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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr.

2/2013

ABANDONUL COLAR O DROPOUT - AN INVISIBLE


URGEN INVIZIBIL EMERGENCY

Florina Alexandra MNESCU


Prof. Florina Alexandra MNESCU coala Gimnazial ,,Alexandru tefulescu,
coala Gimnazial ,,Alexandru tefulescu, Trgu-Jiu
Trgu-Jiu Masterand Emilia Mihaela COSTESCU
Masterand - Emilia Mihaela Universitatea ,,Constantin Brncuidin
COSTESCU Trgu-Jiu
Universitatea ,,Constantin Brncui din
Trgu-Jiu

Abstract: This paper deals with the subject


Abstract: Lucrarea de fa trateaz tema connected to dropout, a very topical issue, given
abandonului colar, o tem de mare actualitate, the high rate of school dropouts in our country.
dat fiind rata mare a abandonului colar din To intervene effectively we must know the causes
ara noastr. Pentru a putea interveni eficient that can lead to dropping out of school.The early
trebuie cunoscute cauzele care pot conduce la school leaving is a potential lost. It has social
abandonul colar. Prsirea timpurie a colii costs (social disruption, higher demand in health
reprezint un potenial pierdut. Acesta are system and lower social cohesion) and economic
costuri sociale (ruptur social, cerere mai mare costs (lower productivity, lower tax revenues and
n sistemul de sntate i coeziune social mai increased social benefits). Each case of dropout
redus) i costuri economice (productivitate mai has a "history" of its own that requires a complex
sczut, venituri fiscale mai mici i o cretere a analysis, a psychogenic interpretation, dynamic
alocaiilor sociale acordate). Fiecare caz de and functional individual purposes of each subject
abandon colar are o istorie proprie care in this situation.
presupune o analiz complex, o interpretare
psihogenetic, dinamic i funcional a situaiei
particulare a fiecrui subiect aflat n aceast
situaie. 1. Introduction
In the specialized literature dropout
1. Noiuni introductive signifies the renunciation of school education
due to various reasons, among which the most
n literatura de specialitate fenomenul important are causes of material; sometimes,
de abandon colar are semnificaia de the waiver is determined by the fact that the
renunare la studiile colare provocat de student cannot cope with the tasks of the
cauze diverse, ntre care, cele mai curriculum, or he is not appropriate refocused
importante, sunt cauzele de ordin material; to schools appropriate to its possibilities and
alteori, renunarea este determinat de faptul sometimes he suffers negative influences
c elevul, neputnd face fa sarcinilor (damaging friendships diverge its interests
programei de nvmnt, nu este reorientat from school) or free educational assistance.
spre colile adecvate posibilitilor sale; [1]
alteori, el sufer influene negative (prietenii The dropout is a dangerous
nefaste care i abat interesul de la coal) sau phenomenon because it causes negative
este lipsit de asisten educativ.[1] effects both in individual psychological area,
Abandonul colar este un fenomen or alternates the student self-image in
periculos, deoarece el determin efecte question, who will lose more and more

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negative att n plan psihologic individual, confidence in their capabilities and capacities
respectiv o alterare a imaginii de sine a to develop a fear of reaching failure and
elevului n cauz, care i va pierde tot mai socially, for school failure made permanent
mult ncrederea n propriile posibiliti i "stigma", "label" and leads to social exclusion
capaciti, ajungnd s dezvolte o team de with increased levels of deviant and criminal
eec, ct i pe plan social, pentru c eecul behavior. The dropout based on several
colar permanentizat stigmatizeaz, factors may vary, but most of them are
eticheteaz i conduce la o marginalizare sometimes associated. The student faces a
social cu un nivel crescut de comportamente number of challenges that school main
deviante i infracionale. Abandonul colar causes: themselves, their parents and family,
are la baz mai muli factori care pot fi school, local community, etc.
diferii, dar cel mai adesea asociai. Elevul se There are several concepts that are
confrunt cu o serie de dificulti colare care interrelated and whose meaning is
au ca principale cauze: propria persoan, interwoven, giving us an insight into the
prinii i familia, coala, comunitatea local phenomenon of school deviance. These are:
.a. deviant behavior, juvenile delinquency,
Exist cteva concepte care sunt scholar deviance and deviance in school
corelate i a cror semnificaie se curriculum, and the relationship between
ntreptrunde, oferindu-ne o imagine asupra them can be depicted in the diagram fig. 1 [2]:
fenomenului de devian colar. Acestea Early school leaving is characterized
sunt: comportamentul deviant, delincventa by premature leaving the school. In social
juvenil, deviana n coal i deviana plan, often we associate it with early juvenile,
colar, iar relaia dintre ele poate fi redat n with drug use, disorganized family life. The
diagrama fig. 1 [2]. abandonment can be characterized by total or
Abandonul colar se caracterizeaz partial absenteeism. The part has different
prin prsirea prematur a colii. n plan causes depending on the area, rural or urban.
social, de multe ori abandonul se asociaz cu The abandonment in urban areas may be due
delincvena juvenil, cu recurgerea la to the influence of the circle of friends of the
droguri, cu viaa de familie dezorganizat. child, the attractions that the city exerts on it.
Abandonul poate fi caracterizat prin The area is influenced by the village, the help
absenteism total sau parial. Cel parial are that children need to give parents in farm
cauze diferite n funcie de zon, rural sau work. Jigau states that the concept of school
urban. Abandonul n zona urban poate fi failure may vary from one country to another,
cauzat de influena cercului de prieteni from one school to another, from one school
asupra copilului, de atraciile pe care oraul system to another [3]. The meanings that the
le exercit asupra acestuia. Cel rural este most common uses are:
determinat de condiiile satului, de ajutorul early school abandonment;
pe care copiii trebuie s i dea prinilor n gap between personal potential and
muncile agricole. results;
Jigu precizeaz c noiunea de eec leaving school without a
colar poate varia de la o ar la alta, de la o qualification;
coal la alta, de la un sistem de nvmnt Individual learning difficulties;
la altul[3]. Sensurile cele mai uzuale pe care repetition;
le folosete sunt urmtoarele: illiteracy;
abandonarea precoce a colii; inability to achieve pedagogical
decalajul ntre potenialul objectives;
personal i rezultate; failure to finals.
prsirea colii fr o calificare;

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dificulti individuale de II. Causes and effects of early


nvare; school dropout
repetenie; The dropout is an indicator that shows
analfabetism; the existence of difficulties in the school
incapacitatea de a atinge system and society. Thus, as higher the drop-
obiectivele pedagogice; out rate is, as higher the school system proves
eecul la examenele finale to be less efficient, and if the national number
abandonment is large and growing, it reflects
2. Cauzele i efectele abandonului that society characterizing poverty and
indifference to the problems of students and
colar
their families.
Abandonul colar reprezint un
Gooderham made a drop causality
indicator ce semnalizeaz existena unor
scheme (fig. 2), which tries to point out that
dificulti la nivelul sistemului colar i al
although there are many external factors,
societii. Astfel, cu ct indicele de abandon
neither the individual nor the school cannot
este mai ridicat, cu att sistemul colar se
control and go straight to drop, most external
dovedete ca fiind mai ineficient, iar dac la
factors and psychosocial become visible
nivel naional numrul abandonurilor este
especially at school level, causing inability to
mare i n continu cretere, acesta reflect
integrate students properly, which results in
srcia ce caracterizeaz socitatea, precum i
permanent waiver from school.
indiferena fa de problemele elevilor i ale
2.1 Economical Causes
familiilor acestora.
The dropout rate at primary schooling
Gooderham a realizat o schem a
is lower in countries with high income per
cauzalitii abandonului colar (fig. 2), prin
capita. Statistics indicate that in lower-income
care ncearc s evidenieze faptul c, dei
countries, about 40% of students enrolled in
exist o serie de factori externi pe care nici
primary school drop out before completing it.
individul i nici coala nu-i poate controla i
If in poor countries the dropout rate is very
care duc direct la abandon colar, cei mai
high at primary schooling but for countries
muli factori externi i psihosociali devin
with a strong economy, studies show a high
vizibili mai ales la nivelul colii,
school dropout rate in the post-compulsory
determinnd incapacitatea elevilor de a se
education: secondary and higher education,
integra n mod corespunztor, ceea ce se
but those who resort to abandonment are
soldeaz cu renunarea definitiv la coal.
coming from families with low economic
2.1 Cauze de ordin economic
status (case is therefore strictly economic, see
Rata abandonului la nivelul
the criteria for making the HDI and the
colaritaii primare este mai scazut n rile
relationships between the three main
cu venit mare pe cap de locuitor. Statisticile
participants).
indic faptul c n rile cu venit mai sczut,
In Romania, the dropout rate is shown
aproximativ 40% dintre elevii nscrii
in the table in figure 3.
abandoneaz coala primar nainte de a
As we can see, the dropout rate for the
termina ciclul primar. n cazul rilor srace,
school year 2009-2010 is up from the
rata abandonului colar este foarte mare la
previous school year. The situation is not
nivelul colaritaii primare, iar n cazul rilor
favorable because it was felt that economic
cu o economie puternic, studiile indic o
and social losses were much higher in the
rat nalt abandonului colar la nivelul
case of a dropout at primary and secondary
nvmntului post-obligatoriu: liceal i
schools unless secondary education. Since the
superior, ns cei care recurg la abandon
2006-2007 school year has been a
provin, n mare parte, din familii cu un statut
considerable increase in the share of early

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economic sczut (cauza fiind, aadar, strict school vocational education. Children living
de ordin economic; a se vedea criteriile de in poor families were less likely to complete
ntocmire a IDU i relaiile dintre cei trei school education itself. Economic status
factori participani). correlated with school dropout is measured by
n Romnia rata abandonului este variables such as:
prezentat n tabelul din fig. 3. Training and education level of
Dup cum putem observa, rata parents;
abandonului n anul colar 2009-2010 este n Fathers profession;
cretere fa de cea din anul colar precedent. Family income and their living
Situaia nu este deloc favorabil, deoarece s-a standard.
considerat c pierderile economice i sociale 2.2 Individual factors
au fost cu mult mai ridicate n cazul unui They refer to the students personal
abandon la nivelul nvmntului primar i ability to react, meaning that the personal
gimnazial, dect n cazul nvmntului resources of wealth and the quality of
liceal. ncepnd cu anul colar 2006-2007 a adaptation schemes that means that some
avut loc o cretere considerabil a ponderii students have a greater potential for
abandonului colar la nivelul nvmntului adaptation, others a lower (are more rigid, less
profesional. permissive in relationships with others). An
Copiii care triesc n familii srace au important role is represented by the presence
anse mai mici de a-i nusi o educaie of the mother in the childs life. When the
colar complet. Statutul economic corelat child has lived in a family where the mother
cu abandonul colar este evaluat prin was present every day, the child development
variabile de genul: went normal. Otherwise, he may have some
a) gradul de instruire i educaia mental disorders, such as hiperemotiability,
prinilor; phobias, anxiety etc. It may appear
b) profesia tatlui; hospitalism (excessive nervousness and
c) venitul familiei i nivelul de via al apathy, indifference, may even reach mental
acesteia retardation if the student lives in a state of
2.2 Factori individuali prolonged isolation).
Acetia se refer la capacitatea personal Childs mental peculiarities can
a elevului de a reaciona, adic de resursele negatively influence his academic
personale, de bogia i calitatea ,,schemelor performance. Labels as weak student, bad
de adaptare'' ce se refer la faptul c unii student lowers the self-esteem reduce
dintre elevi au un potenial mai mare de confidence in their own forces and the people
adaptare, iar alii unul mai redus (sunt mai surrounding it. Under these conditions, the
rigizi, mai puin permisivi n relaiile cu lack of resources to overcome this difficulty,
ceilali). Un rol important este reprezentat i these children seek to stand out, often through
de prezena mamei n viaa copilului. n deviant behavior. Unwillingness (or limited
condiiile n care copilul a trit ntr-un mediu availability), low aspirations, interests of
familial n care prezena mamei era cotidian, motivation, insufficient development of
dezvoltarea copilului a decurs normal. n caz cognitive ability to work and others may have
contrar, acesta poate prezenta anumite an acute negative effect on the students
tulburri psihice, cum ar fi hiperemotivitate, academic work, the results of his work. Also,
fobii, anxietate etc. Poate aprea the students health status can influence the
hospitalismul (nervozitatea excesiv sau success or failure / failure of his school.
apatia, indiferena, poate ajunge chiar la 2.3 The family
retardare mintal, dac elevul triete n stare Family is the first and most important
de izolare prelungit). life contexts, with a special role in the

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Particularitile psihice ale copilului pot socialization of children. Family gives to the
influena i negativ randamentul su colar. child a sense of security, which alone enables
Etichetrile ca elev slab, elev ru duc la him to emancipate and to gain personality.
scderea stimei de sine, la scderea ncrederii However, this sense depends on several
n propriile fore, ct i n persoanele ce l factors: protection against aggression from
nconjoar. n aceste condiii, din cauza lipsei outside, meet basic necessities, consistency
resurselor necesare pentru a depi aceast and stability development environment, the
dificultate, aceti copii caut s ias n feeling of being accepted as a member of the
eviden, adeseori, prin comportamente family, to be loved, you are accepting
deviante. Lipsa voinei (sau disponibilitatea individual characteristics and gain a personal
redus), nivelul sczut al aspiraiilor, al experience. Lack of interest in school
intereselor, al motivaiei, insuficienta activities of the child or, conversely,
dezvoltare a capacitii de a opera cognitiv i exaggerated concern can lead to school failure
altele pot avea un acut efect negativ asupra child. An important role in child development
activitii colare a elevului, asupra is represented by the type of family he comes:
rezultatelor muncii sale. De asemenea, starea families with children who cannot
de sntate a elevului poate influena afford to send them to school because of lack
succesul sau insuccesul/eecul colar al of funds; children are put to work and to gain
acestuia. a source of income, especially in rural areas
2.3. Mediul familial where children are put at farming;
Familia reprezint cel dinti i cel mai single parents who cannot pay
important context de via, cu un rol deosebit attention due to raising children, especially
n socializarea copilului. Familia i ofer since the number of working women is
copilului un sentiment de siguran, singurul increasing;
care i permite acestuia s se emancipeze i families in which one or both parents
s-i dobndeasc personalitatea. ns, acest had emigrated. Statistics show that more and
sentiment depinde de anumii factori: more people opted to go abroad (especially
protecia mpotriva agresiunilor venite din those in rural areas) due to very low living
afar, satisfacerea trebuinelor elementare, standards;
coerena i stabilitatea mediului de ysfunctional families of alcoholics,
dezvoltare, sentimentul de a fi acceptat ca victims of domestic violence, narcotics
membru al familiei, de a fi iubit, de a i se addicts etc.
accepta caracteristicile individuale i de a Also a certain disinterest shown by
dobndi o experien personal. Lipsa parents regarding education, conceptions of it,
interesului pentru activitile colare ale and their low level of education have a
copilului sau, din contr, preocuparea negative impact on student enrollment. Thus,
exgerat poate duce la nereuita colar a the chances that in rural areas, the number of
copilului. Un rol foarte important n children that want to continue their education
dezvoltarea copilului l reprezint tipul de to be increased are minimal.
familie din care acesta provine: 2.4. The school
familii cu muli copii, care nu-i pot There are some of the factors from
permite s i trimit la coal din educational space that can influence school
cauza lipsei resurselor materiale; dropout:
copiii sunt pui s munceasc, Insufficient knowledge of students,
reprezentnd o surs de venit, mai due to the number of a class or because of
ales n mediul rural unde copii sunt lack of interest shown by teachers;
pui la munci agricole; the age and failure of individual
familii monoparentale care nu pot students (teachers in psycho-pedagogical

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acorda atenia cuvenit creterii module the student should know the
copilului, mai ales c numrul personality to adapt teaching methods to each
femeilor care muncesc este n student learning);
cretere; lack of concern for some teachers to
familii din care unul sau ambii prini stimulate interest in teaching (especially in
au emigrat. Statisticile arat c din ce rural areas where teachers are interested in
n ce mai multe persoane opteaz learning process because salaries are not as
pentru a pleca n strintate (mai ales expected, but there are exceptions!)
persoanele din mediul rural) din Insufficient training and psycho-
cauza nivelului de trai foarte sczut; pedagogy of teachers;
familii dezorganizate, cu prini lack of professionalism exhibited by
alcoolici, victime ale violenei severity teacher (can induce a state of fear,
domestice, dependeni de substane anxiety student) or its permissiveness;
stupefiante etc. lack of material facilities in
De asemenea, dezinteresul manifestat educational institutions, lack of schools in
de ctre prini n ceea ce privete educaia, rural areas, which forces most of the students
concepiile despre aceasta, dar i nivelul go through a daily long walk to school;
sczut de instrucie al acestora au un impact lack of qualified teachers in rural
negativ asupra colarizrii elevului. Astfel, areas.
ansele ca, n mediul rural, numrul de copii 2.5. Social context
care s i continue studiile s fie cresctor At this point of the analysis we
sunt minime. consider the lack of state investment in
2.4. Mediul colar education. An important negative influence
Enumerm o parte dintre factorii, din on the perception of education is represented
spaiul educativ, ce poate influena by media promoting of those people who did
abandonul colar: not attended school, who have succeeded in
cunoaterea insuficient a elevilor, life by chance and equipping other parts of
datorit numrului mare dintr-o clas nature. For children, they may be models,
sau din cauza dezinteresului endorsing the idea that the school does not
manifestat de ctre profesori; offer the same prospect. Often, those from
nerespectarea particularitilor de rural areas are stigmatized in relation to area
vrst i individuale ale elevilor of origin. National programs are designed to
(profesorii prin modulul support education in rural areas, but few are
psihopedagogic trebuie s cunoasc implemented.
personalitatea elevului pentru a 2.6. Factors (causes) of
adapta metodele de predare-nvare psychological order
la fiecare elev); Labelling as poor student
lipsa de preocupare a unor cadre deprivation status and reduce self-esteem of
didactice pentru stimularea interesului students and undermine their attempt to build
fa de nvtur (n special n a positive social identity. In these
mediul rural unde profesorii nu i circumstances, students who do not have the
manifest interesul pentru procesul resources to mobilize to overcome
nvrii din cauza faptului c salariile difficulties, seek to satisfy their need for
nu sunt pe msura ateptrilor, dar personal valorization outside school, possibly
exist i excepii!); abandoned. Labeling as failed or deviant
insuficienta pregtire profesional i leads students to adopt deviant roles precisely
psiho-pedagogic a unor cadre in response to deprivation status. In schools
didactice; there are classes to keep subrealizai students

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lipsa de profesionalism, manifestat in school as school membership of such


fie prin severitatea profesorului classes can lead to dropping out of school.
(poate induce starea de team, (discussion / analysis can proceed on a
anxietate a elevului), fie prin parallel that is based on the concept of
permisivitatea acestuia; hypercorrectness).
lipsa dotrilor materiale n instituiile 2.7. Socio-cultural causes
de nvmnt, lipsa colilor la sate, Child is merely the product of his own
care i oblig pe cei mai muli dintre family and socio-cultural context in which it
elevi s parcurg zilnic un drum lung is formed and manifested. When we
pn la coal; encounter failures at these levels, the effects
lipsa profesorilor calificai n mediul become visible, especially in personality and
rural of the child behavior. Berge shows that a
2.5. Contextul social child is often problematic: ... a child
La acest punct din analiz avem n miserable among people who are themselves
vedere lipsa investiiilor statului n domeniul unhappy. It is false note in a concert, which
educaiei. O important influen negativ shows that the instruments were granted
asupra percepiei educaiei o reprezint mass- without the public knowing very well which
media, prin promovarea din ce n ce mai one to blame. [4]
larg a celor necolarizai, care au reuit n This category includes indicators of
via prin noroc i pri alte nzestrri de la power and social status which are relate
natur. Pentru copii, acetia pot reprezenta primarily to ethnicity, social class affiliation,
modele, aprobnd ideea c coala nu ofer membership in guy communities rural / urban
aceleai perspective. Adeseori, cei care etc. [5]. A special place is the family, the
provin din mediul rural sunt stigmatizai n major role that it plays in the life of every
legtur cu mediul lor de provenien. La child and its influences.
nivel naional sunt elaborate programe care Conclusions
s susin educaia n mediul rural, ns It seems that early school tends not to
puine sunt puse n aplicare. be stopped, on the contrary! Are facts which
2.6. Factori (cauze) de ordin psihologic show that the phenomenon is even more
Etichetarea ca ,,elev slab i increased compared with official data. There
deprivarea de status reduc stima de sine a is an important part of children attending
elevilor i submineaz ncercarea lor de a-i classes only symbolically, speculating a
construi o identitate social pozitiv. n decision stipulating that are prohibited in
aceste condiii, elevii care nu au resursele classes I-VIII expulsion or possible loss
necesare pentru a se mobiliza, n vederea allowance even more than 40 absences per
depirii dificultilor, vor cuta s-i month. School failure is not a new problem.
satisfac nevoia de valorizare personal n Over time many studies have been conducted
afara colii, eventual prin abandon. to identify and prevent it. As time passes and
Etichetarea ca ratat sau deviant new factors contribute to this negative
determin elevii s adopte roluri deviante phenomenon among students, changing
tocmai ca rspuns la deprivarea de status. n educational vision informative and
colile n care exist clase pentru meninerea educational, equal opportunity in education,
n coal a elevilor subrealizai colar, psycho support offered in schools were of
calitatea de membru al unei asemenea clase utmost necessity. It requires involvement of
poate conduce la abandonul colar. all factors contributing to stopping school
(discuia/analiza poate continua pe o paralel education for early school leaving! School
ce are la baz conceptul de failure is a dangerous phenomenon because it
hipercorectitudine) causes negative effects both in individual

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2.7. Cauze de ordin socio-cultural psychological, or an altered self-image of the


Copilul nu reprezint dect produsul pupil concerned that he/she would lose more
propriei familii i al contextului socio- and more confidence in their capabilities and
cultural n care el se formeaz i se capacities to develop a fear reaching failure
manifest. Cnd ntlnim disfuncii la aceste and socially, for school failure made
niveluri, efectele devin vizibile, mai ales n permanent stigmatizing labels!
personalitatea i comportamentul copilului.
Berge arat c un copil cu probleme este Note:
adesea: un copil nefericit printre oameni [1] Cristea, S., Dictionary of
care sunt ei nii nefericii. El constituie nota Pedagogy, International Letter Publishing,
fals care, ntr-un concert, arat c Bucharest, 2000, page 11
instrumentele nu au fost acordate, fr ca [2] Neamu, Cristina, Deviance
publicul s tie prea bine pe care dintre ele s school. Guide intervention for behavioral
dea vina.[4] problems of students, Ed Polirom, Science,
n aceast categorie se includ 2003, page 27
indicatorii de putere i de status social care [3] Jigau, M., School success factors,
fac referire, n principal, la apartenena Grafoart Publishing, Bucharest, 1998, page 35
etnic, la apartenena la clasa social, la [4] Popescu, V., School success and
apartenena la comunitile de tip rural/urban failure in ,, Journal of Education, no. 11,
etc.[5]. Un loc aparte revine familiei, prin 1991
rolul major pe care-l joac n viaa fiecrui [5] Neamu, C., Deviance school
copil i prin influenele sale. teaching social phenomenon. Reduction
Concluzii methods (PhD Thesis), Univ. ,, A.I.Cuza,
Se pare c abandonul colar nu are Science, 2001, page 185
tendine de a fi stopat, dimpotriv! Sunt
realiti care arat c fenomenul crete i este References:
chiar mai mare comparativ cu datele oficiale. I. General Works:
Exist un segment important de copii care 1. Cretu, E., Special education for
frecventeaz doar simbolic cursurile, primary school, Bucuresti, Aramis, 1999;
speculnd o hotrre care stipuleaz c sunt 2. Cristea, S., Dictionary of Pedagogy,
interzise exmatricularea la clasele I-VIII sau International Letter Publishing,Bucharest,
posibilitatea de a pierde alocaia, chiar i la 2000
peste 40 de absene lunar. 3. Cristea, CG, Educational
Eecul colar nu este o problem Psychology, Ed Bucharest, 2003
nou. De-a lungul timpului au fost realizate 4. Dragan, I., Nicola, I., Pedagogical
multiple cercetri pentru identificarea i research, Tg. Mures, Ed. Tipomur, 1993
prevenirea eecului colar. Odat cu trecerea 5. Gal, D., Education and its social
timpului i apariia unor noi factori ce stakes, Cluj Napoca, Dacia Publishing,
contribuie la acest fenomen negativ n rndul 2002;
elevilor, schimbarea viziunii educativ 6. Jigau, M., School success factors,
informative i formative, egalitatea de anse Grafoart Publishing House, Bucharest, 1998
privind educaia, suportul psihopedagog 7. Neamu, Cristina, Deviance school.
oferit n coli au fost de maxim necesitate. Guide intervention for behavioral problems of
Este nevoie de o implicare a tuturor factorilor students. Ed Polirom, Science, 2003, pp. 27
ce contribuie la educaia colar pentru 8. Popescu, V., School success and
stoparea fenomenului de abandon colar! failure in ,, Journal of Education , no. 11,
Eecul colar este un fenomen periculos, 1991
deoarece el determin efecte negative att n II. Web sites:

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2013
157
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plan psihologic individual, respectiv o 1. www.insse.ro


alterare a imaginii de sine a elevului n cauz,
care-i va pierde tot mai mult ncrederea n
propriile posibiliti i capaciti, ajungnd s
dezvolte o team de eec, ct i pe
plan social, pentru c eecul
colar permanentizat stigmatizeaz,
eticheteaz!

Note:
[1] Cristea, S., Dicionar de pedagogie, Ed.
Litera Internaional, Bucureti, 2000, p. 11
[2] Neamu, Cristina, Deviana colar. Ghid
de intervenie n cazul problemelor de
comportament ale elevilor, Ed. Polirom,
Iai, 2003, p. 27
[3] Jigu, M., Factorii reuitei colare, Ed.
Grafoart, Bucureti, 1998 p. 35
[4] Popescu, V., Succesul i insuccesul
colar, din ,,Revista de Pedagogie, Nr. 11,
1991
[5] Neamu, C., Deviana colar fenomen
socio-pedagogic. Modaliti de diminuare
(Tez doctorat), Univ. ,,A.I.Cuza, Iai,
2001, p. 185

Bibliografie:
I. Lucrri generale:
1. Creu, E., Psihopedagogia colar
pentru nvmntul primar,
Bucureti, Ed. Aramis, 1999;
2. Cristea, S., Dicionar de pedagogie,
Ed. Litera Internaional, Bucureti,
2000, p. 11
3. Cristea, C.G., Psihologia educaiei,
Ed. Bucureti, 2003
4. Drgan, I., Nicola, I., Cercetarea
psihopedagogic, Tg. Mure, Ed.
Tipomur, 1993
5. Gal, D., Educaia i mizele ei sociale,
Cluj Napoca, Ed. Dacia, 2002;

6. Jigu, M., Factorii reuitei colare,


Ed. Grafoart, Bucureti, 1998
7. Neamu, Cristina, Deviana colar.
Ghid de intervenie n cazul
problemelor de comportament ale
elevilor. Ed. Polirom, Iai, 2003, pg.

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27
8. Popescu, V., Succesul i insuccesul
colar, din Revista de Pedagogie, Nr.
11, 1991
II. Web sites:
1. www.insse.ro

Comportamentul deviant Deviant behaviour

Delincvena juvenil Juvenile delinquency

Deviana colar Schoolar deviance

Deviana n coal Deviance in school

Fig. 1 Conceptele fenomenului de devian colar / Concepts of deviance in school

Factori psihosociali
Psychosocial
factors

Neintegrarea n instituia
educativ Not integrating the
educational institution Abandon
Dropout

Factori externi
External factors

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Fig. 2 Schema cauzalitii abandonului colar / Dropout causality diagram

Anul colar/ 2004 - 2005- 2006- 2007- 2008- 2009- 2010-


Unitatea 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
School year
/ Unit
nvmnt 1,8% 1,8% 2,0% 2,0% 1,7% 1,6% 1,8%
primar i
gimnazial
Primary
education
nvmnt 2,7% 2,7% 3,3% 2,9% 2,4% 2,2% 2,4%
liceal
Secondary
education
nvmnt 7,6% 7,4% 8,2% 8,5% 8,3% 8,6% 9%
profesional
Vocational
nvmnt 7,8% 8,6% 7,5% 4,8% 5,9% 5,5% -
postliceal i
de maitri
Secondary
and
foremen
education
Fig. 3 Rata abandonului Sursa: Anuarul statistic 2011, pag. 269
Fig. 3 Dropout rate Source: Statistical Yearbook 2011, p 269

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