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LIMBA ENGLEZ

Curs practic
- PSIHOLOGIE
- PEDAGOGIA NVMNTULUI PRIMAR I PRECOLAR -

Anul I

CUPRINS
SEMESTRUL 1
CUM SALUTM/GREETINGS ............................................................................................ 4
ARTICOLUL............................................................................................................................ 7
Articolul hotrt THE: .......................................................................................................... 7
Articolul nehotrt A / AN .................................................................................................... 8
Articolul zero......................................................................................................................... 9
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 10
SUBSTANTIVUL ................................................................................................................... 11
Tipuri de substantive ........................................................................................................... 11
Genul substantivelor............................................................................................................ 11
Numrul substantivelor ....................................................................................................... 12
Substantive compuse ........................................................................................................... 15
Exerciii: ................................................................................................................................... 16
ADJECTIVUL ........................................................................................................................ 17
Tipuri de adjective............................................................................................................... 17
Adjectivul demonstrativ ...................................................................................................... 17
Adjectivul posesiv ............................................................................................................... 18
Comparativul adjectivelor ................................................................................................... 19
Superlativul adjectivelor ..................................................................................................... 20
Comparative i superlative neregulate ................................................................................ 21
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 22
PRONUMELE ........................................................................................................................ 23
Pronumele personal ............................................................................................................. 23
Pronumele reflexive i de ntrire ....................................................................................... 25
Pronumele demonstrativ...................................................................................................... 25
Pronumele posesive............................................................................................................. 26
Pronumele nehotrt............................................................................................................ 26
Pronumele relativ ................................................................................................................ 26
Pronumele interogativ ......................................................................................................... 27
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 28
NUMERALUL........................................................................................................................ 29
Numeralul cardinal .............................................................................................................. 29
Numeralul ordinal ............................................................................................................... 30
Alte numerale ........................................................................................................................... 32
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 33
VERBUL ................................................................................................................................. 34
Verbele auxiliare ................................................................................................................. 34
Modurile verbale ................................................................................................................. 34
Verbele frazale .................................................................................................................... 35
Verbul auxiliar "to be" - a fi ................................................................................................ 36
Verbul auxiliar "to have" - a avea ....................................................................................... 37
Verbul auxiliar "to do" - a face ........................................................................................... 38
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 39
PREZENTUL SIMPLU ........................................................................................................... 40
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 44
PREZENTUL CONTINUU ..................................................................................................... 47
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Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 50
TRECUTUL SIMPLU ............................................................................................................. 54
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 55
TRECUTUL CONTINUU ....................................................................................................... 59
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 61
PREZENTUL PERFECT SIMPLU ......................................................................................... 63
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 65
PREZENTUL PERFECT CONTINUU ................................................................................... 68
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................... 70
LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE ..................................................................................... 73
VERBELE MODALE .............................................................................................................. 84
RSPUNSURI LA EXERCIII ........................................................................................... 86
Articolul ................................................................................................................................... 86
Substantivul .............................................................................................................................. 87
Adjectivul ................................................................................................................................. 88
Pronumele................................................................................................................................. 89
Numeralul ................................................................................................................................. 90
Verbul....................................................................................................................................... 91
Prezentul simplu ....................................................................................................................... 92
Prezentul continuu.................................................................................................................... 97
Trecutul simplu ...................................................................................................................... 100
Trecutul continuu ................................................................................................................... 102
Prezentul perfect simplu ......................................................................................................... 104
Prezentul perfect continuu...................................................................................................... 106
TEME DE DISCUIE pentru semestrul I.............................................................................. 109

SEMESTRUL 2
ADVERBUL ......................................................................................................................... 113
Adverbul de mod ............................................................................................................... 113
Adverbul de loc ................................................................................................................. 113
Adverbul de timp............................................................................................................... 113
Adverbul de durat ............................................................................................................ 114
Adverbul de comparaie .................................................................................................... 114
Adverbul de frecven ....................................................................................................... 114
Adverbul de probabilitate.................................................................................................. 114
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................. 115
PREPOZIIA ....................................................................................................................... 117
Prepoziia de micare ........................................................................................................ 117
Prepoziia de loc ................................................................................................................ 118
Prepoziia de timp.............................................................................................................. 118
Prepoziii cu substantive, adjective i verbe...................................................................... 120
Exerciii .................................................................................................................................. 122
ORDINEA CUVINTELOR N PROPOZIIE ................................................................. 123
EXPRESII IDIOMATICE/IDIOMS .................................................................................. 125
RSPUNSURI ...................................................................................................................... 142
Adverbul................................................................................................................................. 142
Prepoziia................................................................................................................................ 143
TEME DE DISCUIE pentru semestrul II ....................................................................... 145
TEST DE EVALUARE A CUNOTINELOR ............................................................... 148
PROBLEME PSIHOLOGICE ASTZI............................................................................ 153
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SEMESTRUL 1
GREETINGS
The usual way of greeting someone is to say Hello. You can add
How are you? or another comment or question.
Modul obinuit de a saluta pe cineva este de a spune Hello. Poi s
adaugi How are you? sau alt comentariu sau ntrebare.
Note that the greeting How do you do? is used only by people who
met each other for the first time.
De remarcat este c forma de salut How do you do? este folosit doar
de ctre oamenii care se ntlnesc pentru prima dat.
A more informal way of greeting someone is to say Hi or Hiya.
O forma mai neoficial de a saluta pe cineva este de a spune Hi sau
Hiya.
If you meet someone in a place where you do not expect to see, you
can say Fancy seeing you here.
Dac ntlneti pe cineva ntr-un loc n care nu te atepi s-l vezi, poi s
spui Fancy seeing you here.
When you greet someone formally, the greeting depends on the time
of the day. You say Good morning until about one oclock, Good
afternoon from about one oclock until six oclock and Good evening
after six oclock. You can make these expressions less formal by writing
Good. You say Good night only when you are leaving someone in the
evening or you are going to bed. You do not use Good night to greet
someone. Good day is formal and old-fashioned in British English, but
more common in American English and Australian English. Welcome
used to greet someone who has just arrived is quite formal.

Cnd salui formal pe cineva, salutul depinde de momentul zilei. Spui


Good morning pn la ora unu, Good afternoon ncepnd cu ora unu i
pn la ora ase. Poi s faci aceste expresii mai puin formale scriind Good.
Spui Good night doar atunci cnd pleci de la cineva seara sau dac te duci la
culcare. Nu foloseti Good night pentru a saluta pe cineva. Good day este
formal sau demodat n engleza britanic, dar este mai obinuit n engleza
american i australian. Welcome folosit pentru a saluta pe cineva care
tocmai a aprut este ct se poate de formal.
There are particular expressions used to give someone good wishes on
special occasions. At Christmas you say : Merry Christmas or Happy
Christmas, at New Year, Happy New Year, at Easter, Happy Easter.
You reply by repeating the greeting, or saying something like And a happy
Easter to you too or And you!. If it is someones birthday, you can say
Happy Birthday or Many Happy Returns. When someone says this,
you can reply by saying Thank you.
Sunt expresii specifice folosite pentru a ura cuiva toate cele bune la ocazii
speciale. La Crciun spui Merry Christmas sau Happy Christmas, la
Anul Nou, Happy New Year, la Pati ,Happy Easter. Rspunzi repetnd
salutul, sau spunnd ceva de genul And a happy Easter to you too sau And
you!. Dac este ziua cuiva, poi s spui Happy Birthday sau Many Happy
Returns.
You say Good bye to someone when you are leaving. If you expect
to meet the other person again soon , you can say things like See you,
See you soon, See you around, or Ill be seeing you. Some people say
So long, Take care, Take care of yourself, or Look after yourself,
when saying good bye to a friend or relative. Many speakers of American
English use the expression Have a nice day to say good bye to people they
do not know as friends. Cheers and cheerio are used by speakers of
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British English. When you are saying good bye to someone you do not know
very well, you can use a more formall expression such as I look forward to
seeing you again soon or It was nice meeting you.
Spui cuiva Good bye atunci cnd pleci. Dac te astepi s ntlneti
cealalt persoan curnd, poi s spui lucruri (expresii) ca: See you, See you
soon, See you around sau Ill be seeing you. Unii oameni spun So
long, Take care, Take care of yourself, sau Look after yourself,
atunci cnd i iau rmas bun de la un prieten sau de la o ruda. Muli vorbitori de
engleza american folosesc expresia Have a nice day pentru a-i lua la
revedere de la oameni pe care nu-i cunosc ca i prieteni. Cheers i cheerio
sunt folosite de vorbitorii de engleza britanic. Cnd i iei rmas bun de la
cineva pe care nu-l cunoti foarte bine, poi s foloseti o expresie mult mai
formal ca de exemplu I look forward to seeing you again soon sau It was
nice meeting you.

ARTICOLUL
Definiie: - reprezint un determinant substantival care contribuie la realizarea
nelesului unui substantiv ntr-o propoziie.

Tipuri de articole: Articolul


hotrt - THE Articolul
nehotrt - A / AN
Articolul zero (forma implicit sau neexprimat)
Articolul hotrt THE:
Cnd folosim articolul hotrt?

- naintea unui substantiv care a mai fost menionat n textul respectiv:


Exemplu: A man knocked at the door and a girl opened it. The man was her
father.

- naintea substantivelor care sunt unice:


Exemplu: the moon, the earth, the star, the sun, the air

- naintea numeralelor ordinale:


Exemplu: the first, the second, the third, the twenty-first, the seventeenth

- n realizarea superlativului:
Exemplu: the best year, the youngest girl, the most important, the fastest, the
tallest
- naintea substantivelor care reprezint nume de colectiviti i instituii:
Exemplu: the army, the crowd, the government, the police, the parliament
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- naintea unor nume proprii (nume de familie, muzee, teatre, ziare, hoteluri,
etc):
Exemplu: the Browns, the Johns, the National Theatre, the Marriott Grand
Hotel, the New York Times, the Beatles
- naintea substantivelor care indic nume de locuri geografice, muni, fluvii,
oceane, mri etc:
Exemplu: the Alps, the Atlantic, the Thames, the Danube, the Red Sea, the
Sahara
Articolul nehotrt A / AN
Utilizm articolul nehotrt A:
naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o consoan:
Exemple: a girl, a boy, a teacher, a family, a classroom

Utilizm articolul nehotrt AN:


naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o vocal (a, e, i, o, u):
Exemple: an elephant, an apple, an interview, an onion, an action
Articolul nehotrt - excepii:
- Folosim articolul nehotrt AN naintea unui substantiv care ncepe cu litera
"h", doar atunci cnd este vorba despre un "h mut".
Exemple: an hour, an honour

- Folosim articolul nehotrt A naintea unui substantiv care ncepe cu litera "u"
sau grupul de litere "eu", doar atunci cnd acestea se pronun ca "you"
Exemple: a European, a university, a unit

Cand folosim articolul nehotrt A/AN?


- naintea unui substantiv concret nedeterminat i numrabil:
Exemple: A boy entered into the classroom.
The reporter took an interview.

- naintea unui substantiv concret cu funcia de nume predicativ:


Exemplu: She is a teacher.
Ronnie is an elephant.
Articolul zero
Nu folosim articolul n urmtoarele situaii:
- naintea substantivelor care indic nume proprii la singular:
Exemplu: Paul is going to school.
- naintea substantivelor care indic nume de ri, orae i limba acestora:
Exemple: France is a European country.
You speak English fluently.
Bucharest is the capital of Romania.

- n unele expresii invariabile:


Exemplu: by car, at school, in church, by train
- naintea substantivelor abstracte, care indic nume de culori, tiine, arte,
materii etc:
Exemplu: beauty, health, dinner, lunch, breakfast, truth, green, gold, silver,
mathematics, physics

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Exerciii
1. Completai cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul:

woman
unit
United States of America
Johnsons
elephant
beauty
hour
Thames

2. Completai propoziiile din textul de mai jos cu a/an:

a)

old woman laughed at him.

b)

cat and

dog were in the kitchen.

c) I saw

elephant at the zoo.

d) It was

excellent movie.

e) She watched

TV show

3. Completai cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul:

Daniel is

teacher. He likes

Theoretical Highschool from


day, he decided to take

Bucharest.

children to see

highschool. There, they made


experiment

Physics very much. He teaches at


pupils like him very much. One
laboratory from another

experiment. All

most interesting they have ever made.


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children considered

SUBSTANTIVUL
A. Tipuri de substantive
1. Substantive comune
2. Substantive proprii
1. Substantivele comune desemneaz fiine (oameni, animale) i obiecte /
lucruri.
Exemple:
- fiine: man, woman, grandmother, teacher, brother, pupil, doctor, nurse
- obiecte (lucruri): pencil, school, car, hotel, medicine, shop, power, health
2. Substantivele proprii desemneaz nume de familie i prenume, nume de
muni, orae, ri, ape etc.

Exemple:
- nume de familie i prenume: Ewing, Brown, Sawyer, John, Mary, Helen
- nume de muni: Alps, Himalaya, Everest
- nume de orae: Bucharest, Paris, Venice
- nume de ri: France, Italy, Croatia
- nume de ape: Mississippi, Danube, Thames
B. Genul substantivelor
1. Genul masculin (care se nlocuiesc cu pronumele personal he)
Exemple: man, doctor, driver, father, boy2.
2. Genul feminin (care se nlocuiesc cu pronumele personal she)

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Exemple: woman, mother, girl, actress, sister.


3. Genul neutru (nume de lucruri, obiecte i animale; se nlocuiesc cu pronumele
personal it)

Exemple: cat, dog, pencil, butterfly, car, notebook.


C. Numrul substantivelor
Substantivele pot fi la singular sau la plural.

Formarea pluralului:

a) pluralul cu -s
Exemple:
a dog ---> two dogs
a school ---> two schools
a car ---> two cars
a book ---> two books

b) pluralul cu "-es" (pentru substantivele care au terminaia n -s, -x, -z, -ch, -sh)
Exemple:
a bus ---> two buses
a fax ---> two faxes
a church ---> two churches

Atenie:
a tomato ---> two tomatoes
a potato ---> two potatoes
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dar
radio ---> radios
photo ---> photos

c) pluralul cu "-ies" (pentru substantivele care au terminaia n -y)


Exemple:
lady ---> ladies
baby ---> babies
fly ---> flies

dar:
day ---> days
boy ---> boys

Reguli:
- pentru substantivele care se termin n y precedat de o consoan, pluralul se va
face n -ies
- pentru substantivele care se termin n y precedat de o vocal, pluralul se va
face n -s

d) pluralul cu "-ves" (pentru substantivele care au terminaia n -f sau -fe)


Exemple:
leaf ---> leaves
calf ---> calves
shelf ---> shelves
wife ---> wives
wolf ---> wolves

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Excepii:
chief ---> chiefs
proof ---> proofs
belief ---> beliefs

e) pluralele neregulate
Exemple:
child ---> children
man ---> men
woman ---> women
foot ---> feet
goose ---> geese
mouse ---> mice
tooth ---> teeth

f) substantive invariabile care nu primesc -s


Exemple: deer
(cerb) duck
(rata) sheep
(oaie) trout
(pastrav) fish
(peste) fruit
(fructe)

g) substantivele cu sens colectiv care nu au form de plural


Exemple: advice
(sfat) baggage
(bagaj)
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luggage (bagaje)
information (informaii)
furniture (mobil)
people (oameni)
crowd (mulime)
police (poliie)

h) pluralul substantivelor proprii


Exemple: the
Browns the
Johnsons
the Thompsons

D. Substantive compuse
Exemple:
classroom
schoolboy
schoolgirl
blackboard
dining-room
breakfast

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Exerciii:
1. Alctuii pluralul urmtoarelor substantive:
table --->
clock --->
leaf --->
gentleman --->
baby --->
tooth --->
friend --->
city --->
life --->
chief --->

2. nlocuii substantivele urmtoare cu pronumele personal potrivit:


the girl --the dog --the actor --the schoolboy --the pencil --the grandmother ---

3. Alctuii ct mai multe substantive compuse cu ajutorul urmtoarelor


cuvinte:
dining, bird, school, class, kinder, mate, room, boy, father, black, book, girl,
board, living, garden, note, exercise, parents, grand.

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ADJECTIVUL
Adjectivele n limba englez au urmtoarele caracteristici:
a) nu variaz dup gen i numr
b) se aeaz naintea substantivelor

Exemplu:
a good cake ---> two good cakes
A. Tipuri de adjective
opinion adjectives (adjective de opinie): descriu ceea ce credem despre cineva
sau ceva.

Exemple: beautiful, great, nice, expensive, cheap, ugly etc.


fact adjectives (adjective de fapt): descriu ceea ce fiinele sau obiectele
determinate sunt cu adevrat

Exemple: short, large, long, green, round etc.

! Adjectivele de opinie stau naintea adjectivelor de fapt


B. Adjectivul demonstrativ
Desemneaz fiine sau lucruri pe care le artm preciznd n acelai timp
apropierea sau deprtarea n timp sau spaiu.
Forme:
singular:
- this (acesta, aceasta)
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- that (acela, aceea)


plural:
- these (acetia, acestea)
- those (aceia, acelea)
Exemple:
This man is a doctor.
That girl is a pupil.
These children are small.
Those boys are playing in the scoolyard.
C. Adjectivul posesiv
Desemneaz raportul de posesie dintre un posesor i ceea ce acesta poseda:

Forme:
singular:
- my (meu, mea, mei, mele)
- your (tu, ta, ti, tale)
- his (lui, su, sa, si, sale)
- her (ei, su, sa, si, sale)
- its (lui, ei, su, sa, si, sale)
plural:
- our (nostru, noastr, notri, noastre)
- your (vostru, voastr, votri, voastre)
- their (lor)

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Exemple:
This is my house.
It is his car.
That is our shop.
Those are your books.
D. Comparativul adjectivelor
a) Comparativul de egalitate / inferioritate:
"as ... as" (tot att de / la fel de)
"not as ... as" (nu att de / nu la fel de)
"not so ... as" (nu att de / nu la fel de)

Exemple:
She is as pretty as her mother.
He is not as tall as his brother.

b) Comparativ de superioritate:
- pentru adjective scurte (monosilabice) se adaug terminaia -er la finalul
adjectivului respectiv
- pentru adjective lungi, acestea sunt precedate de adverbul more

Exemple:
tall ---> taller
(nalt ---> mai nalt)
slim ---> slimmer
(slab ---> mai slab)
fast ---> faster
(rapid ---> mai rapid)
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big ---> bigger


(mare ---> mai mare)
beautiful ---> more beautiful
(frumos ---> mai frumos)
interesting ---> more interesting
(interesant ---> mai interesant)
difficult ---> more difficult
(dificil ---> mai dificil)
E. Superlativul adjectivelor
- pentru adjective scurte (monosilabice) se adaug terminaia -est la adjectivul
precedat de the

- pentru adjective lungi, acestea vor fi precedate de the most

Exemple:
the tallest (cel mai nalt)
the slimmest (cel mai slab)
the fastest (cel mai rapid)
the biggest (cel mai mare)

the most beautiful (cel mai frumos)


the most interesting (cel mai interesant)
the most difficult (cel mai dificil)

21

F. Comparative i superlative neregulate

bad

worse

the worst

ru bun

good

better

the best

ndeprtat

far

farther (further) the farthest (the furthest)

much

more older

the most

old

(elder)

the oldest (the eldest)

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mult
btrn

Exerciii:
1. Traducei n limba englez urmtoarele propoziii:
a) Aceast main este roie.
b) Acele fete sunt n clasa nti.
c) Acei brbai sunt doctori.
d) Aceasta este clasa mea.
e) Acela este cinele ei.
f) Acestea sunt caietele noastre.
2. Completai spaiile libere de mai jos, cu forma corect a adjectivelor, la
gradul de comparaie indicat:
Adjectiv

Comparativ

Superlativ

bad
fast
good
cheap
beautiful
thin
fat
3. Potrivii adjectivele la substantivele respective:
.---> weather
---> blouse
---> girl
---> hair
---> food
---> dance
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PRONUMELE
1. Pronumele personal
a) cu funcie de subiect
b) cu funcie de complement

a) Forma pronumelui personal cu funcie de subiect:

I --- eu
You --- tu, dumneata, dumneavoastr
He --- el
She --- ea
It --- el, ea (neutru), pentru nume de obiecte, lucruri, animale
We --- noi
You --- voi, dumneavoastr
They --- ei, ele, dumnealor

Exemple: I am a big girl.


He lives near the school.
We like chocolate very much.
Do you like football?

b) Forma pronumelui personal cu funcie de complement:


me
- mie, mi, mi (complement indirect)
- pe mine, m, m (complement direct)

24

you
- ie, i, i, dumitale, dumneavoastr (complement indirect)
- pe tine, te, pe dumneata, pe dumneavoastr (complement direct)

him
- lui, i, i (complement indirect)
- pe el, l (complement direct)

her
- ei, i, i (complement indirect)
- pe ea, o (complement direct)

it
- lui, ei, i, i (complement indirect)
- pe el, l, pe ea, o (complement direct)

us
- nou, ne, ni (complement indirect)
- pe noi, ne (complement direct)

you
- vou, v, vi, dumneavoastr (complement indirect)
- pe voi, v, pe dumneavoastr (complement direct)

them
- lor, le, li (complement indirect)
- pe ei, i, i (complement direct)

25

Exemple:
I watch my brother playing tennis.
You gave me a nice gift.
Give them a kiss from me!
2. Pronumele reflexive i de ntrire
myself --- m, nsumi, nsmi
yourself --- te, nsui, nsi
himself --- se, nsui
herself --- se, nsei
itself --- se, nsui, nsi (neutru)
ourselves --- ne, nine, nsene
yourselves --- v, niv, nsev
themselves --- se, nii, nsei

Exemple:
I found myself very smart.
We did ourselves all the exercises.
3. Pronumele demonstrative
this --- acesta, aceasta
that --- acela, aceea
these --- acestea, acetia
those --- acelea, aceia

Exemple:
This is my brother.
Those are his parents.
26

4. Pronumele posesive
mine --- al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele
yours --- al tu, a ta, ai ti, ale tale
his --- al su (a lui), a sa (a lui), ai si (ai lui), ale sale (ale lui)
hers --- al su (a ei), a sa (a ei), ai si (ai ei), ale sale (ale ei)
its --- al su, a sa, ai si, ale sale (neutru)
ours --- al nostru, a noastr, ai notri, ale noastre
yours --- al vostru, a voastr, ai votri, ale voastre
their --- al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor

Exemple:
My brother is tall, but yours is taller.
His car is old, but hers is older.
I lost my pencil, can you lend me yours?
5. Pronumele nehotrt
some + body, one, thing
any + body, one, thing
no + body, one, thing
Exemple:
I want something from you.
She didn't find anything in the fridge.
There was noone in the room.
6. Pronumele relativ
who --- care
whom/who --- pe care
26

whose --- al (a, ai, ale) crui, careia, carora


what --- ce, ceea ce
which --- care, pe care (pt. lucruri, obiecte ...)
that --- care
Exemple:
My brother, who is a doctor, lives in Bucharest.
Tom, whose car was stolen, bought another one last week.
I found a cat that was lost.
I didn't like what I saw.
7. Pronumele interogativ
who? --- cine?
whom? who? --- pe cine?
whose? --- al (a, ai, ale) cui?
what? --- care?, pe care,ce?
which? --- (pe) care dintre?

Exemple:
Whom did you see last Sunday?
Whose shoes are those?
What are you doing?
Which do you like more?

27

Exerciii:
1. Completai propoziiile urmtoare cu forma corect a pronumelui
reflexiv:
1) I enjoyed

at the party

2) My father didn't buy the book for


3) The dog cut
4) Help
5) We saw

while running in the street.


with some fruit, John and Mary.
in the snow.

2. Completai propoziiile de mai jos cu forma corect a pronumelui


posesiv:
1) This is my cat. It is
2) That is his lamp. It is
3) These are our maps. They are
4) Those are their shoes. They are
5) This is her shirt. It is

3. Completai corect spaiile goale cu unul dintre pronumele din paranteze:


1) I saw Mr. Thompson
2)
3) Puffy,

is John's father. (that, who, which)

did you meet last week, John or Steve? (which, who, whose)
is a big cat, is very lazy. (which, who, whose)

4)

are you doing? (whom, what, that)

5)

is going with you at the theatre? (who, that, whom)

28

NUMERALUL
Numeralul cardinal
1

One

11

eleven

two

12

twelve

three

13

thirteen

four

14

fourteen

five

15

fifteen

six

16

sixteen

seven

17

seventeen

eight

18

eighteen

nine

19

nineteen

10

ten

20

twenty

30

thirty

21

twenty-one

40

forty

22

twenty-two

50

fifty

23

twenty-three

60

sixty

24

twenty-four

70

seventy

.......

.......

80

eighty

90

ninety

31

thirty-one

32

thirty-two

100

one hundred

33

thirty-three

200

two hundred

34

thirty-four

1000

one thousand

.......

.......

10000

ten thousand

29

153

one hundred and fifty-three

198

one hundred and ninety-eight

203

two hundred and three

405

four hundred and fifty

1,000,000

one million

12,000,000

twelve million

13,632,521 thirteen million six hundred thirty-two thousand five hundred and
twenty-one

Atenie!
- se folosete cratima ntre numeralul zecilor i cel al unitilor
Exemple: 21 twenty-one; 99 ninety-nine

- se pune virgula dup fiecare grup care indic miile


Exemplu: 1,222,351
- menionarea conjunciei and este obligatorie naintea grupului zecilor i
unitatea final
Exemplu: 2,532 - two thousand five hundred and thirty-two

- cifrele zecimale se citesc astfel:


2.4832 - two point four eight three two

Numeralul ordinal
1st

- first

- primul

2nd

- second

-al doilea

3rd

- third

30

4th

- fourth

5th

- fifth

6th

- sixth

7th

- seventh

8th

- eighth

9th

- ninth

10th

- tenth

11th

- eleventh

12th

- twelfth

13th

- thirteenth

14th

- fourteenth

15th

- fifteenth

16th

- sixteenth

17th

- seventeenth

18th

- eighteenth

19th

- nineteenth

20th

- twentieth

21st

- twenty-first

22nd

- twenty-second

23rd

- twenty-third

.......

- .......

30th

- thirtieth

40th

- fortieth

.......

- .......

100th

- hundredth

1.000th

- thousandth

1.000.000th

- millionth

31

Mod de formare:
- prin adugarea terminaiei th la numeralul cardinal corespunztor

Excepii:
one --- first (1st )
two --- second (2nd )
three --- third (3rd )
five i nine, la care se suprim -e final, fifth (5th ) i ninth (9th )
zecile la care -y final se transform n -ie
forty --- fortieth (40th )

Alte numerale
Data: n Marea Britanie se folosete ntotdeauna forma unui numeral ordinal
pentru a indica data.

Exemple:
21st July (the twenty-first of July)
June 4th (the fourth of June)
23 April, 1989 (the twenty-third of April nineteen eighty-nine)
December 29 (the twenty-ninth of December)

Fracii:
1/2 se citete one half
3/4 se citete three quarters
7/8 se citete seven eights

Ora:
ten to one (unu fr zece)
32

half past six (ase i jumtate)


twelve and a quarter (dousprezece i un sfert)
a quarter to two (dou fr un sfert)

Exerciii:
1. Scriei n litere urmtoarele cifre:
123 1,450 58 33 1,024 985 24 48 2. Traducei n limba englez:
a) Ziua mea de natere este pe data de 22 mai.
b) Am ajuns n Bucureti pe data de 14 iunie.
c) John este al patrulea elev din clas.
d) 4 iulie este ziua naional a Americii.
e) Primul autobuz din parcare este al nostru.
f) Sunt 14 elevi n aceast clas.

3. Scriei n litere urmtoarele ore:


10:45 11:25 12:40 13:30 14:05 33

VERBUL
Verbele auxiliare - be, have, do
Verbele auxiliare be, have, do se utilizeaz n formarea timpurilor verbale, a
formelor
Ex.:

negative
He

is

planning

to

get

interogative.
married

soon.

I haven't seen Peter since last night.


Modul verbal se refer la una dintre cele trei atitudini pe care le poate avea un
vorbitor fa de coninutul mesajului exprimat.
Modul indicativ se folosete pentru a face o afirmaie sau a pune o ntrebare.
Modul imperativ se folosete pentru a da instruciuni, ordine, directive, sugestii
cu

caracter

pronunat.

Ex.: Get your homework done before you watch televisiontonight!


Please include cash payment with your order form. Get out of town!
Se observ c nu exist niciun subiect n aceste propoziii. Pronumele you
(singular sau plural) este subiectul implicit al propoziiilor imperative.
Majoritatea propoziiilor imperative vor avea deci subiectul la persoana II.
Excepie: construcie imperativ care include un subiect la persoana I.
Ex.: Let's (or Let us) work on these things together!
Modul subjonctiv se folosete n propoziiile subordonate n urmtoarele
scopuri:
1. expresia unei dorine;
2. fraze condiionale care ncep cu if i exprim o condiie ireal
3. fraze introduse prin as if sau as though i descriu speculaii sau condiii
ireale
34

4. fraze introduse prin that i care exprim cereri, sugestii, solicitri.


Ex.: She wishes her boyfriend were here.
If Juan were more aggressive, he'd be a better hockey player.
We would have passed if we had studied harder.
He acted as if he were guilty.
I requested that he be present at the hearing.
Subjonctivul nu este un mod important n limba englez cum este n alte limbi,
de exemplu n francez sau spaniol. n multe situaii care n alte limbi cer
subjonctivul, n limba englez sunt folosite formele numeroaselor verbe
auxiliare.
Verbele frazale
O alt particularitate a limbii engleze o reprezint verbele frazale. Verbele
frazale sunt formate dintr-un verb i un alt cuvnt, de obicei o prepoziie. Ele au
luat natere n vorbirea de zi cu zi.
Verbele frazale au sensuri mai greu de ghicit la prima vedere i pot avea mai
multe astfel de nelesuri, de multe ori diferite. Te exemplu, to come out are 18
nelesuri diferite!
Verbele pot fi combinate cu prepoziii sau alte cuvinte pentru a obine noi
entiti.
Ex.: stand out, stand up, stand in, stand off, stand by, stand fast, stand down.
Mai mult, verbul i prepoziia sa par a nu avea nicio legtur n contextul
respective.
Ex.: Fill this out! Fill out this form. (a

completa un formular)

Three masked men held up the Security Bank this afternoon. (a jefui)
You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue. (a omite)
The lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the witness. (a
examina)
35

Verbul "TO BE" - a fi


Forma afirmativ:
I am (I'm) - Eu sunt
You are (You're) - Tu eti
He is (He's) - El este
She is (She's) - Ea este
It is (It's) - El/Ea este
We are (We're) - Noi suntem
You are (You're) - Voi suntei
They are (They're) - Ei/Ele sunt
Forma interogativ:
Am I? - Sunt eu?
Are you? - Eti tu?
Is he? - Este el?
Is she? - Este ea?
Is it? - Este el/ea?
Are we? - Suntem noi?
Are you? - Suntei voi?
Are they? - Sunt ei/ele?
Forma negativ:
I am not (I'm not) - Eu nu sunt
You are not (You aren't) - Tu nu eti
He is not (He isn't) - El nu este
She is not (She isn't) - Ea nu este
It is not (It isn't) - El/Ea nu este
We are not (We aren't) - Noi nu suntem
You are not (You aren't) - Voi nu suntei
They are not (They aren't) - Ei/Ele nu sunt
36

Verbul "TO HAVE" - a avea


Forma afirmativ:
I have (I've) - Eu am
You have (You've) - Tu ai
He has (He's) - El are
She has (She's) - Ea are
It has (It's) - El/Ea are
We have (We've) - Noi avem
You have (You've) - Voi avei
They have (They've) - Ei/Ele au
Forma interogativ:
Have I? - Am eu?
Have you? - Ai tu?
Has he? - Are el?
Has she? - Are ea?
Has it? - Are el/ea?
Have we? - Avem noi?
Have you? - Avei voi?
Have they? - Au ei/ele?
Forma negativ:
I have not (I haven't) - Eu nu am
You have not (You haven't) - Tu nu ai
He has not (He hasn't) - El nu are
She has not (She hasn't) - Ea nu are
It has not (It hasn't) - El/Ea nu are
We have not (We haven't) - Noi nu avem
You have not (You haven't) - Voi nu avei
They have not (They haven't) - Ei/Ele nu au
37

Verbul "TO DO" - a face


Forma afirmativ:
I do - Eu fac
You do - Tu faci
He does - El face
She does - Ea face
It does - El/Ea face
We do - Noi facem
You do - Voi facei
They do - Ei/Ele fac
Forma interogativ:
Do I? - Fac eu?
Do you? - Faci tu?
Does he? - Face el?
Does she? - Face ea?
Does it? - Face el/ea?
Do we? - Facem noi?
Do you? - Facei voi?
Do they? - Fac ei/ele?
Forma negativ:
I do not (I don't) - Eu nu fac
You do not (You don't) - Tu nu faci He
does not (He doesn't) - El nu face She
does not (She doesn't) - Ea nu face It
does not (It doesn't) - El/Ea nu face We
do not (We don't) - Noi nu facem You
do not (You don't) - Voi nu facei
They do not (They don't) - Ei/Ele nu fac
38

Exerciii:
1. Completai spaiile goale cu forma corect a verbului TO BE:
a) Forma afirmativ:
I
He
They

in the classroom.
in the garden.
in the house

b) Forma negativ:
You

in the office.

She

in the bathroom.

We

in the restaurant.

2. Traducei n limba englez:


1. Eu am 12 ani.
2. Tu eti n cas cu tatl tu.
3. Noi avem 2 buchete de flori.
4. Voi suntei n clasa a patra.
5 El are un mr i dou portocale.
6. Ea este n curtea colii cu prietena ei.

3. Completai spaiile goale cu forma interogativ a verbului TO BE:


1.

you a good friend?

2.

he your father?

3.

they your colleagues?

4.

she in the living room?

5.

we in the courtyard?

39

Cele 4 forme verbale de baz sunt importante deoarece cu aceste forme i cu


ajutorul verbelor auxiliare se formeaz timpurile n limba englez:

Numele

Forma de Forma de Participiul Participiul

verbului

baz

to work

to write

trecut

prezent

trecut

I can work. I worked.

I am

I have

I work.

working.

worked.

I can write. I wroted.

I am

I have

I write.

writing.

written.

PREZENTUL SIMPLU
A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ:
Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv
(la persoana a III-a singular se adaug terminaia -s" sau -es")

Exemple:
1. I go to school every day.
2. He reads a book every month.
3. She lives in Bucharest.

Interogativ:
Do / Does (pers.III, sg.) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv

Exemple:
1. Do you go to school every day?
40

2. Does he read a book every month?


3. Does she live in Bucharest?

Negativ:
Subiect + do / does (pers.III, sg.) + not + Verbul la infinitiv
Se folosesc adesea contraciile don't (do + not) i doesn't (does + not)

Exemple:
1. I don't go to school every day.
2. He doesn't read a book every month.
3. She doesn't live in Bucharest.

B. Reguli pentru adugarea terminaiei -s" sau -es" la afirmativ pentru


persoana a III-a singular
! La majoritatea verbelor se adaug terminaia -s" la persoana a III-a singular la
afirmativ
Exemple:
I talk He talks
I work He works
I sleep He sleeps
! Verbelelor care se termin n ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o li se adaug terminaia -es"
Exemple:
I kiss He kisses
I wish He wishes
I catch He catches
I mix He mixes
I go He goes
41

! La verbele care se termin n litera y precedat de o consoan, se nlocuiete


litera y cu litera i, iar apoi se adaug terminaia -es"
Exemple:
I fly He flies
I study He studies
I cry He cries

! La verbele care se termin n litera y precedat de o vocal, se adaug


terminaia -s"
Exemple:
I pay He pays
I stay He stays
I play He plays
C. Folosim Prezentul Simplu pentru:
activiti zilnice, sptmnale, lunare, anuale
Exemple:
I go to the mountains every month.
We have breakfast at 7.30 every morning.
obiceiuri, hobby-uri
Exemple:
She plays tennis in her free time.
In the summer, they go to the seaside.
situaii permanente
Exemplu:
He lives in Paris. I work as a manager.
42

a exprima aciuni care respect un anumit program


Exemple:
The bus for Bucharest lives at 12.15 on Monday.
I have Maths Friday at 11.30.
situaii emoionale
Exemple:
I love my girlfriend very much.
He hates cats.
adevruri generale
Exemple:
The earth moves around the sun.
Water boils at 100C.
D. Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Prezentul Simplu:
every day/ week/ month/ year etc., every morning/ evening/ afternoon/ night,
usually, always, sometimes, often, never, in the morning/evening/night etc.
Exemple:
1. He goes to the gim every day.
2. I play football every week.
3. We go to the dentist every year.
4. She watches TV every evening.
5. She usually studies hard for her exams.
6. I always do my homework.
7. He sometimes goes shopping.
8. I often play pool with my friends.
9. She never go to school by bus.
10. In the evening we play Monopoly.
43

Exerciii:
1. Punei propoziiile urmtoare la persoana a III-a singular. Consultai
mai nti exemplul:
Exemplu:
They live in Craiova. (He)
He lives in Craiova, too.

1. I fly from Bucharest to Rome every week. (Mary)


2. We usually play in the park. (John)
3. They like their jobs very much. (He)
4. I want a new car. (She)
5. You wake up at 7 o'oclock. (Paul)
6. You always wash the dishes. (Angela)
7. We watch TV every afternoon. (Tom)
8. I go to school by bus. (My brother)
9. You cook every Saturday. (My mother)
10. We study hard for our exams. (Mark)

2. Scriei forma interogativ a urmtoarelor propoziii:


Exemplu:
You like swimming.
Do you like swimming?

1. He lives in Bucharest.
2. You wear an uniform at school.
3. My father drives very well.
4. Mr. Smith teaches English.
5. You like pizza and hamburgers.
44

6. My neighbour works as an engineer.


7. Your father repairs the car every month.
8. We drink coffee every morning.
9. Mary pays her bills every month.
10. He goes to bed very early every evening.

3. Folosii forma negativ pentru propoziiile urmtoare, folosind


cuvintele din paranteze, la fel ca n exemplul de mai jos:
Exemplu:
I like Maths. (Physics)
I like Maths, but I don't like Physics

1. Mary writes postcards. (letters)


2. I go to the cinema. (theatre)
3. They read newspapers. (books)
4. You study French. (English)
5. Mr. Brown works in an office. (at home)
6. I like football. (rugby)
7. He drives a car. (a lorry)
8. Dan and John travel by train. (plane)
9. We drink tea. (coffee)
10. She plays chess every day. (tennis)

4. Formulai propoziii folosind conjuncia but:


Exemple:
I watch TV every evening. (John)
I watch TV every evening, but John doesn't.
He doesn't speak French. (they)
45

He doesn't speak French, but they do.

1. Julia washes the dishes. (I)


2. He doesn't want to go to the seaside. (his girlfriend)
3. I go to the cinema every week. (they)
4. She doesn't swim. (her sister)
5. We have breakfast early in the morning. (Paul)
6. I don't play football. (my best friend)
7. Me and my brother play on the computer. (Michael)
8. John doesn't read the newspaper every day. (we)
9. My mother likes to go shopping. (I)
10. You don't travel by plane. (she)

5. Adaug propoziiilor de mai jos adverbele din paranteze:


Exemplu:
I have lunch at 12 o'clock. (always)
I always have lunch at 12 o'clock.

1. My sister gets up at 10 o'clock. (usually)


2. We play football on Sundays. (sometimes)
3. I go out with a stranger. (never)
4. She listens to music in the evening. (always)
5. He goes to school by bus. (often)
6. I eat a hamburger in the morning. (never)
7. I read the newspaper in the evening. (usually)
8. In the morning I play on the computer. (sometimes)
9. Mother washes the dishes in the evening. (always)
10. They go skiing in the winter. (often)
46

PREZENTUL CONTINUU
A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ:
Subiect + to be (conjugat n funcie de persoan) + Verbul la infinitiv +
terminaia "-ing"

Exemple:
1. I'm writing an article now.
2. They are playing football.
3. She is having lunch at this moment.

Interogativ:
To be (conjugat n funcie de persoan) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv +
terminaia "-ing"

Exemple:
1. Am I writing an article now?
2. Are they playing football?
3. Is she having lunch at this moment?

Negativ:
Subiect + to be (conjugat n funcie de persoan) + not + Verbul la infinitiv +
terminaia "-ing"
Se folosesc adesea contraciile isn't (is + not) i aren't (are + not)

Exemple:
1. I'm not writing an article now.
47

2. They aren't playing football now.


3. She isn't having lunch at this moment.

B. Reguli pentru adugarea terminaiei -s" sau -es" la afirmativ pentru


persoana a III-a singular
! La majoritatea verbelor se adaug terminaia -ing" fr nicio modificare:
Exemple:
play playing
try trying
drink drinking
sing - singing
go - going
draw - drawing
cook - cooking
learn - learning
send - sending
wash - washing

! La verbele care se termin n litera e precedat de o consoan, se renun la


litera e i se adaug terminaia "-ing"
Exemple:
make making
come coming
leave leaving
! La verbele formate dintr-o singur silab (monosilabice) care se termin ntr-o
consoan precedat de o vocal, se dubleaz consoana i apoi se adaug
terminaia "-ing"
48

Exemple:
get getting
sit sitting
hit hitting
C. Folosim Prezentul Continuu pentru:
activiti care se petrec n momentul vorbirii
Exemple:
She is watching TV now.
Mother is washing the dishes at this moment.
aciuni care se desfoar pe o perioad mai mare de timp, incluznd i
momentul vorbirii
Exemple:
John is studying Maths for his exam.
My brother is writing a book.
a vorbi despre o ntlnire sau despre un aranjament din viitorul apropiat
Exemple:
He is flying to New York next week.
I'm meeting Susan next Sunday.
D. Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Prezentul continuu:
now, at this moment, these days, this week, today, tonight etc.

Exemple:
1. Paul is repairing his car now.
2. I'm having lunch at this moment.
3. He is working hard for a project these days.
49

4. They are going to the basketball game this week.


5. I'm writing a letter today.
6. I'm watching TV tonight.
Exerciii:
1. Punei verbele din paranteze la timpul Prezentul Continuu:
Exemplu:
Diana (play) with Tim now.
Diana is playing with Tim now.

1. Everybody (wear) blue T-shirts today.


2. I (listen) to classic music at this moment.
3. What (do) mother in the kitchen?
4. We (organize) a study trip this week.
5. Our colleagues (plan) a surprise party for John's birthday these days.
6. I (meet) with my best friend at the cinema tonight.
7. My father (work) in the garage now.
8. This week, you (go) to the theatre with your geography teacher.
9. At this moment, in Bucharest, it (rain).
10. My friends (travel) to Egypt this week.

2. Corectai afirmaiile false ca n exemplul urmtor:


Exemplu:
Jim is playing basketball. (watch TV)
No, Jim is not playing basketball. Jim is watching TV.

1. Mother is cooking at this moment. (iron)


2. My brother is learning English now. (study French)
50

3. All my colleagues are working hard for their final exams these days. (plan
their holiday)
4. The cat is climbing the tree now. (eat a mouse)
5. I am taking some photos for my album. (read a book)
6. You are drinking Coke Cola now. (drink a coffee)
7. Joana is swimming in the pool. (play voleyball on the beach)
8. I am making an apple-pie now. (do my homeworks)
9. It is raining today. (snow)
10. We are riding by bycicle to school. (go by bus)

3. Scriei forma interogativ a urmtoarelor propoziii:


Exemplu:
I am having lunch at this moment.
Am I having lunch at this moment?

1. We are playing cards.


2. Mother is washing dishes.
3. My brother is reading a newspaper.
4. We are serving breakfast.
5. They are decorating the Christmas tree.
6. My family is planning a trip to Maldive Islands these days.
7. Father is sleeping in the bedroom.
8. You are watching a horror movie.
9. Your sister is doing her homeworks.
10. I am sending a postcard in France now.

51

4. Alegei varianta corect la Prezentul Continuu:

1. We ............... basketball in the schoolyard.


a) play; b) prepare; c) ski
2. They ............... a movie in the dining-room.
a) watch; b) play; c) eat
3. My friends and I ............... some flowers in the garden.
a) read; b) water; c) travel
4. I ............... my homeworks at Maths.
a) do; b) make; c) give
5. You ............... a novel to your little brother.
a) read; b) create; c) put
6. The poet ............... a poem about love at this moment.
a) create; b) give; c) look
7. I ............... after my lost cat.
a) look; b) search; c) spend
8. ........ we ............... to the cinema tonight?
a) go; b) watch; c) eat
9. The sun ............... brightly.
a) show; b) shine; c) rain
10. My friends ............... on a picnic without me.
a) go; b) play; c) read

5. Corectai forma greit a verbului:

1. I am makeing an apple-pie.
2. Mary is comeing from Italy today.
3. We are siting in the living-room.
52

4. He is geting off the bus at the first station.


5. My brother isn't writeing poems.
6. You aren't plaing with kids.
7. They are leaveing Bucharest tomorrow evening.
8. He is comeing tonight to see me.
9. She is haveing lunch at this moment.
10. Are you flyng to New York next week?

53

TRECUTUL SIMPLU
A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ:
Subiect + Vb.II (terminaia "-ed" pentru verbele regulate)

Exemple:
1. I wrote a book last year.
2. He went to a football game last week.
3. We played in the park yesterday.

Interogativ:
Did + Subiect + Vb.I?

Exemple:
1. Did you write a book last year?
2. Did he go to a football game last week?
3. Did you play in the park yesterday?

Negativ:
Subiect + didn't + Vb.I

Exemple:
1. I didn't write a book last year.
2. He didn't go to a football game last week.
3. We didn't play in the park yesterday.

54

B. Folosim Trecutul Simplu pentru:


activiti terminate care s-au petrecut n trecut
Exemple:
She was in France 2 years ago.
We bought a new washing machine 2 weeks ago.
aciuni ncheiate care s-au petrecut la un moment determinat n trecut
Exemple:
They were in England in 1981.
I left Bucharest in April 1994.
C. Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Trecutul Simplu:
Yesterday, at this time yesterday, 2 days ago, 2 months ago, last year, last week,
the day before yesterday

Exemple:
1. Diana went in Belgium 3 years ago.
2. I was having lunch at this time yesterday.
3. They played football 2 hours ago.
4. Paul taught English and French 3 months ago.
5. She left town the day before yesterday.
Exerciii:
1. Scriei forma corect a verbului din parantez la Trecutul Simplu:
1. I (watch) a horror movie yesterday evening.
2. Mary (play) in the garden with her dog yesterday morning.
3. Two days ago, John (go) with his mother at the doctor.
55

4. Mary (talk) a lot during the French lesson.


5. My mother (wash) many clothes yesterday evening.
6. I (do not enjoy) the movie from last night.
7. I (solve) the Math problem very quickly.
8. I (prepare) my luggage yesterday.
9. I (be) at school when you called me.
10. When you were young, you (live) in the countryside.

2. Folosii cuvintele din paranteze pentru a realiza propoziii negative


precum n exemplu:
Exemplu:
Mary liked the apple pie. (the soup)
Mary liked the apple pie, but she didn't like the soup.

1. I played in the schoolyard. (in the garden)


2. My friend went to the mountain. (to the seaside)
3. I travelled abroad 2 days ago. (1 month ago)
4. Yesterday I visited Mr. Peterson. (Mrs Smith)
5. During lunch, I listened a football game on the radio. (music)
6. You called me at 10 o'clock a.m. (12 o'clock)
7. I arrived at home early in the morning. (in the afternoon)
8. You received a computer on your birthday. (a car)
9. It rained 2 days ago. (last week)
10. Mike repaired his car. (bicycle)

3. Trecei la Trecutul Simplu verbele neregulate de mai jos, precum n


exemplu:
Exemplu:
56

I leave school at 2 o'clock yesterday.


I left school at 2 o'clock yesterday.

1. I eat a delicious soup at the restaurant 2 days ago.


2. My family buy a new car 3 months ago.
3. I read a very interesting novel yesterday evening.
4. Mary speak with her English teacher last week, about her exams.
5. Last Monday, John write to his mother a letter.
6. Last winter, I make a beautiful snowman in front of the house.
7. You give your sister a necklace for her birthday.
8. Last year, Tim become a doctor.
9. Mrs. Thompson teach Spanish and English every Monday and Wednesday.
10. Father come from the office late at noon.

4. Trecei urmtoarele verbe la Trecutul Simplu:


Exemple:
I see
I saw

I watch
I watched

1. I sleep
2. He plays
3. He run
4. You speak
5. They don't read
6. He doesn't feel
57

7. I meet
8.He catches
9. You wake up
10. They leave

5. Rspundei la urmtoarele ntrebri conform precizrilor din paranteze


(vezi exemplu)
Exemplu:
When did she leave Bucharest? (2 years ago)
She left Bucharest 2 years ago.

1. Where did you sleep last night? (at Cathy's)


2. When did you read this book? (3 weeks ago)
3. When did you find out about Susan's problems? (last Monday)
4. Where did you meet your friends? (in the park)
5. When did she study French (2 years ago)
6. Where did he work last year (in a bank)
7. When did they divorce? (4 years ago)
8. How did she die? (in a train accident)
9. Who was Mihai Eminescu? (a Romanian poet)
10. When was he born? (in 1973)

58

TRECUTUL CONTINUU
A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ:
Subiect + was (pers.I/III sg) / were (restul pers.) + Verbul la infinitiv +
terminatia "-ing"

Exemple:
1. I was learning a poem at this time yesterday.
2. You were watering the flowers at this time yesterday.
3.They were mending the radio at this time yesterday.

Interogativ:
Was (pers.I/III sg) / Were (restul pers.) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv +
terminaia "-ing"

Exemple:
1. Was I learning a poem at this time yesterday?
2. Were you watering the flowers at this time yesterday?
3. Were they mending the radio at this time yesterday?

Negativ:
Subiect + was (pers.I/III sg) / were (restul pers.) + not + Verbul la infinitiv +
terminaia "-ing"
Se folosesc adesea contraciile wasn't (was + not) i weren't (were + not)

Exemple:
1. I wasn't learning a poem at this time yesterday.
59

2. You weren't watering the flowers at this time yesterday.


3.They weren't mending the radio at this time yesterday.

B. Folosim Trecutul Continuu pentru:


a exprima o aciune n desfurare ce a avut loc n trecut
Exemple:
She was playing in her room at this time yesterday.
They were listening music at this time last Saturday.
a exprima o aciune repetat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp
Exemple:
Did she ask any questions?
Oh, she was asking questions all the time.
Did he buy any sweets?.
Oh, he was buying sweets all the time.
C. Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Trecutul Continuu:
at this time yesterday, from ... to ..., all day, for ...

Exemple:
1. Tom was typing some letters at this time yesterday .
2. She was playing quitar from 6 to 8 o'clock.
3. They were laughing all day.
4. She was living in an old building for 6 years.

60

Exerciii:
1. Spune ce fcea fiecare pe vremea aceasta, marea trecuta:
Exemplu:
Father was in the living-room. (watch)
Father was watching TV.

1. My mother was in the kitchen. (cook)


2. Daniel was in the garden. (water flowers)
3. Grandma was in the bedroom. (sleep)
4. Their friends were at the disco. (dance)
5. Aunt Mary and uncle John were in the garage. (repair car)
2. Ieri dimineaa, toi elevii din clasa a asea erau n clas i se pregteau
pentru testul de la matematic. Spune ce fcea fiecare cand a intrat
profesorul.
Exemplu:
Ana and Mary / clean the blackboard.
Ana and Mary were cleaning the blackboard.

1. Christian / talk to his deskmate.


2. Victor / repeat some geometry formulas.
3. Diana and Helen / look at some exercises.
4. George / read the math lesson.
5. Andreea / write her homework.

3. Trecei verbele la Trecutul Continuu:


Exemplu:
We are reading Shakespeare now.
61

We were reading Shakespeare at this time yesterday, too.


1. Father is fixing the car in the garage.
2. Timothy is painting the wall now.
3. Granpa and Grandma are watching a movie now.
4. Students are learning new Spanish words now.
5. The boys are trying to fix a bicycle now.

4. Trecei verbele din paranteze la Trecutul Continuu:


Exemplu:
She (sing) for 2 hours yesterday.
She was singing for 2 hours yesterday.

1. Tom (practice) in the language lab from 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. yesterday.


2. Mother (cook) all day yesterday.
3. My friends (watch) TV for 6 hours yesterday.
4. Pupils (study) Spanish from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m..
5. From 3 to 5 I (play) tennis yesterday afternoon.

5. Trecei verbele din paranteze la Trecutul Continuu. Aceste verbe


exprim o aciune trecut care a avut loc o perioad mai lung de timp.
Exemplu:
I (work) in a restaurant in the centre of the city.
I was working in a restaurant in the centre of the city.
1. I (live) in an old building.
2. Mother (visit) me twice a week.
3. I (share) my room with 2 girls.
4. I (work) on Saturdays twice a month.
5. I had a very good friend, Tom, and he (work) in the same restaurant with me.
62

PREZENTUL PERFECT SIMPLU


A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ:
Subiect + have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + vb. la forma a III-a

Exemple:
1. I have washed her blouse.
2. He has written his homework.
3. We have learnt our English lesson.

Interogativ:
Have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + Subiect + vb. la forma a III-a

Exemple:
1. Have I washed her blouse?
2. Has he written his homework?
3. Have we learnt our English lesson?

Negativ:
Subiect + have/has (pers. a III-a sg.) + not + vb. la forma a III-a
Se folosesc adesea contraciile haven't (have + not) i hasn't (has + not)

Exemple:
1. I haven't washed her blouse.
2. He hasn't written his homework.
3. We haven't learnt our English lesson.

63

B. Folosim Prezentul Perfect Simplu pentru:


a exprima o aciune ncheiat de curnd, dar nu se cunoate cu exactitate
momentul ncheierii acesteia
Exemple:
I have cooked a delicious steak.
They have finished their homeworks.
a exprima o aciune nceput n trecut care se continu i n prezent; efectele
aciunii se resimt i n prezent
Exemple:
I have lived here since 1994.
We have started classes for 3 hours.
C. Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Prezentul Perfect Simplu:
already, just, yet
Exemple:
1. He has already finished his classes.
2. Tom has just spoken on the phone with Mary.
3. They haven't written the exercise yet.
never, ever, often
Exemple:
1. I have never heard such a thing.
2. Have you ever read this news?
3. I have often travelled by car to the countryside.

ever and before


Exemplu:
Have you ever heard this song before?
64

for and since


Exemple:
1. I've had my own car for four years.
2. She has been ill since yesterday.

until now, so far, up to now


Exemple:
1. I haven't had any Math problems up to now.
2. So far, he hasn't complained about his wage.
3. Until now, I haven't heard about this English singer.
Exerciii:
1. Pune verbele din paranteza la Prezentul Perfect Simplu, ca n exemplul
de mai jos:
Exemplu:
Tom .......... (write) .......... his homework.
Tom has just written his homework.

1. I .......... (fix) .......... my car.


2. Father .......... (leave) .......... home.
3. They .......... (arrive) .......... to the theatre.
4. We .......... (see) .......... our Math teacher.
5. He .......... (begin) .......... to cry.

2. Construiete propoziii la timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu, cu ajutorul


expresiilor din parantez, ca in exemplele de mai jos:
Exemple:
I .......... arrive .......... home. (just)
65

I have just arrived home.


He .......... paint .......... this picture. (never)
He has never painted this picture.
They .......... do .......... their homeworks. (yet)
They haven't done their homeworks yet.

1. Mary .......... cook .......... the soup. (already)


2. John and Tom .......... watch .......... TV. (just)
3. We .......... close .......... this window. (never)
4. Pupils .......... miss .......... the English class. (never)
5. You .......... lie .......... to your mother. (often)

3. Rspunde la urmtoarele ntrebri folosind timpul Prezent Perfect


Simplu, ca n exemplele de mai jos:
Exemple:
Have you ever heard this song before? (never)
We have never heard this song before.
Have you ever eaten this food before? (often)
We have often eaten this food.

1. Has he ever spoken to his cousin before? (never)


2. Have they ever played football? (often)
3. Have you ever lied to your mother? (never)
4. Has she ever skated before? (often)
5. Have you ever drunk whisky? (never)
4. Construiete ntrebri i rspunsuri ca n exemplul de mai jos:
Exemplu:
66

drive the car


Have you driven the car yet?
I'm afraid I haven't driven it yet.

1. have breakfast
2. buy the buster
3. send the letter
4. clean the bathroom
5. wash the dishes

5. Completeaz urmtoarele propoziii ca n exemplul de mai jos, folosind


timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu:
Exemplu:
This is the most beautiful girl I .......... (see)
This is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen.

1. That is the most interesting movie he .......... (see)


2. This is the best book she .......... (read)
3. This is the biggest mall they .......... (visit)
4. These are the most attractive souvenirs they .......... (buy)
5. Those are the most wonderful monuments they .......... (see)

67

PREZENTUL PERFECT CONTINUU


A. Mod de formare
Afirmativ:
Subiect + have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + vb. la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing"

Exemple:
1. I have been waiting for your reply since yesterday.
2. He has been sending me letters for 3 months.
3. We have been crying for 3 hours.

Interogativ:
Have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + Subiect + been + vb. la infinitiv + terminaia
"-ing"

Exemple:
1. Have I been waiting for your reply since yesterday?
2. Has he been sending me letters for 3 months?
3. Have we been crying for 3 hours?

Negativ:
Subiect + have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + not + vb. la infinitiv + terminaia "-ing"
Se folosesc adesea contraciile haven't (have + not) i hasn't (has + not)

Exemple:
1. I haven't been waiting for your reply since yesterday.
2. He hasn't been sending me letters for 3 months.
3. We haven't been crying for 3 hours.
68

B. Folosim Prezentul Perfect Continuu pentru:


a exprima o aciune nceput n trecut i care nu s-a ncheiat nc

Exemple:
She has been eating for ten minutes.
They have been working for several hours.
a descrie stri sau sentimente care au nceput n trecut i au continuat de-a
lungul unei perioade de timp i sunt nc prezente n momentul vorbirii
Exemple:
I have lived here since 1994.
We have started classes for 3 hours.
C. Expresii cu care se folosete adesea Prezentul Perfect Continuu:
since
Exemplu:
You have been living in Paris since 1996.

for
Exemplu:
They have been watching TV for 3 hours.
so far
Exemplu:
So far, there have been arriving 10 passengers from London.

ever
Exemplu:
Have you ever been listening to the radio?
69

never
Exemplu:
I have never been travelling to France until now.
Exerciii:
1. Pune verbele din parantez la timpul Prezentul Perfect Continuu, ca n
exemplul de mai jos:
Exemplu:
I (travel) abroad for 2 weeks.
I have been travelling abroad for 2 weeks.

1. He (write) poems since 1997.


2. The children (draw) this map for half an hour.
3. The pupil (recite) the poem for ten minutes.
4. I (study) English for 4 years.
5. Sarah (do) her homework for 2 hours.

2. Reformuleaz urmtoarele propoziii folosind FOR + the last + Prezentul


Perfect Continuu, ca n exemplul de mai jos:
Exemplu:
He began watching TV 2 hours ago.
He has been watching TV for the last 2 hours.

1. We began watering the flowers 2 days ago.


2. Paul and Jim began writing their homework half an hour ago.
3. Mother began going to the doctor 3 months ago.
4. Father began cooking for his family 10 minutes ago.
5. The poet began composing that poem 1 month ago.
70

3. Pune la forma interogativ a timpului Prezent Perfect Continuu,


propoziiile de mai jos:
Exemplu:
He has been listening to the radio for 1 hour.
Has he been listening to the radio for 1 hour?

1. Children have been staying in the bus for 10 hours.


2. Pupils have been playing in the schoolgarden since noon.
3. The detective has been investigating this case since 2000.
4. The theatre show has been starting for 3 hours.
5. I have been watching "Young & Restless" since 2001.
4. Completeaz spaiile goale cu "FOR" i "SINCE". Pune verbele din
parantez la Prezentul Perfect Continuu:
Exemplu:
Helen (study) English .......... last summer.
Heleng has been studying English since last summer.

1. We (talk) about that horrible accident .......... half an hour.


2. She (cook) a chicken soup .......... 1 hour.
3. They (phone) the manager .......... the last five minutes.
4. Mary (live) in Manhattan .......... June 1998.
5. It (rain) .......... morning.

5. Reformuleaz urmtoarele propoziii folosind "SINCE" i Prezentul


Perfect Simplu, ca n exemplul urmtor:
Exemplu:
It is raining. It started on Wednesday.
71

It has been raining since Wednesday.

1. He is crying. He began at noon.


2. Father is sleeping. He went to bed at 9 o'clock in the evening.
3. We are travelling by train. We left Bucharest yesterday evening.
4. The artist is drawing. He started his work in January.
5. We are watching the football game. It began at 8 o'clock.

72

LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE

Participiu

Infinitiv

Trecut

to abide

abode

abode

a atepta, a sta, a locui

to arise

arose

arisen

a se ridica

to awake

awoke

awoke

a se trezi

to be

was, were

been

a fi

to bear

bore

born

a se nate

to beat

beat

beaten

a bate

to become

became

become

a deveni

to begi

began

begun

a ncepe

to behold

beheld

beheld

a zri, a vedea

to bend

bent

bent

a ndoi

to beseech

besought

besought

a implora

to bear

bore

born

a se nate

to bet

bet

bet

a paria

to bid

bade

bidden

a oferi, a licita

trecut

73

Traducere

to bind

bound

bound

a lega

to bite

bit

bitten

a muca

to bleed

bled

bled

a sngera

to bless

blest

blest

a binecuvnta

to blow

blew

blown

a sulfa

to break

broke

broken

a sparge

to breed

bred

bred

a crete

to bring

brought

brought

a aduce

to

broadcast

broadcast

a transmite prin radio

broadcast
to burn

burnt (burned) burnt (burned)

a arde

to burst

burst

burst

a izbucni

to buy

bought

bought

a cumpra

to can

could

been able to

a putea, a fi posibil

to cast

cast

cast

a arunca

to catch

caught

caught

a prinde

to choose

chose

chosen

a allege

74

to cleave

cleft

cleft

a despica

to cling

clung

clung

a se lipi

to come

came

come

a veni

to cost

cost

cost

a costa

to creep

crept

crept

a se tr

to cut

cut

cut

a tia

to deal

dealt

dealt

a se ocupa, a trata afaceri

to dig

dug

dug

a spa

to do

did

done

a face

to draw

drew

drawn

a desena

to dream

dreamt

dreamt

a visa

(dreamed)

(dreamed)

to drink

drank

drunk

a bea

to drive

drove

driven

a conduce maina

to dwell

dwelt

dwelt

a locui, a rmne, a insista

to eat

ate

eaten

a mnca

to fall

fell

fallen

a cdea

75

to feed

fed

fed

a hrni

to feel

felt

felt

a simi

to fight

fought

fought

a lupta

to find

found

found

a gsi

to fly

flew

flown

a zbura

to forbid

forbade

forbidden

a interzice

to forecast

forecast

forecast

a prevedea

to foresee

foresaw

foreseen

a prevedea

to foretell

foretold

foretold

a prezice

to forget

forgot

forgotten

a uita

to forgive

forgave

forgiven

a ierta

to forgo

forwent

forgone

a renuna la,
a da uitrii

forsake

forsook

forsaken

a prsi

to freeze

froze

frozen

a nghea

to get

got

got

a primi

to give

gave

given

a da

76

to go

went

gone

a merge

to grind

ground

ground

a mcina

to grow

grew

grown

a crete

to hang

hung (hanged) hung (hanged)

a spnzura

to have

had

had

a avea

to hear

heard

heard

a auzi

to hide

hid

hidden

a ascunde

to hit

hit

hit

a lovi

to hold

held

held

a ine

to hurt

hurt

hurt

a rni

to keep

kept

kept

a pstra

to kneel

knelt

knelt

a ngenunchia

to knit

knit

knit

A tricota

to know

knew

known

a ti, a cunoate

to lay

laid

laid

a aeza

to lead

led

led

a conduce

77

to lean

leant

leant

a se sprijini de

to learn

learnt

learnt

a nva

(learned)

(learned)

to leave

left

left

a lsa, a prsi

to lend

lent

lent

a mprumuta (cuiva)

to let

let

let

a permite

to lie

lay

lain

a fi culcat

to light

lit

lit

a aprinde

to lose

lost

lost

a pierde

to make

made

made

a face

to mean

meant

meant

a nsemna

to meet

met

met

a ntlni

to misgive

misgave

misgiven

a inspira nencredere

to mislead

misled

misled

a induce n eroare

to mistake

mistook

mistaken

a nelege greit

to outdo

outdid

outdone

a ntrece

to

overcame

overcome

a nvinge

78

overcome
to overdo

overdid

overdone

a face exces

to pay

paid

paid

a plti

to put

put

put

a pune

to read

read

read

a citi

to rend

rent

rent

a sfia, a rupe

to ride

rode

ridden

a clri

to ring

rang

rung

a suna

to rise

rose

risen

a se ridica

to run

ran

run

a alerga

to say

said

said

a spune

to see

saw

seen

a vedea

to seek

sought

sought

a cuta

to sell

sold

sold

a vinde

to send

sent

sent

a trimite

to set

set

set

a fixa, a regla

to sew

sewed

sewn (sewed)

a coase

79

to shake

shook

shaken

a scutura,
a cltina

to shave

shaved

shaven

a se brbieri

to shed

shed

shed

a vrsa (lacrimi)

to shine

shone

shone

a strluci

to shoe

shod

shod

a ncla,
a potcovi

to shoot

shot

shot

a mpuca

to show

showed

shown

a arta

to shrink

shrank

shrunk

a se strnge

to shut

shut

shut

a nchide

to sing

sang

sung

a cnta

to sink

sank

sunk

a se scufunda

to sit

sat

sat

a sta (pe scaun)

to slay

slew

slain

a ucide

to sleep

slept

slept

a dormi

to slide

slid

slid

a aluneca

80

to sling

slung

slung

a azvrli

to slit

slit

slit

a crpa,
a despica

to smell

smelt

smelt

(smelled)

(smelled)

to smite

smote

smitten

a lovi

to sow

sowed

sown

a semna

to speak

spoke

spoken

a vorbi

to speed

sped

sped

a accelera, a goni

to spell

a mirosi

spelt (spelled) spelt (spelled) a pronuna liter cu liter

to spend

spent

spent

a petrece, a cheltui

to spill

spilt

spilt

a vrsa

to spin

spun

spun

a toarce, a se roti

to spit

spat

spat

a scuipa

to split

split

split

a despica

to spoil

spoilt

spoilt

a strica

to spread

spread

spread

a ntinde

81

to spring

sprang

sprung

a sri, a ni

to stand

stood

stodd

a sta n picioare

to steal

stole

stolen

a fura

to stick

stuck

stuck

a nfige, a se lipi

to sting

stung

stung

a nepa

to stink

stank

stunk

a mirosi urt

to strike

struck

struck

a lovi

to string

strung

strung

a nira,
a ncorda

to strive

strove

striven

a se strdui

to swear

swore

sworn

a jura

to sweep

swept

swept

a mtura

to swim

swam

swum

a nota

to swing

swung

swung

a se legna

to take

took

taken

a lua

to teach

taught

taught

a nva, a preda

to tear

tore

torn

a rupe, a sfia

82

to tell

told

told

a spune

to think

thought

thought

a gndi, a crede

to throw

threw

thrown

a arunca

to thrust

thrust

thrust

a mbrnci

to tread

trod

trodden

a clca

to underlie

underlay

underlain

a susine

to

understood

understood

a nelge

to upset

upset

upset

a supra

to wake

woke

woken

a se trezi

to wear

wore

worn

a purta

to weave

wove

woven

a ese

to wet

wet

wet

a uda

to win

won

won

a ctiga

to wind

wound

wound

a se rsuci

to write

wrote

written

a scrie

understand

83

VERBELE MODALE
Verbele modale can, could, may, might, must, shall, should,
ought to, would, dare, need au urmtoarele caracteristici:
1. au infinitiv scurt, fr to
2. au aceeai form pentru toate persoanele (nu se adaug s sau es la
persoana a 3-a singular, prezent, afirmativ he can)
3. fac interogativul prin inversare (may I?)
4. fac negativul cu not (they must not)
5. dupa verbele modale verbul urmtor se pune la infinitiv scurt (I can read)
6. sunt defective de unele moduri i timpuri, i pentru a putea fi folosite se
nlocuiesc cu:
CAN be able to
MAY to be allowed to
MUST to have to
7. can i may au i forme de trecut:
can could
may might
8. cteodat dare, need i help sunt folosite ca verbe modale:
I dare say it you dare not say it
I need do that you need not do that
I help you do it Ill get you to help serve
Ill help you cut this grass.
9. SHALL i SHOULD la persoana a 2-a si a 3-a (uneori i la persoana I) au
nelesul de trebuie (sfat).
10.Ordinea descrescend a verbului must:
You must learn tu trebuie s nvei (imperativ)
You have to learn tu trebuie s nvei (nu neaprat imperativ)
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You have got to learn tu trebuie s nvei (mai slab)


You should learn ar trebui s nvei (sfat)
You ought to learn s-ar cuveni s nvei (sfat facultativ)
You are to learn urmeaza s nvei (viitor apropiat)
You are due to learn eti planificat s nvei (n viitor)
11.Aspectul continuu al verbelor modale: se adaug be dup verbul modal
i se adaug ing la sfritul verbului care se pune dup verbul modal:
I can go I can be going
I could go I could be going
I may go I may be going
I might go I might be going
I must go I must be going

85

RSPUNSURI LA EXERCIII
Articolul
1. Completai cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul:
a woman
an unit
The United States of America
The Johnsons
an elephant
beauty
an hour
The Thames

2. Completai propoziiile din textul de mai jos cu a/an:


a) An old woman laughed at him.
b) A cat and a dog were in the kitchen.
c) I saw an elephant at the zoo.
d) It was an excellent movie.
e) She watched a TV show.

3. Completai cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul:


Daniel is a teacher. He likes Physics very much. He teaches at a Theoretical
Highschool from the Bucharest. The pupils like him very much. One day, he
decided to take the children to see a laboratory from another highschool. There,
they made an experiment. All the children considered the experiment the most
interesting they have ever made.

86

Substantivul
1. Alctuii pluralul urmtoarelor substantive:
table ---> tables
clock ---> clocks
leaf ---> leaves
gentleman ---> gentlemen
baby ---> babies
tooth ---> teeth
friend ---> friends
city ---> cities
life ---> lives
chief ---> chiefs

2. nlocuii substantivele urmtoare cu pronumele personal potrivit:


the girl --- she
the dog --- it
the actor --- he
the schoolboy --- he
the pencil --- it
the grandmother --- she

3. Alctuii ct mai multe substantive compuse cu ajutorul urmtoarelor


cuvinte:
dining, bird, school, class, kinder, mate, room, boy, father, black, book, girl,
board, living, garden, note, exercise, parents, grand.

dining-room; schoolgirl; classmate; kinder-garden; blackboard; grandfather;


living-room; notebook; grandparents; schoolboy
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Adjectivul
1. Traducei n limba englez urmtoarele propoziii:
a) Aceast main este roie.
This car is red.
b) Acele fete sunt n clasa nti.
Those girls are in the first grade.
c) Acei brbai sunt doctori.
Those men are doctors.
d) Aceasta este clasa mea.
This is my classroom.
e) Acela este cinele ei.
That is her dog.
f) Acestea sunt caietele noastre.
These are our notebooks.

2. Completai spaiile libere de mai jos cu forma corect a adjectivelor, la


gradul de comparaie indicat:
Adjectiv

Comparativ

Superlativ

bad

worse

the worst

fast

faster

the fastest

good

better

the best

cheap

cheaper

the cheapest

beautiful

more beautiful

the most beautiful

thin

thinner

the thinnest

fat

fatter

the fattest

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3. Potrivii adjectivele la substantivele respective:


cold ---> weather
nice ---> blouse
beautiful ---> girl
long ---> hair
delicious ---> food
traditional ---> dance

Pronumele

1. Completai propoziiile urmtoare cu forma corect a pronumelui


reflexiv:
1) I enjoyed myself at the party
2) My father didn't buy the book for himself
3) The dog cut itself while running in the street.
4) Help yourselves with some fruit, John and Mary.
5) We saw ourselves in the snow.

2. Completai propoziiile de mai jos cu forma corect a pronumelui


posesiv:
1) This is my cat. It is mine
2) That is his lamp. It is his
3) These are our maps. They are ours
4) Those are their shoes. They are their
5) This is her shirt. It is hers

3. Completai corect spaiile goale cu unul dintre pronumele din paranteze:


1) I saw Mr. Thompson who is John's father. (that, who, which)
89

2) Who did you meet last week, John or Steve? (which, who, whose)
3) Puffy, which is a big cat, is very lazy. (which, who, whose)
4) What are you doing? (whom, what, that)
5) Who is going with you at the theatre? (who, that, whom)
Numeralul
1. Scriei n litere urmtoarele cifre:
123 - one hundred and twenty-three
1,450 - one thousand four hundred and fifty
58 - fifty-eight
33 - thirty-three
1,024 - one thousand and twnty-four
985 - nine hundred and eighty-five
24 - twenty-four
48 - forty-eight

2. Traducei n limba englez:


a) Ziua mea de natere este pe data de 22 mai.
My birthday is on 22nd of May.
b) Am ajuns n Bucureti pe data de 14 iunie.
I arrived in Bucharest on 14th of June.
c) John este al patrulea elev din clas.
John is the fourth pupil from his classroom.
d) 4 iulie este ziua naional a Americii.
4th of July is the National Day of the United States of America.
e) Primul autobuz din parcare este al nostru.
The first bus from the parking is ours.
f) Sunt 14 elevi n aceast clas.
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There are fourteen pupils in this classroom.

3. Scriei n litere urmtoarele ore:


10:45 - a quarter to eleven
11:25 - twenty-five minutes past eleven
12:40 - twenty minutes to one
13:30 - half past one
14:05 - five minutes past two
Verbul
1. Completai spaiile goale cu forma corect a verbului TO BE:
a) Forma afirmativ:
I am in the classroom.
He is in the garden.
They are in the house

b) Forma negativ: You


are in the office. She is
in the bathroom. We are
in the restaurant.

2. Traducei n limba englez:


1. Eu am 12 ani.
I have twelve years.
2. Tu eti n cas cu tatl tu.
You are in the house with my father.
3. Noi avem 2 buchete de flori.
We have two bunch of flowers.
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4. Voi suntei n clasa a patra.


You aren't in fourth class.
5 El are un mr i dou portocale.
He has un apple an two orange.
6. Ea este n curtea colii cu prietena ei.
She is in the schoolyard with her friend.

3. Completai spaiile goale cu forma interogativ a verbului TO BE:


1. Are you a good friend?
2. Is he your father?
3. Are they your colleagues?
4. Is she in the living room?
5. Are we in the courtyard?
Prezentul simplu
1. Puneti propoziiile urmtoare la persoana a III-a singular:
1. I fly from Bucharest to Rome every week. (Mary)
Mary flies from Bucharest to Rome every week, too.
2. We usually play in the park. (John)
John usually plays in the park, too.
3. They like their jobs very much. (He)
He likes his job very much, too.
4. I want a new car. (She)
She wants a new car, too.
5. You wake up at 7 o'oclock. (Paul)
Paul wakes up at 7 oclock, too.
6. You always wash the dishes. (Angela)
Angela always washes the dishes, too.
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7. We watch TV every afternoon. (Tom)


Tom watches TV every afternoon, too.
8. I go to school by bus. (My brother)
My brother goes to school by bus, too.
9. You cook every Saturday. (My mother)
My mother cooks every Saturday, too.
10. We study hard for our exams. (Mark)
Mark studies hard for his exams, too.

2. Scriei forma interogativ a urmtoarelor propoziii:


1. He lives in Bucharest.
Does he live in Bucharest?
2. You wear an uniform at school.
Do you wear an uniform at school?
3. My father drives very well.
Does your father drive very well?
4. Mr. Smith teaches English.
Does Mr Smith teach English?
5. You like pizza and hamburgers.
Do you like pizza and hamburgers?
6. My neighbour works as an engineer.
Does your neighbour work as an engineer?
7. Your father repairs the car every month.
Does your father repair the car every month?
8. We drink coffee every morning.
Do we drink coffee every morning?
9. Mary pays her bills every month.
Does Mary pay her bills every month?
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10. He goes to bed very early every evening.


Does he go to bed very early every evening?

3. Folosii forma negativ pentru propoziiile urmtoare, folosind cuvintele


din paranteze:
1. Mary writes postcards. (letters)
Mary writes postcards, but she doesnt write letters.
2. I go to the cinema. (theatre)
I go to the cinema, but I dont go to the theatre.
3. They read newspapers. (books)
They read newspapers, but they dont read books.
4. You study French. (English)
You study French, but you dont study English.
5. Mr. Brown works in an office. (at home)
Mr. Brown works in an office, but he doesnt work at home.
6. I like football. (rugby)
I like football, but I dont like rugby.
7. He drives a car. (a lorry)
He drives a car, but he doesnt drive a lorry.
8. Dan and John travel by train. (plane)
Dan and John travel by train, but they dont travel by plane.
9. We drink tea. (coffee)
We drink tea, but we dont drink coffee.
10. She plays chess every day. (tennis)
She plays chess every day, but she doesnt play tennis.

94

4. Formulai propoziii folosind conjuncia but:


1. Julia washes the dishes. (I)
Julia washes the dishes, but I dont.
2. He doesn't want to go to the seaside. (his girlfriend)
He doesn't want to go to the seaside, but his girlfriend does.
3. I go to the cinema every week. (they)
I go to the cinema every week, but they dont.
4. She doesn't swim. (her sister)
She doesnt swim, but her sister does.
5. We have breakfast early in the morning. (Paul)
We have breakfast early in the morning, but Paul doesnt.
6. I don't play football. (my best friend)
I don't play football, but my best friend does.
7. Me and my brother play on the computer. (Michael)
Me and my brother play on the computer, but Michael doesnt.
8. John doesn't read the newspaper every day. (we)
John doesn't read the newspaper every day, but we do.
9. My mother likes to go shopping. (I)
My mother likes to go shopping, but I dont.
10. You don't travel by plane. (she)
You don't travel by plane, but she does.

5. Adaug propoziiilor de mai jos adverbele din paranteze:


1. My sister gets up at 10 o'clock. (usually)
My sister usually gets up at 10 o'clock.
2. We play football on Sundays. (sometimes)
We sometimes play football on Sundays.
3. I go out with a stranger. (never)
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I never go out with a stranger.


4. She listens to music in the evening. (always)
She always listens to music in the evening.
5. He goes to school by bus. (often)
He often goes to school by bus.
6. I eat a hamburger in the morning. (never)
I never eat a hamburger in the morning.
7. I read the newspaper in the evening. (usually)
I usually read the newspaper in the evening.
8. In the morning I play on the computer. (sometimes)
In the morning I sometimes play on the computer.
9. Mother washes the dishes in the evening. (always)
Mother always washes the dishes in the evening.
10. They go skiing in the winter. (often)
They often go skiing in the winter.

Prezentul Continuu
1. Punei verbele din paranteze la timpul Prezentul Continuu:
1. Everybody (wear) blue T-shirts today.
Everybody is wearing blue T-shirts today.
2. I (listen) to classic music at this moment.
I am listening to classic music at this moment.
3. What (do) mother in the kitchen?
What is mother doing in the kitchen?
4. We (organize) a study trip this week.
We are organizing a study trip this week
5. Our colleagues (plan) a surprise party for John's birthday these days.
Our colleagues are planning a surprise party for John's birthday these days.
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6. I (meet) with my best friend at the cinema tonight.


I am meeting with my best friend at the cinema tonight.
7. My father (work) in the garage now.
My father is working in the garage now.
8. This week, you (go) to the theatre with your geography teacher.
This week, you are going to the theatre with your geography teacher.
9. At this moment, in Bucharest, it (rain).
At this moment, in Bucharest, it is raining.
10. My friends (travel) to Egypt this week.
My friends are travelling to Egypt this week.

2. Corectai afirmaiile false


1. Mother is cooking at this moment. (iron)
No, mother is not cooking at this moment. Mother is ironing.
2. My brother is learning English now. (study French)
No, my brother is not learning English now. My brother is studying French.3.
All my colleagues are working hard for their final exams these days. (plan their
holiday)
No, all my colleagues are not working hard for their final exams these days. All
my colleagues are planning their holiday.
4. The cat is climbing the tree now. (eat a mouse)
No, the cat is not climbing the tree now. The cat is eating a mouse.
5. I am taking some photos for my album. (read a book)
No, I am not taking some photos for my album. I am reading a book.
6. You are drinking Coke Cola now. (drink a coffee)
No, you are not drinking Coke Cola now. You are drinking a coffee.
7. Joana is swimming in the pool. (play voleyball on the beach)
No, Joana is not swimming in the pool. Joana is playing volleyball on the beach.
97

8. I am making an apple-pie now. (do my homeworks)


No, I am not making an apple-pie now. I am doing my homeworks.
9. It is raining today. (snow)
No, it is not raining today. It is snowing.
10. We are riding by bycicle to school. (go by bus)
No, we are not riding by bycicle to school. We are going by bus to school.

3. Scriei forma interogativ a urmtoarelor propoziii:


1. We are playing cards.
Are we playing cards?
2. Mother is washing dishes.
Is mother washing dishes?
3. My brother is reading a newspaper.
Is my brother reading a newspaper?
4. We are serving breakfast.
Are we serving breakfast?
5. They are decorating the Christmas tree.
Are they decorating the Christmas tree?
6. My family is planning a trip to Maldive Islands these days.
Is my family planning a trip to Maldive Islands these days?
7. Father is sleeping in the bedroom.
Is father sleeping in the bedroom?
8. You are watching a horror movie.
Are you watching a horror movie?
9. Your sister is doing her homeworks.
Is your sister doing her homeworks?
10. I am sending a postcard in France now.
Am I sending a postcard in France now?
98

4. Alegei varianta corect la Prezentul Continuu:


1. We are playing basketball in the schoolyard.
2. They are watching a movie in the dining-room.
3. My friends and I are wateringsome flowers in the garden.
4. I am making my homeworks at Maths.
5. You are readinga novel to your little brother.
6. The poet is creating a poem about love at this moment.
7. I am looking after my lost cat.
8. are we going to the cinema tonight?
9. The sun is shining brightly.
10. My friends are going on a picnic without me.

5. Corectai forma greit a verbului:


1. I am makeing an apple-pie.
I am making an apple-pie.
2. Mary is comeing from Italy today.
Mary is coming from Italy now.
3. We are siting in the living-room.
We are sitting in the living-room.
4. He is geting off the bus at the first station.
He is getting off the bus at the first station.
5. My brother isn't writeing poems.
My brother isnt writing poems.
6. You aren't plaing with kids.
You arent playing with kids.
7. They are leaveing Bucharest tomorrow evening.
They are leaving Bucharest tomorrow evening.
8. He is comeing tonight to see me.
99

He is coming tonight to see me.


9. She is haveing lunch at this moment.
She is having lunch at this moment.
10. Are you flyng to New York next week?
Are you flying to New York next week?
Trecutul Simplu
1. Scriei forma corect a verbului din parantez la Trecutul Simplu:
1. I watched a horror movie yesterday evening.
2. Mary played in the garden with her dog yesterday morning.
3. Two days ago, John went with his mother at the doctor.
4. Mary talked a lot during the French lesson.
5. My mother washed many clothes yesterday evening.
6. I didnt enjoy the movie from last night.
7. I solved the Math problem very quickly.
8. I prepared my luggage yesterday.
9. I was at school when you called me.
10. When you were young, you lived in the countryside.

2. Folosii cuvintele din paranteze pentru a realiza propoziii negative:


1. I played in the schoolyard, but I didnt play in the garden.
2. My friend went to the mountain, but he didnt go to the seaside.
3. I travelled abroad 2 days ago, but I didnt travel abroad 1 month ago.
4. Yesterday I visited Mr. Peterson, but I didnt visit Mrs Smith.
5. During lunch, I listened a football game on the radio, but I didnt listen to
music.
6. You called me at 10 o'clock a.m, but you didnt call at 12 oclock.
7. I arrived at home early in the morning, but I didnt arrive at home early in the
100

afternoon.
8. You received a computer on your birthday, but you didnt receive a car.
9. It rained 2 days ago, but it didnt rain last week.
10. Mike repaired his car, but he didnt repair his bicycle.
3. Trecei la Trecutul Simplu verbele neregulate de mai jos:
1. I ate a delicious soup at the restaurant 2 days ago.
2. My family bought a new car 3 months ago.
3. I read a very interesting novel yesterday evening.
4. Mary spoke with her English teacher last week, about her exams.
5. Last Monday, John wrote to his mother a letter.
6. Last winter, I made a beautiful snowman in front of the house.
7. You gave your sister a necklace for her birthday.
8. Last year, Tim became a doctor.
9. Mrs. Thompson taught Spanish and English every Monday and Wednesday.
10. Father came from the office late at noon.

4. Trecei urmtoarele verbe la Trecutul Simplu:


1. I sleep / I slept
2. He plays / He played
3. He run / He ran
4. You speak / You spoke
5. They don't read / They didnt read
6. He doesn't feel / He didnt feel
7. I meet / I met
8.He catches / He caught
9. You wake up / You woke up
10. They leave / They left
101

5. Rspundei la urmtoarele ntrebri conform precizrilor din paranteze:


1. Where did you sleep last night? (at Cathy's)
I slept at Cathys.
2. When did you read this book? (3 weeks ago)
I read this book 3 weeks ago.
3. When did you find out about Susan's problems? (last Monday)
I found out about Susans problems last Monday.
4. Where did you meet your friends? (in the park)
I met my friends in the park.
5. When did she study French (2 years ago)
She studied French 2 years ago.
6. Where did he work last year?(in a bank)
He worked in a bank last year.
7. When did they divorce? (4 years ago)
They divorced 4 years ago.
8. How did she die? (in a train accident)
She died in a train accident.
9. Who was Mihai Eminescu? (a Romanian poet)
Mihai Eminescu was a Romanian poet.
10. When was he born? (in 1973)
He was born in 1973.
Trecutul Continuu
1. Spune ce fcea fiecare pe vremea aceasta, marea trecut:
1. My mother was in the kitchen. (cook)
My mother was cooking.
2. Daniel was in the garden. (water flowers)
Daniel was watering flowers.
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3. Grandma was in the bedroom. (sleep)


Grandma was sleeping.
4. Their friends were at the disco. (dance)
Their friends were dancing.
5. Aunt Mary and uncle John were in the garage. (repair car)
Aunt Mary and uncle John were repairing the car.
2. Ieri diminea, toi elevii din clasa a asea erau n clas i se pregteau
pentru testul de la matematic. Spune ce fcea fiecare cnd a intrat
profesorul.
1. Christian was talking to his deskmate.
2. Victor was repeating some geometry formulas.
3. Diana and Helen were looking at some exercises.
4. George were reading the math lesson.
5. Andreea was writing her homework.

3. Trecei verbele la Trecutul Continuu:


1. Father is fixing the car in the garage.
Father was fixing the car in the garage at this time yesterday, too.
2. Timothy is painting the wall now.
Timothy was painting the wall at this time yesterday, too.
3. Granpa and Grandma are watching a movie now.
Granpa and Grandma were watching a movie at this time yesterday, too.
4. Students are learning new Spanish words now.
Students were learning new Spanish words at this time yesterday, too.
5. The boys are trying to fix a bicycle now.
The boys were trying to fix a bicycle at this time yesterday, too.

103

4. Trecei verbele din paranteze la Trecutul Continuu:


1. Tom was practicing in the language lab from 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. yesterday.
2. Mother was cooking all day yesterday.
3. My friends were watching TV for 6 hours yesterday.
4. Pupils were studying Spanish from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m..
5. From 3 to 5 I was playing tennis yesterday afternoon.

5. Trecei verbele din paranteze la Trecutul Continuu. Aceste verbe


exprim o aciune trecut care a avut loc o perioada mai lung de timp.
1. I was living in an old building.
2. Mother was visiting me twice a week.
3. I was sharing my room with 2 girls.
4. I was working on Saturdays twice a month.
5. I had a very good friend, Tom, and he was working in the same restaurant
with me.
Prezentul Perfect Simplu
1. Pune verbele din parantez la Prezentul Perfect Simplu:
1. I have just fixed my car.
2. Father has just left home.
3. They have just arrived to the theatre.
4. We have just seen our Math teacher.
5. He has just begun to cry.

2. Construiete propoziii la timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu, cu ajutorul


expresiilor din parantez:
1. Mary has already cooked the soup. (already)
2. John and Tom have just watched TV. (just)
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3. We have never closed this window. (never)


4. Pupils have never missed the English class. (never)
5. You have often lied to your mother. (often)

3. Rspunde la urmtoarele ntrebri folosind timpul Prezent Perfect


Simplu:
1. Has he ever spoken to his cousin before? (never)
He has never spoken to his cousin before.
2. Have they ever played football? (often)
They have often played football.
3. Have you ever lied to your mother? (never)
I have never lied to my mother.
4. Has she ever skated before? (often)
She has often skated before.
5. Have you ever drunk whisky? (never)
I have never drunk whisky.
4. Construiete ntrebri i rspunsuri:
1. have breakfast
Have you had breakfast yet?
I'm afraid I haven't had breakfast yet.
2. buy the buster
Have you bought the buster yet?
I'm afraid I haven't bought it yet.
3. send the letter
Have you sent the letter yet?
I'm afraid I haven't sent it yet.
4. clean the bathroom
Have you cleaned the bathroom yet?
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I'm afraid I haven't cleaned it yet.


5. wash the dishes
Have you washed the dishes yet?
I'm afraid I haven't washed them yet.

5. Completeaz urmtoarele propoziii folosind timpul Prezent Perfect


Simplu:
1. That is the most interesting movie he has ever seen.
2. This is the best book she has ever read.
3. This is the biggest mall they have ever visited.
4. These are the most attractive souvenirs they have ever bought.
5. Those are the most wonderful monuments they have ever seen.
Prezentul Perfect Continuu
1. Pune verbele din paranteza la timpul Prezentul Perfect Continuu:
1. He has been writing poems since 1997.
2. The children have been drawing this map for half an hour.
3. The pupil has been reciting the poem for ten minutes.
4. I have been studying English for 4 years.
5. Sarah has been doing her homework for 2 hours.

2. Reformuleaz urmtoarele propoziii folosind FOR + the last + Prezentul


Perfect Continuu:
1. We began watering the flowers 2 days ago.
We have been watering flowers for the last 2 days.
2. Paul and Jim began writing their homework half an hour ago.
Paul and Jim have been writing their homework for the last half an hour.
3. Mother began going to the doctor 3 months ago.
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Mother has been going to the doctor for the last 3 months.
4. Father began cooking for his family 10 minutes ago.
Father has been cooking for his family for the last 10 minutes.
5. The poet began composing that poem 1 month ago.
The poet has been composing that poem for the last 1 month.

3. Pune la forma interogativ a timpului Prezent Perfect Continuu,


propoziiile de mai jos:
1. Children have been staying in the bus for 10 hours.
Have been children staying in the bus for 10 hours?
2. Pupils have been playing in the schoolgarden since noon.
Have been pupils playing in the schoolgarden since noon?
3. The detective has been investigating this case since 2000.
Has the detective been investigating this case since 2000?
4. The theatre show has been starting for 3 hours.
Has the theatre show been starting for 3 hours?
5. I have been watching "Young & Restless" since 2001.
Have I been watching "Young & Restless" since 2001?
4. Completeaz spaiile goale cu "FOR" i "SINCE". Pune verbele din
parantez la Prezentul Perfect Continuu:
1. We have been talking about that horrible accident for half an hour.
2. She has been cooking a chicken soup for 1 hour.
3. They have been phoning the manager for the last five minutes.
4. Mary has been living in Manhattan since June 1998.
5. It has been raining since morning.

107

5. Reformuleaz urmtoarele propoziii folosind "SINCE" i Prezentul


Perfect Simplu:
1. He is crying. He began at noon.
He has been crying since noon.
2. Father is sleeping. He went to bed at 9 o'clock in the evening.
Father has been sleeping since 9 o'clock in the evening.
3. We are travelling by train. We left Bucharest yesterday evening.
We have been travelling by train since yesterday evening.
4. The artist is drawing. He started his work in January.
The artist has been drawing since January.
5. We are watching the football game. It began at 8 o'clock.
We have been watching the football game since 8 o'clock.

108

Teme de discuie pentru semestrul I:

1. Draw up a letter of request to a supplier, requiring information


regarding a product you would like to order. The letter should include the
main parts of a standard business letter.
Note: Pay attention to the layout of the letter (i.e. the way the main parts are
arranged on the page).

2. Think of a situation where you might telephone an organisation and


request information. Write 10 examples of questions you might ask, using
as many types of questions as possible.

3. Translate into Romanian:


"For the modern business organisation, developing goods or services is not
enough. Goods must also be available in the right quantity at the right location
in order to reach the consumer. For the organisations themselves, distribution
strategies should never be underrated. Developing an effective way of reaching
customers may be the cornerstone upon which their successes are founded. Take
Reader's Digest and the unique way in which it sells products to its customers.
One reason for its success is that it reaches its customers in a better and more
appropriate way than their competitors."
(adapted from Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tnsescu. English for Business
Purposes. Teora, 1998, p. 16)

109

4. Translate into English:


"Mobile World Trading SRL este o companie cu renume pe plan naional, al
crei principal obiectiv este furnizarea telefoanelor mobile n sistem GSM i a
accesoriilor aferente lor, i a aprut ca rezultat al potenialului economic pe care
Romnia poate s-l asigure pentru aceast

ramur a industriei

de

telecomunicaii.
Mobile Trading SRL devine prima companie romneasc dedicat exclusiv
telefoanelor mobile n sistem GSM. Ea este specializat n distribuirea
telefoanelor celulare. ntr-un timp foarte scurt, compania a reuit s intre pe
pieele naionale, servind o gam larg de clieni, de la utilizatorii particulari la
principalii dealeri ai operatorilor de reea.
Azi Mobile World, care are deja o mare reea de dealeri pe plan internaional,
dispune de una din cele mai mari reele pe plan naional, datorit unui colectiv
care asigur toat gama de servicii i produse.
Mobile World Trading nu se mulumete numai cu livrarea de produse de
calitate la preuri competitive, ci se angajeaz s asigure de fiecare dat servicii
de calitate clienilor si.''
(adapted from Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tnsescu. English for Business
Purposes. Teora, 1998, pp. 16-7)

II
1. Imagine you are on the telephone, discussing computing and word
processing problems with your Creatif software User Service Centre. You
have heard that there is something called fragmentation. Use the prompts
below to request either information or action
1) Ask what it is.
Q:....................................

110

A: It happens when the files are broken into fragments -small parts- for storage
on your hard disk.
2) Ask if it affects the files you write.
Q:................................
A: No, but it makes some actions slower -such as retrieving or saving files.
3) Ask what the solution is.
Q:............................
A: You can compact the hard disk. To do this you need a special program ,
called Compact.
4) Ask if Compact is already supplied with your Creatif software.
Q: ..........................
A: No, you have to buy it separately.
5) Ask him to send you this Compact program.
Q:.......................
A: I suggest you contact your computer store.

2. Imagine that you work for a small transport company. Write a memo to
one of your colleagues complaining about a problem you have encountered
and asking him to solve it.

3. Translate into Romanian:


"Since economics deal with human behaviour, economists cannot test their
theories in laboratory experiments; these can only be tested against events as
they unfold. The fact that the behaviour of any individual is highly unpredictable
does not invalidate the formulation of economic theories because the subject is
concerned with the behaviour of large groups (workers in an industry, the
111

consumers of a particular product, or the members of a trade union). It is


possible to make successful predictions about behaviour of large groups."
(adapted from Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tnsescu. English for Business
Purposes. Teora, 1998,
p. 62)

4. Translate into English using the passive voice:


1) O mare parte din aceast lucrare a fost ntocmit de specialitii instituiei
noastre.
2) Se emit diverse tipuri de cri de credit n fiecare an.
3) La ultima edin de consiliu s-a decis schimbarea echipei manageriale.
4) eful de departament era suprat c nu i se aduc rapoartele la timp.
5) Ni s-a spus c aceast firm nu acord garanii.
6) Clienii ar trebui informai referitor la avantajele noilor metode de plat.
7) Acum e rndul meu s fiu interogat.
8) S-au luat toate msurile necesare pentru introducerea noii contabiliti asistate
pe calculator.

112

SEMESTRUL 2
ADVERBUL
A. Adverbe de mod
- arat modul n care se petrece o aciune

Mod de formare:
- de obicei, aceste adverbe se formeaz prin adugarea terminaiei -ly la finalul
unui adjectiv.

Exemple:
beautiful ---> beautifully
sad ---> sadly
capable ---> capably
slow ---> slowly
easy ---> easily

B. Adverbe de loc
- arat locul n care se petrece o aciune

Exemple:
here, there, upstairs, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere, outside, inside

C. Adverbe de timp
- arat timpul n care se petrece o aciune

Exemple:
today, yesterday, tomorrow, Saturday, Monday, now, finally, later, soon, just,
still
113

D. Adverbe de durat
- arat perioada de timp a unei aciuni

Exemple:
forever, shortly, long, permanently

E. Adverbe de comparaie
- arat gradul de intensitate a unei aciuni

Exemple:
extremely, greatly, hugely, partially, perfectly, strongly, totally, almost, very,
entirely
F. Adverbe de frecven
- arat gradul de repetabilitate a unei aciuni

Exemple:
always, constantly, often, rarely, regularly, seldom, sometimes, occasionally,
rarely, never
G. Adverbe de probabilitate
- arat gradul de probabilitate a unei aciuni

Exemple:
certainly, perhaps, maybe, possibly, definitely

114

Exerciii:
1. Cunoscnd urmtoarele procente corespunztoare adverbelor de
frecven, realizai propoziiile de mai jos, conform modelului.
never ---> 0% rarely
---> 10% sometimes
---> 25% often --->
50% usually --->
75% always --->
100% Exemplu:
Sam / have / shower / evening (75%)
Sam usually has shower in the evening.

a) I / eat / cake / afternoon. (25%)


b) Tim / sleep / living - room (50%)
c) I / go / school / Sunday (0%)
d) Dennis / play / tennis / weekends (100%)
e) She / run / park / morning (10%)

2. Transformai urmtoarele adjective n adverbe:


horrible --->
careful --->
nervous --->
desperate --->
slow --->
sudden --->
bright --->
proud --->
115

3. Subliniai termenul corect din urmtoarele propoziii:


a) Denisa was wearing a pretty / prettily dress at the wedding.
b) I had a terrible / terribly dream last night.
c) Final / Finally, she passed the exam.
d) She was walking rapid / rapidly.
e) Sam is fluent / fluently in French.
f) Was your grammar test easy / easily?
g) They were talking loud / loudly so everybody could hear them.

4) Alegei varianta corect:


1. Please don't talk so .................... . I'm trying to sleep.
a) louder; b) loudest; c) loudly
2. We .................... go on picnics on weekends. We love fresh air.
a) never; b) usually; c) seldom
3. The bouquet was .................... . She loved it.
a) beautiful; b) beautifully; c) ugly.
4. James .................... put the broken glass into the rubbish bin.
a) careful; b) more carefully; c) carefully

116

PREPOZIIA
A. Prepoziii de micare
- arat micarea

Exemple:
to, through, across
to - utilizm "to" pentru a arta deplasarea ctre o destinaie anume.

Exemplu:
I went to Chicago two years ago.

through - utilizam "through" pentru a sugera deplasarea dintr-o parte n alta a


unui spaiu nchis.

Exemplu:
The cars went through the tunnel.

across - utilizm "across" pentru a sugera micarea dintr-o parte n alta a unei
suprafee.

Exemplu:
She flew across the sea.

Alte prepoziii de micare:


along, down, over, off, round, into

117

B. Prepoziii de loc
- arta locul n care se situeaz obiectele definite

Exemple:
at, on, in

at - folosim "at" pentru a arta un anumit loc sau o anumit poziie.

Exemplu:
Someone is at the door.
on - folosim "on" pentru a arta poziia pe o suprafa vertical sau orizontal.

Exemplu:
The dog is on the roof.
in - folosim "in" pentru a arta c un anumit obiect este mprejmuit sau nchis.

Exemplu:
The parrot is in the cage.

Alte prepoziii de loc:


after, among, behind, between, in front of, next to, beside, by, over, above,
under, below.

C. Prepoziii de timp
- pentru a specifica timpul unei aciuni

118

Exemple:
at, on, in

at - pentru a arta timpul exact.

Exemplu:
She left at 7.00 a.m.

on - pentru anumite date sau zile

Exemple:
She arrived on Monday.
Her birthday is on 23rd of October.

in - pentru o perioad de timp nespecificat, necunoscut din timpul unui an, zi,
lun, anotimp.

Exemple:
It is very cold in Winter.
I left Romania in 1989.

Alte prepoziii de timp:


after, by, since, during, for, throughout

119

Prepoziii cu substantive, adjective i verbe


Numeroase substantive, adjective i mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai
nsoite de prepoziiile care le ntregesc sensul.
SUBSTANTIVELE i PREPOZIIILE
approval of

fondness for

need for

awareness of

grasp of

participation in

belief in

hatred of

reason for

concern for

hope for

respect for

confusion about

interest in

success in

desire for

love of

understanding of

ADJECTIVELE i PREPOZIIILE
afraid of

fond of

proud of

angry at

happy about

similar to

aware of

interested in

sorry for

capable of

jealous of

sure of

careless about

made of

tired of

familiar with

married to

worried about

VERBELE i PREPOZIIILE
apologize for

give up

prepare for

ask about

grow up

study for

ask for

look for

talk about

belong to

look forward to

think about

bring up

look up

trust in

care for

make up

work for

find out

pay for

worry about

Combinaia dintre verbe i prepoziii se numete verb frazal (vezi Verbe frazale).
120

Expresii idiomatice cu prepoziii


o

agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle

argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition

compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes


similarities)

correspond to a thing, with a person

live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people

121

Exerciii:
1. Completai cu prepoziia corect:
of, on, at, to, with, in, for, along
1) His t-shirt has a picture
2) The queen

it.

England wanted to wear golden dress at her wedding.

3) I went

Brussels last week.

4) She spent the afternoon


5) We walked

her friends.

the banks of River Seine.

6) She's been waiting

me for about four hours.

7) What's the weather like


8) She was

Paris?

the cinema last evening.

2. Traducei n limba englez:


1) Mihaela a plecat la munte la ora 8 dimineaa.
2) Statuia este n faa stadionului.
3) n spatele operei se afl un hotel.
4) Trenul a trecut prin tunel foarte rapid.
5) Lui Philip i place s zboare deasupra oceanului.

3. Completai spaiile libere cu prepoziia corect:


in, on, at, to
1) They live

Dubai.

2) We are staying

a nice hotel.

3) Philip always plays tennis


4) They where very close
5) We got

the afternoon.
their cat.

the first train to Sibiu.

6) Romania is
7) You are going

Europe.
a city tour tomorrow.
122

ORDINEA CUVINTELOR N PROPOZIIE


Ordinea cuvintelor n propoziie este esenial pentru sensul propoziiei n limba
englez.
Engleza modern, sau engleza vorbit astzi este o limb analitic, ceea ce
nseamn c ordinea cuvintelor n propoziie este esenial pentru sensul
propoziiei. Spre deosebire de limbile analitice, limbile sintetice folosesc din
plin inflexiunile (n special terminaiile-sufixele) pentru a indica o schimbare a
funciei gramaticale a unui cuvnt.
Limba englez este de tipul SVO (Subject-Verb-Object = Subiect-Verb-Obiect):
Tim (subiect) drinks (verb) water (obiect).
Pe lng acest exemplu simplu, limba englez poate fi foarte complex n
domeniul ordinii cuvintelor n propoziie. n general, nceputul propoziiei
dezvluie care este elementul principal al propoziiei:
- Tom gave Mary a flower. (Tom i-a dat lui Mary o floare) - vorbitorul pune
accentul asupra lui Tom
- Mary got a flower from Tom. (Mary a primit o floare de la Tom) - atenia este
asupra lui Mary
- It is that flower that Tom gave to Mary. (Pe acea floare i-a dat-o Tom lui
Mary) - atenia este asupra florii
De asemenea, punctul de plecare poate fi i sub forma unei necunoscute, de
exemplu:
- What Tom gave Mary was a flower. (Ceea ce i-a dat Tom lui Mary a fost o
floare) - atenia este asupra a ceea ce Tom i-a dat lui Mary)
- What happened was that Tom gave Mary a flower. (Ceea ce s-a ntmplat a
fost c Tom i-a dat lui Mary o floare) - atenia este asupra a ceea ce s-a
ntmplat
123

Exemple
Propoziii afirmative:
Subiect

Verb(e)

Obiect

drink

water

must drink

water

Subiect
I

Verb(e)
will bring

Obiect indirect
you

Obiect direct

Loc

the book

Timp

at school

tomorrow

Propoziii negative:
Subiect
I

Verb(e)

Obiect indirect

will not bring

you

Obiect direct
the book

Loc

Timp

at school tomorrow

Propoziii interogative:
adv.

Verb

interogativ

auxiliar

What

Did

Subiect Verb(e)
he

want to

Obiect

Obiect

indirect

direct

Loc

Timp

you?

give
Did

they

have

dinner

at

last

home week?

124

EXPRESII IDIOMATICE
CITATE / EXPRESII

We have to look for the facts, not words.


Trebuie s ne uitm la fapte, nu la vorbe.

Two girls were in an elevator. At the third store the elevator stops.One of the girls
screams: Help!help Then told to the other one to try together. The other girl
screamed: Together!
Dou fete erau ntr-un lift. La etajul 3 liftul s-a oprit.Una din fete a ipat:
Ajutor!ajutor! Apoi i-a zis celeilalte s ncerce mpreun. Cealalt fat ip:
mpreun!

"Don't be sad, don't be blueFrankenstein was ugly too"


"Nu fi trist, nu fi suprat..i Frankentein era urt."

"He who laughs last, laughs best! But he who laughs first, sees the point"
"Cel care rde la urm, rde mai bine! Dar cel care rde primul, nelege
poanta"
''To be or not to be, this is the question
''A fi sau a nu fi, aceasta este ntrebarea...

125

1. To love means to forgive. (Father Savatie Bastovoi) 2. To love means to lose


control (Paulo Coelho) 3. To love means, maybe, to light up the best part in us.
(Octavian Paler in Scrisori imaginare) 4. To love means to be born. (Antoine
de Saint-Exupery) 5. To love means to risk not being loved back. (Leo
Buscaglia) 6. To love means to transform, to be a poet. (Norman O. Brown) 7.
To love means to put our happiness in someone else's happiness. (Gottfried
Leibniz) 8. To love means to want, to see, to touch, to feel, with all your senses
at once. (Henry Beyle Stendhal) 9. To love means searching for half of the
whole you used to be a part of. (Platon) 10. To love means to receive a piece of
heaven. (Karen Sunde) 11. To love means to admire with one's heart. (Theophile
Gautier)
1.A iubi nseamn a ierta. (Printele Savatie Bastovoi) 2.A iubi nseamn a
pierde controlul. (Paulo Coelho) 3.A iubi nseamn, poate, a lumina partea cea
mai frumoas din noi. (Octavian Paler n Scrisori imaginare) 4.A iubi
nseamn a te nate. (Antoine de Saint-Exupery) 5.A iubi nseamn a risca s nu
fii iubit n schimb. (Leo Buscaglia) 6.A iubi nseamn a transforma, a fi poet.
(Norman O. Brown) 7.A iubi nseamn a ne pune fericirea n fericirea altcuiva.
(Gottfried Leibniz) 8.S iubeti nseamn s doreti, s vezi, s atingi, s simi,
cu toate simurile deodat. (Henry Beyle Stendhal) 9.A iubi nseamn cutarea
jumtii ntregului din care ai fcut cndva parte. (Platon) 10.A iubi nseamn a
primi o frm de rai. (Karen Sunde) 11.A iubi nseamn a admira cu inima.
(Theophile Gautier)

A bad workman always blames his tools.


Un muncitor prost d ntotdeauna vina pe uneltele sale.

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.


O pasre n mn face mai mult dect dou psri din tufi.
126

A faithful friend is hard to find; remember man and keep in mind.


Un prieten adevrat este greu de gsit; s ii minte asta, omule.

A friend in need is a friend indeed.


Prietenul la greu se cunoate.

A smile doesn't cost anything.


Un zmbet nu cost nimic.

ABOUT TEACHING: -It's better to be unfed, than unlearned (English) -Learn


by while you cry and you will win while you laugh (Portuguese) -If you live a
century, you should be learning for a century (Russian) -The roots of learning are
bitter, but the fruits are sweet (Russian) -Wisdom makes one beauty in happiness
and strengthens one in hardship (Russian) -Anything you gain, you gain with
hardship (Romanian) -You have wisdom, you have gain (Romanian) - There is
no one too young or too old to learn -He who learns from others is an honest
thief (German) -Wisdom is the only noble thing (Chinese) -We are curious in the
measure we are trained (French) -He who learns continuously is a wise man
(Romanian) -He who knows has four eyes (Romanian) -Wisdom is a treasure
and work is it's key (Romanian).
DESPRE NVTUR: -Mai bine nehrnit, dect nenvat(englezesc) -nva
plngnd i vei ctiga rznd(portughez) -Un secol de trieti, un secol s
nvei(p.rusesc) -Rdcinile nvturii sunt amare, dar fructele sunt
dulci(rusesc) -nvtura nfrumuseeaz n fericire i consoleaz n
nenorocire(rusesc) -Orice cu btaie de cap se dobndete(romnesc) -Ai carte,
ai parte (romnesc) -Pentru a nva nu este nimeni prea btrn sau prea
tnr(german) -Cine nva de la altul e ho cinstit (german) -nvtura e
singurul lucru nobil, nlator(chinezesc) -Nu suntem curioi dect n masura n
127

care suntem instruii (francez) -Cel ce nva n continuu e om


detept(romnesc) -Cine tie carte, are patru ochi(romnesc) -nvtura la om
e comoar i munca e cheia ei(romnesc).

Absence makes the heart grow fonder.


Absena face inima s creasc.

Actions speak louder than words.


Faptele vorbesc mai mult decat cuvintele.

All good things come to those who wait.


Toate lucrurile bune se ntmpl celor ce ateapt.

All things grow with time - except grief.


Toate lururile trec, excepie face necazul.

Always imitate the behavior of the winners when you lose.


ntotdeauna imit comportamentul nvingtorilor atunci cnd pierzi.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.


Un mr pe zi ine doctorul la distan.

Appetite comes with eating.


Pofta vine mncnd.

As you make your bed, so you must lie upon it.


Asa cum i faci patul, trebuie s dormi n el.

128

Beauty passes away, stupidity doesn't.


Frumuseea-i trectoare, prostia nu.

Because I have faith...for that I still live...


Pentru c am credin...de aceea nc triesc

Better late than never, but better never late.


Mai bine mai trziu dect niciodata, dar...mai bine niciodat mai trziu.

Birds of a feather flock together.


Cine se aseamn, se adun.

Caught between the devil and the deep blue sea.


Prins ntre diavol i o mare adnc. (a trebui s alegi ntre dou variante,
ambele nedorite)

Curiosity killed the cat.


Curiozitatea a ucis pisica.

If you like to live, don't stay...


Daca i place viaa, nu atepta...

did u belive that i will love you, u wouldn't belive that you will love me, but
now we're togeder and nothing will separate us ever! i love you
N-ai fi crezut c o s te iubesc, n-ai fi crezut c m vei iubi, dar acum suntem
mpreun i nimeni i nimic nu ne va despri vreodata! Te iubesc!

129

Don't carry coal to Newcastle.


Nu vinde castravei grdinarului.

Don't cry over spilled milk.


Ce-a fost, a fost.

Don't judge me... 'cause you ain't me...


Nu m judeca....nu eti persoana mea...

Don't let for tommorow what you can do today, let it for the day after
tommorow or for the next week!
Nu lsa pe mine ce poi face azi, las-o pe poimine sau pe sptmna viitoare!

Don't put all your eggs in one basket.


Nu-i pune toate oule ntr-un singur cos.

Don't wash your dirty linen in public.


Nui spla rufele murdare n public.

Don't worry, be happy.


Nu te ngrijora, fii fericit.

Don't go near water if you cannot swim.


Nu te duce lng ap, dac nu tii s noi.

East or west, home is best.


Fie pinea ct de rea, tot mai bun-n ara ta.

130

Eat to live, not live to eat.


Mnnc pentru a tri, nu tri pentru a mnca.

Even the most beautiful rose has thorns.


Chiar i cel mai frumos trandafir are spini.
Every thing has it's beauty, but not everyone can see it
Orice lucru are frumuseea lui, dar nu oricine o vede...

Fashion is something that goes in one year and out the other.
Moda este ceva care apare ntr-un an i dispare n altul.

Friends may come and go, but enemies accumulate.


Prietenii vin i pleac, dumanii se nmulesc.

Great minds think alike and fools seldom differ.


Minile strlucite gndesc la fel i protii rareori difer.

Haste makes waste.


Graba stric treaba.

He laughs best who laughs last.


Cine rde la urm, rde mai bine.

He, who loves the money, will never have enough.


Acela care iubete banii, nu va avea niciodat suficieni.

131

Who talks to himself, talks to a fool.


Cine vorbete cu el nsui, vorbete cu un nebun.

Home, sweet home.


Cas, dulce cas.

Honesty is the best policy.


Cinstea este cea mai bun politic.

I am not what I am, not more nor less.


Nu sunt ceea ce sunt, nici mai mult nici mai puin.

I want to be singer...but I haven't aptitude for this...I want to be painter, but I don't
know to paint...and...I want to be loved by somebody...exactly, I wish to be
human...I want to love and to be loved.
A vrea s fiu cntre...ns nu am talent pentru asta...a vrea s fiu pictor, dar
nu tiu s pictez...i...a vrea s fiu iubit de cineva...de fapt, mi doresc s fiu
om...s iubesc i s fiu iubit.

If evil doesn't exist, how do we know that good is good?


Dac nu ar fi rul, cum am ti care este binele?

If love is the ripper, than I am the priest...!!!


Dac dragostea este moartea, atunci eu sunt popa...!!!

If the life is harsh, then you have to be harsher than it.


Daca viaa este dur, tu trebuie s fii mai dur dect ea.

132

If we were never to meet again I would say that my life was worth living just for
that unique encounter with you.
i daca ar fi fost s nu ne mai fi vzut niciodata, tot a fi zis c viaa mea a
meritat trita doar pentru acea unic ntlnire cu tine.
If you believe in dreams...then you will sleep all your life time
Dac crezi n vise...atunci vei dormi toat viaa...

If you don't know me....don't judge me!


Dac nu m cunoti...nu m judeca!

Ignorance is bliss.
Prost s fii, noroc s ai.

In a happy man's world there's only happiness.


n lumea unui om fericit exist doar fericire.

In love with life.


ndrgostii de via.

It is nice to be important, but is more important to be nice.


Este bine s fii important, dar este mai important s fii bun.

It's not enough to do your best. First you have to know what you're doing,
THEN you have to do your best.
Nu-i suficient s faci tot ce-i mai bun. nti trebuie s tii ce s faci, APOI s
faci ce-i mai bun.

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Knowledge is power.
Cunoaterea nseamn putere.

Let bygones be bygones.


Ce-a fost, a fost.

Lies have short legs.


Minciuna are picioare scurte.

Life is the most common disease transmissible through sex.


Viaa este cea mai rspndit boal transmis pe cale sexual.

Like father, like son.


Aa tat, aa fiu.

Live and let live.


Triete i las(-i)(i pe alii) s triasc.

Look before you leap.


Uit-te nainte s sari.

Love exists for us to be, Love exists to make us free, And to make a bond
between You and me.
Dragostea-i ca noi s fim, Dragostea-i ca liberi s trim, i ea face legmntul
ntre Tu i eu.

Love is blind.
Dragostea e oarb.
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Make hay while the sun shines.


F un lucru ct nc poi.

Making a mountain out of a mole hill.


S faci un munte dintr-un muuroi de crti (S faci din nar armsar).

Man learns all life, but he dies unlearned!


Omul nva toat viaa, dar tot nenvat moare!

My brother thinks he is a chicken. Take him to a doctor, then. I can't. We need


the eggs.
Fratele meu se crede gin. Du-l la doctor atunci. Nu pot. Avem nevoie de ou.

Near is my shirt, but nearer is my skin.


Cmaa e mai aproape dect sumanul.

Never judge a book by its cover.


Nu judeca niciodat o carte dup copert.

Never let your feet run faster than your shoes.


Nu lsa picioarele s o ia naintea pantofilor.

Never say never.


Niciodat s nu spui niciodat.

Never too old to learn.


Niciodat prea btrn pentru a nva.

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Never trouble trouble, till trouble troubles you.


Nu necji niciodat necazul, pn nu te necjete el pe tine.

No man is born wise.


Niciun om nu se nate nelept.

Not all that glitters is gold.


Nu tot ce strlucete este aur.

One good turn deserves another!


Dup fapt, i rsplat!

Out of sight, out of mind!


Ochii care nu se vd, se uit!

Out of the frying pan and into the fire.


A iei din tigaie, i apoi s cazi n foc. (a scpa dintr-o situaie dificil, apoi a
intra ntr-una i mai dificil)

Passion is a sort of fever in the mind, which ever leaves us weaker than it found
us.
Pasiunea e un tip de agitaie n mintea noastr, care totdeauna ne las mai
vulnerabili dect la nceput.

Practice makes perfect.


Exerciiul te aduce la perfeciune.

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Promise little but do much.


Promite puin dar f mult.

Save for a rainy day.


Pstreaz pentru zile ploioase.

Seduce my mind and you can have my body. Find my soul and I'm yours
forever.
Cucerete-mi mintea i mi poi avea trupul. Gsete sufletul i sunt al tu/a ta
mereu.

Sir, I admit your general rule, that every poet is a foul. But you, yourself may
serve to show it that every foul is not a poet.
Domnule, recunosc regula dvs. general, c orice poet este nebun, dar tot dvs.
v putei folosi de acest lucru pentru a arta c nu orice nebun este poet.

Sometimes you have to go away in order to come back.


Uneori trebuie s pleci pentru a putea reveni.

Speech is silver, silence is gold.


Vorbitul este de argint, tcerea e de aur.

Still waters run deep.


Apele linitite sunt adnci (firea ascuns a omului).

Strow hat in a leg, guess mushroom what it is?


Plrie ntr-un picior, ghici ciuperc ce-i?

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The animals are animals, but the human is more animal than an animal. Keep
that in your mind, because I know what I say!
Animalele sunt animale, dar omul este mai animal dect un animal. inei minte
asta pentru c tiu ce zic!

The best things in life arent things.


Lucrurile importante din via nu sunt doar lucrurile.

The end?...no...the journey doesn't end here...death is just another path...one that
we all must take...
Sfritul?...nu...cltoria nu se termin aici...moarte este doar o alt parte...la
care lum parte cu toii...

The heart don't listen the laws...


Inima nu ascult de legi...

There is life after life and after separation too.


Exist via venic, i deci i via dup divor / desprire.

There is more than one way to skin a cat.


Exita mai multe modaliti de a jupui o pisic. (Cu sensul de: sunt mai multe
moduri n care poi s faci un anumit lucru)

Think over before doing something!!!


Gndete-te bine nainte s faci ceva!!!

Time is money.
Timpul nseamn bani.
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Time is what we want most, but what we use worst.


Timpul este lucrul care ni-l dorim cel mai mult, dar cel mai prost folosit.

Two throw a priest from a belfry...The priest grudge down and die. The first said
to the other : -I sad he is a priest but you :\"Batman,Batman\".
Doi aurolaci arunc un preot dintr-o clopotni...Preotul cade jos i moare...
Primul aurolac i spune celuilalt: - i-am zis c e preot, dar tu: \"Batman,
Batman\"

What goes around, comes around.


Ce pleac, vine napoi.

What is the difference between a lover and a husband?-30 minutes


Care este diferena dintre amant i so?-30 de minute

What is the difference between a mistress and a wife?- 30 kilos


Care este diferena dintre amant i soie?-30 de kilograme

What it was and what became.


Ce a fost i ce a ajuns.

What was will be, what is will be no more.


Ce-a fost va fi, ce e nu va mai fi.

What you don't like, don't do to others.


Ce ie nu-i place, altuia nu-i face.

Whatever you are, be a good one!


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Orice ai fi (ncearc) s fii unul bun!

When 2 enemys are meeting, better not to ask them what time it is.
Cnd 2 inamici se ntlnesc mai bine s nu i ntrebi ct e ceasul.
When we believe to know all the answers...then the questions change
Cnd credem c tim toate rspunsurile...deodata se schimb ntrebrile...

When you say yes...your whole life is finished...


Cnd zici da ... toat viaa ta e terminat.

Where there's a will, there's a way.


Unde este voin se gsete i posibilitate.

Who gets burn with soup, blows in youghurt also.


Cine se arde cu ciorba sufl i-n iaurt.

Why do you weep? What are these tears upon your face? Soon you will see all
of your fears will pass away!!!
De ce plngi? Ce este cu acele lacrimi de pe faa ta? n curnd vei vedea c
toate temerile vor disprea...

Women always worry about the things that men forget; men always worry about
the things women remember.
Femeile se ngrijoreaz mereu de lucrurile pe care le uit brbaii; brbaii se
ngrijoreaz mereu de lucrurile pe care i le amintesc femeile.

You can never tell what the future has in store for you.
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Niciodat nu poi s tii ce i rezerv viitorul.

You can't have your cake and eat it too.


Nu poi s ai prjitura i s o i mnnci.

You can't teach an old dog new tricks.


Nu poi nva un cine btrn mecherii noi.

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RSPUNSURI LA EXERCIII

Adverbul
1. Cunoscnd urmtoarele procente corespunztoare adverbelor de
frecven, realizai propoziiile de mai jos, conform modelului.
never ---> 0% rarely
---> 10% sometimes
---> 25% often --->
50% usually --->
75% always --->
100%

a) I / eat / cake / afternoon. (25%)


I sometimes eat cake in the afternoon.
b) Tim / sleep / living - room (50%)
Tim often sleeps in the living-room.
c) I / go / school / Sunday (0%)
I never go to school on Sunday.
d) Dennis / play / tennis / weekends (100%)
Dennis always plays tennis on weekends.
e) She / run / park / morning (10%)
She rarely runs in the park in the morning.

2. Transformai urmtoarele adjective n adverbe:


horrible ---> horribly
careful ---> carefully
nervous ---> nervously
desperate ---> desperately
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slow ---> slowly


sudden ---> suddenly
bright ---> brightly
proud ---> proudly

3. Subliniai termenul corect din urmtoarele propoziii:


a) Denisa was wearing a pretty / prettily dress at the wedding.
b) I had a terrible / terribly dream last night.
c) Final / Finally, she passed the exam.
d) She was walking rapid / rapidly.
e) Sam is fluent / fluently in French.
f) Was your grammar test easy / easily?
g) They were talking loud / loudly so everybody could hear them.

4) Alegei varianta corect:


1. Please don't talk so loudly. I'm trying to sleep.
2. We usually go on picnics on weekends. We love fresh air.
3. The bouquet was beautiful. She loved it.
4. James carefully put the broken glass into the rubbish bin.

Prepoziia
1. Completai cu prepoziia corect:
of, on, at, to, with, in, for, along

1) His t-shirt has a picture on it.


2) The queen of England wanted to wear golden dress at her wedding.
3) I went in Brussels last week.
4) She spent the afternoon with her friends.
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5) We walked along the banks of River Seine.


6) She's been waiting for me for about four hours.
7) What's the weather like in Paris?
8) She was at the cinema last evening.

2. Traducei n limba englez:


1) Mihaela a plecat la munte la ora 8 dimineaa.
Mihaela went to the mountain at 8 oclock in the morning.
2) Statuia este n faa stadionului.
The statue is in front of the stadium.
3) n spatele operei se afl un hotel.
Behind the opera there is a hotel.
4) Trenul a trecut prin tunel foarte rapid.
The train passed through the tunnel rapidly.
5) Lui Philip i place s zboare deasupra oceanului.
Philip likes flying across the ocean.

3. Completai spaiile libere cu prepoziia corect:


in, on, at, to

1) They live in Dubai.


2) We are staying at a nice hotel.
3) Philip always plays tennis in the afternoon.
4) They where very close to their cat.
5) We got on the first train to Sibiu.
6) Romania is in Europe.
7) You are going on a city tour tomorrow.
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Teme de discuie pentru semestrul II:

I
1. Write your CV and a letter of application for a position you are
interested in.

2. Describe in 20-25 lines the structure and activity of a company you know
well.

3. Translate into Romanian:

"A sole proprietorship is a one-man business in which one person is alone


responsible for decision-making and the raising of capital, though there may be
several other people working in the firm. It is in this type of business that the
entrepreneur, the organiser of the production, can be most easily identified as it
is here that the functions of the entrepreneur are united in one person -those of
innovation, risk-taking and profit-earning. Not all sole proprietors are
innovators, many take over established business, but they all risk their own
capital. Though the sole proprietor enjoys the unity of purpose and flexibility of
a small organisation, the price of failure can be very high."
(adapted from Ciuciuc, Olea and Eugenia Tnsescu. English for Business
Purposes. Teora, 1998, p. 80)

4. Translate into English, paying attention to the use of tenses:


1) Lucrez la aceast firm de patru ani, dar nu am mai ntlnit niciodat o
asemenea situaie.
2) Am studiat cu atenie concluziile departamentului de marketing i cred c nu
putem lansa nc noul nostru produs.
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3) Din analizele financiare rezult c aceast firm a cheltuit luna trecut mai
mult dect i putea permite.
4) Firma lui a dat faliment i el nu i-a gsit nc un alt post de contabil.
5) Suntem pe punctul de a lua o msur deosebit de important referitoare la
strategia de dezvoltare a departamentului de marketing.
6) Vom consulta baza de date pentru a obine aceste informaii. Pn lunea
viitoare vom gsi varianta optim pentru rezolvarea acestei probleme.

II
1. Develop a short questionnaire (maximum 10 questions) for the following
research project.
Definition of problem and objectives
A holiday company wants to assess the potential sales of a new adventure
holiday in Scotland. The research objectives are descriptive -to describe/quantify
the potential in the male adult population for a one-week adventure holiday
involving climbing, canoeing, walking, sailing, etc.
Research plan
To carry out a survey by mail targeted at a sample of adult males between 25
and 40 years old, using a questionnaire, testing the market for a product
(specify) or service (specify).

2. Compare a product you know well with two other similar products from
different manufacturers. Write at least 10 sentences.

3. Translate into Romanian:


"Marketing has been very much in vogue since the sixties. But it is not a
fashion, it is a basic need. Indeed, since the fifties, we have evolved from the

146

economy of production that prevailed until then to the market economy that has
become worldwide.
In a producer's economy, if one wants to sell a product, one manufactures it
one's way and offers it for sale as such: it will normally sell, since it is "good".
In a market economy, this no longer works. One must first ascertain what the
buyers want, expect, desire, before manufacturing the relevant product, and then
advertise it to prompt them to buy. This is the marketing approach, which can be
said to be 'a series of techniques organised into a method and implemented with
a view to meeting natural or generated needs, under the best psychological
conditions for the customers, and the best financial ones for producer and
distributor'.
To have the proper marketing attitude is to always seek, analyse, question, never
to take things for granted, to be aware of the constant renewal of the social and
business environment, and thus to be permanently on the alert to adjust to
changes and, even better, to anticipate them if possible."
(adapted from Engleza pentru marketing i publicitate. Teora, 2000, pp. 6-8)

4. Translate into English, paying attention to the ways of expressing


permission, possibility, probability and certainty:
1) N-am putut niciodat nelege ce i fcea s resping acest proiect. S-ar fi
putut asocia cu cine ar fi vrut.
2) S-ar putea s nu fiu prea ndemnatic, dar mcar tiu ce vreau.
3) Pot s m uit puin prin documentele ce urmeaz s fie analizate n edina de
mine?
4) M gndesc c s-ar fi putut s-i spun ceva despre registrele companiei.
5) Ne-ai fcut un mare serviciu. tiam c ne putem ncrede n tine.
5. Comment on the following statement (25-30 lines):
"Marketing is the creation and delivery of a standard of living."
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Nume:
Data:
TEST DE EVALUARE A CUNOTINELOR
DOBNDITE LA LIMBA ENGLEZ

1. Turn these nouns into their plural form:


potato; chief; city; box; day; shelf; wife.

2. Shorten these sentences into one or two words:


a. A shelf on which you put books is a .
b. A shop where books are sold is a .
c. That who sells books is a .
d. A pie filled with apples is an

3. Correct the errors you may find:


a. We has finish our meal when the door-bell rang.
b. Why didnt they took a taxi?
c. I feel miserably when it rain.

4. Choose the correct form from the words in the brackets:


a. No news (is/are) good news.
b. She always gives me good (advice/advices).

5. Make up sentences of your own using the following words:


event, polite, team, mosquito

6. Find the right ending:


a. He likes
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b. Lucy enjoys ..
c. I hate

7. Supply the right preposition:


a. They will be back . three hours.
b. I graduated . 1990.
c. Lucy hates travelling . night.
d. He never goes to his office . foot.
e. She used to go . the seaside when she was younger.
8. Put many or much where necessary:
a. There are . cars in Bucharest.
b. There is . time to study all this.
c. How pieces of information do you need?
d. How information do you need?
e. She asks me too . questions.

9. Choose the correct form from the verbs in brackets:


a. Who (has become/became) Queen of England in 1952?
b. You ought (to tell/tell) the truth.
c. It (rained/has rained).
d. This cake (tastes/is tasting) good.
e. They cant (afford/to afford) a car of their own.

10.Find the antonyms (opposite words) for:


polite; nice; host; heavy; enemy.

11.Complete the dialogue below. Use the following words:


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walk; wont; rain; weather; open; warm; would.


Tommy: Whats the . like today?
Mark: Its a beautiful autumn day. It be good for you to
spend a day in the ..
Tommy: Good idea! Wheres my coat?
Mark: It must be in the hall. But you . need a coat today. It is
going to get
Tommy: Are you sure that it isnt going to .?
Mark: Yes, Im sure.
Tommy: So lets go for a . !

12.Match the Prepositional phrases with the suitable meaning:


a) pe leau

1) in turn
2) in plain English

b) la strmtoare

3) in no time

c) sub tipar

4) in chancery

d) pe rnd

5) in the press

e) ct ai zice pete

13. Find the adjectives corresponding to the following nouns:


generosity; comfort; delight; charm; health.

14.Give the name of the person involved in these activities:


e.g.

teaching

= teacher

cooking

serving in a shop

serving in a restaurant

delivering letters

=
150

15.Turn these sentences into the negative:


- I saw him working here yesterday.
- They decided to leave the town.
- She is very fond of learning foreign languages.
- They were sleeping when I returned home.

16.Find synonyms (words with same meaning) for:


whole; important; revolt; gorgeous.

17.Choose the correct form:


a. a ten-months calendar / a ten-month calendar
b. a six-hour journey / a six-hours journey
c. a three-room flat / a three-rooms flat
d. a two-years old boy / a two-year old boy
18.Insert the preposition to where necessary:
a. Explain them how to do it!
b. He sent . her a basket of yellow roses.
c. She introduced .. her parents the young man she had met
at Marys birthday party.
d. The postman brought the morning newspaper.

19.Find the diminutives for:


chick; book; leaf; duck; George.

20.Find antonyms (opposite words) for:


cheap; noise; pleasant; fast; cold.
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21.Write the adjectives corresponding to the following nouns:


wind; taste; cloud; rain; sun; luck.

22.Write the missing forms:


a. bad / worse / the ../
b. good / / the best/
c. late / ./ the last/
23.Add the prefix dis- to form opposites of the following words:
verbs: to mount; to like; to organize; to place
nouns: advantage; honesty; honor; information
adjectives: pleased; passionate; loyal; jointed.

24.What is your daily programme? (10-15 lines)

152

PSYCHOLOGICAL TODAY ISSUES


Mixed Signals
You likely see yourself very differently from the way others see you. A little
self-awareness can prevent a lot of misunderstanding.
"I'll be there at 2 p.m. sharp," Kirsten assures me as we set up our next research
meeting. I make note of it in my calendarbut I put it down as 3 p.m. It's not
that Kirsten is trying to fool me; she's just deluded about her time-management
skills. After a long history of meetings to which she shows up an hour late, I've
realized I have to make allowances for her self-blinding optimism. I don't have
unique insightany of her friends would make the same prediction. In the
domain of punctuality, others know Kirsten better than she knows herself.
The difference between how you see yourself and how others see you is not just
a matter of egocentrism. Like Kirsten, we all have blind spots. We change our
self-conception when we see ourselves through others' eyes. Part of the
discrepancy arises because the outsider's perspective affords information you
yourself misslike the fact that it looks like you're scowling when you're
listening, or that you talk over other people.
How well we understand ourselves has a profound impact on our ability to
navigate the social realm. In some areas, we know ourselves better than others
do. But in other areas, we're so biased by our need to see ourselves in a good
light that we become strangers to ourselves. By soliciting feedback from other
people, we can learn more about ourselves and how we're coming off. Only by
understanding how we're seen can we make sure we're sending the right signals.
To be understood by others, in other words, the first step is understanding
ourselves.
153

There Is No Perfect Point of View


How do you cut through the fog and learn to see yourselfand othersclearly?
Different perspectives provide different information on the self. To bring some
order to all the things that can be known about you, it helps to divide them into
four categories.
First, there are "bright spots"things known by both you and others, like the
fact that you're politically conservative or talkative. Studies show that traits like
extroversion, talkativeness, and dominance are easily observable both to the self
and to others. If everyone thinks you're a chatterbox, you probably are.
Second are "dark spots"things known by neither you nor others. These could
include deep unconscious motives that drive your behaviors, like the fact that
your relentless ambition is driven by the need to prove wrong your parents'
assumption that you'd never amount to much. T hird are "personal spots"
things known only by you, like your tendency to get anxious in crowds or your
contempt for your coworkers. And finally, there are "blind spots"things
known only by others, which can include such factors as your level of hostility
and defensiveness, your attractiveness, and your intelligence.
The most interesting are the latter twopersonal spots and blind spotssince
they involve discrepancies between how we see ourselves and how others see
us.
Why You're Less Transparent Than You Think
We're not entirely deluded about ourselves. We have pretty unrestricted access,
for instance, to what we like and believe; if you think you're in favor of tighter
regulation for car emissions or that Bon Iver is your favorite band right now,
who am I to argue? Even if you don't know the mysterious unconscious motives
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underlying what you like and do, you're still the best source of information
about your attitudes, beliefs, and preferences.
We often think others are aware of our anxiety or our darkest feelings, but
research shows they're actually poor judges of our emotions, intentions, and
thoughts. Thomas Gilovich, a psychologist at Cornell, has found that numerous
obstacles and psychological biases stand in the way of knowing how you're seen
by others. We overestimate the extent to which our internal states are detectable
to othersa bias known as the "illusion of transparency." We also overestimate
the extent to which our behavior and appearance are noticed and evaluated by
othersa bias known as the "spotlight effect."
We're good at judging our own self-esteem, optimism and pessimism, and
anything to do with how we feel. So for instance, others may think you're very
calm when in fact you're so anxious in large groups that your palms sweat and
your heart rate soars.
Personal spots exist because others know how you behave, but they don't know
your intentions or feelings, explains Simine Vazire, director of the Personality
and Self-Knowledge Lab at Washington University. "If you're quiet at a party,
people don't know if it's because you're arrogant and you think you're better than
everyone else or because you're shy and don't know how to talk to people," she
says. "But you know, because you know your thoughts and feelings. So things
like anxiety, optimism and pessimism, your tendency to daydream, and your
general level of happinesswhat's going on inside of you, rather than things
you dothose are things other people have a hard time knowing."

155

Why Your Intelligence and Attractiveness Elude You


There are a lot of reasons to think you'd be the best judge of you. After all,
you've known you longer than anyone else (except, perhaps, your parents).
You've spent more time with you than anyone else. You see yourself in all kinds
of situations, from solitary reflective moments in your home to dazzling parties
surrounded by friends and strangers.
But you're also very biased; you have a vested interest in seeing yourself as
decent and competent, and not evil or inept. When it comes to traits that matter
to our self-esteem, we tend to have positive delusionsmeaning on these
dimensions, others see us more accurately than we see ourselves. "Other men's
sins are before our eyes," said the Roman philosopher Seneca. "Our own are
behind our backs." You rarely get to participate in gossip sessions about
yourself, and you have only limited access to how people react to you and what
they say.
"It's difficult to judge your own intelligence or other traits you have a lot
invested in," explains Vazire. When people are asked to rank their own
intelligence, their ratings don't match their scores on IQ tests. (When researchers
ask our friends or others who know us well, on the other hand, they're actually
fairly good judgesbecause they have a less clouded lens.) The same goes for
honesty. Such positive delusions about the self are often adaptive, boosting our
confidence and helping us recover more quickly from rejection.
By the same token, we're not very aware of how attractive we arenot just
because we have an interest in seeing ourselves as beautiful, but also because we
only see ourselves through our own eyes. Ditto for body language. "It's just so
salient to other people," explains Vazire. "It's a matter of physical perspective
your own body isn't in your visual field. So in addition to the psychological
156

advantage of being more objective, other people also have a physical advantage
in detecting your overt behaviors."
If you do know how irritating or attractive you are, it's probably via direct or
indirect feedback from others. At work you may find that, despite setting
everyone straight on a few issues when you last served on a committee, you
haven't been asked to serve on any since then. If the attributes are positive
such as the fact that everyone likes you or that you're very attractivepeople are
more likely to come straight out and tell you about them. If they're negative,
they may forever remain unknown to you.
When Perceptions Clash
Even if you think other people are misguided, their perceptions of your character
probably do reflect things you do habitually. One striking set of studies recently
showed that a spouse's ratings of a person's anxiety, anger, dominance, and
solitariness are better than self-ratings at predicting heart disease. The
implication: Our spouses are better judges of such traits than we are.
When people are asked how long they think their romantic relationship will last,
they're not very good at estimating the right answer. Their friends, it turns out,
fare far better. But if you ask people how satisfied they are in a relationship,
their ratings accurately predict how long they'll stay together. In many cases, we
have the necessary information to understand things as they arebut our blind
spots don't allow us to take it into account.
When there's a disagreement between the self and others, it can be because it's a
blind spot and you can't see yourself as you really are. But it can also be the sign
of a personal spotan area where you see yourself more accurately than others
do. Take Brian Little, a professor who taught a legendary class on personality
157

psychology at Harvard. According to those who saw him lecture, he was


eloquent and garrulous, brimming with ebullience and energy. Unsurprisingly,
he was widely known by his students as a raging extrovert.
Yet Little disagrees. He insists it's all an act executed in the service of being a
good teacher. Should we believe him? Isn't it possible, after all, that extroversion
is a blind spot of his?
But if you take a wider perspective and view Professor Little in multiple
contexts, his version gathers credenceyou learn, for example, that he's much
happier engaged in a one-on-one conversation in a quiet corner of a restaurant
than he is flitting from person to person at a noisy party. Unlike a true extrovert,
who's energized by the social stimulation of teaching a large class, Little is
exhausted afterwardswhich is why, after many lectures, he locks himself in a
bathroom stall to recover from the excessive stimulation. That's why it's
important to view people across a diverse range of contexts before jumping to
conclusions about what they're like.
Are You Sending the Wrong Signals?
Many of us have times when we are misunderstood. People perceive us as cold
and unfriendly when we're really just feeling shy, as flirtatious when we're just
trying to be friendly, or as depressed when we're just tired. Being misunderstood
is largely a problem of a lack of informationnot communicating effectively
with the people around you through your words and body language.
For many years, Randall Colvin of Northeastern University has been studying
the attributes of people who are easily judgedpeople others just "get." Colvin
found that easily judgeable people tend to be extroverted, warm, consistent, and
emotionally stable. These traits are known as "amplifiers" because they increase
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the expression of other traits. It's easier to judge the creativity of an extrovert
than that of an introvert, for example, because the extrovert sends a barrage of
thoughts your way, while the introvert might keep them to herself.
Extroversion amplifies other traits because extroverts simply say and do more.
The enormous amount of verbal and behavioral information they furnish makes
extroverts easier to understand on all aspects of personality, not just their
extroversion.
People are also easier to judge if they have a quality called "blirtatiousness," the
tendency to respond to others quickly and effusively. It's one of the best
amplifiers identified to dateblurters are open books.
So if you feel misunderstood, say and do more. Even introverts can train
themselves to communicate more through their wordstelling people directly
what they like and how they feel. But before you can work on making sure
you're sending the right signals, you'll need to know how others are perceiving
you.
To See Ourselves as Others See Us
Even if you're clueless about how you're seen, you may occasionally stumble
onto a glimpse of how others see you. An overheard conversation or a carelessly
forwarded email may allow us, as the 18th century Scottish poet Robert Burns
put it, "To see oursel's as ithers see us." I had my own moment of self-insight
recently, accidentally furnished by a group of friends as I was recounting a
story. "Now, I see myself as a pretty sensitive guy," I beganat which point my
audience simultaneously did double takes and exchanged stunned looks. Huh.
Perhaps I'm not as sensitive as I imagine!

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Millions of first impressions are now formed online. So along with Simine
Vazire and my student Sam Gaddis, I decided to examine how well people
understand the impressions they're making with their Facebook profiles. We
found that people know how extroverted they seem, but are clueless about the
other impressions they convey. So Danielle knows she's seen as an introvert, but
doesn't realize she's also seen as dependable, laid-back, and creative.
Why are we so hopeless at knowing how we come across? Because we not only
fail to consider the information used by observers, but we also actively take into
account information observers fail to consider, according to John Chambers, a
psychologist at the University of Florida.
You may know you're less reckless than you used to be, more talkative than
your friends, and less productive than you might wish. But such information
about your past, your friends, and your wishes is not easily accessible to others.
Even so, when guessing what others think of you, you'll find it almost
impossible to disregard all the things you know about yourself to which others
don't have access.
How you're seen does matter. Social judgment forms the basis for social
interaction itself. Almost every decision others make about you, from
promotions to friendships to marriages, is based on how people see you. So even
if you never learn what you're really like, learning how others perceive you is a
worthwhile goal.
The solution is asking others what they see. The best way to do this is to solicit
their opinions directlythough just asking your mom won't cut it. You'll need to
get feedback from multiple peopleyour friends, coworkers, family, and, if you
can, your enemies. Offer the cloak of anonymity without which they wouldn't
dare share the brutal truththe Facebook app "Honesty Box," for instance,
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allows people to send you anonymous notes. You may also want to videotape
yourself to get a more objective perspective.
To provide users with systematic feedback on how their personality traits were
viewed by multiple others, my collaborators David Evans and Anthony Carroll
and I developed a Facebook application called YouJustGetMe, which helped
users understand the signals they were sending with their Facebook profiles.
Sure enough, people were surprised by the feedback they got. People were seen
as less open-minded and neurotic than they saw themselvesbut more
dependable, warm, and outgoing.
Getting an outsider's perspective actually provides you new information. In a
classic study, Richard Robins of the University of California at Davis and Oliver
John of Berkeley examined how people viewed their own contributions to a
group discussion task. First, subjects were asked to rate their own performance.
Then they watched a video of the discussion. When asked again what they
thought of their performance after seeing the video, people downgraded their
evaluations of how well they didbringing their assessments more in line with
those of others.
In Akira Kurosawa's epic movie Rashomon, four witnesses provide only
partially overlappingand at times contradictoryaccounts of the same
robbery. In the same way, no single perspective on the self is complete. That's
why we need to augment our self-views with the views of others, not only to
overcome our personal biases, but also because other people have access to
information we miss.
There's a lot to be learned about ourselves and others by seeking multiple
perspectives. Even Kirsten could learn something about her punctuality issues

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by supplementing her own views with information provided by others. All she
needs to do is set up a meeting to solicit feedback from them. Oh, wait!

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