Sunteți pe pagina 1din 62

c   


   










  c     

 


 
 









    
  c  


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p





  aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 

           aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
       p
aa
   
  aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa 
   aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa       aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
a a      aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa   
     aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa     aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa
 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa  
@     aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa   aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa  !   "
  aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa #      aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
a a$    #
    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
 

         aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa %
aa&  
  aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa %
aa' 
 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa %
             aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
   
aa(#  aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa$        aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
     aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa(#  aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa   aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa)   !
 aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa  
a a)      aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
p
p
p
p
p

p @
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
p
p
      !  "    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa %
       #"
aa*   aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaa%
aa # 
  aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
+   , #
 -').'/0
aa)  /& aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa  
a a1 /& aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa/& aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa %
$%             aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
   "     
aa(#  aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 
aa $   #   #    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa %
+$)$&0
aa2   #   aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa %
a a* $)$& aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa %
aa#"# #
   aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 3
& '      aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 


















p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p



 

"

       ! 
 

      4 
 ! , 
   
 5 
  "5 
 , 6#7
a 
16
   
  
  ,   6#     !,    
 a 8    7     9           : 9
 a
      !
  #"     
" calitatea  , preţul a
Calitatea  !  !    "a 
;    :" 
 
  ,    "
4 
Ë    +< 05 
Ë   6 , 
  5 
Ë " 
 !,  ,  !a 
         4 
   !
5
   
5 
 #   
7  5 
 67!<
5
  7  5 
    !  a 
 #"
9,
 ",:
9,<, #=2
  < 
,    
+    
 9 "0,:
!    < a 
  
 ! ,  
 9   a #"
      
,      ! #7  !         
+   7 0a   
 
" a ţine sub control.    "   7
#"   
 
   
  
 , 
  "    #  
  
 # 
  a ;7   9  
     "
    ># 
    


a 
 

p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
 



 
      
     


    !      
9# 6  ! 
   
4 
> orientare spre produs:  ?calitatea reprezintă ansamblul caracteristicilor de calitate ale
produsului; diferenţele de calitate se datoresc diferenţelor între caracteristicile acestora´; 
> orientare spre proces +   !
   !  
04 ³calitatea înseamnă
conformitatea cu specificaţiile, conformitatea cu cerinţele´ + @05
> orientare spre costuri: ³calitatea reprezintă anumite performanţe la un nivel acceptabil al
preţului´; 
> orientare spre utilizator + 
  
04? calitatea reprezintă aptitudinea de a
fi corespunzător pentru utilizare´. +Aa)aA0a
p :
$   $2 1( *$ 333433  ,        mp p p p mbp p
pp !"p# p
  !  aB       ,
      expresii ale nevoilor sau aşteptărilor 7 în general implicite sau obligatorii, stipulate
într-un document. 2"
       
    "
     
       a    
7 #


7
7  7 #",
a 

p  "    !     7   7 #" 7  7   
   a 
$  "   !  a 
    7    a 
16   #  4 
± : C+ 7   05 
±  C+#7 7  7   05 
±   5
± !+  7#7  0a 

% "   !         ".  !   
 "      a 
*      7        " domeniului reglementat  +  6a7 
    7     7       07     
  +6 0a*    7            a 
B calitate    !a 6#  6  !
:   ! "" 4 
>    !7          !5
> !  7  9   !5


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
>   7      ! :a 

 @         

      ""   
      !a1 !
  ,
   a 
          "           
  a
*    "    76   a 
 0pp!$ &
V    i, 7       
+6a  7" :7   7 a05 
V   ',    + 6a 7 #05 
 0p"ppm$p!m4
V   (49#+  7 77  a0 
 9+  7 7 7 a05 
V   )m+" :05
V    b$$*+m$b$$*p 9  ! 7   #7   
#5
V   *$$m 9 "  7!   7     5 
V   $$m9: 6 7  5 
V   $$*9   7   #  5 
V  *$,9# 7     a 
 0m!$    4 
V     
     
     
 +a 3 93D07
     <  #!     a 8 #7   
 "

6a3D     a164  7   
 7 ,       a05 
V    m-$.p m!$.p !!        a 39 3D    

7 " <     3D         a  64
        7        9  
6 7 a5
V    m$ "
 

   
 +a3 9
3D07 ,     7 <        3D   

a &  
  "
 6! !    
  +64
77
7 a0 
0m$ p p!p"pm 4
V    !bp p -$p m$p mp +6a    #  
:"05
V    mbp +        >  >  ! 07  #
 + 7" :0a 
 0m$ p p'!mpp%p!$! å
V    $$7 6    7     > !    #  
 +    7  # 05 

p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
V    '!mp+!   !4" :7 
 0a

          
p / p  Î "          7   
   7"  ! a 
          4   7  :7  7 a 
                   a     
 !!     a 
   "    7     4 
     6    5 
      5 
    #a 
* "    "    !"7      "        
     a 
* " "7# 7   "    
  "7 #!    a 
              "  "     >#  
#   4
 0 factori specifici productiei 4    7   7  :#5 , 
 #"  a 
 0 factori postproductie 4  77 " 7"5    
    .     a 
 0factori specifici utilizarii, consumului, exploatarii a
Caracteristicile calităţii serviciilor:
> 
+ ,: 07  7  ! , 5 
>  ,  7  
!7  7 
> #
7  7    5 
>     7    7  "7   7     7  
7
#  7 "7    7 ! :7     7 
 
a

         
            6       7 7
       7     
#,     a 
           7    
  " !7
         
 ,    !  
  
 
"!
#a 
2"<       !
  +    # 07 ,     
 
 !       

   7  <      
   
    , !  


a       7    
    "      !  a 

%
p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
    
!4#
7  !
+ #
7# 
7 
 ,#"
7  
07# 9 
7 :#
7"
7 9#
a
> ÷alenţa legal ă          

   #
#   !a 
E#  
    
7 # <  9       
   7  
"
  
7 "    a 
     "#  a 
8 ;1
6
    !   1 !""
  
 
  ,  a 
& #  
 4 
9 #
5
9   ! "5
9 "  65
9  7
,  9


"a 
 <#
  #     9"7 6
 ,  #
 #  
 >, :      a 
;      "   !       
 trebuie să
respecte toate cerinţele legale impuse. (6
   4 produsul fie e legal,
fie nu e legal.
8  
    #7  ,  7   
  
 9 
   ,    
   #

# !7:,  
  7  9,       !

 9  #a 
   !  
      ,     
  #  
 " " 9:7  #7 "   a  
 6

: 7 "      6 a 
& !    "
         
!      
   
 a
 #!#
  !

! !,
 #  
7    <    "   
 
   
 7  <"
 
!a
> ÷alenţa nutritivă  #
 "       !aF
    !
   
       

 # 7  #a
(
  !#!"
   4 
!<
5
5
 


5
 a
   
     ,       !       " 
     !4   7 # 7  7 
 7  7  6
 , 

 + 67 6& 7&.)$0a 
E 
 
 
 # !4 

p $
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
+0  + 
 "!    & ,&05
+ 0: + 
 "!  0a 
8 
 "!  7           a ,  
 
  , 
   7  
  9
    !7" 7 a 
F  
   !
  " " :     a B  
 


,   7 #    7   a 
> ÷alenţa igienico -sanitară   a&  
   9
 

  ! #
 ,    
a ,    
    
 76
 6 #7       , 
        9 
  
7  <  

   : !
 a
Inocuitatea  
   9 
  

#aE

    
  6    
     + "
7 :
7   !
7
#
0  a 
E
"
  
a 
> ÷alenţa tehnologică       !7  <          

  !    ,,   a 
8   
 6
   
       7  a  6
 , 
 
   #  + ready to eat, ready to heatÎ. &   
    ,  convenience food a
1    
, ! 
9, "!   # 

       ##  a 
> ÷alenţa senzorială           
    7  <   
#  " , a 
 ""7 !   
  îi place  nu , 
 îl
acceptă  nu. 8"
  # a 
  !
,!  # 7  #  6,
!
 #
 
 a
       
 <      7  
         
              a
&  :   ,  a 
> ÷alenţa estetică    
7

    
 
a
1 
  
    
  
,  ,
 
 a    
 
 formă, dimensiuni, colorit, mod de prezentare.
      7       6   ,   >7    

 #
4 
7 7# 
,   >a 
> ÷alenţa socio-ecologică     #
           a & 
#!        ,   " 
         ", 
    
7 ,a

  (          


2" 
       
     67  !7 
 ,    !,  !7  "
, #"
 
 a


ÿ
p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
   (   ! 
!,     
   
      #     
+7 "7:7# 0,a 
       
  7 <     ,  
7  7
67    
 , <     7     ,   

 
    7 #   7 #   :  7    
, !a 
   
   
       #   7 : 7 
  7 #: + #a07 
7    a 

›   

  ›   
  !"#$%##&

›  › 

  › ›
 



 › ›  ›  ›  › ›  › 
›   ›  

     ›    ›    › 

(   ) *    
   "  # 
      7       :7
7 #  + #a0a 

p p p  
p
› ›  p p
› p p 
p   
  p


  ›  p p p
› › p
  
›  p


  p 
   p
› › ppp p
  
 p
  pp ›ppp
›pp   p
  ›    p
     › p

 p p p
  › p

    ›pp  p

p p p  pp  p
   ›  pp  
p p 
  pp

(  @ &   +,  ÿ-


*mp )01 , #
  !  >"   9   , 7 "
 
    
 "     !    # 7  !
#
 + #a0a 
8 <  "           

          
   !
 ,   !
7  #
 
#  " 

p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
      <#     
     !7          
 #7   !a 
# *:GC :"
 ,     
  #  
 +  

 -  "
  9 
#
 " 
7 
    
#  0
  "<     "
9  a
Oaşinile şi utilajele          
 
  "  
   

    7 
 
 # a
67        ,
 ""   
 :      
 !
"     7 
7     
 #

 7       !
"  :#     + 
"! : 7! "    "7     7 a0a 
(   .  * /0

    
  
u

  
u
      

 +(
+-#'#!(


(#)#
!' !(+ $

(#)#
!' !(+
 u##

('!( !,+' ##

+ ,,#

!(' $

)!(
(,,(#!(

(
(#+,,#
(,((
!(

,,(
(!, ##


,(,
((#

',(#

!'(!

u  

u
u
  

#

#

#


(# # $(#

((##!(
##)(
!($

 !#' ((

#)#!*#+#

 


 
u
    

?rganizarea fluxului de fabricaţie,      "


 
 7

,  67  <    


  
a $     
 " !    , " 7   
 
," , >    ,
 7,

""    
   7   
6   a<#
,     !7  
, cultură a producţiei 7


 7 , ,       , 6
        ,  
"  7   ,"
  " ! 
    6      a 
Oijloacele de măsurare   
 
 " ,   
 !
"  
 a$ 
6   ,   
7

   >  
a
Sculele, dispozitivele şi verificatoarele   
      ,   a 1 
 
 
 ""  <   6
 7< ,  "
 a
Oateriile prime  

   !   !!    7
                 , 5   
 !   
"9:7  

        a
Ouncitorii  

  
"
 
7 7   
7

   "  !a 


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
(        ! ,   !       "
  

" !  !!
"    #
a 

!p  .             ,  4  7 
,
     5"
  6 7""
 
  !7 
   
,! 
 6 a 
8 


    
   

 
 "  
 " 7       , <
        6   <  
  7< , 6  
a 
$# !
 7  7
#  
 

Aa)aA7  #<
7  
a 
E "     ,      ,  
a &7     
:9 , 7    ,     : , 
     ,   7   " "
  7  ! 
 ,      a ;"
    7  4  
 7!"  "7!   >,  

,
    9"a    :#7  ,   7  ,
"7 
,  "
 6   a;"
   ,
     
  a 8  6
7 !  > ! 
   7  ,        
   ,  
7

 
 7   7 a7  
7 
 
7!
  !a
p















(       
;"
 "    7      7    7 
"  7!  ! a
$  !
 
       "  
7 
   :    9 7 
"

+ spirala calităţii 07 , "
   9#
,  
7

!  !a 
*p$p2.    "
    #
)4

p @
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
 -   
7    
 
     !    !   
 4
@ - ,9 7    
 "      "    :# 
65
 - >  
7    
 
   
 , " 

 
   " 5 
-  "+  7" !
 
7  
#"!7 a0,: :+  , 
 #  
6 7  6 ,,  
 
7 a05 
- 7      7  


,
   4
 
=
 
=
 
=
 
=
 
=

 =
  @ (     !  
   

  ,>"
 #

 <
!<" 4 
    7!7,! 
 5 
   ,   
   5    ,     
    ,  >5 
    ,          7   > ,  
 7   7aa5 
 "    , > !  ,  
5 
 
     # ,   
7     , #
"
5!  

   " 5 
     " 5
 ,     + : 0a 
     
F       # , ,       !
  
  +   <
 "0          !
          7

    
  !     
  !a
$       a 
Clasa de calitate "
   #           
  7
"
   7!        
 a
      ,  !       
!" ,    
 
! a 

 p p




A Ap A Ap

p p p p p p

+95H0-*95


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
+9 5H 0-**9a
*  "7 <  >              x !  
 7<    
 !    
, 


 7  , #

   a 
&  <     
  !      7   !<  ! 
  7  #       
     7 6
       
   7   !   xa

 

            7  
 a
Produsul declasat   
        
   " 7    a 
  
a ""


  7 
 7 ,     ,           
"
a 
Rebutul "
   ,  "
 
  7!<        a2      
 4 
 rebut parţial,    ,! 
a   
    
a 
 rebut total,  ! a 
B 

        ,  a 
Noncalitatea  <         a 
Nonconformitatea  "   "
   
7 #    
 ,   5     a 

 % "     
 +  0 
           :   
 !   7   "
  
  

      !   
7  : ,     !   
7 
 7 "
 ,   #a E :       

      
7  6   
   #  #  
  "a 
 
    >           7 !   
:# a
      
       specificaţii.  $    
    
  a 










p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p


   
 
p
@  . 
8 E# a.33 ,       # !  $2 1(  33433 7    

 4
 -  7       ,      #  7 
""
7    "
  ,   7 #7         
 !
"  7  #       9 6   a
   9  !            7      
 7 !       "
  ,   7 
     # 
      9 6   a "   standarde a
     -       "  1,
    #"
    "7 
"    
   9#  :
a 
,    -  #  # ,     

   a
,     *   # !   :      
   7   :
7   
 
 # a 
    *  -       :     
 
 
 7!7a 

@ @ '     


 a$(p$$m4
9tipizare 9   #     5 
9unificare 9 #   " # :    5 
9 modulare -       !+ 0     
 ! 7"    !    !a 
)      7  aa 1   "  
  a 
 a *ppmbp p!$ $pp%$ ,  
 7 a 
*   ""4 
> !.      5 
>    "5 
>          ! 5 
>     7  7 "  a #"
"   !a 
      !   +6a   7
6   7 " 07#    
  a
 a2p)mbp pmpp p$mp)$ ,
 #7  "7     a7    "          >
     7   :   7#
  a 
   #7             a7   !   !   #7
   6        a 


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p

@     
$           4 
a continut 4 >       a 
>      "5  a nivelul de standardizare 4
>      #5  >     5
>     5  >    5 
>      4 >     5 
  5
>    5 
>     5
>   #5 
>     !5
>     a
>        5 
   #  6   #        7      
    4 
9      specificatii de produs  9  ""4     7 #7
     7#   + "05 
9      mediu inconjurator al produselor 9  6a       7  " 7
 7     !7 #            # 9
 5
9      metode de analiza si incercari 9  6       " "7
"9:7 #7        5 
9      linii directoare  9        "      
!7 64     :   ! 7    
     a 
      

       .     
( 92 &$29&  $   " $   2$2$29$
1 1(9   1  1(9(
$   " /9 " 
1(1E19    1   1(F 9    
$   "1  
1B$* 9 *    1  
$   "B 
*   *$ 9 #"  *    $   *$
$   " 
E1*91 *   $   *B
;*B 9 ; *    
B  $   *B
&9 6&  
*&( 9    *     ( 6
&$   

@          !     


  !>  
   
      ,
  a1  "   /&
  # 
#  
+*$333BI)0a8 "7 
   
 a

p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
, 1
 ÿå@+        $21(*$3347$21(*$
334,$21(*$3340  #  
7
 
! ,    
  
   a &        
        7 
      

  
a  #"       
           

 !
    @@ å@    !   ,.  6 a 
   "
  
 "     a 
Vabelul .1 Principalele stan darde
  *  
*$  333433 - Sisteme de 1!   #"    
managementul siguranţei alimentului. #
     a $
  "   
 

Cerinţe.  a
*$  33 433 - Linii directoare ""
        
pentru implementarea sistemului de #
 a
managementul siguranţei alimentului.
*$ 333433-Sisteme de 8 #     ,      
management al calităţii. Principii  "  *$333a
fundamentale şi vocabular.
*$ 334339Sisteme de 1!      #"    
management al calităţii. Cerinţe.   ,     #  7     
a$  "  
 
 a
*$ 33 43339Sisteme de ""
       

  
 
management al calităţii. Linii   # 
7     a
directoare pentru îmbunătăţirea
performanţelor.
*$ 343339Linii directoare în ""
      !       
auditarea sistemelor de management    #   !     
a $    "
al calităţii şi/sau mediului.     6 a
*$ 33349Oanagementul ""
     #
7 " , !"
calităţii. Linii directoare pentru 
a
planurile calităţii.
*$ 33399Oanagementul E   #
7 <   < ,
calităţii. Linii directoare în a
managementul proiectelor.
*$ 33399Oanagementul E   #
 6 

calităţii. Linii directoare pentru 
 "<  :
 ! a
configuraţie.
*$ 3349Linii directoare E     "!  ,  
pentru dezvoltarea manualelor calităţii. 
7   ! a
*$ 3349Oanagementul E    "! 7 7,
calităţii. Linii directoare pentru  

   # ,      
instruire.  "
   a
J
$< 733

) !  
 ,   #   ,    
    
  



 7  6 
 #
 
7  

:  "a










%
p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
è
   c 
   

      
 
7  !    
 7  "
         
 ,
 
     !
a 
&   7 
"7 4 
       5 
    
# 9 5
   "
a 
8      #          
"       
a &    #>"
 
    
 
"a

 @ 2   
  garanţia calităţii    !:a1  "
 
  :  a

 #

:! ): (7  
 9 & 66+ &a a09
#
 
4 În ceea ce priveşte inelul de aur bătut cu un smarald, garantăm că
timp de 20 de ani smaraldul nu va cădea din inelul de aur. Dacă totuşi smaraldul va cădea din inel
înainte de trecerea celor 20 de ani, vom plăti numitu lui Bel ± ndinshumu o despăgubire de 10
mana de aur. +Aa)aA0a
 
 "!
 
7# 
 6  7 "<    7 !
# a 
'
,6"
 termen de garanţie ,    termen de valabilitate 
      
9 a
'    
 4 
+0 post-vânzare,            + 
  
7 ,  7


 77aa05 
+ 0 anterior-vânzării,    
   -      7
 7 7aa
  
 :#7   ,
 " 9
:7 " ,  #  
 
  7  
 
   ,
     +  
7    !
7
,  7
 7 #07 
  !   
  
     
 7 # !7<   a 
          7":
7   
!7  :#7     7    
 7  7
 a
      , 6 
 
 #

7     +  
7      !
  7  a0a 1    
,  termen de garanţie a
E   termenul de garanţie "
 !  +7"770 
        # "
            , 
 
       !a 

p $
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
8      #    
 termenul de garanţie 6
     ! 
> 7     
     
,: 
 
7 
 !, 
 #   9 
  a 
B  #        
 
  #   
:9"
 
 a 
 ""
 

     : 9
 4

<  
  
  en gros ,
  en detail; 






.

+




 
+ 
07<  
  
 detailist.
 -
   
5 -
  5
 -
     5  -
5
#-
   en gros 5 - 
a
-
 #"5
(   *     *  3     
E    # 6 
 
 
    
 <     +  6
 
 0  a 
   
   # +B'0   
   <
       
 +  # 7 " 9:7 #07     
  :4    +0,   +0a 

 
(!$##+#&!+%$+ !!"!#p 
 
(!$##$!+%$+!!"!# $+!!"!#










0 1 2 3 4

›!(,"#%!#
 $+(!#"% 
(/ 


 (+'.#(#'%! .,( '% 

,(#!"!##($, ,",!

 › ',+!"!#( ,,",!
-  5 
B3-  
 :#5 
B- !<"
  5 
B- 6
  #5 

ÿ
p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
B-  ,
    !5 
B 9   
a 
(   *      
Durabilitatea (D rÎ "
  !   +7 "7 

<7 7 0     
 7       ,          
7    
 ,
         !a 
Consumabilitatea (C sÎ "
 !  +7"7

<770   
 7              7 : 
  9, 
!
!
"     a 
2    4 
B'KK
  
  
7  
 9  
 -termenul de valabilitate
(V÷Î -           ! 7    >   ,
    ! 
 + "             
!0  <  
    
 ,"a 
Vermenul de valabilitate (V÷Î "
 +7"7

<770
 
  ! 7 
  7 ,     "
7
 
9,
     a 
   ,   +  !     7 7 # 7
  0 
   # 
!"      
    #a 
  /
< '! a % .7  >  "  ,  7  !
 : 7   #   

    !        
4 
J        #          7      "  
  

      data limită de consum 7  
  4 A se
consuma până la data« +"770 Expiră la data de « +"7705 
J  "  limita optimă de consum,  
 4 A se consuma de
preferinţă înainte de « +70a
$  " <    
     ,   , 7   6 
! "  +  7 , 7#7  0  
  4   
 
+ "07  9 
 &L 9 , 
5"
  
  
 4  
 7 
 +3 907"
 
 +3 905# !  9 
7   9 a
Prelungirea termenului de garanţie      " 6
     
    
       7  "  ,         ) 
$


,) *  ,a 
$ "#  #   
 

  
a 

p @
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
x
   
   
  
p
 
    
?biectivul         # 7      #  7 +    
    07     .!     a 
Certificarea   "       !          #  "   
 7!        
  !   +  1I0a 
 @     
    $    1( 34 certificarea conformitatii  "
   
  !  6    7!     
         a 
      1( 334 acreditarea laboratoarelor de incercari   
   #                   
     a 
à pp ppp p    p
p
p !p" # p

à pp ppp$ p    p


p p !p" # p

à pp à%&p'p ! pp    p!p  p(p!p


p p " # ppp)*'+ppp,)+*p-p)*- p

à pp ppp p !   pp . p!p


p p  àp)p,)/0p%)+ p

à pp
ppp*%&p'p),)p)p,)/0p  p
p

p
. !à p

à pp
p
p ppp*%&p'p),)p)p,)/0p   p
àà  p!p  p

à pp
p
p ppp*%&p'p),)p)p,)/0p   p
. àp

à pp
p
p ppp*%&p'p),)p)p,)/0p  p
. àp

à pp
p p &pp-p',+p*p1'pà ! !2 p(p

p 
p  $ #p3p

(  %                4   


5


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
c 

› 5

    

(!#'%
$(%

#$(#$#(6'(%(!
(,",!"!'#(#+%(!!

($,
(!!#(#$'$(+!%%!!
#$(#$#(#"$'#( ($,"$(!(7!!!"$(
!+#"!#  8  &,#'#("p
($+9'
(.#'!+(!!#(
!++#'#.+'+!,

(.#'!+!'%!
($'#"

(  $            ! ,5 


Avantajele certificării:
 promovarea produselor -     !
   !

 5
 eliminarea/simplificarea unor analize la recepţia loturilor de produse;
 înlăturarea barierelor comerciale.
16
 
    4 
+0 obligatorie - 
 #  +  7   0
-   9    
  5 
+ 0 voluntară (facultativăÎ -    #  a &
      
   
a 
         å
Ëp    
       5 
Ëp    !   
a
De exemplu 4  " : #+ : ,  # 
!   07
    7   # +7!0a

p @@
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
Π
 
p

  2   
%p p 6     + 7!0 
      a 
1!                      7
  calimetrie.
B calimetrie       #" 1    +1I0
a*%#"       

  a 
     !        ""       "7
 !        "7 "  67 
 7            9  a7
"   !    6            "     
    "!   a 
  ""     4 
  9   !7
  9    a

 @ "      
)
     9principiile calimetriei :
>              !        
 5
>          #         7   
 " 7     :"  !5 
>         6    7 +   !0 
+ !           07     
+! 0  9  6 7  #5 
>      7    ! :"   7  
     4     ! 
      5 
>    7 ! :"       
  !7          
  !5    !   # a 
>      ! :"       
#33+!  0a
>         "     6  9
    a
 !    7 !    +I07         +M0
6   9                   +0  "" 
 4
’
 —

 

@
p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
*            !7     +G 0   
6  7 " !     9 
     7   "      !      ! +0 
   " 7!       
+    " 0a 

      
 $ppp p
)    !           !   !     
     +   0a 
)    !    !       :   
 !      9    "      !   
 #        a 
 aRaportul calitativ 
$ "!     "   a 
ë p
pp p
p p 
4
 2>9   !  5 
 F9!   " 5 
 F9!     a
        !  7 4 

    

* "       !7          7   !   
     " 7    6    "  ! 
   7  >6a     +  0   !
 7 >      " a 

 

4
 N9 >     !  " 5
 N9 >    a 
aIndicatorul de calitate 
$   !   >         
         a 
’
 —


   

4
 *O9     5 

p @
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
 >9      a 
$            +* 0    "   !     
 4
’ ’
 

— 
  — 
 

  

’







— 

’
 —


      7#33a

 aIndicatorul sintetic al calitatii 


&      !   !              
 a         :7   7
       a 


 ’
ë ’
  
  (P  —
    —
 ë     
  ë

4
 (9      5 
 B7B9  : " 7 ! 5 
  9   :*5
 I7I 9    ! " 7 !   
 5
 O9     5 
 9   5 
 9  " a 
&  4
 (P9 " !  !  5 
 (Q9 " !  !  5 
 (K9 " !  !   a 

      
 $pp$
Principiul metodei demeritelor 4  !  !   
     7       a 
)        7   " 7     7   #
"  a 
*           7  a 
(             7         
 7  "a 

@
p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
    !     #     
        a 
*    #!   + 0   !    7       4 critice7
principale, secundare 7minorea
)    7     !   !        
  7#   a 
&         4
ƒ     + 7 7   a05 
ƒ               "    #7 
#!  7 !7    a
ƒ  > "   #    7 4 
u    RRRRRaaaaa33 
u   RRRRaa a3 
u    aRRRRa3  
u   RRRRRRaa 
ƒ            !           7   
!6             
 a
ƒ      a 
 >        "      7       "   
# a
 0 histograma demeritelor  9  # !       7    
        +  6a  !    0        
       "  a 
     7#" 7    "
# a 

B           
(a           
"   


&0p
',)p

p',)*p

 0Frecventa relativa a defectelor zilnice     4 



 P 7
’
4G9a          5 
 9a    a 

p @
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
p

2pp

$" #   "a 


&    #    . !   " 
     !  4  7 a    .        7   
 .     a 
 a Demeritul partial  +0  9           9 "     + 0
 9 #4
P—
 a Demeritul total (DtÎ  9  "        7   # 
  + 04
   P—
 aIndicele global de demerite +*#0      #
   4 67     +* 07 a

 ë         444     
  *#P ’

—

 4
 M9       7   333a 
 4 9*#K7               
"   5 
 9 *# Q 7               "  
  a
a Demeritul mediu pe lot de produse controlate +09" !    
    !  7    !  4 


 ” 
 ”

”

 P 
’
49a  !    5 
 (7(7(7(9a     77 7a 
2" #     # !  !a 

@%
p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
Ñ

c
  c 

 



   
  /&          
       , !
          :# 7    ,  "

  ,  , 
   a/& 
 #   # #
,#    9   a 
$    /&   "
        &.S/ ,   6
&  +&07       /&   9    ""
 
    ,/&       
+&.2 97 2!a 7 3307            
       $2
 94*## 
a$  ",    +/&0
,#:   a 
/&        T      9 
 #
  !     

 ,.                         Ua
T/&  !   "! 
    
,   
       

    Ua T/& "
   
    
  
  #
 
  7 "
     7 ! ,   
     !     7,   
 U+2 ,)70a 
)    :#      7   
<

    a ;  /&      ,       
 ,      
    "
      #       a &   
 
 
9,  "     :a *    ,  " 
"
 
   
,   #
 
 !              a 8# 
 ,  
""
  ! 
 6
  !   ,       ! !7
      " #a 
;  /&!"          7 ! 
      "       !          a 8
 7 "    "     "      /& 
#a
/&    

     
 ,  a 
 
   

 #    7    ,     

     
 , 
       a 87   #    9#  :#
 "
   "# , !   #
:#a
/&  
  6& 7  
 "         ;1, < !    $;&a 
&    /&   
         #  
a8  ,>  7 ! >   !

 /& "!    , a;  
     7    ,   "
 ! #7   <      7        a &  
/&   "    5      !"  
6  #     
 
  a 


p @$
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
 @ "       +  '        2 "62#"-
( #
  7  /' .33 7   !# 
a337!
77  7 7 " 7  7
7 " , !     
  
,   
#7    a  
  
   
 # " 
      
"
 # 
    7  7 ,!" 
"   "      "
   ,         9
/&a
1  /&      #+2 ,V 7
330a & 
 
   
   /&      

 , # 
+ 07

 /&
  a  7 :       
 # 
 #
   " ,
!   ,
a 
   
              7     
     , #  7 #     7   

,#"7 #
 
7#  
: 7
  ",# +  
 , 07 a)
 ,  #
7! 
 , 7:,#,
    "a
B       
        /&  ! #    33D 
 7       

 ,#7

<7  a         " ,     ! ,    a    "
               #  #  +E# 3.
 
/'.3307,4 
>   "    #>5 
>  "
 

    
6 5 
>  #   #

5 
> #<a
 7    "      
 , #"   

   
    a 
"
  /&  a(&)+0 

!
4T  # 
 /&
   
 "     7 " 
  a T ""
     "
 ,  
   #Ua 
*        
        ,    
/&a

17   ""å
>  +  ,  
 >        7  
,#"05 "
   7 #   ,
   5 
> $$5
> )#  ,5 
> $5
> *     7      ,
> ')5
:
5
>   
5 
> 1!5 
>     ,   #5 
> 1 :  + ,  
>    5   : 05
>  

5  > ) 
! !
5 

@ÿ
p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
>  +#  
  >  #5 
: 05
> * 5
> )# 5 
>   # 
5 
> *  ""
5
> &"  
 # 5 
>   ,! "5 
> &  !.! ! +  ! "
>    5  "
9   , 
   

 05
> &   a
8  "  < !## #
, 
 
 7" 
/' .33a
)
) ,#  !    >
!

 ,
 
5
> (!     5 
>   "   #"  
   5 
> )>    "    ,  "       
5 
> E   "! 
, # "
  #

>   a
        
Locaţia. 
!   "   
  
7 7 
 ,    a 
Căile de acces folosite pentru transportul auto . 
  ," "  
>
! ! "
    a
Clădirile şi anexele . 
 , 6 !       <  
     

7 7 "      
         
    ,
a  
 , 6 !     7    ,
       aB     "   


        a)   !
  ! 6a 
      
 <  
 
 , #"
"
,
  "!#:, "
 #
aB !

"#< ,"
a 
§    
"        !  
    
  
7 #" 
7

 ,  6
7

 

 , ,  
  , "   a     

" 
  #: "  # #a
"  ! 
    7   7 :,.# ,  


  ,  
   :
a <
 !   
        4   
  "
" 

,
 ,
 #"  , "   a &       #:   7    ,
 
,  ,    :, >     #"a
"       7  ,    < 
!

,

"" 7 "! #,

#",
a 
(    ,  :      !  
,
:    !
"          a    
  , 
 
   #",  
     
a 

p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
'      
 "      
   
7    !  "
  a
8     
 
   
  
7   
 ,       
     
   : ,# 
 : a 
  $  6  7
  !, 
  
    < 
    a 
        ,  #        
  
 !

      ,        7  ,    

  #"a 
)   , ,"  
  
    ,
  
 :
   " "
 " "
 a
&     7 
    
   <       
 
  a
; "        
  , "    "
7     6a
7  !    "  "

  a 
      Se va realiza aprovizionarea cu apă potabilă. 
  "
#:
  
   
  
  
7 
 , " 
    !  a 
&  "        !      


      

 a
  '    "
       7  #7  #   ,  
  

   7   
7,     a 
     $   
 
        >     
 ,      aB        
    
    6 
"
,!     < 
!  
  a
9        F  ,        ! a B  ! 
    < 
#  
 #
" aL    7
!   , 
  " 
"  ,  ! :       a 

  
 < 
 
 ,  ,      <  !
" 
<#
  7
  
 
<#
 "   !  
a
 ""
,!  :< 7  
 !
" ,, #  
  <#
 "  
a $ 
  "      

: 
+ 
0aE<#
:!     
<

 "  a
*       5   !      
   
  

 , 
 ,  <7       !         
7  a 
     !
 , 
   "  <a 1 
 
  !
"  
 #     <a 
   ,!  
:<   !
" ,, #    a$
 "
      :    
a 
   
 "     
# 
 
 ##a
.     &    !
"  
 !  #",
" :  a&  
      "  
"7 ,  
  ,   
 
 
  , 
          a
*#"!  #   , <, # , < 
! a
1: !    >   ,   
a 
  *      #    #
a&  
 !      
  "  ,    ,    
   
 
 3    73 73  "a


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
V " !    
 # 6 , >  
!   "# a
9     ! 
" 6!
 ,   ,  <  ,   
    !
"   ! a    

   
  
  "  
  "  
a :  !    
!
"            , : 7    "!a 1
 

 ,    #"a
.                 '  1   
  !
 
    "  , ,            
 
 
    
a &  "         !   ,
  " ,    ,      < 

!   7  7: 7
7
 a
1*       B : ,  "  "  
     !          
         
     67   #   
7    7 "    " ,
  
 
 
  #"
    , "  a $    
    




 ,

 #
a ; "             #" 
"
, "     ! 
7 "<    

"

  a; "     #  ! 
a$

 " ,:  6 a
"            B  :  ,    
   ,      <  
 !
      #
 , 


 
 , "    !
 , 
  ,   !    a
1:  6       
 <  
 
#"
"
a
           '         
  "  
 7 
 
       7  
 , 
  # ,
 
 :
 a
)         

 " ! 
, #   a 
    *    1:  ,    "     
    
  "    a
          
7: , ,   
7!
#        a    
  
! , 6 

a
       
$
, "    
   , *  
 9# *#& +&.2 972!a9%0a
 !     : ,   #" < 
  , <  a 
1: 7 7 a     
     
          #a16
    
      !    
   
#"a 
 
 : <  7   
 ! 6   "7  "
, <    
 a 7#", "   <, "    
!
 
 #a   
   a 
)
         !     

 , " 


7: , 
,  #  "  a #,
"    
  ! ,  
  , #
 +) $


0a"  # 
!   

p @
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
     
  

  


,
   
 a
       , ,  "   !      #" 
: 7 7   ,    a       
           
 , #"   :  7  7
 , 
a 
$
  " <    "+
0< ,:+ "  #7
"  0   
 "7 7"  
   a&      "    a 
8 
                "     
 #    6
a    "          #  ,
   
       
 
  #        
   
: a 
;    #"         
  
   
  "  !  7D +&7 0a  #         9
      :  #
 
   ,   4    7
  7#  
,: a)>    # (/  
    "!  #,  #
a 
 , , !      "      #"7 !<       
# #,   ! a "! > "

  6  "!  a 
$ #"  
<
   9+ " 
 
 0 :   " +3 930a
*#"         
  !         
# #"a   +')0 !   
 >"
   # #"a 
 

 4 
  
  " 
"7#   
 5 
 


5 
 
  # 5 
  


5
 "  
"  5 
 
 
a
E      "       <       !   7
!",  !: 7  6 ,,"
  
  a 
   1   
 6        ,  #   
    ,  a L >
 , 
       
 ""
,#< a

  , "
 , #<       
    !  
    
 a )
    !         :7 "  #
             "   ,   
a
)
     " 
      a8 
       
  !
     7 :  , 
 a
7:   ,   
 "

    " a 


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
   '       ,    "  
  

     :      "
  !     
"
   

 a &       
     :  "  
  ,    " a)
    
 ! a
 6 "        #
 , 7   
  
 
     
 
 " a 
             
* ,  
  



  4
a protecţia muncii - E#  3.5 
a instruirea personalului privind normele de igienă personală şi alime ntară -   ,
  <       
 # ,.        E#
 .33a
B #>      

# 
  #
 
  <      ,   
     :  
 ! !
, 

  !
,     

 #" 6"     
  
7
a
1:       7  !      
,
 
 !
a
,   !         
 
 "  ! a &   <  !            >   
 
   <a  
  >  
"
  a
      
            a  
 
#
  "
    
a p

  #"
 /&       T             /& 
!  #
      !    #    # 
   +&.2 972!a 7330a   
  
 
   7    :7 ,    ! , #   
  a  /&     
  .7    #
 
  9  
    
 #
7:
 "
a 
8 
7/& "
7 "      4
bp3#p!p pb(ppmp4 p$$mp $ 'p m p
"    4&"5
"    @4 ,  
  5
"    4$    5
"    4$     "5
"    4 $       !   <   "  
 
  5
"    41   ! 
   5
"    %4$      # 
a
8   # /&7      
       
 #
7
:
 "
   "   


! 
 a
)#  #  6 7    : +#  #0 ,
 
+ 77 a0  > #!


 a 
  !""
"      4 

p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
"  
  #7: "  7   
  5
  , ,!# #,    "

   6+ 67 "0        5 
2  #7   6 
a 
      /&   
 #      ,
  #+0a 

  1     #"
&,  9  7   /&   "
    !       7
 &a8   "! 7   , 4

p)!p4 
1: /&   
 
 ,       ,   7   4
7 7 
7# 7#, 
a 
  ,:/&  
4
> )   ! 5 
> ,  -6
 /& 5
> $  #, 
 5
> $     .5 
> *# !,   ,6 # 
  5
> &  ! "
  5 
> *:  /&  #a 
   
4 
> 
6    
   7  7 
5 
> 
 6
5 
>    
 !!5 
> 
 "! 77,!"/&a 
 
    : /&   ,  ,   /&7 #   
  +     0,    !+ &.297
2!a 7330a
$  ! 

 
,  : 
 /&
6 ,! 
 " 
# a 
      7 :    
    
  7 6 % 7 
   7 :   
   9 #>a ; 6   :
 /&
 #!7#76    7,   7
 #a 
   7 :     
  6    a 
7 :   ,         #  "a E  :
 
"       a
*  :/& " 
  " ,   
!     7 7      
 ;17        !

< 
       "   !

<   !
  !

<    
7
  /&a) :/&
! 
 !         
  !  !      ! 
 /&a


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
@ p!$ 
  &.2972!a 7337
 
       
  
a 
 , 4 
> "5 > 2#
! :  5
> $  5 > B !   5 
> )  5  > *   "5 
> )    >    " ,    a
&  <    "
     /&7 :   
 6"   
 7   :#   ,  "  
  
  a 8  
 6 7  
  
 4 
 "4   7 #    "  ,       # ,
        5
 4    ,           
5
  4    !  
     : , , 
#+   7 #  7 a05 
 " .4  ,   " 7     7
",#
5 
    4  "   

 
  
 
, +#
7 #7   7 " 7 "05 
 #
4   +7 7!< 7  
 7   7 a0a 
B ,                ."

 

   a 
;    /&    , !         7
   7  :#7 " 7   7 "7 #
 , 
   "+   0a
bp5#p$mp)pp!pb$pp p4  p
 .                4 7   ' *   å
ß *    #  
 +   
       
05
ß 2"  # !,   
5
ß   #
 #
#, 6 a
@           ! å 
ß " #,:  5
ß 2  ,  #   5
ß )    #   +/7  
76#7 a05
ß    6 ,    :   
7 "
7
"
, "
a
 .          4    4   3 '      å
ß "5
ß &   +/05
ß *   !  +C05
ß )   5
ß $   5

p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
ß   5
ß    " ,   5
ß    5
ß ; " 
 7 : 7  a
         * å
ß (
,  :#7! " 5
ß   .  
5
ß )" + "    :#05
ß $"    5
ß   #+  : 05
ß "!   :  :#5
ß 1  : 
, "  a

&       /&7         


  
,
 +      >0a 8  7  
  
:   #! 
 a 
:  
    /&,

, !. 
    a 

  p(p$
&
  
 
,       "
       7       
  #        
!+ 67
7!< 7 #! 7     0a 

 $p *mp p'
1: /& "
 #  6       
  /&a
#  6    
  T"    
  !   :#
 "      U+&.2 972!a 7330a 
7! 4
 $: :#
 5 
 $:  65
     a 
* 
  
7          ,       a

,  :#      
        ,
6    >7      
,   :#  9"7
 + 0 76#
a 
#  

    ,#  7  :#
,   a  7   
 
        "
  #7 : , "5  6    !       
   :, 
7#, 6    
# a$  !   
.  
   :# ,   7     + /07  !    + C07   
#"7  : 7   "   
,   
 +   0a
#  6
 #   + 7 !,  !7   0
  
 7 #
  ! 
   7    :#7 <  : 

!"       a B   >7       7
 ,    :/&a   7 7

%
p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
     "a" #  7
7 "7 "
#     # #
 a 
,:   >     !  
 
 ,  "  #>a 

p 
   O    



  

   p
p
p
p
  

p
2*#p6#p*mp p'p,pm$ p
Este cu mult mai uşor să se identifice punctele sau căile de contaminare în secţia de fabricaţie şi
să se stabilească modalităţile de prevenire a contaminării dacă se lucrează pe diagrama de flux.

 ÷p!ppp *mp p'



  #  6  !
!       , 
6   7: ,     
 

 6 
a &
 !        " 6
    
"   ,7     a
*  ! 
   #  6 ,  :     
6 
   
   
           a &

!   
 
 #   6
 "
    
  " ,    
, "

, a 
F  !    
  
  # :
 /&7       ,   
: a  <  !     
7   <   /& !   6  , 
  a $ ! 
     ,  ! #  67     

    , "a 
 "
  
 
  

 
! 
,  
 !     a 

  "    #"
!p7p8p $ p(p!$$p"pbpm$p p!%+$$ p
J              '             
   4   4   4    4   ' 4      
       '           6   :
+2 ,)70a 
"              
 #
7 :
  "
       
 


!  a

p $
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
,  "
           # !



, !       !  6      + &.2 97 2!a 7
330a
(&) +%0  ,    T   #7 :  "  "
 
       !
    
!     ! Ua 
;        # 4 
> #5
> :5
> "a
(p !$$    
  T    , !     
 ,           !  
    !
 # 7    /&U+&.2 972!a
7330a
&""
      , 
    a)  !"
     
 , !      


        
      !  
  a 1: /&   
  
    "       , !

 a <     ! ,    !""
    
    7
 

    
   a 
1 /&
           
  !7
  ,
 !
    a 
; # 
# !7      7
 
!7     6 Escherichia coli 0157:H7 7 Salmonella 7 Clostridium botulinum 7
Listeria monocytogenes aE     # 
  

    a 
  7   7 6,# 6 :a;6
  "    "            "  
 
 7   4 7 7 
  7  
   a ;  "  
     7     6 #   a )>  
,    
 "     "
      <a 8 #7
 # "

   !"7      "
  !
  
!
a 
7     "
     
 4
” *   5 
”  "5 
” 1!#  65 
” 1!a
8 9 
  
   ,   
            a 8
 7       
  "  6
& "    # 3a
B probabilitate de apariţie , severitate "
 
 !  :   
/&a
"      !       4
”   ,  
5 
” &    
5
” B
5

ÿ
p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
” $
    <# !
+ 67 7
0,
  5 
”    , "             
   .# !5 
” $
   , 7!7# 
,6    9#  #5 
” 2! < !  ! a
*       "
   !   
    a ; 
       9
 
     !   

  
 ,    ,     ,  "  
    
:  a 
      "
 :4 
> '                '    9   
 
!
     
#    
a

 .*p,p)%p&)**%&p .*p ,p )%p &)**%&p /p 5p p
 /p5p&p&6p 'p,)+p%p5p&'p5)*70*6p


    

 &p&)**%&p'p%0 8p



%p *%0p %1+p %pp %p *%0p )*&p 90p p p
'/1*p )%*p 90p p p 1p  1p))p5p)%0p06p
))p5p)%0p06p

   
 &p&)**%&p'p%0 8p



%p )p *)%p :**)p %0p ::
&p)%p%)6p ›

    › 



J9   
 
5 
JJ9    +0a 
2*#p79#p b$p ($p!p p!$$pm $b$$*p
> ) *  '  
   B
 
 ,  5 
   $ <   , 5 

p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
   B  !  5 
    ,
5 
   $!   ,5 
   $!
   
 4Cine?, Ce?, Unde?, De ce?, Cand?, Cum?

>     9 "


    ". 
a 
p
O  pp p p p pppppppO
p p
p p
p p p p p p p p ppp pp
p p p p ppppp
pp p p ppp
  p
p p pp pp pppppp
p ppppp    pppppp
 p p p p p p p p pppp pppp

 pp p p p p p  p ppppppppppppppp p
 p p p p p p p p ppp   p
p p p
  pp p
p p 
pp p
  p p p p p p p p pppppppp
p p p p p p p   p ppppp p
   p p p p p p p p p p
p p p
p p p p p p p p p  



 p p ! p p p p p "  p
p p p  p " p p p ppp
 
p p p  p p p p p p p
p p p p p " pp
# pp p p p p$pp p p ppp
  p p p  
p  p p p p
p
p

O


O
 

 


(   .  3 
        tehnica benchmarking     5 
"/&      "
,  "
 
: !
a
8 "              
   :#  
      !a    ! 7 "      
   7  ,     7#   ,  
6 + >0a 8  /& !              
a
)        #a& 
"
 !
   ,   #7
  !
      a 
1            å
*a  #!  , ! 5 
**a  !  , 5 
***a )      
*Fa )   , # a 
E   
7     
    !     /&   
  ! #
    
 6
#
  
  
  ""                    
 a
8  
7     :G# ""
         !
 "   !
a& 7   #    "'),
/&      

6!   !a 


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
 1               

%p/*%p 8p :
>  å   7  
! #!7>   
   7 


#
5 
>   å  
!,.>   5 
> å ",.  
!7   

6  "  7 #  a 
2%p/!$bb:p p!p ,p2#p
>   å     7  5 
>   å  .  <


5 
> å 6  5
>    '' 4  

7?  Wa

%p ! p & p


>        
!  
 
5 
>     + 6 :   E.
coli 34/05
> #  ,   >  a
2%p p!p ! p & p
>  #5 
> !   !#  5 
>        5    , " 5   "a 
Vabel 4. Calculul coeficientului de risc CR = GxF
2   $
"
 )  2 

(    ,  3 33
$
"
   3 33
)  3 3 33 333

2 
 33 33 333 3333

 1                   


)   ""
 !  ,  7"      a
Vabel 5. Clase de risc şi măsuri de control sau prevenire
  (      
         
    
 )    ( (
,  "
5
@   & 

! 
)
#  5
 "''  ( #! 
! 
)
   5
 "''  E! 
! 7! 
)
#    
6 # 4 
>   #"5 
>    

5 
>    , > 
5 
p @
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
>   "  7 7 5 
>   7  , #5 
>    a 
)
  !. !
"     


       <
!   ,
 #

, " !#   7  a 
 1                3 
8 "
 4 
(2P1661)
1-    5
- ! 5 
1)- !     a 
1 !"

 37, "      9%a
Vabel 6. Aprecierea gravităţii (EÎ
1  +1-     ";
 (!
  
 
' !
  
  ! 9

   
   9

;  
   9%
   &  "


 7:! 93

Vabel 7. Aprecierea probabilităţii de apariţie a peri colului (FÎ


(    +(-     ";
9    
(   16

   

,      

    !   9


,    !  9%
(     ! 6   !  93

Vabel 8. Aprecierea probabilităţii de apariţie a pericolului în produsul finit (EOCÎ


1      ";
(    )       
,            
              
'          
 9
( '         
 9%

         ! 
 93

9 1                       


     


p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
)   ""
  
   #  "
>a
  
  +& 90, # +F* 930+  930a
Vabel 9. Clasificarea produselor în clase de risc
  ,  '  6 '   ,   4 *  
 
    "     7       7

<7 !- !
&  #       #    
 "  !""
 6   "
"! #
   "        "     
      #        # 
#  
 
.     
        
   
 #
 
 7   "
  :
 
 7
     

1                  
"
       "
      
   
(  

     
      
  
     

         7   
    

Vabel 10. Categorii de risc


        !
9      &
9      V9
9       V9
      V9
      V9
      V9
 (

bpm$p p $$p


B    ,>
 /&4 
$$ +! 0 -         # ,   
 
     /&5 
$$p + a0 -    
        ,        
  5
p p $$ -    !   
   !   
 #    <
!  a
;                     
a B     
 # #7  ,      !
   
   


"
   
7     !     
" 7  
#  !7  a
2"      ,                 
          ,   "  #7  !  
 <
 !  a



  
  
 ,   7!
!   ,
   #a   ,
  #  

p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
 :#  !
     "  #"
,      "
      ,  #a  ! !"
7
7 "     7 a   "     
"a 8 "7  #
 !
  
             
  !a 
"    '      4 
    "5 
    ,   5
  # 5 
 " , >5 
    

, 5 
    
  
5 
 # #
  !5 
 #
5 
   

a 
            *   å 
” !    
 5 
”    ,#  5 
”       .#  "5 
” ! 
 .   5 
” !     "4 
>    !  "   :5 
> #
7 , :
"
   " 5 
> !  
 " 5 
”     " ,5 
” !      :6     
4 
> !"  :5 
> #  " a 
              å 
 !   "
     :#7      
   >  , 
     
5 
 ! 
    >7 ! :5 
         5 
   !   < :
  
 5
 "  
  " 5 
 
#
 
 :5 
 ! 

 !     5
 
 " ,
" 

 "5 
  ,  #

a 



p
pp
   p  p
p    p
p
!p3p8p
bp!$pp p$$p p
J          : +2 ,)70a 
;!pp p$$ +"0"
T  7  

<
                      +
   0 # Ua
& <   9 
   6
     
 
! 
   7
 
   
   
 +0a"
  
7  :#7 
  
        !      
   
<
!  a 
   7  
    ,
  

 
  !   #a 
; !p p $$p +"-       T  
    #7 : 
"    Ua
   ,
 
      


  a    
   
 # 6
 
 
 :# 
    !    a 
8 7  !   #      7   
7
 


  
4 
÷       
      !   = 
 
   7
  
 "! <
!  = 
÷ " .   "!     #
 
=
÷  :#"
    <
!   =
÷  "
6
    
 <
!  = 
*   ,  !   
 
:/&a 6& 

 "  "  "a
      "  " "    # a 

 
 +I , I0       7   
 I 9I      
   a ;      
       "   
     !  
  ,a 
&
  
  "
         >#    
   
       7  <         7    
!""
,  
    a 
8  
 :#7:  
   
 !   7 
 
 

  ,    
a) 7:  
  "!  <   
 ,
   
 
 : #  
   ! 
#a      !  a 

 "  #"
              9  
 ,
 !  <
!     9 
 
7! 
      !a 




p 
pp
   p  p
p    p
p

$1| p p p p p p p
  p p p   

   ( "#,(+%$#(#
 +#(!(!+%

 $2P  p   pş p  p   pp   pp p p 
p
 p pp p p  



 #(!#(!+%(('!'%
  ( "#,(+%$#(#
,'››
+#(!(!+%


 $3ţp p  p    p  p p  ţ p p
 p p p pp p p   

›$+$'! !# (,,(# ›$+$'!%!# (,,(#
 (('!'%,'››

  ', ››


 $4| p   p   p p p p pp p p
   p p  p  

  


$ | p 
p  p  p   p $| p p  p  p p p
  p p p    p p p p p p pp p p  p

 p  p pp p p  p 
p
  p  


##', ››

p
p

  
   
!"#
"$%&'#' !'$(
p
2*p73#p b$p ($p!pbp p

;       
7 "7    7       
   7  64 
   
 !,  5 
       <
! 
/ 95
      ! "!  #5 
   
5 
   "a








%
   p   pp
   p    p



 
  
    

 
    

 
  
    
 

  


   
  


  
p
p
 
p
|  | 
p ±$
 
  "


±
  
 
±
   
    p 
%

% 
    
±!" #      ±$
 & 
$
 & 

   
±$
 

 
p '   
'   
%

% 
    
#

±
  
  

  
  
%

%" 
p 

2*p75#p b$p ($p p pp p p  p
E     9   
      !   
 ')a 

  !      
 ,   "
 #  7     
 
,  
   ')a
 ') 
># 7  !a 
8 9/&7    4 
>     !+ 67X7X7 0a 
> " 
 !
    # + 67
9+079+079+)07   "
 "7:7
 # !a
>  <      " "<  #
, #
 
   
   #    7      "

 a 
8     6
   
  6#     
  a   

   ! # 7 
  
       
 #  7#<  9  ! a7
6
   !  
         a 1    
 7 #    7     , #  
  
  a

!p5p8p
bpm$pppp p
J'             '    !       : +2 
,)70a
mpp  !   "7 : #
  
            ,"
!6
  
,     a F         !   

  a
E   
    ,      !

   a ; 6  
  
  "
     "   
 ,     #     a 
1:/&  
  
  7!  
   a 
E    4 

p $
   p   pp
   p    p

> !/97  7 5 


> !6  5
> !" 65 
> ! #+ .#05 
> !6 5
>  6     " 7 a 
;6      "    #  a

Y 

Y    

Y  
 
 

 





 
p
 
p
2*p7;#p 'm!p p!ppmp p
p
!p;#p
bp!$ $p pm$$( p
J'                    !       :
+2 ,)70a 
    # 
      7       ,      
 "  a $$(p   
T!
 
  !7


7 # 
 , !
          #   
   
  Ua
$$(p   
  !  
     9 a &  , 
 "  T# 

, !   
  +&.2 97 2!a 7 330a ; 6      "
 # 

   " a 
) " 
  a* "    
   
    a 
) "     #  
              + 
  0a1     "   <    a8#
 ""
   " 9: , !!"
7      #   
#
  a * 7     "    
 
 >    
 7  < 
!    a 
2 "
        !   7    


  a* 7 "  
"" a& <   

 " 
7  
  
 !, , a 
2"   "
   #  ". : a  
 
 
 ?   # 
,   "     "     
  "
 ", 
 Ua 
2%p m$$(p "p ! p p "$p           ,
!   a pp

ÿ
   p   pp
   p    p

8 
7  

 ! "
         

  
 

a 
 "    "
 ! "
  !   !  
 7   
>#
 a     
7


  ! #         # 
 
   a8# 
"    
   #
    7  7"   ,  # " a 
1 å
>     
7   , ! 

 
7,," " ! 
5 
>       
   !4  7     7    
 7 a5
>   +07  +0    " , # ! 
 

 ! 7,   5 
> !  !#  
 

 "    a 
     å
>  !!"
5
> &"
5
> )

 "5
> B
:5
> &" #a 
'    å   7  7    7 # 7 : 

, " 7 5 
      å !  + 77, 05 
)   *   å          
  !  " 7
   
7  7 5 
.      å 
  7  7/97 5
   '   å  " 
7 
7 7"
:  a 
p *$p      #
   "
 ,  
   , 
  b#p

!p2#p
bp$p$% p
J'               5        "
  ' : +2 ,)70a 
 /& !        !         " 
 
 !    a
!    
   T,   . #    U +1# , a7
0a p $%    
  #         < 
 " 
     9a& !  
#  

      >#    ,   
 !
  <   7  
!   a 
8                7 ieşirea de sub control 
 
      a7 
  
 !

"   
 a&   !   /&a 

p 
   p   pp
   p    p

1       
  
 
            '  
!   !      7   <  
   
     < 
 "!    
 ,   a 
  ! ! 4 
   #
>#      


7  5 
  "    a
  :  
  
 
   !4 
       "
   +   >       
, 
  05
 
               <    ,    
 7        "  #
  7   , W  
 
Wa
16
    !   <    94
> &>   
    , 
         a 8   "7
    
 ,7 
   6      . !7      
 W 
 
Wa
> $, a$    7 "
   ,
  
  a &       <      !
   
 a      !              , 

!a
> 
      "           #"   
        : 7  
  # 
7   7
WOG 6W   7   #< 
 #a 
       ," a2!      /&,
   :   
 a 
   
   ,

     !
   !    a

!p<#p
bp!$ $p p% p
J'                   #"     :
+2 ,)70a 
&   
 !  , !  a ÷    
  T 
  7 7  ,  
 !7  "
   
      /&U +&.2  97 2!a 7 330  T  !
7  
<   "7      !     /& , 
   "

 U+(&)7%0a 
÷p ""
     
 ,  
  !a 
÷ p "
     ! 
     T   !" 
  
/&   U+&.2 972!a 73307 
  
#    /&,#   , # 
  !    a(&)+%0  , ! T ! 
6
 
,!,  
, :#
       
/&  
"
!       Ua
F ! " !"!  
  # 
a


   p   pp
   p    p

 7  


  
 !!  
 
    a!! 
7 # 
"  7 !"  !7   
, 
7   
 !
 6  !

       /&  a 
 67 !  !   
 #  
.     ,   
        #        
!
.: 
 "!  ! #

 # a 
F  
 !
   4 
> !  
/&  !   5 
>     ! !
 
,  !   

a 
F     ,   7  "   : ,  #    
    
   a F          "a  
      7  67 
       6#    /&  

      "          # !    a
F   
   <    !      
7  : 7  
:#7  >7 a 
÷p!$*mp4  
 4
> F /&5 
> F  
 5 
> F  # 
5 
 4
> 1! 
    5 
> F   5 
> * 
 ! ,   

 5 
> ;


 !,   

   a 
9         #"  
 
 4 
”  !       5
” !         ":7 #
   5
” 1!   !      5 
” F    7 #  
 /&     
6  ,
  5 
” 2!"  !
 
 <  :

/&a
bp!p*pp$p%$p p%

& !
  !  4 
> !  ,5 
> !"5 
>  : ,    "5 
> !    95
> !"    # 
/&a
F    /&4 

p @
   p   pp
   p    p

  . #  !  /&"


5 
    "   /&5 
   ,   76  , 
 5 
 #,  "   5 
 # 
  ,6 5 
 
       <
!  
    5 
   
  
4 =7<   !  =7

 =7      ! , ! 
     "
=  # 
 ! 
     #= 
       # /&a 
%(p!p4 p
” ""
     !  5
”  ! 
   7 !    #  6 , 
    5 
” ""
   < +  

 0a 
  "
  6   
 ,   
       
 
 !
 /& #  !   a 
    å
> ! 
  /&  7 
> !  /&! "  !7 
> 
 !,   

7 
> 


 !,   

   a 
)    å
> intern+
 0-         5 
> extern4
 , 
 a 
   å 
> $  "
  5 
> $ 
,
 
#   #  !< 5 
> 
         /&5 
> *
 ! 7 !,!  # 
5 
> B #      !
   5
> $  "
  
      !    
   

 
 5
> 2"   # "
,
   !    
5 
> '"
         5 
> ; ""
  #",  
5 
> ;
,  !!
" a 

> #
  4   7#":7    5 


   p   pp
   p    p

> 16   4


> 1    4
ß     !76 ,  7
6 # 
,! 
 5 
ß     
   4   " !7  
7   
   

7
 
!  !,! !7,   

5 
> 1  , #   4           <  
      7< ,# 5
> & !.8 

4:   ! 
  
 !
,""
  a 

   å !pp p!#

      4
> 49  "
 4 #
7 !  #> 

 
 
7 

 #!       .7  !    
 
   5 
> -$: 9              !
7  

5
> $4 9   
 
 ,         
   7     
# ! "    !  5         9 
 
  7
  #>  a
&    "
    ! a 
E  ! 4 
”  "    /&, 5 
” #

  !        
 
5
” "
 !"
     5 
”        #!  5 
”   "  ! !
  5 
” #
     5
”  
    !   a 
E  ! 4 
>    #  /&5 
>  , 5 
> #  65 
>  "
 5
>  5
>     ,   "5 
> "! ,  !5 
>  !  , # 
5 
>   !
 ! ,! a 



p 
   p   pp
   p    p

!p=#p
bpp mp p!pp $m$p"p*$ p
J                 #": +2 ,
)70a
          /&         
   . .
  # 
!  # a 
p *$ #
   
   "       /& ,
   /&       ! 7 !"7   ,
   !
a
8# 
   
 "" !    !
 
         
    7 ,  
   , "
"
a


  # 
   !   
 a
       

4 
>     # 
5 
>  
 5
>  
5 
>  
   
 a 
$ 
    # 
 
  
      "
 7    
 , 
a
.      #"  " 
 4 
>      <
> " #"<
> .   <
> o         
       
  4
> 8# 
  
:5 
> E     ,
  5 
> B " ->   "/& <
   #"
> &#> # ,  #
 5 
> & : /&7"<  7 5 
> 2 
,    !"
5 
>  , " 
5 
> #  65 
> &",
   5 
> , /&5
> 9     5 
> E    5 
>    ", !5 
> & !  5 
> F , !
5
    å


   p   pp
   p    p

>   


5 
>    , # 
5
> &   5
> * 5
> )# : , 5 
> 8 

 5 
> 2a 
        7  å
>    
: 5 
>      :
5 
>  #
 ! 5 
> #  "   "  5 
>        5 
.       
 4 
> $ 77#: 7  ,  7 a7  "7  ,
  7    ", !7  ! 7 a5 
> #>
 /&5 
o       å
> 8# 
 "
 5
 JJJ ,#  5 
 JJJ :#5
 JJJ 5
 JJJ " ,   5 
> 8# 
!   , !5 
> 8# 
! 
7    5 
> 25 
> 2 # 
5 




p 
   p   pp
   p    p


 
c
   c 


   
 c
 

% 
     ppppppp 
$#      #   "    #      
 a      
   7  !       a
  #      #                  
  7     >#" !" a 
&                   #   # 
     :! ##  
    7  4 
9   !5
9   # 5
9 #5 
9 /&a
 #"            !        
  #       !   #         
   !    a
    #      7  "  
    #           !   #  #  
#" a
&          #"     /"  &@ a    
 +/&0Y&"a    Z    
 6& a 
:    # #  7 "
> #"           
 a"#"      #! 
#  #7# 
 /&a 
$              "  ! #     
# #  #"    a1     
 #"    # #   # 7
   7      #a&    #" 
  ##   # #   a 
&           #" 7     7   
       "   
    #a 
&           #" 4 
0   7   "7  "7   "    ""    
# #  5 
0   "        #   #     ! 
#  5 
0     .#       #  
#    #" 6 7  !   

%
   p   pp
   p    p

      a


% @              + -
     
#"     7  "7 " $)$&
  ""           a 
#"   4 
# #   #   
     7!      #"  "7  
  7 5
      !    #            
#  5 
!"  ""7  7$)$& # 
    !   # "           !   
 a
        
   $)$&   4 
Ë      #    !5 
Ë  #        5
Ë    #"   #      "! 7   
 "$)$&a
     $)$&       a      #   
   "         
#    a 
B            4 
9        5
9 " "  7 5 
9      #  ! !           
   "5 
9#  "      a
$ #      a *#               
 !     !     $)$&a 

%  , '      
)#   !  4 
pppppp7#p p (  ;         $)$&      
 4
    #        !  
#" 5
      #"                
   ! #  a 
pppppp3#'                  4 
  ! "  #"   5 
   # ! #  5 

p $
   p   pp
   p    p

  7      ! #" 5 


 "   ! a 
5# .        '            #" 7  
   #    "7  #"      "   $)$&
  a 
;#
     *         4
  :#"" !  5 
 #  "  : # 
 5
 #$)$&    7  7   " a 
2#p'        å
0 '4
 "   5 
     7  #      !   7  7   
   7 a 
    # # 5 
0   !         :  #    
  #  4 
Ë 7#  !5 
Ë :    5 
Ë#  #"5 
Ë   7 "     5 
Ë # #  5
Ë  5 
Ë   #     
<#p '                     
 ! #  a
=#p         '     
& " 4 
9 !       5 
9 !  : $)$&5 
9 # ! "    # a 
r#       !      7  7     "
$)$&a
#"   4 
        !   
#  5 
   #         "7     
 !  $)$&   5 
    ""   !       !         
#   
 #  7      #

ÿ
   p   pp
   p    p

 !   #  a 



%       
  $)$&    7 /&
    .#     a
      #"  9  
 4
>  
, #5 
> #>  
7 <  !< 5 
>  7 ,5 
>      !
   5
> ":
#" +!0a 
  #    " 3 Ce înseamnă sistemul H.A.C.C.P. pentru societăţile comerciale şi pentru
consumatori?
”       #   #     7    ,
5
”    7      
/a&aaaa7   5 
”        
5 
”      6   :
.#  
: 7 " :#5 
”   7 #  # 5 
”  " 
7 , 7  "  
 #"5 
”    !" :, <   6


  79       :#5 
”   
 , 7
      5 
” ,      ,  
5 
” ! 
 , 
# a 

%          !  
>    #"#/&  
      
  +  
! #"
  ,  
      
>6  05
> #"  V.2    !    $#    
  &#
+&05 
>    direct productiv  ,     &  
"5
> #>     #/ &5
  JJ "
    #    5 
  JJ#a 
>   , : /&   ,    !   ,     
 4
>     5

p 
   p   pp
   p    p

> , # 5 


>    #5 
> ,   #"5 
> ## # #"a 
> !
    , ! 
 din mers  #  ,   
/& 
:
5
>   /&,   
5 
>    !    5 
1           #" 
> 1  7  !,  5
> 8 :/&5 
> * :/& !  
,
/&5 
> #
/&  # 5 
> *       !5 
> #

 /& 
  !5 
> &6 
/& # 5 
> 1!"  6 .   
5 
> *  ! 
 /&!  ,   5 
> * #/&    5 
> F #/&     5 
> & ",!",#/&   5 




















   p   pp
   p    p

& '     å




2 7'a7$!7(a7337 Oanagementul sigurantei in consum,    7 '5


2 7'a7V a7$!(a7$ 7$a7337 Oanagementul Calităţii în Industria Alimentară 7
1 a& 7'5
'a72 7$a$ 7337 Studiul mărfurilor. Noţiuni fundamentale 71 a& 7'5 
2 7 'a7 )7 a7 7 /& - &" 2a       a7 1 a
& 7' a
$2EN IS? 9000:2006, Principiile managementului calităţii. ÷ocabular 5
$21(*$334337 Sisteme pentru managementul calităţii. Cerinţe pentru orice organizaţie;
SR EN IS? 22 000:2005. Sisteme pentru managementul siguranţei alimentului. Cerinţe.
HG 924/2005, Regu li generale de igienă a alimentelor.
$2 4a Sistemul Analiza riscurilor. Punctele critice de control şi ghidul de aplicare al acestuia 5
 6& &.2 97!a 433a 
: 4..CCCaa#5
: 4..CCCa 6 a5
: 4..CCCa a#!5
: 4..CCCaaa . 96a

p @