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Facultatea de Jurnalism şi Ştiinţele Comunicării Universitatea din Bucureşti

Specializarea Ştiinţele Comunicării

Nivel licenţă

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

Titular de curs:

Semestrele I şi al II-lea

asist. univ. Drd. Aurelia Ana Vasile

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

Acest material este protejat prin Legea dreptului de autor şi a drepturilor conexe nr. 8 din 1996, cu modificările ulterioare.

Dreptul de autor îi aparţine Aureliei Ana Vasile. Facultatea de Jurnalism şi Ştiinţele Comunicării, Universitatea din Bucureşti, are dreptul de utilizare a acestui material.

Nici o parte a acestui material nu poate fi copiată, multiplicată, stocată pe orice suport sau distribuită unor terţe persoane, fără acordul scris al deţinătorului dreptului de autor.

Citarea se face numai cu precizarea sursei.

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

INTRODUCERE

Cursul Strategii eficiente ale comunicării în limba engleză urmărește să dezvolte abilităţi de comunicare publică şi de masă eficientă în limba engleză, în domeniile jurnalism, relaţii publice şi publicitate, prin învăţarea unor tehnici adecvate, a unor repere generale ale eficienței în comunicarea publică şi de masă.

Prezentare generală:

Strategii eficiente ale comunicării în limba engleză este un curs practic, împletind aspecte care ţin de domeniul lingvistic (structuri gramaticale, elemente de vocabular şi de stil specifice jurnalismului de limbă engleză) cu cele care se referă la specificul cultural al presei, relaţiilor publice şi publicităţii în limba engleză.

In cadrul mai larg al planului de învăţământ pe parcursul studiilor universitare, cursul este de tip introductiv urmărind să îi familiarizeze pe studenţi cu trăsături dominante ale presei de limbă engleză în funcţie de tipologia media.

NOTA: Toate exercitiile si temele prevazute in cadrul tutoratelor vor fi efectuate si prezentate de catre studenti la datele la care sunt planificate aceste tutorate si rezidentiate. Temele predate cu intarziere nu vor mai fi luate in considerare la notare, rezultând în imposibilitatea participării la examen, fiind condiție de intrare în examen a studentului.

Vă doresc SUCCES!

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

Unit 1. THE MEDIA SPHERE PLANET

1. PRINT AND BROADCAST JOURNALISM

CUPRINS

Obiectivele unităţii de învăţare nr. 1

1.1 Cunoaşterea în limba engleză a conceptelor fundamentale din domeniul comunicării eficiente în mass media.

1.2 Cunoașterea unor structuri lingvistice specifice comunicării mass media eficiente.

1.3 Înţelegerea, cunoaşterea şi aplicarea unor principii şi tehnici ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză.

Obiectivele unităţii de învăţare 1

După studiul acestei unităţi de învăţare studenții vor reuşi

Să definească/ să înțeleagă în limba engleză noţiuni şi concepte fundamentale specifice comunicării eficiente în mass media.

Să înţeleagă, să cunoască şi să aplice principii şi tehnici ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză.

Să cunoască vocabular și modalități de exprimare specifice în limba engleză pentru domeniul mass media.

1. The Media Sphere Planet

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

Unit 1. THE MEDIA SPHERE PLANET

1. PRINT AND BROADCAST JOURNALISM

Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying, and presenting news regarding current events, trends, issues, and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists.

News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the "first rough draft of history" (attributed to Phil Graham), because journalists often record important events, producing news articles on short deadlines. While under pressure to be first with their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proofread their reports prior to publication, adhering to each organization's standards of accuracy, quality and style. Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable.

Reporting

Journalism has as its main activity the reporting of events stating who, what, when, where, why and how, and explaining the significance and effect of events or trends. Journalism exists in a number of media:

newspapers, television, radio, magazines, and, most recently, the World Wide Web, i.e., the Internet.

The subject matter of journalism can be anything and everything, and journalists report and write on a wide variety of subjects: politics on the international, national, provincial and local levels, economics and business on the same four levels, health and medicine, education, sports, hobbies and recreation, lifestyles, clothing, food, pets, sex and

Journalists can report for general interest news outlets

like newspapers, news magazines and broadcast sources; general circulation specialty publications like trade and hobby magazines, or for news publications and outlets with a select group of subscribers.

relationships

Journalists are usually expected and required to go out to the scene of a story to gather information for their reports, and often may compose their reports in the field. They also use the telephone, the computer and the internet to gather information. However, more often those reports are written, and are almost always edited, in the newsroom, the office space where journalists and editors work together to prepare news content.

Journalists, especially if they cover a specific subject or area (a "beat") are expected to cultivate sources, people in the subject or area, that they can communicate with, either to explain the details of a story, or to

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provide leads to other subjects of stories yet to be reported. They are also expected to develop their investigative skills to better research and report stories.

Print journalism

Print journalism can be split into several categories: newspapers, news magazines, general interest magazines, trade magazines, hobby magazines, newsletters, private publications, online news pages and others. Each genre can have its own requirements for researching and writing reports.

For example, newspaper journalists in the United States have traditionally written reports using the inverted pyramid style, although this style is used more for straight or hard news reports rather than features. Written hard news reports are expected to be spare in the use of words, and to list the most important information first, so that, if the story must be cut because there is not enough space for it, the least important facts will be automatically cut from the bottom. Editors usually ensure that reports are written as tightly as possible. Feature stories are usually written in a looser style that usually depends on the subject matter of the report, and in general granted more space (see Feature- writing below).

News magazine and general interest magazine articles are usually written in a different style, with less emphasis on the inverted pyramid. Trade publications can be more news-oriented, while hobby publications can be more feature-oriented.

Broadcast journalism

Radio journalists must gather facts and present them fairly and accurately, but also must find and record relevant and interesting sounds to add to their reports, both interviews with people involved in the story and background sounds that help characterize the story. Radio reporters may also write the introduction to the story read by a radio news anchor, and may also answers questions live from the anchor.

Television journalists rely on visual information to illustrate and characterize their reporting, including on-camera interviews with people involved in the story, shots of the scene where the story took place, and graphics usually produced at the station to help frame the story. Like radio reporters, television reporters also may write the introductory script that a television news anchor would read to set up their story. Both radio and television journalists usually do not have as much "space" to present information in their reports as print journalists.

1. The Media Sphere Planet

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

Journalism's Role

In the 1920's, as modern journalism was just taking form, writer Walter Lippmann and American philosopher John Dewey debated over the role of journalism in democracy. It is important to understand their differing philosophies.

Walter Lippmann understood that journalism's role at the time was to act as a mediator or translator between the public and policymaking elites. The journalist became the middleman. When elites spoke, journalists listened and recorded the information, distilled it, and passed it on to the public for their consumption. His reasoning behind this was that the public was not in a position to deconstruct a growing and complex flurry of information present in modern society, and so an intermediary was needed to filter news for the masses. Lippman put it this way: The public is not smart enough to understand complicated, political issues. Furthermore, the public was too consumed with their daily lives to care about complex public policy. Therefore the public needed someone to interpret the decisions or concerns of the elite to make the information plain and simple. That was the role of journalists. Lippmann believed that the public would effect the decision making of the elite with their vote. In the meantime, the elite (i.e. politicians, policy makers, bureaucrats, scientists, etc.) would keep the business of power running. In Lippman's world, the journalist's role to the public informed of what the elites were doing. It was also to act as a watchdog over the elites as the public had the final say with their votes. Effectively that kept the public at the bottom of the power chain, catching the flow of information that is handed down from experts/elites.

John Dewey, on the other hand, believed the public was not only capable of understanding the issues created or responded to by the elite. In fact, it was in the public forum that decisions should be made after discussion and debate. When issues were thoroughly vetted, then the best idea would bubble to the surface. Dewey believed that journalists not only had to inform the public, but should report on issues differently than simply passing on information. In Dewey's world, a journalist's role changed. Dewey believed that journalists should take in the information, then weigh the consequences of the policies being enacted by the elites on the public. Over time, his idea has been implemented in various degrees, and is more commonly known as " community journalism ." This concept of Community Journalism is at the center of new developments in journalism as it takes the classical approach to the news up to a totally new level. In this new level, journalists are able to engage citizens and the experts/elites in the proposition and generation of content. Connections are essential. In order to create this newsroom environment everyone must be on the same level, underscoring the importance of equal footing. It's important to note that while there is an assumption of equality, Dewey still celebrates expertise. Dewey believes that the shared knowledge of many is far superior to the one's individual knowledge. Experts and scholars are welcome in Dewey's framework, but there is not the

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hierarchical structure present in Lippman's understanding of journalism and society. According to Dewey, conversation, debate, and dialogue lay at the heart of a democracy.

John Dewey's thoughts are rendering the term audience” in the past, as "audience" implies a passive role in the spread of information.

Lippman's journalistic philosophy is ideal in the field's conventional model, however, Dewey's approach is more likely to sustain the profession.

2. HEADLINES AND LEADS

A headline is text at the top of a newspaper/magazine article/story,

indicating the nature of the article below it.

Headlines may be written in bold, and are written in a much larger size than the article text. Headline conventions include normally using present tense, omitting forms of the verb ”to be” as auxiliary (and omitting auxiliaries) in certain contexts actually, omitting auxiliaries -- and removing short articles like "a" and "the". Most newspapers feature a very large headline on their front page, dramatically describing the biggest news of the day. A headline may also be followed by a smaller secondary headline which gives a bit more information or a subhead (also called a deck or nutgraf/nutgraph in some areas).

Headlines are generally written by copy editors, but they may also be written by the writer, the page layout designer or a news editor or managing editor.

Occasionally, the need to keep headlines brief leads to unintentional double meanings. For example, if the story is about the president of Iraq trying to acquire weapons, the headline might be IRAQI HEAD SEEKS ARMS. Or if some agricultural legislation is defeated in the United States House of Representatives, the title could read FARMER BILL DIES IN HOUSE.

In headlines short and emotive words are preferred.

Make them unique and specific brief, catchy, to the point

Each headline must be unique; choose specific details which describe a unique news event.

Make them short Headlines are as short as possible. Therefore, articles and auxiliary words are usually dropped

Use verbs A headline is at its essence a sentence without ending punctuation, and sentences have verbs (should be active).

Use downstyle capitalisation Downstyle capitalisation is the preferred style. Only the initial word and proper nouns are capitalized.

1. The Media Sphere Planet

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

In upstyle headlines, all nouns and most other words with more than four letters are capitalized.

Downstyle: "Powell to lead U.S. delegation to Asian tsunami region"

Upstyle: "Powell to Lead U.S. Delegation to Asian Tsunami Region".

Write in a rather neutral point of viewheadlines should not be biased in tone or word choice

Tell the most important and unique thing Article titles should

consist of a descriptive and enduring headline. As a series of stories on

a topic develop, each headline should convey the most important and unique thing about the story at that time.

For example, "Los Angeles bank robbed" is an unenduring headline because there will likely be another bank robbery in Los Angeles at some point. Instead, find the unique angle about the story you are writing and mention that: "Thieves commit largest bank robbery in Los Angeles history", or "Trio robs Los Angeles bank, escapes on motorcycles".

Use present tense Headlines (article/story titles) should be preferably written with verbs in the present tense (even when they are about people who died: ”X Dies at 85”). Man confesses to killing 7 in Missouri Associated Press 21 Aug. 2006

The infinitive is used to express future meaning: Police in Britain Thwart Plan To Blow Up Flights Headed to the U.S.; Secretary Chertoff Holds Press Conference, Aired August 10, 2006 - 08:00 ET on the CNN TV station

Past Tense: Suspected killer nabbed near Va. Tech, Associated Press /22Aug.2006

Use active voice - News is about events, and generally you should center on the doers, and what they are doing, in your sentence structure. Active voice is "Leader goes to shops" whereas passive voice, to be avoided, would be "Shops visited by leader".

A quick check is try to word your sentences to avoid verbs ending in

'ing' and look for 'be verbs', e. g. : 'are going to' can easily be converted to 'will' or simply 'to'. Rather than "More criminals are going to face execution in 2005", if we put "More criminals to face execution in 2005" or "More criminals face execution in 2005" a better sense of immediacy

is conveyed.

Try to attribute any action to someone "Insurgents shoot U.S. troops in North Baghdad" is better than "U.S. troops shot in North Baghdad".

Avoid jargon and meaningless acronyms Avoid uncommon technical terms, and when referring to a country or organization, use its full name rather than acronym, unless the acronym is more common than the full name (e. g. : NASA, CIA, AIDS) or length is prohibitive.

Use

comma, not 'and' or '&'

Often the

word

'and' may be

substituted

with

a

comma

','.

Example:

"Powell

and

Annan

set

 

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Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

international goals for aid" could be written: "Powell, Annan set international goals for aid"

Headline Vocabulary

Newspaper word

Newspaper word Meaning

Meaning

Newspaper word Meaning

aid

help, assistance

alert

warning to be on the lookout for

smb.

attack

criticize

axe

cut, remove

back

support

bar

exclude, forbid

ban

prohibition

be off

decrease, appear less

than expected

 

bid

attempt

bite

power

blast

explosion

blaze

fire

blitz

investigation

blow

set-back disappointment

boom

increase

boost

incentive,

encourage

boss / head

manager, director

bug

disease, infection, virus

call (for)

demand

clash

dispute

cop

policeman

crook

criminal

curb

restrain, limit

cut

reduction

dash

hurried

journey

1. The Media Sphere Planet

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

deadlock

failure to reach

agreement

deal

agreement

disagreement

drama

tense situation

decry

condemn publicly

drive

campaign, effort

eye

look at eagerly, as an objective, or

to investigate

envoy

ambassador

fear

anxious

expectation

fight

disagreement

flee

to run away from

smth.

gems

jewels

go-ahead

approval

go

to be knocked down; sold (of property); dismantled (of

institutions)

haul

quantity of smth which has been gained, stolen, seized

or gathered

hike, a hike

increase, especially in costs

hit

affect

badly,

criticize

hold

to detain in police

custody

horror

horrifying accident

hurdle

obstacle

jail

to imprison

key

essential, vital

kid

child

killing manslaughter, murder

incident of

lag, a lag

delay, slow down

lash

to attack verbally

link

connection

loom

to approach (of smth.

threatening)

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mob uncontrolled crowd

large gang,

move

step

towards

a

desire end

muscle

power

net

to capture

 

no

refusal, rejection

nuke

nuclear

ordeal

painful

experience

oust

push out

 

overhaul parts in a system

repair/change

the

necessary

 

necessary

changes/repairs

in

a

system (noun)

panel

commission

peril

danger

plea

strong request

pledge

to promise

ploy

clever activity

plunge

dramatic fall

poll

election/public opinion survey

press

to insist on

smth.

probe

investigation

punch

power

quit

leave, resign

raid

to enter and search

rap

strong criticism,

reprimand

riddle

mystery, puzzling incident

 

rocket

increase

row

disagreement, argument

scare

alarm, panic

seek

to request, look for, try

to obtain

shun

shock

unpleasant surprise

deliberately avoid

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Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

slam, slate

slash extreme degree

smash

snub

soar

dramatically

spark beginning of a fire

to criticize severely

reduce, cut an

to break up, destroy

to turn down, to reject

to increase

cause, initiate, like the

stance

publicly stated opinion

storm

violent disagreement

strife

conflict

stun

to surprise greatly, to shock

swoop

investigation

talks

discussions

teeth

power

threat

danger

toll

number of people killed

tout

praise

tragedy

fatal accident ending in death

urge

to recommend

strongly

vow

promise, threaten

wed

marry

win

to gain, to achieve

woo

to try to win the favor of

GRAMMAR

STRUCTURES

The Noun:

irregular plural of nouns (child children, oxoxen, manmen, womanwomen, footfeet, toothteeth, goosegeese, louselice, mouse—mice; …);

spelling irregularities (Nouns which receive “-es” at the plural form, end in :

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Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

a)-sh: flashflashes;

b)-ss: kiss-kisses;

c)-ch: watch-watches;

d)-x: box-boxes;

e)-z: buzz-buzzes;

f)-consonant + «o»:tomato-tomatoes;

g)-consonant + “y” (yi):fly-flies;

h)-f/-fe (fv): wife-wives, leaf-leaves.

nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek (datum-data, addendum- addenda, thesis-theses, synthesis-syntheses, analysis-analyses, basis-bases, focus-foci, genius-genii, stimulus-stimuli, trauma- traumata, schema-schemata, phenomenon-phenomena, criterion-criteria, matrix-matrices, appendix-appendices); nouns that have the same form both in the singular and in the plural:

series-series, species-species, means-means.

Irregular Verbs: understand, be, make, give, think, have, read.

PRONUNCIATION: inherent [in'hi∂r∂nt], coherent [k∂u'hi∂r∂nt]

Auxiliaries BE, DO, HAVE

I)BE

 

SIMPLE

SIMPLE

PRESENT

PAST

I am

I was

You are

You were

He/She/It is

He/She/It was

We are

We were

You are

You were

They are

They were

II.)DO

 

SIMPLE

SIMPLE PAST

PRESENT

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Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

 

I

do

I did

You do

You did

He/She/It does

He/She/It did

We do

We did

You do

You did

They do

They did

III.)HAVE

 

SIMPLE

SIMPLE

PRESENT

PAST

I

have

I had

You have

You had

He/She/It has

He/She/I

had

 

t

 

We have

We had

You have

You had

They have

They had

The Simple Present

Use:

Habitual, repeated actions in the present;

Permanent situations;

General truths;

Timetables/ official programmes (with future meaning).

Time Expressions: (expressing frequency) never, always, sometimes, often, usually, seldom (rarely); every day/week….

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Practice: Article writing: headlines and leads

A.

Translate the following headlines into Romanian, and mention the English headline specifics that you may identify for each of them. Use a dictionary if needed.

 

Headline

 

Romanian

Specifics

 

translation

 

1.

Suspected

killer

   

nabbed near Va. Tech

 

2. Iran wants

to talk

   

but

keep

 

nuke

program

 
 

3. Police in Britain Thwart Plan To Blow Up Flights Headed to the U.S.; Secretary Chertoff Holds Press Conference

   
 

4.

U.S.

says

Iran

   

proposal falls short

 

5.

Annan

snubbed,

   

ignored

 

in

Iran

meeting

 
 

6.

Turkey

pledges

   

peacekeepers

for

Lebanon

 
 

7.

Bush

 

touts

   

progress

since

9/11

attacks

 
 

8. Hurricane Lane roars toward Baja

   
 

9.

Negotiations

on

   

terror legislation snag

 

10.Thailand's

PM

   

ousted

in

military

coup

 

1. The Media Sphere Planet

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

   

11.Gen. says U.S. may boost forces in Iraq

     
 

12.Abducted newborn

   

found;

Woman

arrested

 

13.Congress unlikely to pass wiretapping

   
 

14.White House said to bar hurricane report

   
 

15.NYC mulls ban on trans fats in eateries

   
 

16.Footage

of

Irwin's

   

death

will

never

air,

says wife

 

Suggested structure of a story/an article:

 

a.

Headline : brief, catchy, to the point

b. Deck: optional, possibly a blurb, adds important/interesting info

 

c. Lead: the 5/6 special questions answered (bigger font type)

d. Nut graph: (focus graph) par that explains the point of the story

what the story is about, sometimes replaced by a summary lead

 

e. More “Wh-questions answered

 

B. Write a lead for the facts below:

Who: Three boaters

 

What happened: two killed, the third injured when boat capsized

 

When: Sunday

 

Where: Lake Harney, Florida

 

Why: High winds and waves

How: explained later in the story

 
 

C.Article no.2

 

1.

He has also resigned from the judicial committee of the governing

 

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body of the RAC motorsports council.

 

2. Magistrates at Blandford in Dorset were told Aspinall had a blood alcohol level of 122mg. The legal limit is 35mg. He admitted drink- driving and was fined £1,800 and told his ban could be cut by six months if he takes driver-rehabilitation course.

 

3. Now his career is in tatters. He has resigned as a crown court recorder, a part-time judge, and faces a Bar Council disciplinary hearing which could mean being suspended from practising as a barrister or even thrown out of the profession.

4. In Who’s Who he lists his recreations as “motor sports” and “being with my wife and friends at the Drax Arms”—the country pub near his home in Spetisbury, Dorest, where he is a popular regular.

5. Aspinall, 50, who worked as a lorry driver before becoming a lawyer, was more than three times over the limit when he caused a crash on Good Friday.

6. A judge’s entry in Who’s Who listed his passions as cars and drinking with friends. Yesterday these twin interests landed John Aspinall QC in court, where he was banned from the road for two and a half years for drink-driving.

 

Right order of paragraphs:

 

1st

2

3

4

5

6th

 

Practice

Grammar Structures

Insert the missing noun forms (either plural or singular) in the table below:

SINGULAR

PLURAL

analysis

addenda

diagnoses

priority

process

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Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

hypothesis

foci

phenomena

genius

…, …

schema

appendices

datum

life

teeth

woman

children

stimulus

phone-booth

letter-box

series

millenium

Arrange the expressions of time in the right place on an axis which has “0%” marked at one end, and “100%” at the other end, to express frequency.

100%

always

………

………

……

……

………

………

0% ………

Form: Affirmative (no auxiliary !): Add “-s” or “-es” to the short infinitive

of the verb, at the 3

rd

person singular.

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Verbs which receive “-es” at the 3 rd person singular,

end in :

a)-sh: washwashes;

b)-ss: miss-misses;

c)-ch: search-searches;

d)-x: mix-mixes;

e)-z: buzz-buzzes;

f)-consonant + «o»:do-does;

g)-consonant + “y” (yi):fly-flies.

Give the simple present third person singular form of the following verbs: smile; fix; travel; match; go; caress; cry; pray; teach; crash; fry; do; scratch; try; admit; deny; say; hiss.

Interrogative: Do/Does + Subject + Verb……?

Negative: Subject + do/does + not + Verb (short form: don’t/doesn’t).

PRACTICE (bibliography)

Grammar exercises from: G. Gălăţeanu, Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, Editura Albatros, 1980 (sau reeditări mai recente), paginile 6-7, sau V. Evans, Round-up 4, Longman, 1993, paginile 3-8, sau N.Coe, Grammar Spectrum 3, Oxford Univ. Press, 1995, paginile 6-7, sau alte volume cu exerciţii de gramatică.

1.Choose the most appropriate words underlined:

A

person’s

 

life

consist/consists

of

series

of

responses

to

stimuluses/stimuli.

 

Each

area

of

human

relationship

requires/require

intensive

and

extensive study based on some hypothesis/hypotheses.

The psychologist’s functions is/are to discover the basic principles of psychological phenomena/phenomenons.

of

The

maladjustment.

research

datums/data

shows/show

overt

symptoms

1.Write/Say at least four things that you usually, often, always do, and other four that you don’t do/never do.

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Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

2.Make up affirmative, interrogative or negative sentences as suggested by the hints below:

She/always/approach/a hypothesis/thoroughly.

…/his parents/approve of/ his behaviour?

What kind of data …/she/obtain/whenever/she/apply/such a test?

A child/…not evolve/normally in an aggressive environment.

He/seldom/speak/in terms of/his own life experience.

A researcher/usually/show/special interest in the adjustment problems.

PRACTICE

I. Match the abbreviations in column A to their explanations in column B:

A

B

BBC

Bachelor of Arts

GOP

Object Linking and Embedding

TB

General Meeting

LP

Doctor of Philosophy

UN

Television

FBI

The United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organisation

TV

Very Important Person

BA

British Broadcasting Corporation

UNESCO

Long-playing record

MSN

Program Information File

IBM

The Microsoft Network

Hi-Fi

Basic Input/Output System

21

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

PIF

International Business Machines

BIOS

Tuberculosis

VIP

The United Nations

GM

The Federal Bureau of Investigation

PhD

High fidelity

URL

Portable Document Format

OLE

Uniform Resource Locator (address of a document on the web)

PDF

Grand Old Party (The Republican Party in the U.S.A., George W. Bush’s party)

1. The Media Sphere Planet

THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

Use: The present progressive is used to express:

an action in progress at the moment of speaking;

a temporary action in the present (I am attending an English course.);

fixed arrangements in the near future (She’s flying to Paris the day after tomorrow.)

annoyance or criticism (with “always”): He’s always talking too much.

Time Adverbials: now; at the/this moment.

Form:

Affirmative: Subject + am/is/are + verb-ing….

Interrogative: Am/is/are + Subject + verb-ing ?

Negative:

Subject

+

am/is/are

+

not

+

verb-ing…(short

form:

isn’t/aren’t).

Practice:

1. Talk about things that are happening now.

2. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets:

We (go)…………… on a camp to the mountains next weekend.

The

birds

(sing)…………….,

the

sun

(shine),

and

I

(feel)………….intoxicated upcoming holidays.

now

that

I

(think)…………

about

the

Some neighbours …….always (make)………. too much noise.

She (work)…………

at

the new project this month.

1.The Media Sphere Planet

Test de autoevaluare 1

2. Arrange the paragraphs below in the right order so as to make up news articles. Start with the lead. Think about a headline and a deck for the article.

Article no. 1 (exercise 1)

 

1.Jack Moore was playing with his friends near his home in Nevilles Cross Road, Hebburn, South Tyneside, when curiosity got the better of him and he crawled into the eight-inch space under the building, where he became firmly wedged.

2. Firemen used airbags to raise the cabin before Jack was freed and taken to hospital, where he was treated for cuts and bruising and allowed home. His mother, Lisa, said: ‘He is a little shaken and bruised but apart from that he seems all right.’

3.A six-year old boy was rescued after he became wedged under a portable building being used as a polling station.

Right order of paragraphs:

 
 

1st

2nd

3rd

Răspunsuri şi comentarii la Testele de autoevaluare

Right order of paragraphs:

 
 

3

1

2

1st

2nd

3rd

1.The Media Sphere Planet

1.3. Lucrare de verificare Unit 1 The Media Sphere Planet

A. Arrange the paragraphs below in the right order so as to make up a news article. Start with the lead. Think about a headline and a deck for the article. Which of the 13 pars can be erased by the editor in case there is not enough space in the newspaper.

1. The woman, in her early 20s, scrambled from the Ford Fiesta as it crashed through a low stone wall at the edge of a car park at the Beacon, St Agnes, on the north Cornwall coast.

2. The woman raised the alarm and coastguards launched a rescue operation which at its height involved a Navy helicopter, divers, two lifeboats and a cliff rescue team.

3. “He saw some clothing and the inshore lifeboat was able to pick up the girl’s bag floating in the water.”

4. Insp Paul Whetter of Devon and Cornwall police said the woman had managed to get out just before the car went over the cliff.

5. The search was called off at 5pm because the situation had become ‘too dangerous’ for rescue workers. It was to be resumed at first light today.

6. A neighbour looking after the missing man’s mother at her home in the village said: ”She has just lost her only son.”

7. “We sent our cliff man down to a point about 60ft above the waves, where the cliff became a sheer drop,” said Mike North, sector manager with HM Coastguard. “He was able to keep an eye on the scene and spotted a lot of debris from the car.

8. A spokesman for RNAS Culdrose added: ”The first diver in the water said it was too dangerous for others to go in. He was being pounded by pieces of wreckage from the car which was being smashed on to the rocks at the bottom of the cliffs.”

9. The search operation was hampered by worsening weather and a Navy diver had to be pulled out of the sea. The St Agnes and St Ives inshore lifeboats could not get close to the spot.

10. She was treated for shock at the scene by paramedics before being taken to Treliske Hospital in Truro.

11. Mr Dunklin is understood to have been giving his girlfriend a driving lesson on Beacon Road, a remote and little-used track near the cliffs. They may have driven into the gravel-surfaced car park to practise reversing or three-point turns.

12. A man was feared dead last night after his car ran off a 150ft clifftop into rough seas when his girlfriend lost control while he was giving her a driving lesson.

13. Andrew Dunklin, 25, from St Agnes, was trapped in the vehicle as it rolled over the cliff. It is thought he was thrown through the windscreen into the sea. The car came to rest in 30ft of water and immediately began to break up.

1.The Media Sphere Planet

Right order of paragraphs: 1st 2nd 13th Bibliografie Unit 1
Right order of paragraphs:
1st
2nd
13th
Bibliografie
Unit 1

Belch, George, Introduction to Advertising and Promotion, Irwin, Boston, 1993, pp. G1/Glossaryleft column, G12/Glossaryleft column, (IV 82, Library /Biblioteca F.J.S.C.).

Forsdale, Louis, Perspectives on Communication, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Massachusetts, 1981;

Frost, Chris, Reporting for Journalists, Routledge, London, U.K., 2002, (III 1635, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C. , check the glossary of terms at the end, pp.153-154);

Dooley, Jenny; Evans, Virginia, Grammarway 4, Express Publishing, London, U.K., 1999 (Biblioteca FJSC/Library) (The Indicative Tenses, Emphasis and Inversion);

Hybels, Saundra; Weaver, Richard L., Communicating Effectively, Random House, New York, 1986;

Moen, Daryl R., Newspaper Layout and Design, Iowa State University Press, Ames, U.S.A., 2000 (IV 239, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C., check the glossary of terms at the end, pp.219-224);

Newsom, Doug, This Is PR, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, U.S.A., 1993, p.3, (III 689, Library/ Biblioteca F.J.S.C.);

Nysenholc, Adolphe şi Gergely, Thomas, 1991, Information et Persuasion. Argumenter, Bruxelles: De Boeck- Wesmael;

Rich, Carole, Writing and Reporting News, International Thomson Publishing, Belmont, California, U.S.A., 1994, pp.289-295 (III 911, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C.).

Samovar, Larry A.; Porter, Richard E., Communication between Cultures, Wadsworth Thomson, Belmont, 2004;

Smith, Fred L. Jr. şi Castellanos, Alex, 2006 (2004), Field Guide for Effective Communication, Washington DC: Competitive Enterprise Institute & National Media Inc.;

www. IQads.ro;

www. Bestads.com;

www.britishpress.com.

2. PR, Publicity, Advertising Basic Terms. Press Releases

2. PR, PUBLICITY, ADVERTISING BASIC TERMS

PRESS RELEASES

CUPRINS

Obiectivele unităţii de învăţare 2

2.1 Dezvoltarea abilităţilor de comunicare publică şi de masă eficientă, în domeniile jurnalism, relaţii publice şi publicitate, în limba engleză.

Dezvoltarea abilităţilor de receptare și producere de structuri lingvistice specifice comunicării media în limba engleză.

2.3 Dezvoltarea capacităţii de a formula în limba engleză headlines/titluri pentru reclame, pentru articole de presă și comunicate de presă.

2.4 Valorificarea potenţialului creativ şi formarea unor abilităţi de comunicare de succes în limba engleză.

2.2

Obiectivele unităţii de învăţare 2

După studiul acestei unităţi de învăţare studenţii vor reuşi să:

Să definească/ să înțeleagă în limba engleză noţiuni şi concepte fundamentale specifice comunicării eficiente în mass media.

Să înţeleagă, să cunoască şi să aplice principii şi tehnici ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză.

Să cunoască vocabular și modalități de exprimare specifice în limba engleză pentru domeniul mass media.

Public relations

between an

organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image.

One of the earliest definitions of PR was coined by Denny Grisword, publisher of ”Public Relation News”. According to her, "Public Relations is a management function which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies and procedures of an organization with the interest and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance".

According to two American PR professionals Scott M. Cutlips and Allen H. Center, "PR is a planned effort to influence opinion through good character and responsible performance based upon mutual satisfactory two-way communication".

is

the

art and

science

of

managing communication

4. PR Kit, News Releases

Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage, and sustain its positive image.

Public relations involves:

Evaluation of public attitude and opinions.

Organisational procedures and policies keeping public in mind.

Communication programmes

Developing

relationships,

good-will

through

a

two

way

communication process.

Relationship between organization and its target publics.

Publicity

is the deliberate attempt to manage the public's perception of a subject. The subjects of publicity include people (for example, politicians and performing artists), goods and services, organizations of all kinds, and works of art or entertainment.

From a marketing perspective, publicity is one component of promotion. The other elements of the promotional mix are advertising, sales promotion, and personal selling. Promotion is one important component

of marketing.

Publicity is a tool of public relations. Whereas public relations is the management of all communication between the client and selected target audiences, publicity is the management of product - or brand - related communications between the firm and the general public. It is primarily an informative activity (as opposed to a persuasive one), but

its ultimate goal is to promote the client's products, services, or brands.

A publicity plan is a planned programme aimed at obtaining favorable

media coverage for an organization's products - or for the organization itself, to enhance its reputation and relationships with stakeholders.

A basic tool of the publicist is the press release, but other techniques

include telephone press conferences, in-studio media tours, multi- component video news releases (VNR’s), newswire stories, and internet releases. For these releases to be used by the media, they must be of interest to the public (or at least to the market segment that the media outlet is targeted to). The releases are often customized to

match the media vehicle that they are being sent to. Getting noticed by the press is all about saying the right thing at the right time. A publicist

is continuously asking what about you or your company will pique the

reader's curiosity and make a good story? The most successful publicity releases are related to topics of current interest. These are referred to

as news pegs. An example is if three people die of water poisoning, an

4. PR Kit, News Releases

alert publicist would release stories about the technology embodied in a water purification product.

But the publicist cannot wait around for the news to present opportunities. They must also try to create their own news.

Examples of this include:

Contests

Art exhibitions

Event sponsorship

Arrange a speech or talk

Make an analysis or prediction

Conduct a poll or survey

Issue a report

Take a stand on a controversial subject

Arrange for a testimonial

Announce an appointment

Celebrate an anniversary

Invent then present an award

Stage a debate

Organize a tour of your business or projects

Issue a commendation

The main advantages of publicity are low cost, and credibility (particularly if the publicity is aired in between news stories like on evening TV news casts). New technologies such as weblogs, web cameras, web affiliates, and convergence (phone-camera posting of pictures and videos to websites) are changing the cost-structure.

The disadvantages are lack of control over how your releases will be used, and frustration over the low percentage of releases that are taken up by the media.

Publicity draws on several key themes including birth, love, and death. These are of particular interest because they are themes in human lives which feature heavily throughout life. In television serials several couples have emerged during crucial ratings and important publicity times, as a way to make constant headlines. Also known as a publicity stunt, the pairings may or may not be truthful.

4. PR Kit, News Releases

Publicists

A publicist is a person whose job is to generate and manage publicity

for a product, public figure, especially a celebrity, or for a work such as

a book or movie. Publicists usually work at large companies handling multiple clients.

Advertising "Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted; the trouble is, I don't know which half." John Wannamaker, father of modern advertising.

Advertising is the business of drawing public attention to goods and services, and performed through a variety of media. It is an important part of an overall promotional strategy. Other components of the promotional mix include publicity, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion.

Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards , street furniture components, printed flyers, radio, cinema and television ads, web banners, web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, taxicab doors and roof mounts, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, stickers on apples in supermarkets, the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.

Covert advertising embedded in other entertainment media is known as product placement.

Press Releases

1. When

to

Send

a

Press

Release

We would not be surprised if you are keen to get started and actually write a news release for your company. Excitement aside, you can save yourself time and money if you assess the viability of your release before you start.

First, consider when it is appropriate to issue a news release. A news release can be used when you open a new office; win an award; introduce a new product or service; sponsor an event; or any other such happening.

4. PR Kit, News Releases

The purpose of the news release is to connect with the media. In fact, the news release is the expected first communication with a media outlet. Perhaps you are looking for a story, interview, or a TV appearance -- the news release is the right place to start. However, even if your company meets the above criteria there is no guarantee that the media will use your release.

Questions to Consider before You Get Started

Before getting started, consider the following questions.

Don't worry about writing down answers to these questions, as those that relate to writing the release will be addressed again later in this workshop. Instead, use these questions as a general guide when deciding whether or not it is appropriate to issue a news release.

What results do we hope to produce from our news release? Perhaps your company hopes to generate media interest in a new product, or to promote an event that you are sponsoring. Outlining your goals from the start will help you assess their viability, and will give you direction when it comes time to prepare to write the release.

What audience will my news release speak to? Business people usually have their company at the front of their mind when considering the news release. However journalists will have the interests of their audience at the top of their considerations. To be effective, consider this question from the journalist's perspective.

Is their anything unusual or noteworthy about the release our

issue?

Your news release will be more effective if it has a good angle.

company

will

In a stack of dozens of news releases, is there something about my news release that would catch the attention of the media? Journalists must wade through dozens of news releases on a daily basis. You can help your release to stand out by ensuring that it is well written and presented. However you will also want to make sure that the content of your release is worth notice.

How will our company distribute the release (wires, mail, fax,

email,

You will invest a lot of time into crafting a good news release, and it is important to make sure the you have the distribution network to support it.

etc.)?

4. PR Kit, News Releases

It is up to you to consider your answers and assess whether or not a news release would enable you to achieve your goals. After reading this you may find that you are not yet prepared to do a news release, in which case we would suggest that you return and go through this workshop at a later date when it is appropriate. (Remember to bookmark this page so you can find it later.)

Release

2. Rules

for

Writing

a

Now that you have assessed the viability of your news release, consider how to create a news release with impact. This advice will help you make your release stand out from the crowd! We've divided our tips into three main section: content, format, and presentation.

Content

The content that you include in your release, as well as the way the

release is written, will play an important role in the success of your

news

release.

Content Hints: Style

Answer the questions: who, what, where, when, and how.

Ensure that your writing is clear, concise, and without jargon.

Organize information from most important at the beginning through progressively less important information (the media may only use the first paragraph or two and they don't have time to wade through several paragraphs to get to the meat of the story!)

Write about yourself in the third person, using "he/she" rather than "I".

News releases are meant to be informational, not flowery or written like advertisements. Stick to the facts.

Content Hints: Headline

The headline should capture the reader's attention and is therefore very important. This may be the one factor that gets the reader to read the rest of the release. Here are some tips to help you create a catchy heading:

Alliteration: "Florist fashions fountain from flowers"

Use colons: "Wedding Flowers: A new look for an old custom"

Offer business or consumer tips: "Local florist offers tips on making Christmas wreathes"

Content Hints: Directing your news release

4. PR Kit, News Releases

Ensure you think about the reader or viewership of the media you send the release to. Write for that audience. A large news or TV outlet is unlikely to be interested unless there is something truly unique about your business.

Research the media before you send out your release. See what kind of stories they air or publish.

When you write your release approach your subject as though you are

a news reporter, emphasizing the news aspect and the facts.

When you send your release to a television or radio outlet keep in mind that there are two factors to be considered: sight and sound. You should therefore consider writing a different slant into each news release to appeal to the different kinds of media.

Content Hints: Tips to make your release more interesting

If you can support the fact that your event is the largest or first, for example, you can use these superlatives in your news release.

Use quotes and reactions.

Look for ways to sell your story: a new angle or detail may help. For example, think of the times you have seen a story about someone who graduated from a university. It doesn't happen, does it? Unless that person is a senior citizen or has ten children or suffers from a disability. Bring your unique angle into your news release.

Human interest aspects can sometimes be used to spark interest.

Format

Layout, formatting, and attention to detail are all important components of your release. Journalists are accustomed to a standardized news release format, and chances are good that this is not the time to do your own thing.

Formatting Hints: Layout

Use a minimum of one-inch margins on each side of the page, with the body of the text of your release centred on the page.

Double-space your press release.

Complete the paragraph on one page rather than carrying it over onto the next.

Use only one side of each sheet of paper.

Formatting Hints: Length

4. PR Kit, News Releases

Make it short. Two pages is maximum, and one page is better.

Formatting Hints: Format

Do not use abbreviations or acronyms when you first refer to someone or something. Instead, spell out the full name - Home Improvement Services - and then put H.I.S. after it in brackets. The next time you refer to it you can say H.I.S.

When you use someone's name say: "Miss Joanne Armstrong" the first time and then "Miss Armstrong" in further references.

Use the names of both the city and the province the first time you refer to a location.

When you mention a day use the date and year.

Type 'more' at the bottom of the page when there is more than one.

Presentation

You are sending your news release to busy journalists, where courtesy and presentation do make a difference.

Presentation Tips:

Keep the release neat and attractive ('easy on the eyes').

Use good quality paper.

Print the release on your company letterhead or special news release paper.

Proofread the release not once, but several times. Reading the release out loud will often help you find the mistakes you've missed; having someone else read over your release is even better.

3.

Preparing

Basic

Information

Use the following worksheet to help you prepare your News Release. Jot down answers to each question, and use your answers to help you write the actual release.

1. What is the most important fact you wish to get across? One technique is to imagine what headline you would like to see if the media picks up your story.

4. PR Kit, News Releases

2.

What

 

is

the:

- of your story?

-

Who?

What?

-

Where?

-

When?

-

How?

-

Why?

3.

Is

there a

cost attached to your product or service or to

your

sponsorship of an event?

4. What special features are attached to your product, service, or

event? Is it free? Half-price? The most expensive? Are you part of the fastest-growing industry? Is the award for the oldest citizen? The first through the turnstile? The first mutual fund of its type?

5. Are there any restrictions, activities, or hours?

6. Are there any other newsworthy aspects of your event, announcement, activity, product, or service?

You should now be ready to write your release, keeping in mind the tips from past sections and answers to questions that you have asked yourself.

Grammar

Structures

The Adjective

1.Irregular Adjectives

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

good

better

(than)

(the) best

ill/bad

worse

worst

much

more

most

many

more

most

little

less

least

4. PR Kit, News Releases

far

further/farther

furthest/farthest

old

older/elder

oldest/eldest

near

nearer

nearest/next

2.Short Adjectives (1-2 syllables)

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

fast

Faster

(than)

(the) fastest

nice

Nicer

nicest

heavy

Heavier

heaviest

thin

Thinner

thinnest

3

Adjective

+ “enough”

Long

enough

Big

enough

Strong

enough

4.Than” versus “then

E.g.: “more than”, “better than” (the comparative); “then” – to express time (afterwards)

5 Adverbs

which end in “-ly”

Adjective + “-ly”: beautifully, successfully; freely; deeply.

6.Simple Past

Use:

Activities in the past;

4. PR Kit, News Releases

Past state or habit;

Past actions which happened one after the other.

Time Expressions:

(the day before) yesterday;

last Sunday/week/month/July/year;

three years/a fortnight ago;

in 1985; on the 1st of December 1918;

then;

“When…?”; “How long ago…?”

Form:

Affirmative:

Regular verbs: Subject + verb-ed (spelling: short verbs; verbs which end in cons. + y)

Irregular verbs: Subject + verb at the 2nd form

Interrogative: Did + S + verb(short infinitive)…?

Negative: S + did + not (didn’t) + verb…

I.HABITUAL PAST

Use: to talk about things we did in the past, but we no longer do in the present.

used to” + verb

II.FREQUENTATIVE “WOULD”

Use: to talk/write about habitual/frequent activities in the past

Prepositions: along, over. Prepositions that show time, place and manner. (see Virginia Evans, Round up 4, Longman 1992, pages 122- 125; or Grammar Spectrum, O.U.P., 1995, pages 84-86 or other similar books).

Emphatic “do” in affirmative sentences (imperative, simple present, simple past).

E.g.: “Please, do come in!”

The Past Progressive:

4. PR Kit, News Releases

Use: to express:

an action in progress at a certain moment in the past;

an action that was in the middle of happening at a stated time in the past;

two or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past (simultaneous actions);

to describe the background to the events in a story.

Time Expressions:

yesterday at 5 p.m.;

at this time last Monday;

then;

at that time;

the day before yesterday, from 10 to 12 a.m

Form:

Affirmative: Subject + was/were + verb-ing….

Interrogative: Was/Were + Subject + verb-ing…?

Negative:

wasn’t/weren’t).

Subject

+

was/were

+

not

+

verb-ing….(short

Practice

form:

7. Fill in the third column of the table below to match each headline to a corresponding lead:

4. PR Kit, News Releases

Headline

Lead

Headline order number matches lead order letter

1. Suspected killer nabbed near Va. Tech

Iran said Tuesday it was ready for "serious negotiations" on its nuclear program, offering a new formula to resolve a crisis with the West. A semiofficial news agency said the government was unwilling to abandon uranium enrichment the key U.S. demand.

 

(a)

2. Iran wants to talk but keep nuke program

Asked in an interview with the ABC News program "20/20" whether the footage of Irwin's September 4 death would ever be aired on television, Terri Irwin was blunt and emphatic.

 

"It won't be. No. No. What purpose would that serve,' she said, adding that she had not looked at the footage of her husband's death.

(b)

3. Police in Britain Thwart Plan To Blow Up Flights Headed to the U.S.; Secretary Chertoff Holds Press Conference

The U.N. chief got little satisfaction Sunday at the close of his trip to Tehran, snubbed by

 

Iran's

leader over

 

international demands to stop enriching uranium and ignored in warnings not to incite hatred by questioning the Holocaust.

(c)

4. PR Kit, News Releases

4. U.S. says Iran proposal falls short

For those of you who are just joining us at the top of the hour, here is what we know at this hour. Police in Britain say they have thwarted a plan to blow up flights headed from the U.K. to the U.S. Airlines mentioned as possibly being targeted are United, Continental, and American Airlines. Also, there are reports that the destinations for those flights were New York, Washington, D.C., and California. Twenty-one people in custody. Police say most of them were arrested around London. None of those arrests apparently coming from any of London's main airports. And the arrests, the culmination of major covert counterterrorism operation that seems to have lasted several months.

(d)

5. Annan

snubbed,

The Bush administration said Wednesday a proposal by Iran for nuclear negotiations falls short of U.N. demands that it cease uranium enrichment, and the U.S. began plotting unspecified "next moves" with other governments.

(e)

ignored in Iran meeting

4. PR Kit, News Releases

6.

Turkey

pledges

(f) The Bush administration has blocked release of a report that suggests global warming is contributing to the frequency and strength of hurricanes, the journal Nature reported Tuesday.

peacekeepers

 

for

Lebanon

 

7. Bush touts progress since 9/11 attacks

A manhunt for an escaped convict suspected in the slayings of a hospital guard and a sheriff's deputy shut down the Virginia Tech campus on the first day of classes Monday as sharpshooters were posted on university rooftops and students scrambled for safety.

(g)

8.

Hurricane

Lane

roars

Turkey on Tuesday became the first Muslim country with diplomatic ties to Israel to pledge troops to an expanding international peacekeeping force that will monitor a fragile cease-fire between Israel and Hezbollah.

(h)

toward Baja

 
 

9. Negotiations on terror legislation snag

Three years after the city banned smoking in restaurants, health officials are talking about prohibiting something they say is almost as bad:

artificial trans fatty acids.

(i)

4. PR Kit, News Releases

10.Thailand's PM ousted in military coup

Terrorists

today

would

have

a

tougher

time

 

plotting and carrying out

attacks like

the

ones of

Sept.

11

because

of

security improvements in

the

past

five

years,

President

Bush

said

Thursday.

 

(j)

11.Gen. says U.S. may boost forces in Iraq

(k) The White House and three powerful GOP senators reached an impasse Wednesday over a Bush administration plan to allow tough CIA interrogations, underscoring election- season divisions among Republicans on the high profile issue of security.

4. PR Kit, News Releases

12.Abducted newborn found; Woman arrested

Tropical

Storm

Lane

became

a

Category

2

 

hurricane

Friday

as

it

roared toward the

tip

of

the

Baja

California

Peninsula,

lashing

Mexico's

Pacific

coast,

flooding

port

cities

and

causing

a

landslide

that

killed a 7-year-old boy.

 

(l)

13.Congress unlikely to pass wiretapping

The U.S. military is likely

to

maintain and may even

 

increase its force of more

than 140,000 troops in Iraq through next spring, the top American commander in the region

said

Tuesday in one of the

gloomiest assessments

yet

of when troops may

come home.

 

(m)

14.White House said to bar hurricane report

A

newborn abducted after

her

mother was slashed

 

was found alive Tuesday

in excellent condition, and

a woman who had

recently miscarried was arrested, officials said.

(n)

4. PR Kit, News Releases

15.NYC mulls ban on trans fats in eateries

Congress

is

unlikely

to

approve

a

bill

giving

President

Bush's

warrantless

wiretapping

program legal status and

new restrictions before the

November

 

midterm

elections,

dealing

a

significant blow to one of

the

White

House's

top

wartime priorities.

(o)

16.Footage of Irwin's death will never air, says wife

(p) In the dead of night and without firing a shot, Thailand's military overthrew popularly elected Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra on Tuesday amid mounting criticism that he had undermined democracy.

PRACTICE

1.Provide the required forms (as specified above the arrow) of the following:

a)

old

comparative 1

above the arrow) of the following: a) old comparative 1 Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba

4. PR Kit, News Releases

b) old

c) ill

4. PR Kit, News Releases b) old c) ill comparative 2 superlative comparative d) many e)

comparative 2

superlative

Kit, News Releases b) old c) ill comparative 2 superlative comparative d) many e) many superlative

comparative

d) many

b) old c) ill comparative 2 superlative comparative d) many e) many superlative f) hot comparative

e) many

superlative

2 superlative comparative d) many e) many superlative f) hot comparative superlative g) easy superlative h)

f) hot

comparative

comparative d) many e) many superlative f) hot comparative superlative g) easy superlative h) little adverb
superlative g) easy
superlative
g) easy
superlative h) little
superlative
h) little

adverb

i) improper noun
i) improper
noun

j) occupy

superlative h) little adverb i) improper noun j) occupy adverb k) good superlative l) good adjective

adverb

k) good

h) little adverb i) improper noun j) occupy adverb k) good superlative l) good adjective m)

superlative

l) good

improper noun j) occupy adverb k) good superlative l) good adjective m) success adverb n) success

adjective

m) success

adverb k) good superlative l) good adjective m) success adverb n) success adjective o) use adverb

adverb

n) success

superlative l) good adjective m) success adverb n) success adjective o) use adverb p) use q)
adjective o) use
adjective
o) use
adverb p) use
adverb
p) use

q) do

past (second form)

adjective o) use adverb p) use q) do past (second form) 4 5 Strategii ale comunicării

4. PR Kit, News Releases

r) have

past (second form)

4. PR Kit, News Releases r) have past (second form) past (second form) s) be  

past (second form)

s)

be

be
 
 

past participle (third form)

 

t)

be

be
 
 

2.Match the words in the two columns below to make up the appropriate set phrases (structure: as + adjective + as + noun):

as

adjective

as a

noun

a)

Mad

1) Lightning

b)

Proud

2) Toast

c)

Quick

3) Feather

d)

Light

4)

Ice

e)

Heavy

5) Hatter

f)

Warm

6) Lead

g)

White

7) Peacock

h)

Sweet

8) Snow

i)

Cold

9) Gold

j)

Good

10)Honey

Example:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

PRACTICE

I. Find (by skimming through the text) the verbs in the Past Tense and write them under the right heading :

Regular Verbs

………………….

Irregular Verbs

……………………

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II. Answer the questions :

How

do

you

Usually/often/sometimes/always

spend

Your weekends?

 

did

 

---------------------------------------

spend

Last weekend?

III. Put the time expressions in italics under the right heading in the

table below (to say what verb tense each is used with):

Usually; a fortnight ago; now; seldom; rarely; in 2000; nowadays; the day before yesterday; never; on April the first 1992; When…?; these

days; How long ago

often; every other day; now and then;

sometimes; last Sunday; at the moment, then.

?;

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

PRESENT SIMPLE

PAST SIMPLE

IV. Ask questions and give answers according to the hints below (add

any necessary words):

1) When / meet / Carly ?

Fortnight ago.

2) You / have a good time / together?

Yes,…

3)

No, …/ can / because / have to / baby-sit / for her nephews.

Helen / join you?

How long ago / last / go to a fair?

Long enough. / 1995 / when / graduate from high school.

Practice:

Write about, and then tell the other students at least three things that you used to do in the past, but no longer do.

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E.g.: “When I was a child I used to …”

Practice:

Give the emphatic form of:

a) He prefers playing on the computer.

b) Help yourselves, please.

c) They liked their new neighbourhood.

“The + comparative … the + comparative…”:

E.g.: “the sooner, the better.”; “The more, the merrier.”

Practice

Bibliography: Grammar exercises from the already mentioned volumes.

1. Fill in the blanks with the right forms of the words in brackets:

1

Kitty Genovese’s case supports the theory that the (many)……… the bystanders, the (little)……… 2 likely to help the victim.

When she (be attacked)………………… 3 in the middle of the street,

while

…………… 5 her, many bystanders (watch)…………………. 6 passively. Eventually, the victim (be killed)…………. 7

things

and the criminal (stab)

she

(turn

(cry

out)……… 4 for

8

help,

that

It

out)…………….

whenever

such

(happen)………………. 9 no one would take the responsibility of helping because everybody (expect) …………. 10 others to act.

2. What were the bystanders thinking? (express at least three ideas)

They were thinking that: 1……………

2……………

3……………

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Bibliografie

Belch, George, Introduction to Advertising and Promotion, Irwin, Boston, 1993, pp. G1/Glossaryleft column, G12/Glossaryleft column, (IV 82, Library /Biblioteca F.J.S.C.).

Forsdale, Louis, Perspectives on Communication, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Massachusetts, 1981;

Frost, Chris, Reporting for Journalists, Routledge, London, U.K., 2002, (III 1635, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C. , check the glossary of terms at the end, pp.153-154);

Dooley, Jenny; Evans, Virginia, Grammarway 4, Express Publishing, London, U.K., 1999 (Biblioteca FJSC/Library) (The Indicative Tenses, Emphasis and Inversion);

Hybels, Saundra; Weaver, Richard L., Communicating Effectively, Random House, New York, 1986;

Moen, Daryl R., Newspaper Layout and Design, Iowa State University Press, Ames, U.S.A., 2000 (IV 239, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C., check the glossary of terms at the end, pp.219-224);

Newsom, Doug, This Is PR, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, U.S.A., 1993, p.3, (III 689, Library/ Biblioteca F.J.S.C.);

Nysenholc, Adolphe şi Gergely, Thomas, 1991, Information et Persuasion. Argumenter, Bruxelles: De Boeck- Wesmael;

Rich, Carole, Writing and Reporting News, International Thomson Publishing, Belmont, California, U.S.A., 1994, pp.289-295 (III 911, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C.).

Samovar, Larry A.; Porter, Richard E., Communication between Cultures, Wadsworth Thomson, Belmont, 2004;

Smith, Fred L. Jr. şi Castellanos, Alex, 2006 (2004), Field Guide for Effective Communication, Washington DC: Competitive Enterprise Institute & National Media Inc.;

www. IQads.ro;

www. Bestads.com;

4. PR Kit, News Releases

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Unitatea de învăţare 3

3. INTERVIEWING IN JOURNALISM, PUBLIC RELATIONS, AND ADVERTISING

CUPRINS

Obiectivele unităţii de învăţare 3

2.1 Dezvoltarea abilităţilor de comunicare publică şi de masă eficientă, în domeniile jurnalism, relaţii publice şi publicitate, în limba engleză.

Dezvoltarea abilităţilor de receptare și producere de structuri lingvistice specifice comunicării media în limba engleză.

2.3 Dezvoltarea capacităţii de analiză a eficienței comunicării în diverse tipuri de produse media.

2.4 Dezvoltarea unei atitudini pozitive privind specificul cultural anglofon în comunicarea eficientă în limba engleză în mass media.

2.2

Obiectivele unităţii de învăţare 3

După studiul acestei unităţi de învăţare veţi reuşi să:

Să definească/ să înțeleagă în limba engleză noţiuni şi concepte fundamentale specifice comunicării eficiente în mass media.

Să înţeleagă, să cunoască şi să aplice principii şi tehnici ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză.

Să cunoască vocabular și modalități de exprimare specifice în limba engleză pentru domeniul mass media.

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ARTICLE WRITING STRUCTURE

"WHEN THE CAP DOESN'T FIT”

a. Headline : brief, catchy, to the point

b. Deck: optional, possibly a blurb, adds important/interesting info

c. Lead: the 5/6 special questions answered (bigger font type)

d. Nut graph: (focus graph) par that explains the point of the story what the story is about, sometimes replaced by a summary lead

e. More “Wh-questions answered

Temă de reflecţie

1. Write a lead for the facts below:

Who: Three boaters

What happened: two killed, the third injured when boat capsized

When: Sunday

Where: Lake Harney, Florida

Why: High winds and waves

How: explained later in the story

2.What does CAP in the headline stand for/+suggest? What can be commented on the deck choice? *sub- and superscript….What is the structure/outline of the article? Identify: the lead and how many pars it is made of; the bridge and its structure [summary pars, (in-)direct quotes]; same for the development and the conclusion of the article.

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3.Write a blind lead and a bridge (to match) for this article, on your own.

4.Write a brief based on the information in this article (i.e.,"Trim" the article.). Do not forget about the byline.

5.What characteristics can you notice and mention about the house style of the Economist, as it emerges from the article above?

Style guides generally give guidance on language usage. Some style guides also consider or focus on elements of graphic design, such as

typography and white space. Website style guides often focus on visual

or technical aspects.

A publishing company's or periodical's house style is the collection of

conventions set out in its internal style guide, or manual of style.

"Style" in this context therefore does not refer to the writer's voice.

Traditionally, a style guide (often called a style manual or stylebook) dictates what form of language should be used. These style guides are principally used by academia and publishers.

In such works, style can have two meanings:

Publication conventions for markup style, such as whether book and movie titles should be written in italics; expression of dates and numbers; how references should be cited.

Literary considerations of prose style, such as best usage, common errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling; and suggestions for precision, fairness and the most forceful expression of ideas.

Some modern style guides are designed for use by the general public. These tend to focus on language over presentation.

Style guides don’t directly address writers’ individual style, or “voice,” although writers sometimes say style guides are too restrictive.

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Like language itself, many style guides change with the times, to varying degrees. For example, the Associated Press stylebook is updated every year.

Test de autoevaluare

"WHEN THE CAP DOESN'T FIT"/ The Economist, December 10 th 2005, p.13

Cloze:

Fill in the gaps with suitable words/phrases from the ones below, so that they match the context: (and/or fill in the table below with the right letters)

The European Union Budget

WHEN THE CAP DOESN'T FIT

Tony Blair has ducked the challenge of reforming the European Union's finances

One of the odder features of the European Union is its six-monthly rotating presidency. This puts pressure on whichever political leader happens to be in the …… 1 not merely to preside efficiently, but also to …………… 2 a string of "achievements". That explains why Britain's Tony Blair, whose current EU presidency culminates …………. 3 in Brussels on December 15 th and 16 th , has spent the past week ……………

Europe in a desperate ………… budget for 2007-13.

In June, when Mr Blair rejected a compromise………… 6 by the previous Luxembourg EU presidency, he set out some …………… 7 for future negotiations. After the rejection of the EU constitution by French and Dutch voters, the Union ……… 8 for reform. Mr Blair spoke of modernisation, a "reality check" and a "……………. " 9 ; he noted that a modern EU budget would not be one that spent 40% of its money on the common agricultural …………. 10 (CAP); and he repeated that he

would put the British………

the table………… 12 there was more CAP reform.

The British presidency finally put forward its own proposal for

. Set against the ambitions Mr Blair laid out

in June, it is …………. 14 mainly for its timidity. At French insistence, the plan leaves the CAP ………… 15 until 2013: indeed, it raises its share of the budget to 44%. Far from………… 16 EU spending on research and

. Despite getting

innovation, the British compromise cuts it………….

so little on the CAP, Mr Blair's proposal makes…………. 18 in the British

4

5 for a deal, any deal, on the EU

11 , won by Margaret Thatcher in 1984, on

………… 13 on December

5 th

17

Strategii ale comunicării eficiente în limba engleză

54

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rebate, ……… 19 smaller than those suggested by Luxembourg in

, he suggests trimming

regional aid to new EU………. 21 from central Europe by 10%, a plan fully meriting the European Commission's ……… 22 about a new "sheriff

of Nottingham" who takes from the poor to give to the rich.

24

…………. 23 , Mr Blair's compromise has run into a ………… around Europe. The commission said it was a budget for a "mini- Europe"; several countries called for new proposals, which the British have now promised. In fact, the original plan is tactically ……………. 25 . By cutting the ………… 26 of the budget, it appeals to big net payers, such as the Germans and the Dutch. Leaving the CAP intact ought to please the French, who remain atavistically attached to farm subsidies. Even the central Europeans, though angry about their budgeted assistance being cut, might sign up, partly because Mr Blair proposes

the conditions they have to meet to get their money, and

June. And to make the numbers ………

20

27

……………. partly because their fear that further ……… 28 could cost them even more. Next week's summit promises much noisy fist-banging, and Mr Blair may have to put more of the British rebate on the table -- but a deal …………. 29 be done.