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Formule utile pentru calcul a pH-ului soluiilor apoase

Categorie
Acizi tari

Formula de calcul
pH = lg[H3O+]

Exemple
HCl, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4 (n I-a
treapt de ionizare)
NaOH, KOH
HF, CH3COOH, HCOOH, HCN,
HNO2, NH4+, fenol
H2C2O4, H2O.CO2 (H2CO3), H3PO4,
H3PO3, H2S, acid citric

Baze tari
pH = 14+lg[HO-]
Acizi
slabi,
pKa 1
pH =
lg[HA]
monoprotici
2
2
Acizi
slabi,
pKa1 1
pH =
lg[HA]
poliprotici
2
2
Baze
slabe,
pKa 1
pH = 7+
+ lg[baza]
monoprotice
2
2

F, CH3COO, HCOO, CN, NO2,


NH3, RNH2,

Baze
slabe,
pKan 1
pH = 7+
+ lg[baza]
poliprotice
2
2
Amfolii acidopKai + pKai+1
pH =
bazici
2

C2O42, CO32, PO43, S2; citrat

Soluii tampon

HF/F; NH4+/NH3; HCOOH/HCOO;


HCN/CN; HNO2/NO2; H3PO4/H2PO4;
H2PO4/HPO42;
HPO42/PO44;
H2CO3/HCO3;
HCO3/CO32;

CH3COOH/CH3COO ; H2C2O4/HC2O4;
HC2O4/C2O42;

pH = pKa + lg

H3 PO4
ac.slab

HCO3, HC2O4, H2PO4, HPO42, HS

[A - ]
[HA]

-H
+H+

H2PO -4

-H
+H+

pKa1

amfolit

pKa 2

Soluie H3PO4

Soluie H2PO-4 (Na H2PO4 )

Soluie HPO2-4 (Na2 HPO4 )

Soluie PO3-4 (Na3PO4)

HPO 24

PO 34

pKa3

baza slaba

amfolit

pKa1 1
lg[H3PO 4 ]
2
2
pKa1 + pKa2
pH =
2
pKa2 + pKa3
pH =
2
pKa3 1
pH = 7+
+ lg[PO34 ]
2
2
pH =

-H
+H+