.


AI, photo CS.

80. Link
2007, next to the cathedral.
Silver; cut at the middle. A rectangular bar in cross section;
the exterior part flattened. No decoration. d. 2,4 cm.
10th-12th centuries.
AI, photo GD.

84. S ended hair ring


2000, funerary inventory.
Silver. The widened part is 0,3 cm wide and bears three
superficial longitudinal cannelures.
d. 1,6 cm, d. rod 0,15 cm
End of the 11th-beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo CS.

81. Seal ring


2001, next to the palace.
Silver. Simple link with terminations that were soldered on
a disc shaped chaton in whose thickness were the
decorations incised. The central part bears an antique
shield farmed by a circle of small oblique lines; to the right
and the left of the shield, inside the circle, the space was
filled with small stylized leafs. The composition of the
shield is a central stylized lily flower; its middle petals
upper part transforms into a Maltese cross. In the left side
a six corner star was represented and the left a half-moon.
Fragmented; the piece was destroyed by pressing.
d. chaton 0,8 cm, gr. 0,22 cm, the ring is done in a band of
0,6x0,15 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo AI.
82. Hair ring
2000, funerary inventory.
Silver. The link is twisted of two wires; one of the heads is
flattened and bended in a loop. The band is decorated with
a median rib. d. 2,1 cm, d. rod 0,25 cm, widened part 0,38
cm.
End of the 11th-beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo CS.
83. S ended hair ring
2000, funerary inventory.
Silver. d. 1,8 cm, d. rod 0,2 cm.

186

85. S ended hair ring


2000, funerary inventory.
Silver. d. 1,7 cm, d. rod 0,15 cm.
End of the 11th century -beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo CS.
86. S ended hair ring
2002, funerary inventory.
Silver. d. 2 cm, d. rod 0,18 cm.
End of the 11th century -beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo CS.
87. S ended hair ring
2000, funerary inventory.
Silver; the twisted end transforms into a band with four
fine cannelures. d. 1,85 cm, d. rod 0,15 cm.
End of the 11th-beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo CS.
88. S ended hair ring
2001, funerary inventory.
Silver. d. 1,9 cm, d. rod 0,3 cm, widened part 0,6 cm.
End of the 11th century -beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo GD
89. S ended hair ring
2001, funerary inventory.

Bronze. d. 2 cm, d. rod 0,18 cm.


End of the 11th century -beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo CS.
90. Hair ring
2001, funerary inventory.
Bronze. Simple link with thinned terminations. d. max. 2,3
cm, d. rod 0,22 cm.
End of the 11th century -beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo GD.
91. S ended hair ring
2007, funerary inventory.
Silver. Six artifacts, one only partially preserved. d. 1,8 cm,
d. rod 0, 15 cm.
End of the 11th century -beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo GD.
92. S ended hair ring
2003, next to the sacristy.
Silver; S shaped end; the end is broken but restored. d.
0,15 cm, d. rod 0,16 cm.
11th-13th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
93. Earring
2000, funerary inventory.
Silver. Simple earring, made of a circular wire; two
artifacts.
d.max. 3,8 cm (1); d.max. 3,5 cm (2), d. rod 0,25 cm
End of the 11th-beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo CS.
94. Bracelet
Funerary inventory.
Bronze. Made of a bar with a rhomboid section. d. 5.9 cm.
End of the 11th century.
AI, photo GD

95. Twisted bracelet


2000, next to the palace.
Silver. Made of two unequal in thickness wires; the
terminations were made in a loop. Fragments from two
artifacts.
d. 4,6 cm, d. rod 0,35 mm(1); d. 5,4 cm, d. rod 0,4 cm (2).
Sec. 11th-12th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
96. Bracelet
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. Fragment. L. 4 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
97. Wire-made chain
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. The links are made a wire spirals and one of the
terminations has a loop. L. 5 cm.
14th century.
AI, photo GD.
98. Adornment item
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Bronze. Fragment of an adornment item made of a bronze
band; S twisted end. It is a possible hair pin. L. 1,8 cm.
12th-13th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
99. Bead with little eyes
2001, next to the sacristy.
Brownish glass paste, little yellow protuberances (eyes).
d. max. 1 cm.
10th-12th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
100. Bead
2002, next to the palace.

187

Glass. Greenish paste; the piece has the shape of a segmented


tube. L.1,6 cm, d. 0,55 cm.
10th-12th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
101. Bead
2002, next to the palace.
Gem. Spherical shaped; the orifice is enlarged on the extremities;
color: reddish-brown mottled with white. d. 1,75 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo GD.
102. Spherical pendant with a broken hanger
2002, next to the palace.
Glass. Cast, empty on the inside; brown mottled with
white. d. 1,1 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo GD.
103. Vestment accessory
2002, next to the palace.
Glass and metal. Fragmented. It was made by dressing a
metallic core in a yellowish-white glass paste.
L. 38 mm, l. 9 mm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
104. Adornment item
2002, next to the palace.
Glass; irregularly shaped, narrow, twisted glass band.
0,55 cm.
AI, photo CS.
105. Veil pin
2007, next to the palace.
Bronze; needle with a circular pin. L. 4,5 cm.
10th- 13th centuries.
AI, photo GD.

188

106. Button
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. Made from a globular part which was soldered to
the disc shape part attached to the handle. d. 2,9 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
107. Buckle
2007, funerary inventory.
Iron; circular buckle, with a spike. d. 3,7 cm/4,4 cm.
12th-13th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
108. Buckle
2007, funerary inventory.
Bronze, spiked, circular buckle (the spike is conical and is
made of iron). The buckle is made of a round, slightly
flattened link. d. 3,8 cm. link gr. 0,35 cm.
12th- 13th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
109. Rectangular shaped buckle
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. l. 1,7 cm, L. 2,75 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
10th- 12th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
110. Decorative fitting element
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze, triangular shaped, with three attaching orifices
and a preserved rivet. L. 2,5 cm.
10th- 13th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
111. Decorative fitting element
2000, funerary inventory.
Bronze. Bronze plate with marginal rivets; the central part
is circular, slightly widened and fastened with an orifice.

L. 2 cm, l. 1,3 cm.


End of the 11th-beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo CS.
112. Decorative fitting element
2002, funerary inventory.
Bronze plate with marginal rivets; the central part is
circular, slightly widened and decorated with striations.
L. 2 cm, l. 1,3 cm.
End of the 11th-beginning of the 13th century.
AI, photo CS.
113. Decorative fitting element
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Cast in bronze. Fastened with fitting rivets. Decorated with
oblique cannelures all over the surface. L. 2,2 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
10th- 12th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
114. Decorative fitting element
2001, next to the palace.
Silver alloy. Cast, with traceried decoration. gr. 0,25 cm.
10th- 12th centuries, possible older.
AI, photo GD.
115. Decorative fitting element
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze; a fitting orifice in the mid section; modeled by
pressing it into a leaf shape. d.max. 1,2 cm.
14th century.
AI, photo CS.
116. Heart shaped decorative fitting element
2002, next to the palace.
Silver alloy. In the central part the piece has a fitting rivet.
1,7x1,95 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
14th century.
AI, photo GD.

117. Decorative fitting element


2004, next to the cathedral.
Bronze; flowery appearance and sharp ogival section. The
inside of the piece still preserves a small fitting bronze
rivet. d. 1,8 cm, h. 0,6 cm, g. 0,1 cm.
14th-15th centuries?
AI, photo CS.
118. Decorative fitting element
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze, with a globular circle between the center and the
edges; a fitting orifice in the mid section. d. 0,9 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
119. Decorative fitting element
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. Rectangular shape, with three rivet orifices.
1,75 cm x 0,9 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
120. Decorative fitting element
2000, next to the palace.
Bronze. Made of a plate that was flowery shaped pressed;
in the middle it has an orifice for the attachment nail.
3,2x3 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
121. Belt plate
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. Fragment of plate, irregularly shaped, battered;
rivet orifices, perimetral decoration of small circles.
Possibly from a belt.
10th-13th centuries.
AI, photo GD.

189

122. Statuette
2003, inside the sacristy.
Gilded silver. Female character, draped in a cloak; she
leans on a sword with her right hand. The piece used to be
fixed on a support. h. 4,5 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
123. Book lock
2004, inside the sacristy.
Copper or brass. The piece is made of plate with one end
fitted with an attachment system made of a flange and
rivets; the opposite end has a small hook made of a
thinned extension of the plate. The visible part is incised
with a stylized fir tree on top of which a decoration of
concentric circles is placed; the central part has a
decoration of transversal lines with an X between them.
L. 12,5 cm; l. 2,00 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
124. Book lock
2004, inside the sacristy.
Copper or brass. The piece is made of a plate with one end
fitted with an attachment system made of a flange and
rivets; the opposite end has a small hook made of a
thinned extension of the plate. Artifact no. 4 was destroyed
in a fire. Incised geometric decoration.
L.7,5 cm, l. 1,1 cm (1); L. 7 cm, l. 1,2 cm (2).
14th-15th centuries
AI, photo CS.
125. Book lock
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. Two riveted plates that were fixed on the belt,
articulated with a decorative cast piece. The end preserves
a nut with a hole so the original artifact had another
articulation, probably a pendant. 3,9x1,15 cm.

190

14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
126. Book lock
2004, inside the sacristy.
Bronze, almost at the base there is decoration of a dented
line as well as parallel lines. On the obverse, on its upper
half, the body of the lock is doubled by a second, trapezoid
plate (2,00 cm lg.; 1,4-0,8 cm wide; 0,1 cm thick) fastened
with two rivets (0, 1 cm lg.; 0,1 cm wide). The piece ends
with a hook made of the thinned body (0,8 cm), turned
outward. L. 4,6 cm, l. 1,8 cm; g. 0, 1 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
127. Book lock
2004, inside the sacristy.
Copper or brass. The piece is made of a plate; one end has
an attachment system of a flange and rivets; the opposite
end is fastened into a small hook, a thinned extension of
the body of the piece. The visible part supports an incised
decoration. L. 1,9 cm; l. 0,5 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
128. Book decoration
2004, inside the sacristy.
Bronze. The piece is made of a decoratively cut off plate;
on the back it supports a riveted flange that fitted between
itself and the body of the piece something soft, maybe
leather. L. 2,1 cm; l. 1,00 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
129. Ornamental rivet
2004, inside the sacristy.
Gilded silver; the piece has a split rod and an ornamental
head made of a golden flower with four petals.

L. 2,4 cm, l. 0,7 cm.


14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
130. Ornamental rivet
2004, inside the sacristy.
Gilded silver; the piece has a split rod and a simple
ornamental head L. 2,4 cm, l. 0,7 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
131. Arrow head with peduncle
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron. The tip is rhombic, the base of the peduncle has a
support shoulder. L. 6,2 cm, l. 1,9 cm.
10th-12th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
132. Arrow head
2003, next to the sacristy.
Iron; forged in a leaf shape; the blade is rhombic; the piece
also preserves the attachment peduncle.
L. 8,00, g. 0,3x0,5cm.
10th-13th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
133. Crossbow bolt
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower
Iron. Fitting tube, pyramidal tip; the tip was deviated
because of the impact with a hard body.
L. 4,5 cm, d. tub 0, 9 cm
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
134. Lance head
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron. Fragmented, restored.
L. preserved 12,7 cm, d. fitting tube 2,1 cm.

13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
135. Stiletto
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron. Narrow triangular blade. The tip of the handle is
rounded and thickened for better stability. The plates of
the handle were wooden, riveted with still preserved
rivets. From the middle of the blade there is a fuller.
L. 37,5 cm, lmax. 2,5 cm, L.mner 9,7 cm.
15th (16th ?) centuries.
AI, photo GD.
136. Plated and chained armor fragment
2002, next to the palace
Iron. Rectangular plates with one rounded end.
One plate: 1,6x3 cm, rectangular; gr. plate 0,1 cm.
14th-15th centuries (?)
AI, photo CS.
137. Wheeled spur
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. Spur with accentuated arched arms, with bended
extremities so that they form loops for fitting it to the boot.
Where the arms meet a sharp tip is formed; the rosette
support is made of two plates and it is pretty long; the
rosette was lost in the old age. L. 9 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
138. Bit?
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. L.10,7 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
139. Sheath
2003, next to the sacristy.

191

Iron. L. 28,00 cm; l. 2,9 cm.


Middle Ages?
AI, photo CS.
140. Horse shoe
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron. L. 90 mm, l. max. 29 mm(1). L. 67 mm, l. max. 29 mm (2).
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
141. Horse shoe
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower; 2002,
next to the palace
Iron. Fragment of a horse shoe; right left cramp.
L. 10,9 cm, l. 3,4 cm (1). L. 12,7 cm (2).
15th-16th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
142. Horse shoe
2007, next to the cathedral.
Iron, fragmented. L. 13 cm, l. 3 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo CS.
143. Knife blade
2008, inside the palace.
Iron, with rivet orifices. L. 10 cm; l. 1,3 cm; gr. 0,3 cm;
orifices 0,2 cm
12th-13th centuries
AI, photo GD.
144. Knife
2000, next to the palace
Iron. Triangular in section blade, with fitting rod.
Fragment. L. 8 cm, l. 1,2 cm.
13th century.
AI, photo GD.

192

145. Knife blade


2000, next to the palace.
Iron. L. 7,5 cm, l. 1,5 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
146. Knife end
2002, next to the palace
Bronze, 0,15 cm thick plate, kernel shaped; in the central
part it has a rectangular orifice (0,25x0,18 cm) for riveting
the handle rod. dmax. 2,2 cm.
14th century.
AI, photo GD.
147. Knife end
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Bronze. With an ovoid central orifice; the edges are
broken. L. 1,6 cm, l. 1,1 cm.
13th century.
AI, photo CS.
148. Knife handle
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron and silver. The handle is formed of two wooden
plates that were fitted with four rivets; the end toward the
blade still preserves a wide silver ring that was decorated
with three fine circular line; the opposite end preserves
just the nut fitted with a metallic end.
L. handle 5,9 cm, l. max. 1,25 cm,
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
149. Knife.
2002, next to the palace.
Iron and bone. The handle has a rhomboid section and it is
made of two polished bone plates. L. 27 cm.
14th century.
AI, photo CS.

150. Knife
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. Triangular in section blade, the handle was attached
to a fitting rod. L. 10,6 cm.
14th century.
AI, photo GD.
151. Knife fragment
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron. The hilt is cast with the blade and the fitting rod.
L. 3 cm, l. blade 1,5 cm, l. hilt 1,75 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
152. Knife handle
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. The piece has a thinned end while the opposite
one is everted with four fringes. The exterior is engraved
with stylized vegetal motifs. L. 4,4 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
153. Sheath fitting
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. L. 4,7 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
154. Handle
2002, next to the palace.
Octagon shaped; handle made of rondes.
Bone and metal; the bone rondes were fitted on a bronze or
iron rod; also there was some copper that is now
transformed in green oxide. The piece has another
fragment that is trapped in a conglomerate of iron and
copper oxides. L. 4,1 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
AI, photo CS.

155. Knife handle end


2002, next to the palace.
bronze? L. 5,1 cm.
Middle ages.
AI, photo CS.
156. Fitting
2002, next to the palace.
Brass; hammering and engraving; decorated with
geometric motifs, very fine incisions that from rectangular
registers. It was a sheath or handle fitting and it was
mounted in long rivets. 2,1x2,15 cm
15th-16th centuries?
AI, photo CS.
157. Small handle
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. A decorated band, 0,4 cm wide; the ends a fitted
with a very long rivet. d. 3,2 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo GD.
158. Piece with handle
2003, next to the palace
Bronze; flattened handle; a hole in the middle; attached to
a disc that could have been a flask cork or a seal?
d. 1,00 cm, g. 0,3 cm.
10th-13th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
159. Handle
2007, next to the cathedral
Bronze. Rectangular piece; fitted at one end with a long
rivet. L. 4,3 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo CS.

193

160. Knife
2003, next to the palace.
Iron; the piece preserves only the handle, with three rivets
and two plates for fitting the handle; also a part of a
pommel or an iron scabbard. L. 12,5 cm; l. 2,00 cm.
Middle Ages?
AI, photo CS.
161. Lighter
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron; forged; the thicker arm has a heated and poorly done
dovetail fitting. The arms are unequal: 9 cm/gr. 0,7 cm,
respectively 6,5 cm/gr. 0,5 cm.
10th-12th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
162. Lock
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron. A ring and a fitting clamp. d. ring 3,5 cm. L. clamp 5,9 cm.
10th-13th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
163. Spoon carving tool
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron. Fitting rod with a square section; a curved blade,
sharpened at both ends. L. 11 cm, rod section 0,75x0,75 cm,
L. rod 7,5 cm, l. max. blade 1,9 cm.
11th-13th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
164. Tool
2000, next to the palace
Iron. Fragment. L. 23 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
165. Scissors
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.

194

Iron. L. 188 mm, handle width 63 mm; forged; the ends of


the handles are twisted in spirals.
13th- (14th?) centuries.
AI, photo GD.
166. Fragment of an axe blade
2000, next to the palace.
Iron. 6,6x3,5 cm.
AI, photo GD.
167. Auger
2007, next to the palace.
Iron; T shaped; the active part is twisted while hot. One
of the ends is broken; the one still preserved is bended as if
to form a handle. L 11,9 cm; l. 7,3 cm.
14th-16th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
168. Auger
2007, next to the palace.
Iron; T shaped; upper part flattened; square rod.
L.10,3 cm.
14th-16th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
169. Auger
2007, next to the palace.
Iron; with a broken arm.
L. 12,5 cm. The preserved arm - 8 cm.
15th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
170. Hinge
2000, next to the palace.
Iron. Hinge end leaf shaped, with a nail orifice. Fragment.
11,9x5 cm.
14th century.
AI, photo CS.

171. Key
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron. The rod is approximately hexagonal, flattened
handle. L. 20,4 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
172. Lock piece
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron and copper. L. 6,3 cm, l. max. 1,18 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
173. Snail shaped piece, possibly from a lock
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Iron.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
174. Fitting
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze; three orifices which were fitting the piece on a
support. 2,7x1,3 cm, gr. 0,1 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
175. Fitting
2001, eastern part of the cathedral.
Bronze, thin plate that used to dress another piece.
L. 2,4 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo CS.
176. Saddle fitting
2000, next to the palace.
Iron. L. 12 cm, d. 0,5 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo GD.

177. Fixture?
2007, next to the palace.
Bronze plate; fragment of an ellipsoidal fixture, riveted at
the heads (or at one of the heads?). Visible face decorated
with a relief rib. L 2cm, l. 1,7 cm, gr. 0,15 cm. gr. of piece
the fixture was applied on - 0,5 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo GD.
178. Tube
2007, next to the palace.
Iron, fragmented. L 13,5 cm., d. 1,5 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo GD.
179. Lock
2000, next to the palace.
Iron. L. 5,7 cm, band (gr. 0,25 cm, l.0,9 cm).
Middle Ages.
AI, photo CS
180. Nail
2000, next to the palace.
Iron. The head is battered and strongly eccentric. L. 7 cm.
10th-13th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
181. Nails
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower
Iron. Vertically flattened head (1) or oval (2).
L. 6,5 cm (1), 5,7 cm, d. 2,15 cm (2), L. 7 cm (3); d.head 3
cm, rod 0,5x0,5 cm (4); d. head. 2,5 cm, rod 0,4x0,5 cm.
13th century.
AI, photo CS, GD.
182. Nail
2000-2002

195

Iron. L. 7 cm, gr.max. rod 0,8x0,45 cm. L. 6,5 cm, rod


0,3x0,3 mm, with conic head.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
183. Nails
2000, next to the palace.
Iron. Forged, square or rectangular rod. L. 4-8 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
184. Nails
2003, next to the palace.
Iron; different sizes, forged. 15th-16th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
185. Nail with a fitting ring
2003, next to the palace.
Iron; fragmented; only the part that has a fitting hole made
from a thickened part of the rod is still preserved.
L. 6,00 cm; l. 2,8 cm; g. 0,9 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
186. L shaped nail
2008, inside the palace.
Iron; L shaped; the short part thickened.
L. 15,8 cm; leg l. 0,8 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo GD.
187. Nails
2000, next to the palace.
Iron. L. 6,2 cm, d. cap 1,5 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo GD.

196

188. Spike
2008, inside the palace.
Iron; with a simple, circular head. L. 16,2 cm; g. 0,7 cm; end
d. 1,3 cm; g. 0,5 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo GD.
189. Vessel fragment
2002, next to the palace.
Copper. Hammered cauldron. The lip is 0,6 cm fringed
and it has two side orifices of a disappeared handle rivets.
L. 9,2 cm, gr. tabl 0,1 cm.
14th-15th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
190. Ironware artifact
2000, next to the palace.
Iron. L. 16,2 cm, l. max. 2,4 cm
Middle Ages.
AI, photo CS.
191. Ironware artifact
2000, next to the palace.
Iron, the main rod forms a loop that holds an ellipse
shaped link. L. 9,8 cm, l. rod 8 cm.
Middle Ages.
AI, photo CS.
192. Crusher
2007, next to the church.
Stone, circular tool. d. 9,5 cm.
10th-13th centuries.
AM
193. Fragment of the upper part of a vessel
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste, incomplete oxidized firing, secondary
burning. Color: secondary burning. Short neck, arched

rim, vertically cut, facetted lip. Decor: field of alveoli on


the shoulder. Dg. 15,5 cm.
10th-12th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.
194. Fragment of the upper part of a jar pot
2001, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Complete oxidizing firing. Secondary
burning. Shortly everted rim, cannelated, obliquely
splayed lip. Decoration: band of wavy lines at the base of
the neck. Dg. 16 cm.
12th century.
DMI, photo CS
195. Fragment of the upper part of a jar
2001, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Complete oxidizing firing, secondary
burning. Shortly everted rim. Obliquely splayed lip, with
cannelures. Decoration: band of wavy lines at the base of
the neck. Dg. 16 cm.
12th century.
DMI, photo CS
196. Fragment of the upper part of a jar
2001, next to the palace.
Medium paste. Incomplete oxidizing firing, secondary
burning. Short neck, arched everted rim. Decoration:
uneven wavy lines in the neck area but they were probably
extended on the entire vessel. Dg. 18 cm.
12th century.
DMI, photo CS.
197. Vessel fragment
2001, next to the palace.
Coarse grained paste.
Incomplete oxidizing firing,
secondary burning. Df. 8,3 cm.
12th century.
DMI, photo CS.

198. Fragment of the upper part of a pot


2002, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Superficial; oxidized firing, with
brownish surfaces, strong secondary burning on the
exterior. Almost nonexistent neck, brusquely everted rim,
thickened, oblique lip. Decoration: wavy line. Dg. 15,5 cm.
10th-12th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.
199. Fragment of a jar
2000, next to the palace.
Medium paste. Incomplete oxidizing firing, secondary
burning. Slightly arched, everted rim, obliquely splayed
lip. Decoration: a band of three wavy lines on the
shoulder. Dg. 17,3 cm.
10th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
200. Fragment of the upper part of a vessel
2000, next to the palace.
Coarse grained paste. Incomplete oxidizing firing,
secondary burning. Pronounced neck. Thickened, with a
superficial exterior cannelure lip. Decoration: short
meander wavy line on the shoulder. Dg. 15,5 cm.
10th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
201. Fragment of the upper part of a vessel
2000, next to the palace.
Medium paste. Incomplete oxidizing firing, secondary
burning. Thinned neck, everted rim, the lip is marked on
the inside with a lid channel and it is straightly cut and
with a superficial cannelure. Decoration: comb (?) made
alveoli on the shoulder; dense, superficial, horizontal lines
on the rest of the body.Dg. 17,3 cm.
10th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.

197

202. Jar
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste, tempered with fine sand. Superficially
fired (the core of the wall is black). Pronounced shoulder,
short neck, everted rim, rounded lip.
Decoration: a fascicle of superficially incised lines on the
neck; oblique groups of lines (made with a five toothed
instrument) and a band of horizontal lines on the shoulder.
Dg estimated 21 cm, 10x5 cm,
10th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
203. Fragment of the upper part of a vessel.
2002, next to the palace.
High neck, straight cut everted rim. A slight lid channel on
the inside. Medium paste, tempered with sand and scarce
pebbles. Incomplete oxidizing firing, secondary burning.
Dg. 18,2 cm.
10th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
204. Fragment of a vessel body
2007, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Superficially fired. Color: yellowishbricky. Secondary burning. Decoration: horizontal and
wavy lines.
10th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
205. Fragment of a vessel
2002, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Incomplete oxidizing firing, partial
secondary burning. Color: bricky. Short neck, everted rim,
straightly cut lip. Decoration: obliquely disposed alveoli
on the neck; superficial, horizontal incisions on the body.
Dg. 15,5 cm.
12th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.

198

206. Fragment of the upper part of a pot


2002, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Incomplete oxidizing firing, powerful
secondary burning. Color: yellowish-bricky. Short neck,
everted rim, straightly cut lip. Decor: obliquely disposed
alveoli on the neck; a row of alveoli on the barely
pronounced shoulder. Dg. 15,5 cm.
12th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.
207. Fragment of the upper part of an amphoridion
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste. Incomplete oxidizing firing. Color: lightbricky. High neck, arched rim that still preserves the trace
of a circular handle. The exterior surface was polished
with predominantly vertical moves. Dg. 8,5 cm.
12th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.
208. Fragment of the upper part of a pot
2002, next to the palace.
Ovoid body, with the maximum diameter in the mid
section. Fairly high, slightly pronounced neck. Arched,
vertically cut rim. Decoration: a register of alveoli on the
shoulder, framed by two unequally traced wavy lines.
Barely visible, superficial incisions. Medium paste.
Incomplete oxidizing firing, partial secondary burning.
Color: yellowish-bricky. Dg. 14 cm.
12th-13th centuries (?)
DMI, photo AI.
209. Fragment of a vessel base
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste. Slow wheel turned. Incomplete oxidizing firing
(with a thin red pellicle on the inside), exterior secondary
burning. Relief mark of the potter, a wheel. Df. 7,8 cm.
12th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.

210. Fragment of a vessel base


2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste, tempered with a lot of mica. Incomplete
oxidizing firing; thin, red exterior pellicles that frame a
gray core. Df. 7,7 cm.
12th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.
211. Fragments of bodies or rims of small cauldrons
2000-2008
Medium or semi-fine paste. Various degrees of oxidizing
firing. The classical type is documented: globular base,
rounded and thickened rim, the lip is cut straight and it is
thickened in order to allow some hanging orifices.
Decoration: they often reproduce the ornaments of the
common earthenware, even the marks of the potters.
11th-13th centuries.
DMI, photo AI, GD.
212. Decanter lip fragment
2001, next to the sacristy.
Medium paste, tempered with sand and mica. Incomplete
oxidized firing, secondary burning. The profile of the
vessel is tronconic, the opening narrows and the neck is
marked with a rib.
Rich decoration combining several elements of the late
Arpadian era: the wheel, different shapes and sizes of
alveoli, wavy band. The decoration covers the entire
fragment starting from the lip. Dg. 6 cm.
13th century.
DMI, photo CS.
213. Fragment of a jar lip
2000, next to the palace.
Medium paste, tempered with sand, mica and small and
middle size pebbles Incomplete oxidized firing, secondary
burning. Barely pronounced neck, articulated rim.
Decoration: pairs of two overlapped alveoli at the base of

the neck; superficial, horizontal incisions on the body. Dg.


14 cm.
13th century.
DMI, photo CS.
214. Fragment of an upper part of a jar
2000, next to the palace.
Medium paste. Incomplete oxidized firing, secondary
burning. Short neck, thickened, S shaped arched rim,
widened, oblique splayed lip. The outer surface is
superficially smoothened. Decoration: small, oblique
notches on the base of the neck; three parallel, horizontal
incised lines. Dg. 16 cm.
13th century.
DMI, photo CS.
215. Fragment of an upper part of a jar
2000, next to the palace.
Medium paste. Incomplete oxidized firing, secondary
burning. Simple, everted, straightly cut rim, short neck.
Decoration: a band of horizontal incisions and uneven
wavy lines on the shoulder. Dg. 16,2 cm.
13th century.
DMI, photo CS.
216. Fragment of a jar lip
2000, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Incomplete oxidized firing, secondary
burning. Short neck, thickened rim, facetted lip. The outer
surface is superficially smoothened.
Decoration: a register of alveoli on the shoulder, in the
maximum diameter area. Dg. 16,2 cm.
13th century.
DMI, photo CS.
217. Fragment of a jar lip
2000, next to the palace.

199

Semi-coarse paste. Incomplete oxidized firing, secondary


burning. The outer surface is superficially smoothened.
Pronounced neck, everted rim, thickened, straightly
splayed lip. Decoration: wavy line with uneven meanders
on the base of the neck followed by a register of unequal
incisions, similar to notches. Dg. 16 cm.
13th century.
DMI, photo CS.
218. Fragment of a vessel
2000, next to the palace.
Medium paste. Incomplete oxidized firing, secondary
burning. The outer surface is superficially smoothened.
The upper part of a jar. Pronounced neck, much thickened,
slightly profiled, everted rim. Decoration: obliquely
disposed alveoli on the shoulder. Dg 13,3 cm.
13th century.
DMI, photo CS.
219.The lower half of a small vessel
2000, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Incomplete oxidized firing, secondary
burning. The profiled base bears a swastika shaped
potters mark. Df. 4 cm.
13th century.
DMI, photo CS.
220. Fragment of the upper part of a vessel
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste. Coarse surface. Incomplete oxidized firing,
powerful secondary burning. Color: yellowish-bricky.
Decoration: superficial, incised wavy line. Dg. 13 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
221. Fragment of a cup with handle
2002, next to the palace.

200

Medium paste of a very good quality. Reduced firing. The


maximum diameter is in the mid section. The rim is
inverted. Decoration: geometric motifs done with a roller.
Dg. 8 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.
222. Fragment of an upper part of a pot
2002, next to the palace.
Fine paste. Incomplete oxidizing firing, secondary
burning. Color: yellowish-bricky. Short neck, everted rim.
The lip is thin, articulated toward the exterior with a
rounded rib.Decoration: a wavy line at the base of the
neck. Dg. 16 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
DMI, photo AI.
223. Vessel base
2002, next to the palace.
Fine paste. Complete oxidizing firing. Color: red-bricky.
Relief potters mark: a cross with unequal arms inside a
circle. Df. 8,3 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
224. Fragment of the upper part of a pot
2002, next to the palace.
Semi-coarse paste. Incomplete oxidizing firing. Color:
yellowish-bricky. Slow wheel turned. Short neck, arched
rim, arrow shaped lip. Decoration: a band of finely incised
lines at the base of the neck. Dg. 12,5 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
225. 14th century earthenware complex
2002, next to the palace.
The material, mostly common pottery has some unitary
characteristics:

- the clay is very fast modeled without eliminating all the


impurities and air bubbles.
- the paste is tempered with a lot of sand resulting coarse
surfaces.
- the pieces are fast wheel turned using a lot of water to
smoothen them.
- incomplete oxidizing firing, the fire in the kiln and the
oxygen flux are not enough to fire walls that are thicker
than 2,5-3 mm. Because of this the core had a grayish-blue
color.
We can see three ceramic categories according to the paste:
semi-coarse, medium and fine.
Shapes:
The jar (without handles) is the most common shape;
probably the entire lot comes from the debris of a kitchen.
Vessels with handles are documented by 6 shards, two of
them belonging to pots and four of them to small sized
vessels, probably cups. We noted the shard with the inv.
no. 125, a handle made of fine paste, incompletely fired to
a yellowish-bricky color, decorated with small stamped
rosettes. Also bell shaped lids, bowls and a pitcher have
been documented.
The provisions vessel is represented by a single shard
made of a semi-coarse paste, fast wheel turned, without
decoration. A special element is a wheel turned clay band
that was applied in the lip area. The vessel had no neck, it
had a globular or elongated body and the opening is much
smaller than the maximum diameter (opening diameter of
31 cm), with 7-8 mm thick walls.
Crucible. A fragment that was reduced fired. The paste is
tempered with sand but in a special technique, giving the
vessel a very sturdy, cement like, appearance. The vessel
was fired in a closed kiln, with a very good quality,
complete, reduced firing so it got a gray color. The shape
of this vessel is crucible like, with a very thick everted lip,
while the body continues almost vertically. On the upper
part of the lip, in a leak beak looking part a strongly
imprinted T letter was applied. The diameter of this

vessel is big for a crucible (26 cm at the lip area). The


exterior of the vessel preserves a consistent layer of
carbonized materials, a proof of its long use above a fire.
Most likely this piece comes from Tulln an der Donau
(Austria), a town that still has the letter T on its emblem.
AI, photo AI.
226. Fragment of the upper part of a vessel
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste, incomplete oxidizing firing, secondary
burning. Decoration: superficial cannelures. Dg. 11,3 cm.
14th century.
DMI, photo CS.
227. Fragment of the upper part of a vessel
2000, next to the palace.
Medium paste, incomplete oxidizing firing with yellowishgray, thin, exterior pellicles, secondary burning. Arched
neck, thinned arrow shaped lip rim. Grained outer surface.
Decoration: prominent ribs starting from the base of the
neck. Dg. 17 cm.
14th century.
DMI, photo CS.
228. Vessel fragment, cup stem?
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste, incomplete oxidized firing to a yellowishbricky color. Df. 5,5 cm.
14th century.
DMI, photo CS.
229. Fragment of a beaked cup.
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste, incomplete oxidized firing to a yellowishbricky color.
14th century.
DMI, photo CS.

201

230. Crucible fragment


2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste tempered with a lot of mica. Reduced
firing. The base is fastened with a support ring. Green
glaze directly over the paste on the exterior. Df. 3,6 cm.
14th century
DMI, photo AI.

235. Spindle
2002, next to the palace.
Ceramic. d.max 2,6 cm
13th-14th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
MODERN AGE

231. Candlestick?
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste, incomplete oxidized firing to a yellowishbricky color. Fragments of a small vessel with handle, very
similar to a miniature pitcher. Profiled base, the body
retreats in steps. Decoration: bands of incised horizontal
lines. Df. 4,7 cm.
14th century.
DMI, photo CS.
232. Candlestick?
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste, incomplete oxidized firing to a yellowishbricky color. Small vessel with tronconic body, narrow
opening, handle, similar to a miniature pitcher. Df. 4 cm.
14th century.
DMI, photo CS.
233. Spindle
2007, next to the palace.
Fine paste, reduced firing to a black color. Bi-tronconic
shape. d. 2,9 cm, h. 1,8 cm.
10th-12th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
234. Spindle
2000, inside the cathedrals north-western tower.
Fine paste Bi-tronconic shape. d. 2,4 cm, h. 1,2 cm.
13th-14th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.

202

236. Twisted ring, possibly a setting


2002, next to the palace.
Silver. Oval shaped, made of two twisted wires and
soldered at the ends so that they became invisible.
d. max. 2,2 cm .
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
237. Ring
2002, next to the palace
Yellow metal. d. 1,8 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
238. Hair pin
2001, the western side of the cathedral.
Bronze, needle with a circular pin.
L. 3,3 cm, gr. 1 cm; d. 0,25 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
239. Cloth hook
2002, next to the palace.
Silver. 0,16 cm thick wire, strongly flattened in the
attachment eye area. Only one part is preserved.
1,5x1,3 cm.
15th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD.

240. Button
2001, next to the sacristy.
Bronze. Hemispheric shape; a split wire handle is attached
to the inside. d. 1,6 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
241. Button
2002, next to the palace.
Yellow metal; decoration: flowery engraved ornament.
d. 1,5 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
242. Buttons
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. The disc is soldered on a thick wire handle (1) or it
is slightly away from the central part while the attachment
handle is missing (2). d. 1,8 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
243. Buckle
2000, next to the palace.
Bronze. Rectangular, variable in sections bar. Deformed in
the old age. L. 3 cm, l. 1,7 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
244. Buckle
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. Rectangular. L. 3,6 cm.
17th century.
AI, photo GD.
245. Decorative fitting element
2002, next to the palace.

Bronze. Cast. Decorated with oblique ribs that imitate the


rope. Fitting orifices at the ends. L. 4,5 cm, gr. 0,6 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD.
246. Decorative fitting element
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze. Cast. An attachment orifice in the center. Flower
shaped. d. max. 1,5 cm, gr. 0,1 cm.
17th century.
AI, photo GD.
247. Book bind
2001, next to the palace.
Silver alloy. Cut off plate. In the middle there is a plate
attached with rivets that used to hold a piece of leather.
L. 2,4 cm, l. 1,15 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
248. Book bind
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze, cut off thin plate. One of the heads still preserves
two rivets. L. 3,2 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
249. Ornamental rivet
2001, next to the sacristy.
Bronze. L. 0,5 cm, d. 0,65 cm.
16th-18th centuries.
AI, photo GD
250. Spur
2008, inside the palace.
Iron. Semicircular attachment profiles, high support
shoulder and a log rod that ends in a little wheel. L. 10,1
cm; gr. 0,7 cm.

203

15th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
251. Spur
2001, western side of the cathedral.
Iron. Semicircular in section arms. The ends are attached to
the boot with nails. The tail is rectangular in section. One
of the arms that used to support the little wheel as well as
the wheel are missing. Arm opening 8 cm; rod 0,7x0,55 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS

256. Knife sheath


2007, next to the cathedral.
Iron. L. l.
18th-19th centuries.
AM, photo GD
257. Metal part of a fire weapon
2001, west side of the cathedral.
Iron with silver tarsiae. L. 25 cm.
18th century.
AM, photo GD

252. Strap buckle


2002, next to the palace.
Iron. The belt attachment rod is straight and the frame is
semicircular. L. 6,5 cm, l.max. 3,2 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD

258. Knife
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. Haban or Stirian knife fragment ; copper dressing for
the handle ; engraved decoration. Fragment. L. 6,6 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo CS

253. Horse shoe


2008, inside the palace.
Iron, with rivet orifices. L. 12,8 cm; l. 11,6 cm;
15th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD

259. Handle (knife?)


2002, next to the palace.
Iron and wood. An object with a carved, polished, wooden
handle. L. 4,8 cm, and the wooden handle 3,3 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo GD

254. Heelplates
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. L. 5,3 cm, l. 5,2 cm (1); L. aprox. 6,4 cm (2).
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo GD
255. Bit
2008, inside the palace
Iron; two rectangular strap orifices and two bigger ones for
the chain. L. 16,3 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS

204

260. Knife
2001, next to the palace.
Iron. Only the fitting rod and a small part of the base of the
blade are preserved. L. 8,5 cm, l. 2,7 cm.
16th-17th century.
AI, photo CS
261. Knife
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. L. 8,3 cm, l. 1,9 cm.
17th-19th centuries.
AI, photo CS

262. Clasp knife


2008, inside the palace.
With an antler (or ivory) handle shaped like a cat. The
handle looks polished; the pieces also preserves the
interior iron blade. L. 7,5 cm; l. max. 1,9 cm.
Modern Age.
AM, photo GD
263. Clasp knife
2008, inside the palace.
Iron with a bone handle. The handle is made of two metal
plates overlapped by two bone plates with two small iron
rivets. Between the rivets there are two partial holes that
probably used to keep decorative elements. L. 10,5 cm.
Modern Age.
AM, photo GD
264. Clasp knife
2008, inside the palace.
Iron; two copper plates with wooden riveted handles.
Lp. 4,7 cm.
Modern Age.
AI, photo GD
265. Thimble
2002, next to the palace.
Bronze, with traces for the needle. Hp. 1,2 cm, d. 1,3 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo GD
266. Cleaver
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. L. 18,5 cm, l. 6,5 cm
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS.
267. Candlestick or snuffers
2002, next to the palace.

Iron; cylindrical, empty inside; an attachment rod broken of


old, rectangular in section. Fragment. h. 4,8 cm, d. tube 2,7 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo CS
268. Clasp
2003-2004, next to the palace.
Iron, a widened end, fastened with two attachment holes;
the other end is sharp.L. 21,5 cm; l. 10 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD
269. Lock
2002, next to the palace.
Iron, link with an attachment clasp. d. 3,6 cm, link 0,6 cm.
17th century.
AI, photo CS.
270. Stone masons clasp
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. Fastened from a rectangular profile (1,5x0,55 cm).
Fragments of three artifacts. L. 16/17 cm,
16th century.
AI, photo CS.
271. Stone masons hammer
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. The hammering part has a square section (2,8x2,8 cm)
the chopping part is widened (7,1 cm). L. 19,2 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo CS
272. Pick
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. Square section and rounded corners in the holding
area and square section in the sharp area. L. 10,2 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo CS

205

273. Chisel
2004, next to the palace.
Iron. Approximately rectangular shape; one of the short
ends is thinned. L. 15,7 cm, l. 6 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD
274. Stained glass window frame
2002, next to the palace.
Led, irregular shape, deformed in the old age. The link is
I shaped. Used for fitting the glass components of the
stained glass window. 2,65x2,2 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo GD
275. Coffin tack
2001, in the west side of the cathedral.
Bronze. D. 1,2 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD
276. Door nails and hook
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. L. 11-14 cm.
16th-17th centuries?
AI, photo GD
277. Hinge
2002, next to the palace.
Iron. L. 14 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo GD
278. Hinge
2000, next to the palace
Iron. L. 15 cm
A.I. photo C.S.

206

279. L shaped nail


2004, next to the palace.
Iron, with an orifice. L.6,8 cm, l. max 2,2 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
280. Ironware object
2008, inside the palace.
Iron, 4 shaped; one of the arms is elongated and spirally
bended. L. total 17,3 cm, , d. 4,7 cm.
15th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD
281. Chain with a lock
2008, inside the palace.
Iron; the pieces still preserve 11 partially twisted links,
attached to a small bar that served to lock a link by fitting
it with a supplementary, larger link that was attached to
the chain. L. 23,5 cm.
15th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
282. Corner fixture
2004, next to the palace.
Iron, cut off at a straight angle from a plate.
L. 10,5 cm; l. 2 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo GD
283. Nail and bolts
2000-2008
Iron; different shapes and sizes.
16th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS, GD
284. Fragment of a vessel
2002, next to the palace.

Bronze, 0,12 cm thick plate. Polygonal cut on four sides


(octagon, side 2,4 cm); possibly a vessel patch. 6x5,5 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
285. Vessel handle
2001, next to the palace.
Iron. Fragment.
L. 14,5 cm; variable section, d.max. 0,8 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo GD
286. Rod
2004, next to the palace.
Iron; hook shaped, rectangular section.
L. 17,5 cm; l. 1,2 cm; g. 0,4-0,6 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo GD
287. Jar pot
2002, next to the palace.
Light red paste, tempered with fine sand, incomplete
oxidized firing. Alveolated, everted, low lip with a
superficial lid channel that corresponds to the exterior
with a rib. Short neck, globular body. The maximum
diameter is on the upper third of the vessel. Dark red
discolorations on the exterior from the secondary burning.
Decoration: two horizontal incised lines on the shoulder.
Dg.: 14 cm, Dmax.: 15 cm, Df.: 8 cm, h.: 15 cm
16th century.
SPL, photo GD.
288. Pot with handle
2002, next to the palace.
Light yellowish-red paste, tempered with large grained
sand, incomplete oxidized firing. Everted lip with an
inside superficial lid channel that corresponds to the
exterior with a rib. The edge of the lip is ribbed. Short

neck, globular body, flat base. Short band handle, divided


into two registers by a channel. More than half of the
vessel is covered on the exterior with carbon black.
Decoration: two horizontal incised lines on the shoulder.
Dg.: 13,5 cm, Dmax.: 16,5 cm, Df.: 8 cm, h. 16,5 cm
16th century.
SPL, photo GD.
289. Pot with handle
2002, next to the palace.
Light red paste, tempered with sand, incomplete oxidized
firing. Everted, low lip with alveoli and an inside
superficial lid channel that corresponds to the exterior
with a rib. Short neck, globular body, the maximum
diameter is on the upper third of the vessel, toward the
mid section. Short band handle, divided into two registers
by a channel. The exterior of the vessel is tinted with
carbon black and dark red discolorations from the
secondary burning.
Decoration: three horizontal incised lines on the middle of
the neck. On the maximum diameter a field of wavy
cannelures combined with horizontal incised lines. Dg.:
14,5 cm, Dmax.: 15 cm, Df.: 9 cm, h.: 18 cm
16th century.
SPL, photo GD.
290. Pot with handle
2002, next to the palace.
Brick-red paste, tempered with sand, complete oxidized
firing. Everted lip with a rib. Short neck, a rib in the middle,
globular body; the maximum diameter is on the upper third
of the vessel, toward the mid section. Short band handle,
divided into two registers by a channel. The exterior of the
vessel is tinted with spots of carbon black. Decoration: the
beginning of the shoulder is marked with a horizontal incised
line.Dg.: 14,5 cm, Dmax.: 18 cm, Df.: 9 cm, h.: 20 cm
16th century.
SPL, photo GD.

207

291. Pot with handle


2002, next to the palace.
Brick-red paste, tempered with sand, complete oxidized
firing. Everted lip with a rib. Short neck, a rib in the
middle, globular body; the maximum diameter is on the
upper third of the vessel, toward the mid section. Short
band handle, divided into two registers by a channel. The
exterior of the vessel is tinted with spots of carbon black.
Decoration: the beginning of the shoulder is marked with a
horizontal incised line.
Dg.: 18 cm, Dmax.: 21,5 cm, Df.: 11 cm, h.: 22,5 cm
16th century.
SPL, photo GD.
292. Pan
2002, next to the palace.
Brick-red paste, tempered with sand, incomplete oxidized
firing. Strongly everted, rounded lip. Slightly curved body,
globular toward the base, three wheel turned legs. Band
handle, stretching from lip to base, divided into two
registers by a channel. Carbon black on the base.
Decoration: the inner surface is covered with even, thick,
cracked, yellowish-green glaze placed over white engobe.
The neck and body are decorated with horizontal incised
lines. Dg.: 18 cm, Df.: 14 cm, h. (without the legs): 7 cm
16th century.
SPL, photo GD.
293. Pot with handle
2002, next to the palace.
Light red, compact paste, tempered with sand and small
pebbles; incomplete oxidized firing. Clayish and uneven
surface. Strongly everted lip, its upper part being slayed.
Inside the lip, a superficial lid channel that corresponds to
the exterior (toward the mid section) with a sharp rib.
Short neck, globular body, the maximum diameter is on
the upper third of the vessel. Short band handle, divided
into two registers by a channel. Flat base. The exterior of

208

the vessel is tinted with carbon black and dark red


discolorations from the secondary burning.
Dg.: 22,2 cm, Dmax.: 28 cm, Df.: 12,5 cm, h.: 25 cm
16th century.
SPL, photo GD.
294. Pot with handle
2002, next to the palace.
Light red (grey on the inside), compact paste; incomplete
oxidized firing. Coarse surface. Strongly everted lip. Inside
the lip, a superficial lid channel that corresponds to the
exterior with a sharp rib. Short neck, a rib toward the mid
section, globular body, the maximum diameter is on the
mid section. Short band handle, divided into two registers
by a channel. Flat base. The exterior of the vessel is tinted
with carbon black and dark red discolorations from the
secondary burning.
Decoration: the shoulder is decorated with a field of
superficial, horizontal cannelures.
Dg.: 20 cm, Dmax.: 26 cm, Df.: 12,5 cm, h.: 28,5 cm
16th century.
SPL, photo GD.
295. Onion shaped money box
2002, next to the palace.
Bright brick-red paste, tempered with sand. Coarse
surface. Spherical, slightly flat body, flat base. The upper
part ends in a protuberance. A niche on the shoulder.
L.: 2,2 cm, l.: 0,15 cm
16th century.
SPL, photo GD.
296. Pipkin with handle
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste, tempered with sand and mica; complete
oxidized firing; color: bricky-brown. Short neck, everted
rim, straight cut lip.

Decoration: superficial, incised, horizontal lines on the mid


section. The inside is covered with green glaze. Spots of
green glaze on the handle. Dg12 cm, df 8,5 cm, h 15 cm
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
297. Pot
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing; color: bricky
reddish. Globular body; the maximum diameter is in the
mid section. Short but strongly arched neck, everted rim.
Traces of a wheel are visible. Decoration: geometric motifs
painted in white, framed by pairs of superficial, incised,
horizontal lines. Dg 17 cm, df 9 cm h 22 cm
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
298. Pot with handle
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; variable firing; color: yellowish-bricky.
Short neck. The vessel was slightly deformed before the
firing therefore it has an asymmetrical opening. Everted
rim with an inside lid channel and thin cannelures
corresponding to the exterior. Small handle with
rectangular profile. Decoration: a few superficial incisions,
accentuated with white paint on the shoulder.
Dg 16 cm, df. 9 cm, h 23 cm, l.handle 2 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo CS.
299. Pot with handle
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; variable oxidized firing; color: dark bricky.
Globular body; the maximum diameter in the mid section.
Short neck, everted rim, rounded lip. A wide handle
connects the body to the lip. The vessel was discovered
whole. Decoration: superficial, horizontal and wavy,
incised lines that were accentuated with white paint.

Dg. 13,8 cm, df 8,5 cm, h 20,8 cm


16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
300. Pot with handle
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing; color: grayishbricky. Globular body; the maximum diameter on the
upper section. Short neck, strongly pulled to the exterior
rim; thinned lip. Vessel still preserves traces of a small
handle. The vessel was fragmentary upon discovery but it
was later restored. Decoration: a field of superficial
incisions, accentuated with white paint.
D. opening 15,4 cm, d. base 8 cm, h 15,2 cm
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
301. Pot
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; superficial firing; color: dark bricky. Pear
shaped vessel, with slightly accentuated shoulders, lightly
arched neck and everted rim. Partially preserved handle.
Decoration: inside: dark green glaze alternating with
vertical lines in a lighter shade of green. Exterior: fine
incisions; the ones on the shoulder are accentuated with
white paint. Dg 12 cm, df 8 cm, h 16 cm
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
302. Sauce pan
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; superficial firing to a light bricky color. The
vessel is similar to a bowl. The body is strongly globular in
its upper half; the rim is highly everted. The vessel still
preserves traces of a handle. On the lower half strong
traces of burn show that the vessel was in direct contact
with fire. Decoration: exterior: superficial incisions.

209

Interior: dark green glaze alternating with vertical lines in


a lighter shade of green. Dg 15 cm, df 6,4 cm, h 7,6 cm
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
303. Sauce pan
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete firing to a yellowish-bricky color.
The vessel has three tall legs. The body is approximately
cylindrical; the rim is everted and widened. Bi-tronconic,
empty inside handle. Superficial traces of use. Decoration:
exterior: incised geometrical design, painted with white
paint; spots of yellow glaze. Interior: shiny, brown glaze.
Dg 17,6 cm, h 11 cm
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
304. Pan
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing to a reddishbricky color. It has three legs and a tubular handle. The
vessel was fragmentary upon discovery but it was later
restored. Decoration: blackish-brown glaze on the inside.
Dg 14,3 cm, h 10 cm (without the legs), L handle 7 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
305. Sauce pan with handle
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete firing to a reddish-bricky color.
Similar to a pot; slightly globular body, short, arched neck,
everted rim with a lace shaped lip. It has three short legs
that were manually modeled and applied before drying
the vessel. The earthenware is maneuvered with a handle.
Traces of secondary burning on the exterior. The vessel
was fragmented, restored.Decoration: green glaze on the
inside. Three horizontal, superficially incised lines on the
outside.

210

Dg 18,2 cm, df 8,5, h 13 cm


16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
306. Lid
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; superficial firing; color: yellowish-bricky.
Conical lid, flattened with a short handle.
D.max 14 , h 5,2 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
307. Mug
2004, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete firing; color: yellowish-bricky.
Ovoid body, slightly marked neck, thinned and everted
rim. Applied, over-lifted handle. The vessel was complete
upon discovery. Decoration: superficially incised,
horizontal lines. dg 8 cm, df 5,5 cm, h 7,5 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo GD.
308. Goblet
2004, next to the palace.
Fine kaolin paste; complete oxidizing firing; color:
yellowish-white. Goblet with a short, sharp rib segmented
stem and a conical foot. Everted body. Fragmentary,
restored.
Decoration: inside: much corroded, yellowish-brown
glaze. Exterior: light blue glaze decorated with different
sizes of stripes in golden-yellow glaze.
Dg. 12,5 cm (preserved), h. leg 5 cm, hp 9,8 cm
17th century
DMI, photo CS.
309. Pot with handle
2002, next to the palace.

Medium paste; complete oxidized firing to a dark bricky


color. Ovoid body; the maximum diameter is on the lower
half of the vessel; everted rim, rounded lip. The rim forms
a lid support on the inside. Wide handle with a middle
cannelure. Decoration: inside: a thin layer of brownishgreen glaze applied directly over the paste (without an
engobe). Exterior: a few superficially incised lines.
Dg 16 cm, df 8 cm, h 20 cm, gr 0,8-1 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo CS.
310. Bowl
2002, next to the palace.
Fine paste: complete oxidized firing; color: grayish-bricky.
Decorative bowl of an approximately conical shape with
the inside segmented by a shoulder. The rim is vertical and
it is articulated by two cannelures. On the exterior, on the
shoulder area, there are two little handles by which the
vessel was hung on a holder. Partially preserved, restored.
Decoration: inside: yellowish-white glaze over which a
floral ornament was painted with grayish-green and dark
blue.
Dg. 26 cm, df. 17 cm, h. 8 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
311. Goblet
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing; color: reddish
bricky. Ovoid body; maximum diameter in the mid
section; short neck; everted, thinned rim. Decoration: the
same type of white glaze, placed directly over the paste
both on the inside and on the outside.
Dg. 5,4 cm, df. 3,4 cm, dmax. 5,9 cm, h 7,3 cm. Very thin
walls, 0,3-0,4 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.

312. Sauce pan


2002, next to the palace.
Fine paste; complete oxidized firing to a reddish-bricky
color. The body is cylindrical, slightly everted; two
handles. Decoration: the same type of relatively good
quality, yellowish-white glaze, both on the inside and on
the outside. Dg 16 cm, df 12 cm, h 7,9 cm, gr.wall 0,6 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
313. Pan
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste, tempered with sand and mica; complete
oxidized firing; color: reddish-bricky. The pan has three
legs and a tubular handle for maneuverability. It was used
directly over the fire: the base and the legs still preserve
traces of grime. The vessel was restored. Decoration:
inside: brown glaze; exterior: superficial incisions.
D.opening 30 cm, d. base 20 cm, h total 16 cm. Handle
11,7x5 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
314. Pan
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing; color: dark
bricky. Cylindrical vessel with three legs and a tubular
handle. Fragmented, restored.
Decoration: well preserved, shiny, dark green glaze on the
inside. Dg. 25 cm, df. 22 cm, h 17 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
315. Lid
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete firing; color: reddish-bricky.
Conical lid with a profiled handle. Decoration: geometrical

211

motifs painted with white and partial decoration with light


green glaze on the exterior.
Dmax. 28,2 cm, h 11,4 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
316. Lid
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete firing; color: yellowish-bricky.
Conical lid with a short, button like, handle. Traces of
grime on the lip.
Decoration: geometrical motifs painted with white and
partial decoration with light green glaze on the exterior.
Dmax. 19,1 cm, h 8 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
317. Lid
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing. Short handled
lid. Traces of secondary burning. Decoration: geometric
motifs painted with white, smears of green glaze.
D. 12,8 cm, h. 4,8 cm
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
318. Lid
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing; color: reddishbricky. Conical lid with a short handle that looks like a
button. Decoration: exterior: geometric motifs painted in
white; partial light green glaze. D.max. 9 cm, h 4,5 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
319. Lid
2002, next to the palace.

212

Medium paste; complete oxidized firing; color: yellowishbricky. Trononical lid with a handle. Strong traces of
secondary burning on the lower side. Decoration:
geometric motifs painted in red and white.
D.max. 17 cm, h 5,5 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
320. Lid
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing; color: reddishbricky. Conical lid with a short handle that looks like a
button. Decoration: exterior: geometric motifs painted in
white; over it spots of green glaze were applied. Dmax. 9
cm, h 4,5 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
321. Pitcher
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing; color: reddishbricky. Pare shaped body; high neck, segmented by a
sharp belt; everted rim. Handle with a trapezoid section.
Decoration: superficial, incised, horizontal fascicles of lines
on the body. Manually pressed alveoli on the handle. On
the outside, almost to the base, the vessel is decorated with
brown glaze, overlapped by decorations made with yellow
glaze. Dg 4,2 cm, d.max. 14 cm, h 20,5 cm
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
322. Tray
2002, next to the palace.
Medium paste; complete oxidizing firing; color: dark
bricky. High edges; leaking beak on one of the short sides
and a handle on one of the long ones. Decoration: dark
green glaze over which stripes in a lighter shade of green
were applied. L 33 cm, l 17,5 cm, h 5 cm.

Around 1700.
DMI, photo CS.
323. Mortar
2002, next to the palace.
Fine kaolin paste; completely fired to a white color. Semispherical vessel with thick walls and a slightly profiled
base. Probably used as mortar.
Dg 5,8 cm, df 3,6 cm, h 2,4 cm.
Around 1700.
DMI, photo GD.
324. Crucibles
2000-2008, inside and outside the palace.
Graffito, compact paste; reduced firing. After the paste
was fired it got a black, metallic color. Different sizes, with
thick walls, used for processing metals. They are produced
in Austrian workshops and they usually have stamps with
marks of those workshops. Df. 15 cm, gr. perei 1,7-2,3 cm,
fundul mai subire (1). Df. 9 cm (3)
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
325. Testing crucibles
2000-2008, inside and outside the palace.
Fine paste, oxidized firing to a bricky color. Small vessels
with tronconic bodies, thick walls, partially glazed
interiors. Used for processing metals. D. df. between 3 to 5
cm; h. 4-5 cm, dg. 3-4 cm
16th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo CS, GD
326. Tobacco pipe
2002, next to the palace.
Fine paste, molded. Decorative band with pricks. L. 4,8 cm,
d. 21 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS

327. Tobacco pipe


2002, next to the palace.
Reddish-yellow paste. Incised decoration. d. 2,7 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
328. Tobacco pipe
2002, next to the palace.
Yellowish-gray paste. L. 5,3 cm, d. 2,2 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
329. Tobacco pipe
2002, next to the palace.
Yellowish-gray paste. Incised decoration, flowery motifs.
Smoothed surface. L. 58 mm, d. of the opening 31 mm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
330. Tobacco pipe
2002, next to the palace.
Fine paste, reduced firing, color: black. d. max. 2,4 cm, L
p. 5,5 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
331. Triangular tile for the roof of the stove
2002, next to the palace.
Triangular plate stove tile, with no leg, fragmented.
Medium paste, superficial oxidized firing. The piece was
pressed into the mould with a wooden object. Covered
with dark green glaze over the engobe. Decoration:
geometric; gothic motifs suggesting inlayed tracery in a
fish eye. Proposition for a reconstruction. 11 x 7 x 0,7 cm.
Second half of the 15th century- beginning of the 16th
century.
DMI, photo AI

213

332. Triangular tile for the roof of the stove


2002, next to the palace.
Triangular plate stove tile; fragment of the middle area.
Coarse grained paste, with a lot of sand and mica,
complete oxidized firing to a dark brick color. The piece
was pressed into the mould with wood. Green glaze,
completely irisated, almost entirely exfoliated. Traces of
grime on the back. Decoration: gothic motifs, similar to
331. 10,3 x 9,1 x 0,7-1,1 cm.
Second half of the 15th century- beginning of the 16th century.
DMI, photo AI
333. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Unknown shape (probably triangular), plate stove tile.
Fragment of the middle area. Coarse grained paste, with a
lot of sand and mica. Incomplete oxidized firing. Pressed
in a mould with a piece of cloth. Poor quality, completely
silvery irisated, light green glaze over the engobe. Traces
of grime on the reverse. Decoration: gothic motifs.
Proposition for the reconstruction. 7,4 x 8,6 x 0,8-1 cm.
Second half of the 15th century- beginning of the 16th
century.
DMI, photo AI
334. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Plate, probably triangular stove tile; no leg; fragments.
Coarse grained paste with a lot of mica, complete oxidized
firing; pressed into the mould with wood. Poor quality,
partially exfoliated, partially silvery irisated, light green
glaze over the engobe. Partial secondary burning. Traces of
grime on the back.
Decoration: gothic motifs, probably similar to the ones 331
and 333. 16,3 x 12,6 x 1-1,8 cm.
Second half of the 15th century - beginning of the 16th
century.
DMI, photo AI

214

335. Stove tile


2002, next to the palace.
Rectangular, plate stove tile, no leg, fragment. Coarse
grained paste, with a lot of mica. Complete oxidized firing.
Pressed in the mould with wood. Completely golden
irisated, green glaze, directly over the paste. Traces of
grime on the reverse. Decoration: geometric, probably a
gothic composition. 9 x 7,2 x 1 cm.
Second half of the 15th century 16th century.
DMI, photo AI
336. Tile for the cornice of the stove
2002, next to the palace.
Tile for the cornice of the stove, cut of, fragments.
Fine paste, tempered with mica, superficial firing; the clay
pressed into the mould with wood. Uneven, relatively well
preserved, green glaze over the engobe.
Decoration: the lower part with gothic tracery, the upper
part is cut on the contour of relief lily flowers
4,5x3x1 cm.
Second half of the 15th century 16th century.
DMI, photo AI
337. Tile for the roof of the stove
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate stove tile, triangular. Semi-coarse paste; completely
fired to a reddish bricky color. Traces of secondary
burning. The field is covered with green glaze while the
decoration bears a white glaze. The green glaze, silvery
irisated, is only partially preserved. Fragment. Decoration:
gothic motifs. Hp 19 cm, l.max. 6,5 cm
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo AM
338. Cornice stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Cornice stove tile; the upper part is cut of. Fine paste;
completely oxidized fired to a reddish-bricky color. The

clay was pressed into the mould by hand and with a


wooden spatula. Partially exfoliated, almost completely
silvery irisated, green and brownish-yellow glaze over the
engobe. Smears of blue glaze. Decoration: geometric; on
the lower part a series of semicircular or pointed (ogival)
arcades; the upper part is decorated with relief geometric
motifs and it is partially traceried. Restored piece. L. 13,5
cm, h. 9,4 cm, gr. 0,7 cm.
16th century
DMI, photo AI
339. Triangular tile for the roof of the stove
2002, next to the palace.
Triangular plate stove tile, with no leg, fragment. Medium
paste, completely oxidized firing. The piece was pressed
into the mould with a wooden object and by hand.
Covered with dark green glaze over the engobe; the glaze
is of poor quality, therefore almost entirely exfoliated.
Traces of grime on the back.
Decoration: geometric; network of ribs inside relief
triangles, single ones or paired. Measurements of the
drawn fragment: 8,4 x 7,9 x 1-1,7 cm.
Second half of the 15th century- first half of the 16th
century.
DMI, photo AI
340. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Plate, rectangular stove tile, no leg, fragmented. Medium
paste, incomplete oxidized firing, pressed in the mould
with a wooden spatula. Light green glaze over the engobe;
the glaze is of poor quality, therefore almost entirely
exfoliated. Decoration: network of ribs inside of which
there are relief triangles of variable sizes and shapes. 14 x
10,1 x 0,8-1,4 cm. Second half of the 15th century- first half
of the 16th century.
DMI, photo AI

341. Cornice stove tile


2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate stove tile, triangular. Medium paste, completely
oxidized firing to a red-bricky color. The clay was pressed
into the mould with a wooden spatula. A thin layer of light
with darker shades of green over the engobe. Decoration:
network of relief ribs. 7x7,6 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
16th century.
DMI, photo AM
342. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate tile of unknown shape. Coarse grained paste;
incomplete oxidized firing to a red-bricky color. The clay
was pressed into the mould with a piece of cloth.
Superficial traces of secondary burning. Green glaze of a
poor quality, almost completely disappeared in the old
age. Fragments. Decoration: network of relief ribs.
11,5x6,5 cm, gr. 1 cm.
16th century.
DMI, photo AM
343. Cornice stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate stove tile, triangular. Semi-coarse paste, completely
fired to a dark bricky color. Strong secondary burning.
Mustard-yellow, green and white glaze. Fragment.
Decoration: vegetal-geometric ornaments combined with
an inscription that still preserves 4. The ornaments
formed a unitary composition that continued to other
stove tiles.
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo AM
344. Tile for the roof of the stove
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate stove tile, triangular. Coarse grained paste;
incomplete oxidizing firing to a dark bricky color. Green,

215

white and blue glaze. Fragment. Decoration: vegetalgeometric ornaments. 7,5x3,5 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo AM

bricky color. Partially preserved, green, blue and white


glazes. Fragments, restored. L. 14 cm, h. 13 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
15th-16th centuries
DMI, photo GD

345. Stove tile


2008, inside the bishops palace.
Short legged stove tile. Medium paste; completely
oxidized fired to a reddish-bricky color. Superficial traces
of secondary burning. The field is covered with a green
glaze while the relief decoration is glazed in white and
blue. The green glaze is only fragmentary preserved and it
is silvery or golden irisated. Fragment. Decoration: maybe
a religious image, with an inscription on the upper part
that still reads O and T; there is the edge of a wing so
this is possibly an image of Saint Michael. 9,5x9 cm, gr. 0,5
cm
17th century.
DMI, photo AM

348. Stove tile


2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate stove tile. Coarse grained paste; incompletely
oxidized firing to a bricky color. The clay was pressed into
the mould with a spatula. Superficial traces of secondary
burning. Brownish-yellow, dark green, white and blue
glazes. Fragments. Decoration: an illustration of the legend
of the pelican that tears off its breast in order to feed its
young. The fragments preserves parts of the pelicans body
and head. 8x5 cm; 5x3,5, gr. 0,7 cm;
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo AI

346. Stove tile


2008, inside the bishops palace.
Short legged stove tile. Fine paste, completely oxidized
fired to a reddish-bricky color. The clay was pressed into
the mould with a piece of cloth. The field is covered with a
green glaze while the relief decoration is glazed in white.
The green glaze is only fragmentary preserved and it is
silvery irisated. Fragments. Decoration: a character framed
by a field of vegetal motifs. 20x11x0,7 cm.
17th century.
DMI, photo AM
347. Cornice stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate, rectangular stove tile. The upper part is cut off on
the contours of square crenels and in partial tracery.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing to a reddish-

216

349. Cornice stove tile


2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate stove tile; with a support sole. Medium paste;
completely oxidized firing to a bricky color. The clay was
pressed into the mould with a wooden spatula. Superficial
traces of secondary burning. Brownish-yellow, green and
white glazes later covered with a thick pellicle of lime. The
fragment is in poorly preserved. Decoration: vegetal
motifs. 9,5x5,5, gr. 0,5 cm; h.leg 3,5 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo AM
350. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Plate stove tile; sunken visible face; fragments. Fine paste,
with a lot of mica. Complete firing. Pressed into the mould
by hand; the reverse very uneven. Partially silvery irisated
and exfoliated, on some fragments opaque, green glaze
over the engobe. Traces of grime on the back.

Decoration: male (?) character raising a sword with his


right hand. The scene is surrounded by a vegetal frame,
delimited in its upper part by a row of rosettes. The central
filed is framed by marginal borders with spindles.
Measurements of the fragments: 9 x 10,2 x 0,8 cm; 11 x 5 x
0,9 cm; broken leg: 2,5 x 0,6 cm.
Second half of the 15th century- beginning of the 16th
century.
DMI, photo AI
351. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Traceried stove tile, fragments. Medium paste with a lot of
mica; complete firing; the clay was pressed into the mould
by hand. Partially well preserved, partially exfoliated dark
green glaze over the engobe. Decoration: armored knight.
8,5x5,3x1,1-1,7 cm; 5,6x3,5x0,8-1,5 cm
(15th-) 16th century.
DMI, photo AI
352. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Plate tile, no leg, fragment. Possibly belongs into a
medallion shaped piece.Fine paste, superficial firing; the
clay was pressed into the mould with wood. The visible
face still preserves some traces of lime, probably from a
refreshment of the stove. The back of the piece has a thin
pellicle of glaze. Decoration: rosette. 7,8x5,7x0,6 cm.
(15th-) 16th century.
DMI
353. Tile for the corner of the stove
2001, next to the palace.
Corner stove tile, formed by fitting two pieces in a sharp
angle. Fragments from the contact area.Fine paste, clay
pressed into the mould by hand; incomplete firing. Green
glaze over the engobe. Traces of grime on the back.
Decoration: small relief rosettes.

(15th ) 16th centuries.


DMI, photo AI
354. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Rectangular plate stove tile. Fine paste, with a lot of mica.
Completely fired to a brick-red color. The clay was pressed
into the mould by hand and with a wooden spatula. Green
glaze over the engobe; on some fragments it was well
preserved while on other it was completely silvery
irisated. On the back the stove tile preserved some traces
of grime.
Decoration: armored knight, on horse back, framed by a
gothic portal. Under the belly of the horse there are two
human heads, one with a turban and the other with a fez.
The accolade portal is embellished with rich leafage, both
on the intrados and on the extrados. Two more heads with
turbans are suspended on the extrados, between the
spindles. L. 26-27 cm.
Around 1500.
DMI, photo CS
355. Triangular tile for the roof of the stove
2002, next to the palace.
Triangular plate stove tile, with no leg, fragmented. Paste
with a lot of mica. The piece was pressed into the mould
with a wooden spatula. The visible face was covered with
green glaze over the engobe; the glaze is today completely
irisated. There are traces of variable usage on the back of
the piece. Decoration: combinations of spindles. l.max.
preserved 18,5 cm; h.p. 11,21 cm, gr. 0,8-1,2 cm; h.
estimate: over 50 cm.
First half of the 16th century.
DMI, photo AI
356. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace.

217

Plate stove tile, with leg, fragmented. Fine paste, pressed


in the mould with a wooden spatula. The firing was
complete. The leg of the piece was wheel turned, cut from
a cylinder. The visible face is covered with green,
yellowish-brown and white glaze, over the engobe; the
colors are diffused, relatively well preserved.
Decoration: mounted knight, looking left, sitting on a
relatively static horse, framed by a late gothic portal
decorated with a lot of vegetation. On his head the knight
has a wide brims hat. The relief of the plate is superficial
so the reading of the decoration is difficult, but the
composition can be recomposed based on analogies.
Usually, this kind of knights wear a short cloak and they
are armed with a crossbow sitting on their shoulder.
Around 1500.
DMI, photo AI
357. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Rectangular, plate stove tile. Medium paste, with a lot of
mica, completely fired, the clay pressed into the mould
with wood. Almost completely loose, green glaze over the
engobe. Decoration: spindles. 10,3x6,7x0,5-0,8 cm.
First half of the 16th century.
DMI, photo AI
358. Stove tile
2002, next to the bishops palace.
Plate stove tile, no leg, fragments. Medium paste tempered
with a lot of sand. Dried in layers; incompletely fired.
Pressed into the mould with a piece of cloth. Traces of
secondary burning. Good quality green glaze over the
engobe. The glaze is applied in layers of different
thickness, producing therefore big differences in the
shades of the color on the same piece, from yellowishgreen to dark almost black green. Decoration: fragment of
a composition with a semicircular portal, whose inside is

218

decorated with geometric motifs of crossing arches.


10,6x13,5 cm, gr. 1,2 cm.
16th century.
DMI, photo AI
359. Stove tile
2001, next to the bishops palace.
Plate stove tile, rectangular, fragment. Coarse grained
paste with a lot of mica; superficial firing; pressed into the
mould with wood. Partially silvery irisated, green glaze
over the engobe. Traces of grime on the back. Decoration:
bird wing, fragment of a composition with Hercules and
Zeus eagle. 11,5 x 9 x 0,4-0,8 cm.
First half of the 16th century.
DMI, photo AI
360. Tile for the cornice of the stove
2001, next to the bishops palace.
Cornice tile with tracery. Its upper part is cut with
triangular crenels. Fragment. Fine paste, with mica,
completely fired, the clay was pressed in the mould with
wood. The obverse was covered with green glaze over the
engobe. The glaze is unevenly placed, but it is relatively
well preserved. Another variant was decorated with
yellowish-brown glaze. Decoration: the lower part was
decorated with stylized birds; the upper part with
geometric shapes.
Measurements of the restored piece: l. 13 cm, L. 24 cm.
First half of the 16th century.
DMI, graphic reconstruction AI, photo CS
361. Tile for the stoves cornice
2000-2002
Cornice stove tile, with a short leg, fragment.
Medium/ coarse grained paste, superficially fired. The
clay was pressed into the mould with a piece of cloth and
with a wooden spatula. Green glaze, completely silvery

irisated. There is another variant with a simple obverse.


On the back there are thick traces of grime.
Decoration: the lower part is decorated with balusters; the
upper part was cut into deep horizontal crenels.
19x19,5 cm; 20x17 cm; short leg (2,5x1 cm).
First half of the 16th century.
DMI, photo GD
362. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate, short legged stove tile. Fine paste; completely
oxidized firing to a red-bricky color. The clay was pressed
into the mould with a spatula. Superficial traces of
secondary burning. The visible face was covered in a
reddish slam. Decoration: geometric motifs.
19x12 cm, gr. 0,5 cm. h. leg 3,5 cm.
16th century.
DMI, photo AI
363. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate, non legged stove tile. Fine paste; completely
oxidized firing to a red-bricky color. The clay was pressed
into the mould with a piece of cloth. The visible face is
covered with a well preserved, good quality, shiny layer of
green glaze. In another stage of usefulness the piece was
covered with a patially preserved, thick layer of lime.
Decoration: vegetal-geometric motifs.
11,5x9 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
16th century.
DMI, photo AI
364. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Short legged, rectangular plate stove tile. Semi-coarse
paste, tempered with a lot of mica. Incompletely oxidized
firing to a yellowish-bricky color. The clay was pressed
into the mould with a wooden spatula. The visible face is

sprinkled with mica. Fragment. Decoration: vase with


flowers. 10,5x4,5 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
16th century.
DMI, photo AI
365. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate, short legged stove tile. Fine paste; completely
oxidized firing to a yellowish-bricky color. The clay was
pressed into the mould with a wooden spatula. Partial
secondary burning. The visible face was covered in a thick
layer of yellowish-white engobe. Fragments.
Decoration: vegetal-floral motifs that are framed by a
border of geometric motifs.
15x10 cm, gr. 0,4 cm. h leg 4,5 cm.
16th century.
DMI, photo AI
366. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate stove tile. Fragment. Medium paste; completely
oxidized firing; strong secondary burning. Silvery irisated
green glaze.
Decoration: vegetal motifs. 6,5x5 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
16th century.
DMI, photo AI
367. Stove tile
2001, next to the palace
Plate stove tile, its middle part sunken, circular shaped.
Fine/medium paste, with mica, superficial firing; pressed
into the mould with a piece of cloth. The visible face of the
piece is decorated with different colors of glaze: good
quality, well preserved, different shades of green and
yellowish-brown glaze; a combination of brown glaze on
the field of the piece; yellow glaze in the central part of the
piece; in the sunken area there are brown in a green field
painted triangles. All the fragments have traces of grime

219

on the back. Decoration: circular protuberances framed by


triangles in the corners; painted geometrical decorations
may appear in the central, sunken part of the piece.
16th century.
DMI, photo AI
368. Plate stove tile, circular, sunken mid section
2001, next to the palace
Fine or medium paste, tempered with mica; completely
fired; pressed into the mould with a piece of cloth while
the edges were pressed with a wooden spatula. Green,
brownish-yellow and white glaze. Traces of grime on the
back. Decoration: the even part bears a relief vegetal and
geometric ornament; the central piece is decorated with
painted triangles. 10x9x0,5 cm.
16th century.
DMI, photo AI
369. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace
Pot tile with a square opening. Coarse grained paste;
superficially fired; wheel turned, the upper part was
molded. Superficial traces of secondary burning on the
exterior. The paste on the base of modeled when the tile
was taken away from the wheel into a flower by manually
pressing the paste from the outside toward the interior of
the tile. Decoration: relief band, put out of the paste, twist
shaped.
16th century.
DMI, photo AI
370. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Wheel turned, pot stove tile; the edge is pulled in a square
shaped mould. Medium paste; incompletely oxidized
firing to a red-bricky color. The piece was integrated in the
wall of the stove and it was in direct contact with the fire.
The lower half still preserves thick layer of grime.

220

Fragments. Decor: incised geometric motifs on the inside.


12,5x11 cm, gr. 0,5 cm.
15th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo AI
371. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Wheel turned, pot stove tile; the edge is pulled in a square
shaped mould. Medium paste; incompletely oxidized
firing to a red-bricky color. Traces of secondary burning.
Fragments. Decoration: a sharp, prominent rib mark the
limit were the vessel abruptly everts into the molded
square shape. Estimated side 23 cm, df. 7 cm, gr. 0,6 cm.
15th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo AI
372. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Short legged, rectangular plate stove tile, very similar to a
niche stove tile. Fine paste; completely oxidized firing to a
red-bricky color. Partially preserved, shiny, green glaze.
7,5x5 cm, gr. 0,5 cm. h. leg 3 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo AM
373. Cornice stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Cut off, semicircular tile, with a support sole. Medium
paste; completely oxidized firing to a yellowish-bricky
color. The clay was pressed into the mould with a piece of
cloth. Partially preserved, thin pellicle of green glaze.
Fragment. Decoration: vegetal, similar to a palmette.
13x12,5 cm, gr. 0,8 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo AM
374. Cornice stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.

Rectangular plate tile; the upper part is cut off and


traceried; no signs of a leg. Fine paste; completely oxidized
firing to a red-bricky color. The clay was pressed into the
mould with a wooden spatula. Mostly fallen, shiny green
glaze. Fragment.
10,5x4,5 cm, gr. 1 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo AM
375. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate, short legged stove tile. Medium paste; completely
oxidized firing to a yellowish-bricky color. The clay was
pressed into the mould with a wooden spatula. The visible
face is sprinkled with mica. Intense secondary burning.
Decoration: geometric motifs.
12x5,5x0,5 cm, h leg 4,5 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo AM
376. Stove tile
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Plate, short legged stove tile. Medium paste; completely
oxidized firing to a red-bricky color. Secondary burning.
Well preserved, shiny green glaze.
Decoration: vegetal-geometric motifs.
10,5x10,5 cm, gr. 0,5 cm. h leg 7,5 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo AM
377. Stove tile
2004, next to the palace.
Short legged, plate stove tile; medium paste; oxidized
firing to a red-bricky color. Superficial secondary burning.
Partially exfoliated, partially covered with lime green
glaze.
Decoration: vegetal motifs.
13x7 cm; gr. 0,6 cm; h leg 3,5 cm.

16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo AI
378. Stove tile
Next to the palace.
Plate, triangular, no leg, stove tile. Fine paste; complete
oxidized firing to a yellowish-bricky color. Strong
secondary burning. Partially preserved green glaze.
Decoration: geometric.
L 23 cm, l 16,5 cm, gr. 0,6 cm.
DMI, photo AI
379. Stove tile
Next to the palace.
Short legged stove tile. Medium paste; incompletely
oxidized fired to a yellowish-bricky color. Superficial
traces of secondary burning. The field is covered with a
green glaze while the relief decoration is glazed in white
and blue. In a second stage of usefulness the piece was
covered in red paint. The glaze is exfoliated, being of a
poor quality. Fragment. Decoration: vegetal; a square
shaped fragment bearing a female mask.
9,5x7,5 cm, gr. 2,5 cm
17th century.
DMI, photo AI
380. Stove tile
Next to the palace.
Plate stove tile. Fragment. Medium paste ; completely
fired ; the clay was pressed into the mould by hand and
with a wooden tool. Scarce traces of use. Green (on the
filed and the intermediary towers) and brownish (on the
central towers) glaze over the engobe. Decoration: fortress.
8,2x4,8x0,6 cm.
17th century.
DMI, photo AI

221

381. Stove tiles; wallpaper group


2000-2008
Square shaped, short legged, plate stove tiles. Variously
grained paste, but generally compact, homogenized; the
clay was pressed into the mould with a wooden spatula or
a piece of cloth. Oxidized firing to a bricky color in shades
of yellowish-red. The visible face of the tiles can be treated
in different ways: pulverizing a dust of mica, applying a
fine layer of engobe (sometimes it can have yellowish
shades) or of glaze (usually green, rarely brownishyellow). Glazed pieces with more colors, usually a very
beautiful white field were produced by the craftsmen from
Vinu de Jos (199_04_3d; 201_04_6a).
In more simple places these stove tiles keep the shape of
the normal earthenware, without being specially treated.
Decoration: relief networks: geometrical motifs, inside of
which vegetal motifs (often looking like the tree of life).
The central fields are usually presented with stylized
vegetal and geometric motifs. These are usually called
wallpaper decorations, by repeating the same elements.
The decoration is connected from one tile to another,
giving the stove a uniform aspect.
The middle side is of about 20 cm, leg between 4 and 7 cm,
gr. 0,7-1,2 cm.
17th century.
DMI, photo AI, AM
382. Stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Plate tile, fragment.
Fine paste, with mica, complete firing; the clay was
pressed into the mould with a piece of cloth, a wooden
spatula or by hand. The field is decorated with white
glaze, while the decoration is covered with light blue
glaze. Traces of grime on the back. Decoration: vegetal
motifs, a composition that probably repeats the same
elements, continued on another tile.
17th century.

222

DMI, photo AI
383. Cornice stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Cornice stove tile, cut of, with an inferior support sole. The
lower field is full while the lower one was probably cut in
arched shapes, similar to piece no. 43.
Medium paste; completed oxidized firing; the clay was
pressed into the mould with a wooden spatula and by
hand. Almost completely silvery irisated green glaze over
the engobe. Decoration: vegetal motifs, spindles in helix,
alternated with small, rosettes with three petals. Also a
mirror copied inscription that still reads letters D and
F. (4,8x0,7 cm), fragment (6,9x21,3x0,7 cm).
17th century
384. Stove tile
2004, next to the palace.
Rectangular, long legged plate stove tile. The plate is
molded, the leg is wheel turned and molded in a wooden
mould; the two pieces wee assembled before the piece was
dried. Medium paste; incompletely oxidized fired to a
yellowish-bricky color. Strong secondary burning on the
back. White, green, yellow and blue glazes. Fragments,
restored. Decoration: geometric, the central motifs
continue from one piece to another. l. 14 cm, Lp. 11 cm, gr.
0,5 cm; leg: L. 12, gr. 0,8 cm.
17th century.
DMI, photo CS
385. Stove tile
2004, next to the palace.
Plate stove tile; possibly from a cornice. Medium paste,
completely oxidized firing to a yellowish-bricky color. The
clay was pressed into the mould with a spatula. Yellow
and white glaze on a green field. Fragments.
Decoration: floral. 7x5,5x1,2 cm; 6,5x4,5x0,5 cm.
17th century.

DMI, photo AI
386. Stove tile
2004, inside the palace.
Short legged, plate stove tile. Medium paste; incompletely
oxidized firing; the clay was pressed into the mould with a
wooden spatula. Secondary burning. The relief decoration
is highlighted with blue and yellow glazes on a white
field.
Decoration: partial relief ornaments, partially painted
wallpaper. 9x8 cm, gr. 0,7 cm.
17th century
DMI, photo AI
387. Stove tiles
2000-2008
Short legged, plate stove tiles. Variously grained paste, but
generally fine and medium. Oxidized firing to shades of
bricky color. The pieces were in direct contact with the fire
and so they preserve to the back variable amounts of
grime. The visible face of the tiles has polychromatic
glazes on white with green or blue reflexes, cracked during
the firing glaze covered fields. Generally speaking the
glazes were beautiful and shiny but their original shape is
seldom preserved. The preservation of the glazes depends
on the technical quality of the workshop were they are
produced but it also depends on the conditions of the
environment were they were kept and that discovered.
These pieces were considered luxurious products and they
were destined for comfortable and very well established
houses. Fragments. Decoration: different combinations of
vegetal-floral motifs. 4,5x7 cm; 4x6 cm; 8,5x12,5 cm; 14,5x4
cm (e)) Gr. 0,4-1 cm.
17th century.
DMI, photo AI
388. Stove tiles
2000-2008, next to the bishops palace.

Short legged, plate stove tiles. Different types of paste,


generally medium and semi-coarse; incomplete oxidized
firing. The pieces preserve traces of secondary burning.
The visible face is covered with a white glaze (usually with
blue reflexes) while the decoration is highlighted with
darker shades of blue. Decoration: vegetal motifs, often in
symmetrical compositions (wallpaper). Rarely these tiles
use geometrical motifs or painted components. Very often
these pieces appear without decoration.
17th century.
DMI, photo AI
389. Stove tiles
2000-2008, next to the bishops palace.
Short legged, plate stove tiles. Different types of paste,
generally medium and semi-coarse; incomplete oxidized
firing. The pieces preserve traces of secondary burning.
The field of the pieces is covered with green glaze over the
engobe and the decoration is highlighted with white with
green reflexes glaze. Decoration: vegetal relief motifs, often
in symmetrical compositions (wallpaper). Very often these
pieces appear without decoration.
17th century.
DMI, photo AI
390. Stove tile
2004, next to the palace.
Short legged, plate stove tile. Medium paste, completely
oxidized firing to a yellowish-bricky color. Secondary
burning. Mottled, brown and yellow glaze. Fragmented,
restored. Decoration: geometric, formed by the glaze.
19,5x20 cm, gr. 0,7 cm. leg: h. 5,5 cm.
17th century
DMI, photo GD
391. Tile for the corner of the stove
2002, next to the palace.
Corner stove tile, with triangular endings, fragment.

223

Medium paste, complete firing; the clay was pressed into


the mould with wood. The field is decorated with whitishgreen glaze, while the relief decoration is covered with
blue, and yellow glaze. Traces of grime on the back.
Decoration: vegetal and geometric motifs.
14x12x0,71,2 cm
17th century.
DMI, photo AI
392. Cornice stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Cornice stove tile cut of, fragment.
Medium paste, with a lot of sand, complete firing; the clay
was pressed into the mould with wood; traces of the
wooden mould on the obverse. The filed is decorated with
white glaze (with blue reflexes), while the relief decoration
is covered with blue, yellow and green glaze. The glazes
are of exceptionally good quality, they are shiny and very
well preserved. The characteristic of these kind of pieces is
that during the firing the glaze was finely cracked all over
the surface. The back of the tile was also covered with a
thick pellicle of white tin glaze, applied directly over the
paste. Decoration: vegetal motifs. 6,6x4x1,5 cm
17th century.
DMI, photo AI
393. Cornice stove tile
2004, next to the palace.
Plate stove tile; shaped like a coat of arms.
Medium paste; complete oxidized firing to a yellowishbricky color. The clay was pressed into the mould with a
wooden spatula. The swans were molded separately and
attached the piece before it was dried. Thin layers of white,
green, yellow and black glazes applied on a brownish
field. Two pieces, restored. Decoration: Prince Gabriel
Bethlens coat of arms, two swans whose necks are pierced
by the same arrow. L 22. h. 23 cm, gr. 1,5 cm.
17th century.

224

DMI, photo GD
394. Cornice stove tile
2003, next to the palace.
Oval shaped, cut off plate stove tile. Medium paste;
complete oxidized firing to a reddish-bricky color. The
clay was pressed into the mould with a wooden spatula.
Partially preserved yellow, white and green glazes.
Decor: poor relief vegetal motifs. 8x7,5 cm, gr. 1,5 cm.
17th century.
DMI, photo AI
395. Cornice stove tile
2003, next to the palace.
Oval shaped, cut off plate stove tile. Medium paste;
complete oxidized firing to a reddish-bricky color. The
clay was pressed into the mould with a wooden spatula.
Partially preserved yellow, white and green glazes.
Fragments. Decoration: vegetal motifs. 7,5x7,5 cm, gr. 1
cm.
17th century.
DMI, photo AM
396. Cornice stove tile
2002, next to the palace.
Cornice stove tile with support sole.
Fine paste, complete firing; the clay was pressed into the
mould with wood. The field is decorated with white glaze
(finely cracked) while the relief is decorated with light blue
glaze. Decoration: vegetal motifs. h. 10,3 cm; L.p. 22 cm; gr.
0,7-1 cm; leg 4,9x0,8 cm
17th century.
DMI, photo GD
397. Socle stove tiles
2000-2008
Socle stove tiles with a perimetral legs in variable heights,
for the attachment of the tiles to the body of the stove.

Medium paste; oxidized firing the shades of bricky.


Secondary burning. The visible face is covered in Haban
colors (white, blue, green and rare occurrences of
brownish-yellow glazes). Decoration: vegetal, painted in
blue (1), geometric, painted in yellow and brownish (2).
Frequent occurrences of pieces without decoration (3, 4).
5x3,5 cm (1); 2,5x6,5 cm (2); 7x9 cm (3); 4,5x3,5 cm (4); gr.
0,7 cm.
DMI, photo AI, AM
398. Socle stove tiles
2000-2008
Socle stove tile with a perimetral leg in variable heights,
for the attachment of the tile to the body of the stove.
Coarse grained paste; oxidized firing the shades of bricky.
These kind of pieces were in direct contact with the fire, so,
in most of the cases, the preserve thick layers of grime on
the back. The visible face is covered in green or brownishyellow glaze, or it preserves the earthenware aspect.
Decoration: the visible face is modeled in tori and cavettes;
usually there is no other decoration. 13,5x11,5 cm, gr. 0,5/1
cm; h.max. leg 6,5 cm
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo AI, AM
399. Tile for the corner of the stove
2008, inside the bishops palace.
Corner stove tile; with triangular terminations. Fine paste;
incomplete oxidizing firing to
yellowish-bricky.
Decoration: geometric motifs. 7,5x6 cm, gr. 0,7 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo AM
400. Cornice stove tile
2004, next to the palace.
Cut off plate stove tile; the lower part is rectangular while
the upper part is heart shaped. On the back the piece was
fitted with a narrow sole by which it was attached to the

stove. Fine paste; complete oxidized firing to a yellowishbricky color. The clay was pressed into the mould with a
wooden spatula. Restored.
Decoration: vegetal tulips and lily flowers. L. 15,5 cm,
gr. 0,8 cm. sole: 2x1 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo GD
401. Tile for the corner of the stove
2004, next to the palace.
Tile that was formed by attaching two tiles in a 900; on the
back the piece has a perimetral fitting leg.
Fine paste, completely oxidized firing to a yellowishbricky color. Partially exfoliated, poor quality glaze.
Decoration: vegetal, symmetrically displayed on both of
the tiles. The contact edge was mould into a baluster. L. 8,5
cm, h 7,3 cm. L leg 7,3x1 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo GD
402. Haban tile stove
The components of the stove: plate stove tiles, corner tiles
with perimetral fitting frame, two types of cornice tiles and
cornices of the stove. Fine paste, pressed into a mould.
Decoration: the visible face of the stove tiles is decorated
with stylized vegetal motifs that are symmetrically
ordered on a perpendicular axis. The corner tiles use half
of the decoration, while the splayed part ports a stylized
rosette framed with leafage. The corners of the oblique
part have a 450 inclination. The big cornice pieces are
shaped like flattened onion bulbs and they are decorated
with a vase holding stylized flowers. The smaller cornice
pieces, with support soles, cut off in spindles were place as
a continuous frieze that hung over the superior stove
cornice. The cornices are formed of tori and cavettes; part
of them is decorated with spindles or a line of stylized
astragalus.

225

All the pieces are covered in glaze on their visible sides:


the field is white to light blue (made of cobalt and tin
oxides). The relief decorations as well the borders are
turquoise (with a higher proportion of cobalt oxide). One
of the cornice pieces bears the masters monogram: C.R..
Measurements: plates: 32x43 cm; big cornice pieces: l. 19
cm., h. 23 cm; frieze cornice pieces: l. 22 cm., h. 10 cm;
cornices: l. 20,5 and 21,5 cm., h. 11 cm.
Considering the great number of recovered and restorable
fragments, the reconstruction of the stove is possible. It
had the classical architecture of the late renaissance tile
stoves. It had a socle, the burning/heating chamber, an
upper cornice and a double cornice. It was made by the
Haban craftsmen who settled in Vinu de Jos. Judging the
proportions and the measurements of the plates and of the
cornices this stove had only one burning/heating
chamber. The plates used to create this tile stove are
among the biggest known in Transylvania and the entire
Carpathian Basin.
Dating: about 1666-1687.
TE (text, graphic reconstruction)
403. Ceramic ornament, maybe from a stove.
2004, next to the palace.
Acanthus leaf shaped piece. Semi-coarse, white, well
homogenized, compact paste. Complete oxidized firing to
a reddish-white color. On both sides a cracked, white with
blue reflexes glaze. Decor: Acanthus leaf shaped piece.
11x6x1 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo AI
404. Iznik ceramic plates
2000-2008, inside and outside of the palace.
Fragments of square and rectangular ceramic plates; made
of white-creamy, clay, tempered with frit and quartz. The
surface of the pieces is decorated with vegetal motifs,
painted with green, turquoise, cobalt blue, vermilion-

226

brown and red. The contours of the decorations are


highlighted with a black paint obtained from manganese
oxide. The plates are covered a very good, transparent, led
glaze.
Decoration: White or blue field, vegetal ornaments made
of spindles, palm leafs, rosettes, hyacinth flowers, tulips,
carnations, stylized palmettes and cartouches with
arabesques. Some of the plates are used as frames or
borders, others form wall/paper decorations, made of four
plates symmetrically placed around a central point. The
pieces are from 4-5 types of ceramic plates. These ceramic
plates decorated the walls of the so-called glazed tiles
hall in the princely palace. This hall functioned as an
audience room and it was placed at the first floor in the
northern wing of the palace, next to the princes and
princess apartment, in the gate area. Measurements: the
thickness varies between 1,3-1,5 cm. Most of the fragments
belong to square shaped plates; according to the graphic
reconstruction the proportions of the plates were: 25x25 or
26x26 cm.
1623-1624.
TE (text, graphic reconstruction)
405. Haban ceramic plates
2000-2008, inside and outside of the palace.
Fragments of some square shaped ceramic plates, made of
fine paste, completely fired to a bricky-red color. The
pieces are covered with a cobalt oxide engobe, colored in
white ranging to light blue. Over this engobe there were
polychromous vegetal motifs painted with metallic oxides
in green, cobalt blue and yellowish-brown. The contours of
the decorations are highlighted with a violet color made of
manganese. The plates are covered with a transparent led
glaze.
Decoration: the fields were covered in shades of white to
light blue, vegetal ornaments made of spindles, palm leafs,
rosettes, hyacinth flowers, tulips, carnations, stylized
palmettes and cartouches with arabesques. All the

fragments belong to ceramic plates that formed wall paper


decorations, made of four plates symmetrically placed
around a central point.
These plates were probably made after 1666, by Haban
craftsmen who were colonized in Vinu de Jos by Prince
Gabriel Bethlen. They probably used the ceramic plates
from Iznik as models, by reproducing more or less
accurately their decorations. The paste and the ornaments
lack the fine quality of the Iznik ceramic plates. The pieces
were destined to complete or replace the ones in the
audience hall, which was probably affected by the 1658
Tartar destruction of the palace. Measurements: the
thickness varies between 1,3-1,5 cm. While the proportions
of the plates were: 25x25 or 26x26 cm.
Around1666
TE (text, graphic reconstruction), photo AM
406. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Greenish-white glass, with white exfoliation. Cylindrical
body, short neck, everted rim, asymmetrical opening. The
concave base forms a cone inside the vessel. Complete. h.
8,5 cm, dg. 1,8 cm, df. 2,7 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
AI, photo GD
407. Perfume bottle
2002, next to the palace.
Transparent, Irisated white glass. Rectangular body,
octagonal polished exterior. Decoration: two little middle
stars. h. 4,4 cm
15th-16th centuries.
AI, photo GD
408. Flask
2004, next to the palace.

Irisated white glass with gray reflexes. Short, funnel like


neck; the rim is everted, thickened. Fragment. Dg 2,4 cm,
gr. 0,3 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo AM
409. Flask
2004, next to the palace.
Opaque, greenish glass, with a blackish coating.
Rectangular body; rounded, concave base; long, elegantly
arches neck; the rim is missing. hp 13,5 cm, gr. 0,2 cm
(neck), square base 8x8 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo CS
410. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Opaque, brown glass. Thin funnel shaped neck. Bitronconic body, segmented by a ring that forms a loop
inside the vessel. The neck is elegantly arched, relatively
high, the rim forms a more or less prominent ring around
the opening. The base has a sole that turns into a loop. The
base develops conically inside the vessel. Thin walls in
different shades of brown or white.
df. 45 mm. dg 24 mm, median 6,75 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo GD
411. Flask
2004, next to the palace
Opaque brown glass. Rectangular. Rounded, concave base,
short neck. Fragments from two artifacts.
Square base 8x8 cm.
16th century.
DMI, photo CS
412. Flask
2004, next to the palace.

227

Strongly irisated, opaque, white glass, whit gray


precipitates. Neck with a decorative ring, probably a
handle. Fragments.
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
413. Goblet
2004, next to the palace.
Good quality, opaque, greenish with golden reflexes glass;
partially it developed a brown precipitate. Fragments of
the goblets body and stem, with an applied decoration. h
stem 8 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
414. Goblet
2004, next to the palace.
Good quality, opaque, greenish with golden reflexes glass;
partially it developed a brown precipitate. Fragments of
the goblets body, with an applied decoration. hp 5,5 cm.
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
415. Flask
2004, next to the palace.
Opaque, brownish glass. Base of the flask; rounded rims,
concave mid section. Fragment. Df. 5 cm
15th-16th centuries.
DMI, photo AM

Opaque black glass. Short neck, thinned and everted rim.


Fragment. D. 3 cm, gr. 0,4 cm
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
418. Flask
2001, next to the palace.
Semitransparent, slightly greenish glass. Cylindrical neck,
ring thickened rim, everted. Fragment. Dg. 3,1 cm.
16th century.
AI, photo CS
419. Flask
2004, next to the palace.
Irisated white glass. Short, slightly arched neck, funnel
like, everted rim, simple lip. Fragment.
Dg. 2,5 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
419.a. Flask
2004, next to the palace.
Transparent, white glass with a thick layer of irisated
exfoliations. Short neck, slightly arched, rim with a
thickened ring. d.g. 3,1 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo CS

416. Flask
2008
Irisated black glass. Fragment of the neck. Hp 7 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo CS

420. Flask
2004, next to the palace.
Transparent, bluefish-green glass. Short neck, a leak beak
on the lip; the body must have been globular. Fragment.
Dg 2,8 cm, hp 4,5 cm.
16th-17th centuries
DMI, photo CS

417. Flask
2004, next to the palace.

421. Flask
2004, next to the palace.

228

Irisated greenish glass. Short, funnel like neck, thinned


rim, asymmetrical, almost oval opening. Fragment.
d.g. 2,5 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
422. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Greenish white glass. Cylindrical body, the shoulders
develop obliquely toward the neck. Missing upper part.
hp 5,5 cm, df. 2,5 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
423. Bottle
2002, next to the palace.
Transparent white glass, with white irisations. Funnel
shaped neck, everted, slightly thickened, rounded rim.
Asymmetrical opening. D. opening 4,6 cm, gr. wall 0,4 cm.
16th-17th centuries
AI, photo CS
424. Flask
2004, next to the palace.
Irisated white glass. Rectangular body, broad shoulder,
long, funnel like neck; the rim is thinned and strongly
everted, thus forming a collar around the opening.
Fragment. H.p. 7,1 cm, dg. 2 cm. gr. 0,3 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AM, photo AM
425. Flask
2004, next to the palace.
Irisated white glass. Rounded body, arched neck, the rim
is thinned and strongly everted, thus forming a collar
around the opening.
Fragment. hp. 3,2 cm, dg. 1-8 cm. gr. 0,4 cm
16th-17th centuries.

DMI, photo CS
426. Flask
2004, next to the palace.
Irisated, translucent, white glass. Short neck, everted rim.
D. 2,4 cm, hp 3,5 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
427. Bottle
2002, next to the palace.
Transparent, white irisated white glass. Cylindrical body,
everted, flattened rim. Dg 4,3 cm. h. 6,3 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
428. Bottle
2002, next to the palace.
Transparent, white irisated white glass. Funnel shaped
neck, everted, thickened, rounded. Fragment. h.p. 6 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
429. Goblet
2004, next to the palace.
Almost opaque, irisated, greenish glass; a whitish
substance was precipitated along the cracks in the glass.
Ovoid body, short neck, everted rim.
Fragment. Dg. 5 cm, hp 5,3 cm, gr. 0,4 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
430. Cup
2004, next to the palace.
Irisated white glass. Short neck, the rim is everted and
turned to the body of the vessel.
Fragment. hp 5 cm, dg 10 cm; gr. 0,4 cm.
16th-17th centuries.

229

DMI, photo CS
431. Bowl
2001, next to the palace.
Irisated white glass.; supported on a profiled sole.
Fragment. df. 5,9 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
432. Bowl
2002, next to the palace.
Greenish bottle with white precipitates on the exterior;
supported on a profiled sole, the conical base develops
toward the interior. Fragment. df. 5 cm.
16th-17th centuries.
AI, photo CS
433. Flask
2001, next to the palace.
Transparent good quality, greenish glass. The upper part
is preserved, with small fragments of the neck. Much
widened lip, unequal in diameters and width.
d.max. 2,3 cm.
16th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
434. Glass vessel
2002, next to the palace.
Good quality, relatively transparent, greenish-white glass.
Globular body, high neck, everted rim. The base is slightly
rounded toward outside; the mid section is concave and it
forms a cone inside the vessel.
Dg. 14,6 cm, df. 16,5 cm
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
435. Flask
2002, next to the palace.

230

Translucent, exfoliated white glass. Tubular neck slightly


narrowed at the end. Simple rim. Fragment.
hp. 8 cm, d.min. 1,5 cm, d.max. 1,85 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
436. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Transparent greenish-white glass. Upper part. Cylindrical
body. Thickened rim. dg 2 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
437. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Opaque, strongly Irisated, greenish-white glass. Concave
base. Imprinted letters (D, S, O, C?). Fragment.
17th-18th centuries
AI, photo CS
438. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Exfoliated, transparent white glass. Cylindrical body, high
neck. The widened rim forms a collar around the opening.
h. 4,8 cm, df. 2,8 cm, dg. 2,4 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo GD
439. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Greenish-white glass. Cylindrical body, widened rim.
Fragment. d. opening 32 mm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
440. Flask
2002, next to the palace.

Greenish-white glass. Short, cylindrical neck, widened rim.


Fragment. d. opening 2,5 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
441. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Greenish-white glass. Short, cylindrical neck, widened rim.
Fragment. d. opening 2,65 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
442. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Irisated white glass. Base fragment.
df. 2,8 cm, gr. fund 0,4 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
443. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Irisated white glass. Funnel shaped neck. Widened,
everted rim. Fragment. dg. 3,2 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
444. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Greenish-white glass. High neck, narrowed at the end.
Thickened rim forms a collar around the opening.
d. 3,1 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
445. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Greenish glass. Slightly globular base. Everted lower part
of the walls. Fragment. hp 6 cm, d.f. 5 cm.

17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
446. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Irisated, translucent yellowish-white glass. Lower part.
Cylindrical flask. Rounded base. Similar to a testing tube.
hp 15 cm, d. 2 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo GD
447. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Irisated, red reflexes white glass. High neck, rim
highlighted by a ring. dg. 2,8 cm, hp. 11 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo GD
448. Flask
2002, next to the palace.
Irisated, translucent, greenish-white glass. Lower part.
Cylindrical flask. Rounded base. Similar to a testing tube.
hp 18 cm, d. 2 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo GD
449. Flask
2004, next to the palace.
Semitransparent greenish glass. Globular body, short neck,
everted rim. hp. 4,5 cm.
17th-18th century.
DMI, photo CS
450. Flask
2007, next to the palace.
Opaque brown glass, poor quality, white precipitates on
the exterior. Neck fragment. d. 2,4 cm, gr. 0,1 cm.
17th-18th centuries.

231

DMI, photo CS
451. Flask
2007, next to the palace.
Irisated, translucent, greenish glass. Fragment. dg. 2,5 cm;
hp. 6,3 cm; gr. 0,2-0,4 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
452. Flask
2007, next to the palace.
White, irisated, transparent glass. Upper part.
dg. 2,5 cm; gr. 0,2 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
453. Lid
2007, next to the palace.
White transparent glass. Bell shaped lid, with a short,
cylindrical handles. Decoration: a few relief lines.
Fragment.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
454. Cup
2008, inside the palace.
Transparent, white glass; relief modeled vessel; the
decoration was made with the tongs while the glass was
still hot, by pinching it from place to place. Fragment of
the base, approximately oval. 5,2x5,7 cm, gr. 1,2 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
455. Cup
2004, next to the palace.
Transparent, greenish-white glass; relief modeled base; the
decoration was made with the tongs while the glass was

232

still hot, by pinching it from place to place. Fragment. d. 8


cm, gr. 0,3/2 cm
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
456. Cup
2004, next to the palace.
Irisated white glass. Short, strongly arched neck, rounded
everted rim that forms a collar around the opening.
Fragment. dg. 10-11 cm, Hp 7,2 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
457. Cup
2004, next to the palace.
Irisated greenish-white glass. High, cylindrical neck,
rounded everted rim. Fragments.
Dg. 7 cm, h.p 5,5 cm, gr. 0,2 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
458. Flask
2004, next to the palace.
White, silvery irisated glass; some whitish precipitates on
the inside. Fragment of the upper part of a rectangular
bottle. Short, slightly everted neck; thickened rim.
hp. 2,7 cm, gr. 0,3 cm.
18th-19th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
459. Bottle
2004, next to the palace.
Semitransparent, greenish with blue reflexes glass; an
opaque whitish precipitates. Straight, long neck, the rim
highlighted by a ring. Fragment. Lp 9,2 cm, gr. 0,4 cm.
18th-19th centuries.
DMI, photo AM

460. Bottle
2004, next to the palace.
Irisated white glass. Long neck; the rim is highlighted by a
ring. Fragment. hp 11 cm, dg. 2,7 cm.
18th-19th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
461. Cup
2007, next to the palace.
Irisated, transparent, white glass. Fragment.
Dg. 8 cm; gr. 0,1 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
462. Fragmented cork
2004, next to the palace.
Transparent white glass. 3,5x2,3 cm.
18th-19th centuries.
DMI, photo CS
463. Sash window
2000-2008
Good quality, semitransparent, white glass (it often
presents shades of yellow or green); sometimes the glass
has some white or black precipitates on its surface. The
piece is shaped like a isosceles triangle, with the sides
arched toward the inside. The edges were formed with a
pair of tongs. Side 3-5 cm.
15th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS, GD
464. Sash window
2000-2008
Opaque, brownish glass. The piece is shaped like a
isosceles triangle, with the sides arched toward the inside.
The edges were formed with a pair of tongs. Side 3-5 cm.
15th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS

465. Sash window


2000-2008
Good quality, semitransparent, white glass (it often presents
shades of yellow or green); sometimes the glass has some
white or black precipitates on its surface. Circular shaped
piece, with simple or everted rim; sometimes the rim forms a
loop. Fragments. D. 9-10 cm, gr. 0,15-0,3 cm.
15th-18th centuries
AI, photo CS
466. Sash window
2000-2008
Opaque, brownish glass. Circular shaped piece, with simple or
everted rim. Fragments. d.medium. 9-10 cm, gr. 0,15-0,4 cm.
17th-18th centuries.
AI, photo CS
467. Dinar
Hungarian Kingdom
Koloman (1095-1116)
0,27 g, 12 mm.
468. Bronze coin (follis)
2000-2008
Hungarian Kingdom
Bla III (1172-1196)
2,90 g, 27 mm.
469. Dinar
Hungarian Kingdom, anonymous Arpadian coin (12th
century)
0,19 g, 13 mm.
470. Dinar
Hungarian Kingdom
Bela IV (1235-1270)
0,31 g, 13 mm.

233

471. Dinar
Hungarian Kingdom
End of the 13th century-beginning of the 14th century.
0,27 g, 11 mm.

479. Aspru
Ottoman Empire
Bayezid II (1481-1512)
0, 55 g, 11 mm

472. Parvus
Hungarian Kingdom
Charles Robert of Anjou (1308-1342)
0,20 g, 12 mm

480. 3 groi
Poland
Sigismund III Wasa (1587-1632)
0,84 g, 19 mm

473. Dinar with a Moor head


Hungarian Kingdom
Louis I (1342-1382)
0,23 g, 11x13 mm

481. 6 groi
Poland
Ioan Cazimir (1649-1668)
0,88 g, 14x16 mm

474. Dinar
Holy Roman Empire, Hungarian Kingdom
0,42 g, 14x16 mm

482. Greschl
Liegnitz-Brieg Principality
Christian (1663-1672)
0,48 g, 16 mm

475. 3 kreuzer
Holy Roman Empire, Hungarian Kingdom
Leopold (1657-1705)
1,83 g, 20 mm
476. Pfennig
Holy Roman Empire
Friedrich der Schne (1314-1330, as a king)
Mint: Viena
0,38 g, 13 mm
477. Dinar
Anthonius II di Panciera, Patriarch of Aquileea (1401-1411)
0,40 g, 18 mm
478. Ban
Wallachia
Dan I (1383-1386)
0,20 g, 9x13 mm

234

483. The hoard discovered in the 2007 campaign.


37 silver, or silver plated bronze dinars minted in the time
kings of Hungarian Kings Albert (1437-1439) and
Vladislav I (1440-1444).

PLANE

TBLK

TABELS

6
4

II - III

237

11

10
12

14
15

16
13
18

238

19

II - III

17

21

23

20

28

22
29
24

30

25
27
26

31

32

II - III

33

34

239

35

240

II - III

37

36

40

38
39

42

43

45

III - IV

44

241

46

47

48

49

51.2

50

51.1
51.3

242

V - VII

51

V - VII

243

IX - XV

53

52

54

60
55

57
56

58

IX - X

245

68

67

63

64

246

61
62

65

IX - X

72
71

69

70

73

76
74

75
77

78

80
79

81

XI - XIV

82

83

247

93.2

93.1

94

97

95.1

95.2

96

98

X - XV

99

249

84

87

85
86

89

88

91.2

248

91.3

90

91.4

91.1

91.5

91.6

X - XIII

100

104
106
102

101

103

107.3

107.1

108

105

107.4

107.2

111

250

109

112

110

113
X - XV

117
114

116

119

120

115

118

121
122
XIII - XV

251

123

124.1

124.2

129.2
124.3

130

129.1

124.4

128
126

127
125

252

XIII - XV

133

131

132

134

136

135

XIII - XV

253

139

138
137

140

141

254

142

XIII - XV

151
144

145
150

143

146

147

153

149

148

XIII - XV

153

255

154.1

152

154.2

155

256

XIV - XV

157

159

156
158

161

162

164
160
XIII - XV

163

166

257

173

169

167

168

172

171
170

258

166
XIII - XV

175
180
179

174
178

176

181

185

186
182
184
183

XIII - XV

259

188
187
188

191

187

190

177

189

260

XIII - XV

XV - XVIII

238

239.1

239.2

237

236

246
242.1

242.2

240
241

245

243
244

270

XVI - XVIII

250
247

248

249

251

XVI - XVII

271

253

254.1

254.3

272

255

254.2

252

256

XVI - XVIII

259

265

264

261

258
263

XVI - XVIII

262

273

266

260

267

257

274

XVI - XVIII

268.4

269

268.5

279
268.1

268.2

XVI - XVIII

268.3

275

271

274

275.1

270.1

272

275.2

270.2

270.4
270.3

276

273

XVI - XVIII

276

276

276

280

277

278
XVI - XVIII

277

283

281

283

283

285

282

284

278

286
XVI - XVIII

287

288

XVI

279

289

280

290

XVI

292

291

XVI

293

281

295

294

282

297

296

XVI - XVII

298

XVI - XVII

299

283

300

284

301

XVI - XVII

303
305

304

302

XVI - XVIII

285

308

306

286

309

307

XVI - XVII

311

312

313

314

310

XVI - XVIII

287

316

315

317

319

318

320

288

321

XVII - XVIII

323

322

XVII - XVIII

289

324.1

324.2

324.3

324.4

290

XVI - XVIII

325

XVII - XVIII

291

326.1

326.2

328

330

329

330
327

292

XVI - XVIII

408

409

407

406
XV - XVI

321

410

322

XVI

411

XVI

323

414

412

413

415

324

XVI - XVII

420

421

426

419a
416
XVI - XVII

419

325

428

418

427
433

419

326

423

424

XVI - XVII

430

429

422

432

431

XVI - XVII

327

434

328

XVII - XVIII

436

439

437
XVI - XVII

438

437

329

449
446

448

447

440
443
441

445

330

444

442
XVII - XVIII

451

452

453

450

455

454

XVII - XVIII

331

456

461

462
457

458

460
459

332

XVII - XIX

463 - 465

XV - XVIII

333

465 - 466

334

XV - XVIII

467

472

469

468

470

471

XI - XVII

473

474

335

479
475

476
480

481

477

478

336

482

XI - XVII

483

XV

337

RECONSTITUIRE GRAFIC

GRAFIKUS REKONSTRUKCI

GRAPHICAL RECONSTRUCTION
AUTOR | SZERZ | AUTHOR: Radu Oltean

castrul roman |a rmai castrum | roman castrum


turn roman |a rmai torony | roman tower
biserica sal |a teremtemplom | the single nave church
rotonda |rotunda | rotunda
catedrala I |az els szkesegyhz | first cathedral
catedrala Sf. Mihail |a Szent Mihly - szkesegyhz | St. Michaels cathedral
reedina episcopal |a pspki palota | episcopal residence
turn locuin |a lakotorony | residence tower
palatul gotic |a gtikus palota | the gothic palace

Radu Oltean

XI

339

Radu Oltean

340

XII

Radu Oltean
XIV (1390)

341