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JUSTICE FOR ALL


English for Law Students
Semester 3





IOANA SASU-BOLBA

2012
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Contents

Grammar and Exercises
Unitatea de nvare 1-8 The Verb
1.1 Irregular Verbs......................................................................... 6
1.2 English Tenses......................................................................... 8
Unitatea de nvare 9:
1.3 Exercises...................................................................................14
Unitatea de nvare 10:
2.1 Active and Passive Voice.........................................................19
Unitatea de nvare 11:
2.2 Exercises ..20
Unitatea de nvare 12:
3.1 Conditional Sentences (If-Clauses)..........................................24
Unitatea de nvare 13:
3.2 Exercises...................................................................................25
Unitatea de nvare 14:
4 Informal English: Idioms Relating to Law and Order .... 30
5 Various Grammar Exercises ............................................37









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Introducere

Disciplina Limba englez este nscris n planul de nvmnt n cadrul
disciplinelor umaniste. Regimul disciplinei este obligatoriu, studenii alegnd ntre limba
francez i cea englez. Nivelul este unul intermediar.
Suportul de curs prezentat mai jos se adreseaz studentilor din anul I i II FR. El
este menit s le ofere studenilor date eseniale despre ceea ce urmeaz s se discute n
cadrul orelor de limba englez, precum i posibilele subiecte pentru examen.
Materialul didactic inclus acoper perfect cele 14 uniti semestriale din Programa
de nvmnt, doar c, spre deosebire de alte materii, n acest caz selectarea va fi fcut
i n funcie de nivelul cunotinelor fiecrui grup de studeni n parte, dup o testare
prealabil.
Pentru o bun desfurare a procesului de nvmnt studenii trebuie s in
seama de urmtoarele indicaii: conform Programei, n Semestrul I se vor trata
problemele eseniale de gramatic ntotdeauna nsoite de exerciii (aa cum sunt
prezentate n curs). n Semestrul II, accentul cade pe texte interpretare lexical,
vocabular juridic, din nou mpreun cu exerciiile aferente.
Diferena dintre anul I i II este vizibil numai n cazul textelor. Astfel, n anul I
se vor studia textele cuprinse sub titlul Section 2; n anul II, textele din Section 3.

Obiectivele cursului

Cursul i propune aprofundarea cunotinelor de limba englez dobndite n liceu,
precum i dezvoltarea competenelor de comunicare n limba englez, prin nsuirea
structurilor gramaticale i a lexicului de specialitate din domeniul dreptului. Scopul
cursului este, prin urmare, acela de a da posibilitatea studentului s citeasc, s neleag,
s traduc corect i s comenteze textele de specialitate, precum i s susin o
conversaie pe teme profesionale sau generale, s poat scrie un comentariu, s-i
nsueasc elemente de coresponden juridic, s traduc sau s redacteze acte juridice.
Cursul urmrete dobndirea unei autonomii relative a studentului privind nelegerea
oral i scris i accesul la valorile culturii i civilizaiei engleze. Aceste obiective
presupun o selecie a textelor care s acopere, n primul rnd, ramurile dreptului. Textele
alese sunt din domeniul dreptului public i al celui privat, n cea mai mare parte, iar
celelalte se refer la cultura i civilizaia englez. O importan deosebit este acordat
lexicului, insistndu-se asupra mbogirii sale prin introducerea unor dialoguri ntre
studeni pe teme date. Problemele de gramatic (axate n special pe verb i expresii
idiomatice) sunt abordate att din punct de vedere teoretic, dar mai ales din punct de
vedere practic. Sunt revzute cunotinele de baz i sunt mbogite cu unele noi,
necesare mai ales construciilor gramaticale ale discursului juridic englez, cu referire
special la diferenele existente ntre diverse sisteme juridice (britanic, american) vis-a-
vis de cel romnesc; exerciiile alese sunt diverse i au un grad de dificultate mediu i
avansat. Exerciiile de retroversiune i de traducere sunt folosite att pentru
aprofundarea cunotinelor de gramatic, ct i pentru nsuirea lexicului. Conversaiile
sunt utilizate des, alegndu-se att subiecte din domeniul dreptului, ct i subiecte de
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interes general. La sfritul semestrului este prevzut o recapitulare a cunotinelor de
lexic i de gramatic prin exerciii diverse i un test de verificare a acestora.

Competene conferite

Dup parcurgerea cursului, studentul va dobndi urmtoarele competene
specifice disciplinei:
1. Cunoatere l nelegere (cunoaterea i utilizarea adecvata a noiunilor specifice
disciplinei)
- nsuirea termenilor de specialitate
- nelegerea textelor de specialitate
2. Explicare i interpretare (explicarea i interpretarea unor idei, proiecte, procese,
precum i a coninuturilor teoretice i practice ale disciplinei)
- Comentarea unor texte de specialitate
- Explicarea noiunilor de gramatic
3. Instrumental - aplicative (proiectarea, conducerea i evaluarea activitilor practice
specifice; utilizarea unor metode, tehnici i instrumente de investigare i de aplicare)
- Tehnici de traducere i retroversiune
- Deprinderea de munc individual (prin traduceri de specialitate)
- Conversaie pe o tem dat
4. Atitudinale (manifestarea unei atitudini pozitive i responsabile fa de domeniul
tiinific/ cultivarea unui mediu tiinific centrat pe valori i relaii democratice/
promovarea unui sistem de valori culturale, morale i civice/ valorificarea optima i
creativa a propriului potenial n activitile tiinifice/ implicarea n dezvoltarea
instituional i in promovarea inovaiilor tiinifice/ angajarea in relaii de parteneriat
cu alte persoane - instituii cu responsabiliti similare/ participarea la propria
dezvoltare profesional)
- Atitudine pozitiv i responsabil fa de domeniul juridic
- Promovarea valorilor interculturale
- Deprinderi de autoevaluare i autocorectare prin aplicarea unor tehnici de lucru specifice

Resurse i mijloace de lucru

Cursul va fi accesibil studenilor n format online. Ei vor primi la cursuri i copii xerox cu
exerciii sau teste sau vor folosi manualul pe care l ntrebuineaz studenii de la zi care
este mai complex.

Structura cursului

Cursul este compus din 14 uniti care acoper materia pentru un semestru de studiu:

Unitatea de nvare 1-8: Irregular Verbs; English Tenses
Unitatea de nvare 9: Grammar: Exercises
Unitatea de nvare 10: Active and Passive Voice
Unitatea de nvare 11: Exercises
Unitatea de nvare 12: Conditional Sentences (IF-Clauses)
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Unitatea de nvare 13: Exercises
Unitatea de nvare 14: Informal English: Idiomatic Expressions


Teme de control
Cursul este interactiv, verificrile se fac pe parcurs, n timpul semestrului. n afar de
aceast modalitate singura verificare este examenul.

Bibliografie
Folosind suportul de curs, studenii nu mai au nevoie de alt bibliografie, exceptnd
situaiile speciale cnd se pot folosi de cri elaborate de ctre vorbitori nativi de limba
englez i, uneori de dicionare. n acest sens recomandm:
1. Sasu-Bolba, Ioana, To Tell the Truth and Nothing but the Truth, English for Law
Students, Editura NapocaStar, Cluj-Napoca, 2011 (volumul se gsete la Biblioteca
facultii).
2. C.E. and J.M. ECKERSLEY, A Comprehensive English Grammar, LONGMANS,
GREEN & CO.Ltd., London, 1969.

Metoda de evaluare
Examenul final se susine att sub form scris, ct i oral. 80% din nota final este
reprezentat de evaluarea final i 20% - testarea continu pe parcursul semestrului.
Lucrarea scris va cuprinde un text de specialitate (de comentat, de rezumat sau necesit
rspunsuri la ntrebri legate de text), o traducere, o retroversiune i 2 exerciii de
gramatic.









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Grammar and Exercises
The Verb
Note:

English verbs can be divided into regular and irregular verbs. Regular verbs get ed in Past Tense
and Past Participle. Irregular verbs have different forms for Past and Past Participle.
It seems easier for foreign speakers to learn the irregular verbal forms by heart!


1.1 Irregular Verbs
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Present Past Past Participle
be was, were been
become became become
begin began begun
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
do did done
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed

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Brought to you by the Purdue University Online Writing Lab.

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feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
let let let
lie lay lain
lose lost lost
make made made
meet met met
pay paid paid
quit quit quit
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
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see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke (waked) woken (waked)
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written

1.2 English Tenses

The English tenses are approximately the same as Romanian ones.
Still, there is a major difference he who learns English should be aware
of. Each English tense has two aspects: a simple aspect (pointing to a
usual, repeated action: e.g. John goes to school every day; I have read
the book - statement) and a continuous aspect (for an action in
development: e.g. John is going to school now; I have been reading for

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two hours I havent finished yet, I did it without interruption and
probably I am still reading, etc.)
Note: There is no particular difference in the translation of the two
aspects: John merge la coal n fiecare zi and John merge la coal
acum. A possible difference can be made in simple past: John went to
school John a mers la coal - usual, repeated action; and John was
going to school when I rang him up John mergea la coal cnd l-am
sunat.



Unitatea de nvare 1-8

Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense
Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative
Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense Simple Future Tense
(usual, repeated action) (completed action) (future action)

Key-word: every day Key-words: ago, last Key words: next, tomorrow
I study law I studied law I shall study law
You study law You studied law You will study law
He (she, it) studies law He (she, it) studied law He (she, it) will study law
We study law We studied law We shall study law
You study law You studied law You will study law
They study law They studied law They will study law



Negative Negative Negative

I dont study law I didnt study law I shant study law
You dont study law You didnt study law You wont study law
He (she, it) doesnt study
law
He (she, it) didnt study law He (she, it) wont study law
We dont study law We didnt study law We shant study law
You dont study law You didnt study law You wont study law
They dont study law They didnt study law They wont study law

Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative

Do I study law? Did I study law? Shall I study law?
Do you study law? Did you study law? Will you study law?
Does he (she, it) study law? Did he (she, it) study law? Will he (she, it) study law?
Do we study law? Did we study law? Shall we study law?
Do you study law? Did you study law? Will you study law?
Do they study law? Did they study law? Will they study law?
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Present Continuous Past Continuous Future Continuous
Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative
(action in development) (stress upon action) (stress upon action)

I am studying law I was studying law I shall be studying law
You are studying law You were studying law You will be studying law
He (she, it) is studying law He (she, it) was studying
law
He (she, it) will be studying
law

We are studying law We were studying law We shall be studying law
You are studying law You were studying law You will be studying law
They are studying law They were studying law They will be studying law


Negative Negative Negative

I am not studying law I wasnt studying law I shant be studying law
You arent studying law You werent studying law You wont be studying law
He (she, it) isnt studying
law
He (she, it) wasnt studying
law
He (she, it) wont be
studying law
We arent studying law We werent studying law We shant be studying law
You arent studying law You werent studying law You wont be studying law
They arent studying law They werent studying law They wont be studying law



Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative

Am I studying law? Was I studying law? Shall I be studying law?
Are you studying law? Were you studying law? Will you be studying law?
Is he (she, it) studying law? Was he (she, it) studying
law?
Will he be studying law?
Are we studying law? Were we studying law? Shall we be studying law?
Are you studying law Were you studying law? Will you be studying law?
Are they studying law? Were they studying? Will they be studying..?






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Simple Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple Future in the
Past
Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative
Key words: ever, never; yet, just, lately, since, for (subordinate clauses)

I have studied law I had studied law She saidI should study
law
You have studied law You had studied law You would study law
He (she, it) has studied law He (she, it) had studied law He (she, it) would study law
We have studied law We had studied law We should study law
You have studied law You had studied law You would study law
They have studied law They had studied law They would study law


Negative Negative Negative

I havent studied law I hadnt studied law She said...I shouldnt study
law
You haven studied law You hadnt studied law You wouldnt study...
He hasnt studied law He hadnt studied law He wouldnt study...
We havent studied law We hadnt studied law We shouldnt study...
You havent studied law You hadnt studied law You wouldnt study...
They havent studied law They hadnt studied law They wouldnt study...

Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative

Have I studied law? Had I studied law? She asked: Should I study
law?
Have you studied law? Had you studied law? Would you study law?
Has he studied law? Had he studied law? Would he study law?
Have we studied law? Had we studied law? Should we study law?
Have you studied law? Had you studied law? Would you study law?
Have they studied law? Had they studied law? Would they study law?


Present Perfect Past Perfect Future in the Past
Continuous Continuous Continuous
Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative

I have been studying law I had been studying law She said: I should be
studying law
You have been studying law You had been studying law You would be studying law
He (she, it) has been
studying law
He (she, it) had been
studying law
He (she, it) would be
studying law
We have been studying law We had been studying law We should be studying law
You have been studying law You had been studying law You would be studying law
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They have been studying
law
They had been studying law They would be studying law


Negative Negative Negative

I havent been studying law I hadnt been studying law I shouldnt be studying law
You havent been studying
law
You hadnt been studying
law
You wouldnt be studying
law
He hasnt been studying law He hadnt been studying
law
He wouldnt be studying
law
We havent been studying
law
We hadnt been studying
law
We shouldnt be studying
law
You havent been studying
law
You hadnt been studying
law
You wouldnt be studying
law
They havent been studying
law
They hadnt been studying
law
They wouldnt be studying
law




Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative

Have I been studying law? Had I been studying law? She asked: Should I be
studying law?
Have you been studying
law?
Had you been studying law? Would you be studying
law?
Has he been studying law? Had he been studying law? Would he be studying law?
Have we been studying
law?
Had we been studying law? Should we be studying law?
Have you been studying
law?
Had you been studying law? Would you be studying
law?
Have they been studying
law?
Had they been studying
law?
Would they be studying
law?



Simple Present Conditional Simple Past Conditional
Affirmative Affirmative

I should study law I should have studied law
You would study law You would have studied law
He would study law He would have studied law
We should study law We should have studied law
You would study law You would have studied law
They would study law They would have studied law
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Negative Negative

I shouldnt study law I shouldnt have studied law
You wouldnt study law You wouldnt have studied law
He wouldnt study law He wouldnt have studied law
We shouldnt study law We shouldnt have studied law
You wouldnt study law You wouldnt have studied law
They wouldnt study law They wouldnt have studied law


Interrogative Interrogative

Should I study law? Should I have studied law?
Would you study law? Would you have studied law?
Would he study law? Would he have studied law?
Should we study law? Should we have studied law?
Would you study law? Would you have studied law?
Would they study law? Would they have studied law?




Present Conditional Continuous Past Conditional Continuous
Affirmative Affirmative

I should be studying law I should have been studying law
You would be studying law You would have been studying law
He would be studying law He would have been studying law
We should be studying law We should have been studying law
You would be studying law You would have been studying law
They would be studying law They would have been studying law

Negative Negative


I shouldnt be studying law I shouldnt have been studying law
You wouldnt be studying law You wouldnt have been studying law
He wouldnt be studying law He wouldnt have been studying law
We shouldnt be studying law We shouldnt have been studying law
You wouldnt be studying law You wouldnt have been studying law
They wouldnt be studying law They wouldnt have been studying law




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Interrogative Interrogative

Should I be studying law? Should I have been studying law?
Would you be studying law? Would you have been studying law?
Would he be studying law? Would he have been studying law?
Should we be studying law? Should we have been studying law?
Would you be studying law? Would you have been studying law?
Would they be studying law? Would they have been studying law?



Unitatea de nvare 9

1.3 Exercises

The following sentences are in Simple Present Tense Affirmative.
Change them into Simple Past and Future Affirmative; make the
sentences interrogative and negative. Pay attention to meaning and
change them accordingly.

1. My father drives the car everyday.
2. I see you later at home.
3. We meet very often, as we live close to one another.
4. John turns off the radio whenever it seems to loud to him.
5. He arrives there soon.
6. She closes the door.
7. They always ask difficult questions.
8. Tom usually pays in time.
9. Anne often brings food to the party.
10.We stay here till you come back.
11. These animals are dangerous.

Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. Helen goes shopping everyday.
2. He opened the door for the lady.
3. John is always here in time.
4. I do my room everyday.
5. She has just arrived from London.
6. Mary has been reading ever since she woke up.
7. I had done my homework when he asked me to help him.
8. The sun rises at 7 oclock sharp.
9. They were afraid of being stung by a wasp.
10 You should be more careful.
11. He was locking the door when I saw him.
12. He walks his dog everyday.
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13. Helen does the shopping for us.
14, Jill had just entered the room, when her mother asked the time.
15. Ill try to do my best to make her come.





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Test 1 (Tenses)

1. You...wonderful today.

a. look
b. have been looking
c. will look
d. have looked

2. We...for two hours when we reached the clearing.

a. walked
b. had walked
c. had been walking
d. have been walking

3. What will you tell the Chief-Inspector when your turn...

a. will come?
b. has come?
c. comes?
d. have come?

4. It ..ten years since I havent seen her.

a. was
b. is
c. had been
d. were

5. She talks as if she..all the answers.

a. knows
b. knew
c. had known
d. would know


Test 2 (Special Finites: be, have, do)

1. These verbs....difficult.

a. had
b. are
c. is

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2. My aunt....awake.

a. has
b. does
c. is

3. He....a new tennis racket.

a. was
b. has done
c. has

4. He.... only an apple for lunch.

a. had been
b. has had
c. had

5. ... they done their homework yet?

a. did
b. have
c. were



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Unitatea de nvare 10

2.1 Active and Passive Voice
Form of Passive
Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of
irregular verbs)
Example: A letter was written.



4. Note: When turning a sentence from active into passive voice tense and aspect are
never changed.

Tense Active Voice Passive Voice
Simple Present The teacher opens the
window
The window is opened by the
teacher
Present Continuous The teacher is opening the
window
The window is being opened by
the teacher
Simple Past The teacher opened the
window
The window was opened by the
teacher
Past Continuous The teacher was opening the
window
The window was being opened by
the teacher
Simple Future The teacher will open the
window
The window will be opened by the
teacher
Future Continuous The teacher will be opening
the window
The window will be being opened
by the teacher
Simple Present
Perfect
The teacher has opened the
window
The window has been opened by
the teacher
Present Perfect
Continuous
The teacher has been
opening the window
The window has been being
opened by the teacher
Simple Past Perfect The teacher had opened the
window
The window had been opened by
the teacher


Past Perfect
Continuous
The teacher had been
opening the window
The window had been being
opened by the teacher
Simple Present
Conditional
The teacher would open the
window
The window would be opened by
the teacher
Present Conditional
Continuous
The teacher would be
opening the window
The window would be being
opened by the teacher
Simple Past
Conditional
The teacher would have
opened the window
The window would have been
opened by the teacher
Past Conditional
Continuous
The teacher would have been
opening the window
The window would have been
being opened by the teacher


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Unitatea de nvare 11

2.2 Exercise 1: Translate into English using passive wherever possible:

1. Cafeaua este adus de ctre o fat.
2. Scrisoarea fusese deja scris de ctre mama ei, cnd ea a sosit acas.
3. Bicicleta mea a fost furat de cineva.
4. Cntecul ar fi fost cntat de altcineva.
5. Helen nu a fost vzut pe aici de secole.
6. Cntarul a fost adus de farmacist, deoarece nu mai era nimeni acolo.
7. Florile fuseser culese pentru a fi puse pe mese.
8. Premiul i-a fost acordat pentru ntreaga activitate.
9. Meciul a fost ctigat de echipa advers.
10.Diploma i-a fost nmnat ieri.
11.Nu a neles de ce nu-i fuseser adui i pantofii.
12.Masa a fost pus de sora mea.
13.Cartea ar fi putut fi scris de o femeie.
14.Casa a fost construit n 1920.
15.Strugurii vor fi culei n curnd.





Exercise 2: Turn the following sentences into the active voice:

1. Law acts when their property is injured or harmed.
2. The harm is criminalized in penal code.
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3 A basic distinction is generally made between law jurisdictions and systems using
common law.
4. To implement and enforce the law the military and police are vital.
5. The organs of the state are creatures created and bound by law.
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Exercise 3: Rewrite the given sentences in Passive voice. Sometimes there are two
possible answers (two objects in the active sentence).
Do not use contracted/short forms.
Example:
Tim gave Lisa some flowers.
_______________________
Answer:
Some flowers were given to Lisa by Tim. or
Lisa was given some flowers by Tim.

1) They don't speak English in this shop.
2) Kevin asked Dennis a question.
3) Somebody built the house last year.
4) She gives him a box.
5) Max will look after him.
6) The waiter brought Fred a big steak.
7) Somebody broke into our bungalow last Friday.
8) The teacher told us a joke.
9) They will meet Doris at the station.
10) Michael has not sent me a text message.
23

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Unitatea de nvare 12

3.1 Conditional Sentences
(IF-Clauses)

When you use if you are usually starting a conditional clause also
called an adverbial clause of condition or an IF-clause. You do this to
show cause and effect, or what MIGHT happen if something else
happens. There are three main kinds of IF-clause:

1. Type 1: Open Conditions. Will, can, may/might + short infinitive
+ IF + simple present tense.
Note: All these sentences contain a condition that may or may not be
fulfilled.
2

We use Type 1 to talk about future situations that the speaker thinks
are PROBABLE.

We also use Type 1 but with PRESENT TENSE + PRESENT
TENSE* to talk about things that are ALWAYS TRUE. Some
grammarians call this the ZERO CONDITIONAL or Type 0.

If you leave before 10, you'll catch the train.
If you don't hurry, you might miss it.
That bowl will break if you drop it.
I can get some more milk if there isn't enough.
If you mix blue and yellow, you get green. (Zero Conditional)

2. Type 2: Would, could or might + short infinitive (Present
Conditional) + IF + simple past tense.

We use Type 2 to talk about future situations the speaker thinks are
POSSIBLE but NOT VERY PROBABLE. We also use Type 2 to talk
about UNREAL SITUATIONS in the present.
Note: These sentences are suppositions: such sentences make a
hypothesis which maybe contrary to fact or something you just thought
of as a fact.
3


If we saved $2000, we'd have enough for a new computer.
We might save enough if you got another job.
If I were* rich, I'd travel around the world.
We could buy a new car if you didn't spend so much on clothes.


2
Apud: C.E. Eckersley, op.cit., p.347.
3
Idem, p.349.

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3. Type 3: Would have, could have or might have + Past
Participle + IF + past perfect tense (had - ed).

We use Type 3 to talk about PAST SITUATIONS THAT DID NOT
HAPPEN.

If it had rained yesterday, there wouldn't have been many people
there.
If I had studied harder, I would have got Band 6.
If you'd asked me, I would have told you.
Peter would have rung if there'd been anything wrong.
If I hadn't been sick, I could have gone to the game.


Unitatea de nvare 13

3.2 Exercises

Test
4


1. Situation: Kathy wants to go to the movies but doesn't have any money.
"If" sentence: If Kathy _____ some money, she would go to the movies.
a. were have
b. would have
c. had
2. Situation: Joe is sleepy and would like to take a nap, but he can't because he's in an
important meeting.
"If" sentence: If Joe _____ in an important meeting, he would go home and take a nap.
a. didnt
b. were
c. werent

3. Situation: Chuck isn't stupid, but he failed his midterm exam. Why? -- He didn't study
for it.
"If" sentence: If Chuck _____ , he probably wouldn't have failed his midterm exam.

4
"If" Sentences Quiz 1 by Dennis Oliver, American Language and Culture Program, Arizona State
University; Here from: www.teachingenglish.ed

26
a. had studied
b. werent stupid
c. might have studied
4. Situation: Jan wanted to go to Jim's party but she wasn't able to because she had to
work.
"If" sentence: If Jan _____ to work, she would've gone to Jim's party.
a. hadnt
b. didnt have
c. hadnt had
5. Situation: I'll try to give your message to Ted, but I'm not sure whether I'll see him or
not.
"If" sentence: If I _____ Ted, I'll give him your message.
a. will see
b. see
c. saw
6. Situation: I want to work outside today, but that won't be possible because it's raining.
"If" sentence: If it _____ raining, I'd work outside today.
a. werent
b. didnt
c. hadnt been
7. Situation: Rex had to miss work today. Why? -- His wife and children were all sick
with the flu.
"If" sentence: Rex _____ miss work today if his wife and children hadn't all been sick
with the flu.
a. didnt have
b. wouldnt have had to
c. hadnt had to
8. Situation: I finished my work, but only because you helped me.
"If" sentence: I _____ my work if you hadn't helped me.
a. couldnt have finished
27
b. wasnt able to finish
c. hadnt been able to finish

9. Situation: It's possible for you to do this quiz because you have a computer and
modem.
"If" sentence: It _____ possible for you to do this quiz if you didn't have a computer and
modem.
a. hadnt been
b. wasnt
c. wouldnt be

10. Situation: It wasn't possible to find this quiz on the WWW in 1994. It didn't exist at
that time.
"If" sentence: It _____ to find this quiz on the WWW in 1994.
a. wouldve been impossible
b. wouldnt be possible
c. had been impossible

28
Exercise: Translate into English:
1. Voi merge, dac voi gsi adresa.
2. Merg, dac am timp.
3. Ar cnta, dac ar ti cuvintele.
4. Ei ar rspunde, dac ar nelege ntrebarea.
5. Voicu s-ar fi dus la pia, dac ar fi tiut ce s cumpere pentru ei.
6. Curtea s-ar fi ntrunit dac nu aprea acea problem cu dovezile.
7. Ei nii i-ar fi adus aminte, dac-i aminteau la timp.
8. M-ai ajuta, dac ai avea ceva timp liber?
9. Dac nu sosesc la noi mine, nu putem ncepe.
10. Dac plou, ia-i umbrela mea!
29


30
Unitatea de nvare 14



4.1 Informal English (I): Idioms Relating to LAW and
ORDER
5



Above board (honestly, dincolo de orice dubiu) If a situation or
business is described as above board, it is open, honest and legal.

Ambulance chaser This terms refers to a lawyer who finds work by
persuading people injured in accidents to claim money from the person
who caused the accident.

"Peterson & Scott are well-known ambulance chasers - that's how they
make money!"

An accomplished fact (also: 'fait accompli') (e un fapt mplinit)
Something that has been done or completed, before those affected by it
can intervene or change it, is called an accomplished fact.

Arm of the law (braul legii) This expression refers to the extent to
which the authority or power of the law extends.

The crooks in London know how it works. No one carries guns and no
one resists the police. Then a new gang appears that go one better.
They dress as police and steal from the crooks. This upset's the natural
order of the police/criminal relationship and the police and the crooks
join forces to catch the IPOs (Impersonating Police Officers),
including an armored car robbery in which the police must help the
gangs to set a trap. This is the wrong arm of the law that acts here.

Behind bars (n spatele gratiilor) Someone who is behind bars is in
prison.

5
Brought to you from: www.learn-english-today.com/idioms/idiom...

31

Behind Bars is an initiative involving Staffordshire Police and our
colleagues in the Criminal Justice System.
Its aim is simple: to keep Staffordshires communities updated about
criminals aged 18 or more whove been jailed for six months or more
at crown court.
The offenders featured may well have had a direct impact on the
quality of life where you or they live.
Thats why we think its important you can find out whats happened
to them in court, and be reassured that the criminal justice system -
which includes the police, Crown Prosecution Service, courts
and Youth Offending Services - is working effectively on your behalf
throughout Staffordshire.

Beyond any reasonable doubt (dincolo de orice ndoial) This is a
legal expression which means that something is certain.

Remake of the 1956 film noir film "Beyond a Reasonable Doubt" in
which a writer's plan to expose a corrupt district attorney takes an
unexpected turn.

In black and white (e scris negru pe alb) To say that something is in
black and white means that there is written proof of it.

'Black and white construction contracts' is a newly coined phrase in
the Chinese construction industry that describes a project company
signing two versions of a contract with the contractor. A white contract
is consistent with the winning bid, which is submitted, registered and
filed with the relevant authorities. A black contract contains terms that
are harsher on the contractor - i.e. lower contract price, longer payment
term, etc. Moreover, a black contract usually has an additional term
that provides it is the binding contract between the parties and the
white contract should be void and used only for "registration
purposes". This prevalent practice has come under the spotlight
because of a few recent cases.
6


Blow the whistle (a turna pe cineva) If you report an illegal or
socially-harmful activity to authorities, and give information about
those responsible for it, you blow the whistle or you are a whistle-
blower.

Blowing the whistle to your employer
7



6
Website: www.freshfields.com By Lily Wei Zhou
7
Texts for discussion are taken from: http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com

32
If you are blowing the whistle on malpractice in the workplace you
should strongly consider making the disclosure to your employer. If
you make a disclosure to your employer it will help to make sure that
your concerns are dealt with quickly and by the right person.
If you work for a small company, the right person to resolve you
concerns may be the director of the company.
You should check your employment contract to see if your company
has a process to help you make the disclosure. In some situations your
employer might adapt the procedure, for example to allow confidential
disclosures.

Have a brush with (a avea atingere cu...) When you have a brush
with something, such as the law, you encounter or experience it
briefly.

Burden of proof (sarcina probei) The burden of proof is the necessity
imposed by law to prove that what one says is true. A duty placed
upon a civil or criminal defendant to prove or disprove a disputed fact.

Burden of proof can define the duty placed upon a party to prove or
disprove a disputed fact, or it can define which party bears this burden.
In criminal cases, the burden of proof is placed on the prosecution,
who must demonstrate that the defendant is guilty before a jury may
convict him or her. But in some jurisdiction, the defendant has the
burden of establishing the existence of certain facts that give rise to a
defense, such as the insanity plea. In civil cases, the plaintiff is
normally charged with the burden of proof, but the defendant can be
required to establish certain defenses.

Burden of proof can also define the burden of persuasion, or the
quantum of proof by which the party with the burden of proof must
establish or refute a disputed factual issue. In criminal cases, the
prosecution must prove the defendant's guilt Beyond a Reasonable
Doubt.

Judges explain the reasonable doubt standard to jurors in a number of
ways. Federal jury instructions provide that proof beyond a reasonable
doubt is "proof of such a convincing character that a reasonable person
would not hesitate to act upon it in the most important of his own
affairs." State judges typically describe the standard by telling jurors
that they possess a reasonable doubt as to the defendant's guilt if, based
on all the evidence in the case, they would be uncomfortable with a
criminal conviction. In giving the reasonable doubt instruction, judges
regularly remind jurors that a criminal conviction imposes a variety of
hardships on a defendant, including public humiliation, incarceration,

33
fines, and occasionally the Forfeiture of property. Reasonable doubt is
the highest standard of proof used in any judicial proceeding.

Catch somebody red-handed (a prinde pe cineva n flagrant) If a
person is caught red-handed, they are caught while they are doing
something wrong or illegal.

Crack down on something If the authorities decide to crack down
on something, they enforce the law by taking severe measures to
restrict undesirable or criminal actions.

Daylight robbery (furt ziua n amiaza mare) The term 'daylight
robbery' is used when the price of something is thought to be much too
high.

Fair hearing When accused of wrongdoing, if someone gets a fair
hearing, they get an opportunity to present evidence or give their side
of the story, usually in court.

A judicial proceeding that is conducted in such a manner as to conform
to fundamental concepts of justice and equality.

During a fair hearing, authority is exercised according to the principle
of Due Process of Law. Fair hearing means that an individual will have
an opportunity to present evidence to support his or her case and to
discover what evidence exists against him or her.

In Criminal Law, when an individual is arrested, a fair hearing means
the right to be notified of the charge being brought against him or her
and the chance to meet that charge.

In order for a hearing to be fair and comply with due process
requirements, it must be held before an impartial tribunal; however, a
hearing can be unfair without any intention that it be that way. A fair
hearing must provide a reasonable opportunity for an individual to be
present at the designated time and place, during which time he or she
may offer evidence, cross-examine opposition witnesses, and offer a
defense. Formalities of a court action need not be strictly complied
with in order for a proceeding to be considered a fair hearing.

Get out of hand (a scpa de sub control) If a person or a situation
gets out of hand, they cannot be controlled any longer.

Hit and run (accident) (fug de la locul accidentului) When the
driver of a vehicle hits another vehicle without stopping to provide

34
help, identification or insurance, and fails to report the accident to the
police, the collision is called a hit-and-run accident.

This means the crime of a driver of a vehicle who is involved in a
collision with another vehicle, property or human being, who
knowingly fails to stop to give his/her name, license number, and other
information as required by statute to the injured party, a witness, or
law enforcement officers. If there is only property damage and no
other person is present, leaving the information attached to the
damaged property may be sufficient, provided the person causing the
accident makes a report to the police. Hit and run statutes vary from
state to state. It is not a violation of the constitutional protection
against self-incrimination to be required to stop and give this
information since it is a report and not an admission of guilt. Some hit
and run cases are difficult to determine, such as the driver leaves the
accident scene to go a block to his/her house or the neighborhood
repair garage, and then walks back to the scene.

In trouble with the law (ai necazuri cu legea) If someone is in
trouble with the law, they are being questioned by the police in
connection with something illegal or criminal.

Also: Get on the wrong side of the law or Find yourself on the
wrong side of the law is to be in trouble with the police because you
have done something illegal.

From last Monday, owners of fighting dogs who fail to control them in
public could find themselves on the wrong side of the law.

A law unto themselves (a-i face singur legea) If someone is a law
unto themselves, they do things their own way and ignore what is
generally considered as acceptable.

Lay down the law (a face legea) Someone who lays down the law
tells people very forcefully and firmly what to do.

Case Law (jurispruden)

Statutes are the primary source of law, and the power to enact statutes
is reserved to elected lawmakers. However, judicial decisions also
have the force of law. Statutes do not cover every conceivable case,
and even when a statute does control a case, the courts may need to
interpret it. Judicial decisions are known collectively as case law. A
judicial decision legally binds the parties in the case, and also may
serve as a law in the same prospective sense as does a statute. In other
words, a judicial decision determines the outcome of the particular

35
case, and also may regulate future conduct of all persons within the
jurisdiction of the court.

Murphy's law Referring to Murphy's law expresses a sentiment of
bad luck and the idea that if anything can go wrong, it will.

Null and void (nul i neavenit) Something which is null and void has
no legal force or is invalid.




Null and Void Ordinance

The Null and Void Ordinance was an Ordinance passed by the
Parliament of England on 20 August 1647. On the 26 July 1647
demonstrators had invaded Parliament forcing Independent MPs and
the Speaker to flee from Westminster. On 20 August, Oliver Cromwell
went to Parliament with an armed escort, following which the Null and
Void Ordinance was passed annulling all Parliamentary proceedings
since the 26 July. Most of the Presbyterian MPs then retreated from
Parliament leaving the Independents MPs with a majority.

Paper trail (prob scris) If a person or organization leaves a paper
trail, they leave evidence in writing or in document form that will
serve as proof of their actions.

Fig. a series of records that is possible to examine to find out the
sequence of things that happen. (Typically: have ~; leave ~; make ~.)
The legal department requires all these forms so that there is a paper
trail of all activity.

Partner in crime (complice) A person who helps you to plan
something dishonest or unlawful is called your partner in crime. (This
expression can be used jokingly as in this example.)

Pervert the course of justice (obstrucioneaz justiia) If a person
perverts the course of justice, they tell a lie or prevent the police from
finding out the truth about something.

Rough justice (pedeaps nemeritat) Treatment or punishment that
does not seem fair, or is too severe, is called rough justice, especially if
it is not legal. (i sumar al hotrrii judectoreti); a punishment that is
not fair or is too severe
New evidence suggests that the girls were given rough justice.

36
Signed, sealed and delivered (semnat i parafat) When an agreement,
contract or treaty is signed, sealed and delivered, all the legal
documents have been signed.

Smoking gun (dovad de necontestat) A smoking gun is a piece of
evidence or the indisputable sign of someone's guilty. Informal:
Something that serves as indisputable evidence or proof, especially of
a crime:
"There is no smoking gun or paper trail to [the CIA]" (Thomas
Polgar).

Take the law into one's own hands (a-i lua legea n propriile mini:
If, instead of calling the police, you act personally against someone
who has done something wrong, you take the law into your own hands.

Toe the line (s te aliniezi regulamentelor) If a person toes the line, they obey the rules
and accept the principles of a person, group or organization.


Note: We always say: In my opinion .... dup prerea mea....
and: According to somebody else....... Accoring to me is INCORRECT

It also seems worth mentioning several English phrases which include the Romanian verb
a judeca. State which phrases actually refer to law and which to everyday language.

a judeca aspru pe cineva judge ill of somebody
a judeca de la caz la caz judge each case on its own merits
a judeca drept hold the scales even
a judeca dup... judge by...
a judeca dup aparene judge by appearances/looks; judge according
to the label
a judeca favorabil pe cineva judge well of somebody
a judeca neprtinitor (drept) hold the scales even
a nu judeca omul dup suman = nu haina
l face pe om
it is not the coat that makes the man
a judeca pe alii dup sine measure another mans foot by ones own
last
nu-i judeca pe alii dup tine dont judge the others by yourself
a judeca prea aspru pe cineva be too hard on somebody
a judeca pripit jump to a conclusion
a judeca un proces try a case
a judeca ru pe cineva = aspru judge ill of somebody
judecata (nu) i-a dat dreptate
reclamantului
judgement went for/against the plaintiff
Judecata de Apoi the last day of judgement; doomsday; the
great account
37
judec i tu judge for yourself
judecnd dup... judging by...
a judeca dup elemente exterioare judge by externals
judecnd dup vorbele cuiva judging from what somebody says






5.1 Various Grammar Exercises


Exercise 1: Translate into English the following lawyer joke:

AVOCATUL: Cum s-a ncheiat primul dumneavoastr mariaj?
8

MARTORUL: Prin moarte
AVOCATUL: i prin moartea cui s-a ncheiat?
MARTORUL: ncercai s ghicii!



Exercise 2: Replace the underlined words with phrases taken from law and order (Some
More Grammar):

8
From the Book: Disorder in the American Court, here from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/13408/What-
People-say-in-Court
38

1. There are no secret negotiations. Our dealings have always been legal.

2. "He fled to South America hoping to escape the police."

3. "If you hang around with that gang, you'll find yourself in prison in no time."

4. "The court established, obviously, that the man was innocent."

5. "It's an obligation. It's written clearly in your contract."

6. "He refused to report to his boss for fear of losing his job."

7. She was fired for reporting to the bank's mismanagement of accounts, but she then
sued the bank.

8. "He had a brief encounter with the law for speeding several years ago but has had a
clean record ever since."

9. "The necessity to prove lies with the claimant."

10. "The police arrived as the burglar was leaving the house. He was caught while doing
something wrong."

11. Tom was stealing the car when the police drove by and caught him while doing
something wrong.

12. Mary tried to cash a forged check at the bank, and the teller caught her while doing
something wrong.

13. "Following the increase in road accidents, it was decided to enforce the law on
speeding."

14. "$10 for an orange juice? That's price thought to be much too high!"

15. The citizens' group reported the street gangs by calling the police.
16. "I can guarantee that you will get an opportunity to defend yourself."

17. "During the student demonstration, things couldnt be controlled and several shop
windows were broken."

18. " Running from the place of an accident deserves serious punishment."

19. "The suspect has often been questioned for something done illegally."

20. The gangs were getting very bad. It was definitely time to report it.
39

21. "They're against discipline and allow their children complete freedom they do it
their own way."

22. "The volunteers helped in a disorganized way. They needed someone to tell firmly
what to do."

23. "We've tried to prepare for every possible incident, but remember the bad luck..."

24. "The contract was declared as not having legal force."

25. "The police found evidence in writing which lead to the author of the hoax."

26. "Sam helped me to plan the crime. He hid my son's new bicycle until his birthday."

27. "The suspect was accused of trying to prevent the police from finding out the truth

28. "The way the player was treated by the media was not a legal punishment."

29. "It is hoped that the agreement will be ready and sent before the end of the week."

30. "The fingerprints the thief left on the door-handle were indisputable evidence that
enabled the police to arrest him."

31. "Instead of calling the police, he acted personally and confronted the youth who had
stolen his son's scooter."

32. "If you want to stay in this school, you'll have to learn to obey the rule."


40

Exercise 3: Translate into English paying attention to the underlined phrases.
9
Also make
use of the following words: police station, intoxicated (drink-driving), cause an accident,
orderly, in the opposite direction, hit and run accident, declaration, under these
circumstances, get preventive detention, head of the police station, promptitude.

Brbatul a fost cu greu adus la Secia de poliie, seara, pe la ora 21. S-a constatat fr
dificultate c acesta era n stare de ebrietate. Poliistul care l-a adus a spus c provocase
un accident grav, izbindu-se de o main care venea regulamentar pe contrasens. Dup
producerea accidentului, brbatul intenionase s fug de la locul accidentului. Era deci
accident cu fug.
Dou persoane au murit n accidentul de main. oferul, pe lng c era beat, era
stpnit de violen i se pare c era dependent de a conduce cu vitez mare, ciocnirea
fiind foarte puternic. Pernele de salvare (perne care erau umplute cu aer) nu au
funcionat.
Poliistul a mai spus c, odat prins, brbatul de abia putea vorbi. El prea s aib mari
dificulti n exprimare. Pus s scrie o declaraie, textul lui era complet lipsit de sens. n
aceste condiii, brbatul a fost arestat preventiv.
n cele din urm, eful Seciei de poliie a fost mndru de atitudinea subalternului su i l-
a felicitat pentru promtitudinea cu care a rezolvat cazul.



Exercise 4: Translate into Romanian paying attention to the underlined words (use of
Subjunctive):

1. Under these circumstances, it is only natural that the judge should postpone the trial.
2. It is abosolutely neccessary that evidence should be collected first.
3. They handed the papers to the advocate so that he might start the investigation.
4. The judge signed the document lest it should be against the law.

9
In solving this exercise have a look at the Grammar Section [Informal English (II)].
41
5. She was extremely unhappy and did all her best so that she might not be considered
partner in crime.
6. He wished they wouldnt have accused him of perverting the course of justice.




Exercise 5: Translate into English paying attention to grammar rules:

1. Nu este ciudat ca houl s fi scpat, dei poliia este pe urmele lui?
2. Nu se poate ca ea s m fi dezamgit!
3. El intenioneaz s aduc noi probe n dosar pentru a fi considerat nevinovat.
4. Pn la nti septembrie ei au terminat de investigat crima. Se va putea da verdictul.
5. Ceilali spun doar mine ce au de spus n acest caz.



Exercise 6: Fill in the blanks with the correct Future Tense:

1. If I get the evidence, I (hand) it over to the lawyer at once.
2. The judge (be) very pleased, if he can act as soon as possible.
3. We hoped the jury (come to an agreement) soon and gave the verdict.
42
4. Jan wished the trial (take place) in January.
5. I wished the plaintiff (find) a better lawyer, if he wants to win.
6. I didnt steal the money, inspector. If I had stolen it, I (not sit) here.




Exercise 7: Here is what William Shakespeare said about law. Comment upon the text:

We must not make a scarecrow
10
of the law,
Setting it up to fear the birds of prey,
And let it keep one shape, till custom make it.
Their perch
11
and not their terror. (Measure for Measure)




Exercise 9: Rephrase the following sentences keeping the original sense:

1. He doesnt visit you because you never ask him to come.
If you ____________.

2. I was disappointed to learn that I lost the case.

10
Sperietoare de ciori.
11
Prjin, stinghie, fig. sprijin.
43
I hoped________but unfortunately_________ .

3. Contrary to our expectations, the workers didnt call off the strike.
We expected that___________but they didnt.

4. Well blow up the plane if you dont let us go,threatened the terrorists.
The terrorists threatened they_____________.

5. I am too old to apply for that job.
If I _______________ .


Exercise 10: Turn into the Passive Voice:

1. The judge decided to postpone the meeting.
2. The stenographer put down everything the witness said.
3. The workers didnt succeed to clean the streets properly when all those people who
were on strike left.
4. They couldnt offer enough evidence, as there was not enough time left.
5. He asked for an answer but nobody seemed eager to give any.
6. The guardians brought the defendant in court.
7. The workers didnt call off the strike.
8. I handed over all the evidence to the lawyer so that he might help me.
9. Tom decided to blow the whistle to his boss.
10. The terrorists threatened that they would blow up the plane.



Exercise 4: Translate into Romanian paying attention to the legal terms:

A significant number of attorneys are employed at the various levels of government.
Some work for State attorneys general, prosecutors, and public defenders in criminal
courts. At the Federal level, attorneys investigate cases for the U.S. Department of Justice
44
and other agencies. Government lawyers also help develop programs, draft and interpret
laws and legislation, establish enforcement procedures, and argue civil and criminal cases
on behalf of the government.