Sunteți pe pagina 1din 169

ACTIVITI MOTRICE ADAPTATE

- ASPECTE TEORETICE I METODICE

ADAPTED MOTRICAL ACTIVITIES


- TEORETHICAL AND METHODICAL
ASPECTS

Dana CRISTEA, Mirela TEF, Paul DRAGO

Oradea
2014

ACTIVITI MOTRICE ADAPTATE


- ASPECTE TEORETICE I METODICE

Dana CRISTEA, Mirela TEF, Paul DRAGO


TRADUCERE Anca DEAC

2014

ADAPTED MOTRICAL ACTIVITIES


- TEORETHICAL AND METHODICAL
ASPECTS

Dana CRISTEA, Mirela TEF, Paul DRAGO


TRANSLATION by Anca DEAC

2014

Cuprins
1. Delimitri conceptuale........................................................................................................ 5
2. Educaia integrat ............................................................................................................. 13
3. Echipa multidisciplinar ................................................................................................... 17
4. Clasificarea deficienelor .................................................................................................. 21
5. Educaia fizic i sportul adaptat activiti motrice formative ...................................... 31
6. Obiectivele educaiei fizice i sportului adaptat ............................................................... 41
7. Noiuni de didactic a educaiei fizice i sportului adaptat .............................................. 47
8. Principii didactice adaptate instruirii persoanelor cu cerine educaionale speciale ........ 53
8.1 Principiile aplicrii teoriei compensaiei n procesul instruirii................................... 53
8.2 Principii didactice n educaie fizic i sport adaptat ................................................. 57
9. Specificul nvrii motrice la persoanele cu deficiene ................................................... 69
10. Deficienele mintale/de intelect ...................................................................................... 75
11. Deficienele senzoriale ................................................................................................... 97
11.1. Activiti motrice adaptate pentru copii cu deficien de vedere ............................ 97
11.2. Activiti motrice adaptate pentru persoane cu deficiene de auz ......................... 107
11.3. Demutizarea, ortofonia .......................................................................................... 121
12. Educaie fizica i sport adaptat pentru persoane cu deficiente motorii ........................ 135
12.1. Afeciunile neurologice ......................................................................................... 138
12.2. Afeciunile osteo-articulare ................................................................................... 159
12.3. Afeciunile musculoscheletice ............................................................................... 161
12.4. Amputaiile ............................................................................................................ 163

Content
1. Conceptual delimitations .................................................................................................... 6
2. Integrated education ......................................................................................................... 14
3. Multidisciplinary team ..................................................................................................... 18
4. Classification of deficiencies ............................................................................................ 22
5. Physical education and adapted sports formative motor activities ................................ 32
6. Objectives of adapted education and sports ..................................................................... 42
7. Notions regarding the didactics of adapted physical education and sports ...................... 48
8. Didactic principles adapted to the instruction of individuals with special educational
needs ..................................................................................................................................... 54
8.1. The principles of applying the compensation theory in the instruction process ....... 54
8.2. Didactic principles in adapted physical education and sports ................................... 58
9. The specific of motor learning for individuals with deficiencies ..................................... 70
10. Adapted physical activities for individuals with mental deficiency ............................... 76
11. Sensorial deficiencies ..................................................................................................... 98
11.1. Adapted physical activities for children with vision deficiency ............................. 98
11.2. Adapted physical activities for individuals with hearing deficiencies .................. 108
11.3. Demutization, orthophonia .................................................................................... 122
12. Adapted physical education and sports for individuals with motor deficiencies ......... 136
12.1. Neurological disorders .......................................................................................... 137
12.2. Osteo-articular disorders ....................................................................................... 160
12.3. Musculo-skeletal disorders .................................................................................... 162
12.4. Amputations .......................................................................................................... 164

1. Delimitri conceptuale
Noiunea de motricitate nu poate fi privit n afara
conceptului de micare, n general i micare biologic n special.
Provenit din latinescul movere, micarea desemneaz o ieire
din starea de imobilitate, stabilitate, o schimbare a poziiei
corpului n spaiu, n raport cu unele repere fixe. n sens mai larg,
micarea nglobeaz toate schimbrile i procesele care au loc n
organism. Motricitatea se definete n Dicionarul explicativ al
limbii romne ca o capacitate a activitii nervoase superioare
de a trece rapid de la un proces de excitatie la altul, de la un
sterotip dinamic la altul. Motricitatea reunete totalitatea actelor
motrice efectuate pentru ntreinerea relaiilor cu mediul social i
natural, inclusiv prin efectuarea deprinderilor specifice ramurilor
sportive. Toate acestea realizndu-se prin contracia muchilor
scheletici.
Pentru a nelege i mai bine acest concept este bine s
amintim elementele de structur ale motricitii: actul, aciunea i
activitatea motric.
Actul motric reprezint elementul de baz al oricrei
micri, efectuat n scopul adaptrii immediate sau a construirii
de aciuni motrice i care se prezint ca un act reflex, instinctual.
Aciunea motric este constituit dintr-un sistem de acte
motrice prin care se atinge un scop imediat singular sau integrat
ntr-o activitate motric.
Activitatea motric reprezint nivelul ierarhic superior i
desemneaz un ansamblu de actiuni motrice articulate sistemic pe
baza unei idei, reguli, forme organizatorice, avnd drept scop
adaptarea complex a organismului pe termen lung. Activitatea
se refer la sisteme mai complexe de aciuni, ntinse pe o durat
mai mare, n scopul realizrii unei activiti eficiente.

1. Conceptual delimitations
The notion of motility cannot be viewed without the
concept of movement in general and biological movement in
particular. Originating from the Latin word movere, movement
designates an action of coming out of immobility, stability and a
change of body position in space in relation with certain fixed
landmarks. In a wider sense, movement encompasses all the
changes and processes which occur in the body. Motility is
defined as a capacity of the superior nervous activity to pass
quickly from one excitation process to another, from one
dynamic stereotype to another. Motility encompasses all motor
acts performed in order to maintain the relations with the social
and natural environment, including skills specific to sports
branches. All these are achieved through the contraction of the
skeletal muscles.
In order to better understand this concept, we should
remember the structure elements of motility: motor act, action
and activity.
The motor act represents the basic element of any
movement performed for the purpose of immediate adjustment or
of constructing motor actions, and it presents itself as a reflex,
instinctual act.
The motor action is made up of a system of motor acts
through which it is achieved an immediate, singular purpose or
one integrated in a motor activity.
The motor activity represents the hierarchically superior
level and it designates an ensemble of systemically articulated
motor actions based on an idea, rule, organization forms, having
as purpose the complex adjustment of the body on long term. The
activity refers to more complex systems of actions during a
longer period of time with the purpose of achieving an efficient
activity.
6

n acest context se poate vorbi de activitatea de educaie


fizic, despre activitatea elevilor n lecie, despre activitatea
competiional sau despre activitatea motric a fiinei umane.
Se poate concluziona faptul c activitatea motric este un
proces al satisfacerii unei necesiti (cerin funcional) sau din
perspectiv structural, o mulime de aciuni, operaii, acte sau
gesturi orientate n vederea ndeplinirii unui anumit obiectiv
(Dragnea A, Bota A, 1999).
Motricitatea poate fi la rndul ei dup J Didier, citat de
Pasztai Z. 2004:
- motricitate reflex, complet independent de voin;
- motricitate automat, unde voina intervine pentru a
declana o succesiune de micri automatizate ca mersul,
deglutiia etc;
- motricitatea voluntar, cnd fiecare gest este gndit nainte
de a fi executat.
Adaptat conform DEX desemneaz ceva care a fost
transformat pentru a corespunde anumitor cerine sau pentru a fi
ntrebuinat n anumite mprejurri, care este potrivit pentru
ceva.

Activiti motrice adaptate
Sportul adaptat constituie o ramur a sportului care
utilizeaz structuri motrice, reguli specifice, condiii materiale i
organizatorice modificate i adecvate cerinelor proprii
diferitelor tipuri de deficiene(nevoi speciale) Stnescu M. 2004.
Deficiena - reprezint pierderea sau perturbarea cu
caracter definitiv sau temporar a unei structuri fiziologice,
anatomice sau psihice; aceasta desemneaz o stare patologic,
funcional, care afecteaz capacitatea de munc dereglnd
procesul de adaptare i integrare n mediul natural i social".
Infirmitatea corespunde unor alterri structurale i
funcionale, n plan anatomic, fiziologic sau psihologic, care
7

In this context, we can speak about physical education activity,


about the pupils activity during the lesson, about competitional
activity or about a human beings motor activity.
The following conclusion can be drawn: motor activity is a
process of satisfying a necessity (a functional requirement) or,
from a structural perspective, a multitude of actions, operations,
acts or gestures directed to achieve a certain objective (Dragnea
A, Bota A, 1999).
Motility, according to J Didier, quoted by Pasztai Z., 2004,
can be:
- reflex motility, completely willpower independent;
- automatic motility, where the willpower interferes to
trigger a succession of automatized movements like
walking, deglutition etc.;
- deliberate motility, when each gesture is thought before
being executed.
According to dictionary, adapted it designates something
that has been changed in order to correspond to certain
requirements or to be used in certain circumstances, which is fit
for something.
Adapted motor activities
Adapted sport constitutes a sports branch which uses
motor structures, specific rules, material and organizational
conditions which are modified and appropriate to different types
of deficiencies (special needs) - Stnescu M. colab. 2004
Deficiency it represents the loss or disorder with
permanent or temporary character of a physiological, anatomical
or psychic structure; it designates a pathological, functional
condition which affects the working capacity disrupting the
process of adjustment and integration into the natural and social
environment.
Infirmity corresponds to structural and functional
alterations in anatomic, physiologic or psychological plan which,
8

permite desfurarea activitii. Anormalitatea dat de infirmitate


se raporteaz la nivelul unui organ, unui sistem.(infirmitate
intelectual, de vorbire, oculare, viscerale, scheletale,
desfigurative, psihologice etc.)
Unii specialiti consider termenii infirmitate i deficien
ca fiind sinonimi, dar n contextul abordrii psihopedagogice sau
medicale, utilizarea acestor termeni este diferit. Infirmul este un
deficient definitiv care nu a putut fi integral recuperat. Dup
O.M.S. Infirmitatea este o deficien fizic diagnosticat
medical care reduce aptitudinea individului de a face fa
nevoilor curente.
Incapacitatea se definete ca:
- orice restricie sau pierdere a capacitii de a performa o
activitate n maniera sau ntr-un grad considerat normal pentru
o fiin uman.
- pierderea, diminuarea total sau parial a posibilitilor
fizice, mentale, senzoriale etc., consecine a unor deficiene
care mpiedic efectuarea normal a unor activiti.
Literatura utilizeaz n acest sens i termenul de
dizabilitate, noiune preluat din limba englez, care nseamn o
limitare a abilitilor funcionale, fizice, mintale sau senzoriale,
avnd drept consecin diminuarea sau compromiterea
participrii subiecilor la activitile obinuite(L.Kirby, 1998).
Incapacitatea se instaleaz pe fondul uneia, sau mai multor
infirmiti, dar nu orice infirmitate genereaz incapacitatea. Dac
infirmitatea exprim consecina local la nivelul organului lezat,
incapacitatea exprim rezultatul acesteia la nivelul individului, a
capacitii lui de a desfura activiti, rezultnd n acest fel
incapaciti legate de locomoie, de comunicare, de dexteritate,
de autongrijire, etc.
Spre exemplu, un zidar cu 5% infirmitate datorit unei
lombalgii are o incapacitate de 100% pentru mnca lui, pe cnd
un profesor cu paraplegie are 70% invaliditate i poate s-i in
cursurile n continuare, neavnd nici un fel de incapacitate
vocaional.
9

however, allows the individuals to carry on their activities. The


abnormality given by infirmity occurs at the level of an organ, of
a system (intellectual, speech, visual, visceral, skeletal,
disfiguring, psychological infirmity etc.).
Some specialists consider the terms infirmity and
deficiency as being synonyms, yet in the context of psychopedagogical or medical approach, their use is different. The
infirm person is a person deficient for life who could not be
totally rehabilitated. According to W.H.O, Infirmity is a
physical deficiency medically diagnosed which reduces the
individuals ability to manage his/her current needs.
Incapacity is defined as:
- any restriction or loss of capacity to perform an activity in
a way or degree considered normal for a human being.
- the loss, total or partial diminishing of the physical,
mental, sensorial possibilities, as a consequence of certain
deficiencies which hinder the normal performance of
certain activities.
The literature also uses in this respect the term disability,
notion taken from English which means a limitation of the
functional, physical, mental or sensorial abilities, having as
consequence the diminishing or compromising the subjects
participation to habitual activities (L.Kirby, 1998). Incapacity
occurs on the background of one or several infirmities, yet not
any infirmity generates incapacity. If infirmity expresses the
local consequence at the level of the harmed organ, incapacity
expresses the result of infirmity at the level of the individual, of
his capacity to perform activities, resulting thus incapacities
related to locomotion, communication, dexterity, self-care, etc.
For example, a bricklayer with a 5% infirmity caused by
lumbar pain, has a 100% incapacity for his work, while a teacher
with paraplegia has 70% invalidity and still can go on teaching,
not suffering of any vocational incapacity.
10

Handicapul se definete ca:


- dezavantajul social al unui individ, determinat de o
infirmitate i o incapacitate i care limiteaz sau oprete
ndeplinirea unui rol normal n societate pentru un individ, n
raport cu vrsta, sexul, factorii culturali i sociali ai si.
- rezum consecinele deficienei i ale incapacitii
determinnd manifestri variabile n raport cu gravitatea
deficienei i exigenele mediului.
Handicapul apare atunci cnd se produce o interferen
ntre capacitile individului i posibilitile lui de a-i menine
rolurile de supravieuire n mediul su social. Handicapatul
ester un individ care din anumite cauze, spre deosebire de
anumite persoane nu este capabil s-i foloseasc ntreaga lui
capacitate fizic sau mental.
Noiunea de handicapat nu trebuie confundat cu cea de
invalid care are mai degrab conotaii economico-administrative,
legate de pierderea parial sau total a capacitii de munc pe o
durat de timp din cauza unei boli sau a unui accident, ceea ce
duce la scderea veniturilor rezultate din munc.
Realitatea cotidian ne confirm faptul c n cazul n care
persoanelor cu deficiene li se ofer posibiliti de autorealizare,
de autonomie existenial, starea de handicap nu se mai resimte.
Sunt prezente doar influenele subiective ale deficienei i nu
impactul social major.

11

Handicap is defined as:


- the social disadvantage of an individual, determined by an
infirmity and an incapacity, which limits or blocks the
achievement of a normal role for the individual in society,
according to his/her age, sex, cultural and social factors.
- it resumes the consequences of deficiency and incapacity,
determining variable manifestations according to the
severity of the deficiency and to the environmental
exigencies.
The handicap appears when interference is produced
between the individuals capacities and hi/her possibilities to
maintain his/her surviving roles in the social environment. The
handicapped is an individual who, because of certain causes, is
not able to use his/her total physical or mental capacity.
The notion of handicapped should not be mistaken with
that of invalid which has a rather economical-administrative
connotation related to the partial or total loss of working capacity
over a certain period of time because of a disease or an accident,
fact which leads to the decrease of income resulted from work.
The everyday reality proves the fact that in the case of
individuals with deficiencies, they are provided with selfachievement possibilities, existential autonomy, and the handicap
condition is not felt anymore. There are present only the
subjective influences of the deficiency and not the major social
impact.

12

2. Educaia integrat
Educaia integrat se refer la includerea n structura
nvmntului de mas a copiilor cu cerine speciale n
educaie (copii cu deficiene senzoriale, fizice, culturale,
intelectuale sau de limbaj, defavorizati socio-economic i
cultural, copii din centrele de asisten i ocrotire, copii cu uoare
tulburri psiho-afective i comportamentale, copii afectai cu
HIV) pentru a oferi un climat favorabil dezvoltrii armonioase i
ct mai echilibrate a personalitii acestora.
Se consider c coala este principala instan de
socializare a copilului (familia fiind considerat prima instan de
socializare), integrarea colar reprezint o particularizare a
procesului de integrare social a acestei categorii de copii, proces
ce are o importan major n facilitarea integrrii ulterioare. n
plus integrarea colar a copiilor cu nevoi speciale, sub
ndrumarea atent a cadrelor didactice, permite perceperea i
nelegerea corect de ctre elevii normali a problematicii i
potenialului de relaionare i participare la viaa comunitar a
semenilor lor care din motive independente de voina lor, au
nevoie de o abordare difereniat a procesului de instrucie i
educaie din coal precum i de anumite faciliti pentru accesul
i participarea lor la serviciile oferite n cadrul comunitii.
Aciunea de integrare conform Programului Naional din
2000, privind educaia i integrarea copilului cu nevoi speciale
vizeaz dou aspecte:
1. Integrarea copiilor n nvmntul public i pstrarea lor n
familia natural;
2. Integrarea copiilor cu deficiene asociate, grave, severe,
profunde din cminele spital n colile speciale/de mas, cu
meninerea lor acolo unde este posibil n familie.

13

2. Integrated education
Integrated education refers to inclusion into the mass
learning structure of children with special educational needs
(children with sensorial, physical, cultural, intellectual or speech
deficiencies, socio-economically and culturally disfavored,
children from care centers, children with slight psycho-affective
and behavioral disorders, HIV infected children) in order to
provide an environment proper for their harmonious and as
balanced as possible personality development.
School is considered to be the main place where the child
socializes (family being considered the first), thus school
integration represents a particularization of the social integration
process for this category of children, process which has a major
importance in facilitating further integration. In addition, school
integration of children with special needs, under the close
supervision of the teaching staff, allows the correct perception
and understanding by normal children of the issue and the
potential to relate and take part in the social life of their peers
who, out of reasons which do not depend on their will, need a
differentiated approach regarding the education and instruction
process in school, as well as certain facilities so they should have
access to services provided within the community.
The integration action, according to the National Plan from
2000 regarding the education and integration of the child with
special needs, has two aspects in view:
1. Integration of children in public education and keeping them in
their natural families;
2. Integration of children with associated, severe, profound
deficiencies from hospital-homes in special/mass schools,
keeping them, where possible, in their own families.

14

Integrarea colar a copiilor cu cerine speciale n


nvmntul de mas, presupune:
A educa copiii cu cerine speciale alturi de copiii normali;
A asigura servicii de specialitate(recuperare, terapie
educaional, consiliere colar, asisten medical i
social) n coala respectiv;
A acorda sprijinul necesar personalului didactic i
managerului colii n procesul de proiectare i aplicare a
programelor de integrare;
A permite accesul efectiv al copiilor cu nevoi speciale la
programul i resursele colii (bibliotec, terenuri de sport,
etc);
A ncuraja relaiile de prietenie i comunicare ntre copiii
din clas/coal;
A educa i ajuta toi copiii pentru nelegerea i acceptarea
diferenelor dintre ei;
A ine cont de problemele i opiniile prinilor,
ncurajndu-I s se implice n problemele colii;
A asigura programe de sprijin individualizate pentru copiii
cu nevoi speciale.
Regulamentul de organizare i funcionare a
nvmntului special propune urmtoarele structuri de sprijin i
adaptare a organizrii colare:
- grupa/clasa de integrare includerea a 2-4 copii cu CES n
grupe sau clase obinuite cu reducerea corespunztoare a
numrului de copii/elevi i cu asigurarea sprijinului
psihopedagogic necesar din partea unui cadru specializat
(itinerant/de sprijin);
- programul de integrare cuprinderea individual a unui
copil/elev cu CES ntr-o grup sau clas obinuit cu
asigurarea suportului corespunztor din partea unui cadru
specializat (itinerant/de sprijin).
15

School integration of children with special needs in mass


education implies:
To educate children with special needs together with
normal children;
To provide special services (rehabilitation, educational
therapy, school counseling, medical and social assistance)
in the respective school;
To provide the necessary support to the teaching staff and
to the school manager in the process of designing and
applying the integration programs;
To allow access for the children with special needs to the
school program and resources (library, sports ground, etc.);
To encourage friendships and communication between the
children in the class/school;
To educate and help all children to better understand and
accept the differences between them;
To take into account the parents problems and opinions,
encouraging them to get involved in the problems of the
school;
To provide individualized support programs for the
children with special needs.
The organizational and functional rules of special
education propose the following structures of support and
adjustment of school organization:
- integration group/class inclusion of 2-4 children with
SEN in regular groups or classes with the corresponding
reduction of pupils number and providing the necessary
psycho-pedagogical support from a specialized person
(itinerant/support teacher);
- integration program individualized inclusion of a
child/pupil with SEN in a regular group or class, providing
the corresponding support from a specialized person
(itinerant/support teacher).
16

3. Echipa multidisciplinar
Profesorul de sprijin este persoana specializat n
activitile educative i recuperatorii adresate copiilor cu CES.
Acesta particip att la activitile din coal ct i la cele
desfurate nafara colii asigurnd ajutorul necesar elevilor cu
CES.
Profesorul itinerant are un statut asemntor cu cel al
profesorului de sprijin cu deosebirea c acesta i desfoar
activitatea n coli obinuite, unde frecventeaz un anumit numr
de copii cu CES provenii din diverse familii. n responsabilitatea
profesorului itinerant intr i activitatea desfurat cu elevii
deficieni la domiciliul acestora atunci cnd acetia nu se pot
deplasa regulat la coal sau cnd nu sunt inclui ntr-un centru
sau alt instituie de ocrotire.
Competenele profesorului itinerant:
- elaboreaz i propune echipei de lucru programe
personalizate de servicii educaionale;
- propune elevii pentru intervenie personalizat;
- asigur programe curriculare adaptate posibilitilor de
nvare i dezvoltare ale copiilor;
- colaboreaz cu profesorii claselor n care sunt integrai
copiii cu deficiene, cu precizarea modalitilor de lucru
pentru fiecare capitol, tem, lecie;
- pred n parteneriat ntreaga activitate;
- particip n clas n calitate de observator, consultant,
coparticipant;
- desfoar activiti terapeutic-ocupaionale individuale i
de grup;
- acord asisten psihopedagogic;
- realizeaz activitatea de evaluare;
- proiecteaz i realizeaz activitatea de nvare
individualizat care vizeaz nvarea curricular propriuzis, adaptat la un alt context, diferit de cel al clasei.
17

3. Multidisciplinary team
The support teacher is a specialized person in educational
and recuperation activities for children with SEN. He/she
participates both to the school activities and to those carried on
outside the school, providing the necessary help to children with
SEN.
The itinerant teacher has a status similar to the one of the
support teacher, except he/she activates in regular schools
attended by a number of children with SEN from different
families. Another responsibility of the itinerant teacher is the
activity with deficient children at their homes when they cannot
attend school regularly or when they are not included in a center
or other caring institution.
Competences of the itinerant teacher:
- elaborates and proposes to the work team personalized
programs of educational services;
- proposes pupils for personalized intervention;
- provides curricular programs adjusted to the childrens
learning and developmental possibilities;
- cooperates with the teachers of the classes where children
with deficiencies are integrated, mentioning the working
modalities for each chapter, topic, lesson;
- teaches in partnership the entire activity;
- participates in the classroom as an observer, consultant,
co-participant;
- carries on individual and group therapeutical-occupational
activities;
- provides psycho-pedagogical assistance;
- performs the evaluation activity;
- designs and leads the individualized learning activity
which regards the actual curricular learning, adjusted to
another context, different from that of the class.
18

Educaia incluziv are la baz principiul dreptului egal


la educaie pentru toi copiii, indiferent de mediul social sau
cultural din care provin, religie, etnie, limb vorbit sau condiiile
economice n care triesc.

19

Inclusive education it is based on the principle of equal


rights to education for all children, disregard of social or cultural
environment, religion, ethnics, spoken language or the
economical conditions they live in.

20

4. Clasificarea deficienelor
Deficienele persoanelor cu nevoi speciale sunt multiple i
complexe, natura acestora fiind variat, ceea ce face destul de
grea sistematizarea acestora.
In funcie de posibilitatea de recuperare consecinele socioeconomice i alte aspecte medico-sanitate, literatura de
specialitate descrie patru categorii de deficiene:
1. motorii, determinate de boli ale sistemului locomotor i
nervos: reumatice, degenerative, ale sistemului muscular,
paralizie cerebral, secionarea total sau parial a
mduvei spinrii, amputri.
2. senzoriale, care se refer cu precdere la deficienele
analizatorilor vizuali i auditivi: nevztori, surzi i alte
deficiene senzoriale asociate.
3. deficiene morfo-funcionale la nivelul organelor
interne, unde putem ntlni afeciuni cardio-vasculare,
respiratorii, renale, digestive, metabolice, etc.
4. psihice, care pot fi de dou tipuri:
- probleme i insuficiene de maturizare ale sistemului
nervos central i periferic la nou-nscui;
- boli psihice dobndite n timpul vieii.
D. Gallahue (1993) prezint urmtoarele condiii limitate
care se refer la problematica educaiei fizice adaptate la copii:
- deficiene fizice;
- mintale;
- emoionale;
- dificulti de nvare;
- alte deficiene(astm, diabet, obezitate, leucemie etc.)

21

4. Classification of deficiencies
The deficiencies of people with special needs are multiple
and complex, of a varied nature, fact which makes their
systematization quite difficult.
Depending on the rehabilitation possibility, socioeconomic consequences and other medical-sanitary aspects, the
specialty literature differentiates four categories of deficiencies:
1. motor deficiencies, determined by diseases of the
locomotor and nervous systems: rheumatic, degenerative,
of the muscular system, cerebral palsy, partial or total
sectioning of the spinal marrow, amputations.
2. sensorial deficiencies, referring mostly to the deficiencies
of the visual and auditory analyzers: blindness, deafness
and other associated sensorial deficiencies.
3. morpho-functional deficiencies at the level of internal
organs, in this case we can encounter cardio-vascular
respiratory, renal, digestive, metabolic disorders, etc.
4. psychics deficiencies, which can be of two types:
- maturing problems and insufficiencies of the new-borns
central and peripheral nervous system;
- psychics diseases acquired during the lifespan.
D. Gallahue (1993) presents the following limited
conditions that the issue of adapted physical education for
children refers to:
- physical deficiencies;
- mental deficiencies;
- emotional deficiencies;
- learning difficulties;
- other deficiencies (asthma, diabetes, obesity, leukemia, etc.)

22

L.D. Housner (2000) scoate n eviden urmtoarea


tipologie:
autism tulburare de dezvoltare ce apare naintea vrstei
de 3 ani, determinnd dificulti de comunicare verbal i
nonverbal;
surzenia deficien a aparatului auditiv datorit creia nu
poate fi procesat informaia verbal, prin intermediul
auzului, cu sau fr amplificare;
hipoacuzia diminuarea funciei auditive permanent sau
tranzitorie care afecteaz performana educaional a
copilului;
deficiene vizuale, cecitate diminuarea sau lipsa funciei
vizuale care poate crea probleme de comunicare i
educaionale severe;
retard mintal afectarea semnificativ a funciei
intelectuale, de cele mai multe ori asociat cu deficit de
adaptare comportamental care se manifest n perioada de
dezvoltare a copilului;
deficiene de nvare disfuncia unuia sau mai multor
procese psihice de baz, implicate n nelegerea i
utilizarea limbajului scris sau vorbit, care se manifest
printr-o capacitate redus de a asculta, vorbi, scrie, citi,
gndi sau a realiza operaii matematice;
deficiene de vorbire sau limbaj disfuncie de
comunicare, cum ar fi articularea defectuoas, un deficit de
voce care afecteaz performana educaional a copilului;
deficiene emoionale condiie intern a individului care
evideniaz pe termen lung, una sau mai multe dintre
urmtoarele aspecte:
a) dificulti de nvare care nu are cauze de natur
intelectuale, senzorial sau de sntate;
b) dificulti de meninere a relaiilor interpersonale;
c) comportamente inadecvate n situaii normale;
d) stri profunde de depresie i nefericire;
23

L.D. Housner (2000) emphasizes the following typology:


autism developmental disorder which appears before the
age of 3, determining verbal and nonverbal communication
difficulties;
deafness deficiency of the auditory apparatus because of
which verbal information cannot be processed through
hearing, with or without amplification;
hypoaccoustic permanent or transitory diminishing of
the auditory function which affects the childs educational
performance;
visual deficiencies, blindness diminishing or lack of the
visual function which can cause severe educational and
communicational problems;
mental retardation significant disorder of the
intellectual function, most of the times associated with a
behavioral adjustment deficit which is manifested during
the childs developmental period;
learning deficiencies dysfunction of one or several basic
psychic processes involved in the understanding and use of
the written or spoken language, which is manifested
through reduced capacity to listen, speak, write, read, think
or make mathematical calculus;
speech or language deficiencies communication
dysfunction, such incorrect articulation, voice deficit
which affects the childs educational performance;
emotional deficiencies internal condition of the
individual which emphasizes on long term one or several
of the following aspects:
a) learning deficiencies which are not of intellectual,
sensorial or health nature;
b) difficulties
in
maintaining
interpersonal
relationships;
c) inappropriate behavior in normal situations;
d) deep depression and unhappiness conditions;
24

e) tendina de a acuza simptome ale fricii asociat


problemelor personale sau colare;
deficiene ortopedice limitri severe le nivel ortopedic
cauzate de factori congenitali, afeciuni, anomalii, alte
cauze(amputri, etc.);
infirmiti traumatice cerebrale leziune cerebral
provocat de fore fizice externe care cauzeaz limitri
totale sau pariale, funcionale i/sau psihosociale(nu se
refer la traumele provocate le natere);
alte probleme de sntate lipsa forei, a vitalitii, a
tonusului psihic etc. , datorate afeciunilor cronice i acute;
deficiene multiple(asociate) disfuncii concomitente
ale mai multor aparate i sisteme, ce propun strategii
complexe de intervenie.

Winnick J. (1990) propune urmtoarea sistematizare a


deficienelor:
- retard mintal;
- deficiene de atenie i nvare;
- deficiene comportamentale;
- deficiene vizuale i auditive;
- deficiene neromotorii i motorii;
- alte deficiene.
Jean-Pierre Deschamps i Michel Manciauz au elaborat o
clasificare analitic i minuioas a formelor de handicap, dup
cum urmeaz:
1. handicap motor
- handicap motor pur de origine non-cerebral sau
chirurgical;
- handicap motor de origine neurologic;
- maladii cronice cu handicap motor.
2. handicap psihic
- deficien (uoar, medie, profund);
- maladii cronice invalidante;
25

e) tendency to accuse symptoms of fear associated with


personal or school problems;
orthopedic deficiencies severe limitations at orthopedic
level caused by congenital factors, disorders,
abnormalities, other causes (amputations, etc.);
cerebral traumatic infirmities cerebral lesion caused by
external physical forces, producing total or partial
functional and/or psycho-social limitations (does not
include traumas caused at birth);
other health problems lack of strength, vitality, psychic
tonus, etc., caused by chronic and acute disorders;
multiple (associated) deficiencies simultaneous
dysfunctions of several apparatuses and systems which
require complex intervention strategies.

Winnick J. (1990) proposes the following systematization


of deficiencies:
- mental retardation;
- attention and learning deficiencies;
- behavioral deficiencies;
- visual and auditory deficiencies;
- neuromotor and motor deficiencies;
- other deficiencies
Jean-Pierre Deschamps and Michel Manciauz elaborated
an analytical and detailed classification of handicap forms as
follows:
1. motor handicap
- pure motor handicap of non-cerebral or surgical origin;
- motor handicap of neurological origin;
- chronicle diseases with motor handicap.
2. psychic handicap
- deficiency (light, medium, severe);
- invalidating chronicle diseases;
26

- tulburri psihoafective grave(dizarmonii evolutive, autism,


psihoze precoce etc.).
3. handicap senzorial
- tulburri de vedere(cecitate, ambliopi, tulburri de
motricitate ocular);
- tulburri ale auzului(surditatea de transmisie, surditatea de
percepie, hipoacuzia, cofoza, surdo-mutitatea);
- tulburri de limbaj senzorial(audimutitatea senzorial,
afazia senzorial).
4. persoane cu maladii cronice
- maladii cronice invadidante(astmul, epilepsia, diabetul);
- maladii
cu
simptome
externe
mai
puin
evidente(cardiopatia, hemofilia, insuficiena renal cronic
etc.).
5. psihohandicapai(cu handicapuri asociate)
6. persoane cu dificulti de integrare social i
profesional(la limita handicapului)
- tulburri instrumentale(de limbaj, psihomotricitate);
- dificulti de adaptare.
La acestea se mai pot aduga i alte categorii de handicap,
cum ar fi cele legate de mediul socio-uman i nu de individ:
handicapuri legate de grupuri sociale, de diferenele de ras,
etc.
Privind din perspectiva adaptrii, persoanele cu deficiene
vor ntmpina dificulti:
1. dificulti de ordin general:
dificulti de deplasare, de a efectua gesturi obinuite,
pentru cei cu deficiene fizice;
dificulti de exprimare i comunicare, pentru cei cu
deficiene senzoriale;
dificulti de adaptare la modul de via considerat
normal i la obinuinele sociale, pentru cei cu
deficiene mintale;
27

- severe psycho-affective disorders (evolving unbalances,


autism, precocious psychosis, etc.).
3. Sensorial handicap
- visual disorders (blindness, amblyopia, ocular motility
disorders);
- hearing disorders (transmission deafness, perception
deafness, hypoaccoustic individuals, deaf-mutism);
- sensorial language disorders (sensorial auditory-mutism,
sensorial aphasia).
4. Individuals with chronic diseases
- invalidant chronic diseases (asthma, epilepsy, diabetes);
- diseases with less obvious external symptoms
(cardiopathy, hemophilia, chronic renal insufficiency,
etc.).
5. Psycho-handicapped (with associated handicaps);
6. Individuals with social and professional integration
difficulties (at the limit of handicap)
- instrumental disorders (of language, psycho-motility);
- adjustment difficulties.
Other categories of handicaps can also be added, such as
those related to the socio-human environment and not to the
individual: handicaps related to social groups, to race
differences, etc.
In what the adjustment perspective is regarded,
individuals with deficiencies will encounter difficulties:
1. general difficulties:
walking difficulties, difficulties to make habitual
gestures, for those with physical deficiencies;
expression and communication difficulties for those
with sensorial deficiencies;
difficulties to adjust to a way of life considered normal
and to the social habits, for those with mental
deficiencies;
28

dificulti de ntreinere, pentru cei cu condiie


material precar.
2. dificulti de ordin profesional:
persoanele cu nevoi speciale nu dispun ntotdeauna de
un nvmnt sau de o form profesional adaptat
aptitudinilor fizice sau mintale;
dificulti n gsirea unor locuri de munc adecvate
profesiei lor, precum i insuficiena sau absena
msurilor de protecie social;
n general, se manifest tendina de a considera
persoanele handicapate incapabile s exercite o
activitate profesional.
3. dificulti de ordin psihologic i social:
bariera psihologic ntre persoanele cu handicap i cele
valide, datorat dificultilor cotidiene, profesionale i a
relaiilor sociale.
Avnd n vedere toate aceste condiii, se poate spune c
persoana cu nevoi speciale i triete de trei ori handicapul: n
primul rnd este atins corpul sau spiritul su, n al doilea rnd are
dificulti n realizarea unor activiti i n al treilea rnd din
cauza barierelor psihologice.

29

difficulties of self-caring for those with financial


problems.
2. professional difficulties:
individuals with special needs do not always benefit of
education or a professional form adjusted to their
physical or mental skills;
difficulties in finding jobs appropriate to their profession
as well as insufficiency or lack of social protection
measures;
generally, the tendency is to consider handicapped
individuals unable to perform a professional activity.
3. psychological and social difficulties:
psychological barrier between handicapped individuals
and valid ones, caused by everyday, professional
difficulties and by social relationships.
Taking into consideration all these circumstances, it can be
stated that an individual with special needs lives his/her handicap
three times: first, his body or spirit is affected, second, he has
difficulties in performing certain activities and third, he
encounters difficulties caused by psychological barriers

30

5. Educaia fizic i sportul adaptat activiti motrice


formative
Educaia fizic i sportul adaptat ncearc s vin n
ntmpinarea unei mari provocri i anume s sprijine subiecii
deficieni n a cpta deprinderi care s i fac independeni,
autonomi. Acest lucru se poate realiza dac respectm trei
aspecte importante:
conturarea unei strategii adecvate;
crearea unor situaii de nvare stimulative;
utilizarea unei abordri de instruire specifice i a unor
modele ce faciliteaz (re)nvarea.
Prin nelegerea variabilelor care pot influena adaptarea
complex (dezvoltare, nvare, corectare, reeducare, etc.),
specialistul poate aduce corecii metodologiei de lucru pentru ca
interaciunea cu subiecii deficieni s fie eficient.
Cmpul de aciune n zona persoanelor cu nevoi speciale
se situeaz ntre studierea strii de normalitate i a strii
patologice, parcurgnd un traseu complex care include
prevenirea, depistarea, diagnoza, terapia, recuperarea, educarea i
orientarea colar i profesional, integrarea social i
monitorizarea evoluiei ulterioare a persoanei aflate n dificultate.
Parte integrant a activitilor motrice formative, educaia
fizic i sportul adaptat au impus n ultimii ani o filosofie
distinct, un cadru instituional, un ansamblu de competene clar
precizate, care au ca finalitate crearea unui sistem de valori cu
semnificaie pentru individ i pentru societate, capabil s pun
ntr-o nou lumin persoana deficient.
Completnd pe un alt plan activitatea kinetoterapeutic, ce
asigur recuperarea funciilor deficitare i dobndirea
independenei funcionale, educaia fizic i sportul adaptat
plaseaz subiectul n ipostaza de fiin social, capabil s i
exercite un rol activ n formarea i dezvoltarea sa.
31

5. Physical education and adapted sports formative


motor activities
Physical education and adapted sports try to face a great
challenge, namely to support deficient subjects in acquiring skills
which should make them independent, self-sufficient. This can
be achieved if we respect three important aspects:
creation of an important strategy;
creation of stimulating learning situations;
use of a specific instruction approach and of certain
patterns which should facilitate (re)education.
By understanding the variables which can influence
complex adaptation (development, learning, correction, etc.), the
specialist can correct the working methodology so that the
interaction with deficient subjects should be efficient.
The action field in the case of individuals with special
needs is situated between the studies of normality and pathologic
condition, crossing a complex route which includes prevention,
detection, diagnosis, therapy, rehabilitation, school and
professional education and orientation, social integration and
monitoring the further evolution of the individual in difficulty.
Constitutive part of the formative motor activities, physical
education and adapted sports have imposed during the past years
a distinct philosophy, an institutional framework, a series of
competences clearly specified which have as finality the creation
of a value system, significant for the individual and for society,
able to place the deficient person in a new light.
Completing the physical therapeutic activity on another
level, which provides the recovery of the deficient functions and
the gain of functional independence, physical education and
adapted sports place the subject in the hypostasis of a social
being, capable to have an active role in his/her formation and
development.
32

Utilizarea educaiei fizice i sportului n stimularea


motivaiei interne care susine procesul de vindecare
recuperare, reprezint o cale fireasc de dezvoltare ulterioar a
individului. Orientarea activitii spre subiect ca persoan i nu
ca persoan deficient asigur posibilitatea de integrare n diverse
medii sociale n care acetia pot presta activiti. Intervenia
kinetoterapeutic devine eficient pentru subieci numai n
msura n care aceasta este completat , n paralel sau succesiv,
cu angajarea n activiti educaionale, recreative i sportive.
A recupera nseamn redobndirea capacitii funcionale,
dar existena nu are doar o semnificaie biologic, ci mai ales o
dimensiune calitativ. n aceast idee, activitile fizice adaptate
reprezint un reper important i n organizarea timpului liber al
subiecilor, avnd beneficii importante n sfera afectivmotivaional.
Odat depite condiiile limitante, subiectul se angajeaz
ntr-o experien, educaional complex, ce creeaz un mediu
psiho-social favorabil dezvoltrii integrale a personalitii.
Activitile de educaie fizic i sport adaptat pun n
valoare calitile, deprinderile, atitudinile, valorile i
comportamentele care abiliteaz subiecii deficieni s participe
n calitate de membri ai societii n care triesc.(Anshel,
1991).
Activitile fizice adaptate favorizeaz pe de o parte,
creterea calitii vieii, i pe de alt parte, contribuie la
integrarea i coeziunea social.
ncepnd cu anii 1980, organismele comunitare europene
au iniiat o serie de proiecte legislative i programe adresate
persoanelor cu dizabiliti, proiecte care au urmrit ndeplinirea
urmtoarelor obiective:
- integrarea social la nivel comunitar(1983);
- pregtirea vocaional a subiecilor cu dizabiliti(19881989);
33

Using physical education and sport in stimulating the


internal motivation which supports the healing process
rehabilitation represents a natural way of the individuals
further development. Orienting the activity towards the subject as
a person and not as a deficient person provides the possibility of
integration in various social environments in which they can
perform activities. The physical therapeutic intervention becomes
efficient for the subject only if it is completed, in parallel and
successively, by engaging the subject in educational, recreational
and sportive activities.
To rehabilitate means to regain functional capacity, yet
existence does not have only a biological significance, but mostly
a qualitative dimension. From this respect, adapted physical
activities also represent an important mark in organizing the
subjects spare time, having important benefits in the affectivemotivational area.
Once the limiting conditions have been overcome, the
subject is engaged in a complex educational experience which
creates a psycho-social environment, favorable to the entire
development of personality.
Physical education and adapted sport activities
emphasize the qualities, skills, attitudes, values and behaviors
which abilitate deficient subjects to participate as members of
the society they live in. (Anshel, 1991).
Adapted physical activities, on one hand, enhance the
increase of the quality of life and, on the other hand, contribute to
social integration and cohesion.
Since the 1980s, the European communitarian organisms
have initiated a series of legislation projects and programs
addressed to individuals with disabilities, projects meant to
achieve the following objectives:
- social integration at communitarian level (1983);
- vocational training of subjects with disabilities (19881989);
34

- includerea unor arii importante, cum ar fi recuperarea


funcional, integrarea educaional i activitile de timp
liber pentru deficieni(1993-1996);
- drepturi egale i oportuniti n ceea ce privete educaia
integrat, recreere i sport(1996);
- capacitarea subiecilor cu comportamente valorizate la
toate nivelele societii(1997).
n cadrul Noii Strategii Comunitare privind persoanele cu
dizabiliti, programele prioritare vor viza ariile educaionale pe
baza respectrii opiunilor personale i includerea educaiei fizice
ca drept recunoscut al persoanelor cu dizabiliti pentru ca
principiul non-discriminrii s funcioneze i n aceast zon.
Educaia fizic se constituie ca o necesitate pentru toi
indivizii societii i n special pentru cei cu nevoi speciale.
Astfel apare educaia fizic special sau adaptat, care
este o ramur a educaiei fizice ce urmrete recuperarea i
integrarea social prin promovarea programelor adaptate
diferitelor tipuri de deficiene. Se cunosc trei tipuri de asemenea
programe:
1. Programe adaptate care implic modificare activitilor
fizice tradiionale, astfel nct s ofere posibiliti de
participare pentru toi deficienii;
2. Programe corective care se adreseaz n special recuperrii
funciei posturale i a deficienelor de biomecanic a
micrii;
3. Programe de dezvoltare care urmresc mbuntirea
nivelului calitilor motrice i a posibilitilor de realizare
a deprinderilor i priceperilor motrice.
Care este coninutul acestei discipline?
Cei care o plaseaz n opoziie cu sportul sau cei care o
asimileaz cu sportul sau cei care o limiteaz la practici
determinate de o metod, fie ea i laborioas, fac o eroare
simplificnd sau reducnd la abloane aceast activitate. n
realitate coninutul educaiei fizice este legat de conduita motric
35

- inclusion of important areas, such as functional


rehabilitation, educational integration and spare time
activities for deficient individuals (1993-1996);
- equal rights and opportunities regarding integrated
education, recreation and sports (1996);
- convincing subjects with valorized behaviors at all levels
of society (1997).
Within the New Communitarian Strategy regarding
individuals with disabilities, the programs with priority will
directed towards educational areas based on respecting personal
options and inclusion of physical education as a recognized right
of individuals with disabilities, so the non-discrimination
principle should work in this area too.
Physical education is constituted as a necessity for all the
individuals of the society and especially for those with special
needs.
Thus, special or adapted physical education appears
which is a branch of physical education and has as purpose the
rehabilitation and social integration by promoting programs
adapted to different types of deficiencies. Three types of such
programs are known:
1. Adapted programs implying the modification of traditional
physical activities so as to provide participation
possibilities for all deficient individuals;
2. Corrective programs especially for the rehabilitation of the
postural function and of individuals with movement
biomechanics deficiencies;
3. Developmental programs with the purpose to improve the
level of motor qualities and of the possibilities to acquire
motor skills and aptitudes.
Which is the content of this subject-matter?
Those who place it in opposition with sports or those who take it
for sport or those who limit it to practices determined by a
method, even laborious, are making a mistake by simplifying
36

sau ansamblul tehnicilor corporale variate care influeneaz


complex subiecii. Acest tip de conduit este numitorul comun al
tuturor activitilor fizice i sportive.
Educaia fizic i construiete specificitatea sa axat pe
motricitate, plasndu-se astfel ntr-o perspectiv nou care
implic ieirea din tipare, cutarea spontaneitii, comunicarea,
adaptarea, etc. n locul reproducerii mecanice a unor acte i
aciuni motrice, suntem de acord cu opiniile lui Le Boulch i
Teissie, care pun accentul pe stimularea elementelor
psihomotorii ale comportamentului: precizia ritmului,
schimbrile de vitez i de direcie, aprecierea distanelor, a
traiectoriilor i formelor micrii, simul spaiului, al timpului, al
greutii, , toate acestea modelnd personalitatea subiecilor,
prin exerciiu.
Una dintre funciile educaiei fizice i anume cea psihosocial exprim rolurile fundamentale ale acestei activiti care
nu este exclusiv de natur motric. Alturi de contribuia
educaiei fizice la dezvoltarea capacitii motrice se afl
influenele la fel de importante n planul dezvoltrii cognitive i
afective. Prin intermediul exersrii, se obin modificri
progresive n capacitatea subiecilor de analiza situaii, de a
rezolva probleme, de a lua decizii. Se stimuleaz astfel activitatea
intelectual, cea care este responsabil de dobndirea
cunotinelor despre deprinderi (cum ar trebui s acioneze
corpul), despre activiti (n ce context se poate aciona, care sunt
regulile de desfurare ale acestora), despre condiia fizic a
corpului, etc. Dar influenele nu se opresc aici, ci ele se extind i
asupra domeniului afectiv, unde se fac resimite n mod deosebit
patru categorii de comportamente afective: interese, motivaii,
atitudini, valori.
Influena practicrii exerciiilor fizice asupra sferelor
cognitiv i afectiv, nu poate fi analizat n afara contextului
social n care se desfoar activitatea de educaie fizic i sport.
n acest cadru se dezvolt sentimentul de apartenen la un
37

or reducing this activity to patterns. In reality, the content of


physical education is related to the motor behavior or to the
ensemble of varied bodily techniques which influence the
subjects in a complex way. This type of behavior is the common
ground for all physical and sportive activities.
Physical education constructs its specificity based on
motility, thus placing itself in a new perspective which implies
leaving the patterns, finding spontaneity, communication,
adaptation, etc. Instead of mechanical reproduction of certain
motor acts and actions, we agree with the opinions of Le Boulch
and Teissie who emphasize the stimulation of the psycho-motor
elements of behavior: precision of rhythm, changes of speed and
direction, appreciation of distance, of trajectory and of movement
forms, sense of space, of time, of weight,..., all these modeling
the subjects personality through exercise.
One of the functions of physical education, the psychosocial one, expresses the fundamental roles of this activity which
is not exclusively of motor nature. Besides the contribution of
physical education to the development of motor capacity, there
are influences which just as important on the level of cognitive
and affective development. By exercising, progressive
modifications are obtained in the subjects capacity to analyze
situations, to solve problems, to make decisions. Thus it is
stimulated the intellectual activity, the one responsible for
gaining knowledge about skills (how the body should act), about
activities (in what context they should act, which are the rules
under which these activities can be performed), about the
physical condition of the body, etc. However, the influences do
not stop here, but they extend to the affective area as well, where
four categories of affective behaviors can be distinguished:
interests, motivations, attitudes, values.
The influence of practicing physical exercises upon the cognitive
and affective areas cannot be analyzed outside the social context
in which the physical education and sports activity is carried on.
Here it is developed the feeling of belonging to a
38

grup, se ofer ocazia valorizrii ideilor i aciunilor personale, se


dezvolt capacitatea de apreciere i autoapreciere, elemente
importante n structurarea sau refacerea imaginii de sine. De
asemenea, se accept i se promoveaz un comportament moral
consistent exprimat prin fair-play i colaborare. Dorina de
afiliere la un grup este unul dintre motivele pentru care copiii,
tinerii n general, particip la activitile motrice, cu caracter
recreativ sau competiional. n acelai timp, nevoia de
apartenen la un grup oblig subiectul deficient sau nu, la
respectarea normelor de comportament, a atitudinii de acceptare
a celuilalt, fr discriminri. Astfel se realizeaz procesul de
socializare, deosebit de important pentru c are drept rezultat
dobndirea de ctre subiectul n dificultate a competenei sociale.
Copiii i tinerii cu nevoi speciale sunt inclui n programe
de reinserie social ale cror obiective pot fi realizate prin
intermediul activitilor sportive.
n 1952 au avut loc primele jocuri internaionale pentru
subiecii imobilizai n crucioare cu rotile, sub numele de
International Mandeville Games. Dea lungul timpului au aprut
i alte organizaii care i-au creat identiti proprii, cu referire
la principalele tipuri de deficieni, cum ar fi nevztori, surzi,
infirmi la nivel motor cerebral i amputaii. Dezvoltarea
instituional a spotului a cunoscut dou etape, prima se refer
la sportul adaptat segregat, iar cea de-a doua la promovarea
sportului integrat i pe reunirea mai multor tipuri de deficieni
ntr-un sistem competiional unic.
Dimensiunea recreativ a sportului adaptat determin
crearea unui sistem complex de servicii orientate asupra
intereselor i experienei subiecilor, cu rol n protejarea i
promovarea strii de sntate. Aceste servicii ar trebui s fie
disponibile n diferite instituii: n spitale, n centrele de
dezintoxicare, centre psihiatrice, centre de plasament, cmine,
spitale, coli, centre de zi, coli de corecie etc.
39

group, they have the opportunity to valorize their personal ideas


and actions, the assessment and self-assessment capacity is
developed, which are important elements in structuring or
rebuilding self-image. It is also accepted and promoted a
consistent, moral behavior expressed through fair-play and
cooperation. The desire to join a group is one reason for which
children - youngsters in general - take part in motor activities,
with recreational or competitive character. At the same time, the
need of belonging to a group forces the subject, deficient or not,
to respect the behavioral norms, the attitude of accepting the
others, without discrimination. Thus, the socializing process is
achieved and it is very important because it has as result gaining
social competence by the subject in difficulty.
Children and young people with special needs are included
in social reinsertion programs whose objectives can be achieved
through sportive activities.
In 1952 took place the first international games for
subjects immobilized in wheelchairs under the name of
International Mandeville Games. Other organizations have
appeared in time and have created their own identities, referring
to the main types of deficient individuals such as blind, deaf
people, infirm people at the cerebral motor level and
amputations. The institutional development of sports has known
two stages, one referring to segregated adapted sports and one to
integrated sports promotion and reunion of several types of
deficient individuals in a unique competitional system.
The recreational dimension of adapted sports determines
the creation of a complex system of services focused on the
subjects interests and experience, in order to protect and
promote the health condition. These services should be available
in different institutions: hospitals, detoxification centers,
placement centers, psychiatric centers, homes, schools, day care
centers, correctional schools, etc.
40

6. Obiectivele educaiei fizice i sportului adaptat


Obiectivele educaiei fizice i sportului la copiii deficieni
sunt derivate din obiectivele cu caracter general ale educaiei,
fiind repartizate n dou categorii: generale i specifice(n funcie
de deficienele existente).
Obiectivele cu caracter general delimiteaz cadrul n care
trebuie s se desfoare ntregul proces, cu elementele sale de
coninut, structur i forme de organizare, particularizate n
funcie de:
- factori care in de subieci: caracteristici de vrst, sex, tip
de deficien, nivel de dezvoltare fizic, experien motric
etc);
- factori specifici cadrului didactic(specialitate, vrst,
devotament, creativitate, personalitate etc);
- factori privind infrastructura (spaii de lucru, sli, terenuri,
materiale, condiii igienice, implicarea conducerii unitii,
timpul alocat exerciiilor fizice, echipament etc);
- actele normative i de documentare care reglementeaz
desfurarea educaiei fizice i sportului n instituiile
respective(instruciuni, ordine, programe, manuale,
documente de diferite tipuri;
- formele de organizare posibil de pus n practic n
instituiile vizate, lecii cu anumite structuri, activiti
extraclas n unitate sau n afara unitii;
- sistemul de evaluare acceptat n unitatea respectiv de
nvmnt (motric-complex, psiho-motric, socio-motric).
Toate aceste elemente sunt tot aceste condiii care ntr-o
msur mai mare sau mai mic se iau n discuie n vederea
stabilirii obiectivelor.
Trebuie s amintim c obiectivele se stabilesc n funcie de
elurile pe termen lung i pe termen scurt formulate de societate
pentru subiecii n discuie, ns nivelul realizrilor este
condiionat n mare msur de factorii amintii mai sus.
41

6. Objectives of adapted physical education and sports


The objectives of physical education and sports in the case
of deficient children are derived from the general objectives of
education, being divided into two categories: general and specific
objectives (according to the existent deficiencies).
General objectives delimit the framework in which the
entire process should take place, with its elements of contents,
structure and organization forms, particularized according to:
- subject related factors: characteristics of age, sex, type of
deficiency, level of physical development, motor
experience, etc.;
- factors specific to the teaching staff (specialty, age,
devotion, creativity, personality, etc.);
- factors regarding infrastructure (working spaces, rooms,
fields, materials, hygiene conditions, involvement of
management, time for physical exercises, equipment, etc.);
- normative and informational acts which regulate the
carrying on of physical education and sports in the
respective institutions (instructions, orders, programs,
manuals, different types of documents);
- organization forms applicable in institutions, lessons
having certain structures, activities out of the classroom, in
or out of the institution;
- evaluation system accepted in the respective educational
institution (motor-complex, psycho-motor, socio-motor).
All these elements are conditions which are in discussion
in a certain extent in order to establish the objectives.
We should mention that the objectives are established
according to the long and short term targets formulated by
society for the subjects in discussion, but the level of
achievements is greatly conditioned by the above mentioned
factors.
42

Obiectivele cu caracter general ale educaiei fizice i


sportului adaptat nu se deosebesc fundamental de cele fixate
pentru copiii normal dezvoltai, diferena fiind de nuan. Acestea
vizeaz aspecte privind:
- starea de sntate (rezisten la mbolnviri, deprinderi de
clire a organismului, respectarea condiiilor igienice etc.):
- aspecte corporale procesele de cretere i dezvoltare,
atitudine corect a corpului, activitatea funcional i
capacitatea de adaptare la efort;
- aspecte de motricitate nsuirea i perfecionarea
deprinderilor i priceperilor motrice, dezvoltarea calitilor
motrice;
- aspecte psihice i psiho-motrice stimularea proceselor
cognitive, afective, motivaionale, volitive, dezvoltarea
ambidextriei, orientrii spaiale, senzoriomotricitii etc;
- aspecte
sociale

formarea
elementelor
de
sociomotricitate, transferul deprinderilor sociale din
domeniul sportului n viaa social.
Astfel obiectivele pot fi schematizate n urmtoarele
planuri:
Biologic
- optimizarea strii de sntate;
- favorizarea unei dezvoltri armonioase i a unei capaciti
funcionale corespunztoare vrstei;
- prevenirea i corectarea deficienelor fizice, de postur i
formarea unei atitudini corporale corecte;
- realizarea (n mod implicit) a unor efecte terapeutice,
sanogenetice (terapie corectiv, recreaional, sportterapie, programe de sntate etc.).
Motric
- mbuntirea motricitii generale prin formarea unui
sistem de deprinderi i priceperi motrice variate i
asigurarea unor indici crescui ai calitilor motrice;
- dezvoltarea potenialului psiho-motric al subiecilor;
43

The general objectives of adapted physical education and


sports are not fundamentally different from those established for
normally developed children, the difference subtle. They concern
aspects regarding:
- the health condition (resistance to disease, skills for body
strengthening, respecting hygiene conditions, etc.):
- bodily aspects growth and development processes,
correct body attitude, functional activity and capacity to
adjust to effort;
- motility aspects acquiring and improving motor kills and
habits, development of motor qualities;
- psychic and psycho-motor aspects stimulation of
cognitive, affective, motivational, will processes,
development of ambidexterity, of space orientation, of
sensorial motility, etc.;
- social aspects formation of socio-motility elements,
transfer of social skills from sports into social life.
The objectives can be schematized in the following plans:
Biologic plan
- optimization of health condition;
- favoring harmonious development and a functional
capacity proper to age;
- prevention and correction of physical and posture
deficiencies and formation of a correct body attitude;
- accomplishment (implicitly) of therapeutic effects
(corrective, recreational therapy, sport-therapy, health
programs, etc.).
Motor plan
- improvement of general motility by forming a system of
varied motor abilities and skills and providing high
indexes of motor qualities;
- development of the subjects psycho-motor potential;

44

- maximizarea potenialului biomotric existent care s


favorizeze obinerea unor performane profesionale,
sportive, sociale;
Psihologic
- formarea unui comportament adaptativ adecvat prin
educarea componentelor cognitive, afective, volitive,
motivaionale;
- acceptarea propriei condiii ca prim pas al realizrii
integrrii sociale;
- facilitarea exprimrii subiecilor deficieni conform
propriilor abiliti i capaciti;
Social
- dezvoltarea capacitii de relaionare cu mediul fizic i
social;
- stimularea comunicrii ntre diferitele categorii de copii,
cu sau fr handicap;
- ncurajarea relaiilor sociale att la indivizii deficieni ct
i ntre acetia i persoanele valide;
- realizarea unei noi imagini despre grup sau propria
persoan, a unei valorizri superioare a competenelor
existente.

45

- maximization of existent biometric potential which should


favor the gain of certain professional, sportive and social
performances.
Psychological plan
- formation of a proper adjusting behavior by educating the
cognitive, affective, will, motivational components;
- acceptance of their own condition as a first step in
accomplishing social integration;
- facilitation for deficient subjects to express themselves
according to their own abilities and capacities.
Social plan
- development of relating capacity with physical and social
environment;
- stimulation of communication between different categories
of children, with or without handicap;
- encouragement of social relationships both between
deficient individuals and between them and valid
individuals;
- achieving a new image about the group or their own
person, of a superior valorization of the existing
competences.

46

7. Noiuni de didactic a educaiei fizice i sportului


adaptat
Realizarea unei programe (curriculum) adresate
persoanelor cu cerine educative speciale, reprezint o provocare
pentru toi cei implicai n procesul de recuperare, readaptare i
integrare, deoarece aceasta misiune ridic multe probleme ce
deriv din complexitatea fenomenului.
n programarea coninuturilor de instruire i a serviciilor
destinate persoanelor cu nevoi speciale, se contureaz trei
direcii importante:
1. rezolvarea a ct mai multe probleme cu costuri minime;
2. modificri i reforme n educaie, datorate schimbrilor pe
plan naional sau de tendinele internaionale;
3. schimbri rapide n tehnologie, acumulri de informaii,
care influeneaz programul, personalul implicat i
serviciile , n aceeai msur.
Pentru a elabora un curriculum eficient, este necesar:
s se identifice criteriile de mbuntire a calitii vieii;
s se stabileasc un sistem de instruire bazat pe obiective;
s se creeze o baz de date la nivel naional i
internaional.
Proiectarea instruirii
Pentru realizarea obiectivelor educaiei fizice i sportului
adaptat, este foarte important capacitatea profesorului de a
controla urmtoarele variabile ale instruirii:
- particularitile subiectului, prin cunoaterea acestora;
- modificarea deprinderilor motrice, n densul creterii
accesibilitii lor pentru persoanele n cauz;
- adaptarea ramurilor de sport, prin modificarea
echipamentelor, a regulilor de joc, etc.
47

7. Notions regarding the didactics of adapted physical


education and sports
The creation of a program (curriculum) for individuals
with special educational needs represents a challenge for all those
involved in the rehabilitation, readjustment and integration
process because there are many problems derived from the
complexity of the phenomenon.
In programming the instruction contents and the services
for individuals with special needs, there are three important
directions:
1. solving as many problems as possible with minimum costs;
2. modifications and reforms in education due to the changes
of the national plan or to the international tendencies;
3. fast changes in technology, information gathering which
influence the program, the involved staff and services in the
same extent.
To elaborate an efficient curriculum, the followings are
necessary:
to identify criteria to improve the quality of life;
to establish an instruction system based on objectives;
to create a data base at national and international level.
Designing instruction
In order to accomplish the objectives of adapted physical
education and sports, it is very important the teachers capacity to
control the following instruction variables:
- the subjects particularities, by getting to know them;
- modification of motor habits, in the way of increasing their
accessibility for the respective individuals;
- adjustment of sport branches by modifying the equipment,
the playing rules, etc.
48

Particularitile subiectului este una dintre variabilele ce


presupun din partea profesorului o informare atent asupra
tipului de deficien, etiologiei acesteia i nivelul de dezvoltare a
capacitii motrice a subiectului. n funcie de aceste
particulariti, profesorul va decide:
- stilul de instruire pe care l va adopta: structurat, direct sau
nondirectiv, euristic;
- condiiile de mediu, respectiv tipul de deprinderi care vor
fi nsuite: deschise-nchise, n funcie de influenele care
se doresc s se exercite asupra subiecilor;
- materiale didactice, echipamente necesare, adaptate tipului
de deficien;
- mrimea grupului n care se vor desfura activitile de
educaie fizic i sport;
- motivaia care angreneaz persoanele cu deficiene n
practicarea exerciiilor fizice.
Modificarea tehnologiei didactice. Profesorul trebuie s
tie c fiecare categorie de deficien impune o serie de
modificri a tehnologiei didactice, modificri n scopul facilitrii
receptrii mesajelor educaionale de ctre subieci. Astfel, n
cazul deficienilor senzoriali se pune problema valorificrii
simurilor valide, care ofer modaliti compensatorii de nvare
(pentru persoanele cu deficien de vedere, se vor utiliza
predominant stimuli auditivi i tactili kinestezici), n timp ce
pentru cei cu deficiene fizice se va pune accent pe solicitarea
segmentelor valide.
Modificarea ramurilor de sport. Accesibilitatea, ca
principiu general de instruire, se va traduce n cazul persoanelor
cu deficiene i prin modificarea regulamentelor de practicare a
ramurilor de sport. Aceasta se poate realiza n urmtoarele
direcii:
- adaptarea suprafeelor de joc (dimensiuni, suprafa);
49

The subjects particularities represent one of the


variables which imply that the teacher should be well informed
about the type of deficiency, its etiology and the development
level of the subjects motor capacity. According to these
particularities, the teacher will decide:
- the instruction style to be used: structured, direct or nondirective, heuristic;
- the environment conditions, respectively the type of habits
to be acquired: open-closed, depending on the influences
desired to act on the subjects;
- didactic materials, necessary equipments, adapted to the
deficiency type;
- size of the group in which the physical education and sport
activities will be carried on;
- motivation which engages deficient individuals in
practicing physical exercises.
Modification of didactic technology. The teacher should
know that each category of deficiency imposes a series of
modifications of the didactic technology which should be made
in order to facilitate the reception of educational messages by the
subjects. Thus, in the case of sensorial deficients, the valid senses
should be valorized as they provide compensatory ways of
learning (for individuals with vision deficiencies, there will be
used predominantly hearing and tactile stimuli), while for those
with physical deficiencies, the focus will be on soliciting the
valid segments.
Modification of sport branches. Accessibility, as a
general instruction principle, means, in the case of deficient
individuals, also the modification of rules of practicing different
sports. This can be achieved as follows:
- adjustment of playing areas (dimension, surface);
50

- modificarea echipamentelor ( mingi mai uoare, mingi


sonore), modificarea nlimii fileului, a mesei de joc
pentru tenis de mas;
- modificarea regulilor de joc, a numrului de juctori din
echip, meninnd ns unele reguli de baz.
Toate aceste aspecte legate de creterea accesibilitii
practicrii diferitelor ramuri de sport de ctre subieci deficieni
solicit din plin creativitatea profesorului i chiar a practicanilor.

51

- equipment modification (lighter balls, balls with sounds),


modification of net height, of playing table for table tennis;
- modification of playing rules, of number of players in a
team, yet maintaining some basic rules.
All these aspects related to the increase of accessibility of
practicing different sports by deficient subjects, fully requires the
teachers creativity, and even that of the players.

52

8. Principii didactice adaptate instruirii persoanelor cu


cerine educaionale speciale
8.1 Principiile aplicrii teoriei compensaiei n
procesul instruirii
La ora actual, una dintre principalele preocupri n
psihopedagogia special este aceea de a studia aplicarea teoriei
compensaiei n procesul de nvmnt.
Analiznd specificul dezvoltrii copiilor cu deficiene,
M.I.Zemova (1965, citat de Gh. Radu, 1999) definete
compensaia drept proces de dezvoltare, n condiiile cruia se
formeaz noi sisteme dinamice de legturi condiionate; au loc
diferite substituiri; se produc corelri i refaceri ale unor funcii
distruse sau nedezvoltate; se formeaz modaliti de aciune i
nsuire a experienei sociale; se dezvolt capaciti fizice i
mintale i personalitatea copilului n ansamblul su.
n procesul de nvmnt rolul compensaiei este studiat
din perspectiva formelor de baz ale acesteia, i anume:
- vicarierea, respectiv suplinirea unei funcii pierdute, prin
activitatea altora; aceast form are o pondere nsemnat n
dezvoltarea copiilor cu deficiene senzoriale;
- restructurarea funcional a activitii oricrui organism
lezat, n condiiile specifice impuse de prezena oricrei
deficiene.
Pornind de la ideea conform creia adaptarea
compensatorie poate avea loc doar n cadrul unei intervenii
educaionale corect dirijat, D. Damaschin (1973, citat de Gh.
Radu, 1999) consider c specialitii trebuie s aib n vedere o
serie de principii. n contextul specific al practicrii exerciiilor
fizice, aceste principii vor dobndi note specifice.

53

8. Didactic principles adapted to the instruction of


individuals with special educational needs
8.1. The principles of applying the compensation
theory in the instruction process
Nowadays, one of the main preoccupations in special
psycho-pedagogy is studying the application of the compensation
theory in the education process.
Analyzing the specifics of development of deficient
children, M.I.Zemova (1965, quoted by Gh. Radu, 1999) defines
compensation as a developmental process in the conditions of
which new dynamic systems of conditioned connections are
formed; different substitutions take place; correlations and
recovery of certain destroyed or undeveloped functions occur;
ways of action and of acquiring social experience are formed;
physical and mental capacities are developed and also the childs
entire personality.
In the learning process, the role of compensation is studied
from the perspective of its basic forms, as follows:
- substitution of a lost function with the activity of other
functions; this form has major importance in the sensorial
deficient childrens development;
- functional restructuring of a damaged organism, under
specific circumstances imposed by the presence of any
deficiency.
Starting from the idea that compensating adaptation can
take place only in a correctly directed educational intervention,
Damaschin (1973, quoted by Gh. Radu, 1999) considers that
specialists should take into account a series of principles. In the
specific context of practicing physical education, these principles
will gain specificity.
54

1. Principiul integrrii i ierarhizrii. Presupune


cunoaterea i favorizarea n procesul de instruire a unor
raporturi dinamice de subordonare, succesiune, sincronizare ntre
diferite laturi ale comportamentului. Aceste raporturi pot avea loc
doar n contextul interaciunii dintre individ i mediul social. n
consecin dezvoltarea compensatorie n plan biologic i psihic
poate avea loc doar ntr-un mediu social educaional favorabil.
Educaia fizic i sportul creeaz situaii de instruire care
solicit persoana cu deficien s acioneze motric n grup, s
respecte libertatea de micare a celuilalt, s se descopere n noi
ipostaze. Astfel copiii cu deficienele fizice, mintale sau
emoionale trebuie tratai la fel ca oricare alt subiect, mai ales
atunci cnd tendina general ester de a-I integra n activiti,
alturi de subiecii lipsii de deficiene. Cerinele educative
generale nu difer n mod fundamental de cele clasice i se
rezum la oportuniti mai mari de micare, de exersare, de
practic, prezena ncurajrii permanente i a unei instruiri
competente de specialitate. n acest fel, ajustarea social se va
realiza fr sincope, n interiorul condiiei limitante a copilului.
Subliniem faptul c specialistul se va concentra asupra abilitilor
subiectului, pe care le va pune n valoare, i mai puin pe
dizabilitile acestuia. Acceptarea de ctre societate a subiectului
va antrena dup sine i acceptarea propriei condiii.
n concluzie, cheia succesului este s acorzi libertate n
interiorul limitelor.
2. Principiul determinismului presupune aciunea unor
factori externi asupra dezvoltrii individului, prin intermediul
factorilor interni. Acest principiu impune recunoaterea faptului
c influena procesului educaional asupra individului depinde de
particularitile sale de cretere i dezvoltare. n acest context se
evideniaz importana respectrii prncipiului accesibilitii, dus
pn la individualizare.
55

1. The principle of integration and hierarchy. It implies


knowing and favoring in the instruction process of certain
dynamic relations of subordination, succession, synchronization
between different sides of behavior. These relations can occur
only in the context of interaction between individual and social
environment. Consequently, compensatory development in
biologic and psychic plan can happen only in a favorable socialeducational environment.
Physical education and sports create instruction situations
which require from the deficient persons to act in group, to
respect the others freedom of movement, to discover themselves
in new situations. Thus, children with physical, mental or
emotional deficiencies should be treated as any other subjects,
especially when the general tendency is to integrate them in
activities together with subjects without deficiencies. The general
educational requirements do not differ fundamentally from the
classical ones and refer to greater movement, exercising,
practicing opportunities, to the presence of encouragement and of
a competent specialty instruction. This way, the social
adjustment is made easily, within the childs limited condition.
We emphasize the fact that the specialist will focus more on the
subjects abilities which will be valorized and less on his/her
disability. The acceptance of the subjects by society will lead to
the acceptance of their own condition.
In conclusion, the key to success is to allow freedom
inside limits.
2. The principle of determinism implies the action of
external factors upon the individuals development by means of
internal factors. This principle imposes the acknowledgement of
the fact that the influence of the educational process upon the
individual depends on his growing and developmental
particularities. In this context it is emphasized the importance of
respecting the principle of accessibility, taken to
individualization.
56

Astfel, activitatea de educaie fizic i sport desfurat cu


persoana deficient impune reconsiderri ale proiectrii i
planificrii instruirii.
3. Principiul activismului. Respecarea acestui principiu
ester decisiv n favorizarea restructurrii compensatorii a
schemelor funcionale ale organismului afectat.
4. Principiul unitii scoate n eviden faptul c
dezvoltarea compensatorie poate avea loc doar n condiiile n
care exist o abordare echilibrat a tuturor laturilor personalitii.
Astfel, activitile intelectuale, cele psihomotrice, cele de
educaie fizic i sport, etc. trebuie s aib puternic legtur
ntre ele.
5. Principiul analizei i sintezei. Dat fiind faptul c
activitatea analitico-sintetic este afectat adesea la copiii cu
deficiene, procesul de nvmnt trebuie s i propun o serie
de influene stimulatoare n acest sens. Dei progresele sunt mai
greu de obinut cu deficienii mintali, exersarea unor modele
pozitive formeaz n cortex scheme de aciune eficiente, corecte
care pot sta la baza utilizrii comportamentelor dorite.
8.2 Principii didactice n educaie fizic i sport
adaptat
A. Principul participrii contiente i active.
Acest principiu exprim faptul c orice proces de nvare
trebuie s aib la baz asimilarea activ, reflectat de refacerea
permanent a vechilor structuri cognitive, prin integrarea noilor
informaii. n cazul copiilor cu deficiene, mai ales cu deficiene
mintale i auditive, raportarea lor la procesul de nvare este
diferit. Astfel, copiii pot fi: hipoactivi (leni, dezinteresai,
nemotivai) sau, dimpotriv hiperactivi (precipitai, necontrolai,
repezii).
57

Thus, the physical education and sport activity with the


deficient person implies reconsiderations of designing and
planning the instruction.
3. The principle of activism. Respecting this principle is
decisive in favoring the compensatory restructuring of the
functional schemes of the affected body.
4. The principle of unity emphasizes the fact that
compensatory development can occur only when there is a
balanced approach of all sides of personality. Thus, the
intellectual activities, the psycho-motor, the physical education
and sport ones, etc should be closely interconnected.
5. The principle of analysis and synthesis. Since the
analytical-synthetic activity is often affected in deficient children,
the learning process should have stimulating influences in this
respect. Although progress is more difficult to be achieved with
mentally deficients, exercising some positive patterns forms in
the cortex efficient, correct action schemes which can be the
basis for using the desired behaviors.
8.2. Didactic principles in adapted physical
education and sports
A. The principle of conscious and active participation
This principle expresses the fact that any learning process
should be based on active assimilation, reflected by the
permanent recovery of old cognitive structures through the
integration of the new information. In the case of deficient
children, especially with mental or hearing deficiencies, their
correlation with the learning process is different. Thus, children
can be: hypoactive (slow, uninterested and unmotivated) or, on
the contrary, hyperactive (rushed, uncontrolled, hasty).
58

n acelai timp, la deficientul mintal participarea activ


este ngreunat i datorit insuficientei nelegeri a coninuturilor
i recurgerii la nvarea mecanic. n aceste condiii, procesul de
acomodare se desfoar cu dificultate, modificarea vechilor
cunotine prin integrarea unor noi informaii, realizndu-se ntrun ritm foarte lent.
B. Principiul unitii dintre senzorial i raional, dintre
concret i abstract.
Se refer la importana asigurrii unei baze intuitive ct
mai largi n procesul invrii, astfel nct pe baza informaiilor
perceptive s se elaboreze generalizri i s se formeze
reprezentri cu care persoana deficient s opereze pe plan
mental.
Astfel, percepia la persoanele deficiente este global,
srac, nedefereniat, incomplet, cu goluri, n timp ce
reprezentrile sunt nguste, rigide i detorganizate.
La persoanele cu deficiene, intuiia joac un rol
compensator n nvare, prin faptul c st la baza formrii unor
reprezentri active, cu care s se poat opera n plan
conceptual.(I. Stnic, 1997).
Respectarea acestui principiu presupune asigurarea
condiiilor de nvare multisenzorial.
C. Principiul nsuirii temeinice i a durabilitii
rezultatelor obinute
Acest principiu subliniaz importana ordonrii i
ncadrrii cunotinelor transmise subiecilor n sisteme cu
posibiliti de actualizare. Respectarea acestui principiu
presupune:
- nelegerea cunotinelor, i nu memorarea mecanic a
acestora;
- crearea unor situaii variate de aplicare a cunotinelor
dobndite;
59

At the same time, in the case of the mentally deficient,


active participation is more difficult also because of insufficient
understanding of contents and resuming to mechanical learning.
Therefore, the adjustment process is difficult; the change of the
old knowledge through integration of new information is very
slow.
B. The principle of unity between sensorial and
rational, between concrete and abstract
It refers to the importance of providing a wide intuitive
basis in the learning process, so as, based on perceptive
information, generalizations should be elaborated and
representations with the help of which the deficient person
should operate on mental level.
Thus, perception of deficient persons is global, poor,
undifferentiated,
and
incomplete,
with
gaps,
while
representations are narrow, rigid and unorganized.
For deficient persons, intuition has a compensating
learning role as it is the basis of active representation formation
with which he can work in the conceptual plan..(I. Stnic,
1997).
Respecting this principle means providing multisensorial
learning conditions.
C. The principle of proper learning and durability of
results
It emphasizes the importance of putting in order and
framing the knowledge in systems with actualization possibility.
Respecting this principle implies:
- understanding the information and not memorizing it;
- creation of valid systems to apply the gained knowledge;

60

- asigurarea unui numr suficient de mare de repetri, astfel


nct s se asigure fixarea cunotinelor;
- pregtirea i realizarea evalurilor pariale i finale.
D. Principiul accesibilitii
Respectarea acestui principiu presupune:
- cunoaterea particularitilor psiho-motrice ale copiilor cu
deficiene
i
stabilirea
strategiilor
didactice
corespunztoare;
- tratarea difereniat i individualizat a copiilor.
Importana stabilirii nivelului optim al cerinelor exprimate
de procesul de nvmnt fa de copiii cu deficiene rezult din
fenomenele care pot aprea n cazul neadaptrii exigenelor la
particularitile acestora:
- nvarea mecanic, suprasolicitarea, scderea interesului,
absenteismul, atunci cnd cerinele sunt prea mari;
- dezinteres, indisciplin, apariia unor preocupri colaterale,
atunci cnd cerinele sunt sub nivelul posibilitilor
copiilor.
n afara principiilor mai sus amintite, n sportul adaptat
(care implic i activiti competiionale i deci antrenament
sportiv) intervin i unele aspecte specifice, cum ar fi:
a) Principiul individualizrii n activitile fizice
adaptate se bazeaz att pe tipul de deficien i gradul acesteia,
ct i pe reactivitatea subiectului la efort, plecnd de la premisa
c subiectul cu nevoi speciale ester o individualitate care se
adapteaz eforturilor conform particularitilor sale. Acest
principiu se refer la situaiile din concurs, din antrenamente,
dup antrenamente, nainte de efort i post efort etc. Datele
trebuie cunoscute longitudinal, pentru a lua decizii n
conformitate cu starea real, biologic i psihologic n care se
afl sportivul. Individualizarea se bazeaz i pe informaiile
subiective i reactivitatea psihic la stimuli speciali, la sugestii i
efectul placebo etc.
61

- providing a number of enough repetitions to reinforce the


knowledge
- preparing and having the partial and final evaluations.
D. The principle of accessibility
Respecting this principle implies:
- knowing
the
deficient
childrens
psycho-motor
particularities and establishing proper didactic strategies;
- differentiated and individualized treatment of children.
The importance of establishing the optimum level of
requirements expressed by the learning process for deficient
children results from the phenomena which can appear when
exigencies are not adapted to their particularities:
- mechanical learning, overworking, decrease of interest,
absenting when the requirements are too high;
- lack of interest, indiscipline, occurrence of collateral
preoccupations when the requirements are under the level
of the childrens possibilities.
Besides the above mentioned principles, in adapted sports
(implying competitional activities and sportive training), some
specific aspects interfere, such as:
a) The principle of individualization in adapted
physical activities is based both on the deficiency type and its
degree and on the subjects reactivity to effort, starting from the
premise that the subject with special needs is an individuality
which adapts to effort according to his particularities. This
principle refers to situations like: competitions, training, aftertraining, before and after effort, etc. The data must be known
longitudinally in order to make decisions according to the
sportives real biological and psychological condition.
Individualization is also based on subjective information and
psychic reactivity to special stimuli, to suggestions and placebo
effect.
62

b) Principiul adaptrii (readaptrii) progresive la tipul


de solicitare programat sau gradarea efortului.
Adaptarea progresiv presupune gradarea efortului pe baza
regulilor cunoscute, de la uor la greu, de la simplu la complex,
de la cunoscut la necunoscut, oferind organismului sportivului
deficient posibilitatea obinuirii cu anumite tipuri de solicitare. n
activitatea practic se procedeaz iniial la creterea volumului de
lucru, cu scopul creterii capacitii aerobe a organismului i
realizarea unor acumulri cantitative, ce fac posibil creterea
ulterioar a intensitilor i salturilor calitative. Avnd n vedere
complexitatea antrenamentului, se impune programarea unor
lecii cu tematic diferit:
- de pregtire fizic general i specific;
- de pregtire tehnic sau tehnico-tactic;
- de dezvoltare a posibilitilor anaerobe sau aerobe etc,
gsindu-se forma potrivit de mbinare a acestora n scopul
obinerii unui randament ct mai bun.
Spre exemplu, volumul ( pe segmente valide), la care sunt
supui sportivii n fotoliul rulant, poate fi superior ca valoare
celui ntlnit n lucrul cu sportivii valizi, deoarece solicitrile
cardio-vasculare sunt mult mai reduse. Progresul, i la aceast
categorie de subieci este dat de intensitatea efortului; nvarea
unor noi elemente i procedee tehnicesau aciuni tehnico-tactice
i creterea intensitii se face pe baza volumului.
c) Principiul ciclicitii antrenamentului are la baz
alternarea efortului cu odihna i se aplic mai ales la subiecii
angrenai n activitatea sportiv de performan (Special
Olympics, Paralympics, etc.). Ciclicitatea este prezent n toate
structurile antrenamentului, ncepnd de la lecii, microcicluri i
mezocicluri crnd astfel premizele aplicrii altui principiu i
anume cel al sistematizrii. Caracterul ciclic determin
succesiunea leciilor, ordinea modificrii efortului sub raportul
volumului, volumului intensitii i complexitii, precum i
celelalte componente ale sistemului de antrenament.
63

b) The principle of progressive adjustment


(readjustment) to the programmed solicitation type or effort
grading
Progressive adjustment implies grading the effort based on
the known rules, from easy to difficult, from simple to complex,
from known to unknown, offering the deficient body the
possibility to get used to certain solicitation types. In practical
activity, the working volume is initially increased, so as to
increase the aerobic capacity of the body and to obtain
quantitative accumulations which enhance further increase of
intensities and qualitative leaps. Considering the complexity of
training, lessons with different topic should be programmed:
- f general and specific physical training;
- of technical or technical-tactical training;
- of development of anaerobic or aerobic possibilities,
finding the proper form of joining them in order to
obtain the best efficiency possible.
For example, the volume (on valid segments) sportives in
wheelchairs are subjected to, can be bigger in value than the one
for valid sportives because the cardio-vascular solicitations are
reduced. Progress is provided by the intensity of effort; learning
new technical elements and procedures or technical-tactical
actions and the increase of intensity are based on volume.
c) The principle of cycle training is based on alternating
effort with rest and is applied mostly on subjects engaged in high
performance sportive activity (Special Olympics, Paralympics,
etc.). The cycle is present in all training structures, starting with
lessons, micro-cycles and mezzo-cycles, creating the premises
for applying another principle, that of systematization. The cyclic
character determines the succession of lessons, the order of effort
modifications according to volume, the volume of intensity and
complexity, as well as the other components of the training
system.
64

Prin urmare ciclicitatea este dat de legile obiective ale


raportului dintre solicitare i refacere i de condiiile adaptrii de
lung durat, n scopul dezvoltrii capacitii de performan.
n sportul adaptat de performan, forma sportiv
determin ciclicitatea antrenamentului, caracterul fazic al
acesteia constituind i baza natural a periodizrii acestuia.
Astfel, fazei de obinere a performanei sportive i corespunde
perioada pregtitoare, fazei de valorificare, perioada
competiional, iar celei de pierdere sau scoatere din form,
perioada de tranziie. Acest ciclu se repet de la un an la altul dar
la un nivel superior calitativ i cantitativ. Repausul, refacerea i
recuperarea fac parte integrant din antrenament indiferent de
nivelul de pregtire al sportivului.
Refacerea poate fi:
- refacere n cadrul microciclurilor sau n planul de pregtire
individual al sportivului;
- refacerea n cursul unui ciclu de pregtire (mezociclu) care
se refer la repausul relativ, respectiv la odihna activ care
const n desfurarea unei activiti cu volume i
intensiti medii i mici;
- refacerea n cadrul perioadei de tranziie, n care pe lng
mijloacele de refacere balneo-fizio-hidro-terapice, se
folosesc sporturile complementare, n afara cazurilor de
ngrijire medical, ce interzice practicarea altor activiti
sportive.
d) Principiul motivaiei
Motivaia este neleas ca ansamblul de motive cu rol de
dinamizare a conduitei subiectului.
Tinerii din zilele noastre practic sportul din diverse
motive aa cum le prezint M. Bouet citat de Dragnea, 1996:
a) Nevoi motorii
- nevoia de a consuma energie;
- nevoia de micare;
b) Afirmarea de sine;
65

Therefore, the cyclic character is given by the objective


laws of the relation between solicitation and recovery and by the
long term adjustment conditions in order to develop the
performance capacity.
In high performance adapted sports, the sportive condition
determines the cyclic character of the training, its phase character
also being the natural basis of its division on periods. Thus, the
preparation period corresponds to the phase of gaining sportive
performance; the competitional period corresponds to the
valorizing phase and the transition period corresponds to the
phase of getting out of shape or loss of shape. The rest and
recovery are integrated part of practice, disregard of the
sportives training level.
The recovery can be:
- recovery in within the micro cycles or in the sportives
individual training plan;
- recovery within a training cycle (mezzo-cycle) referring to
relative rest, that is to active rest consisting in carrying on
an activity of medium and low volume and intensity;
- recovery within the transition period in which, besides the
balneo-physio-hydro-therapeutical means, complementary
sports are also used, except the cases of medical care
which forbid the practicing of other sportive activities.
d) The principle of motivation
Motivation is understood as an ensemble of motives
having as purpose to make the subjects behaviour dynamic.
The youth nowadays practice sports out of different
reasons, as presented by M. Bouet, quoted by Dragnea, 1996:
a) Motor needs:
- the need to consume energy;
- the need to move;
b)Self-assertion
66

c) Cutarea compensaiei;
- complementar i de echilibrare;
- pentru surmontare;
- pentru substituire;
d) Tendine sociale;
- nevoia de afiliere;
- dorina de integrare;
e) Interesul pentru competiie;
- nevoia de succes;
- nevoia de a se compara cu alii;
- nevoia de neprevzut;
- trirea emoiilor concursului;
f) Dorina de a ctiga;
g) Aspiraia de a deveni campion;
h) Dorina de emulaie;
i) Dragostea pentru natur;
j) Atracia ctre aventur.
Se poate observa c motivele practicrii activitilor
sportive, de ctre persoanele cu nevoi speciale, sunt diferite, cel
mai frecvent ntlnindu-se cutarea compensaiei i nu numai,
ceea ce explic diversitatea i complexitatea personalitii
acestora.

67

c) Looking for compensation:


- complementary and ballancing one;
- to get higher
- for substitution;
d)Social tendencies:
- the need for affiliation;
- desire fro integration;
e) Interest for competition:
- the need to succeed;
- the need to compare themselves with others;
- the need for the unpredicted;
- to live the emotions of a competition;
f)The desire to win;
g)The aspiration to become a cgampion;
h)The desire for rivalry;
i) Love for nature;
j)Attraction for adventure.
It can be noticed that the reasons for practicing sports
activities by individuals with special needs are different, the most
frequent one being the search for competiotion, but not only that,
fact which explains their diversity and complexity.

68

9. Specificul nvrii motrice la persoanele cu


deficiene
nvarea este un proces ce presupune existena
informaiilor de tip senzorial i motor. Caracterul multisenzorial
este dat de faptul c nvarea este dependent de ceea ce vedem,
ce simim, ce auzim n urma efectuarii unei micri.
Micarea perceptiv-motric este descris de unii
autori(Williams, Gallahue) ca avnd urmtoarele etape:
- input senzorial, ce const n recepionarea diferitelor tipuri
de stimuli i dirijarea acestora la nivel central;
- integrare senzorial, care se refer la prelucrarea
informaiilor recerpionate i stocate sub form codificat
n memorie;
- interpretarea motorie, ce const n adoptarea de decizii
motorii pe baza ajustrii dintre informaia senzorial
prezent i informaia din memoria de lung durat care a
fost deja stocat;
- producerea micrii, care este de fapt efectuarea unei
micri ce se observ;
- feedback, ce presupune evaluarea micrii prin intermediul
diferitelor modaliti senzoriale.
nvarea senzorio-motric, const n modificarea
comportamentului datorit percepiei corecte a stimulilor
recepionai i transmii de analizatori. Aceste modificri se obin
prin ajustri sau adaptare, care genereaz o nou form de
rspuns performant la condiiile perceptive noi i care implic fie
formarea de noi coordonri senzorio-motrice, fie creterea
preciziei sau fineei coordonrii rspunsului preexistent pe baza
adaptrii comportamentului motor la situaii noi (n special
datorit ameliorrii coordonrii neuromusculare);

69

9. The specific of motor learning for individuals with


deficiencies
Learning is a process which implies the existance of
sensorial and motor information. The multi-sensorial character is
given by the fact that learning is dependent on what we can see,
feel, hear as a result of a movement.
The perceptive-motor movement is described by some
authors (Williams, Gallahue) as having the following stages:
- sensorial input, consisting in the reception of different
types of stimuli and in directioning them to central level;
- sensorial integration, referring to the processing of
receptioned information and stocked in memory in coded
form;
- motor interpretation, consisting in adopting motor
decisions based on the adjustment between the present
sensorial information and the information from the long
time memory which has already been stocked;
- production of movement, which is the execution of a
movement which can be noticed;
- feedback, implying the evaluaton of movement through
different sensorial modalities.
Sensorial-motor learning consists in the modification of
behavior due to the correct perception of stimuli received and
sent by analysors. These modifications are obtained by
adjustment or adaptation which generates a new form of
performant response to the new perception conditions and which
imply either the formation of new sensorial-motor coordinations
or the increase of coordination precision and finess of the
preexistent response based on adaptation of the motor behavior to
new situations (especially due to amelioration of neuro-muscular
coordination);
70

nvarea motric const n obinerea unor noi forme de


comportament ca reacii de rspuns legate de stimulii de origine
kinestezic sau proprioceptiv, n care micarea este elementul
constitutiv cel mai important. Acest tip de nvare se bazeaz pe
aciunile conduse nu numai pe baza informaiei senzorialperceptive exteroceptive sau proprioceptive i pe baza prelucrrii
inteligente a acestora.
Bazndu-se pe rezultatele cercetrilor n domeniul nvrii
umane, Gagne n 1975 a sintetizat cunotinele acumulate i a
realizat o ierarhizare a tipurilor de nvare (Maroti t., 2003,
p.32) dnd exemple sugestive:
- nvarea prin semnale n care recepionarea stimulilor cu
ajutorul analizatorilor joac un rol important. Ca exemplu
se d situaia n care copilul sugar nva s-i recunoasc
mama nu numai dup vocea ei ci i dup imaginea ei
vizual;
- nvarea stimul-rspuns, atunci cnd sugarul nva o
reacie simpl: s-i in singur biberonul;
- nlnuirea de rspunsuri care este prezent n nvarea
unui act mai complex cum ar fi mersul pe biciclet;
- nvarea prin asociaii verbale care se realizeaz atunci
cnd se nva cuvintele i asocierea lor n propoziii;
- nvarea discriminrii de culori, forme, litere, numere,
fapt ce duce la precizarea diferenierii percepiilor;
- nvarea noiunilor definite i a regulilor n care sunt
incluse nsuirea teoremelor matematice, a legilor fizice, a
normelor de comportare, etc;
- nvarea prin rezolvarea de probleme este cel mai
complex tip de nvare i nglobeaz n el toate celelalte
tipuri de nvare prezentate anterior.

71

Motor learning consists in obtaining new forms of


behavior as response reactions connected to stimuli of
kinesthezic or proprioceptive origin in which movement is the
most important constitutive element. This type of learning is
based on actions carried on not only based on sensorialperceptive, exteroceptive or proprioceptive information, but also
on their intelligent processing.
Based on research results in the field of human learning,
Gagne, in 1975, synthesized the acquired knowledge and
accomplished a hierarchy of learning types (Maroti t., 2003,
p.32), giving suggestive examples:
- learning through signs, in which the reception of stimuli
with the help of analyzers has an important role. For
example, an infant learns to recognize his mother not only
by voice, but also by her visual image;
- stimulus-response learning, when the infant learns a
simple reaction: to hold his milk bottle;
- a chain of responses is present in learning a more
complex act like riding a bike;
- learning through verbal associations is achieved when
words and their associations in sentences are learned;
- learning to discriminate colors, forms, letters, numbers,
fact which leads to the specification of perception
differentiation;
- learning definite notions and rules which include the
learning of mathematical theorems, laws of physics,
behavioral norms, etc;
- learning through problem solving is the most complex
type of learning which contains all types of learning
previously presented.

72

Pentru o bun organizare i individualizare a pregtirii se


recomand mbinarea urmtoarelor tehnici:
Lucrul n echip activitatea este condus de mai muli
specialiti n funcie de experiena acestora i de gradul
severitatea deficienei individului;
Lucrul cu nsoitor presupune ajutor suplimentar
asigurat de o persoan, atunci cnd subiectul particip la
leciile de educaie fizic adaptat.
Lucrul independent deschide oportunutatea elevilor de
a progresa fr a fi condiionai de respectarea unor
modaliti de exersare frontal. Sarcinile mai dificile sunt
nlocuite cu unele accesibile.

73

For a good organization and individualization of training, it is


recommended the combination of the following techniques:
Team work the activity is conducted by several
specialists, according to their experience and to the degree
of the severity of the individuals deficiency;
Working with an assistant implies supplementary help
provided by a person when the subject takes part to the
adapted physical education lesson;
Independent work provides pupils the opportunity to
progress without having to follow certain frontal
exercising modalities. The more difficult tasks are replaced
by accessible ones.

74

10. Deficienele mintale/de intelect


Deficienele mintale se exprim prin reducerea
semnificativ a capacitii psihice care determin o serie de
dereglri ale reaciilor i mecanismelor de adaptare ale
individului la condiiile n permanent schimbare a mediului
nconjurtor(Ghergu, 2000, citat de Bonchi, E., 2004)
Trstura distinctiv a deficienei mintale este funcionarea
intelectual inadecvat, exprimat n dificulti la nivelul
proceselor gndirii, reducerea cmpului perceptiv, limbaj slab
dezvoltat, imaturitate socio-afectiv, dificulti n nvare,
tulburri de comportament etc.
Punescu C. (1977) subliniaz c structura psihic a
deficientului mintal se dezvolt sub limita atins de copilul
normal de aceai vrst. Ineria accentuat a proceselor nervoase
i a limbajului determin i o incompeten social a deficientului
mintal care nu poate ajunge la raionamente abstracte,
manifestndu-se altfel ceea ce B.Inhelder numea vscozitate
mintal adic gndire neterminat.
Etiologia specific deficienei mintale
Etiologia deficinei mintale se aseamn n mare msur cu
cea general responsabil de apariia altor deficiene. Literatura
de specialitate descrie numeroase clasificri, dar cea mai
frecvent mparte factorii n:
- Endogeni;
- Exogeni;
- Psihosociali. (Punescu, C., Muu, I.,citat de Teodorescu,
S., Bota, A., Stnescu, M., 2006)
Factorii endogeni pot fi:
- factori genetici nespecifici ce provoac
endogen subcultural sau familial;
75

debilitatea

10. Adapted physical activities for individuals with


mental deficiency
Mental deficiencies are expressed by the significant
reduction of the psychic capacity which determines a series of
disorders of the individuals reactions and adjustment
mechanisms to the constantly changing environment
conditions... (Ghergu, 2000, quoted by Bonchi, E., 2004)
The distinctive feature of mental deficiency is the
inappropriate intellectual functioning, expressed in difficulties at
the level of thinking processes, reduction of the perceptive area,
poorly developed speech, social-affective immaturity, learning
difficulties, behavioral disorders, etc.
Punescu C. (1977) emphasizes that the mentally
deficients psychic structure is developing under the limit
reached by a normal child at the same age. Accentuated inertia of
the nervous processes and speech also determines a social
incompetence of the mentally deficient, who cannot think in an
abstract way, therefore a mental thickness, named thus by B.
Inhelder, that is unfinished thinking, is manifested.
Etiology specific to mental deficiency
The etiology of mental deficiency resembles greatly with
the general one responsible for the occurance of other
deficiencies. The speciality literature describes numerous
classifications, but the most frequent one devides the factors in:
- Endogen;
- Exogenous;
- Psycho-social. (Punescu, C., Muu, I.,citat de
Teodorescu, S., Bota, A., Stnescu, M., 2006)
The endogen factors can be:
- unspecific genetic factors which cause subcultural or
familial endogen debility;
76

- factori genetici specifici ce determin apariia


sindroamelor Turner, Down(mongolismul sau trisomia 21).
Factorii exogeni sunt:
- factorii prenatali, ce acioneaz asupra ftului n perioada
intrauterin(factori infecioi i parazitari rubeola, sifilis,
toxoplasma; factori umorali imcompatibilitatea factorului
Rh dintre mam i copil; factori toxici alcool, droguri,
tutun, intoxicaii alimentare).
- factorii perinatali care acioneaz n timpul naterii:
traumatisme, hemoragii, apoxie, traumatisme obstetricale.
- factorii postnatali ce acioneaz dup natere:
meningoencefalite, traumatisme cerebrale, intoxicaii cu
plumb, etc.
-

Factorii psihosociali cuprind:


mediu familial nefavorabil;
carene afective i educative;
condiii socio- economice defavorabile;
tulburrile de comportament/ deviane comportamentale.

Odat ce factorii de risc au fost depistai, se impune


gsirea unor msuri de contracararea a acestora astfel nct
numrul de subieci afectat s fie ct mai mic. Specialitii
identific urmtoarele strategii de prevenire:
- eforturi de prevenire primar care se refer la viitorii
prini programe pentru prevenirea abuzului de alcool,
tutun, droguri pentru viitoarele mame;
- eforturi de prevenire secundar ce vizeaz persoana care sa nscut cu o predispoziie pentru retardul mintal;
- eforturi de prevenire teriar direcionate spre persoanele
cu retard de intelect i care urmresc mbuntirea
nivelului funcional al acestuia.
77

- specific genetic factors which cause the appearance of


Turner, Down syndromes (mongolism or trisomia 21).
The exogenous factors are:
- antenatal factors which act upon the fetus during the
intrauterine period (infectious and parasite factors
rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis; humoral factors Rh
factor incompatibility between mother and child; toxic
factors alcohol, drugs, tobacco, food poisoning);
- perinatal factors which act during birth: traumatisms,
hemorrhages, hypoxia, obstetrical traumatisms;
- postnatal factors acting after birth: meningoencephalitis,
cerebral traumatisms, lead poisoning, etc.
-

Psycho-social factors:
unfavorable family environment;
affective and educational default;
unfavorable social-economic conditions;
behavioral disorders/behavioral deviations.

Once the risk factors have been depicted, there must be


found ways to oppose them so as the number of affected subjects
should be as small as possible. The specialists identify the
following prevention strategies:
- primary prevention efforts, referring to the future parents
programs to prevent alcohol, tobacco, drug abuse for the
future mothers;
- secondary prevention efforts are for the person born with
predisposition for mental retardation;
- tertiary prevention efforts are for persons with retardation
of intellect, having as purpose the improvement of its
functional level

78

Clasificarea deficienelor de intelect


Literatura de specialitate cuprinde diverse clasificri a
deficienei mintale,n funcie de coeficientul de inteligen, cea
mai rspndit fiind cea a lui Santrok, 2001, citat de Bonchi, E.,
2004, conform creia exist:
1. intelect de limit sau deficien mintal uoar cu IQ
cuprins ntre 55-70;
2. deficien mintal moderat include copiii cu un IQ n
limitele 40-54 i care fac obiectul unor intervenii
educative speciale;
3. deficiena mintal sever cuprinde copiii cu un IQ n
limitele 25-39, parial recuperabili, capabili s asimileze
un volum minim de cunotine dar insuficiente pentru
asigurarea unei activiti total independente, sunt
instruibili pn la un anumit punct;
4. deficiena mintal profund este forma cea mai grav
referindu-se la o persoan incapabil s se autoconduc
cu un IQ de sub 25. Numii i idioi, copiii din
aceast categorie au un nivel mintal inferior vrstei de 2
ani, structura psihomotric este rudimentar, nu
comunic prin limbaj cu ceilali.
Particularitile dezvoltrii motorii la deficientul mintal
Tulburrile prezente la nivelul psihomotricitii sunt cu
att mai marcante cu ct gradul de deficien este mai profund.
n deficiena mintal uoar se constat ntrzieri la nivelul
dezvoltrii componentelor psihomotricitii, n ansamblul se
poate meniona lipsa de vitez i coordonare a micrilor,
debilitate a micrilor.
n deficiena mintal sever se constat o motricitate mai
bun dect n categoria anterioar dar totui insuficient
dezvoltat.
79

Classification of deficiencies of intellect


The specialty literature contains various classifications of
mental deficiency, according to the intelligence coefficient, the
most frequent one being that of Santroks, 2001, quoted by
Bonchi, E., 2004, according to whom there are:
1. intellect at the limit or slight mental deficiency with an
IQ between 55 and 70;
2. moderate mental deficiency, including children with an
IQ between 40 and 54 and they are subjected to special
educational interventions;
3. severe mental deficiency includes children with an IQ
between 25 and 39, with the possibility of partial
rehabilitation, capable to assimilate a minimum volume
of knowledge, yet sufficient to provide a totally
independent activity; they can be instructed up to a
certain point;
4. deep mental deficiency is the most severe form,
referring to persons incapable to care for themselves,
with an IQ under 25. Also called idiots, the children
in this category have a mental level lower than that of a
2-year-old, their psycho-motor structure is rudimentary
and they do not communicate through language with
the others.
Particularities
development

of

the

mentally

deficients

motor

The disorders present at psycho-motor level are more


severe when the deficiency degree is bigger.
In the light mental deficiency there are delays at the level
of psycho-motility components development; generally we can
mention the lack of speed and movement coordination,
movement debility.
In severe mental deficiency we notice better motility that
in the previous category, yet insufficiently developed.
80

Motricitatea voluntar este marcat de tremurturi, micri


imprecise i lipsite de finee. Putem ntlni aici i alte tulburri
ale motricitii generale, de mers, echilibru, etc. Aceste tulburri
de motricitate se vor reflecta i n dificultile pe care aceti
subieci le au n nsuirea limbajului vorbit, scris dar i a
deprinderilor de autoservire.
Activitatea motorie este lipsit de coordonare i control,
fr scop i precizie (micri stereotipe, balansarea trunchiului,
ticuri, micri foarte lente) n cazul deficienei mintale profunde.
Studiile efectuate pn n prezent au reliefat faptul c
rincipalele probleme la nivelul motricitii sunt reprezentate de:
- dificulti n efectuarea i coordonarea micrilor
fundamentale ale membrelor, segmentelor corpului,
coordonarea oculo-motorie, auditiv verbal;
- caliti motrice VRF(viteza, ndemnarea, rezistena,
fora) cu un nivel sczut de dezvoltare fapt ce se va
repercuta asupra calitii micrilor;
- dificulti n coordonarea activitii motorii prin
intermediul limbajului;
- greuti sau imposibilitatea comunicrii de atitudini,
sentimente i emoii prin gesturi adecvate;
- unii deficieni sunt supraponderali, fapt care afecteaz
biomecanica micrii i echilibrul;
- prezena perturbrilor motorii ca urmare a alterrii
tonusului muscular;
Obiectivele activitilor motrice adaptate persoanelor
cu dizabiliti intelectuale
Adaptarea educaiei fizice i sportului la particularitile de
cretere i dezvoltare ale copiilor cu deficien mintal i
asigurarea condiiilor educative speciale presupune conceperea
unui demers educaional orientat ctre realizarea urmtoarelor
obiective de referin (dup Gh. Crstea, Metodica educaiei
fizice, Bucureti):
81

Motility is marked by shakings, imprecise movements


lacking finesse. We can also encounter other disorders of general
motility, of walking, balance, etc. These disorders of motility are
reflected in the difficulties of the subjects to acquire the spoken,
written language and the self-care habits.
The motor activity lacks coordination and control, purpose
and precision (stereotypic movements, swing of the body, tics,
and very slow movements) in the case of deep mental deficiency.
The studies made until now emphasize that the main
problems at motility level are represented by:
- difficulties in making and coordinating fundamental
movements of limbs, body segments, seeing-motor,
hearing-verbal coordination;
- SSRF motor qualities (speed, skill, resistance, force) with
low level of development, having an impact on the
movement quality;
- difficulties in coordinating motor activity through
language;
- difficulties r impossibility to communicate attitudes,
feelings and emotions through proper gestures;
- some deficient subjects are overweight, fact which affects
the biomechanics of movement and balance;
- the presence of motor disorders as a result of muscle tonus
alteration
The objectives of physical activities adapted to
individuals with intellectual disabilities
The adaptation of physical education and sports to the
growing and developing particularities of children with mental
deficiency and providing special educational conditions implies
the conception of an educational approach oriented towards the
achievement of the following reference objectives (after Gh.
Crstea, The methods of physical education, Bucharest):
82

Educarea atitudinii corporale (globale i segmentare)


corecte, ndeprtndu-se starea de instabilitate a acesteia.
Uniformizarea strii de tonicitate a musculuturii
segmentelor corpului, pentru a se preveni sincineziile,
ticurile i alte gesturi motrice inutile.
Educarea coordonrii actelor motrice habituale, a
coordonrii simple simetrice i asimetrice.
Dezvoltarea componentelor psihomotricitii.
Formarea corect a deprinderilor i priceperilor motrice de
baz i utilitar aplicative i a unora specifice sportului.
Achiziia unor componente specifice (procedee tehnice,
aciuni tactice), dar i competene generale, posibil a fi
aplicate n situaii variate de via cotidian: igien
corporal, stimulare cognitiv, afectiv i social, etc.
Indicaii metodice privind organizarea i conducerea
activitilor motrice adaptate (deficieni mintali cu retard
mediu i uor)
- punei accent pe deprinderile fundamentale de stabilitate,
locomoie i de manipulare;
- lucrai fr rezerve pentru componentele fitness-ului ntr-o
manier sistematic i progresiv;
- artai-demonstrai mai mult i explicai mai puin;
- transmitei lent i clar indicaiile legate de execuie;
- punei accent n execuie doar pe 2-3 elemente;
- reducei indicaiile verbale pe ct posibil;
- repetai demonstraia i refuzai anumite indicaii; metoda
demonstraiei se dovedete a fi mult mai eficient dect
explicaia;
- utilizai strategii de nvare multisenzorial prin utilizarea
conducerii manuale prin micare;
- structurai atent coninutul fiecrei lecii;
83

Education of a correct body attitude (global and on


segments), eliminating its condition of instability.
Making even the state of tonus of the body segments
muscles in order to prevent tics and other useless physical
gestures.
Education to coordinate habitual physical acts, simple
coordinations symmetrical and asymmetrical.
Development of psycho-motility components.
Correct formation of basic motor habits and skills and of
utilitarian applicative ones and of those specific to sports.
Acquiring some specific components (technical
procedures, tactical actions) and general competences,
applicable in various daily life situations: body hygiene,
cognitive, affective and social stimulation, etc.
Methodic indications regarding the organization and
management of adapted physical activities (mentally
deficients with medium and slight retardation)
- emphasize the fundamental skills of stability, locomotion
and manipulation;
- work without reserves for the components of fitness in a
systematic and progressive way;
- show-demonstrate more and explain less;
- send slowly and clearly the indications regarding the
execution;
- emphasize in execution only 2-3 elements;
- reduce verbal indications as much as possible;
- repeat the demonstration and refuse certain indications; the
method of demonstration proves to be more efficient than
the explanation;
- use multisensorial learning strategies by the use of manual
leading through movement;
- attentively structure the contents of each lesson;
84

- schimbai frecvent coninutul instruirii n cadrul aceleiai


lecii (de exemplu, 5 minute alergare urmate de 5 minute
de leapa, exersare sub forma lucrului pe ateliere; circuit
pentru dezvoltarea forei);
- impunei reguli simple n execuia subiecilor;
- reducei deprinderile care se nsuesc, al micri simple;
- utilizai materialele intuitive: afie, ilustraii, n vederea
facilitrii inelegerii aciunilor motrice;
- numii ntotdeauna micarea care se nva pentru ca
studenii s-i formeze un vocabular minimal de
specialitate;
- includei multe structuri ritmice n cadrul leciilor;
- asigurai asisten execuiilor copiilor(dac ester necesar);
- lsai subiecii s repete de mai multe ori aciunile reuite,
asigurnd astfel dezvoltarea ncrederii n forele proprii i a
sentimentului de satisfacie;
- ntrii i ncurajai permanent rspunsurile subiecilor,
stabilind anumite standarde de comportament, apreciind
aspectele pozitive;
- nu utilizai activiti care s implice eliminarea sau izolarea
subiecilor n exersare.
Profesorul trebuie s in cont n programele de exerciii de
faptul c persoanele cu deficien mintal pot avea o atitudine
diferit fa de exerciiile fizice, i anume:
- unele persoane doresc s participe la activitile cu
coninut variat;
- altele, dimpotriv, prefer schimbri puine ale exerciiilor,
prefernd reluarea anumitor structuri motrice.

85

- frequently change the instruction contents within the same


lesson (e.g., 5 minutes running, followed by 5 minutes of a
game, exercising in workshops; circuit to develop
strength);
- set simple rules in the subjects execution;
- reduce the skills which can be acquired through simple
movements;
- use intuitive materials: posters, post-cards, in order to
facilitate the understanding of the physical actions;
- always name the movement to be learnt so the students
could form a minimal special vocabulary;
- include many rhythmical structures in the lessons;
- provide assistance to the childrens execution (if
necessary);
- let the subjects repeat several times the successful actions,
helping them thus to develop self-confidence and a feeling
of satisfaction;
- permanently reinforce and encourage the subjects
answers, establishing certain behavioral standards,
appreciating the positive aspects;
- do not use activities which involve the elimination or
isolation of the subjects while exercising.
The teacher should take into consideration, in the exercise
programs, the fact that mentally deficient individuals can have a
different attitude towards physical exercises, such as:
- some people wish to participate in activities with varied
contents;
- others, on the contrary, do not enjoy changes of exercises
and prefer the repetition of certain motor structures.

86

Activiti motrice adaptate persoanelor cu deficien


mintal
n selectarea activitilor fizice pentru aceti subieci,
profesorul va trebui s in seama de vrsta, severitatea
deficienei, opiuni i dotare material.
Participarea persoanelor cu deficien mintal la activitile
de educaie fizic i sport ofer acestora ocazia experimentrii
unor situaii de via inedite, obinerea unui grag sporit de
autonomie, accesul la noi activiti culturale, ce favorizeaz
integrarea social. Efectele practicrii exerciiilor fizice de ctre
persoanele cu deficien mintal pot fi grupate n trei niveluri:
- pe planul interaciunii sociale, prin beneficiile aduse de
interaciunea cu semenii;
- pe planul imaginii de sine, prin creterea ncrederii proprii;
- pe planul condiiei fizice, prin ameliorarea factorilor
biologici.
Astfel, persoanele cu deficien mintal lejer pot nelege
noiuni legate de activitatea de educaie fizic i sport; reguli de
desfurare a aciunilor motrice, sensul ntrecerii, clasamentul,
noiuni legate de atac i aprare, dozarea efortului. Ele pot aprea
n contextul relaiilor sociale de parteneriat, adversitate de
respectare a oficialilor, arbitrului.
Ramurile sportive precum baschetul, fotbalul, hocheiul,
voleiul, dansul, reprezint opiuni importante ale acestor subieci,
dei conceptele de strategie, joc de echip, expresivitate, reguli,
sunt mai greu de neles.
n cazurile persoanelor cu deficien mintal moderat n
funcie de nivelul competenelor acestora n plan psiho-social, se
pot organiza:
- activiti sportive cu reguli adaptate, cu acordarea de
recompense n funcie de rezultat i performan;

87

Physical activities adapted for people with mental


deficiency
In selecting the physical activities for these subjects, the
teacher should consider their age, deficiency severity, options
and materials.
The participation of mentally deficient individuals in
physical education and sports activities gives them the
opportunity to experiment new life situations, to obtain more
autonomy, to have access to new cultural activities, favoring
social integration. The effects of practicing physical exercises by
mentally deficient persons can be grouped on three levels:
- on the social interaction plan, through benefits brought by
interaction with others;
- on self-image plan, through the increase of selfconfidence;
- on physical fitness plan, through the amelioration of the
biological factors.
Thus, individuals with easy mental deficiency can
understand notions regarding the physical education and sports
activity; the rules of physical actions, the meaning of the
competition, ranking, notions concerning the attack and defense,
effort dosage. They can occur in the context of partnership social
relations, adversity in respecting the officials, the referee.
The sport branches, such as basketball, football, hokey,
volleyball, dancing, represent important options for these
subjects although the strategic concepts, the team game,
expressivity, rules are more difficult to be understood.
In the case of individuals with moderate mental deficiency,
according to their level of competences in psycho-social plan,
there can be organized:
- sportive activities with adapted rules, with awards
depending on results and performance;
88

- activiti fizice adaptate, cu programe de exerciii din care


se exclude noiunea de sport, dar cu acordarea de
recompense ctigtorilor;
Pentru subiecii cu retard mintal sever, care nu sunt
integrai n clase obinuite, ci n clase, coli sau instituii speciale,
este necesar un ajutor(asisten) permanent n realizarea
coninutului instruirii. Nivelul mintal i motric redus face ca
activitatea acestor subieci s se caracterizeze printr-o slab
interrelaie de grup, comunicarea realizndu-se doar ntre
profesor i elev. Aceste premise impun ca programele
educaionale s se centreze pe utilizarea deprinderilor
senzoriomotorii, a deprinderilor de baz, a pattern-urilor
fundamentale de micare i pe dezvoltarea componentelor fitnesului propriu-zis i motor. Programele senzoriomotorii stimuleaz
simurile copilului n vederea dezvoltrii canalelor senzoriale
care faciliteaz recepionarea informaiilor din mediu. Pentru
copiii mici, aceste programe vor viza nsuirea progresiv a
poziiilor de postur corect, trre, apucare-eliberare de obiecte
i de meninere a poziiilor aezat i stnd. Muli dintre subiecii
cu limitri severe nu nva s mearg mai devreme de 9 ani iar
unii nu reuesc niciodat. Prin urmare, chiar i cele mai
rudimentare micri trebuie nvate cu rbdare.
Afeciunile persoanelor cu deficien mintal sever
determin manifestarea unor polihandicapuri care n contextul
activitilor fizice adaptate pot fi abordate prin sarcini motrice
simple, individuale sau colective(mers sub form de plimbri n
aer liber) sau prin participare la ntreceri sportive(integrare fizic,
ca spectator), aceste persoane fiind sensibile la practici sociale de
acest gen care reunesc un numr mare de persoane. Scopul
participrii lor vizeaz acceptarea social de ctre persoanele
normale.
Din categoria deficienilor mintali fac parte i copii care
prezint sindromul Down, cea mai reprezentativ afeciune
genetic asociat retardului mintal. Din cele peste 80
caracteristici clinice asociate sindromului Down, aprecierile vor
89

- adapted physical activities with exercise programs out of


which the notion of sport is excluded, but with awards for
the winners.
For subjects with severe mental retardation, who are not
integrated in regular classes, but in special classes, schools or
institutions, it is necessary a permanent help (assistance) in
achieving the instruction contents. The reduced motor and mental
level makes the activity of these subjects to be characterized by
poor group inter-relationship, communication existing only
between teacher and student. Therefore, the educational
programs should focus upon the use of sensorial-motor skills,
basic skills, of fundamental movement patterns and upon the
development of actual fitness and motor components. The
sensorial-motor programs stimulate the childs senses in order to
develop the sensorial canals which facilitate the reception of
information from the environment. For small children, these
programs will have as purpose the progressive acquiring of
correct posture positions, crawling, grabbing-releasing objects
and maintaining the sitting and standing positions. Many of the
subjects with severe limitations do not learn to walk before the
age of 9 and some never do. Therefore, even the simplest
movements should be taught with patience.
The affections of individuals with severe mental deficiency
determine the manifestation of several handicaps which, in the
context of adapted physical activities can be approached through
simple physical tasks, individual or collective (walking outdoors)
or through participating to sports competitions (physical
integration as a spectator), these individuals being sensitive to
this type of social practices which gather a big number of people.
The purpose of their participation is social acceptance by normal
people.
In the category of mentally deficient are also children who
have Down syndrome, the most representative genetic affection
associated with mental retardation. Out of over 80 clinical
characteristics associated with Down syndrome, the assessments
90

viza n special caracteristicile fizice i motrice ale acestor


subieci:
- statura mic;
- tonusul muscular slab;
- hipermobilitate articular;
- aspect mongoloid al feei;
- obezitate uoar pn la moderat;
- sistem cardiovascular i respirator subdezvoltat;
- membre superioare i inferioare scurte n raport cu
trunchiul;
- echilibru deficitar;
- dificulti de percepie;
- risc crescut de afeciuni cardiace, leucemie, infecii
respiratorii, mbtrnire rapid;
- risc crescut de Alzheimer la subiecii peste 35 ani.
Din punct de vedere al conceperii de programe de activiti
fizice adaptate pentru subiecii cu sindrom Down (care vor avea
avizul medical) accentul va fi pus pe reducerea deficienelor
posturale i ortopedice, cum ar fi: lordoza, cifoza, instabilitatea
atlantoaxial (la nivelul jonciunii craniu-vertebr cervical,
picior plat i n pronaie, luxaii congenitale de old. Toate
exerciiile utilizate vor viza certerea tonusului muscular i
reducerea hipermobilitii articulare, ca baz a reducerii
deficienelor posturale.
Activiti destinate mbuntirii nivelului fitness-ului.
Fitness-ul reunete un anbamblu de componente ce vizeaz un
stil de via activ, ce se traduce ntr-o bun stare de sntate,
capacitate de efort, eficien profesional i sportiv, risc sczut
de mbolnvire, etc.
Componentele fitness-ului sunt:
- rezistena cardio-vascular, mobilitatea;
- rezistena muscular local;
- fora;
- compoziia corporal.
91

refer especially to the physical and motor characteristics of these


subjects:
- small height;
- weak muscle tone;
- joint hyper-mobility;
- mongoloid aspect of the face;
- slight to moderate obesity;
- underdeveloped cardio-vascular and respiratory systems;
- short upper and lower limbs, compared to the trunk;
- deficient balance;
- perception difficulties;
- increased risk of cardiac affections, leukemia, respiratory
infections, fast aging;
- increased risk of Alzheimers disease at subjects over 35
years old.
From the point of view of conceiving adapted physical
activities programs for subjects with Down syndrome (with
medical approval), the emphasis will be laid on the reduction of
postural and orthopedic deficiencies such as: lordosis, kyphosis,
atlanto-axial instability (at the level of skull-cervical vertebrae
junction), flat foot and in pronation, congenital hip dislocation.
All used exercises will have as purpose the increase of muscle
tone and the reduction of joint hyper-mobility, as basis of
reducing postural deficiencies.
Activities meant to improve the fitness level. Fitness joins
a series of components which enhance an active life style which,
in turn, leads to good health, effort capacity, professional and
sportive efficiency, low risk of disease, etc.
The components of fitness are:
- cardio-vascular resistance, mobility;
- local muscular resistance;
- strength;
- body composition.
92

n educaia fizic adaptat, obiectivele se stabilesc


ncepnd cu atingerea unui nivel de fitness necesar executrii
deprinderilor mltrce de baz i utilitar aplicative ( meninerea
poziiei stnd, trre, deplasare spre o int, etc) pn la fitmessul necesar execuiei unor deprinderi specifice (ramurilor de sport,
activitilor recreaionale sau profesionale).
Prin urmare programele de fitness vor fi strict
personalizate. n acest context, J. Winnick (1995) recomand
stabilirea:
- obiectivului prioritar pentru fiecare subiect;
- componentelor fitness-ului asupra crora se va exercita
influena exersrii;
- segmentelor corporale care vor fi antrenate;
- testelor utilizate pentru a evalua nivelul fitness-ului i,
eventual, a standardelor de performan.
Principalele mijloace care pot fi utilizate n dezvoltarea
componentelor fitness-ului sunt:
- pentru
mobilitate:
(obiectivul
principal
vizeaz
mbuntirea funcional a micrilor). Exerciiile se
execut din diferite poziii (aezat, stnd, pe genunchi,
culcat), vor pregti subiectul pentru eforturi susinute i
vor angrena att trenul inferior, ct i cel superior.
- pentru for. n condiiile n care inervaia muscular este
intact i nu exist alte patologii, lucrul pentru for se
poate desfura, n principiu fr restricii. Profesorul va
avea grij s lucreze echilibrat att muchii antagoniti ct
i pe cei agoniti, cu accent pe dezvoltarea muchilor
extensori, abductori i supinatori.
- pentru rezisten cardiovascular i compoziie corporal
activitile recomandate sunt oarecum similare datorit
efectelor care se exercit n ambele zone. Obiectivele pot fi
atinse dac se utilizeaz un program aerob, continuu, de
alergare not, ciclism, n general activiti care angreneaz
n micare ntregul corp, fapt care favorizeaz consumuri
93

In adapted physical education, the objectives are set


starting with reaching a fitness level necessary for the execution
of basic and applicative motor skills (maintaining the sitting
position, crawling, going to a target, etc.), up to the fitness level
necessary for the execution of specific skills (in sport branches,
recreational or professional activities).
Therefore, the fitness programs will be strictly
personalized. Under the circumstances, J. Winnick (1995)
recommends to establish the followings:
- main objective for each subject;
- the fitness components that the exercising will act upon;
- body segments to be trained;
- tests used to evaluate the fitness level and the performance
standards.
The main means which can be used in developing fitness
components are:
- for mobility: (the main objective is the functional
improvement of movements) The exercises are executed
from different positions (sitting, standing, standing on
knees, lying down) and they will prepare the subject for
effort and will train both the lower and the upper parts of
the body;
- for strength: When the muscular innervation is intact and
there are no other pathologies, the work for strength can be
made without restrictions. The teacher should be careful to
work both the antagonist muscles and the agonist ones,
emphasizing the development of the extensor, abductor
and supinator muscles.
for cardio-vascular resistance and body composition the
recommended activities are somewhat similar due to the
effects on both areas. The objectives can be reached if it is
used a continuous, aerobic program of swimming, cycling
and, generally, activities which involve in movement the
entire body, fact which favors superior caloric
94

calorice
superioare
i
mbuntirea
funciei
cardiorespiratorii. Activitile pot fi: plimbare sau urcare
pe munte, mers pe bicicleta staionar sau nestaionar,
jojing, mers pe stepper sau pe covor rulant, inot pe distane
lungi, ski fond, dans aerobic, etc.
Acrosport. Reprezint o opiune care poate fi inclus n
coninutul leciilor de educaie fizic, constnd n realizarea unor
legri de figuri acrobatice colective combinate cu elemente
individuale. Figurile pot fi executate n duo, trio, sau mai muli
participani. Acrosportul presupune deci, o producie de forme
statice, dinamice sau combinate, caracterizate prin piramide.
Prestaia poate fi nsoit de acompaniament muzical.
Jocuri de micare i jocuri sportive. Jocurile de echip
sunt la fel de populare i n rndul persoanelor cu nevoi speciale,
care regsesc n cadrul acestora un mediu favorabil de implicare
motric, afectiv, cognitiv. Pentru deficienii mintali severi se
recomand ca jocurile sportive s se desfoare pe terenuri cu
dimensiuni reduse i reguli simplificate, deoarece capacitatea de
concentrare i prelucrare a informaiilor limitat impiedic
nvarea i utilizarea unor strategii de joc care implic
secvenializarea mai multor aciuni motrice dependente de mai
muli factori.
n condiii de retard uor subiecii pot practica jocuri precum
baschet, volei, fotbal.
Activiti de expresie corporal urmrete desfurarea
unei activiti artistice prin descoperirea i reproducerea unor
forme corporale n vederea unei evoluii arbitrate.
Sporturile de iarn reprezint o categorie de activiti
sportive cu o arie restrns n programa de educaie fizic sau
sportiv. Aceast omisiune ester cu att mai inexplicabil cu ct
acestea ndeplinesc obiective variate: mbuntirea nivelului
fitness-ului, relaxare recreere, senzaii speciale de micare,
crearea premiselor pentru activiti independente n vacanele
colare. Dintre acestea putem aminti. Schiul, patinajul, sania.
95

consumptions and improves the cardio-respiratory


function. The activities can be: walking or hiking on the
mountain, riding the static or non-static bicycle, jogging,
walking on the stepper or on the tread-mill, swimming on
long distances, skiing, aerobic dancing, etc.
Acrosport. Represents an option which can be included in
the contents of the physical education lessons, consisting of
accomplishing connections of combined collective acrobatic
figures with individual elements. The figures can be executed in
2 or 3 or several participants. Acrosport implies a production of
static, dynamic or combined forms, characterized through
pyramids. The execution can be accompanied by music.
Movement games and sportive games. The team games are
very popular amongst individuals with special needs who find a
favorable environment of motor, affective, cognitive
involvement. For severe mentally deficients, it is recommended
that the games should take place on fields with reduced
dimensions and simplified rules because the limited
concentration and data processing capacity impedes the learning
and use of certain playing strategies involving the division on
sequences of several motor actions depending on several factors.
In the case of slight retardation, the subjects can practice
games such as basketball, volleyball, football.
The body expression activities have as purpose to carry on
artistic activities by discovering and reproducing certain body
forms in order to have an arbitrary evolution.
Winter sports represents a category of sports activities with
little space in the physical education or sportive curriculum. This
omission is more inexplicable as winter sports accomplish
various objectives: improve fitness level, relaxation, recreation,
special movement sensations, creation of premises for
independent activities during the holidays. Among them, we
should mention skiing, skating, sledging.
96

11. Deficienele senzoriale


Deficienele senzoriale sunt determinate de tulburri sau
disfuncii patologice la nivelul analizatorilor. Cauzele acestor
disfuncii const n leziuni morfologice i funcionale la nivelul
anumitor segmente a analizatorilor. Pentru a se putea vorbi de
deficien trebuie s se ajung la un anumit nivel de gravitate,
care la rndul lor vor determina dereglri profunde n adaptarea
individului la mediul extern, fizic i social.
Principalele categorii de deficiene senzoriale sunt cele de
auz i vz.
11.1. Activiti motrice adaptate pentru copii cu
deficien de vedere
Deficiena de vedere. n categoria copiilor cu CES, cei cu
deficien de vedere constituie o populaie aparte.
Termenii utilizai pentru categoriile de persoane care
prezint scderea acuitii vizuale sunt:
- ambioplie, cnd acuitatea vizual este cuprins ntre 0,2 i
0,1;
- cecitate (orbire), cnd acuitatea vizual este cuprins ntre
0,05 i incapacitatea de a percepe lumina;
n funcie de momentul instalrii deficienei de vedere
exist urmtoarele categorii de deficieni:
- ambliopii care mai prezint resturi de vedere;
- orbii trzii caracterizai de lipsa vederii, deficiena fiind
instalat dup vrsta de trei ani;
orbii congenitali sau orbii propriu-zii care nu au
beneficiat niciodat de acest sim sau la care orbirea a
survenit nainte de vrsta de trei ani, astfel nct ei nu-i
pot aminti reprezentri vizuale (forme, culori, mrimi,
proporii).
97

11. Sensorial deficiencies


Sensorial deficiencies are determined by pathological
disorders or dysfunctions at the level of analyzers. The causes of
these dysfunctions are morphological and functional lesions at
the level of certain segments of the analyzers. To speak about
deficiency, a certain level of severity is reached which
determines deep disorders in the individuals adjustment to the
external, physical and social environment.
The main categories of sensorial deficiencies are those of
hearing and seeing.
11.1. Adapted physical activities for children with
vision deficiency
Vision deficiency. Within the category of children with
CES, those with vision deficiency are special category.
The terms used for persons with poor vision are:
- amblyopia, when the vision is between 0.2 and 0.1;
- blindness, when vision is between 0.05 and incapacity to
perceive light;
Depending on the onset moment of the visual deficiency,
there are the following categories of deficient persons:
- persons suffering of amblyopia they still have some
vision;
- late blind persons characterized by the lack of sight, the
deficiency onset after the age of 3;
- congenital blind persons or actual blind persons they
have never had this sense or they became blind before the
age of three, so they cannot remember visual
representations (shapes, colours, sizes, proportions).

98

Etiologia deficienelor de vedere.


Deficienele apar ca urmare a dificultilor de receptare,
transmitere i prelucrare a stimulului luminos. Alturi de
tulburrile de refracie, alte cauze frecvente ale deficienelor de
vedere sunt: glauconul, cataracta i diabetul.
Rolul percepiei vizuale n desfurarea activitilor
motrice. Pentru a nelege mai bine necesitatea adaptrii
didacticii activitilor motrice este necesar s evideniem care
este rolul vederii n practica exerciiilor fizice. Astfel:
- acuitatea vizual dinamic este cea care rspunde de
percepia vitezei deplasare a obiectelor;
- controlul ocular sau coordonarea vizual este
rspunztoare pentru vederea binocular, n jocurile
sportive sau n activiti de citit-scris;
- discriminarea vizual presupune recunoaterea formelor,
mrimilor, att a obiectelor utilizate n activiti motrice,
ct i a celor utilizate la activitile din clas;
- vederea periferic joac un rol important n anticiparea
evenimentelor, copiii cu un cmp vizual ngust vor
ntmpina dificulti n practicarea jocurilor sportive;
- adncimea percepiei este cea care permite aprecierea
formei i consistenei obiectelor, n funcie de distana de
la care sunt percepute;
- percepia vizual form fond permite focalizarea
ateniei copilului asupra unui stimul vizual; lipsa acestei
percepii va ngreuna execuia actelor motrice cum ar fi
prinderea mingii, lovirea mingii cu racheta, etc.
- coordonarea oculo-segmentar (manual i podal)
constituie de asemenea, factor de succes n activitile
motrice; de ea depinde precizia aciunilor motrice,
aprecierea forei de lovire a obiectivelor.

99

Etiology of vision deficiencies


The deficiencies occur as a result of difficulties in
receiving, sending and processing the light stimulus. Next to the
refraction disorders, other frequent causes of vision deficiencies
are: glaucoma, cataract and diabetes.
The role of visual perception in carrying on physical
activities. In order to better understand the necessity of adapting
the didactics of physical activities, we should emphasize the role
of vision in the practice of physical exercises. Thus:
- the dynamics of visual acuity is responsible for the
perception of the speed of moving objects;
- eye control or visual coordination is responsible for
binocular vision in sports activities or in reading-writing
activities;
- visual discrimination implies the recognition of shapes,
sizes of objects used both in physical activities and in
classroom activities;
- peripheral vision has an important role in anticipating
events; children with narrow vision will have difficulties in
practicing sports games;
- depth of perception it allows the appreciation of shape
and consistence of objects, depending on the distance they
are perceived from;
- visual perception allows focalization of the childs
attention on a visual stimulus; the lack of this perception
will make more difficult the execution of motor acts such
as catching the ball, hitting it with the racket, etc.;
- eye-segment coordination (manual and with legs) also
constitutes a factor of success in physical activities; the
precision of physical actions, the appreciation of hitting
force depend on it.

100

Particulariti ale creterii i dezvoltrii copiilor cu


deficien de vedere
Caracterizarea copiilor cu deficien de vedere, ca de altfel
a oricror categorii de deficieni, constituie doar un punct de
reper n nelegerea consecinelor pe care deficiena la are asupra
dezvoltrii personalitii celor n cauz. i aceasta pentru c un
rol extrem de important l joac prinii i specialitii angajati n
procesul de educare compensare a deficienelor copiilor
respectivi.
Deficiena vizual induce modificri pe mai multe planuri,
i anume:
- planul neurofiziologic;
- planul dezvoltrii fizice;
- planul proceselor cognitive primare i secundare;
- planul socio-afectiv;
- planul motricitii.
Pe plan neurofiziologic, se constat c la copiii cu
deficiene vizuale se nregistreaz o scdere a vitezei de formare
a reflexelor condiionate i a mobilitii lor. Ca urmare a lipsei
excitaiilor luminoase se constat, de asemenea, apariia unor
dereglri ale funciilor controlate de sistemul diencefalichipofizar.(W.Roth, citat de M. tefan, 1999)
Pe planul dezvoltrii fizice, lipsa vederii nu cauzeaz n
mod direct tulburri, dar tendina ctre sedentarism care nsoete
de mai multe ori deficiena este responsabil de acestea.
Lipsa de motricitate a copiilor din primii ani de via are o
serie de repercursiuni negative. Rezultatele prezentate n
literatura de specialitate (V. Preda, citat de M. tefan, 1999)
afirm c ntrzierile n dezvoltarea fizic la vrsta de 7 ani ar fi
de circa 2 ani, n timp ce vrsta de 17 ani, rmnerea n urm este
de doar 1 an.

101

Particularities of growth and development of children


with visual deficiency
The characterization of children with visual deficiency,
just like of any other categories of deficient persons, constitutes
just a landmark in understanding the consequences which the
deficiency has upon the subjects personality development. This
is because a very important role is that of parents and specialists
involved in the education process compensation of the
respective childrens deficiencies.
Visual deficiency induces changes in several plans like:
- neuro-physiological plan;
- physical development plan;
- primary and secondary cognitive processes plan;
- social-affective plan;
- motility plan.
On neuro-physiological plan, it is noticed that in children
with visual deficiency it is recorded a decrease of speed in
formation conditioned reflexes and their mobility. As a result of
the lack of luminous excitations, it is also noticed the appearance
of some disorders of the functions controlled by the
diencephalon-hypophisar system. (W.Roth, quoted by M.
tefan, 1999)
On the physical development plan, the lack of vision does
not cause directly disorders, but the tendency for sedentariness,
which most often accompanies the deficiency, is responsible for
it.
The lack of motility in the childrens first years of life has
a series of negative repercussions. The resulted presents in the
specialty literature (V. Preda, quoted by M. tefan, 1999) state
that the delays in physical development at the age of 7 would be
of about 2 years, while at the age of 17, the delay is only of one
year.
102

Motricitatea sczut este cea care conduce la apariia unor


atitudini posturale deficiente sau deficiene fizice cap i gt
aplecate nainte sau nclinate lateral, umeri czui, etc.
Tendina de renunare la activitile motrice, n general
asociat deficienelor fizice menionate conduce la apariia unor
tulburri la nivelul sistemelor circulator i respirator.
n plan cognitiv, la nivelul proceselor perceptive ale
ambliopilor se constat diminuarea impulsului declanator al
percepiei, ca urmare a faptului c stimulii vizuali, externi sunt
sesizai cu ntrziere sau nu sunt ntrziai.
n ceea ce privete dezvoltatrea intelectual a copiilor cu
deficiene de vedere, ntrzierile n dezvoltarea sunt consecina
secundar a deficienei deficienei senzoriale, datorat n primul
rnd unui nivel de solicitare necorespunztoare din punct de
vedere educaional.
ntre procesele psihice, memoria cunoate o dezvoltare
deosebit, datorit solicitrii intense. Copiii nevztori sau slabi
vztori folosesc memoria cu scop compensator, susinnd
cunoaterea mediului nconjurtor i adaptarea la schimbrile lui.
O imens solicitare cunoate i atenia, a crei stabilitate
atinge performane deosebite, depindu-le adesea pe cele ale
copiilor normali. O calitate a ateniei care rmne sub nivelul
mediu este comunicativitatea.
Deosebit de important pentru intervenia educaional
este cunoaterea planului socio-afectiv. Se consider c
trsturile negative ale deficientului vizual sunt n primul rnd
consecina condiiilor socio-educative n care s-a dezvoltat, a
unei educaii inadecvate oferite de o persoan cu pregtire
inadecvat, n sens de necunoatere sau abordare
necorespunztoare a nevoilor lui.
Problemele de inadaptare la mediul social sunt consecina
eecurilor de comunicare cu ceilali, a excluderii de la jocurile
altor copii, evitrii sau izolrii lor. Astfel se explic o serie de
103

Low motility leads to the appearance of some deficient


postural attitudes or physical deficiencies forward or laterally
bent head and neck, stoop-shouldered, etc.
The tendency to give up the physical activities, generally
associated with the above mentioned physical deficiencies, leads
to the appearance of some disorders at the level of the circulatory
and respiratory systems.
On cognitive plan, at the level of the perceptive processes
of the persons with amblyopia it is noticed the triggering impulse
of perception because the external, visual stimuli are noticed with
delay or are not noticed.
In what concerns the intellectual development of children
with visual deficiencies, the developmental delays are the
secondary consequence of the sensorial deficiency, first of all
because of a level of improper educational overwork.
From the psychic processes, memory is very well
developed due to intense solicitation . Blind children, or with
poor vision, use memory with a compensating purpose,
supporting the knowledge about environment and the adjustment
to its changes.
Attention is also very solicited, its stability reaching
special performances, sometimes overcoming those of normal
children. A quality of attention which remains under medium
level is communicability.
Knowing the social-affective plan is especially important
for the educational intervention. It is considered that the negative
features of the visually deficient are first of all the consequence
of the social-educational conditions in which he developed, of an
improper education provided by a person with improper training,
that is who does not know or does not properly approach his
needs.
The problems of maladjustment to the social environment
are the consequence of communication failure with others, of
exclusion from playing with other children, their avoidance or
isolation. That explains a series of the childs defense reactions,
104

reacii de aprare ale copilului, manifestate prin stri depresive,


nesiguran, atitudine inhibat, sau dimpotriv arogant,
insolent, nencredere n cei din jur. (M. tefan, 1999).
Pe planul motricitii globale se nregistreaz lips de
coordonare i micri aritmice. Deficiena de vedere influeneaz
i eficiena pe planul manualitii, dat fiind faptul c nu se poate
realiza sau se evit conducerea vizual a micrii minilor.
nc din primul an de via, micrile nou-nscutului orb
congenital difer semnificativ de schema clasic de dezvoltare
motric.
La vrste mai mari acest retard se amelioreaz prin
contribuia feed-back- ului corectiv al profesorului, printelui, ca
substitut pentru monitorizarea propriilor micri.
Mersul nevztorilor este rigid, nesigur, ezitant. Membrele
inferioare sunt uor flexate, pirea se realizeaz fr rularea
labei piciorului, n felul acesta asigurndu-se o suprafa mai
mare de contact i de sprijin.
Alergarea se carecterizeaz printr-un fuleu redus, ritm lent
al pailor, faz de sprijin prelungit, etc. n literatura de
specialitate se atrage atenia asupra faptului c nivelul redus de
dezvoltare a forei, a capacitilor coordinative, a echilibrului,
lipsa de siguran i precizie n micare, dificultile legate de
orientarea n spaiu, determin la orbi o atitudine de renunare
treptat la contactul cu mediul nconjurtor prin intermediul
micrii, ceea ce le diminueaz ansele de adaptare nu numai la
universul fizic, ci i la cerinele vieii sociale. (E. Firea, 1979)
n faa acestor aspecte, interveniile educaionale terbuie s
urmreasc susinerea procesului de devenire a copilului ambliop
sau nevztor, devenire caracterizat de capacitatea de utilizare a
forelor de cunoatere senzorial i logico-vertebral, a
instrumentelor intelectuale, autonomie personal i social,
nsuirea unei meserii adecvate.

105

manifested through depressive moods, uncertainty, inhibited


attitude or, on the contrary, arrogance, insolence, distrust in
others (M. tefan, 1999).
On global motility plan, it is noticed a lack of coordination
and arrhythmic movements. The visual deficiency also influences
efficiency on the manual plan, as the visual lead of the hand
movement cannot be made or it is avoided.
From the first year of life, the movements of the
congenitally blind new-born differ significantly from the
classical scheme of motor development.
Later on, this retardation is ameliorated by the corrective
feed-back contribution of the teacher, parent, as a substitute for
monitoring their own movements.
The gait of the blind persons is rigid, uncertain and
hesitant. The lower limbs are slightly flexed; the step is made
without rolling the foot, providing thus a bigger surface of
contact and support.
Running is characterized by a reduced stride, slow rhythm
of steps, prolonged phase of support, etc. In the specialty
literature, attention is drawn upon the fact that the reduced level
of strength development, of coordinating capacities, of balance,
lack of certainty and precision in movement, difficulties related
to orientation in space, determines in blind people an attitude of
gradual giving up the contact with the environment through
movement, fact which diminishes the chances of adjustment not
only to the physical universe, but also to the requirements of
social life. (E. Firea, 1979)
Under these circumstances, the educational interventions
should support the evolution process of the blind child, evolution
characterized by the use of sensorial and logical-vertebral
knowledge forces, of intellectual instruments, personal and social
autonomy, learning a proper profession.

106

Obiectivele specifice activitilor motrice adaptate


pentru persoanele cu deficien de vedere
- ameliorarea atitudinii posturale;
- dezvoltarea simului tactil-kinestezic n vederea favorizrii
proceselor compensatorii;
- formarea i consolidarea autonomiei de deplasare n
mediul nconjurtor;
- dezvoltarea calitilor motrice i psihomotrice necesare
nsuirii i exercitrii eficiente unei meserii;
- dezvoltarea ncrederii n forele proprii;
- eliminarea inhibiiei motrice.
Activiti motrice recomandate:
- gimnastic,
- jocuri sportive;
- atletism;
- dans;
- inot;
- ski alpin i fond;
- judo;
- activiti n aer liber;
- activiti de expresie corporal;
- fitness(cu sau fr greuti);
- lucrul la bicicleta ergonomic sau covor rulant;
- biciclete n tandem alturi de un partener cu vedere
rezidual;
- arte mariale i lupte(meninerea contactului permanent).
11.2. Activiti motrice adaptate pentru persoane
cu deficiene de auz
Deficienele de auz fac obiectul de studiu al
surdopsihopedagogiei i studiaz particularitile dezvoltrii
psihofizice ale persoanelor cu disfuncii auditive.
107

Objectives specific to adapted physical activities for


individuals with visual deficiencies
- amelioration of postural attitude;
- development of tactile-kinestezic sense in order to favor
compensatory processes;
- formation and consolidation of movement autonomy in the
environment;
- development of motor and psycho-motor qualities
necessary to efficiently learn and practice a profession;
- development of self-confidence;
- elimination of motor inhibition.
-

Recommended physical activities:


gymnastics;
sportive games;
athletics;
dancing;
swimming;
skiing;
judo;
outdoors activities;
activities of body expression;
fitness (with or without weights);
working on the ergonomic bicycle or tread-mill;
tandem biking with a partner with residual vision;
martial arts and wrestling (maintaining permanent contact).
11.2. Adapted physical activities for individuals
with hearing deficiencies

Hearing deficiencies are the study object of deaf-psychopedagogy which studies the particularities of psycho-physical
development of persons with hearing dysfunctions.
108

Surdopsihopedagogia are un caracter interdisciplinar i


este constituit din dou componente:
- surdopedagogia, component a pedagogiei speciale i care
se refer la aspectele instructive ale persoanelor cu
deficiene de auz;
- surdopsihologia, care face parte din pedagogia special i
care studiaz particularitile i legitile specifice ale
dezvoltrii psihice persoanelor cu deficiene de auz.
Analizatorul auditiv are un rol deosebit n dezvoltarea
psihic individului datorit rolului su n facilitarea comunicrii
verbale i n acumularea cunotinelor. Deficiena auditiv
determin modificri n activitatea individual i const n
perturbarea relaiei individului cu mediul nconjurtor.
Cnd deficiena auditiv este congenital sau apare la
vrste mici, provoac dificulti n nsuirea limbajului, iar n
unele cazuri grave lipsa limbajului surdo-mut. Cnd apare dup
achiziionarea structurilor determin o involuie a activitii
psihice dac nu se aplic programe educative speciale.
n majoritatea cazurilor pierderea auzului este un proces
lent, nedureros. Depistarea i intervenia din timp a tulburrilor
auditive sunt foarte inportante n evoluia ulterioar a copiilor,
dat fiind pericolul apariiei mueniei, adic nensuirea limbajului
ca mijloc de comunicare i instrument operaional al gndirii.
Este o regul cunoscut n literatura de specialitate care afirm c
un copil ce prezint pierderi mari de auz n primii ani de via,
fr o protezare precoce, inevitabil va deveni mut. De asemenea ,
disfunciile auditive cu ct sunt mai grave, cu att vor influena
mai mult apariia i deezvoltarea vorbirii, fapt evideniat prin
frecvena crescut a tulburrilor de vorbire la copiii cu diferite
grade de hipoacuzie.

109

Deaf-psycho-pedagogy has an interdisciplinary character


and it is made up of two components:
- deaf-psycho-pedagogy, component of special pedagogy,
refers to the instructive aspects of persons with hearing
deficiencies;
- deaf-psycho-pedagogy, which is part of special pedagogy
and studies the particularities of psychic development of
hearing deficient individuals.
The hearing analyzer has a special role in the individuals
psychic development due to its role in facilitating verbal
communication and in gathering knowledge. The hearing
deficiency determines changes in the individual activity and
consists in the perturbation of the individuals relationship with
the environment.
When the hearing deficiency is congenital or appears at
young ages, it causes difficulties in learning the spoken language
and in some severe cases, the lack of language deaf-mute.
When it occurs after acquiring the structures, it determines an
involution of the psychic activity, unless special educational
programs are applied.
In most cases, the loss of hearing is a slow, not painful
process. Its detection and intervention in time are very important
in the childs further evolution, considering the danger of
muteness, that is, not using the language as a communication
means and as an operational tool of thinking. There is well
known rule in the specialty literature which states the fact that a
child with big loss of hearing during his first years of life, will
inevitably become mute without good prosthesis. The more
severe the hearing dysfunctions are, the more they will influence
the appearance and development of speech, fact emphasized by
the increased frequency of speech disorders at children with
various degrees of poor hearing.

110

Clasificarea deficienelor de auz


Deficienele de auz sunt de cele mai multe ori, consecina
unor malformaii sau dereglri anatomo-fiziologice ale
structurilor analizatorului auditiv. Din aceast perspectiv
deficienele se pot clasifica astfel:
- deficienele transmisie sau surditatea de conducere, se
instaleaz n urma dificultilor aprute n calea undelor
sonore la trecerea lor de la exterior spre urechea intern
prin malformaii ale urechii externe sau medii, defeciuni
ale timpanului, opturarea sau blocarea canalului auditiv
extern, sau prin apariia unor afeciuni la nivelul urechii
mijlocii otite, mastoidite, infecii nsoite de secreii
purulente, care blocheaz transmiterea undelor sonore i au
efect distructiv asupra structurilor osoase i cartilaginoase
de la acest nivel;
- deficienele percepie sunt provocate de leziuni ale
urechii interne, nervului auditiv sau centrilor nervoi de la
nivelul scoarei cerebrale, urmate de pierderea total sau
paria l a funciei organului receptor din urechea intern a
nervului auditiv;
- defiene mixte sunt cele care se refer att la elementele
deficienelor de transmisie, ct i la cele ale deficienelor
de percepie, consecutive unor afeciuni de tipul
otosclerozei, sechele operatorii, traumatisme etc.
Dup gradul deficitului auditiv, pot fi identificate
urmtoarele tipuri (clasificare realizat dup Biroul Internaional
de Audio-fonologie BIAF):
- hipoacuzie uoar deficit de auz lejer o perdere de auz
de 20-40 dB;
- hipoacuzie medie deficit de auz mediu o pierdere de
auz de 40-70 dB;
- hipoacuzie sever deficit de auz sever o pierdere de auz
de 70-90 dB;
111

Classification of the hearing deficiencies


The hearing deficiencies are most often the consequence of
anatomic-physiologic malformations or disorders of the hearing
analyzers structures. From this perspective, deficiencies can be
classified as follows:
- transmission deficiencies or deafness of leading; it onsets
because of the difficulties appeared in the way of sound
waves when they pass from the outside to the internal ear
through the malformations of the external or medium ear,
ear drum disorders, blockage of the external hearing canal,
or through the occurrence of disorders at the level of the
medium ear otitis, mastoiditis, infections accompanied
by purulent secretions which block the transmission of
sound waves and have a destructive effect upon the bone
and cartilage structures at this level;
- perception deficiencies they are caused by lesions of the
internal ear, hearing nerve or nervous centers at the level
of the cerebral cortex, followed by the total or partial loss
of function of the receptor organ from the internal ear of
the hearing nerve;
- mixed deficiencies they are referring both to the
elements of transmission deficiencies and to those of the
perception deficiencies, consecutive to disorders such as
otosklerosis, operation sequelae, traumatisms, etc.
According to the hearing deficit, the following types can
be identified (classification made after the International Office of
Audio-Phonology - IOAP):
- slight hearing deficit loss of hearing of 20-40 dB;
- medium hearing deficit loss of hearing of 40-70 dB;
- severe hearing deficit loss of hearing of 70-90 dB;

112

- anacuzie/cofoz deficit de auz profund, surditate


piedere de auz de peste 90 dB.
n funcie de lateralitate putem ntlni:
- deficiene unilaterale;
- deficiene bilaterale.
-

Dup momentul apariiei deficienei putem vorbi despre:


deficiene ereditare (anomalii cromozomiale, transmitere
genetic);
deficiene dobndite
deficiene prenatale;
deficiene perinatale;
deficiene postnatale.
Etiologia deficienelor de auz

Etiologia deficienelor de auz dobndite


prezentat, dela momentul apariiei lor, astfel:

poate

fi

1. n perioada prenatal, mai ales n faza embrionar:


- infecii virale sau bacteriene ale mamei cu virui ai
rubeolei,
oreionului,
hepatitei,
citomegalovirus,
tuberculoza, sifilisul etc.;
- ingerarea de substane toxice sau narcotice, alcool,
medicamente din grupul tranchilizantelor;
- tentative de avort prin consumul unor substane de tipul:
chinin, ap-de-plumbsau prin administrarea n exces a
antibioticelor;
- iradieri ale mamei n timpul sarcinii;
- diabetul;
- factori endocrini i metabolici cu complicaii n
funcionarea unor glande;
113

- profound hearing deficit, deafness loss of hearing of over


90dB.
According to laterality, there can be:
- unilateral deficiencies;
- bilateral deficiencies.
According to the onset moment of the deficiency, there
are:
- hereditary deficiencies
genetic transmission);
- gained deficiencies;
- prenatal deficiencies;
- perinatal deficiencies;
- postnatal deficiencies.

(chromosomal

abnormalities,

Etiology of hearing deficiencies


The etiology of gained hearing deficiencies can be
presented from the moment of their appearance as follows:
1. during the prenatal period, especially in the embryonic
phase:
- viral or bacterial infections of the mother with viruses of
rubella, mumps, hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, tuberculosis,
syphilis, etc;
- consumption of toxic or narcotic substances, alcohol,
medicines from the tranquilizer group;
- abortion attempts by consuming substances like: quinine,
leaded water or by excessive administration of antibiotics;
- irradiations of the mother during pregnancy;
- diabetes;
- endocrine and metabolic factors with complications in the
functioning of certain glands;
114

- tulburri de circulaie placentar (aport sczut de oxigen la


nivelul fetusului);
- incompatibilitate Rh ntre mam i ft;
- traumatisme n timpul sarcinii.
2. n perioada perinatal sau neonatal:
- traumatisme obstetricale cu produceri de hemoragiin
urechea intern sau la nivelul scoarei cerebrale;
- anoxie sau axfinxie albastr urmat de insuficient
oxigenare la nivelul scoarei cerebrale;
- bilirubinemia sau icterul nuclear.
3. n perioada postnatal:
- boli infecioase de tipul: otit, mastoidit, meningit,
encefalit, scarlatin, rujeol, febr convulsiv, oreion etc.
- traumatisme craniocerebrale;
- abuz de antibiotice i alte substane medicamentoase;
- traumatisme sonore, care pot determina i unele boli
profesionale,
- stri distrofice, intoxicaii, afeciuni vasculare etc.
n funcie de localizarea la nivelul urechii, putem distinge
urmtoarele cauze:
1. la nivelul urechii externe:
- absena pavilionului urechii sau malformaii ale acestuia;
- obstrucionarea canalului auditiv extern cu dopuri de cear
sau ali corpi strini;
- excrescene osoase.
2. la nivelul urechii medii:
- otite, mastoidite, corpi strini;
- inflamarea trompei lui Eustache;
- leziuni saau malformaii aleoscioarelor, otoscleroz;
- perforarea membranei timpanului etc.
115

- disorders of flow in the placenta (low oxygen contribution


at fetus level);
- Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus;
- traumatisms during pregnancy.
2. during the perinatal or neonatal period:
- obstetrical traumatisms with hemorrhages in the inner ear
or at the cerebral cortex level;
- anoxia or blue asphyxia followed by insufficient
oxygenation at the cerebral cortex level;
- bilirubinaemia or nuclear icterus.
3. during the postnatal period:
- infectious diseases such as: otitis, mastoiditis, meningitis,
encephalitis, scarlatina, measles, convulsive fever mumps,
etc;
- cranial-cerebral traumatisms;
- abuse of antibiotics and other medicines;
- sound traumatisms which can also determine some
professional diseases;
- dystrophic states, intoxications, vascular disorders, etc.
According to location at the ear level, we can distinguish
the following causes:
1. at the level of the external ear:
- absence of the auricle;
- obstruction of the external hearing canal with ear wax
cerumen or other foreign bodies;
- bone excrescences.
2. at the level of the medium ear:
- otitis, mastoiditis, foreign bodies;
- inflammation of the Eustachian tube;
- lesions or malformations of the little bones, otosklerosis;
- perforation of the ear drum membrane, etc.
116

3. la nivelul urechii interne:


- leziuni saau deformri ale labirintului membranos sau
cohlear, ale canalelor semicirculare, ale utriculei sau
saculei i membranei tectoria;
- leziuni ale organului Corti, membranei bazilare i a
nervului auditiv;
4. la nivelul nervului auditiv:
- leziuni ale traiectului nervos auditiv sau ale zonei de
prroiecie din scoar (surditate cortical).
Particularitile
deficin de auz

psihomotrice

ale

persoanelor

cu

Din punct de vedere al dezvoltrii psihofizice i


pedagogice putem vorbi despre urmtoarele trsturi ale
deficienilor de auz:
- dezvoltarea fizic general este normal, n condiiile
unei alimentaii i ngrijiri corespunztoare;
- dezvoltarea componentelor motrice, mers, alergare,
scris, etc., prezint uoare ntrzieri din ca cauza
absenei vorbirii i stimulului emoional afectiv;
- orientarea pe baz de auz este diminuat sau chiar
inexistent, iar simul echilibrului poate fi tulburat ca
urmare a afeciunilor de la nivelul urechii interne;
- gesturile, mimica se nsuesc n mod spontan n
comunicarea deficientului de auz, constituindu-se
treptat ntr-un limbaj caracteristic acestor persoane;
- nsuirea limbajului verbal se face n mod organizat
prin activitile de demutizare, cu sprijinul
specialistului logoped i al familiei;
- dezvoltarea psihic prezint o anumit specificitate
determinat de gradul exersrii proceselor cognitive i
de particularitile limbajului mimico-gesticular, lipsit
de nuane i cu topic simplist, generatoare de confuzii
n nelegerea mesajului;
117

3. at the level of the internal ear:


- lesions or deformations of the membranous or cochlear
labyrinth, of the semicircular canals, of the utricle or
saccule and of the tectum membrane;
- lesions of the Corti organ, basilar membrane and of the
hearing nerve;
4. at the level of the hearing nerve:
- lesions of the hearing nervous trajectory or of the
projection area from cortex (cortical deafness).
Psychomotor particularities of individuals with hearing
deficiencies
From the point of view of psycho-physical and
pedagogical development, we can speak about the following
features of the hearing deficients:
- the general physical development is normal under the
conditions of good nutrition and proper caring;
- the development of motor components walking, running,
writing, etc. shows slight delays caused by the lack of
speech and of the affective emotional stimulus;
- hearing based orientation is diminished or inexistent and
the sense of balance can be disturbed because of the
disorders at the level of the internal ear;
- the gestures, mimics are acquired spontaneously in the
hearing deficients communication, gradually becoming a
language characteristic for them;
- learning the verbal language is made in an organized
manner through specific activities, with the help of the
speech therapist and of the family;
- the psychic development presents a certain specificity
determined by the degree of exercising the cognitive
processes and by the particularities of the mimics-gesture
language, without gradation and with simple topics,
generating confusions in understanding the message;
118

- primul sistem de semnalizare (senzorio-perceptiv) este


influenat de limbajul mimico-gesticular i al
reprezentrilor generalizate pe baza achiziiilor
senzoriale i senzorial-motrice (n special vizualmotrice), instrumente cu care deficientul de auz
opereaz pn la vrste naintate;
- gndirea surzilor nedemutizai opereaz n special cu
simboluri iconice imagini generalizate sau
reprezentri, comparativ cu surzii demutizai la vrste
mici i a cror gndire folosete simboluri verbale
saturate de elemente vizuale
- operaiile logice analiza, sinteza, abstractizarea,
generalizarea, comparaia se desfoar la un nivel
intelectual sczut;
- funciile cognitive sunt aproximativ aceleai cu un
auzitor cu deosebirea c memoria cognitiv-verbal se
dezvolt mai lent, pe cnd memoria vizual-motric are
o dezvoltare mai accentuat;
- imaginaia i capacitatea de crea noi reprezentri,
prezint evidente influene ale dominanei vizualmotorii n asimilarea informaiilor;
- ntrzierea n realizarea vorbirii, pierderea perioadei
optime de nsuire a limbajului verbal, mresc decalajul
n dezvoltarea psihic a copilului surd i auzitor, cu
repercursiuni asupra integrrii primului n societate,
determinnd de multe ori izolarea acestora, sentimente
de inferioritate, stri depresive, lips de interes,
descurajare, eecuri n plan colar i profesional etc.

119

- the first signaling system (sensorial-perceptive) is


influenced by the mimics-gesture language and by the
generalized representations based on sensorial and
sensorial-motor acquisitions (especially visual-motor
ones), tools with which the hearing deficient operates till
old age;
- the thinking of deaf, not subjected to therapy, people
operates especially with iconic symbols generalized
images or representations, in comparison with the deaf
subjected to therapy at young ages and whose thinking
uses verbal symbols saturated by visual elements;
- logical operations analysis, synthesis, changing into
abstract, generalization, comparison are carried on at a
low intellectual level;
- the cognitive functions are approximately the same with
those of a person who can hear, with the difference that
cognitive-verbal memory develops slower while the
visual-motor memory develops more;
- the imagination and capacity to create new representations
present obvious influences of the visual-motor dominancy
in assimilating information;
- the delay in speech, the loss of the optimum period for
acquiring the verbal language increase the distance
between the psychic development of the deaf child and that
who can hear, with repercussions on the latters integration
in society, often determining his isolation, feelings of
inferiority, depressive moods, lack of interest,
discouragement, failures on school and professional levels,
etc.

120

11.3. Demutizarea, ortofonia


Formele de comunicare ntlnite n procesul educaional al
copiilor cu deficiene de auz sunt:
1. comunicarea verbal care poate fi oral i scris; aceasta
prezint urmtoarele caracteristici:
- are la baz un vocabular dirijat de anumite reguli
gramaticale;
- labiolectura care este un suport important n nelegere;
2. comunicare mimico-gestual este cea mai la ndemn
form de comunicare foarte des folosit i ntr-o manier
aparte, stereotipic i de auzitori;
3. comunicare cu ajutorul dactilemelor are la baz un
sistem de semne manuale care nlocuiesc literele din
limbajul verbal i respect anumite reguli gramaticale n
ceea ce privete topica formulrii mesajului;
4. comunicarea bilingv presupune combinarea ntre:
- comunicarea verbal i comunicarea mimico-gestual;
- comunicarea verbal i comunicarea cu dactileme;
5. comunicare total care se refer la utilizarea tuturor
tipurilor de comunicare n ideea completrii reciproce i de
a ajuta la nelegerea corect a mesajului.
n cazul tulburrilor de auz, pe lng fenomenele
compensatorii, mai ntlnim alte dou procese fundamentale
demutizarea i ortofonia de o importan major n procesul
instructiv-recuperator.
Demutizarea reprezint activitatea complex de nlturare
a mutitii cu metode i mijloace specifice, prin valorificarea
cilor organice nealterate. Are o component didactic
semnificativ i presupune nsuirea celor trei componente ale
limbajului:

121

11.3. Demutization, orthophonia


The communication forms encountered in the educational
process of children with hearing deficiencies are:
1. verbal communication, which can be oral or written; it
has the following characteristics:
- it is based on a vocabulary directed by certain
grammar rules;
- reading on lips, which is an important support in
understanding;
2. mimics-gesture communication it is the most at hand
form of communication, used very often and in a
particular, stereotypical way by people who can hear;
3. communication with the help of dactylema it is based
on a system of manual signs which replace the letters
from verbal language and respects certain grammar rule
regarding the topics when formulating the message;
4. bilingual communication implies the combination
between:
- verbal and mimics-gesture communication;
- verbal and dactylema communication;
5. total communication refers to the use of all types of
communication, to complete each other and to help in the
correct understanding of the message.
In the case of hearing disorders, besides compensatory
phenomena, we can encounter other two fundamental processes
demutization and orthophonia of great importance in the
instructive-recuperating process.
Demutization represents the complex activity to eliminate
mutism with specific means and methods, by valorizing the
unaltered organic ways. It has a significant didactic component
and it implies the assimilation of the three components of
language:
122

- componenta fonetic care presupune articularea corect a


fonemelor/sunetelor i a structurilor fonetice specifice
fiecrei limbi;
- lexicul ce reprezint cuvintele care alctuiesc vocabularul;
- structura gramatical setul de reguli care se aplic n
realizarea construciilor lexicale, pentru o exprimare
verbal corect i inteligibil.
Pe baza observaiilor efectuate n activitile practice, de
ctre specialiti, s-a constatat c deficienii de auz n curs de
demutizare, prezint urmtoarele particulariti care se refer la
comunicare, aceasta fiind:
- un volum redus al vocabularului nsuit;
- existena a numeroase cliee verbale, cuvinte cu coninut
semantic srac sau deformat;
- cuvintele sunt folosite aa cum au fost prezentate iniial,
fr inflexiuni,
- existena unui decalaj vizibil ntre vocabularul activ i cel
pasiv (vocabularul utilizat n exprimare i vocabularul
stocat).
Iat cteva greeli care se manifest n comunicarea
verbal:
- evitarea exprimrii n propoziii;
- folosirea incomplet a propoziiilor;
- greeli de topic;
- dezacorduri frecvente;
- predispoziie spre exprimri n construcii simple, fr
sinonime, datorit vocabularului activ srac.
Copilul lipsit de auz va nva vorbirea n mod organizat,
n perioada precolar i colar mic.
Ortofonia se ocup cu emisia corect a sunetelor i
nvarea pronuniei de ctre elevii cu deficiene de auz pentru
realizarea unei comunicri orale inteligibile. Ea urmrete:

123

- the phonetic component which implies the correct


articulation of phonemes /sounds and of the phonetic
structures specific to each language;
- the lexis, which represents the words which make up the
vocabulary;
- the grammatical structure the set of rules applied in
making lexical constructions for a correct and intelligible
verbal expression.
Based on the observations made in practical activities by
specialists, it has been noticed that the hearing deficients who are
being demutized present the following particularities referring to
communication:
- a reduced volume of acquired vocabulary;
- the existence of numerous verbal clichs, words with poor
or deformed semantic contents;
- the words are used as they have been initially presented,
without inflexions
- the existence of a visible discrepancy between the active
and passive vocabulary (the vocabulary used in expressing
themselves the stored one).
Here are some mistakes manifested in verbal
communication:
- avoidance of expressing themselves in sentences;
- the incomplete use of sentences;
- topic mistakes;
- frequent disagreements;
- predisposition to express themselves in simple
constructions, without synonyms, because of the poor
active vocabulary.
The deaf child will learn the speech in an organized way,
during the pre-school and school period.
Orthophonia deals with the correct emission of sounds
and with the learning of pronunciation by hearing deficient pupils
in order to achieve an intelligible verbal communication. It has as
purpose:
124

- formarea i exersarea micrilor respiratorii necesare n


procesul vorbirii;
- exersarea organelor fonoarticulatorii i pregtirea lor
pentru emiterea sunetelor;
- educarea sensibilitii vibrotactile;
- emiterea i formarea vocii;
- emiterea i automatizarea pronunrii sunetelor; corectarea
erorilor de pronunie;
- nvarea i asimilarea elementelor prozodice ale limbii
(ritm, accent, intonaie);
- metodologia educrii auzului i tehnica protezrii;
Obiectivele activitilor
persoanele cu deficien de auz

motrice

adaptate

pentru

- dezvoltarea musculaturii cutiei toracice i a elasticitii


acesteia;
- educarea actului respirator i mrirea capacitii vitale;
- educarea capacitii de coordonare a simului echilibrului
i ritmului;
- contribuie la procesul de demutizare;
- dezvoltarea acuitii, preciziei simurilor, a capacitii de
percepere a spaiului i timpului;
- educarea ateniei, voinei, capacitii de decizie,
imaginaiei i deprinderii de a aciona n grupul integrator;
- dezvoltarea ncrederii n posibilitile individuale, a
dorinei de integrare social i participare la aciunile
grupului.
Activiti fizice adaptate recomandate persoanelor cu
deficien de auz:
- Din multitudinea exerciiilor ce se adreseaz acestei
categorii de subieci, care nu au o limitare drastic a
capacitii motrice, o prim categorie se adreseaz
dezvoltrii musculaturii fonatoare i toracice, care este
125

- the formation and practice of respiratory movements


necessary in the speaking process;
- the exercise of phono-articulatory organs and their
preparation for sound emission;
- education of vibro-tactile sensitiveness;
- emission and formation of voice;
- emission and automatization of sound pronunciation;
correction of pronunciation errors;
- learning and assimilation of prosodic elements of the
language (rhythm, accent, intonation);
- methodology of hearing education and the technique or
prosthetics.
The objectives of adapted physical activities for
individuals with hearing deficiencies
- development of thoracic cage muscles and their elasticity;
- education of the respiratory act and increase of vital
capacity;
- education of coordination capacity, of sense of balance and
of rhythm;
- contribution to the demutization process;
- development of sharpness, precision of senses, capacity to
perceive space and time;
- education of attention, will, decision capacity, imagination
and the habit to act within the integrating group;
- development of confidence in their own possibilities, of
the wish for social integration and participation to the
group actions.
Adapted physical activities recommended for hearing
deficient persons:
From the vastness of exercises for this category of
subjects, who do not have a clear delimitation of their
motor capacity, a first category is addressed to the thoracic
126

limitat datorit incapacitii realizrii vorbirii. Prin


urmare aceste exerciii se vor adresa muchilor respiratori
(intercostali, pectorali, diafragm, abdominali).
O alt categorie de exerciii se adreseaz persoanelor cu un
nivel bun al fitness-ului, care pot efectua programe pentru
dezvoltarea forei, prin lucrul cu ncrcturi, cu accent pe
dezvoltarea trenului superior. Planificarea, dozarea se va
face n funcie de particularitile de vrst, sex, nivel de
pregtire.
Exerciiile pentru dezvoltarea echilibrului, att la copilul
normal ct i la cel deficient, sunt indicate nc din primii
ani, ncepnd cu suprafee stabile linii trasate pe sol, iar
apoi mobile, instabile bnci de gimnastic, bnci
rsturnate cu partea ngust, brne joase, medii i mari,
mingi mari, plci suspendate, banca oscilant fixat la
scara fix etc.
Gimnastica ritmic are un mare impact asupra subiecilor
cu deficien de auz, datorit faptului c asigur contactul
copilului cu diferite obiecte, care n final duc la
dezvoltarea psihomotricitii (furnizeaz informaii
plurisenzoriale: vizuale, kinestezice etc).
Jocurile de escalad pot fi organizate n sala de educaie
fizic i dezvolt simul responsabilitii, al cooperrii
ntre grupuri sau n interiorul grupului. Se va pune mare
accent msurile pentru prevenirea accidentrilor (se va
stabili cine este crtor i cine este cel care asigur, se
vor nva cderile, se va asigura materialul de protecie
saltele, cti etc).
Jocuri sportive;
Parcursuri i tafete aplicative etc.

127

muscles development, which is limited because of the


incapacity to speak. Therefore, these exercises are
addressed to the respiratory muscles (intercostals,
pectorals, diaphragm, abdominals).
Another category of exercises is addressed to individuals
with a good fitness level, who can carry on programs for
strength development, by working with loads, with
emphasis on the development of the upper part of the
body. Planning and dosage are made according to age, sex
particularities and level of training.
The exercises for balance development, both in the case of
the normal and deficient child, are indicated from the first
years of life, starting with stable surfaces lines drawn on
the ground, then mobile, unstable ones gymnastics
benches, benches with the narrow side up, low, medium
and big beams, big balls, suspended boards, oscillating
bench fixed at the stairs, etc.
Rhythmical gymnastics has a great impact upon the
subjects with hearing deficiencies due to the fact that it
provides contact for the child with different objects,
leading to psycho-motility development (provides multisensorial information: visual, kinesthetic, etc.).
The escalade games can be organized in the gym hall and
develop the sense of responsibility, of cooperation between
groups or within the group. The emphasis will be laid on
measures to prevent injuries (it will be established who is
the climber and who is the one to belay him, they will
learn how to fall, protection material will be provided
mattresses, helmets).
Sportive games;
Applicative routs and relays, etc.

128

Indicaii metodice
Gsirea modalitilor de optimizare a comunicrii prin:
minimalizarea zgomotului de fond i maximizarea auzului
rezidual al subiecilor, n timpul predrii (evitarea fondului
muzical n timpul explicaiilor);
meninerea distanei optime fa de subieci;
iluminarea corespunztoarea slilor pentru a favoriza
labiolectura;
plasamentul optim al celui ce vorbete pentru a fi vzut de
toi participanii;
meninerea poziiei statice n explicaii, deplasrile
perturb atenia copiilor;
reluarea explicaiei dac este nevoie deoarece copiii
hipoacuzici sau surzi prezint fluctuaii ale pierderii de
auz;
cnd se lucreaz n aer liber i nu numai, profesorul se va
plasa lng elevi, i va ateniona prin gesturi familiare, iar
demonstraiile vor fi ample i se vor utiliza semnale
luminoase, gesturi uor de recunoscut;
pentru mbuntirea comunicrii profesorul poate distribui
copii scrise ale jocurilor ce urmeaz a fi predate;
se va lucra cu efective reduse, datorit timpului
suplimentar de expunere;
dac subiecii folosesc limbajul semnelor profesorul
trebuie s-l nvee;
se recomand amplasarea n clas a materiale absorbante
de sunet, cum ar fi draperii, materiale pe perei, pentru a
reduce reverberaiile;
activitile selectate vor fi direcionate spre formarea
deprinderilor sociale, mai ales n ceea ce privete educaia
integrat;
folosirea reglatorilor metodici variai (plane, desene pe
sol pentru dirijarea traseului);
129

Methodical indications
Finding ways to optimize communication by:
minimizing the background noise and maximizing the
subjects residual hearing while teaching (avoiding
musical background during explanations);
maintaining optimum distance from the subjects;
proper illumination of the rooms to favor reading on lips;
optimum placement of the speaker so as to be seen by all
participants;
maintaining a static position while explaining, as
movement disturbs the childrens attention;
when the work is performed outdoors, and not only, the
teacher will stand next to the students, will draw their
attention with familiar gestures and the demonstrations
will be ample, using light signals, easy to be recognized;
to improve communication, the teacher can hand out
written copies of the games to be taught;
the group will not be numerous because of the extra time
for explanations;
if the subjects use the sign language, the teacher should
learn it;
it is recommended to place in the classroom sound
absorbing materials, such as curtains, fabric on the walls,
to reduce reverberations;
the selected activities will be directed towards the
formation of social skills, especially concerning integrating
education;
the use of varied methodical regulators (card-boards,
drawings on the ground to show the route);
promotion of interaction within the group; the low hearing
subjects will be included in groups of children without
deficiencies;

130

- promovarea interaciunii n cadrul grupului, cei


hipoacuzici vor fi inclui n grupuri de copii fr
deficiene;
- la vrsta precolar i colar mic se va pune accent pe
activitile ritmice i de expresie corporal, nsoite de
instrumente de percuie (tamburine, tobe, castaniete etc);
- boxele sau difuzoarele s fie aproape de sol pentru ca
vibraiile s fie mai uor percepute;
- evitarea explicaiilor lungi, s predomine demonstraia;
- stabilirea i meninerea contactului vizual este foarte
important n comunicarea comenzilor;
- comenzile se vor da pe un ton cald, calm fr exagerri n
pronunarea cuvintelor;
- n cazul exerciiilor de echilibru se vor asigura executanii
corespunztor;
- profesorul trebuie s cunoasc nc de la nceput gradul
deficienei de auz al copiilor cu care lucreaz i s posede
cunotine legate de predarea activitilor fizice ce se
preteaz acestui tip de deficien;
- se va ine cont de particularitile comportamentale ale
deficienilor de auz, care pot fi dezinteresai, obraznici etc.
Activitile sportive organizate cu deficienii de auz sunt
cele de tipul:
Jocurilor Mondiale ale Surzilor (Deaflympics), desfurate
la fiecare 4 ani, cu ediii de var i iarn, la probele:
badminton, baschet, ciclism, lupte, tir, fotbal, not,
handbal, tenis de mas, tenis de cmp, atletism, volei, polo
pe ap; schi alpin i nordic, hochei pe ghea, patinaj
vitez.
Special Olympics;
Competiii naionale, internaionale i locale organizate de
comunitatea deficienilor auditivi.
131

- during pre-school and young school age, the emphasis will


be laid on rhythmical and body expression activities,
accompanied by percussion instruments (tambourines,
drums, castanets, etc);
- the musc boxes or loudspeakers will be close to the
ground, so the vibrations are easier to be perceived;
- avoidance of long explanations, demonstration should
predominate;
- it is very important to establish and maintain visual contact
in communicating the commands;
- the commands will be given in a warm tone of voice,
calmly, without exaggerating when pronouncing the
words;
- in the case of balance exercises, the performers will be
appropriately secured;
- the teacher should know from the beginning the degree of
hearing deficiency of the children he works with and
should have knowledge regarding the teaching of physical
exercises for that type of deficiency;
- the behavioural particularities of the hearing deficient
children will be taken into consideration, as they can be
uninterested, naughty, etc.
Sports activities organized with the hearing deficients are
of the following types:
Deaflympics, organized every four years, with summer and
winter editions at badminton, basketball, cycling,
wrestling, target shooting, football, swimming, handball,
table tennis, lawn tennis, athletics, volleyball, water polo,
alpine and Nordic skiing, ice hockey, speed skating.
Special Olympics;
National, international and local competitions organized by
the hearing deficient community.
132

Regulile utilizate n general sunt identice cu cele clasice,


reperele vizuale sunt amplificate, de exemplu fluierul arbitrului
este urmat de ridicarea unui steag care simbolizeaz ntreruperea
jocului. Referindu-ne la dezvoltarea fizico-motric a deficienilor
de auz, acetia nu sunt inferiori populaiei, ci mai degrab
reprezint o minoritate cultural i lingvistic.
Sportul de performan reprezint pentru cei cu deficit de
auz o posibilitate de afirmare a propriei identiti ce pune n
valoare personalitatea acestora, ntr-un mod mult mai relevant
fa de alte activiti.

133

The rules are generally identical with the classical ones,


yet the visual marks are amplified, for example, the referees
whistle is followed by the raise of a flag symbolizing the
interruption of the game. Referring to the physical-motor
development of the hearing deficients, they are not inferior to the
population, but they rather represent a cultural and linguistic
minority.
Performance sport represents for those with hearing
deficiencies a possibility to assert their own identity which
valorizes their personality in a more relevant way than other
activities.

134

12. Educaie fizica i sport adaptat pentru persoane cu


deficiente motorii
Disfunciile motorii, alturi de cele senzoriale i
cardiovasculare, fac parte din clasa deficienelor fizice.
Deficienele motorii sau fizice apar n momentul n care
structurile sistemului nervos i cele ale aparatului locomotor
sunt modificate ca form, organizare i funcie.
Aceste deficiene pot fi determinate de afeciuni neurologice
sau de cele ale sistemului locomotor, cu meniunea c delimitarea
este pur didactic; n realitate, este dificil s se stabileasca grania
dintre nivelul neurologic i cel locomotor.
n afectiunile neurologice (dupa J.B. Piera, 1987) sunt
incluse:
! infirmitatea motorie cerebral (paralizia cerebral)
! traumatismele i accidentele vasculare cerebrale
! scleroza multiple
! afeciunile neurologice periferice (ataxia Friedreich)
! sechelele de poliomielit
! epilepsia
! heredo-degenerescenlele spinocerebeloase
! miastenia
n afeciunile osteoarticulare ntlnim:
! artrozele
! deviaii1e posturale (scolioze, cifoze, lordoze etc.)
! fragilitatea osoasa
n afeciunile musculare sunt cuprinse:
! distrofiile musculare
! miopatiile.
Acestora li se adaug amputaiile membrelor superioare sau
ale membrelor inferioare. Ne vom referi n continuare la
afeciunile semnificative, care au implicaii profunde n planul
comportamentului motric i care reclam o intervenie complex
de recuperare i readaptare.
135

12. Adapted physical education and sports for


individuals with motor deficiencies
The motor dysfunctions, together with the sensorial and
cardio-vascular ones, are part of the physical deficiencies group.
The motor or physical deficiencies appear in the
moment when the structures of the nervous system and those
of the locomotor apparatus are modified in form,
organization and function.
These deficiencies can be determined by neurological
disorders or those of the locomotor system, however, the
delimitation is purely didactical; in reality, it is difficult to draw a
line between the neurological level and the locomotor one.
In the neurological disorders (after J.B. Piera, 1987),
there are included:
! cerebral motor infirmity (cerebral palsy);
! cerebral traumatisms and strokes;
! peripheral neurological disorders (Friedreich ataxia);
! poliomyelitis sequelae;
! epilepsy;
! inherited spinocerebellar degenerations;
! myasthenia.
In osteoarticulary disorders, there are:
! arthroses;
! postural deviations (scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis, etc.);
! bone frailness.
In muscular disorders, there are:
! muscular dystrophies;
! myopathies.
Amputations of the upper or lower limbs are added to the
above disorders. Further on, we shall refer to the significant
disorders, those with deep implications in the motor behavior and
which require a complex rehabilitation and readjustment
intervention.
136

12.1. Neurological disorders


1. Cerebral motor infirmity (definition, classification,
etiology)
Cerebral motor infirmity (CMI), also named cerebral palsy
or infantile chronic encephalitis, is characterized by a cerebral
lesion produced during the intrauterine, perinatal or postnatal
periods, that is, during the stages of central nervous system
development (G. Tardieu, 1988). The disorder is
nonprogressive, permanent and is situated at the level of the
cortical motor areas. The cerebral motor infirmity has two forms:
- CMI with normal maintenance of psychic development;
- CMI with deterioration of psychic activity.
The forms of this disorder depend on:
- the causes which acted and determined disorders in the
development of the central nervous system;
- intensity of the lesion;
- earliness of initiating the rehabilitation treatment.
Cerebral motor infirmity is determined by:
a) Causes related to maternal factors (incompatibility of Rh
factor, viral affections, infectious-contagious diseases,
intoxications, traumatisms of the mother (psychic,
physical, etc.)
b) Causes related to the evolution of pregnancy: abortions
previous to the pregnancy, uterine metrorrhagia,
unsuccessful abortion attempts, etc.;
c) Intrapartum causes: premature birth, brutal maneuvers at
birth, prolonged or very short labor;
d) Postpartum causes: traumatisms at birth, asphyxia at birth
by umbilical cord strangulation, incorrect supervision of
the baby, intense icterus by group or Rh incompatibility,
strong anemia by lack of red cells, etc.;
Secondary causes: encephalitis through infectious or toxic
factors, traumatic cerebral lesions.
137

12.1. Afeciunile neurologice


1. Infirmitatea motorie cerebral (definiie, clasificare,
etiologie)
Infirmitatea motorie cerebral (IMC), denumita i paralizie
cerebral sau encefalita cronica infanatil, "este caracterizat
printr-o leziune cerebral produs n perioadele intrauterin,
perinatal sau postnatal, deci n stadiile de dezvoltare a
sistemului nervos central" (G. Tardieu, 1988). Afeciunea este
nonprogresiv, permanent i se situeaz la nivelul ariilor motorii
corticale. Infirmitatea motorie cerebrala deosebete dou forme:
- IMC cu pastrarea normal a dezvoltarii psihice;
- IMC cu deteriorarea activitii psihice.
Formele acestei afeciuni depind de:
- cauzele care au acionat i au determinat tulburri n
dezvoltarea sistemului nervos central;
- intensitatea leziunii;
- precocitatea cu care s-a iniiat tratamentul recuperator.
Infirmitatea motorie cerebral este determinat de:
a) Cauze care in de factori materni (incompatibilitatea
factorului Rh, afeciuni virale, boli infecto-contagioase,
intoxicaii, traumatisme ale mamei (psihice, fizice etc.);
b) Cauze care in de evoluia sarcinii: existena unor avorturi
anterioare sarcinii, metroragii uterine, tentative nereuite
de avort etc;
c) Cauze intrapartum: natere prematur, manevre brutale la
natere, travaliu prelungit sau foarte scurt;
d) Cauze postpartum: traumatisme la natere, asfixie la
natere n circular de cordon, supraveghere incorect a
copilului, icter intens prin incompatibilitate de grup sau de
Rh, anemie puternic prin lipsa hematiilor etc.;
Cauze secundare: encefalite prin factori infecioi sau
toxici, leziuni cerebrale traumatice.
138

In functie de zona de localizare i de amploarea


modificarilor structurale, simptomele subiecilor variaz de la
forme ulterioare (deficiene de vorbire) pn la forme severe
(imposibilitatea de a controla micrile corpului, de a le coordona
i de a le integra n pattern-uri de baz). n majoritatea cazurilor,
deficienele se prezint sub forma unui handicap asocial care
include: retard mintal, disfuncii de limbaj i vorbire, crize
comiiale, deficiene senzoriale etc.
Infirmitatea motorie cerebrala se poate asocia cu:
- tulburri psihice
- malformaii ale sistemului nervos (hidrocefalie)
- malformaii ale aparatului locomotor (spin bifid);
- afectiuni degenerative (scleroza n placi, distrofii
musculare).
Clasificarea simptomelor induse de IMC se realizeaza dup
trei criterii: topografic, neuromotor i funcional (J. P.Winnick,
1995).
1. Din punct de vedere topografic, ntlnim:
- monoplegia - este afectat un singur segment corporal;
- diplegia - implicarea membrelor inferioare i ulterioara
afectare a membrelor superioare;
- hemiplegia - implicarea uneia dintre jumtile corpului
(membru superior - membru inferior);
- paraplegia - sunt afectate doar membrele inferioare;
- triplegia - form rar, n care sunt afectate trei segmente;
- tetraplegia - sunt afectate toate segmentele: cap-gt trunchi
i membre.
Hemiplegia/hemipareza este o perturbare tonico-motorie de
aceeai parte a membrului superior i inferior, uneori i a feei,
prin urmare vom avea: hemiplegia dreapt i hemiplegia stng.
Aceast afeciune se caracterizeaz prin pierderea motricitii
voluntare, cu alterarea tonusului motor pe o parte a corpului, din
cauza unei leziuni neurologice unilaterale a cilor motorii
descendente.
139

Depending on the location area and the extent of structural


modifications, the subjects symptoms vary from ulterior forms
(speech deficiencies) to severe forms (impossibility to control the
body movements, to coordinate and integrate them in basic
patterns). In most cases, the deficiencies are under the form of an
asocial handicap which includes: mental retardation, language
and speech dysfunctions, epilepsy crises, sensorial deficiencies,
etc.
The cerebral motor infirmity can associate with:
- psychic disorders;
- malformations of the nervous system (hydrocephaly);
- malformations of the locomotor apparatus (spina bifida);
- degenerative disorders (multiple sclerosis, muscular
dystrophies).
The classification of symptoms induced by CMI is made
according to three criteria: topographic, neuro-motor and
functional (J. P.Winnick, 1995).
1. From the topographic point of view, there are:
- monoplegia a single body segment is affected;
- diplegia implication of lower limbs and ulterior affection
of upper limbs;
- hemiplegia implication of one half of the body (upper
limb lower limb)
- paraplegia only the lower limbs are affected;
- triplegia rare form; three segments are affected;
- tetraplegia all segments are affected: head, neck, trunk
and limbs.
Hemiplegia/hemiparesis is a tone-motor perturbation on
the same side of the upper and lower limb, sometimes of the face,
thus we have: right hemiplegia and left hemiplegia. This
affection is characterized by the loss of intended motility, with
the alteration of motor tonus on one side of the body, because of
a unilateral neurological lesion of the descending motor ways.
140

n funcie de circumstanele apariiei, hemiplegia


congenitala (infantila)- este a paralizie spastic, aparut de obicei
n urma unor leziuni ante- i neonatal (primele 28 zile).
Dobndit (post-traumatica) - este cauzat de contuziile
cerebrale difuze care determin, aproape ntotdeauna, alturi de
deficitul motor aferent, tulburri de intelect i de comportament.
n functie de etiologie, hemiplegia poate fi determinata de:
- accidente
vasculare (accident vascular
cerebral
ischemic, hemoragie cerebrala);
- cauze infecioase, autoimune sau metabolice.
n funcie de evoluia invaliditii motorii, hemiplegia poate
fi (A. Albert, 1969):
- profund - cea mai grava, cu spasticitate mare i srcie de
micri;
- de gravitate intermediar - spasticitatea persist, dar exist
i micrile primitive, chiar fine, distale;
- frust - dup a spasticitate moderat apar micrile
voluntare n extremitatile distale, ntr-un interval de trei
luni de la accident micrile nu se vor recupera nsa
complet.
Debutul hemiplegiei este brusc, cu sau fara com, paralizia
fiind, la nceput, flasc, flasciditatea este cu att mai accentuat
cu ct leziunea cerebral este mai ntins i cu ct atacul a fost
mai brutal.
Paralizia flasca se manifesta prin lipsa total a tonusului
muscular, ceea ce permite executarea unor micri pasive, fr
nici un fel de opoziie; acestea sunt de o rapiditate exagerat,
deoarece reflexele osteotendinoase sunt absente.
Dupa o perioada ce poate dura zile sau sptmni, paralizia
flasca este nlocuit cu paralizia spastic. n acest caz, tonusul
muscular crete, determinnd o rezisten sporit la micarea
pasiv (executata rapid), precum i posturi caracteristice
spasticitii piramidale:
141

According to the occurrence circumstances, congenital


(infantile) hemiplegia is a spastic paralysis which usually appears
after some ante and neonatal lesions (the first 28 days). Gained
(post-traumatic) hemiplegia is caused by diffuse cerebral
contusions which, almost always, determine, besides the afferent
motor deficit, intellect and behavior disorders.
Depending on etiology, hemiplegia can be determined by:
- strokes (ischemic cerebral vascular accident, cerebral
hemorrhage);
- infectious, self-immune or metabolic causes.
Depending on the evolution of the motor invalidity,
hemiplegia can be (A. Albert, 1969):
- profound the most severe one, with great spasticity and
few movements;
- intermediate severity persistent spasticity, but there are
primitive, even fine, distal movements;
- crude after a moderate spasticity, deliberate movements
appear in the distal extremities, in an interval of three
months from the accident, but the movements will not be
completely rehabilitated.
The debut of hemiplegia is sudden, with or without
comma; the paralysis is at the beginning flaccid, being more
accentuated when the cerebral lesion is wider and the attack more
brutal.
Flaccid paralysis manifests itself through the total lack of
muscular tone which allows the execution of passive moves,
without any kind of opposition; they are exaggeratedly fast as the
osteotendinous reflexes are absent.
After a while, days or weeks, the flaccid paralysis is
replaced by spastic paralysis. In this case, the muscle tone is
increased, determining higher resistance to the passive movement
(quickly executed), as well as postures characteristic to
pyramidal spasticity:
142

- pentru membrul superior - braul n adducie i rotaie


intern antebraul n semiflexie i pronaie, mna n semiflexie,
degetele flectate, policele n pronaie;
- pentru membrul inferior - genunchiul n extensie, flexie
plantar, respectiv picior ecvin, picior supinat i picior n varus.
Spasticitatea piramidal determin un mers caracteristic,
"cosit", piciorul executand o circumducie pe sol. Musculatura
gatului, trunchiului i bazinului nu prezinta spasticitate. n
general, la membrul superior predomin paralizia extensorilor i
a supinatorilor, iar la membrul inferior sunt afectai flexorii
coapsei i flexorii dorsali ai piciorului.
Un alt efect al tranziiei spre spasticitate este prezena
hiperreflexivitii, reflexele osteotendinoase fiind exagerate pe
partea bolnav.
Hemiplegia determina i alte tulburri care nsoesc
pierderea motricitii:
- hemianopsia lateral - vederea este redus pe partea de
corp afectat (se diminueaza cmpul vizual);
- afazia - sunt afectate nelegerea i vorbirea;
- apraxia - micarile comandate sunt imposibil de executat;.
- agnozia - imposibilitatea de a recunoate obiectele;
- comiialitatea - se manifesta prin crize de epilepsie.
Hemiplegicii necesita programe recuperatorii complexe. Pe
baza evaluarii funcionale, se apreciaz c acetia pot fi ncadrai
n trei stadii: iniial, mediu i avansat (T. Sbenghe, 1999).
Cu precizarea c intervenia profesorului de educaie fizic
sau a antrenorului apare n stadiul avansat, prezentm detaliat
coninutul tuturor stadiilor, pentru a putea realiza o predicie
pertinent a progresului subiectului.
Stadiul iniial debuteaz n momentul accidentului vascular
i dureaz cateva zile sau chiar cateva saptmni.
Obiectivele recuperrii vizeaz:
! ameliorarea funciilor vitale (respiratie, deglutitie)
143

- for the upper limb arm in adduction and internal rotation,


forearm in semi flexion and pronation, hand in semi
flexion, fingers flexed, thumb in pronation;
- for the lower limb knee in extension, plantar flexion,
supined foot and foot in varus.
The pyramidal spasticity determines a characteristic gait,
the foot executing a circumduction on the ground. The muscles
of the neck, trunk and pelvis do not present spasticity. Generally,
at the upper limb the paralysis of extensors and supinators
predominates, and at the lower limb, the thigh flexors and the
dorsal flexors of the leg are affected.
Another effect of transition towards spasticity is the
presence of hyper-reflexivity, the osteotendinous reflexes being
exaggerated on the diseased side.
Hemiplegia determines other disorders which accompany
the loss of motility:
- lateral hemianopia reduced vision on the affected side of
the body (the visual field is diminished);
- aphasia understanding and speech are affected;
- apraxia the commended movements are impossible to be
executed;
- agnozia impossibility to recognize objects;
- epilepsy manifested through epileptic crises.
Hemiplegic patients require complex rehabilitation
programs. Based on the functional evaluations, they can be
included in three stages: initial, medium and advanced (T.
Sbenghe, 1999).
Mentioning that the intervention of the physical education
teacher or that of the trainer appears in the advanced stage, we
present in detail the contents of all stages, in order to achieve a
pertinent prediction of the subjects progress.
The initial stage debuts in the moment of the stroke and
lasts a few days or even weeks.
The objectives of rehabilitation are:
! amelioration of vital functions (breathing, deglutition);
144

! contientizarea schemei corporale;


! ameliorarea controlului asupra trunchiului i centurilor;
! meninerea mobilitii scapulei, umrului, cotului,
pumnului, minii, gleznei;
! normalizarea tonusului;
! ameliorarea capacitii funcionale.
Stadiul mediu (de spasticitate) este stadiul n care, de multe
ori, se oprete procesul de redresare spontan, iar pacienii se
ndreapt spre serviciile de recuperare.
Obiectivele recuperrii vizeaz:
- promovarea activitatii antagonitilor prin inhibarea
musculaturii spastice (agoniste);
- promovarea unor scheme complexe de micare;
- promovarea controlului musculaturii proximale n timpul
unor activiti cu rezultate ameliorate;
- mbunatirea controlului motor al articulaiilor
intermediare (cot, genunchi).
Stadiul avansat (de recuperare) are drept caracteristici:
- apropierea tonusului muscular de cel normal prin reducerea
hipertoniei;
- refacerea reflexelor nivelurilor superioare;
- mentinerea unor dificultati in controlul motor al
segmentelor distale, dar i n ceea ce privete viteza de
execuie a micarilor.
Obiectivele recuperrii prin micare sunt:
- redobandirea posibilitii de a executa deprinderile motrice
de baz (mersul) i de a utiliza mna n activitile zilnice
uzuale;
- ameliorarea controlului muscular excentric; ameliorarea
vitezei micarilor; ameliorarea automatismului micrilor.
2. Din punct de vedere neuromotor, literatura de
specialitate distinge urmatoarea simptomatologie (J. P. Winnick,
1995):
145

! acknowledgement of body scheme;


! maintenance of mobility of scapula, shoulder, elbow, fist,
hand, ankle;
! normalization of muscle tone;
! amelioration of functional capacity.
The medium stage (of spasticity) is the stage in which often
the process of spontaneous recovery stops and the patients go for
the rehabilitation services.
The objectives of rehabilitation are:
- promotion of activity of the antagonists by the inhibition of
the spastic muscles (agonist);
- promotion of some complex schemes of movement;
- promotion of control of proximal muscles during activities
with ameliorated results;
- improvement of motor control of intermediary joints
(elbow, knee).
The advanced stage (of rehabilitation) has the following
characteristics:
- getting muscle tone close to the normal one by reducing
hyper-tonicity;
- recovery of reflexes of the superior levels;
- maintenance of difficulties in the motor control of the
distal segments and in the speed of movement execution.
The objectives of rehabilitation through movement are:
- regaining the possibility to perform basic motor habits
(gait) and to use the hand in every day activities;
- amelioration of eccentric muscle control; amelioration of
movement speed; amelioration of movement automatism.
2. From the neuro-motor point of view, the specialty
literature distinguishes the following symptomatology (J. P.
Winnick, 1995):

146

Spasticitatea - rezult din afectarea ariilor motorii i se


caracterizeaz att prin hipertonie muscular (n special a
muchilor flexori i rotatori interni ai membrului inferior, care
determin contracturi i deformaii osoase), ct i prin controlul
voluntar limitat al micrilor. Spasticitatea i afecteaz pe
aproximativ 60% dintre subiecii cu paralizie cerebral.
Membrele inferioare sunt rotate spre interior, iar cele
superioare sunt rigide i ndoite din articulaia cotului.
Ateciunea este nsoit de un reflex de ntindere exagerat, de
aceea braele i membrele inferioare se contract rapid n
momentul ntinderii pasive, ceea ce conduce la imposibilitatea
de a realiza micari precise (n sensul ca micarile sunt lipsite de
acuratee, sunt "smucite"). Articulaia pumnului fiind n
hiperflexie, mna va fi crispat, cu degetele "n ghear".
La nivelul membrului inferior se nregistreaz flexia
coapsei i tragerea genunchiului spre linia median a corpului,
dar i flexia articulaiei genunchiului prin contractura bicepilor
femurali. Muchii soleus i gastrocnemian sunt hipertonici, iar
tendonul lui Ahile este scurtat, ceea ce determin o flexie
plantar exagerat.
Din cauza contraciei musculare exagerate i a limitrii
micrii n articulaii, spasticii realizeaz cu dificultate
deprinderile de baz (mers, alergare, saritur, aruncare).
n evaluarea nivelului calitilor motrice, fora este
apreciat pe o scal de la 0 la 5 (J. W. Little, T. L. Massagli,
1998). Fora izometric poate fi superioar forei concentrice,
deoarece subiecii pot utiliza reflexele de ntindere exagerat
pentru a facilita fora izometric sau excentric (de exemplu,
utilizarea spasmelor extensorilor extremitii membrului inferior
pentru a uura meninerea n poziia stnd sau trecerea prin
aceasta poziie pentru aezarea n/ridicarea din scaunul cu rotile).
Contraciile concentrice sunt relativ slabe, cci reflexul de
ntindere nu poate facilita scurtarea fibrelor musculare.
147

Spasticity results from the affectation of motor areas and


is characterized both by muscular hyper-tonicity (especially of
the flexor and internal rotator muscles of the lower limb, which
determines contractions and bone deformations) and by limited
intended control of movements. Spasticity affects approximately
60% of the subjects with cerebral palsy.
The lower limbs are rotated to the inside and the upper
limbs are rigid and bent from the elbow joint. The action is
accompanied by a reflex of exaggerated stretch; therefore, the
arms and lower limbs are contracted fast in the moment of the
passive stretch, fact which leads to the impossibility to perform
precise movements (the movements are not clear, they are
snatched). The fist joint being in hyper flexion, the hand will
be rigid, with the fingers in claw position.
At the level of the lower limb, the thigh is flexed and knee
is drawn towards the median line of the body and the knee joint
is flexed by the contraction of the femoral biceps muscles. The
soleus and gastrocnemius muscles are hyper-tonic and the
Achilles tendon is shortened, determining an exaggerated plantar
flexion.
Because of the exaggerated muscular contraction and of
the limitation of movement in joints, the spastic individuals
perform with difficulty the basic habits (walking, running,
jumping, throwing).
In the evaluation of motor qualities level, strength is
assessed on a scale from 0 to 5 (J. W. Little, T. L. Massagli,
1998). The isometric strength can be superior to the concentric
one as the subjects can use the exaggerated stretching reflexes to
facilitate the isometric or eccentric strength (for example, the use
of the spasms of the extensors of the lower limbs extremities to
ease the maintenance in standing position or the passing through
this position in order to sit in or stand up from the wheelchair).
The concentric contractions are relatively weak as the stretch
reflex cannot facilitate the shortening of muscular fibers.
148

Viteza i amplitudinea micrii active sunt limitate, din


cauza contraciei simultane a muchilor cu aciune antagonist,
fapt care defavorizeaz execuia micrilor voluntare.
Atetoza - este o afeciune a ganglionilor bazali care trimit n
exces impulsuri motorii muchilor, ceea ce conduce la apariia
unor micri involuntare, necoordonate. 25% dintre subiecii cu
IMC sufer de atetoz.
Tonusul muscular variaz de la hiper- la hipotonicitate,
aceste fluctuaii afecteaz musculatura care asigura controlul
capului, gtului, membrelor i trunchiului. Atetoza determin
grimase faciale, dificulti n a mnca, a bea i a vorbi, dar peate
produce i alte disfuncii senzoriale. Lipsa controlului la nivelul
extremitii cefalice face dificil urmarirea obiectelor n micare
i reacia la micrile rapide ale celorlali.
Prin urmare, subiecii atetozici nu sunt capabili s arunce o
minge la int sau s loveasc o minge aflat n micare.
Ataxia - rezult din afectarea cerebelului, care rspunde de
coordonarea muscular i de pastrarea echilibrului. Prezent n
10% dintre cazurile de IMC, ataxia se concretizeaz ntr-o
hipotonie muscular excesiv. Diagnosticarea se realizeaza n
momentul n care copilul ncepe s mearg: acesta are un
echilibru instabil i manifest o lipsa a coordonrii bra-picior.
Formele ataxiei pot varia de la micri nendemnatice la
cderi frecvente n timpul mersului, ceea ce explic faptul ca
subiecii au dificulti n executarea deprinderilor motrice de
baz, cum ar fi alergarea sau diferite tipuri de srituri.
Tremorul - este o afeciune a ganglionilor bazali,
caracterizat prin micri ritmice involuntare ale unui segment
sau ale ntregului corp. Frecvena afeciunii este redus (2%
dintre cei cu IMC).
Exist dou tipuri de tremor: intenional (cnd subiectul se
angajeaz n micri voluntare) i neintenional (in care tremorul
este prezent continuu - mai puin la copii).
149

The speed and amplitude of active movement are limited


because of the simultaneous contraction of muscles with
antagonist action, fact which disfavors the execution of intended
movements.
Athetosis it is an affection of the basal ganglions which
excessively send motor impulses to the muscles, leading to the
appearance of involuntary, uncoordinated movements. 25% of
the subjects with CMI suffer of athetosis.
Muscle tone varies from hyper to hypo-tonicity, and these
fluctuations affect the muscles which provide control of the head,
neck, limbs and trunk. Athetosis determines facial grimaces,
difficulties in eating, drinking, speaking and it can produce other
sensorial dysfunctions as well. The lack of control at the level of
cephalic extremities makes it difficult to follow the objects in
movement and reaction to the others fast movements.
So, the subjects with athetosis are not capable to throw a
ball at target or to hit/kick a moving ball.
Ataxia results from the affectation of the cerebellum and
it is responsible for muscular coordination and balance
maintenance. Present in 10% of the CMI cases, ataxia is
materialized in excessive muscular hypo-tonicity. The diagnosis
is made in the moment when the child starts to walk: he has
unstable balance and manifests a lack of arm-leg coordination.
The forms of ataxia can vary from clumsy movements to
frequent falls while walking, which explains the fact that the
subjects have difficulties in executing the basic motor habits such
as running or various types of jumps.
Tremor it is a disorder of the basal ganglions,
characterized by rhythmic involuntary movements of a segment
or of the entire body. The Frequency of the disorder is reduced
(2% of the individuals with CMI).
There are two types of tremor: intentional (when the
subjects engage in intended movements) and unintentional (when
the tremor is constantly present, less in children).
150

Rigiditatea este o afeciune difuz a structurilor cerebrale


ce se caracterizeaz prin crisparea segmentelor corpului i prin
absena reflexului de ntindere. Aceasta se asociaz de multe ori
cu retardul mintal sever.
Specialitii n kinetoterapie i educaie fizic adaptat vor
pune accent pe dezvoltarea controlului muscular voluntar,
stimularea relaxrii musculare (metoda Jacobson, metoda
imaginativ) i ameliorarea deprinderilor motrice funcionale. n
acest sens activitile selectate vor fi direcionate spre lucrul activ
voluntar al deficientului n realizarea aciunilor de mers,
prindere/prehensiune, aruncare etc.
2. Traumatismele cerebrale
Definiie: Acestea reprezint o afeciune care produce o
diminuare sau o alterare a strii de contien, ceea ce determin
disfuncii la nivel cognitiv, fizic, social, comportamental i
emoional.
Subiecii cu traumatisme cerebrale sunt o categorie aparte
deoarece acetia aveau performane motrice i de nvare
normale pn n momentul dobndirii incapacitii, aceasta din
urm fiind parial compensat de utilizarea unor orteze i a
cruciorului cu rotile.
Cauzele apariiei:
- accidentele rutiere;
- accidentele sportive;
- cderile de la nlime;
- abuzurile fizice asupra copiilor;
- violenele;
- stopul cardiac.
n plan cognitiv disfunciile se traduc prin:
- pierderi ale memoriei pe termen scurt sau lung;
- slaba conentrare a ateniei,
151

Stiffness it is a diffuse disorder of the cerebral structures,


characterized by the rigidity of body segments and by the
absence of the stretch reflex. It often associates with severe
mental retardation.
The physical therapy and adapted physical education will
emphasize the development of intentional muscular control, the
stimulation of muscle relaxation (Jacobson method, imaginative
method) and the amelioration of functional motor habits.
Therefore, the selected activities will be directed towards the
intentional active work of the deficient individual in
accomplishing the actions of walking, catching/prehension,
throwing, etc.
2. Cerebral traumatisms
Definition: It represents a disorder which produces the
diminishing or alteration of the awareness state, which
determines dysfunctions at cognitive, physical, social, behavioral
and emotional levels.
The subjects with cerebral traumatisms are a special
category as they used to have normal motor and learning
performances until the moment getting the incapacity, this being
partially compensated by the use of a certain orthosis and a
wheelchair.
Causes of appearance:
- traffic accidents;
- sports accidents;
- falls from heights;
- physical abuses on children;
- violence;
- cardiac arrest.
In cognitive plan, the dysfunctions are present as:
- loss of memory on short or long term;
- poor concentration;
152

- alterarea percepiilor;
- tulburri de scris i de citit.
n plan emoional comportamental, indivizii trec de la o
extrem la alta, sunt depresivi, submotivai, i au dificulti de
relaionare.
n cazul copiilor evoluia SNC determin o recuperare mult
mai rapid a deprinderilor motrice i verbale n comparaie cu
adulii.
-

Indicaii metodice
copiii traumatici s fie asistai n ideea de a ine pasul cu
colegii i a nu se simi frustrai;
asigurarea pauzelor suficient de lungi, mai ales dup
terminarea orelor;
prezentarea materialelor intuitive ntr-o maniera clar,
lent i repetitiv;
nu trebuie sancionat lipsa de atenie a copilului;
metodele de instruire se vor axa pe exersarea analitic.
3. Accidentele vasculare

Definiie: sunt afeciuni tisulare cerebrale cauzate de


circulaia deficitar de la acest nivel i care pot determina
modificri ale proceselor cognitive, abilitile motrice,
capacitatea de comunicare, starea de contien.
Factori determinani:
- hipertensiunea arterial;
- fumatul;
- diabetul;
- obezitatea;
- consumul de alcool, droguri etc.
Accidentele cerebrale pot determina paralizia prii drepte
sau stngi a corpului, aceasta fiind localizat la nivelul unui
membru (monoplegia) sau a unei jumti de corp (hemiplegia).
153

- alterations of perception;
- writing and reading disorders.
In emotional-behavioral plan, the individuals move from
one extreme to another, they are depressive, sub-motivated and
have relational difficulties.
In the case of children, the evolution of CNS determines a
much faster rehabilitation of motor and verbal habits in
comparison with adults.
-

Methodic indications
traumatic children should be assisted in the idea to keep up
with their colleagues and not being frustrated;
providence of long enough recesses, especially after
finishing classes;
presentation of intuitive materials in a clear, slow and
repetitive way;
the childs lack of attention should not be sanctioned;
the instruction methods will focus on analytical practice.
3. Strokes

Definition: they are cerebral tissue affections caused by


deficient circulation at this level and they can determine
modifications of the cognitive processes, motor abilities,
communication capacity, awareness state.
Determining factors:
- arterial hypertension;
- smoking;
- diabetes;
- obesity;
- alcohol, drug consumption, etc.
Strokes can determine the paralysis of the right or left side
of the body, being located at the level of a limb (monoplegia) or
of a half of the body (hemiplegia).
154

Cnd este afectat partea dreapt a corpului, subiecii au


probleme de limbaj i vorbire sunt temtori i leni n situaii noi.
Atunci cnd este afectat partea stng a corpului subiecii
au probleme n aprecierea distanelor, mrimii, poziiei
segmentelor.
Programele de activiti motrice n cazul acestor afeciuni
se vor ndrepta spre: - mbuntirea tonusului muscular, a forei,
a coordonrii i echilibrului precum i spre stimularea controlului
motric.
Indicaii metodice:
- individualizarea programelor;
- bun pregtire a organismului pentru efort;
- revenirea treptat postefort;
- aparatele specifice slii de for vor uura creterea
progresiv a ncrcturii;
- subiecii sedentari vor fi angrenai treptat n exerciii de tip
aerob, cum ar fi gimnastica aerobic cu impact sczut (att
pentru cei ce pot adopta poziia de ortostatism ct i cei din
scaunul cu rotile).
4. Epilepsia
Epilepsia este un sindrom cerebral caracterizat prin apariia
unor crize, accese de tip motor, senzitiv, vegetativ sau psihic,
precedate de pierderea cunotinei. Episoadele paroxistice sunt
determinate de existena unor dezechilibre biochimice la nivel
cerebral care produc unele arderi n transmiterea nervoas.
Literatura de specialitate prezint urmtoarele cauze ale
apariiei acestei boli:
- traume majore la natere;
- malformaii cerebrale congenitale;
- tumori cerebrale;
- infecii;
155

When the right side of the body is affected, the subjects


have language and speech problems, they are fearful and slow in
new situations.
When the left side of the body is affected, the subjects
encounter problems in appreciating distances, sizes, segment
position.
In the case of these affections, the physical activity
programs will be directed towards the improvement of muscle
tone, coordination and balance, as well as towards the stimulation
of motor control.
Methodic indications:
- individualization of programs;
- proper training of the body for effort;
- gradual recovery after effort;
- apparatus specific to strength gym will facilitate the
progressive increase of load;
- sedentary subjects will be gradually engaged in aerobic
type exercises such as aerobic gymnastics with low impact
(both for those who can take the orthostatic position and
for those in wheelchairs).
4. Epilepsy
Epilepsy is a cerebral syndrome characterized by the
occurrence of crises, accesses of motor, sensitive, vegetative or
psychic type, preceded by the loss of consciousness. The
paroxysmal episodes are determined by the existence of some
biochemical unbalances at cerebral level which produce
burnings in the nervous transmission.
The specialty literature presents the following causes of
this disease:
- major birth traumas;
- congenital cerebral malformations;
- cerebral tumors;
- infections;
156

- circulaie cerebral deficitar;


- traumatisme craniene.
-

Factori declanatori
consumul de alcool;
stresul psihic;
creterea alcalinitii sanguine;
expunerea la lumini intermitente puternice;
privarea de somn;
episoadele febrile la copii;
dezechilibrele hormonale etc.

Spre deosebire de alte afeciuni, epilepsia este o


manifestare pasager a condiiei individului, prin urmare
activitile fizice vor mbrca urmtoarele faze (Cowart, V.S.,
1986, citat de Teodorescu, S., Bota, A.2007):
- n prima faz vor fi exersate activitile relativ pasive cum
ar fi golf, popice, bowling etc.
- n faza urmtoare se vor promova activiti mai solicitante
cu excepia sporturilor de contact.
- practicarea oricrui gen de activitate motric, inclusiv
sporturi de contact ce vor fi atent supravegheate.
Mult vreme s-a considerat c activitatea fizic grbete
apariia crizelor, dar studiile recente arat o scdere a pragului de
sensibilitate n apariia episoadelor comiiale, ca urmarea
practicrii exerciiilor fizice.
Indicaii metodice:
- ncurajarea copiilor de a participa la leciile de educaie
fizic, cu precauiile de rigoare din partea profesorului;
- profesorul va coopera cu medicul curant n selectarea
programului de lucru, innd cont de restriciile medicale;
- elevii epileptici vor fi tratai fr difereniere;
- programele vor fi axate pe activiti de grup;
157

- deficient cerebral blood flow;


- cranial traumatisms.
-

Triggering factors:
alcohol consumption;
psychic stress;
increase of sanguine alkalinity;
exposure to strong intermittent light;
lack of sleep;
feverish episodes at children;
hormonal unbalance, etc.

Unlike other disorders, epilepsy is a passing manifestation


of the individuals condition, so the physical activities will have
the following phases (Cowart, V.S., 1986, quoted by Teodorescu,
S., Bota, A.2007):
- during the first phase, the relatively passive activities will
be exercised, such as golf, bowling, etc.;
- in the following phase, more demanding activities will be
promoted, except contact sports;
- then, they can practice any type of physical activity,
including contact sports, yet closely supervised.
For a long time it had been considered that physical
activity enhances the occurrence of crises, but recent studies have
shown a decrease of the sensitiveness threshold in the appearance
of the epileptic episodes, as a result of practicing physical
exercises.
Methodic indications:
- encouragement of children to participate to the physical
education lessons, with the proper precautions from the
teacher;
- the teacher will cooperate with the doctor in selecting the
working program, taking into account the medical
considerations;
- epileptic children will be treated without differentiation;
158

- se va evita ct se poate lucrul cu ncrcturi, gimnastica


acrobatic, crarea pe frnghie;
- n activitile acvatice copilul epileptic va nota alturi de
un coleg ce cunoate procedura de salvare;
- se recomand activitile ritmice, de tipul dansului, a
gimnasticii aerobice.
- n cazul apariiei crizei profesorul va acorda ajutorul
necesar, solicitnd din partea colegilor un comportament
tolerant.
-

Primul ajutor n cazul unei crize de epilepsie:


aezarea pe orizontal;
eliberarea gtului, a taliei i sprijinirea capului;
eliberarea spaiului din jurul subiectului de obiecte
contondente;
introducerea unei batiste curate ntre dinii subiectului,
pentru a-i menaja limba;
ntoarcerea capului ntr-o parte pentru facilitarea respiraiei
i drenarea salivei;
subiectul s fie informat de criza respectiv dup
ncheierea acesteia;
profesorul s informeze la rndul su medicul curant
despre durata crizei i caracteristicile acesteia.
12.2. Afeciunile osteo-articulare

Artrita reumatoid const n inflamarea articulaiilor i n


reducerea amplitudinii micrilor, asociat n unele cazuri cu
contracturi i atrofii musculare. Aceste simptome apar la sugarul
de 6 sptmni. Se presupune c inflamaia este produs de
anticorpi de origine necunoscut care afecteaz structurile
tisulare (celulare). n timpul perioadelor acute nu se recomand
efortul fizic, ci doar repaus, medicaie i kinetoterapie (pentru
meninerea mobilitii articulare).
159

- they will avoid the work with loadings, acrobatic


gymnastics, rope climbing;
- in water activities, the epileptic children will swim next to
a colleague that knows the rescue procedure;
- rhythmical activities are recommended like dancing,
aerobic gymnastics;
- in the case of a crisis occurrence, the teacher will provide
help, demanding a tolerant behavior from the childs
colleagues.
-

First aid in the case of an epileptic crisis:


horizontal positioning;
release of the neck, waist and support of the head;
placement of a clean handkerchief between the subjects
teeth, to spare the tongue;
turning the head on one side to facilitate breathing and
drain the saliva;
the subject should be informed about the crisis when it is
over;
the teacher should inform the doctor about the duration and
characteristics of the crisis.
12.2. Osteo-articular disorders

Rheumatoid arthritis consists in the inflammation of joints


and reduction of movement amplitude, associated sometimes
with muscle contraction and atrophy. These symptoms appear at
the 6 week-old infant. It is assumed that the inflammation is
produced by antibodies of unknown origin which affect the tissue
(cellular) structures. During the acute periods, physical effort is
not recommended, only rest, medication and physical therapy (to
maintain joint mobility).

160

Activitile de educaie fizic se vor desfura n perioada


de remisiune i se vor utiliza exerciii dinamice, de mobilizare a
segmentelor, de mbuntire a forei i anduranei locale cu
scopul de a evita apariia atrofiei musculare.
Se recomand utilizarea metodei repetrilor, procedeul
izometriei cu accent pe dezvoltarea musculaturii minii (care se
folosete aproape n toate aciunile). n acest sens se vor uzita
elemente de manipulare a obiectelor, mingi mici, jocuri lego iar
la cei cu limitri severe se vor evita micrile brute i contactul
cu suprafee dure (baschet, tenis, volei).
12.3. Afeciunile musculoscheletice
Distrofia muscular reprezint un grup de afeciuni
musculoarticulare ereditare caracterizate printr-o slbiciune
difuz i progresiv n diferite grupe musculare.(B.A. Frazer i
colab. 1990 citai de S. Teodorescu, A. Bota, 2007)
Distrofia nu prezint o gravitate extrem, dar complicaiile
secundare conduc la disfuncii respiratorii i cardiace. Se observ
o inciden crescut a acestei boli la copii de 2-6 ani i n special
biei cu atrofierea muchilor coapsei, spatelui i centurii
scapulare n asociere cu atrofia i hipotonia muchilor respiratori.
Evoluia bolii este rapid astfel la 10 ani de la instalarea acesteia
mersul devine impracticabil.
Mijloacele educaiei fizice pot ncetini evoluia bolii mai
ales cnd sunt aplicate n stadiul incipient al afeciunii. Astfel se
recomand:
- exerciiile pentru for i rezisten s fie programate
sistematic;
- se va lucra pentru dezvoltarea forei extremitii inferioare
a piciorului, coapsei, articulaiei coxo-femurale i
abdomenului;
- pentru cei cu atrofia muchilor respiratori se vor efectua
exerciii de respiraie activ;
161

Physical education activities will be performed in the


remission period and there will be used dynamic, segment
mobilization exercises, exercises to improve strength and
endurance, to avoid muscle atrophy.
It is recommended the use of repetition method, isometric
procedure with emphasis on the development of hand muscles
(which is used in almost all actions). Thus, there will be used
elements of object manipulation, small balls, Lego games, and
when the limitations are severe, sudden movements and contact
with rough surfaces will be avoided (basketball, tennis,
volleyball).
12.3. Musculo-skeletal disorders
Muscular dystrophy represents a group of hereditary
musculo-articular disorders characterized by diffuse and
progressive weakness in different muscle groups. (B.A. Frazer
and colab. 1990 quoted by S. Teodorescu, A. Bota, 2007)
Dystrophy is not extremely severe, yet the secondary
complications lead to respiratory and cardiac dysfunctions. It has
been noticed an increased incidence of this disease in 2-6 yearold children, especially boys with the atrophy of thigh, back and
scapular belt muscles in association with atrophy and hypotonicity of respiratory muscles. The evolution of the disease is
fast, thus in 10 years from onset, walking becomes impossible.
The means of physical education can slow down the
disease, especially when they are applied in the early stage of the
disorder. The followings are recommended:
- exercises for strength and resistance should be
systematically programmed;
- the exercising will focus on the development of strengh of
the lower extremity of the leg, thigh, coxo-femoral joint
and abdomen;
- those with atrophy of respiratory muscles, will perform
active breathing exercises;
162

- se pot realiza i exerciii n mediul acvatic, utilizndu-se


rezistena apei;
- pot fi introduse n programe i mijloace din gimnastica
aerobic cu impact redus, mai ales pentru subiecii obezi,
precum i pai de dans sau legri de elemente specifice
dansului ( lucru valabil i n cazul subiecilor imobilizai n
scaunul cu rotile brae i trenul superior).
12.4. Amputaiile
Amputaiile se refer la pierderea n ntregime a unui
membru sau a unui segment al acestuia. Cauzele care determin
amputaiile sunt:
- congenitale determinate de incapacitatea fetusului de a se
dezvolta normal n primele trei luni ale sarcinii,
- dobndite (T. Sbenghe, 1981 citat de S. Teodorescu, A.
Bota, 2007):
- traumatisme grave, n care formaiunile vitale sunt
distruse, potenialul septic al plgii este mare, starea
general a bolnavului de oc; majoritatea subiecilor sunt
aduli tineri;
- tumori maligne sau benigne agresive n care formaiunile
vitale sunt n pericol;
- boli metabolice diabetul care produce ulcere i cangren;
- maladii vasculare ireversibile, care sunt generatoare de
necroze, cangrene etc;
- boli infecioase maladii osoase, malformaii care fac
segmentul respectiv inutil sau jenant, nefuncional.
Amputaia membrului superior se datoreaz cu
preponderen traumatismelor n timp ce amputaia membrului
inferior este determinat de boli vasculare periferice.
Dup un program de recuperare, cnd bontul este vindecat
la 2-3 sptmni dup operaie subiectul este trimis la un centru
de protezare pentru a fi evaluat. n zilele noastre, cu o tehnologie
163

- exercise in water can also be performed, using the water


resistance;
- there can be introduced means of aerobic gymnastics with
low impact, especially for obese subjects, as well as
dancing steps or connections of elements specific to
dancing (also for subjects in wheelchairs arms and upper
part of the body).
12.4. Amputations
Amputations refer to the total loss of a limb or of one of its
segments. The causes which determine the amputations are:
- congenital determined by the incapacity of the fetus to
develop normally during the first three months of
pregnancy;
- gained - (T. Sbenghe, 1981 quoted by S. Teodorescu, A.
Bota, 2007):
- severe traumatisms, the vital formations are destroyed, the
septic potential of the wound is big, the patients general
state is of shock; most subjects are young adults;
- malignant or aggressive benign tumors in which the vital
formations are in danger;
- metabolic diseases-diabetes, which produces ulcers and
gangrenes;
- irreversible vascular diseases which generate necroses,
gangrenes;
- infectious diseases bone diseases, malformations which
make the respective segment useless or hampering,
dysfunctional.
The amputation of the upper limb is mainly determined by
traumatisms, while the amputation of the lower limb is
determined by peripheral vascular diseases.
After a rehabilitation program, when the remaining part is
healed, 2-3 weeks after surgery, the subject is sent to a prosthesis
center to be evaluated. Nowadays, with modern technology, the
164

modern, dispozitivele prostetice sunt des utilizate n activitile


sportive cu scopul de a-l ajuta pe subiect sa-i dezvolte un sim al
funcionalitii normale a membrului.
Protezele performante utilizate n cadrul amputaiilor
unilaterale sau bilaterale de gamb, antebra, permit efectuarea
aciunilor tehnico-tactice n sporturi cum ar fi voleiul, baschetul
n probele de sprint sau fond.
Amputaia unui membru implic pierderea sensibilitii
tactile ceea ce conduce la o distorsiune progresiv a registrului de
senzaii. ntreruperea brusc a aferenelor senzitive produce
nerecunoaterea segmentului restant agnozie perceptiv. Orice
gen de amputare antreneaz perturbri de ordin psihologic sever
a cror gravitate variaz n funcie de momentul n care aceasta a
avut loc. Manifestrile prezentate de ctre sociologi au fost de tip
depresiv, anxiologic care trebuie luate n eviden i tratate
urgent de ctre specialiti.
Noua identitate corporal presupune o nou reevaluare a
informaiilor cutanate i proprioceptive care i permit cortexului o
nou reprezentare spaial a corpului.
Fixarea protezelor la vrste precoce permite furnizarea de
informaii neurofiziologice care dau natere unei reprezentri
corporale identice cu cea a copiilor integri. Astfel copilul amputat
congenital se va desena cu ambele brae sau cu ambele picioare,
neavnd sentimentul pierderii fizice a unui segment i nici cel al
ocului operator, ceea ce influeneaz pozitiv participarea fr
inhibiii a acestuia la activitile fizice.
Din punct de vedere al programelor de lucru sunt indicate
orice tipuri de activiti atta vreme ct se folosesc dispozitivele
prostetice sau fotoliul rulant not(fr protez), jocuri sportive,
atletism, tenis de mas, tir cu arcul, schi, echitaie etc.

165

prosthetic devices are often used in sports activities to help the


subject develop a sense of normal function of the limb.
The efficient prostheses used in unilateral or bilateral
shank or forearm amputations allow the performance of
technical-tactical actions in sports like volleyball, basketball, in
sprints or long distance runs.
The amputation of a limb implies the loss of tactile
sensitiveness, which leads to a progressive distortion of
sensations. The sudden interruption of sensitive afferents
produces the lack of awareness of the remaining segment
perceptive agnosia. Any type of amputation causes severe
psychological disorders, varying according to the moment when
it happened. The manifestations presented by sociologists were
of depressive, anxious type which should be taken into
consideration and urgently treated by specialists.
The new body identity implies a new reevaluation of
cutaneous and proprioceptive information which allow the cortex
a new spatial representation of the body.
Fitting prostheses at an early age allows the supply with
neuro-physiological information which creates a body
representation identical with that of whole children. Thus the
congenital amputee will draw him/herself with both, arms or
legs, without having the feeling of physical loss of a segment or
that of the surgical shock, fact which positively influences the
participation without inhibitions to physical activities.
From the point of view of working programs, any types of
activities are indicated, as long as prosthetic devices or
wheelchairs are used swimming (without prosthesis), sports
games, athletics, table tennis, archery, skiing, horse riding, etc.

166

Bibliografie/Bibliography
Albu, A., Albu, C. (1999) Psihomotricitatea la vrsta de
cretere i dezvoltare, Editura Spiru Haret, Iai
Arcan, P., Ciumgeanu, D. (1980) Copilul deficient mintal,
Editura Facla, Timioara
Cristea, Dana, Kosa, A., (2007) Activiti motrice adaptate
note de curs, Oradea
Dragnea, A., Bota, Aura (1999) Teoria activitilor motrice,
Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti
Dragomir P., Scarlat E., (2004) Educaie fizic colar,
Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti,
Dragomirescu, Georgeta i colab (1977) Metodica educaiei
fizice n grdinia de copii, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic,
Bucureti
Firea, Elena (1979) Metodica educaiei fizice colare, vol I-II,
I.N.E.F.S., Bucureti
Horghidan, Valentina (2000) Problematica psihomotricitii,
Editura Globus, Bucureti
Iftimie, G. (1976) Jocuri logice pentru precolari i colari
mici, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic Bucureti
Ionescu, N.,A., Mazilu, V. (1968) Creterea normal i
dezvoltarea armonioas a corpului, Editura C.N.E.F.S.
Marcu, V. i colab. (2007) Activiti fizice adaptate, Editura
Universitaria, Craiova
Matveev, L.,P., Novikov, A.,D., (1980) Teoria i metodica
educaiei fizice, Editura Sport-Turism, Bucureti
Mitra, G., Mogo A., (1972) Metodica predrii educaiei
fizice, Editura Stadion, Bucureti
Roman, C., (2008) Activiti motrice pe grupe de vrst, note
de curs. Editura Universitii din Oradea
Sima, I. (1998) Psihopedagogie special, Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic Bucureti
Stnescu, M. (2002) Educaie fizic pentru precolari i
colari mici, Editura Semne, Bucureti
167

Teodorescu, Silvia, Bota, A., Stnescu, M. (2004) Educaie


fizic i sport adaptat pentru persoane cu deficiene senzoriale,
mintale i defavorizate social, Editura Semne, Bucureti,
Teodorescu, Silvia, Bota, Aura (2007) Activiti motrice
adaptate pentru persoane cu deficiene locomotorii, Editura
Semne, Bucureti
Vrma, T. (2001) nvmntul integrat i/incluziv pentru
copiii cu cerine educaive speciale, Editura Aramis Print,
Bucureti
*** Integrarea colar a copilului n dificultate cu nevoi
speciale- ghid pentru directorul de coal (2002) Uniunea
European, Phare, Bucureti

168