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SEMINAR NR. 3: APLICATII CERERE SI OFERTA I. ECONOMIE. APLICATII. EDITIA A VI-a, ED ECONOMICA, BUCURESTI, (ca autori av !

i"tr # co$ ctivu$ cat %r i& cap 5/pag 85: problemele 7, 10, 12, 15, 26, 29, 31, 38, 43, 65, 73 cap 6/pag.107: problemele 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 27, 34, 38, 43. II. DE RE'OLVAT APLICATIILE DE MAI (OS 1. S luam drept exemplu piata apartamentelor din Bucuresti. Pentru fiecare dintre evenimentele urmatoare, identificati care dintre determinantele cerere (C) sau oferta (O) sunt influentate. De asemenea indicati daca se modifica (creste sau scade) C sau O. Apoi, pe a!a unui "rafic, aratati efectul asupra pretului si numarului (cantitatii) de apartamente. a. pretul terenurilor pentru constructii de case (vile) creste# . primaria decide daramarea locurilor care au o vec$ime mai mare de %& de ani# c. rata do an!ii aferente creditelor imo iliare se reduce# d. Consiliul 'unicipiului Bucuresti decide construirea unui noi cartier de locuri pentru tineri# e. Preturile unor unuri precum fier, ciment, caramida necesare construirii unei case se reduc su stantial. (. )etc$up*ul poate fi considerat un un ce se consuma impreuna cu $ot* do" (complementar). Daca petul unui $ot*do" creste, ce efect va avea asupra pietei +etc$up*ului, -epre!entati "rafic. Dar asupra rosiilor, Dar asupra sucului de rosii, Dar asupra sucului de portocale, .. Piata pentru unul pi!!a evidentia!a urmatoarele date referitoare la C si O/ P 0 % 1 2 3 4 5c 1.% 1&0 31 13 %. .4 5of (1 %. 31 43 11& 1(1 a. . c. d. repre!entati "rafic C si O# evidentiati pretul si cantitatea de ec$ili ru (Pe si 5e) daca P63, ce situatie avem pe piata si cum vor evolua varia ilele P si 5# 7dem pentru P60.

0. 8ntul si mar"arina sunt considerate a fi unuri su stitui ile. Sa presupunem ca ar avea loc o crestere a pretului untului. Aratati pe a!a unui "rafic care sunt efectele pe piata untului respective mar"arinei. 9xplicati pe a!a exemplului diferenta intre cantitatea ceruta si cerere.

%. O cercetare de piata privind un anumit un conduce la urmatoarele informatii privind functiile cererii si ofertei. 5c611&&*.&&P# 5of6 10&&:2&&P. a. repre!entati "rafic C si O si# . determinati nivelul de ec$ili ru (Pe si 5e) 1. Sa presupunem ca pretul unui ilet pentru a vedea meciurile ec$ipei Steaua de pe stadionul ;$encea este determinat de fortele pietei, cerere si oferta. 7n mod o isnuit, avem urmatoarele date despre C si O/ P 5c 5of a. . c. d. 0 1&.&&& 3.&&& 3 3.&&& 3.&&& 1( 1.&&& 3.&&& 11 0.&&& 3.&&& (& (.&&& 3.&&&

repre!entati "rafic C si O# explicati inclinatia cur ei ofertei# determinati Pe si 5e# sa consideram ca, datorita re!ultatelor une in competitiile internationale, in pre!ent numarul sustinatorilor (simpati!antilor) ec$ipei a crescut cu inca %.&&&. Cererea acestora de ilete este su forma/ P 0 3 1( 11 (& 5c 0.&&& ..&&& (.&&& 1.&&& & 7n aceste conditii, aratati care este "oua cerere a pietei. -epre!entati "rafic si aratati totodata care va fi noul nivel de ec$ili ru al P si 5. e. sa presupunem ca patronul ec$ipei decide ca, pentru a satisface cererea mai mare de ilete venita din partea simpati!antilor, este nevoie de construirea a inca 1.&&& de locuri. Daca aceasta initiativ este pusa in practica, aratati ce efect va avea asupra ec$ili rului pietei. f. 9videntiati pe a!a "raficului anterior deplasarea cur ei ofertei. ". 9ste renta ila o asemenea deci!ie, $. 9xplicati cu a<utorul principiului oa! "ii r actio" a)a $a *ti!u$ "t , urmatoarea situatie/ televi!area meciului prin intermediul unui post national de televi!iune. III. T *t $ ! $ i" "#$ )a (uti$ , %ar totu*i o+tio"a$ ,& (. =$ic$ of t$e follo>in" most appropriatel? illustrates t$e la> of suppl?, a. Corporation @AB $as access to more la or resources so it increases production. . Because Sparro> Ca le is t$e to>nCs onl? ca le compan?, it can

c$ar"e a relativel? $i"$ price for its services. c. As t$e price of $am ur"ers rises, DoeCs Bur"ers is >illin" to sell more $am ur"ers. d. As t$e price of automo iles increases, people are >illin" to u? fe>er automo iles. .. A decrease in t$e price of pi!!a >ill/ a. decrease t$e Euantit? of pi!!a demanded. . increase t$e Euantit? of pi!!a demanded. c. decrease t$e demand for pi!!a. d. increase t$e demand for pi!!a. 0. A suppl? sc$edule s$o>s/ a. t$e various suppl? curves t$at are possi le. . a timeta le for production. c. different com inations of resources t$at could e used to produce a "iven set of output. d. a positive or direct relations$ip et>een t$e price of a "ood and Euantities supplied. %. =$en income increases, purc$ases of $omes increase. F$is means/ a. t$e demand curve for $ousin" $as s$ifted ri"$t>ard. . t$ere $as een a movement do>n t$e demand curve for $ousin". c. t$e demand curve for $ousin" $as s$ifted left>ard. d. t$ere $as een a movement up t$e demand curve for $ousin". 1. A c$an"e in >$ic$ of t$e follo>in" >ill cause a movement alon" t$e suppl? curve, a. a c$an"e in t$e state of tec$nolo"? . a c$an"e in taxes c. a c$an"e in expectations a out future prices d. a c$an"e in t$e price of t$e "ood 2. An? situation >$ere Euantit? supplied does not eEual Euantit? demanded indicates/ a. a mar+et eEuili rium. . a situation in >$ic$ t$e actions of u?ers do not matc$ t$e actions

of sellers. c. a place >$ere t$e la>s of suppl? and demand do not $old. d. a point >$ere Euantit? demanded is eEual to Euantit? supplied. 3. Suppose oran"es are currentl? sellin" for G(.&& per pound. F$e eEuili rium price of oran"es is G1.%1 per pound. =e >ould expect/ a. a s$orta"e to exist and t$e mar+et price of oran"es to increase. . a s$orta"e to exist and t$e mar+et price of oran"es to decrease. c. a surplus to exist and t$e mar+et price of oran"es to increase. d. a surplus to exist and t$e mar+et price of oran"es to decrease. 4. 7f HC-s and rental videos are complementar? "oods, t$en a decrease in t$e price of HC-s >ould/ a. decrease t$e demand for HC-s. . decrease t$e demand for rental videos. c. increase t$e demand for HC-s. d. increase t$e demand for rental videos. 1&. Ot$er t$in"s ein" eEual, >$ic$ of t$e follo>in" >ould IOF s$ift t$e suppl? curve for "asoline, a. a fall in t$e price of crude oil (from >$ic$ "asoline is refined) . an increase in t$e price of "asoline. c. an improvement in refinin" tec$niEues t$at allo>s more "asoline to e sEuee!ed out of a arrel of crude oil d. an incraese in t$e >a"es paid to people >or+in" in oil refineries 11. Suppose t$e price of Co+e increases. =$at >ould $appen to t$e eEuili rium price and Euantit? of Pepsi, a. Bot$ t$e eEuili rium price and Euantit? of Pepsi >ould increase. . Bot$ t$e eEuili rium price and Euantit? of Pepsi >ould decrease. c. F$e eEuili rium price of Pepsi >ould increase, and t$e eEuili rium Euantit? of Pepsi >ould decrease. d. F$e eEuili rium price of Pepsi >ould decrease, and t$e eEuili rium Euantit? of Pepsi >ould increase. 1(. F$e la> of demand/

a. applies to final consumer "oods ut not to t$e productive resources purc$ased ? usiness firms. . tells us $o> muc$ of a "ood people >ant, ut not necessaril? $o> muc$ of t$at "ood t$e? are >illin" to pa? for. c. tells us t$at >$en t$e price of a "ood falls, Euantit? demanded >ill increase. d. applies onl? to "oods t$at are not a solute necessities. 1.. =$ic$ of t$e follo>in" >ould decrease t$e demand for utter (i.e., s$ift t$e demand curve to t$e left), a. an increase in t$e price of mar"arine (a su stitute for utter) . a medical stud? findin" t$at utter contri utes to $eart disease c. a decrease in t$e price of read (a complement to utter) d. an increase in t$e price of utter 10. Suppose t$ere is an advance in tec$nolo"? t$at allo>s t$e automo ile industr? to manufacture automo iles more c$eapl?. =e >ould expect/ a. an increase in ot$ t$e eEuili rium price and t$e eEuili rium Euantit? of automo iles. . an decrease in ot$ t$e eEuili rium price and t$e eEuili rium Euantit? of automo iles. c. an increase in t$e eEuili rium price and a decrease in eEuili rium Euantit? of automo iles. d. a decrease in t$e eEuili rium price and an increase in t$e eEuili rium Euantit? of automo iles. 1%. =$enever t$e price of a "ood is elo> t$e eEuili rium price, >e +no> t$at/ a. a surplus exists. . a s$orta"e exists. c. Euantit? supplied exceeds Euantit? demanded. d. t$e mar+et is in eEuili rium. 11. =$ic$ of t$e follo>in" is t$e most li+el? example of an inferior "ood, a. a passen"er van . an imported eer c. a (&*inc$ lac+ and >$ite FH d. a component stereo s?stem

12. Suppose t$e price of land increases. At t$e same time, income increases. =$at >ould $appen to t$e eEuili rium price and Euantit? of $ousin", a. 9Euili rium price >ill decrease. =e cannot predict >$at >ill $appen to eEuili rium Euantit?. . 9Euili rium price >ill increase. =e cannot predict >$at >ill $appen to eEuili rium Euantit?. c. 9Euili rium Euantit? >ill decrease. =e cannot predict >$at >ill $appen to eEuili rium price. d. 9Euili rium Euantit? >ill increase. =e cannot predict >$at >ill $appen to eEuili rium price. 13. An increase in t$e price of "asoline >ill/ a. increase t$e suppl? of "asoline. . increase t$e Euantit? of "asoline supplied. c. decrease t$e suppl? of "asoline. d. decrease t$e Euantit? of "asoline supplied. 14. Because cars and "asoline are complements, an increase in t$e price of "asoline >ill/ a. increase t$e demand for cars. . decrease t$e demand for cars. c. increase t$e demand for "asoline. d. decrease t$e demand for "asoline. (&. An increase in t$e eEuili rium price of CDs accompanied ? a decrease in t$e eEuili rium Euantit? of CDs could e caused ?/ a. an increase in t$e demand for CDs. . an increase in t$e suppl? of CDs. c. a decrease in t$e demand for CDs. d. a decrease in t$e suppl? of CDs. (1. Suppose t$e eEuili rium price of a"els is G(.(%. Currentl?, a"els are sellin" for G1.2%. =e +no> t$at t$e mar+et for a"els is experiencin"/ a. a s$orta"e and t$e price of a"els >ill rise. . a s$orta"e and t$e price of a"els >ill fall.

c. a surplus and t$e price of a"els >ill rise. d. a surplus and t$e price of a"els >ill fall. ((. An increase in t$e price of a complementar? "ood >ill result in/ a. an increase in eEuili rium price and a decrease in eEuili rium Euantit? of t$e related "ood. . a decrease in ot$ t$e eEuili rium price and t$e eEuili rium Euantit? of t$e related "ood. c. an increase in ot$ t$e eEuili rium price and t$e eEuili rium Euantit? of t$e related "ood. d. a decrease in eEuili rium price and an increase in eEuili rium Euantit? of t$e realted "ood. (.. A purel? competitive mar+et does IOF/ a. $ave man? u?ers. . trade "oods t$at are identical. c. $ave onl? one seller. d. $ave man? sellers. (0. An improvement in t$e state of tec$nolo"? in production >ill result in/ a. an increase in eEuili rium price and an increase in eEuili rium Euantit?. . a decrease in eEuili rium price and a decrease in eEuili rium Euantit?. c. an increase in eEuili rium price and no c$an"e in eEuili rium Euantit?. d. a decrease in eEuili rium price and an increase in eEuili rium Euantit?. (%. Fo sa? t$at a mar+et is in eEuili rium implies t$at/ a. producers are earnin" a profit. . t$e Euantit? t$at u?ers are >illin" and a le to u? eEuals t$e Euantit? t$at sellers are >illin" and a le to sell. c. t$e mar+et allocates "oods fairl?. d. t$e "overnment is not intervenin".