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Calculul rotilor dintate si al arborilor din cutia de

viteze

P := 128 ( kW) Puterea autovehiculului

 rot
Turatia de putere
n := 3500  
 
min

it := 2.66 Raport total de transmitere

C := 95 ( mm) Distanta axiala dintre arbori

ηcv := 0.998 Randamentul cutiei de viteze

j := 1 .. 6 icv := Rapoartele de transmitere corespunzatoare


j treptelor de viteza
5.766
3.015 1 - arbore de intrare
1.854 2 - arbore secundar
1.313 3 - arbore de iesire
1
0.799

 rot  Turatie arbore de intrare


n1 := 3500  min
 

i12 := 1.63 Raport de transmitere al angrenajului


permanent
n1 3
n2 := = 2.147× 10 Turatia arborelui secundar
i12

n1
n3 := Turatia arborelui de iesire
j −1 icv
j

 607.007 
 
 1.161× 103
 3

 1.888× 10 
n3 = 
3 kcv := 0.048 Coeficient ce tine seama de tipul cutiei de viteze
 2.666× 10 
 3 
 3.5 × 10 
 3
 4.38 × 10 
3 4
Gcv := kcv ⋅ C = 4.115× 10 (N) Greutatea cutiei de viteze
Randamente
ηrul := 0.998 Randamentul rulmentilor

ηangr := 0.999 Randamentul angrenajelor

Puterea pe fiecare din cei trei arbori

P1 := 128 ( kW)
P2 := ηrul ⋅ ηangr ⋅ P1 = 127.616 ( kW)

P3 := P2⋅ ηrul ⋅ ηangr = 127.234 ( kW)

Momentele de torsiune
P1
M1 := 9549.3⋅ = 349.232 ( Nm)
n1

P2
M2 := 9549.3⋅ = 567.541 ( Nm)
n2

P3
M3 := 9549.3⋅
j −1 n3
j −1
 2.002× 10 3
 
 1.047× 103
  ( Nm) M3max := 2002 ( Nm)
M3 =  643.599 
 455.796 
 347.141 
 
 277.365 

Alegerea materialului pentru arbori


Datorita faptului ca pe fiecare din cei trei arbori exista roti dintate care fac corp comun cu acestia, se
utilizeaza aceleasi materiale recomandate pentru rotile dintate.
Materialul ales este 13CrNi30, care are o duritate a stratului superficial intre 60...62 HRC.

σr := 1100 ( MPa) Rezistenta la rupere


σ02 := 750 ( MPa) Limita de curgere
σak := 1750 ( MPa) Rezistenta la oboseala de contact
σ1 := 570 ( MPa) Rezistenta la oboseala prin incovoiere in
ciclul alternant simetric

σat := 265 ( MPa) Rezistenta admisibila la tractiune


σai := 280 ( MPa) Rezistenta admisibila la incovoiere
τ at := 200 ( MPa) Rezistenta admisibila la torsiune
τ af := 210 ( MPa) Rezistenta admisibila la forfecare
Dimensionarea capetelor de arbori pe baza solicitarii la torsiune

3
3
16⋅ M1⋅ 10
d 1pr := = 20.718 ( mm)
π ⋅ τ at

3
3
16⋅ M2⋅ 10
d 2pr := = 24.358 ( mm)
π ⋅ τ at

3
3
16⋅ M3max⋅ 10
d 3pr := = 37.08 ( mm)
π ⋅ τ at

Predimensionarea capetelor de arbori pe baza solicitarii combinate τ+σ

M1 = 349.232 ( Nm)
d1
d 1 := 22 ( mm) l1 := = 122.222 ( mm)
0.18

M2 = 567.541 ( Nm)
d2
d 2 := 26 ( mm) l2 := = 130 ( mm)
0.2

3
M3max = 2.002× 10 ( Nm)

d 3 := 37 ( mm) l3 := 370 ( mm)

ALEGEREA MATERIALELOR SI A TENSIUNILOR LIMITA

PINION: 13CrNi30

σHlim := 1400 ( MPa)

σFlim := 400 ( MPa)


CALCUL DE PREDIMENSIONARE

Tensiunile admisibile pentru solicitarea de contact respectiv de incovoiere

ZN := 1 Factorul durabilitatii pentru solicitarea de contact

YN := 1 Factorul durabilitatii pentru solicitarea de incovoiere

ZW := 1.1 Factorul raportului duritatii flancurilor dintiilor

ZL := 1.292 Factorul de ungere

ZR := 1 Factor ce tine seama de rugozitate

ZR ⋅ ZL 3
σHP := ⋅ σHlim⋅ ZN⋅ ZW σHP = 1.73× 10 ( MPa)
1.15

Yδ := 0.997 Factorii relativi de sensibilitate a materialului la


concentratorul de tensiuni de la baza dintelui, la durabilitate
nelimitata

σFP := 0.8⋅ σFlim⋅ YN⋅ Yδ σFP = 319.04 ( MPa)

Numerele de dinti pentru roata

i12 := 1.63 Raportul de angrenare al rotilor dintate

z1 := 27 ( dinti)
z2 := i12⋅ z1 = 44.01 z2 := 44 ( dinti)

β := 34.0092deg
⋅ Unghiul de inclinare a danturii rotilor

Distanta axiala

KA := 1.25 Factorul regimului de functionare


ψa := 0.25
ZE := 190 ( MPa) Factorulu de material
ZH := 2.5 Factorul zonei de contact
Zβ := cos ( β ) = 0.91 Factorul inclinarii dintiilor
1
3
 M2⋅ 103⋅ K ⋅ ( Z ⋅ Z ⋅ Z ) 2 
A E H β 
awpr := 0.861⋅ ( i12 + 1) ⋅  awpr = 108.094 ( mm)
 2 
ψa ⋅ σHP ⋅ i12
 
2⋅ awpr⋅ cos ( β )
mnnec := = 2.524 ( mm) Modul preliminar
z1 + z2

Din STAS se alege valoare modulului imediat apropiata

mn := 2.5 ( mm)

Se recalculeaza distanta axiala


(
mn ⋅ z1 + z2 )
a := = 107.063 ( mm)
2⋅ cos ( β )

Din STAS 6055-82 se alege valoarea standardizata a distantei axiale


awstas := 95 ( mm)

fa := −50 ( µm) Abaterea limita pentru distanta dintre axe


conform STAS 6278-81

Coeficienti de latime
b := awstas ⋅ ψa = 23.75 ( mm)

i12 + 1
ψd := ⋅ ψa = 0.329
2

ψm := ψd ⋅ z1 = 8.876
CALCULUL DE DIMENSIONARE SI VERIFICARE

Elementele geometrice ale rotilor si angrenajului

π
αn := 20⋅ = 0.349 Unghiul de presiune de referinta
180
h an := 1 Coeficientul inaltimii capului de referinta

cn := 0.25 Coeficientul jocului la capul dintelui de referinta

p n := π ⋅ mn = 7.854 ( mm) Pasul profilului de referinta


ρfn := 0.38m
⋅ n = 0.95 ( mm) Raza de racordare la piciorul dintelui de referinta

180  tan αn ( )
αt := atan   = 23.705 Unghiul real de angrenare
π  cos ( β ) 
αt
αt1 := π ⋅ = 0.414
180

⋅ acos  ⋅ cos αt1  = 14.433i


180 a
αwt :=
π awstas
( ) Unghiul real de angrenare in plan frontal
 
αwt
αwt1 := π ⋅ = 0.252i
180

180  sin αn ( ) 
αwn :=
π
⋅ asin  ⋅ sin αwt1  = 12.314i
( ) ( ) Unghiul real de angrenare in plan normal
 sin αt1 
αwn
αwn1 := π ⋅ = 0.215i
180
cos αt1 ( ) Distanta dintre axe
aw := a⋅ = 95 ( mm)
(
cos αwt1 )
( ) ( )
inv αwt := tan αwt1 − αwt1 Coeficientul frontal al deplasarii de profil

inv( αwt) = −5.197i× 10


−3

inv( αt ) := tan ( αt1) − αt1 Coeficientul normal al deplasarii de profil

inv( αt ) = 0.025

IN PLAN NORMAL

( inv( αt) ( )) (
− inv αwt ⋅ z1 + z2 ) Suma coeficientilor deplasarilor de profil in plan normal
xsn0 := =0
2⋅ tan ( αn ) este

xsn := −0.30757 ( mm)

z1
zn1 := = 47.4 Numarul de dinti al rotii echivalente
3
cos ( β )
z2
zn2 := = 77.245
3
cos ( β )
 z2
log 
xsn  xsn 
 z1
xn1 := +  0.5 − ⋅ = −0.065 ( mm)
2  2   zn1⋅ zn2
log 
 100 
xn2 := xsn − xn1 = −0.242 ( mm)

IN PLAN FRONTAL
xst := xsn ⋅ cos ( β ) = −0.255 ( mm)

xt1 := xn1⋅ cos ( β ) = −0.054 ( mm)

xt2 := xst − xt1 = −0.201 ( mm)


ELEMENTELE ROTILOR DINTATE

mn
d 1 := ⋅ z = 81.429 ( mm) Diametrul cercului de divizare
cos ( β ) 1

mn
d 2 := ⋅ z = 132.698 ( mm)
cos ( β ) 2

cos αt1 ( ) Diametrul cercului de rostogolire


d w1 := d 1⋅ = 72.254 ( mm)
cos αwt1 ( )
cos αt1 ( )
d w2 := d 2⋅ d w2 = 117.746 ( mm)
cos αwt1 ( )
( )
d b1 := d 1⋅ cos αt1 = 74.558 ( mm) Diametrul cercului de baza

( )
d b2 := d 2⋅ cos αt1 = 121.502 ( mm)

d w1 + d w2
= 95 ( mm) Verificare distanta axiala
2
h a := 1 c := 0.25

 z1 
d f1 := mn ⋅  + 2⋅ xn1 − 2⋅ h a − 2⋅ c = 74.853 ( mm) Diametrul cercului de picior

cos ( β ) 

 z2 
d f2 := mn ⋅  + 2⋅ xn2 − 2⋅ h a − 2⋅ c = 125.236 ( mm)

cos ( β ) 

 z2  
d a1 := 2⋅ awstas − mn ⋅  − 2⋅ h an + 2⋅ xn2 = 63.514 ( mm) Diametrul cercurilor de cap
cos ( β )   
 z1 
d a2 := 2⋅ awstas − mn ⋅  − 2⋅ h an + 2⋅ xn1 = 113.897 ( mm)
cos ( β )  
180
β b :=
π
(
⋅ asin sin ( β ) ⋅ cos αn ( )) = 31.708 Unghiul de inclinare pe cilindrul de baza

βb
β b1 := π ⋅ = 0.553
180
mn
p t := π ⋅ = 9.475 ( mm) Pasul pe cercul de divizare in plan frontal
cos ( β )
z1 + z2 cos αt1 − cos αwt1 ( ) ( )
k := xn1 + xn2 − ⋅ = 4.518
2⋅ cos ( β ) cos αwt1 ( )
h a := 1 c = 0.25

(
h := mn ⋅ 2h a + c − k = −5.67 ) ( mm) Inaltimea dintelui
( ( ))
s n1 := 0.5⋅ π + 2⋅ xn1⋅ tan αn ⋅ mn = 3.809 Arcul dintelui pe cercul de divizare

s n2 := ( 0.5⋅ π + 2⋅ xn2⋅ tan ( αn ) ) ⋅ mn = 3.486

mn
(
s t1 := 0.5⋅ π + 2⋅ xt1⋅ tan αt1 ⋅ ( ))
cos ( β )
= 4.594

mn
(
s t2 := 0.5⋅ π + 2⋅ xt2⋅ tan αt1 ⋅ ( ))
cos ( β )
= 4.205

Verificare

d w1 + d w2
a := = 95 ( mm)
2
awstas = 95 ( mm)

d a1 − d f1
h i := = −5.67 ( mm) Inaltimea capului dintelui
2

h = −5.67 ( mm)

d a2 − d f2
h f := = −5.67 ( mm) Inaltimea piciorului dintelui
2

Verificarea rotilor la interferenta de subtaiere

2⋅ cos ( β )
z1lim := ( )
⋅ h a − xn1 = 10.925
sin αt1 ( ) 2

z1 27 > z1lim 17.302 Nu apare subtaierea

2⋅ cos ( β )
z2lim := ( )
⋅ h a − xn2 = 12.745
sin αt1 ( ) 2

z2 36 > z2lim 19.816 Nu apare subtaierea

Gradul de acoperire

d b1  d b1
(
cos αat1. ) d a1
αat1 := acos 
d a1
 = 0.581i
 
( )
tan αat1 = 0.524i

d b2  d b2
(
cos αat2 ) d a2
αat2 := acos 
d a2
 = 0.363i
 
( )
tan αat2 = 0.348i
( )
tan αwt1 = 0.247i

π ⋅β
β rad := = 0.01
180
z1  z2 
ε α :=
2⋅ π
( ( )
⋅  tan αat1 − tan αwt1 ( )) + z1
( ( ) ( ) )
⋅ tan αat2 − tan αwt1
 

ε α = 1.901i Gradul de acoperire frontal

(
b ⋅ sin β rad ) Gradul de acoperire normal
ε β := = 0.031
π ⋅ mn

ε γ := ε α + ε β = 0.031+ 1.901i
ELEMENTELE ANGRENAJULUI ECHIVALENT
Numarul de dinti al rotilor echivalente

z1
zpn1 := = 47.4
3
cos ( β )
z2
zpn2 := = 77.245
3
cos ( β )
z1
zn1 := = 45.004
 cos ( β ) 2⋅ cos ( β )
 b1 
z2
zn2 := = 73.339
 cos ( β ) 2⋅ cos ( β )
 b1 
d n1 := mn ⋅ zn1 = 112.509 ( mm) Diametrul cercului de divizare al rotii echivalente

d n2 := mn ⋅ zn2 = 183.348 ( mm)

( )
d bn1 := d n1⋅ cos αn = 105.724 ( mm) Diametrul cercului de baza al rotii echivalente

d bn2 := d n2⋅ cos ( αn ) = 172.291 ( mm)

d an1 := d n1 + d a1 − d 1 = 94.595 ( mm) Diametrul cercului de cap al rotii echivalente

d an2 := d n2 + d a2 − d 2 = 164.547 ( mm)

a ( )
cos αn
Distanta axiala a angrenajului echivalent
awn := ⋅ = 120.55 ( mm)
(
cos β b1 ) 2 cos αwn1( )
 d 2 − d 2 +  d 2 − d 2 2⋅ a ⋅ sin ( α )
ε αn :=
 an1 bn1   an2 bn2 

wn wn1
2⋅ π ⋅ mn ⋅ cos ( αn ) 2⋅ π ⋅ mn ⋅ cos ( αn )

ε αn = 3.121i Gradul de acoperire al angrenajului echivalent


VERIFICAREA CONDITIILOR DE FUNCTONARE CORECTA A ANGRENAJULUI
Conditia de evitare a interferentei

14 − zn1
xn1min := = −1.824
17
xn1 ≥ xn1min

14 − zn2
xn2min := = −3.491
17
xn2 ≥ xn2min

 d 2 − d 2 +  d 2 − d 2 − 2⋅ a
 a1 b1   a2 b2  wstas ⋅ sin ( αwt1) ⋅ cos ( β )
ε α :=
2⋅ π ⋅ mn ⋅ cos ( αt1)

ε α = 2.869i Gradul de acoperire al angrenajului in plan frontal


ε αmin := 1.1.. 1.3 ε α ≥ ε αmin

b := ψa ⋅ awstas b = 23.75 mm

b ⋅ sin ( β )
ε β := = 1.691 Gradul de acoperire suplimentar
π ⋅ mn

ε γ := ε α + ε β = 1.691+ 2.869i Gradul de acoperire total

Conditia de evitare a ascutirii dintelui

180  d1 
αat1 :=
π
⋅ acos 
d a1
( )
⋅ cos αt1  = 33.317i
 
αat1
α1at1 := π ⋅ = 0.581i
180

180  d2 
αat2 :=
π
⋅ acos 
d a2
( )
⋅ cos αt1  = 20.823i
 
αat2
α2at2 := π ⋅ = 0.363i
180

( ) ( )
inv αt := tan αt1 − αt1 ( )
inv αt = 0.025

( ) (
inv αat1 := tan α1at1 − α1at1 ) ( )
inv αat1 = −0.058i

( ) (
inv αat2 := tan α2at2 − α2at2 ) ( )
inv αat2 = −0.015i

 z1  cos ( αt1)
s at1 := ( inv( αt) − inv( αat1) ) ⋅ mn ⋅ + s t1 ⋅ = 3.584
 cos ( β )  cos ( α1at1)
 z2  cos ( αt1)
s at2 := ( inv( αt) − inv( αat2) ) ⋅ mn ⋅ + s t2 ⋅ = 3.609
 cos ( β )  cos ( α2at2)

180  d a1 
β a1 := ⋅ atan  ⋅ tan ( β ) = 27.758
π
 d1 
β a1
β 1a1 := π ⋅ = 0.484
180

180  d a2 
β a2 := ⋅ atan  ⋅ tan ( β ) = 30.077
π
 d2 
β a2
β 2a2 := π ⋅ = 0.525
180
( )
s an1 := s at1⋅ cos β 1a1 = 3.171

s an2 := s at2⋅ cos ( β 2a2) = 3.123

s an1 ≥ 0.25⋅ mnstas

s an2 ≥ 0.25⋅ mnstas

0.5⋅ π + 2⋅ xn1⋅ tan αn ( )


θ :=
z1
( )
+ inv αt = 0.056 − 0.015i Unghiul de presiune al profilului pe cercul de varf

0.112
θ := 180⋅ θ = 6.417 ( grd )
π
0.5⋅ π + 2⋅ xn2⋅ tan αn ( )
θ1 :=
z2
( )
+ inv αt = 0.032 − 0.015i

0.083
θ1 := 180⋅ θ1 = 4.756 ( grd )
π

v := π ⋅ d 2⋅
n2
= 14.919  
m
Viteza periferica pe cercul de divizare
 
60000  s

Alegerea rugozitatii flancului si a zonei de racordare


Ra1f := 0.8 Ra2f := 0.8 Ra1r := 1.6 Ra2r := 1.6

Alegerea lubrifiantului
ν50 := 120 TIN 125 EP din STAS 10588-76
Factorii din relatiile de calcul pentru dimensionare si verificare

ZE := 190 ( MPa) Factorul de elasticitate al materialelor rotilor

cos αn( )
( )
cos β b := cos ( β ) ⋅
( )
cos αt1

 2⋅ cos ( β b ) 
ZH :=   = 2.183 − 2.183i Factorul de forma al dintelui pentru solicitarea de
 cos ( α ) 2⋅ tan ( α )  incovoiere
 t1 wt1 
ZH := 1.48

YSa := 1.64 Factorul de corectie al tensiunilor de incovoiere


la baza dintelui

KA := 1.5 Factorul regimului de funcionare

ε α := 1.3174 Factorul gradului de acoperire pentru solicitarea


de contact
0.75
Yε := 0.25 + = 0.819 Factorul gradului de acoperire pentru solicitarea
εα de incovoiere

KV := 1.48 Factorul dinamic

v 1 := π ⋅ d w1⋅
n2
= 8.123  m
 
60⋅ 1000  s

KHβ := 1.50 Factorul de repartizare a sarcinii pe latimea danturii


pentru solicitarea de contact

KFβ := 1.15 Factorul de repartizare a sarcinii pe latimea danturii


pentru solicitarea de incovoiere
1
KFα := = 1.221 Factorii de repartizare a sarcinii in plan frontal

σFlim := 400 ( MPa)


Υ ST := 2
Υ NT := 1

t := 20000 Numar de ore de functionare


NL := 60⋅ n2⋅ t

Υ relT := 1

Υ RrelT := 1

Υ x := 1

SFmin := 1.7

YFa := 1.1
YHa := 1.1
Υx
σFp := σFlim⋅ Υ ST⋅ Υ NT⋅ Υ relT⋅ Υ RrelT⋅ = 470.588 ( Mpa )
SFmin

Verificarea danturii la incovoiere


3
M2⋅ 10 3
σF := 2⋅ ⋅ YFa⋅ YSa⋅ Yε ⋅ KA ⋅ KV⋅ KFβ ⋅ KFα = 1.219× 10 ( MPa)
d w1⋅ b ⋅ mn

σF 506.237< σFp 470.588 ( MPa)

Verificarea danturii la presiune de contact

z2
u := = 1.63
z1

ZE = 190 ( MPa)

1
Zε := = 0.871
εα

Zβ := cos ( β ) = 0.922

KHβ := 1.5

KHα := 1.1

σHlim := 1400 ( MPa) Efortul unitar admisibil la presiune de contact

7
ZNT := 1 NL > 3⋅ 10

SHmin := 1.15

( σHlim − 850)
CZL := ⋅ 0.08 + 0.83 = 0.956
350

( 1 − CZL)
ZL := CZL + 4⋅ = 0.989
2
 1.2 + 134
 ν50
 
( σHlim − 850)
CZV := ⋅ 0.08 + 0.85
350

( 1 − CZV)
ZV := CZV + 2⋅ = 0.998
32
0.8 +
v1

Ra1 := 1.6 Ra2 := 1.6


3
100
(
RZ100 := 3⋅ Ra1 + Ra2 ⋅
awstas
)
= 9.766

CZR := 0.14

CZR 0.14
ZR := 
3 
⋅   3
 = 0.719
RZ100
 RZ100  
( 350 − 130)
ZW := 1.2 − = 1.071
1700

ZX := 1

ZNT
σHP := σHlim⋅ ⋅Z ⋅Z ⋅Z ⋅Z ⋅Z
SHmin L V R W X

σHP = 924.159 ( MPa) Tensiunea admisibila

σH := ZH⋅ ZE⋅ Zε ⋅ Zβ ⋅  2⋅ M2⋅ 1000 ⋅ ( u + 1) ⋅ K ⋅ K ⋅ K ⋅ K


u A V Hβ Hα
 b ⋅ d 22 
 
σH := 520.8532 ( MPa) Tensiunea efectiva din dantura
σH 520.8532< σHP 931.875 ( MPa)

Calculul fortelor
Forte tangentiale

M2 3 4
Ft1 := 2⋅ ⋅ 10 = 1.571× 10 (N)
d w1

M3max 3 4
Ft2 := 2⋅ ⋅ 10 = 3.401× 10 (N)
d w2

Forte radiale

( )
Fr1 := Ft1⋅ tan αwt1 = 3.876i× 10
3
(N)

( )
Fr2 := Ft2⋅ tan αwt1 = 8.389i× 10
3
(N)

Forte axiale

cos αt1 ( )
⋅ tan  π ⋅
12  3
Fa1 := Ft1⋅  = 3.339× 10 (N)
cos αwt1( )
 180
cos αt1 ( )
⋅ tan  π ⋅
12  3
Fa2 := Ft2⋅  = 7.228× 10 (N)
cos αwt1( )
 180