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CUPRINS

REZUMAT EXECUTIV...............................................................................................................................................2 FIA TRANZACIILOR.............................................................................................................................................5 IDENTIFICAREA PARTENERILOR EXTERNI....................................................................................................8 CORESPONDEN A COMERCIAL......................................................................................................................10 CONTRACTAREA.....................................................................................................................................................15 DERULAREA TRANZACTIEI.................................................................................................................................23 1. LIVRAREA...............................................................................................................................................................23 2. LOGISTICA.............................................................................................................................................................23 3.DOCUMENTAREA.................................................................................................................................................26 3.1 DOCUMENTE COMERCIALE..........................................................................................................................26 FACTURA PRO-FORM ...............................................................................................................................................26 FACTURA DEFINITIV...............................................................................................................................................26 CERTIFICATUL DE ORIGINE........................................................................................................................................27 CERTIFICATUL DE CALITATE......................................................................................................................................27 CERTIFICATUL DE ASIGURARE I LICENA EXPORT / IMPORT...........................................................................................27 DECLARAIA VAMAL..............................................................................................................................................27 3.2 DOCUMENTE FINANCIARE............................................................................................................................27
ACREDITIV BANCAR..................................................................................................................................................27

3.3 DOCUMENTE DE TRANSPORT RUTIER.....................................................................................................28 CMR....................................................................................................................................................................29 PERFORMAN ELE FIRMEI...................................................................................................................................30 1. BILANUL CONTABIL SIMPLIFICAT...........................................................................................................................30 2. CONTUL DE PROFIT I PIERDERE SIMPLIFICAT............................................................................................................32 3. FLUXUL DE TREZORERIE........................................................................................................................................34 4. CALCULUL INDICATORILOR DE PROFITABILITATE, LICHIDITATE I RENTABILITATE............................................................35 BIBLIOGRAFIE..........................................................................................................................................................38 ANEXE..........................................................................................................................................................................39

Rezumat executiv

S.C Mico Decorative Candles S.R.L are ca obiect de activitate producerea i comercializarea de lumnri decorative i lumnri aromate

din parafin i gel transparent, de cea mai buna calitate. Modelele de lumnri parfumate ornamentale sunt confecionate din parafin cu punct de topire ridicat i aditivi speciali, ceea ce le confer o ardere uniform i indelungat. Oferta de culori pentru lumnri parfumate ornamentale este: alb, galben, roz, rou, albastru, mov, verde, maro, negru; iar gama de arome este la fel de variat: mr, lmie, portocale, fragi, migdale, ment, liliac, mosc, brad . Cu o receptivitate ridicat la toate sugestiile clienilor notri, ncercm s venim n ntmpinarea acestora cu modele noi, originale, care s valorifice pe ct posibil frumuseea motivelor ornamentale. Firma a decis extinderea distribuiei produselor pe piaa internaional, urmrind urmtoarele obiective: Creterea cifrei de afaceri i a profitului Creterea numrului de consumatori Recunoaterea european a mrcii

n urma analizei pieei externe, s-a decis comercializarea a cinci sortimente de produse ctre Polonia: lumnri pastil, lumnri colorate, lumnri parfumate, lumnri figurine i lumnri pentru aromaterapie. Metoda aleas pentru intrarea pe piaa polonez este exportul direct. Potenialii colaboratori de pe piaa polonez au fost identificai n domeniul retailului: Real, Praktiker, Carrefour, Auchan, E.Leclerc i Marko. Pentru determinarea partenerului cu care va fi ncheiat contractul, s-au luat n considerare trei criterii: cota de pia, cifra de afaceri, distana. Fiecare companie a primit un punctaj n funcie de valorile nregistrate pentru fiecare criteriu. Firma care a acumulat punctaj maxim este Praktiker Polonia, cu care s-a decis colaborarea internaional. n vederea corespondenei comerciale s-au stabilit principalii termeni ai contractului de vnzare-cumprare internaional. A fost primit o comand de 250 000 buc. lumnri pastil, la preul de 0.12EUR/buc, 140 000 buc. lumnri colorate la preul de 1.19 EUR/buc, 170 000 buc. lumnri parfumate la preul de 2,61 EUR/buc, 125 000 buc. lumnri figurine la preul de 1.90 EUR/buc. i 95 000 buc. lumnri pentru aromaterapie la

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preul de 4.51 EUR/buc. Valoarea totala a contractului este de 1.306.250 EUR. Cumprtorul a putut vedea standardele de calitate ale produselor prin verificarea mostrelor primite n perioada negocierilor. Contractul stipuleaz c, pentru a fi acceptate, produsele livrate trebuie s respecte aceleai standarde ca mostrele primite, respective cele prevzute de Certificatul de Calitate emis de vnztor. Livrarea se face n conformitate cu clauza CPT, prin care vnztorul se angajeaz s pun la dispoziia cumprtorului marfa la destinaia aleas de cumprtor, respective Varovia, suportnd cheltuielile de transport i toate celelalte cheltuieli aferente pn la destinaie. Termenul de livrare este de minim 30 de zile i maxim 60 de zile de la procesarea comenzii. Plata se face prin acreditiv bancar irevocabil, confirmat de bncile celor dou pri contractante, n termen de 15 zile de la recepionarea bunurilor. Prezentare general S.C MICO Decorative Candles S.R.L

S.C

Mico

Decorative

Candles

S.R.L cu sediul n Iai pe strada Chiinului nr. 23 are ca obiect de activitate producerea i comercializarea de lumnri decorative i lumnri aromate din parafin i gel transparent, de cea mai buna calitate. Modelele de lumnri parfumate ornamentale sunt confecionate din parafin cu punct de topire ridicat i aditivi speciali, ceea ce le confer o ardere uniform i indelungat. Oferta de culori pentru lumnri parfumate ornamentale este: alb, galben, roz, rou, albastru, mov, verde, maro, negru. Iar gama de arome este la fel de variat, : mr, lmie, portocale, fragi, migdale, ment, liliac, mosc, brad . Cu o receptivitate ridicat la toate sugestiile clienilor notri, ncercm s venim n ntmpinarea acestora cu modele
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noi, originale, care s valorifice pe ct posibil frumuseea motivelor ornamentale.

Fia tranzaciilor
1. Lumnri pastil Cantitatea total de exportat: 250.000 buc Pre de vnzare: 0,5 lei = 0,12 eur Curs euro: 1 EUR = 4,21 RON Cost unitar: 85 % * 0,5 lei = 0,425 lei 85 % * 0,12 eur = 0,105 eur Valoare total_ron = 250.000 buc * 0,5 lei = 125.000 ron Valoare total_eur = 250.000 buc * 0,12eur = 30.000 eur Cheltuieli Interne (de producie) Cu transportul RON 0,425 * 250.000buc= 106.250 5% * 125.000 = 6.250 8% * 125.000 = 10.000 122.500 RON 0,5 ron/buc 15% 0,58 ron/buc 0,58 * 250.000 = 145.000

Cu asigurarea TOTAL Venituri Pre de vnzare intern Adaos commercial Pre vnzare extern TOTAL Lumnri colorate

2.

Cantitatea total de exportat: 140.000 buc Pre de vnzare: 5 lei = 1,19 eur Curs euro: 1 EUR = 4,21 RON Cost unitar: 85 % * 5 lei = 4,25 lei 85 % * 1,19 eur = 1,02 eur Valoare total_ron = 140.000 buc * 5 lei = 700.000 ron Valoare total_eur = 140.000 buc * 1,19eur = 166.600 eur Cheltuieli Interne (de producie) Cu transportul RON 4,25 * 140.000 = 595.000 5% * 700.000 = 35.000

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Cu asigurarea TOTAL

8% * 700.000 =56.000 686.000 RON 5 ron/buc 15% 5,75 ron/buc 5,75 * 140.000 = 805.000

Venituri Pre de vnzare intern


Adaos commercial

Pre vnzare extern TOTAL


3.

Lumnri parfumate

Cantitatea total de exportat: 170.000 buc Pre de vnzare: 11 lei = 2,61 eur Curs euro: 1 EUR = 4,21 RON Cost unitar: 85 % * 11 lei = 9,35 lei 85 % * 2,61 eur = 2,22 eur Valoare total_ron = 170.000 buc * 11 lei = 1.870.000 ron Valoare total_eur = 170.000 buc * 2,61 eur = 443.700 eur Cheltuieli Interne (de producie) Cu transportul Cu asigurarea TOTAL Venituri Pre de vnzare intern
Adaos commercial

RON 9,35 * 170.000buc= 1.589.500 5%*1.870.000 93.500 8% * 1.870.000= 149.600 1.832.600 RON 11 ron/buc 15% 12,65 ron/buc 12,65 * 170.000 = 2.150.500

Pre vnzare extern TOTAL 4. Lumnri figurine

Cantitatea total de exportat: 125.000 buc Pre de vnzare: 8 lei = 1,90 eur Curs euro: 1 EUR = 4,21 RON Cost unitar: 85 % * 8 lei = 6,8 lei 85 % * 1,90 eur = 1,62 eur Valoare total_ron = 125.000 buc * 8 lei = 1.000.000 ron Valoare total_eur = 125.000 buc * 1,90 eur = 237.500 eur

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Cheltuieli Interne (de producie) Cu transportul

RON 6,8 * 125.000buc = 850.000 5% * 1.000.000 = 50.000 8% * 1.000.000 = 80.000 980.000 RON 8 ron/buc 15% 9,2 ron/buc 9,2 * 125.000 = 1.150.000

Cu asigurarea TOTAL Venituri Pre de vnzare intern Adaos commercial Pre vnzare extern TOTAL 5. Lumnri aromaterapie

Cantitatea total de exportat: 95.000 buc Pre de vnzare: 19 lei = 4,51 eur Curs euro: 1 EUR = 4,21 RON Cost unitar: 85 % * 19 lei = 16,15 lei 85 % * 4,51 eur = 3,83 eur Valoare total_ron = 95.000 buc * 19 lei = 1.805.000 ron Valoare total_eur = 95.000 buc * 4,51 eur = 428.450 eur Cheltuieli Interne (de producie) Cu transportul Cu asigurarea TOTAL RON 16,15 * 95.000buc = 1.534.250 5% * 1.805.000 = 90.250 8% * 1.805.000 = 144.400 1.768.900 RON 19 ron/buc 15% 21,85 ron/buc 21,85 * 95.000 = 2.075.750

Venituri Pre de vnzare intern


Adaos commercial

Pre vnzare extern TOTAL

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Identificarea partenerilor externi


Ca parteneri poteniali din Polonia am ales urtoarele companii cu obiect de activitate n retail: 1. Real Adresa: Al. Krakowska 61, 02-183 Locaie: Varovia Tel.: 022 / 50 00 000 Activitate principal : retail 2. Praktiker Adresa: Al. Jerozolimskie 184, 02-486 Locaie: Varovia Activitate principal : retail 3. Carrefour Adresa : Ul. Targowa 72, 03-734 Locaie: Varovia Tel: 022/ 517 2110 Activitate principal: retail 4. Auchan Adresa: Ul. Pulawaska 46, 05-500 Locaie: Piaseczno Tel: 022/ 703 82 00, Fax: 022/ 703 89 10 Activitate principal: retail 5. E.Leclerc Adresa: Ul. Jutreznki 156, 02-031 Locaie: Varovia Tel: 022/ 205 91 91, Fax : 022/ 205 91 90 Activitate principal: retail

6. Marko

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Adresa: Ul. Jasngrska 2, 31-358 Locaie: Crakovia Tel: 012/ 293 85 00 Activitate principal: retail Pentru determinarea partenerului cu care vom incheia contractul , am luat n considerare urmtoare criterii: Nr.C rt 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Firma Real Praktiker Carrefour Auchan E.Leclerc Marko Cota de pia (%) 10 26 17 8 12 5 Cifra de afaceri (mil eur) 1,1 2,2 1,5 0,6 0,9 0,3 Distana (km) 922 922 922 1.259 922 862

Pe baza datelor din tabel s-au acordat note de la 1 la 5 in functie de fiecare criteriu (1 minim si 5 maxim). In functie de punctajul cumulat s-a ales firma cu punctajul maxim. Nr.C rt 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Real Praktiker Carrefour Auchan E.Leclerc Marko Firma Cota de pia (%) 3 5 4 2 4 1 Cifra de afaceri (mil eur) 3 5 4 1 2 1 Distana (km) 3 3 3 1 3 5 9 13 11 4 11 7 TOTAL

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Coresponden a comercial
S.C. MICO Decorative Candles Str. Calea Chi inului, nr. 23, CP 700569, Iai, Romnia Telephone: 0040725658; Fax: 00407852547 Praktiker Polska Sp. z o.o. February 1st, 2011 Al. Jerozolimskie 184, 02-486 Warsaw, Poland Dear Sirs, We are one of the largest producers and distributors for the Romanian decorative candles industry, with 147 employees. Our annual turnover for 2010 was 312.000 EUR. We are interested in emerging on the polish market and due to our fruitful business relation with Praktiker Romania, we believe that Praktiker Poland could be a good associate. We enclosed herewith our catalogue, together with our latest price list for your assessment. If you are interested in our items let us know so that we can give you the necessary details. Also, if sample is required for your assessment, so that you can place your order with us, please let us know. We are certain that our goods will give you full satisfaction and we shall be glad to hear from you.

Yours faithfully, Gigel Ionescu, Sales Manager.

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Praktiker Polska Sp. z o.o. Al. Jerozolimskie 184, 02-486 Warsaw, Poland S.C. MICO Decorative Candles February 7th, 2011 Str. Calea Chisinaului, nr. 23, CP 700569, Iasi, Romania

Dear Mr. Gigel Ionescu, We are pleased to find out about your interest in collaboration with us. We are interested in five items from your catalogue: Tealight candles Coloured candles Scented candles Specialty candles Aromatherapy candles

Furthermore, we wanted to know if you could give us a better price for the coloured candles. Also, we would like to know if the payment by Irrevocable Letter of Credit is suitable for you and how long it takes to deliver our goods after you have received our order. For a better assessment we would like to receive samples for every type of candle in which we are interested for.

Sincerely yours, Mariusz Jacek Krawiec, Sales Manager.

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S.C. MICO Decorative Candles Str. Calea Chiinului, nr. 23, CP 700569, Iai, Romnia Telephone: 0040725658; Fax: 00407852547

Praktiker Polska Sp. z o.o. February 16th, 2011 Al. Jerozolimskie 184, 02-486 Warsaw, Poland

Dear Mr. Mariusz Jacek Krawiec, Thank you for your prompt answer to our letter. We would like to inform you that discounts are not available for our products due to the fact that the price/quality ration is very high. I hope the samples we have delivered to you will convince you of this fact. Regarding the terms of payment, we agree to pay by Irrevocable Letter of Credit. Referring to delivery, the goods will be ready for dispatch in 10 days from your order. Looking forward with interest to hearing from you.

Sincerely yours, Gigel Ionescu, Sales Manager.

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Praktiker Polska Sp. z o.o. Al. Jerozolimskie 184, 02-486 Warsaw, Poland S.C. MICO Decorative Candles February 26th, 2011 Str. Calea Chisinaului, nr. 23, CP 700569, Iasi, Romania

Dear Mr. Gigel Ionescu, Thank you for answering to our letter and also letting us have the samples that we requested. We are now able to place the following order: Models Tealight candles Coloured candles Scented candles Specialty candles Aromatherapy candles TOTAL Price (EUR/pcs) 0,12 1,19 2,61 1,90 4,51 No. Of pieces 250.000 140.000 170.000 125.000 95.000 780.000 Total price (EUR) 30.000 166.600 443.700 273.750 428.450 1.306.250

Please acknowledge this order by return. P.S. Please take care that the quality should be the same with the samples delivered to us.

Sincerely yours, Mariusz Jacek Krawiec, Sales Manager.

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S.C. MICO Decorative Candles Str. Calea Chiinului, nr. 23, CP 700569, Iai, Romnia Telephone: 0040725658; Fax: 00407852547 Praktiker Polska Sp. z o.o. February 28th, 2011 Al. Jerozolimskie 184, 02-486 Warsaw, Poland

Dear Mr. Mariusz Jacek Krawiec, Thank you for your order dated February, 26. We are confident that our items of high quality will meet your requirements and will lead to further business.

Sincerly yours, Gigel Ionescu, Sales Manager

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Contractarea

S.C. MICO Decorative Candles S.R.L


Str. Calea Chiinului, nr. 23, CP 700569, Iai, Romnia

INTERNATIONAL SALE CONTRACT Contract No. 568/01.03.2011 To: Al. Krakowska 61, 02-183 Warszawa A. SPECIFIC CONDITIONS The present contract of sale will be governed by these Specific Conditions (to the extent that the relevant boxes have been completed) and by the ICC General Conditions of Sale (Manufactured Goods Intended for Resale) which constitute part B of this document. SELLER BUYER Signature Signature Place Date Place Date A - 1. The contracting parties to the contract This agreement, concluded on the day of 1st March 2011 by and between S.C. MICO Decorative Candles S.R.L., a company organized and existing under the laws of Romania, registered by The Chamber Commerce, with registry of commerce number J58/1584/2008, and fiscal identification code 25846985, hereinafter called as Seller, and Praktiker Polska Sp. z o.o. , registered in the District Court for the Capital City of Warsaw in Warsaw, in the XIII Commercial Division of the National Court Register no 0000068924, VAT ID: 951-00-65-428, hereinafter reffered to as the Buyer. A - 2. Recitals Whereas S.C. MICO Decorative Candles S.R.L. is engaged in candles industry. Whereas Praktiker Polska Sp. z o.o. is engaged in retailing within Poland. It has been agreed as follows: A - 3. Purpose of the contract The purpose of this Contract is for the: - supply of decorative candles in conformance with the specifications stipulated by the Buyer; - delivery of these goods to a specified place. A - 4. Priority of contractual documents This agreement and any schedules constitute the entire understanding between the parties and supersede any prior communications, representations or agreements, whether oral or in writing. No modification of any terms or conditions herein shall be valid or binding on either party unless in writing and signed by an authorized representative of each party.
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A - 5. Extent of supply S.C. MICO Decorative Candles S.R.L. shall supply and deliver to Warsaw 250.000 pcs. Pill Candles, 140.000 pcs. Color Candles, 170.000 pcs. Aroma Candles, 125.000 pcs. Figures Candles and 95.000 pcs. Aromatherapy candles, in accordance with the specifications of the agreement. A - 6. Delivery terms CPT- Carriage Paid To Named place of destination : Warsaw Other delivered terms : o The Seller undertakes to deliver the goods in 10 days after the coming into force of this contract. o The Seller should notify the Buyer about: - the readiness of the goods for transport from Romania (Iai, S.C. MICO Decorative Candles S.R.L.) to Praktiker Polska Sp. z o.o., seated in Al. Jerozolimskie 184, 02-486 Warsaw; - the weight and the volume of the goods; - the contract number, dispatch date, goods denomination, quantity, value and number of the truck. o The goods are considered to be delivered and accepted by the Buyer: - in respect to quantity: according to the number of cases and the weight, as shown on the CMR; - in respect to quantity: according to the Certificate of Quality issued by the Seller. Carrier : Name and address:

Contract Person:

A 7. Time of delivery The goods shall be delivered no sooner than thirty (30) days and no later than sixty (60) days after we have been notified of award. A 8. Contract price Currency: Euro () Exchange rate: 1 EUR = 4.21 RON Amount in numbers: 1.306.250 Amount in letters: one million five hundred and three thousand and six hundred Euro. A 9. Inspection of the goods by the buyer After shipment. Place of inspection: Praktiker Polska Sp. z o.o., seated in Al. Jerozolimskie 184, 02-486 Warsaw, Poland. A 10. Retention of the title Yes. The goods shall remain the property of S.C. MICO Decorative Candles S.R.L. until the complete payment of the price. A 11. Payment conditions Irrevocable and Confirmed Letter of Credit Issuing bank: NATIONAL BANK OF POLAND, NBP.

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Confirming bank: ROMANIAN BANK OF DEVELOPMENT, BRD. By deferred payment at 15 days after receiving the goods. A 12. Documents - Transport documents: CMR. - Proforma Invoice - Commercial invoice - Certificate of origin - Packing list A 13. Liability for delay Liquidated damages for delay in delivery shall be 2% (of price of delayed goods) per week with a maximum of 10% (of the price of delayed goods). In case of termination for delay, the Sellers liability for damages for delay is limited to 5% of the price of the non - delivered goods. A 14. Time bar Any action for non-conformity of the goods must be taken by the Buyer not later than five (7) working days from the date of arrival of the goods at destination. A 15. Applicable law Any question not covered by CISG will be governed by the law of Romania. A 16. Resolution of disputes All disputes arising in connection with the present contract shall be finally settled under the Rules of Conciliation and Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce by three arbitrators appointed in accordance with the said Rules. Notice of arbitration shall be given to the party to whom demand therefore is addressed. Judgment upon the award rendered by the arbitrators may be entered in any court having jurisdiction or application may be made to such court for a judicial acceptance of the award and an order of enforcement as the case may be. The location of the arbitration shall be Bucharest, and the arbitration shall be held in English, unless the parties mutually agree otherwise. Performance under this Agreement shall continue if reasonably possible during any disagreement or arbitration proceedings and no funds payable to either party under this Agreement shall be withheld on account of such disagreement or proceedings. B. GENERAL CONDITIONS Art. 1. GENERAL 1.1. These General Conditions are intended to be applied together with the Specific Conditions (Part A), but may also be incorporated on their own into any sale contract. Where these General Conditions ( Part B) are used independently of the said Specific Conditions ( Part A ), any reference in Part B to Part A will be interpreted as a reference to any relevant specific agreed by the parties. In case of contradiction between the General Conditions and any specific conditions agreed upon between the parties, the specific conditions shall prevail.

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1.2. Any questions relating to this Contract which are not expressly or implicitly settled by the provisions contained in the Contract itself (i.e. these general conditions and any specific conditions agreed upon by the parties) shall be governed: by the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Vienna Convention of 1980, hereafter referred to as CISG), and to the extent that such questions are not covered by CISG, by reference to the law of the country where the Seller has his place of business. 1.3 Any reference made to trade terms (such as EXW, FCA, etc.) is deemed to be made to the relevant term of INCOTERMS published by the International Chamber of Commerce 1.4 Any reference made to a publication of the International Chamber of Commerce is deemed to be made to the version current at the date of conclusion of the Contract. 1.5 No modification of the Contract is valid unless agreed or evidenced in writing. However, a party may be precluded by his conduct from asserting this provision to the extent that the other party has relied on that conduct. ART. 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GOODS 2.1 It is agreed that any information relating to the goods and their use, such as weights, dimensions, capacities, prices, colours and other data contained in catalogues, prospectuses, circulars, advertisements, illustrations, price-lists of the Seller, shall not take effect as terms of the Contract unless expressly referred to in the Contract. 2.2 Unless otherwise agreed, the Buyer does not acquire any property rights in software, drawings, etc. which may have been made available to him. The Seller also remains the exclusive owner of any intellectual or industrial property rights relating to the goods. ART. 3 INSPECTION OF THE GOODS BEFORE SHIPMENT 3.1. If the parties have agreed that the Buyer is entitled to inspect the goods before shipment, the Seller must notify the Buyer within a reasonable time before the shipment that the goods are ready for inspection at the agreed place. ART. 4 PRICE 4.1 If no price has been agreed, the Seller's current list price at the time of the conclusion of the Contract shall apply. In the absence of such a current list price, the price generally charged for such goods at the time of the conclusion of the Contract shall apply. 4.2 Unless otherwise agreed in writing, the price does not include VAT, and is not subject to price adjustment. 4.3 The price indicated under A-2 (contract price) includes any costs which are at the Sellers charge according to this Contract. However, should the Seller bear any costs which, according to this Contract, are for the Buyers account (e.g. for transportation or insurance under EXW or FCA), such sums shall not be considered as having been included in the price under A-2 and shall be reimbursed by the Buyer. ART. 5 PAYMENT CONDITIONS 5..1 Unless otherwise agreed in writing, or implied from a prior course of dealing between the parties, payment of the price and of any other sums
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due by the Buyer to the Seller shall be on open account and time of payment shall be 30 days from the date of invoice. The amounts due shall be transferred, unless otherwise agreed, by teletransmission to the Sellers bank in the Sellers country for the account of the Seller and the Buyer shall be deemed to have performed his payment obligations when the respective sums due have been received by the Sellers bank in immediately available funds. 5.2 If the parties have agreed on payment in advance, without further indication, it will be assumed that such advance payment, unless otherwise agreed, refers to the full price, and that the advance payment must be received by the Sellers bank in immediately available funds at least 30 days before the agreed date of delivery or the earliest date within the agreed delivery period. If advance payment has been agreed only for a part of the contract price, the payment conditions of the remaining amount will be determined according to the rules set forth in this article. 5.3 If the parties have agreed on payment by documentary credit, then, unless otherwise agreed, the Buyer must arrange for a documentary credit in favour of the Seller to be issued by a reputable bank, subject to the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits published by the International Chamber of Commerce, and to be notified at least 30 days before the agreed date of delivery or at least 30 days before the earliest date within the agreed delivery period. Unless otherwise agreed, the documentary credit shall be payable at sight and allow partial shipments and transhipments. 5.4 If the parties have agreed on payment by documentary collection, then, unless otherwise agreed, documents will be tendered against payment (D/P) and the tender will in any case be subject to the Uniform Rules for Collections published by the International Chamber of Commerce. 5.5 To the extent that the parties have agreed that payment is to be backed by a bank guarantee, the Buyer is to provide, at least 30 days before the agreed date of delivery or at least 30 days before the earliest date within the agreed delivery period, a first demand bank guarantee subject to the Uniform Rules for Demand Guarantees published by the International Chamber of Commerce, or a standby letter of credit subject either to such Rules or to the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits published by the International Chamber of Commerce, in either case issued by a reputable bank. ART. 6 INTEREST IN CASE OF DELAYED PAYMENT 6.1 If a party does not pay a sum of money when it falls due the other party is entitled to interest upon that sum from the time when payment is due to the time of payment. 6.2 Unless otherwise agreed, the rate of interest shall be 3% above the average bank short-term lending rate to prime borrowers prevailing for the currency of payment at the place of payment, or where no such rate exists at that place, then the same rate in the State of the currency of payment. In the absence of such a rate at either place the rate of interest shall be the appropriate rate fixed by the law of the State of the currency of payment. ART. 7 RETENTION OF TITLE

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If the parties have validly agreed on retention of title, the goods shall remain the property of the Seller until the complete payment of the price, or as otherwise agreed. ART. 8 CONTRACTUAL TERM OF DELIVERY Unless otherwise agreed, delivery shall be "Ex Works" (EXW). ART. 9 DOCUMENTS Unless otherwise agreed, the Seller must provide the documents (if any) indicated in the applicable Incoterms or, if no Incoterms is applicable, according to any previous course of dealing. ART. 10 LATE-DELIVERY, NON-DELIVERY AND REMEDIES THEREFOR 10 . 1 When there is delay in delivery of any goods, the Buyer is entitled to claim liquidated damages equal to 0.5% or such other percentage as may be agreed of the price of those goods for each complete week of delay, provided the Buyer notifies the Seller of the delay. Where the Buyer so notifies the Seller within 15 days from the agreed date of delivery, damages will run from the agreed date of delivery or from the last day within the agreed period of delivery. Where the Buyer so notifies the Seller after 15 days of the agreed date of delivery, damages will run from the date of the notice. Liquidated damages for delay shall not exceed 5% of the price of the delayed goods or such other maximum amount as may be agreed. 10.2 If the parties have agreed upon a cancellation date in Box A-9, the Buyer may terminate the Contract by notification to the Seller as regards goods which have not been delivered by such cancellation date for any reason whatsoever (including a force majeure event). 10.3 When article 10.2 does not apply and the Seller has not delivered the goods by the date on which the Buyer has become entitled to the maximum amount of liquidated damages under article 10.1, the Buyer may give notice in writing to terminate the Contract as regards such goods, if they have not been delivered to the Buyer within 5 days of receipt of such notice by the Seller. 10.4 In case of termination of the Contract under article 10.2 or 10.3 then in addition to any amount paid or payable under article 10.1, the Buyer is entitled to claim damages for any additional loss not exceeding 10% of the price of the non-delivered goods. 10.5 The remedies under this article are exclusive of any other remedy for delay in delivery or non-delivery. ART. 11 NON-CONFORMITY OF THE GOODS 11.1 The Buyer shall examine the goods as soon as possible after their arrival at destination and shall notify the Seller in writing of any lack of conformity of the goods within 15 days from the date when the Buyer discovers or ought to have discovered the lack of conformity. In any case the Buyer shall have no remedy for lack of conformity if he fails to notify the Seller thereof within 12 months from the date of arrival of the goods at the agreed destination. 11.2 Goods will be deemed to conform to the Contract despite minor discrepancies which are usual in the particular trade or through course of dealing between the parties but the Buyer will be entitled to any abatement

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of the price usual in the trade or through course of dealing for such discrepancies. 11.3 Where goods are non-conforming (and provided the Buyer, having given notice of the lack of conformity in compliance with article 11.1, does not elect in the notice to retain them), the Seller shall at his option: (a) replace the goods with conforming goods, without any additional expense to the Buyer, or (b) repair the goods, without any additional expense to the Buyer, or (c) reimburse to the Buyer the price paid for the non-conforming goods and thereby terminate the Contract as regards those goods. The Buyer will be entitled to liquidated damages as quantified under article 10.1 for each complete week of delay between the date of notification of the non-conformity according to article 11.1 and the supply of substitute goods under article 11.3(a) or repair under article 11.3(b) above. Such damages may be accumulated with damages (if any) payable under article 10. 1, but can in no case exceed in the aggregate 5% of the price of those goods. 11.4 If the Seller has failed to perform his duties under article 11.3 by the date on which the Buyer becomes entitled to the maximum amount of liquidated damages according to that article, the Buyer may give notice in writing to terminate the Contract as regards the non-conforming goods unless the supply of replacement goods or the repair is effected within 5 days of receipt of such notice by the Seller. 1 1. 5 Where the Contract is terminated under article 11.3(c) or article 11.4, then in addition to any amount paid or payable under article 11.3 as reimbursement of the price and damages for any delay, the Buyer is entitled to damages for any additional loss not exceeding 10% of the price of the non-conforming goods. 11.6 Where the Buyer elects to retain non-conforming goods, he shall be entitled to a sum equal to the difference between the value of the goods at the agreed place of destination if they had conformed with the Contract and their value at the same place as delivered, such sum not to exceed 15% of the price of those goods. 11.7 Unless otherwise agreed in writing, the remedies under this article 11 are exclusive of any other remedy for non-conformity. 11.8 Unless otherwise agreed in writing, no action for lack of conformity can be taken by the Buyer, whether before judicial or arbitral tribunals, after 2 years from the date of arrival of the goods. It is expressly agreed that after the expiry of such term, the Buyer will not plead non-conformity of the goods, or make a counter-claim thereon, in defence to any action taken by the Seller against the Buyer for non-performance of this Contract. ART. 12 COOPERATION BETWEEN THE PARTIES 12.1 The Buyer shall promptly inform the Seller of any claim made against the Buyer by his customers or third parties concerning the goods delivered or intellectual property rights related thereto. 12.2 The Seller will promptly inform the Buyer of any claim which may involve the product liability of the Buyer. ART. 13 FORCE MAJEURE 13.1 A party is not liable for a failure to perform any of his obligations in so far as he proves:
22

(a) that the failure was due to an impediment beyond his control, and (b) that he could not reasonably be expected to have taken into account the impediment and its effects upon his ability to perform at the time of the conclusion of the Contract, and (c) that he could not reasonably have avoided or overcome it or its effects. 13.2 A party seeking relief shall, as soon as practicable after the impediment and its effects upon his ability to perform become known to him, give notice to the other party of such impediment and its effects on his ability to perform. Notice shall also be given when the ground of relief ceases. Failure to give either notice makes the party thus failing liable in damages for loss which otherwise could have been avoided. 1 3. 3 Without prejudice to article 10.2, a ground of relief under this clause relieves the party failing to perform from liability in damages, from penalties and other contractual sanctions, except from the duty to pay interest on money owing as long as and to the extent that the ground subsists. 13.4 If the grounds of relief subsist for more than six months, either party shall be entitled to terminate the Contract with notice. ART. 14 RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES 1 4.1 Unless otherwise agreed in writing, all disputes arising in connection with the present Contract shall be finally settled under the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce by one or more arbitrators appointed in accordance with the said Rules. 14.2 An arbitration clause does not prevent any party from requesting interim or conservatory measures from the courts.

22

Derularea tranzac iei

1. Livrarea Lumnrile decorative au fost ambalate n pachete de dimensiuni diferite, specifice fiecrui sortiment n parte realizate din carton alb care s nlesneasc operaiunile de manipulare i de protejare a produselor mpotriva posibilelor daune. Pe spatele pachetului sunt nscrise sortimentul i materialele din care sunt realizate . Pe faa pachetului apare numele firmei, numrul de buci, culoarea i aroma produsului. Toate aceste informaii vor fi traduse n limba polonez cnd produsele vor ajunge acolo adaptndu-se astfel consumatorilor locali. Pachetele au fost grupate n funcie de sortiment i puse pe palei speciali pentru a optimiza spaiul din mijloacele de transport. Fiecare palet a fost marcat i inscripionat cu abrevierea numelui destinatarului, punctul final de destinaie i cu numrul de ordine al comenzii dup care au fost depozitai n incinta companiei MICO Decorative Candles n vederea expedierii.

2. Logistica Pentru a putea efectua transportul mrfurilor n oraul Varovia, Polonia, am efectuat o analiz a posibilelor moduri n care acesta se poate realiza. Am exclus din analiz transportul maritim pentru c acesta ar fi presupus ocolirea ntegului continent European i prin urmare o cheltuial enorm de timp i de resurse financiare, considernd astfel numai modurile de transport viabile: aerian, feroviar i rutier. Pentru a putea alege cel mai potrivit mod de a ne transporta produsele n Polonia am luat n considerare costurile pe care le implic fiecare mod de transport, nivelul de siguran al acestuia, numrul de opriri (transbordri), numrul de kilometrii de parcurs pentru fiecare soluie ct i timpul alocat transportului.

22

Tabel nr. 3 Criterii de selecie a modului de transport Mod de transport Criterii Pre Grad de securitate Durata transportului Nr. de opriri Nr. de kilometrii

Aerian 6.340 EUR ridicat 7h 35' 3 1763 Km

Feroviar 3.892 EUR mediu 21h 2' 2 1112Km

Rutier 3.070 EUR mediu 15h 18' 1 922 Km

n ceea ce privete transportul cu avionul, pentru c nu exist zbor direct Iai - Varovia, transportul produselor ar fi trebuit s aib loc pe ruta Iai Bucureti Kiev Varovia. Acest lucru a condus la creterea costurilor transportului, cu toate c transportul aerian este destul de scump i puin adecvat pentru transportul bunurilor far valoare ridicat. Acesta rmne ns cel mai sigur mod de transport i cel mai rapid. Transportul feroviar este posibil de realizat pe ruta Iai Kiev Varovia, la un cost mai mic (3,5 EUR/Km) dect cel perceptibil pentru transportul aerian cu cea mai mare durat de transport. n urma i mai analizei, mare dect cel pentru transportul rutier (3,33 EUR/Km) i reprezint modul transportul rutier, s-a dovedit a fi cel mai indicat pentru expedierea produselor n Polonia. Acest tip de transport prezint urmtoarele avantaje: cost redus ; furnizarea mrfii direct la beneficiar; nu presupune transbordarea mrfurilor; durat de transport redus; raport durat/pre foarte competitiv; Pentru c firma MICO Decorative Candles nu are n dotare mijloace proprii de transport a trebuit s apeleze la un furnizor specializat n astfel de servicii. Firma aleas pentru realizarea transportului igrilor n Polonia este SC INFOTRANS EXPERT SRL Iai . Aceasta activeaz pe piaa din Romnia din anul 2008 i este specializat n transportul rutier intern i internaional

22

pe camioane de la 1,5 t pn la 40 t. Compania presteaz servicii 7 zile pe sptmn, 24 de ore din 24, are personal tnr dar calificat i cunosctor a mai multor limbi de circulaie internaional englez, german, francez i italian. De asemenea firma are asigurare CMR n valoare de 200.000 EUR iar marfa este supravegheat pe parcursul transportului prin satelit. Datele de contact ale firmei sunt: Adresa : Aleea M. Sadoveanu, Nr. 18 A, Iai, 700489; Cod fiscal : RO 23592564 ; Nr.ord.reg.com/an: J 22/101322008; Telefon : 0332440936; 0744987509; Fax : 0332440937; Email: contact@roexpeditii.eu; Reprezentant : Elena Zaharia manager; Firma SC INFOTRANS EXPERT SRL efectueaz pe lng livrarea n siguran a produselor ctre destinatar i realizarea formalitilor vamale ( determinarea valorii n vam i completarea declaraiei vamale ). n ceea ce privete formalitile vamale acestea trebuie efectuate numai la export (n spaiul extracomunitar) deoarece conform clauzei Incoterms alese, CPT, importatorul se va ocupa de asigurarea mrfurilor n timpul transportului, de efectuarea formalitilor vamale la import, de descrcarea acestora, i de distrubuirea lumnrilor la punctul central de desfacere din Polonia. Cele 780.000 buc de lumnri decorative au fost ncrcate n 2 camioane de 20 t i au fost transportate pn la locul stabilit n contractul de vnzare internaional, n Varovia, contra sumei de 3.500 EUR, n mai puin de dou zile. Transportul s-a desfurat dup ce MICO Decorative Candles a ncheiat contractul de transport rutier (conform anexelor) cu firma SC INFOTRANS EXPERT SRL din Iai traversnd Ucraina.

22

Ruta exact pe care care s-a desfurat transportul este urmtoarea:

Harta

traseului

Iai

Varovia
Sursa: Google Map

Transportatorul a fost pltit n dou trane: jumtate din sum, respectiv 1.750 EUR, a fost virat n contul acestuia deschis la banca BCR naintea efecturii transportului iar cealalt jumtate dup ce acesta a avut loc.

Documentarea
3.1 Documente comerciale Factura pro-form1: este documentul emis de MICO Candles Design SRL prin care se specific produsele care se vor vinde, cu caracteristicile principale i cu pre ul. Aceasta nu este un document de plat nu conine marcajele de expediere i este o form de prefacturare fr obligaia plii. n cazul n care clientul s-a hotrt s cumpere produsele poate plti pe baza acestei facturi i n aceast situaie MICO Candles Design va transforma facutra pro-form n factur definitiv. Factura definitiv2: este un documentul care certific vnzarea a 780.000 buc lumnri decorative de MICO Candles Design SRL ctre Praktiker Polonia. Este un act justificativ n care se consemneaz cu exactitate cantitatea, calitatea i preul produselor, preul unitar, i valoarea total. Acesta servete ca document de informare fiscal sau vamal.
1

Factura proform se regsete n Anexa 1 Factura definitiv se regsete n Anexa 2

22

Certificatul de origine3: este documentul care atest originea marfii.A fost eliberat, la cerere, n baza facturii de export. Pe certificatul de origine au fost trecute denumirea expeditorului i a destinatarului, ara de origine, denumirea produselor, unitatea de msur i cantitatea (n unitatea de msur precizat). Opional au fost trecute i alte elemente de identificare a produselor i mijlocul de transport al produselor. Certificatul de origine a mrfii va fi prezentat mpreun cu declaraia vamal i cu alte documente care urmeaz s fie perfectate de ctre autoritatea vamal. n caz de pierdere a certificatului, se va prezenta duplicatul autentificat oficial al acestuia. n cazul n care se va pune la ndoial autenticitatea certificatului de origine a mrfii sau a datelor ce se conin n el, autoritatea vamal este n drept s se adreseze organelor care au eliberat certificatul sau organizaiilor specializate ale rii menionate ca ar de origine a mrfii pentru a obine date suplimentare sau precizri. Certificatul de calitate4: A fost obinut n urma unei expertize executate de S.C Total Q ARM S.A i atest standardele produselor firmei S.C MICO Candles Design SRL ca fiind conforme cu standardul ISO 9001. Certificatul de asigurare i Licena export / import: deoarece serviciul de transport a fost externalizat ctre SC Infotrans Expert SRL, responsabilitatea ntocmirii acestor documente comerciale este n totalitate a transportatorului. Declaraia vamal5: reprezint documentul principal pentru perceperea taxelor vamale i altor ncasri, precum i pentru verificarea corectitudinii sumei i termenul de transferare a surselor bneti pentru contractul realizat cu Praktiker Polonia.

3.2 Documente financiare Dup cum a fost menionat anterior plata se va efectua prin acreditiv bancar6. Acreditivul este un documentul emis de banca celor de la
3

Certificatul de origine se regsete n Anexa 3 Certificatul de calitate se regsete n Anexa 4 Declara ia vamal se regsete n Anexa 5 Acreditivul bancar se regsete n Anexa 6

22

Praktiker Poland prin care se autorizeaz plata ctre MICO Candles Design dac aceasta din urm respect condiiile din contractul iniial.

Prile implicate sunt: Ordonatorul acreditivului Praktiker Poland este firma care iniiaz relaia de acreditiv, prin instruciunile date bncii de a efectua plata ctre MICO Candles Design.

Beneficiarul acreditivului Este reprezentat de MICO Candles Design cruia National Bank of Poland s-a angajat s plteasc i cel care dac ndeplinete condiiile menionate n textul acreditivului va ncasa banii. Banca emitent Este reprezentat de National Bank of Poland care i-a luat angajamentul n scris de a plti la termenul i condiiile stabilite suma de 1.306.250 eur corespunztoare efecturii tranzaciei. Banca corespondent Este reprezentat de BCR la care are cont MICO Candles Design i este cea prin care National Bank of Poland transmite acreditivul spre a fi comunicat exportatorului. 3.3 Documente de transport rutier Transportul internaional se caracterizez prin faptul c marfa traverseaz una sau mai multe frontiere de stat (Romnia Ucraina Polonia), punctele de expediere i de destinaie fiind situate n ri diferite. Transportatorul realizeaz deplasarea efectiv a mrfurilor n spaiu, cel mai

22

frecvent la ordinul expeditorului i pe cheltuiala exportatorului sau importatorului, n funcie de condiia de livrare prevzut n contract. SC Infotrans Expert SRL, firma aleas pentru trasnportul mrfurilor, utilizeaz numai mijloace de transport asigurate i, n plus, transporturile sunt guvernate de convenia internaional CMR. Trsturile comune ale documentelor de transport - constituie dovada scris a contractului dintre expeditor i transportator; -reprezint, dac sunt semnate de cru, dovada prelurii mrfii n vederea transportului, n bunstare; - pot servi drept factur pentru cheltuielile de transport i alte cheltuieli conexe. Prin CMR-ul emis de MICO Candles Design ctre Infotrans Expert se solicit dou tiruri ca mijloc de transport rutier pe baza unei comenzi i a unui bon de transport. n comand a fost specificat tipul mijlocului de transport solicitat (autotractor), capacitatea acestuia (2 x 20 t), distana (922 km) i ruta (Iasi Kiev Varovia), iar n bonul de transport au fost nscrie mrfurile ce vor fi transportate (lumnri decorative), confirmarea de primire a beneficiarului (Praktiker Poland) i alte date. Pe baza acestor documente Infotrans Expert a calculat valoarea de plat pentru transportul solicitat, respectiv 3.500 eur. Scrisoarea exemplare: un exemplar a rmas la MICO Candles Design la predarea mrfii: un exemplar a rmas la Infotrans Expert; un exemplar a nsoit transportul i va fi eliberat ctre Praktiker de trsur tip CMR nsoete transportul rutier

internaional de mrfuri (Infotrans Expert) i a fost ntocmit n trei

Poland odat cu marfa.

22

Performan ele firmei


1. Bilanul contabil simplificat Necesitatea i utilitatea analizei financiare ca instrument de

supraveghere a activitii i performanelor ntreprinderii se concretizeaz prin impactul complex i permanent asupra deciziilor privind opiunile n alocarea resurselor, dimensiunea alocrii, respectiv investirii i eficiena utilizrii lor n vederea asigurrii marjei concureniale i a viabilitii. Pentru realizarea analizei financiare pot fi utilizate numeroase instrumente, capabile s indice exprime situaia firmei la un moment dat. Primul instrument din care pot fi extrai indicatorii specifici situaiei financiare este bilanul: Bilanul simplificat al firmei S.C MICO Candles Design S.R.L
Denumirea elementului A A. Active imobilizate I. Imobilizri necorporale
(ct.201+203+205+ 2071+208+233+234280-290-2933)

Nr. rnd B

Soldul la 31.12.2009 1

Soldul la 31.12.2010 2

01

386.000

605.500

Imobilizri corporale ( ct. 211+ 212+213+ 214+231+232-281- 291-2931) II. III. Active Imobilizri
267 * -

02 03 04

2.330.000

3.178.400

financiare
296 * )

(ct.

261+263+265+

Imobilizate

Total

(rd.

2.716.000

3.783.900

01+02+03)

B. Active circulante I. Stocuri (ct. 301+302+303+/- 308+331+


332+ 341+ 357+ 358+ 361+/- 368+ 371+/378 + 381+/- 388- 391- 392-393-394-395396-397-398+4091- 4428)

05

362.150

188.730

II. Creane (ct. 267 * - 296 * +4092+ 411+


413+ 418+ 425+ 4282+ 431+ 437+ 4382+ 411+ 4424+ 4428+ 444+ 445+ 446+ 447+ 4482+ 451+453+ 456+ 4582+ 461+ 473491- 495- 496+ 5187)

06

1.143.000

1.150.000

Investiii pe termen scurt (ct. 501+505+506+ 508+ 5113+ 5114- 591III.

07

22

595- 596- 598)

IV. Casa i conturi la bnci (ct. 5112 +


512+ 531+ 532+ 541+ 542)

08 09 10 11

2.111.500 3.616.650

4.310.500 5.649.230

Active

circulante

Total

(rd.

05+06+07+08)

C. Cheltuieli n avans (ct. 471) D. Datorii: sumele care trebuie pltite ntr-o perioad de pn la un an (ct. 161+
162+ 166+ 167+ 168403+ 404+ 405+ 408+ 424+ 426+ 427+ 4381+ 4428+ 444+ 446+ 447+ 455+ 456+ 4581+ 462+ 519) 169+ 269+ 401+ 419+ 421+ 423+ 431+ 441+ 4423+ 4481+ 451+ 453+ 473+ 509+ 5186+

117.300

2.316.730

E. Active circulante nete/datorii curente nete (rd. 09+10-11-18) F. Total active minus datorii curente nete
(rd.04 + 12)

12 13 14

3.499.350 6.215.350

3.332.500 7.116.400

G. Datorii: sumele care trebuie pltite ntr-o perioad mai mare de un an (ct.
161+ 162+ 166+ 167+ 168- 169+ 401+ 403+ 404+ 405+ 408+ 419+ 423+ 424+ 426+ 427+ 4381+ 431+ 4423+ 4428+ 444+ 446+ 447+ 4481+ 453+ 455+ 456+ 4581+ 462+ 473+ 5186+ 519) 269+ 421+ 441+ 451+ 509+

H. Provizioane (ct. 151) I. Venituri n avans (rd.17+ 18), din care: - subvenii pentru investiii (ct. 131+ 132+
133+ 134+ 138)

15 16 17 18

- venituri nregistrate n avans (ct. 472) J. Capital i rezerve I. Capital (rd. 20+21+22), din care: - capital subscris i vrsat (ct. 1012) - capital subscris i nevrsat (ct. 1011) - patrimoniu regiei (ct. 1015) II Prime de capital (ct. 104) III Rezerve din reevaluare (ct. 105) IV. Rezerve (ct. 106) Aciuni proprii (ct. 109)

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

1.197.500 1.197.500

3.197.500 3.197.500

18.700

18.700

22

Ctiguri legate de instrumentele de capitaluri proprii (ct. 141) Pierderi legate de instrumentele capitaluri proprii (ct. 149) V. Profitul sau pierderea raportat SOLD C (ct.117) SOLD D (ct.117) VI. Profitul sau pierderea exerciiului financiar SOLD C (ct. 121) SOLD D (ct. 121) Repartizarea profitului (ct. 129) Capitaluri Proprii Total (rd. 19+23+24+25-26+27-28+29-30+31-3233) Patrimoniul Public (ct. 1016) Capitaluri Total (rd. 34+35) de

27 28 29 1.117.800 2.646.538

30 31 32 33 34 4.980.538 12.178.301 2.646.538 6.315.563

35 36 4.980.538 12.178.301

2. Contul de profit i pierdere simplificat n contextul economiei de pia, unul dintre obiectivele

ntreprinderilor l constituie obinerea profitului care reprezint raiunea existenei lor. Dac bilanul contabil descrie situaia patrimonial a unei ntreprinderi la un moment dat, indicnd i mrimea rezultatului este necesar prezena unui alt instrument care s explice modul de constituire a rezultatului i s permit desprinderea unor concluzii legate de performanele activitii ntreprinderii. Acest instrument este contul de profit i pierdere sau contul de rezultate. El grupeaz fluxurile reale i financiare i pune n eviden operaiunile realizate de ntreprindere n cursul exerciiului. Contul de profit i pierdere, prin coninutul su, ofer informaii asupra activitii industriale, comerciale sau financiare a ntreprinderii i despre modul cum aceasta i gestioneaz afacerile prin dimensiunea veniturilor, cheltuielilor i rezultatelor pe care le genereaz. n ceea ce privete firma S.C Mico Candles Desing S.R.L contul de profit i pierdere ne arat, dup cum urmeaz, c aceasta a nregistrat att n anul 2009 ct i n 2010 profit.
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Contul de profit i pierdere


Denumirea indicatorilor Nr. Rd Exerciiul financiar

precedent Venituri din vnzri de mrfuri Venituri din exploatare Total ( rd. 01) Cheltuieli cu materiile prime (ct.601) Cheltuieli cu materialele consumabile (ct. 602) Cheltuieli cu energie i ap (ct. 605) Cheltuieli privind ambalajele (ct. 608) Cheltuieli materiale Total (rd. 03 + 04 + 05+ 06) Cheltuieli cu salariile personalului (ct. 641) Cheltuieli privind asigurrile i protecia social ( ct. 645) Cheltuieli cu personalul Total (rd. 08 + 09) Cheltuieli cu alte servicii executate de teri (ct. 622 + 623 ) Cheltuieli cu amortizrile (ct. 681) Cheltuieli din exploatare Total (rd. 07 + 10+ 11+ 12) Profitul sau pierderea din exploatare (rd. 02 - 12) - Profit - Pierdere Venituri financiare Cheltuieli financiare Profitul sau pierderea financiar (rd. 1516) - Profit - Pierdere Venituri extraordinare 17 18 19 0 0 13 14 15 16 3.150.640 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 12 11.278.000 11.278.000 7.763.000 6.000 118.500 203.000 8.090.500 18.000 4860 22.860 1500 12.500 8.127.360

ncheiat 23.130.625 23.130.625 15.172.500 7.000 125.500 265.000 15.570.000 21.200 4.148 25.348 4.250 12.500 15.612.098

7.518.527 0

0 0

22

Cheltuieli extraordinare Profitul sau pierderea din activitatea extraordinar (rd. 19- 20) - Profit - Pierdere Venituri Totale (rd 02 + 15 + 19) Cheltuieli Totale (rd. 12 + 16 + 20 ) Profitul sau pierderea brut - Profit (rd. 23 - 24) - Pierdere (rd. 24- 23) Impozitul pe profit Profitul sau pierderea net a exerciiului financiar - Profit (rd. 25 26 - 27) - Pierdere (rd. 26 + 27 - 25 )

20

21 22 23 24

0 0 11.278.000 8.127.360

0 0 23.130.625 15.612.098

25 26 27

3.150.640 0 504.102

7.518.527 0 1.202.964

28 29

2.646.538 0

6.315.563 0

3. Fluxul de trezorerie Situaia fluxurilor de trezorerie este reflect influena activitilor de exploatare, de investiii i de finanare asupra mijloacelor bneti ale entitii, pe parcursul unui exerciiu financiar. Fluxul de numerar este o analiz a tuturor modificrilor care afecteaz contul de numerar n timpul unui exerciiu financiar. Este un indicator al diferenei dintre numerarul ncasat i cel pltit de ctre o companie n timpul unui exerciiu financiar. Fluxul de trezorerie
Sold iniial de numerar ncasri ncasri din vnzri Total ncasri Pli Achiziii de stocuri 3.000.000 5.512.376 5.512.376 1.500.500

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Cheltuieli cu personalul Amortizri Achiziii de ambalaje Cheltuieli cu alte servicii executate de teri Total pli Flux net de numerar Sold final de numerar

286.691 273.843 750.000 265.592 4.576.126 936.250 2.436.750

Faptul c S.C MICO Candles Design a nregistrat un sold final de numerar pozitiv arat c aceasta este capabil s i onoreze datoriile fa de teri din surse proprii fr a mai apela la resurse financiare strine. 4. Calculul rentabilitate indicatorilor de profitabilitate, lichiditate i

Rentabilitatea reprezint capacitatea ntreprinderii de a realiza profit, care este necesar att reproduciei i dezvoltrii ct i remunerrii capitalurilor. Deoarece prin intermediul rentabilitii se apreciaz performanele ntreprinderilor, ea reprezint o informaie indispensabil bncilor, creditorilor i partenerilor de afaceri, fiind definit ca un raport ntre rezultatul obinut i mijloacele utilizate. Rentabilitatea economic reprezint eficiena utilizrii activului total sau a unei pri a acestuia, exprimat prin rata rentabilitii economice, care trebuie s fie superioar ratei de inflaie pentru ca ntreprinderea s-i poat menine substana sa economic. Rata rentabilitii economice trebuie s permit ntreprinderii rennoirea i creterea activelor sale ntr-o perioad ct mai scurt. Calculul ratei rentabilitii economice (Re), n general, se bazeaz pe profitul exerciiului (neimpozitat) i activul total, astfel: Re = rezultatul _economic 7.518.527 100 R e = 100 R e = 8 % activ_tota l 9.433.130

Rentabilitatea economic de 8%, mai mare dect rata inflaiei, prezint pentru companie oportunitatea de a-i mri activele i de a se
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ncadra pe un trend ascendent pe calea dezvoltrii economice. Rentabilitatea financiar se apreciaz prin intermediul ratei rentabilitii financiare a capitalului permanent, indicatori semnificativi n aprecierea performanelor economicofinanciare a ntreprinderii, att n cadrul diagnosticului intern ct i n analizele efectuate de diferii parteneri. Rata rentabilitii financiare a capitalului permanent(Rf) se poate calcula astfel: Rf = rezultatul _exercitiu lui_inaint ea_impozit arii 7.518.527 100 R f = 100 Capital_pe rmanent 12.178.301 R f = 6,2 % Valoarea rentabilitii financiare egale cu 6,2% demonstreaz o alocare eficient a resurselor financiare ale companiei. Un rol important n reflectarea performanelor ntreprinderilor l reprezint rata profitului ca parte integrant a unui larg sistem de rate economico-financiare. Aceasta se calculeaz ca fiind: Rp= Profit 7.518.527 100 R p = 100 = 32,5% Cifra_de_a faceri 23.130.625

Lichiditatea reprezint capacitatea unui agent economic de a i plti obligaiile fa de teri la scaden. Rata lichiditii generale pune n eviden relaia care exist la un moment dat ntre datoriile pe termen scurt, nscrise n pasiv i totalul capitalurilor circulante care se regsesc n activ. Acesta este un indicator de gestiune i analiz financiar a ntreprinderii care exprim cel mai fidel gradul de lichiditate. Lg = Active_cir culante 100. Datorii_cu rente

Conform bilanului contabil rata lichiditii generale, din punct de vedere valoric este : Lg = 5.649.230 100 = L g = 2, 43 % 2.316.730

Rata lichiditii curente reprezint msura n care pot fi acoperite datoriile curente din activele curente lichide sau care se pot transforma

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repede n active lichide. De regul, lichiditatea curent are o valoare supraunitar. Aceasta se poate calcula dup formula: Lc = active_cir culante stocuri datorii_cu rente

Potrivit bilanului contabil, la sfritul anului 2010, lichiditatea curent a S.C MICO Candles Design S.R.L este egal cu: Lc = 5.649.230188.730 100 L c = 2,36 %; 2.316.730

Faptul c lichiditatea curent are o valoare supraunitar demonstreaz c S.C MICO Candles Design S.R.L dispune de active lichide i care pot deveni uor lichide pentru a-i onora plata datoriilor curente. Rata lichiditii imediate mai este cunoscut i sub denumirea de rat a solvabilitii imediate i relev capacitatea unei firme de a-i onora datoriile din disponibiliti. Rata lichiditii imediate se calculeaz dup formula :
Li =

Disponibil + plasamente itati 4.310.500 100 L i = 100 L i = 1,86 %. Datorii_cu rente 2.316.730 Faptul c rata lichidititii imediate are o valoare foarte supraunitar

arat c S.C MICO Candles Design S.R.L prezint un grad de solvabilitate foarte ridicat.

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BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Barghiel Virginia, Chiriacescu Adriana, Hollinger Alexander, Murean

Laura Coresponden de afaceri n limbile romn i englez Ed. Teora, Martie 1996;
2. Badea Dumitru, Novac Elly Laura International trade and finance

Ed. Economic, 2005;


3. http://www.jurisint.org/en/con/index.html - accesat la data de

25.02.2011
4. http://www.export61.com.au/export-tutorials.asp?ttl=ttc accesat la

data de 25.02.211

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ANEXE

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