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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr.

4/2011

RECIDIVA PERSOANEI JURIDICE

RELAPSE OF THE LEGAL PERSON IN

N REGLEMENTAREA NOULUI COD

THE SETTLEMENT OF THE NEW

PENAL

CRIMINAL CODE

Lect. univ. Elena-Giorgiana


SIMIONESCU
Departamentul tiine Juridice
Facultatea de Administraie Public i Studii
Politice Comparate
Universitatea Constantin Brncui din
Trgu-Jiu

Lect. univ. Elena-Giorgiana


SIMIONESCU
Department of Juridical Sciences
Faculty of Public Administration and
Compared Political Studies
University Constantin Brncui of TrguJiu

Abstract:
Persoanele juridice, fiind o
realitate incontestabil, se pot manifesta i prin
comiterea de infraciuni. Ca i persoana fizic,
persoana juridic poate svri o pluralitate de
infraciuni sub orice form a acesteia: concurs de
infraciuni, recidiv sau pluralitate intermediar.

Abstract: Legal persons, being an


incontestable reality, can be manifested also by
committing transgressions. As a natural person, the
legal person can make a plurality of transgressions
under any of its forms: groups of transgressions,
relapse or intermediary plurality.

Cuvinte cheie: recidiva persoanei juridice,


Noul Cod penal, termenii recidivei, condamnri care
nu atrag starea de recidiv, tratament sancionator

Key words: relapse of the legal person, New


Criminal code, terms of relapse, convictions not
leading to the relapse status, sanctionatory treatment

I. Aspecte generale privind recidiva


persoanei juridice
n teoria dreptului penal se apreciaz
c rspunderea persoanei juridice i gsete
legitimare n necesiti de ordin practic,
impuse de realitile economico-sociale
contemporane1. Instituia recidivei persoanei
juridice este consacrat n noul Cod penal
ntr-un titlu special, titlul VI, intitulat
Rspunderea penal a persoanei juridice,
cap. III Dispoziii comune.
Pornind de la reglementarea art. 146
din noul Cod penal, recidiva persoanei
juridice poate fi definit ca o form a
pluralitii de infraciuni care exist cnd,
dup rmnerea definitiv a unei hotrri de
condamnare i pn la reabilitare, persoana
juridic svrete din nou o infraciune, cu
intenie sau cu intenie depit.
Ceea ce caracterizeaz recidiva
persoanei juridice este svrirea ulterioar a

I. General aspects concerning the


relapse of the legal person
In the theory of the Criminal law is
considered that the responsibility of the legal
person finds legitimating in needs of
practical order, imposed by the contemporary
economic-social realities10. The institution of
the legal person relapse is dedicated in the
new Criminal Code in a special title, title
VI, named Criminal responsibility of the
legal person, chapter III Common
disposals.
According to the settlement of art.
146 from the new Criminal Code, the relapse
of the legal person can be defined as a form
of the group of transgressions existing when,
after such a condemning decision remains
definitive and until rehabilitation, the legal
person performs again a transgression, with
intent or exceeded intent.
What characterizes the relapse of the

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unei noi infraciuni cu intenie de ctre


acelai subiect activ care las s se cread c
pedeapsa a fost insuficient dup prima
condamnare definitiv sau dup executarea
unei pedepse anterioare. Acesta este motivul
pentru care legiuitorul a instituit un regim
sancionator mai sever n cazul recidivei
dect n cazul concursului de infraciuni.
Pn nu demult, evidenierea
antecedentelor penale ale persoanei juridice
n vederea reinerii strii de recidiv se
realiza prin intermediul meniunilor efectuate
n evidenele inute de ctre organul care a
autorizat nfiinarea persoanei juridice i
organul care a nregistrat persoana juridic2.
Din anul 2009, nregistrarea n
cazierul judiciar a evidenelor persoanelor
juridice care au sediul social pe raza
administrativ-teritorial a judeului, respectiv
a municipiului Bucureti, se face la
inspectoratele de poliie i la Direcia
General de Poliie a Municipiului
Bucureti3.
Din examinarea dispoziiilor legale se
poate observa c termenii recidivei persoanei
juridice pot fi constituii din oricare dintre
infraciunile intenionate posibile a fi comise
de o persoan juridic, neavnd relevan
gradul de pericol social concret ori abstract
Ideea c orice
al acelei infraciuni4.
pedeaps cu amend penal, indiferent de
cuantumul ei, poate constitui prim termen al
recidivei
postcondamnatorii
sau
postexecutorii, nu poate ntemeia concluzia
c legiuitorul ar fi instituit o recidiv
general n cazul persoanei juridice5.
Dup cum rezult din textul de lege,
sesizm c infraciunea sau infraciunile
trebuie s fie svrite de aceeai persoan
juridic, cu intenie, indiferent de calitatea sa
(autor, instigator sau complice). Unitatea de
subiect activ este de esena pluralitii de
infraciune a crei form este i recidiva.
O alt observaie ar fi aceea c
legiuitorul, folosind expresia persoana
juridic svrete, din nou, o infraciune cu
intenie sau cu intenie depit, a lsat s se
neleag din context c i condamnarea

legal person is the ulterior commitment of a


new transgression, intentionally, by the same
active person who makes it understand that
the punishment has been insufficient after the
first definitive conviction or after executing a
previous punishment. This is the reason for
which the legislator made a stricter
sanctionatory regime in case of relapse more
that in the case of group of transgressions.
Not so long ago, the emphasis of the
Criminal antecedents of the legal person to
retain the relapse status is made with the
agency of the mentions made in the register
kept by the body that authorized the
foundation of the legal person and the body
that registered the legal person11.
Since 2009, the registration in the
criminal record of the evidence of the legal
persons having registered office on the
administrative territorial area of the
district,
namely
of
the
Bucharest
Municipality, have been made at the Police
Inspectorate and at the Police General
Direction of Municipality Bucharest12.
From the examination of the legal
dispositions it can be observed that the terms
of the legal persons relapse can consist of
any of the intentional transgressions to be
committed by a legal person, not being
important the degree of specific social
danger or the abstract one of that
The idea that any
transgression13.
punishment with Criminal fine, no matter
its amount, can be the first term of the postconviction or post-executory relapse, cannot
be the conclusion that the legislator might
have appointed a general relapse concerning
a legal person14.
As it results from the law text, we can
observe
that
transgression
or
the
transgressions can be accomplished by the
same legal person, intentionally, no matter
its quality (author, instigator or confederate).
The unit of active subject is of the essence of
plurality of transgressions, whose form is
also relapse.
Another observation can be the one
that the legislator, using the expression the

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anterioar s-a pronunat tot pentru o


infraciune
intenionat,
infraciunile
svrite din culp neputnd constitui
termeni al recidivei. Instituirea acestei
condiii generale se justific prin aceea c,
recidiva fiind o expresie a perseverenei
infracionale, este evideniat numai n cazul
infraciunilor intenionate. Intenia cu care
este svrit infraciunea ulterioar poate s
fie direct, indirect sau depit, deoarece la
baza rezultatului mai grav se afl o fapt
svrit cu intenie. Elementul determinant
n acest caz este intenia subiectului de a
svri infraciunea de baz, chiar dac n
raport de rezultatul mai grav, care a depit
intenia iniial, subiectul a avut o poziie
caracterizat prin culp.
Din definiia legal a recidivei
remarcm elementele constitutive ale strii
de recidiv, primul termen fiind hotrrea
definitiv de condamnare a persoanei
juridice la pedeapsa amenzii pentru una sau
mai multe infraciuni svrite anterior,
respectiv, al doilea termen constnd n
svrirea unei noi infraciuni cu intenie de
ctre acelai subiect activ.
Dup cum se poate sesiza, termenii
recidivei persoanei juridice pot fi constituii
din oricare dintre infraciunile intenionate
posibile a fi comise de persoana juridic,
neavnd relevan gradul de pericol social
concret sau abstract al acelei infraciuni6.
Ca i condiii generale pentru
existena recidivei persoanei juridice reinem
urmtoarele aspecte:
- existena unei condamnri definitive
la o pedeaps cu amenda pentru o
infraciune. Persoana juridic poate s fie
condamnat pentru o infraciune consumat
ori o tentativ pedepsibil, n calitate de
autor, instigator sau complice la o
infraciune;
- svrirea unei noi infraciuni
intenionate sau praeterintenionate dup
rmnerea definitiv a unei hotrri de
condamnare, dar mai nainte de reabilitare;
- condamnarea anterioar i noua
infraciune s priveasc acelai subiect activ.

legal person commits, again, an intentional


transgression or with exceeded intent
allowed understanding that also the previous
conviction has been pronounced also for an
intentional transgression, the transgressions
from common guilt not being terms of
relapse. Establishing this general condition is
justified by the one that the relapse, being an
expression of transgression perseverance, is
emphasized only concerning intentional
transgressions. The intent with which has
been committed the previous transgression
can be direct, indirect or exceeded, as at the
basis of the more serious result is an action
committed intentionally. The determinant
element in this case is the intent of the
subject to commit the basic transgression,
even if in relation with the more serious
result, exceeding the initial intention, the
subject had a position characterized by guilt.
From the legal definition of the
relapse we can observe the constitutive
elements of the relapse status, the first term
being the final decision of condemning of the
legal person at punishment with fine for one
or
several
transgressions
committed
previously, namely, at the second term,
consisting in committing a new intentional
transgression by the same active subject.
As can be observed, the terms of
legal person relapse can consist of any of the
possible intentional transgressions, possible
to be committed by the legal person, not
being relevant the degree of social danger,
concrete or abstract, of this transgression15.
As general conditions for the
existence of the legal persons relapse, we
can observe the following aspects:
- the existence of a definitive
conviction at punishment with fine for a
transgression. The legal person can be
convicted for a consumed transgression or
for an attempt that can be punished, as
author, instigator or confederate to a
transgression;
- committing a new intentional or
praeter-intentional transgression after the
moment when the conviction decision

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Persoana juridic are rolul de legtur ntre


cei doi termeni ai recidivei;
- s fie vorba de condamnri numai
pentru
infraciuni
intenionate
sau
praeterintenionate.
O alt deosebire care se evideniaz
n raport de actuala reglementare, n noul
Cod penal se face trimitere i la cazurile care
nu atrag starea de recidiv a persoanei
juridice, de altfel, aceleai 3 situaii reinute
i pentru persoana fizic. Astfel, la art. 146
alin. ultim se precizeaz c dispoziiile art.
42 se aplic n mod corespunztor, anume:
La stabilirea strii de recidiv nu se
ine seama de hotrrile de condamnare
privitoare la: faptele care nu mai sunt
prevzute de legea penal; infraciunile
amnistiate; infraciunile svrite din culp.
Observnd c legiuitorul nu mai face
trimitere la situaia n care a intervenit
reabilitarea ori s-a mplinit termenul de
reabilitare, am crede c recidiva are caracter
perpetuu, ns, prin indicarea momentului
pn la care se poate svri infraciunea ce
constituie al doilea termen al recidivei, adic
pn la reabilitare, constatm c decizia a
fost tot pentru caracterul temporar al
recidivei.

remained
definitive,
but
before
rehabilitation;
- previous conviction and a new
transgression concerning the same active
subject. The legal person having connection
role between the two terms of the relapse;
- speak about convictions only for
intentional
or
praeter-intentional
transgressions.
Another difference which can be
accentuated in relation with the actual
settlement, in the new Criminal Code makes
reference to cases not leading the relapse
status of the Criminal person, also, the same
3 situations observed by the natural person.
So, in art. 146 last paragraph, it can be stated
that the disposals of art. 42 apply
correspondently, namely:
To establish the relapse status, the
conviction decisions are not considered,
concerning: actions no more indicated by the
Criminal law; amnesty transgressions;
transgression from guilt.
Observing that the legislator does not
refer to the case when rehabilitation took
place, or that the rehabilitation term has been
realized, we believe that relapse has a
perpetual character, but, by indicating the
moment until which transgression cam be
committed, which represents the second term
II. Formele recidivei persoanei juridice
La o prim analiz a dispoziiilor art. of the relapse, namely until rehabilitation, we
146 alin. 1 din noul C.pen., am crede c can observe that decision has also been for
legiuitorul nu a dorit s evidenieze the temporary character of the relapse.
modalitile recidivei persoanei juridice
cunoscute
ca
fiind
recidiva
II. Forms of legal person relapse
At a first analysis of the provisions of
postcondamnatorie i cea postexecutorie, aa
cum sunt reglementate de prevederile art. 40 art. 146 par. 1 from the new Criminal Code,
alin.1 lit. a i b C.pen. actual. Cu toate we might believe that the legislator did not
acestea,
nevoia
unei
delimitri7
a want to reveal the modalities of the legal
modalitilor recidivei s-a fcut simit prin persons relapse, known as being posttratamentul penal aplicabil, dup cum se conviction and post-execution relapse, as
poate remarca din art. 146 alin. 2 i 3 C.pen. settled by the provisions of art. 40 par.1 lit.
actual. Astfel, cnd amenda stabilit pentru a and b C.pen. actual. Even this way, the
noua infraciune se adaug la pedeapsa need for a delimitation16 of relapse methods
anterioar sau la restul rmas neexecutat din can be observed from the criminal treatment
aceasta, constatm c acest tratament that can be applied, as can be observed from
corespunde recidivei postcondamnatorii (art. art. 146 par. 2 and 3 present Criminal Code.
146 alin. 3 noul C.pen.), pentru ca limitele This way, when the fine established for the
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speciale ale pedepsei prevzute de lege


pentru noua infraciune s se majoreze cu
jumtate, fr a depi maximul general al
pedepsei amenzii, n cazul recidivei
postexecutorii (art. 146 alin. 2 noul C.pen.).
II.1. Recidiva postcondamnatorie:
noiune i condiii
Recidiva postcondamnatorie este
acea form a pluralitii de infraciuni care
const n svrirea din nou a unei infraciuni
cu intenie, de ctre aceeai persoan
juridic, dup rmnerea definitiv a unei
hotrri de condamnare pentru o infraciune
anterioar a crei amend nu a fost executat
sau a fost executat n parte.
Primul
termen
al
recidivei
postcondamnatorii l constituie amenda
anterioar neexecutat sau amenda ce a mai
rmas de executat, iar termenul al doilea este
constituit din amenda aplicat pentru
infraciunea svrit ulterior.
Prin amend care a mai rmas de
executat se nelege amenda executat pn
la data svririi infraciunii care constituie
ce de-al doilea termen al recidivei, i nu
amenda achitat pn la data pronunrii
hotrrii de condamnare pentru infraciunea
care constituie cel de-al doilea termen al
recidivei8.
n funcie de cele expuse, primul
termen al recidivei postcondamantorii trebuie
s ndeplineasc anumite condiii:
1 - s existe o hotrre definitiv de
condamnare (sau mai multe) pentru persoana
juridic la pedeapsa amenzii, indiferent de
cuantum, aplicat pentru o singur
infraciune sau pentru un concurs de
infraciuni;
2 - hotrrea de condamnare s fi fost
pronunat pentru o infraciune svrit cu
intenie;
3 - hotrrea de condamnare
definitiv s nu se refere la: faptele
dezincriminate, infraciunile amnistiate,
infraciunile svrite din culp.
Condiiile celui de-al doilea termen al
recidivei
postcondamantorii
sunt

new transgression adds to the previous


punishment or to the rest remained
unexecuted from this, we can observed that
this treatment corresponds to the postconviction relapse (art. 146 par. 3 new
Criminal Code), as the special limits of the
punishment indicated by law for the new
transgression should be increased with half,
no exceeding the general maximum of the
fine punishment, in case of post-executory
relapse (art. 146 par. 2 new Criminal Code).
II.1. Post- conviction relapse:
notion and conditions
The post-conviction relapse is that
form of the group of transgressions
consisting in committing again a new
intentional transgression, by the same legal
person, after definitive decision of a
conviction decision for a previous
transgression whose fine has not been
executed or has been partially executed.
The first term of the post-conviction
relapse is the anterior, non-executed fine or
the fine to be executed, and the second term
consists of the fine applied for the ulterior
committed transgression.
By the fine to be executed, we
understand the fine executed until the
moment of committing the transgression
which constitutes the second term of relapse,
and not the fine paid until the moment of
declaring the decision for conviction for
transgression, which constituted the second
term of relapse17.
Depending on everything presented
above, the first term of the post-condemning
relapse should fulfill the following
conditions:
1 the existence of a final conviction
decision (or more) for the legal person at the
punishment of the fine, irrespective of its
amount, applied for one transgression or for
a group of transgressions;
2 the conviction decision to be
pronounced for a transgression committed
intentionally;
3 the decision of a final conviction

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urmtoarele:
1 - svrirea din nou a unei
infraciuni intenionate dup rmnerea
definitiv a hotrrii de condamnare pentru
infraciunea anterioar, pn la executarea
total a pedepsei amenzii. Infraciunea
svrit din nou poate fi de aceeai natur
sau diferit de infraciunea anterioar, sub
form consumat ori rmas n faz de
tentativ, comis n calitate de autor,
instigator sau complice;
2 - pedeapsa prevzut de lege pentru
noua infraciune comis s fie amenda;
3 - infraciunea care constituie al
doilea termen al recidivei postcondamnatorii
s fie svrit nainte de nceperea
executrii pedepsei anterioare a amenzii ori
dup executarea n parte a acesteia.
II.2.
Recidiva
postexecutorie:
noiune i condiii
Recidiva postexecutorie este acea
form a pluralitii de infraciuni care const
n svrirea din nou a unei infraciuni cu
intenie, de ctre aceeai persoan juridic,
dup executarea pedepsei amenzii pentru o
infraciune anterioar sau considerarea ei ca
executat, dar mai nainte de reabilitare.
Primul
termen
al
recidivei
postexecutorii l constituie pedeapsa amenzii,
indiferent de cuantumul ei, aplicat persoanei
juridice printr-o hotrre penal definitiv,
pedeaps care a fost executat sau
considerat ca executat n caz de graiere
(art. 160 noul C.pen.) sau prescripie a
executrii pedepsei (art. 149 noul C.pen.).
Termenul al doilea al recidivei
postexecutorii este constituit din amenda
aplicat pentru infraciunea svrit ulterior.
Primul
termen
al
recidivei
postexecutorii trebuie s ndeplineasc
anumite condiii, precum:
1 - s existe o condamnare definitiv
(sau mai multe) pentru persoana juridic la
pedeapsa amenzii, indiferent de cuantum,
aplicat pentru o singur infraciune sau
pentru un concurs de infraciuni, care a fost
executat sau considerat ca executat prin

should not refer to: un-incriminating actions,


amnistiate transgressions, transgressions
committed out of guilt.
The conditions of the second term of
the post-conviction relapse are the following:
1 committing a new intentional
transgression after the decision of conviction
for the previous transgression remained final,
until the total execution of the fine
punishment. The transgression committed
again can be of the same type or different
from the previous transgression, in a
committed phase or remained as an attempts,
committed as author, instigator or
confederate;
2 the punishment indicated by law
for the newly committed transgression to be
fine;
3 the transgression which
represents the second term of the postcondemning relapse, to be accomplished
before the execution of the previous
punishment of the fine or after its partial
execution.
II.2. Post-executor relapse: notions
and conditions
The post-executor relapse is that form
of group of transgressions consisting in
committing
again
an
intentional
transgression, by the same legal person, after
the execution of the fine punishment for a
previous transgression or considering it as
executed, but before rehabilitation.
The first term of post-executory
relapse is the punishment of fine, no matter
its amount, applied to the legal person by a
definitive legal person, punishment that has
been executed or has been considered as
executed in case of reprieve (art. 160 new
Criminal
Code) or prescription of the
punishment execution (art. 149 new
Criminal Code).
The second term of the postexecutory relapse consists of the fine to be
applied for the previously committed
transgression.
The first term of the post-executory

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graiere sau prescripia executrii unei


asemenea pedepse. Aceasta condiie
constituie trstura distinctiv, de ordin
simptomatic
dintre
recidiva
postcondamnatorie
i
recidiva
postexecutorie.
2 - infraciunea pentru care s-a
executat pedeapsa s fie svrit cu intenie;
3 - hotrrea definitiv de
condamnare s nu se refere la: faptele
dezincriminate, infraciunile amnistiate,
infraciunile svrite din culp.
Condiiile celui de-al doilea termen al
recidivei postexecutorii sunt urmtoarele:
1 - svrirea din nou a unei
infraciuni intenionate de ctre persoana
juridic;
2 - pedeapsa prevzut de lege pentru
noua infraciune comis s fie amenda;
3 - noua infraciune s fie svrit
dup executarea pedepsei amenzii sau dup
considerarea ei ca executat prin graierea
sau prescripia executrii pedepsei amenzii.
III. Tratamentul penal al recidivei
persoanei juridice
n relaie cu sancionarea recidivei
persoanei juridice, la alin. 2 i 3 art. 146 din
noul Cod penal se prevede un sistem de
sancionare diferit fa de actuala
reglementare, dup cum recidiva este dup
condamnare sau dup executare. Tratamentul
sancionator este mai uor de aplicat. Astfel,
se dispune:
- alin. 2: n caz de recidiv, limitele
speciale ale pedepsei prevzute de lege
pentru noua infraciune se majoreaz cu
jumtate, fr a depi maximul general al
pedepsei amenzii.
- alin. 3: Dac amenda anterioar nu a
fost executat, n tot sau n parte, amenda
stabilit pentru noua infraciune potrivit alin.
2, se adaug la pedeapsa anterioar sau la
restul rmas neexecutat din aceasta.
Ca regul general, se introduce
cumulul aritmetic al pedepselor pentru
recidiva postcondamnatorie i majorarea cu
jumtate a limitelor speciale ale pedepsei

conviction should fulfil certain conditions,


like:
1 the existence of a final conviction
(or more) for a legal person at the
punishment of fine, irrespective of its
amount, applied for one transgression or for
a group of transgressions, which has been
executed or considered as executed by
reprieve or prescription of execution for such
punishment. This condition is the distinctive
character, of symptomatic order, between the
post-conviction relapse and the postexecution relapse.
2 the transgression for which fine
has been executed intentionally;
3 the definitive decision of
conviction should not refer to: unincriminating
actions,
amnesty
transgressions, transgression committed of
common guilt.
The conditions of the second term of
post-executory relapse are the following:
1 committing again a new
intentional transgression by the legal person;
2 punishment indicated by law for
the new transgression committed to be fine;
3 the new transgression to be
accomplished after the execution of the fine
punishment or after considering it as
executed by reprieve or prescription of the
fine punishment execution.
III. Criminal
treatment of the
legal person relapse
Referring to the sanctioning of the
legal persons relapse, at par. 2 and 3 art. 146
from the new Criminal Code it is indicated a
sanctioning system different from the present
settlement, as the relapse is after conviction
or post execution. The sanctionatory
treatment is easier to be applied. This way, it
is provided:
- par. 2: In case of relapse, the special
limits of the punishment indicated by law for
the new transgression would be increased
with half, no exceeding the general
maximum of the fine punishment.
- par. 3: If the previous fine has not

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prevzute de lege pentru noua infraciune, n


cazul recidivei postexecutorii.
n cazul recidivei postcondamnatorii
(art. 146 alin. 3 noul C.pen.), reglementarea a
fost simplificat, recurgndu-se la sistemul
cumulului aritmetic, astfel: amenda stabilit
pentru noua infraciune se adaug la
pedeapsa anterioar sau la restul rmas
neexecutat din aceasta. Ceea ce trebuie
menionat este faptul c, iniial, limitele
speciale ale amenzii stabilite pentru noua
infraciune se majoreaz cu jumtate, dup
care urmeaz operaiunea de adunare.
n cazul recidivei postexecutorii (art.
146 alin. 3 noul Cod penal) sesizm
majorarea legal a limitelor speciale de
pedeaps prevzute de lege pentru noua
infraciune cu jumtate, fr a depi
maximul general al pedepsei amenzii.
Ceea ce aduce n plus noul Cod penal
sunt prevederile cu referire la aplicarea
pedepselor complementare i a msurilor de
siguran. Potrivit dispoziiilor art. 147 alin.
2. noul C.pen., pedepsele complementare de
natur diferit, cu excepia dizolvrii, sau
cele de aceeai natur dar cu coninut diferit
se cumuleaz, iar dintre pedepsele
complementare de aceeai natur i cu
acelai coninut se aplic cea mai grea. Ceea
ce trebuie reinut este faptul c unele pedepse
complementare aplicabile persoanei juridice
elimin aplicarea altora mai uoare, ca de
exemplu, dizolvarea persoanei juridice. n
conformitate cu prevederile art. 147 alin. 3
noul C.pen., msurile de siguran luate
conform art. 112 se cumuleaz.
Concluzii
ncercnd o analiz a textului de lege
din noul Cod penal, semnalm o schimbare
de situaie, un regim mai sever pentru
recidiv fa de reglementarea actual,
anume agravarea sancionrii recidivei
postcondamnatorii i nu a recidivei
postexecutorii, interesul legiuitorului fiind n
aceast situaie cifra de afaceri, respectiv
valoarea activului patrimonial al persoanei
juridice care a comis infraciunea.

been executed, entirely or partially, the fine


established for the new transgression,
according to par. 2, would be added to the
previous punishment or to the rest that
should be executed from this.
As a general rule, it is introduced the
arithmetic calculus of the punishments for
the post-conviction relapse and the increase
with half of the special limits of the
punishments indicated by law for the new
transgression, in case of post-execution
relapse.
In case of post-conviction relapse
(art. 146 par. 3 from new Criminal Code),
the settlement has been simplified, arriving
at the system of arithmetic average, this way:
the fine established for the new transgression
would be added to the previous punishment
or to the rest to be executed from it.
What should be mentioned is the fact
that, initially, the special limits of the fine
established for the new transgression would
be increased with half, plus the addition
operation.
Concerning
the
post-execution
relapse (art. 146, par.3 new Criminal Code)
we can observe the legal increase of the
special limits as punishment, indicated by the
law for the new transgression, with half,
without exceeding the general maxim of the
punishment with fine.
What the new Criminal Code brings
more are the provisions concerning the
application
of
the
complementary
punishments and of safety measures.
According to the provisions of art. 147 par.
2. from the new Criminal
Code, the
complementary punishments of different
nature, except dissolution, or the ones having
the same nature but with a different content
would be gathered, and from the
complementary punishments of the same
nature and with the same content, the most
difficult would be applied. What should be
retained is the fact that some complementary
punishments that can be applied to the legal
person eliminate the application of simpler
others, as for example, the dissolution of the

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Modalitatea de sancionare relevat n Codul


penal actual este motivat, n cazul recidivei
postcondamnatorii,
de
influena
nesatisfctoare a condamnrii definitive
anterioare care nu constituie un avertisment
suficient9,
iar
n
cazul
recidivei
postexecutorii, de ineficiena executrii
pedepsei anterioare, avertisment care
ilustreaz o persisten infracional mai
puternic.
Bibliografie
Jurma A., Persoana juridic subiect
al rspunderii penale, Editura C.H.Beck,
Bucureti, 2010
Oancea I., Tratat de drept penal,
Partea general, Editura All, Bucureti, 1995
Pascu I., Drept penal, partea
general, Editura Hamangiu, Bucureti,
2007
Paca V., Modificrile Codului penal,
Comentarii i explicaii, Editura Hamangiu,
Bucureti, 2007
Streteanu F., Chiri R., Rspunderea
penal a persoanei juridice, ediia a II-a,
Editura C.H.Beck, Bucureti, 2007

legal person. According to the provision of


art. 147 par. 3 new Criminal Code, the safety
measures taken according to art. 112 would
be used.
Conclusions
In the attempt of an analysis of the
law text from the new Criminal Code, we
indicate a change of situation, with a stricter
regime for relapse in respect to actual
settlement, namely the aggravation of
sanctioning the post-conviction relapse and
not of the post-execution relapse, the interest
of the legislator being in this situation the
turnover, namely the value of the patrimony
asset of the juridical person committing the
transgression. The sanctioning modality
indicated in the present Criminal Code is
motivated, in case of post-conviction relapse,
but the non-satisfying influence of the
previous definitive conviction, which is not a
sufficient notice18, and in case of postexecution relapse, of the inefficiency of
previous punishment, warning which
illustrates a powerful wrong persistence.
Bibliography
Jurma A., Legal person subject of
criminal
responsibility,
C.H.
Beck
Publishing House, Bucharest, 2010
Oancea I., Criminal
law treaty,
General Part, All Publishing House,
Bucharest, 1995
Pascu I., Criminal law, general part,
Hamangiu Publishing House, Bucharest,
2007
Paca V., Modifications of the
Criminal Code, Comments and explanations,
Hamangiu Publishing House, Bucharest,
2007
Streteanu F., Chiri R., Criminal
responsibility of the legal person, second
edition, C.H. Beck Publishing House,
Bucharest, 2007

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Streteanu F., Chiri R., Rspunderea penal a persoanei juridice, ediia a II-a, Editura C.H.Beck, Bucureti,
2007, p. 1.
2
Streteanu F., Chiri R., op. cit., p. 413.
3
Legea nr. 172/2009 publicat n Monitorul oficial al Romniei, partea I, nr. 321 din 14 mai 2009, lege
privind aprobarea Ordonanei de urgen a Guvernului, nr. 216/2008 publicat n Monitorul oficial al
Romniei, nr. 848 din 17 decembrie 2009, pentru modificarea Legii nr. 290/2004 privind cazierul judiciar.
4
Pascu I., Drept penal, partea general, Editura Hamangiu, Bucureti, 2007. p. 303.
5
Paca V., Modificrile Codului penal, Comentarii i explicaii, Editura Hamangiu, Bucureti, 2007, p. 54.
6
Pascu I., op. cit., p. 303.
7
Jurma A., Persoana juridic subiect al rspunderii penale, Editura C.H.Beck, Bucureti, 2010, p. 259.
8
Paca V., op. cit., p. 58.
9
Oancea I., Tratat de drept penal, Partea general, Editura All, Bucureti, 1995, p. 248
10
Streteanu F., Chiri R., Penal responsibility of the legal person, second edition, C.H. Beck Publishing House,
Bucharest, 2007, p. 1.
11
Streteanu F., Chiri R., op. cit., p. 413.
12
Law no. 172/2009 published in the Official Gazette of Romania, part I, no. 321 from 14th May 2009, law
concerning the approval of the Government Emergency Ordinance, no. 216/2008 published in the Official
Gazette of Romania, no. 848 from 17 december 2009, from the modification of Law no. 290/2004 concerning
the criminal record.
13
Pascu I., Penal Law, general part, Hamangiu Publishing House, Bucharest, 2007. p. 303.
14
Paca V., Modifications of the Penal Code, Comments and explanations, Hamangiu Publishing House,
Bucharest, 2007, p. 54.
15
Pascu I., op. cit., p. 303.
16
Jurma A., Legal person subject of penal responsibility, C.H.Beck Publishing House, Bucharest, 2010, p.
259.
17
Paca V., op. cit., p. 58.
18
Oancea I., Penal law treaty, General part, All Publishing House, Bucharest, 1995, p. 248

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