Sunteți pe pagina 1din 65

S

u
m
a
r
S

U

M

M

A

R

Y
STUDII, STRATEGII, ANALIZE/
STUDIES, STRATEGIES, ANALYSES
Liviu COEREANU................................................ 3
Implicarea cercetrii inice pe termen mediu
i lung n realizarea i cercarea produselor de
tehnic militar
Medium and long term scienc research
involving in the development and cercaon of
military products
Gheorghe NEGRU .............................................. 6
Consideraii referitoare la mentenana
sistemelor tehnice complexe
Consideraons on the complex
technical systems maintenance
Cornel TODIRIC, Daniel LEPDAT, Daniel URCANU... 11
Funcia de transfer opc i calitatea imaginii
sistemelor optoelectronice
Opc transfer funcon and image quality
of ir imaging sistems
CERCETARE TIINIFIC/
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Niculae ALEXE, Liviu COEREANU,
Georgic SLMNOIU, Gheorghe CALANCEA ...... 17
Ulizarea ecranelor de ap pentru
reducerea amprentei radar a navelor
Applicaon of water curtain in order
to reduce radar signature of ships
Constann Alexandru CARAVAN......................... 22
Analiza mecanismului de viraj
al vehiculelor pe enile
Analysis of tracked vehicles steering mechanism
Georgiana CIOFRNGEANU, Doru ALEXE, ......... 32
Complet de decontaminare portabil cd - 3p
Cd - 3p portable decontaminaon complete
Gabriel TRA, Daniel HRICU ......................... 37
Implementarea hardware a algoritmului
de criptare camellia
Hardware implementaon of the camellia
encrypon algorithm
Iuliana Florina CIORTAN .................................. 43
Consideraii privind ulizarea tehnicii de generare
a undelor de oc slabe prin intermediul tubului de oc
Some aspects regarding the generaons
of weak shock waves using the shock tube technique
Alexandru ROGOZ, Ioan SAFTA,
Aurica DUMITRESCU ......................................... 52
Complet pentru neutralizarea prin
efect cumulav a muniiilor nefuncionate
Unexploded ordnance neutralizaon
by shaped charge eect system
PREZENTRI, DESCRIERI, FIE TEHNICE/
EXPOSITIONS, DESCRIPTIONS,
TECHNICAL ASSIGNMENTS
George COSTEA, Georgiana MARIN,
Ovidiu RADU, Elena CURC .............................. 57
Evaluarea sistemelor de lupt navale
prin aplicarea algoritmilor de opmizare
The assessment of naval weapons systems
by modern opmizaon algorithms
Constann STANCU, Alina DUMITRU ................ 62
Sistemul matriceal phased array
Phased array matricial sistem
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
Our magazine comprises arcles
relave to the scienc research and
technological innovaon acvity specic
to the army forces categories: land, air
and naval forces, as well as to other
structures within the Ministry of Naonal
Defense, dierent strategies, management
issues, the latest scienc research
noveles, scienc exhibions etc.
The scientific researchers,
professors, the personnel in charge with
the military acquisioning, research,
design, maintenance, as well as the logiscs,
may nd out that our magazine
comprehends an ample informaon
back-up, furthermore extremely useful
in your professional career.
Editorial ofce
Revista conine arcole cu date din
acvitatea de cercetare inic i
inovare tehnologic specic celor trei
categorii de fore armate: terestre, aeriene,
navale i ale altor structuri din cadrul
Ministerului Aprrii Naionale, precum
i strategii, management, nouti din
domeniul cercetrii inice, manifestri
inice etc.
Cercettorii inici, cadrele didacce,
personalul specializat cu preocupri
n domeniul achiziiilor, cercetrii,
proiectrii, mentenanei i logiscii
produselor militare pot gsi n aceast
revist un mediu adecvat de diseminare
i informare, deosebit de ul i necesar
pentru cariera profesional.
Arcolele cuprinse n revista Tehnica Militar
constuie proprietatea intelectual
a Departamentului pentru Armamente
din cadrul Ministerului Aprrii Naionale.
Reproducerea integral sau parial
a arcolelor, informaiilor sau ilustraiilor
din revista Tehnica Militar
este permis numai cu acordul scris al redaciei revistei.
Manuscrisele, inclusiv n format electronic,
expediate spre publicare devin
proprietatea revistei.
Manuscrisele nepublicate nu se napoiaz.
Redacia nu i asum responsabilitatea
pentru greelile aprute n arcolele colaboratorilor.
Redacia
Gent l e r eader
Gent l e r eader
Noce that the Military Technology
magazine arcles are under the intellectual property
of the Ministry of Naonal Defense Armament Department
The enre or paral duplicaon of the Military Technology
magazine arcles, informaon, or illustraons
may be licensed only with the Editorial o ce wrien agreement.
The manuscripts send for publicaon
get into the magazine property. The arcles
which are not published are not given back to the authors.
The Editorial o ce doesn`t take charge of the co-workers
mistakes within their arcles.
St i mai
St i mai
c i t i t or i , c i t i t or i ,
Military Technology no. 2/2011
STUDIES, STRATEGIES, ANALYSES 3
Colonel confereniar universitar dr. inginer Liviu COEREANU
Comandantul Ageniei de Cercetare pentru Tehnic
i Tehnologii Militare
Colonel lecturer engineer Liviu COEREANU PhD
Military Equipment and
Technologies Research Agency Commander
Rezumat 1.
Polica de nzestrare a forelor Armatei Romniei, n acord cu
conceptele i principiile moderne i praccile internaionale de achiziii
de sisteme de armamente, are n vedere, pe de o parte, modernizarea
tehnicii militare existente, iar pe de alt parte, completarea cu tehnic
i echipamente compabile cu cele existente n nzestrarea armatelor
rilor membre NATO i ale Uniunii Europene, realizate att n concepie
proprie, ct i prin cooperare internaional cu rme recunoscute pe
plan internaional. La nivelul policilor Uniunii Europene, ina i
tehnologia sunt considerate adevratele instrumente cheie pentru
viitorul european. Pentru Romnia, necesitatea de a impulsiona
creterea compevitii economice, n special n perioada 2007-2013,
care reprezint prima etap a procesului post-aderare, impune cerina
esenial de a reduce i depi decalajele tehnologice care o separ
de restul statelor membre UE. Din aceast perspecv, Romnia este
direct interesat s dezvolte capacitatea i s mreasc compevitatea
sistemului de cercetare-dezvoltare i inovare, care trebuie s asigure
infrastructura i resursele necesare pentru asigurarea i dezvoltarea pe
plan intern a echipamentelor i dotrilor tehnice de nalt nivel.
Sistemul de management al achiziiilor n armat 2.
Toate aceste aciuni sunt transpuse n pracc prin planicarea
forelor, a resurselor i a armamentelor, n cadrul unui sistem integrat de
management al achiziiilor de sisteme de armamente, proces ce constuie
o component important a policii de aprare a statului romn n
domeniul realizrii capabilitilor militare necesare creterii capacitii
de aprare a rii i asigurrii interoperabilitii structurilor armatei cu
structurile militare ale rilor membre NATO i ale Uniunii Europene.
Acest proces se deruleaz potrivit prioritilor i planicrii n
realizarea capabilitilor militare stabilite de ulizatorii nali Statul
Major General i categoriile de fore n conformitate cu angajamentele
internaionale i contractele mulanuale i n limita fondurilor alocate.
Opmizarea proceselor privind achiziia sistemelor de armamente
desnate nzestrrii forelor armate ale unei naiuni nu a fost, n sine,
niciodat, o sarcin uoar. Obinerea unui raport cost-performan
ecient, respectarea gracelor de realizare a componentelor
tehnologice ale capabilitilor militare i asigurarea unui echilibru
necesar ntre categoriile de fore lupttoare, n condiiile unor inevitabile
constrngeri majore de resurse nanciare, umane i tehnologice, sunt
cele mai dicile sarcini n domeniul planicrii aprrii, n subdomeniile
de planicare a forelor, armamentelor i logiscii operaionale.
Sistemul integrat de management al achiziiilor n Armata Romniei
include i acvitile de cercetare dezvoltare - inovare a cror
organizare i conducere intr n responsabilitatea Departamentului
pentru Armamente prin Agenia de Cercetare pentru Tehnic i
Tehnologii Militare.
IMPLICAREA CERCETRII
TIINIFICE PE TERMEN MEDIU
I LUNG N REALIZAREA I
CERTIFICAREA PRODUSELOR
DE TEHNIC MILITAR
Abstract 1.
The Romanian armed forces endowment policy, in line with the
modern concepts and principles and weapon systems internaonal
endowment pracces, focuses, on one hand, on the modernizaon
of the present military technique and on the other hand on the
compleon of the exisng technical equipment compable with the
exisng equipment of NATO and European Union armies made both in
his own concepon and internaonal cooperaon with internaonally
recognized companies. As for the European Union policies, science and
technology are considered to be real key tools for the European future.
For Romania, the need to boost economic compeveness, especially
between 2007 and 2013, which is considered to be the rst post
accession session, imposes the essenal requirement to reduce the
technological gap and overcome the separaon from other member
states. From this perspecve, Romania is directly interested to develop
capacity and increase the compeveness of research and development
and innovaon which should provide the necessary infrastructure and
resources to ensure the development of the technical equipment and
high tech endowment.

Army endowment management system 2.
All these acons are put into pracce by planning forces of the
resources and weapons within a integrated management system of the
weapon system endowment high is an important part of the Romanian
defense policy in achieving the necessary military capabilies increasing
the capacity of defense and military structure of the member countries
and European Union.
This process takes place according to priories and planning
of the military capabilies set by end users General Sta and the
forces categories according to the internaonal commitments and
mulannual contracts, according to the allocated funds.
The opmizaon of the weapon system endowment process has
never been an easy task to accomplish. Achieving a costeecve
performance, compliance schedule for achieving technological
components of military capabilies and providing the necessary
balance between the forces categories under major nancial, human
and technological resources constraints, are the most di cult tasks in
defense planning of forces, weapon and operaonal logiscs.
The integrated management of the Romanian army endowment
comprises the research development innovaon acvies under
the leadership of the Armament Department through the Military
Equipment and Technologies Research Agency.
The research-development and innovaon policy and strategy is
implemented by the Military Equipment and Technologies Research
Agency, the instuon responsible with the Armament Department
scienc and technological competence, carrying out the endowment
programs.
MEDIUM AND LONG TERM
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
INVOLVING IN THE
DEVELOPMENT AND
CERTIFICATION OF MILITARY
PRODUCTS
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
STUDII, STRATEGII, ANALIZE 4
Polica i strategia de cercetare dezvoltare - inovare pentru tehnici
i tehnologii militare este implementat de Agenia de Cercetare pentru
Tehnic i Tehnologii Militare (ACTTM), care reprezint instuia ce
asigur competena inic i tehnologic a Departamentului pentru
Armamente n desfurarea programelor de achiziii pentru nzestrare.
Misiunea principal a acvitilor de cercetare inic i dezvoltare
tehnologic n domeniul aprrii din Romnia const n asigurarea
condiiilor ca sistemele de armament i tehnic militar dezvoltate i
achiziionate pentru nzestrarea Armatei Romniei s aib nglobate
cele mai noi realizri din domeniul inei, tehnicii i tehnologiei i s
rspund ntr-un grad ct mai ridicat cerinelor impuse de desfurarea
aciunilor militare n condiiile existente n teatrul de operaii modern.
Acvitile de cercetare inic n domeniul aprrii au ca
obiecv prioritar dezvoltarea acelor capabiliti militare care permit
implementarea conceptelor generale ale strategiei de nzestrare a
Armatei Romniei, cu un accent special pus pe creterea ecienei
parciprii Romniei la operaiunile mulnaionale desfurate n
diferite zone geograce.
Domeniile de competen ale Ageniei de Cercetare pentru Tehnic
i Tehnologii Militare sunt: armamente pentru Forele Terestre;
ncercri n zbor ale tehnicii de aviaie; echipamente pentru Forele
Navale; aprare NBC i Ecologie; sisteme informace i comunicaii, iar
n calitate de instrumente pentru derularea acvitilor de cercetare-
dezvoltare exist: Planul sectorial de cercetare-dezvoltare i Planul
naional de cercetare-dezvoltare i inovare.
Rolul Ageniei ncepe n momentul n care au fost emise cerinele
de ctre categoria de fore, pe baza crora, se ntocmesc studiile de
concept i specicaiile tehnice care declaneaz procedurile de
achiziii.
Implicaiile denirii i adoptrii obiecvelor forei n domeniul
cercetrii i tehnologiei presupun:
realizarea unor sisteme de armament complexe, cu -
performane tehnice de vrf;
orientarea programelor de cercetare spre cerinele -
operaionale ale Statului Major General i categoriilor de fore ale
armatei;
colaborarea i cooperarea n cercetare i tehnologie la nivel -
naional i internaional.
Agenia se implic n toate acvitile ciclului de via ale
sistemelor de arm, sistemelor de conducere a focului, sistemelor de
observare i de vedere, sistemelor de protecie balisc, sistemelor de
supravieuire etc. Printre realizrile deosebite n cadrul acestei instuii
militare se remarc:
luneta modular de ochire pe mp de zi de noapte, un -
produs nou fa de cele existente pe pia la aceast or; la sfritul
acestui an se va testa i, implicit, se va verica, pentru a se constata n
ce msur corespunde cerinelor iniiale;
integrarea subsistemului de navigaie terestr n sistemul de -
comand i control pentru transportoarele blindate i maina de lupt
a infanteriei; acelai sistem poate implementat i pe tanc;
sistemul de camuaj mulspectral care are caracter de -
noutate, deoarece este un sistem cu adaptabilitate dinamic n funcie
de anomp, de lumin i de mediul n care se desfoar o anumit
aciune;
modernizarea staiei de radiolocaie IRIS, care ofer -
informaiile necesare conducerii tragerilor din poligoanele de arlerie;
s-au obinut rezultate foarte bune n poligonul de la Cincu unde, de
doi ani, este implementat un sistem de conducere a focului integrat i
digitalizat, realizat n ntregime de ctre agenie;
competena de a cerca produsele militare este unul din -
punctele forte ale realizrilor din ACTTM n domeniul calitii, deoarece
orice armat din lume are posibiliti proprii de testare i cercare
a produselor pe care urmeaz s le achiziioneze; coroborat i cu
acreditarea ACTTM pe linia de sistem al calitii, ind prima structur
din cadrul Ministerului Aprrii acreditat ISO 9001/2001 i AQAP, se
poate spune c exist toate atuurile pentru a se emite bulene de
calitate pentru anumite produse.
sistemele criptograce; pentru armata romn Agenia este -
singura entate care genereaz acest p de tehnic, att programe ct
i partea tehnic, ind cercai ORNISS; de asemenea, se asigur i
partea de funcionalitate i scoaterea din funciune, cnd este cazul;
problemele CBRN i ecologie se rezolv prin asigurarea -
prii de intervenie n zonele unde sunt semnalate posibiliti de
The main Romanian defense scienc research and technological
development programs ensures the necessary condions for the
military technique weapon systems to be developed and procured ,
to have incorporated the latest science, engineer and technological
achievements, to sasfy the rigorous requirements imposed by the
condions within the modern operaonal theatre.
The scienc research acvies focus on the development of
the military capabilies which actually allow the implementaon of
the Romanian army endowment general strategy. For that, the main
priority for Romania is to parcipate to the mulnaonal operaons
conducted in dierent geographical areas.
The Military Equipment and Technologies Research Agency has
competence in the following: Land forces weapon systems, ight tests
of aviaon equipment, Navy equipment, NBC defense and ecology,
informacs and communicaon systems. As research and development
tools for the acvies, we developed The Research and Development
Sectorial Plan and The Naonal Research-Development and Innovaon
Plan.
The forces categories issue the requirements based on which
the Military Equipment and Technologies Research Agency, METRA,
elaborates the concept studies and technical specicaons that trigger
the endowment process.
The implicaon of dening and adopng the research and
technology objecves include:
The development of complex weapon systems with top -
performance technology;
Orientaon of the research programs towards the General -
Sta and forces categories operaonal requirements;
Naonal and internaonal technology and research -
collaboraon and cooperaon.
METRA is involved in all weapon systems life cycle acvies,
re control systems, observaon and vision systems, ballisc protecon,
survival system and others. Among the outstanding achievements we
remind the following:
Modular day and night sniper sights , which is a new product -
exisng at the me and will be tested at the end of the year in order to
check if it ts the inial requirements;
integraon of the land navigaon subsystem within the -
command and control system for armored personnel carriers and
infantry ghng machine; note that the same system ca be implemented
on a tank also;
Mulspectral camouage system, which is new because it is -
a system with dynamic adaptability, depending on season, light and
the environment;
Modernizaon of the IRIS radar that provides the informaon -
needed to conduct arllery shoong in polygon; we have obtained good
results at CINCU polygon, where, we have implemented an integrated
digized re control system;
The competence over the cercaon of the military -
products is one of the strengths of METRA achievements as any army
of the world has its ways of tesng and cercaon of the products
that they wish to procure; corroborated to METRA system quality
accreditaon we can say that there are many chances to deliver quality
products bullens;
cryptographic systems; METRA is the only instuon of the -
Romanian army capable to generate this type of technique, ORNISS
cered;
it also ensures the funconally and decommissioning when
appropriate;
NBC and ecological problems are solved by providing -
intervenon in areas that are reported to be contaminated with
various substances; for example when the mercury cloud was
reported in Ukraine METRA team was alerted for determining possible
contaminaon areas;
Military Technology no. 2/2011
STUDIES, STRATEGIES, ANALYSES 5
contaminare cu diferite substane; de exemplu, n cazul norului de
mercur format n Ucraina, au parcipat echipajele de intervenie din
ACTTM pentru c au fost alertai n determinarea posibilelor momente
de contaminare;
tot ceea ce nseamn element de avionic care urmeaz s -
intre n dotarea Ministerului Aprrii Naionale se testeaz la centrul
de la Craiova;
Centrul de Cercetare pentru Forele Navale de la Constana -
ofer consultan n sisteme pentru nave, ct i a restului de echipament
care urmeaz s e ulizat de Forele Navale.
Pe termen mediu i lung, ncercm s ne dezvoltm capabiliti n
domeniul laboratoarelor, pentru c nu poi s faci cercetri, sau s tragi
concluzii referitoare la comportamentul unor echipamente, n condiiile
n care nu poi s le testezi. Oamenii implicai n procesele de testare au
i pregre de cercettor, pentru c ei trebuie s furnizeze informaiile
pentru remedierea neconcordanelor care au aprut la realizarea
modelului experimental, fa de cerinele iniiale de la care s-a plecat.
Toate aceste lucruri se pot face dect cu echipamente performante.
Personalul care lucreaz n cadrul ACTTM este angajat conform
prevederilor legale specice cercetrii; nerii absolveni de facultate
sunt angajai pe prima treapt inic, cea de asistent de cercetare,
urmnd ca pe parcurs, n funcie de rezultatele obinute privind
implicarea n proiectele de cercetare, publicarea de arcole n reviste,
parciprile la conferine naionale i internaionale s obin un
punctaj pe baza cruia s accead la un tlu i la un grad inic
corespunztor.
Pentru cercettorii inici din domeniul cercetrii i tehnologiilor
pentru aprare, din mediile guvernamental, academic i industrial
se deschid mulple oportuniti de parcipare la programele
i iniiavele organizaiilor specializate care funcioneaz, sau
sunt n curs de ninare la nivelul NATO i UE. Considerm c
cercetarea inic pentru tehnologii militare va trebui s gseasc
resursele necesare pentru a se ridica i menine la un nivel superior
de performan, iar, n perspecv, s devin un factor de prim
rang n denirea concepiei de nzestrare a forelor armate
cu tehnic de lupt.
Everything is part of avionic equipment which is being -
included within the Ministry of Defense endowment is tested by the In
Flight Research and Flight Center , Craiova;
The Scienc Research Center for Naval Forces in Constanta -
advises ships systems and the rest of equipment that is going to be
used by the Navy.
On medium and long term, we are trying to develop capabilies
in laboratories because you cannot do research or draw conclusions
without a tesng program. The people involved in the tesng process
have a researcher cercaon; they have to provide informaon
about the inconsistencies that have arisen during the tesng of the
experimental model compared to the inial requirements. For this kind
of tesng we need advanced equipment.
The Agency personnel is employed according to legal research
specicaons; young graduates are employed as research assistant, the
rst research degree, followed over me, depending on the obtained
results, the involvement on the research programs, publishing arcles
in magazines, parcipaon in naonal and internaonal conferences,
to get a score on which to access a tle and appropriate scienc
degree.
The governmental, academic and industrial research and
technology researchers have many opportunies for parcipang
in dierent programs and specialized organizaon which are being
created in the EU and NATO. We believe that military technologies
scienc researchers will have to nd the necessary resources to raise
and maintenance a higher level of performance and, in future, become
important factor in dening the army forces endowment with combat
equipment.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
STUDII, STRATEGII, ANALIZE 6
Rezumat
Lucrarea prezint o serie de modele referitoare la mentenan,
aplicabile sistemelor tehnice complexe.
Introducere n modelarea policilor de mentenan 1.
Modelarea unei polici de mentenan specice necesit
reprezentarea formal a aciunilor de mentenan aplicate de o anumit
linie de mentenan, pentru a se evita apariia unei defeciuni la un
anumit nivel de ierarhizare a unui sistem/echipament. Componentele
modelului policii de mentenan sunt urmtoarele:
- Modelul defeciunii - procesul apariiei unei defeciuni este
de p stocasc. Acest lucru nseamn c nu vom putea prevede cnd
defeciunea se va produce, dar vom putea determina probabilitatea
de a se produce ntr-un anumit interval de mp. Pentru realizarea
unei predicii, se va realiza un model de defectare pe baza datelor de
abilitate avute la dispoziie. Modelul policii de mentenan va avea
ca dat de intrare modelul de defectare.
- Caracterizarea aciunilor de mentenan - aciunile de
mentenan pot prevenve sau corecve. Ambele puri de aciuni
necesit modelarea mpului lor de mentenan.
- Linia de mentenan- linia de mentenan este caracterizat
de locaia sa, iar sprijinul acordat mentenanei este locul unde se
efectueaz mentenana i se ulizeaz resursele.
- Nivelul de ierahizare - de cele mai multe ori este necesar
s modelm polica de mentenan pentru sisteme/echipamente
cu diferite niveluri de ierarhizare. n aceste modele, este necesar s
formalizm aciunile prevenve pariale efectuate la un anumit nivel
de ierarhizare. Relaiile ntre aciunile pariale sau generale efectuate
asupra unui sistem/echipament, precum i impactul lor asupra
comportamentului sistemului/echipamentului trebuie modelate
pentru a spori acurateea modelului policii de management.
Modele de mentenan cu nlocuire total 2.
n modelele de mentenan cu nlocuire total presupunem
c sistemul/echipamentul este nlocuit complet, nlocuirea este
efectuat instantaneu, nu consum mp, iar defeciunea sistemului/
echipamentului este detectat n mp ce aceasta se produce.
Exist dou puri de opiuni pentru nlocuire:
nlocuire prevenv - se efectueaz pe baza unei polici de -
mentenan prevenv predenit;
nlocuire corecv - se efectueaz dup defectarea sistemului/ -
echipamentului.
Modelele cu nlocuire total iau n considerare urmtoarele polici
de nlocuire prevenv:
nlocuire la intervale constante - nlocuirea are loc dup un -
interval constant de mp;
durata mpului de exploatare - nlocuirea are loc cnd -
sistemul/echipamentul a fost exploatat o anumit perioad de mp.
Abstract
The paper presents some models regarding the maintenance which
could be applied to the complex technical systems.
Introducon to maintenance policy modelling 1.
Modelling a specic maintenance policy requires the formal
representaon of the maintenance acon applied, by a certain
maintenance line or echelon, to avoid the occurrence of a failure at a
given indenture level of a system/equipment.
The components of the maintenance policy are the followings:
- The failure model. The failure occurrence process is a stochasc
process. That is to say, we cannot predict when the failures will
happen, but we can determine, on the basis of our best informaon,
the probability that they will appear during a certain period of me.
In order to make such a predicon will be build an appropriate failure
model from the exisng reliability data. The maintenance policy model
will have as an input data the failure model.
- The maintenance acon characterizaon. Maintenance acons
can be prevenve or correcve. Both acons may require a modelling
of their maintenance me.
- The line of maintenance. The line of maintenance is characterized
by its locaon and maintenance support, that is to say, the place where
the maintenance is carried out and the resources used.
- The indenture level consideraon. Somemes we may want
to model a maintenance policy for equipment consisng of several
indenture levels. In these models we may need to formalize paral
prevenve acons carried out only at certain normally lower
equipment indenture levels (for instance, in a component of a system).
The relaonship between paral and global acons carried out on the
equipment, and their impact on equipment behaviour needs to be
properly captured and formalized.
Total replacement models 2.
In classic total replacement models we assume that the equipment
is always replaced completely, the replacement is done instantaneously,
i.e. consumes no me, and the equipment failure is detected as soon
as the failure takes place.
Normally there are two types of replacement opons:
- Prevenve replacement- Following a predetermined prevenve
maintenance policy;
- Correcve replacement - Following the equipment failure.
Basic total replacement models normally consider the following
policies:
- Constant interval replacement - Replacement is done aer a
certain constant me interval;
- Age based replacement - Replacement is done when the
equipment reach a certain operang me-age.
CONSIDERAII REFERITOARE
LA MENTENANA SISTEMELOR
TEHNICE COMPLEXE
Locotenent-colonel dr. inginer Gheorghe NEGRU,
cercettor inic gradul III
Agenia de Cercetare pentru Tehnic
i Tehnologii Militare - Centrul de Cercetare inic
pentru Armamente
CONSIDERATIONS ON
THE COMPLEX TECHNICAL
SYSTEMS MAINTENANCE
Lt. colonel engineer Gheorghe NEGRU, PhD,
scienc researcher III degree
Military Equipment and Technology Research Agency
Armaments Test Evaluation
and Scientic Research Center
Military Technology no. 2/2011
STUDIES, STRATEGIES, ANALYSES 7
3. nlocuirea la intervale constante de mp
nlocuirea se efectueaz dup defeciune sau dup un anumit
interval constant de mp. (gura 1).
Mrime/
Variable
Semnicaie/Signicance
Cp Costul unitar al nlocuirii prevenve/Unit cost for prevenve replacement
Cc Costul unitar al nlocuirii corecve/Unit cost for corecve replacement
t
p
Timpul nlocuirii prevenve/Time of prevenve replacement
F(t)
Funcia de distribuie a probabilitii de defectare/Time to failure probability
distribuon funcon
R(t) Funcia de abilitate/Reliability funcon
f(t)
Funcia densitii probabilitii de defectare/Time to failure probability density
funcon
(t) Rata de defectare/Failure rate
N(t
p
)
Numrul de defeciuni ateptate n intervalul de mp (0,t
p
)/Expected number
of failures 10 within the me interval (0,tp)
TEC(t
p
) Costul total ateptat pe unitatea de mp/Total expected cost per unit me
Constant interval replacement 3.
Replacement is done aer the failure (CR) or aer a certain constant
me interval tp (PR) (Figure 1).
Fig. 1
Modelul este construit pentru a determina intervalul opm dintre
dou nlocuiri prevenve. Criteriul de opmizare este minimizarea
costului total pe unitatea de mp.
Vom uliza urmtoarele notaii:
The model is built to determine the opmal me interval between
two prevenve replacements.. The opmizaon criterion is to minimize
the total expected cost per unit me. We will use the following
notaon:
Dac o defeciune se produce n intervalul de mp (0, t
p
), costul
total ateptat pentru unitatea de mp TEC(t
p
), pe durata intervalului
de mp t
p
este:
If a failure is produced, it will take place within the me interval
(0, tp), and the total expected cost per unit me TEC(tp), for the interval
tp, will be as follows:
(1)
Se cunoate faptul c numrul de defeciuni ateptate este obinut
cu formula
The expected number of failures for the me interval tp will be

unde (t) este rata de defectare.
Rata de defectare se poate exprima prin relaia:
where (t) represent the failure rate.
The failure rate is obtained with
The calculus relaon between F(t) and R(t) is:
(3)
(2)
F(t)=1-R(t) (4)
Relaia de calcul ntre F(t) i R(t) este dat de:
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
STUDII, STRATEGII, ANALIZE 8
Funcia de distribuie a probabilitii de defectare F(t) se obine cu
formula:
Time to failure probability distribuon funcon is obtained with:
(5)
Dac se va uliza aceast polic de mentenan iar numrul de
defeciuni este ridicat, este posibil s se efectueze o serie de nlocuiri
prevenve, cnd mpul de exploatare a sistemului/echipamentului
este mai mic dect t
p
, ceea ce va face ca aceast polic s nu e
ecient.
4. nlocuirea prevenv, n funcie de durata mpului de exploatare
n acest caz, nlocuirea prevenv este realizat dup ce sistemul/
echipamentul a funcionat o anumit durat de mp t
p
(gura 2).
n cazul defectrii sistemului/echipamentului se va efectua o nlocuire
corecv, iar urmtoarea nlocuire prevenv se va realiza dup t
p

uniti de mp. Dorim i n aceast caz s determinm valoarea opm
pentru tp, care minimizeaz costul total ateptat pe unitatea de mp
TEC(tp).
If we follow this policy, and the number of failures is appreciable,
noce that many prevenve replacements could be done when the
operang me of the equipment is below tp, which of course could
make this policy less e cient.
Age based replacement 4.
In this case the prevenve replacement is done aer the
equipment reaches a certain operang me -age, t
p
(Figure 2). In case
of equipment failure a correcve replacement is done and the next
prevenve replacement is scheduled aer tp units of me. We again
want to calculate the best tp which minimizes TEC(tp).
Fig.2
Timpul n care sistemul/echipamentul va ange mpul de nlocuire
prevenv este t
p
. Acest lucru se va produce cu o probabilitate R(t
p
),
sau se poate produce o defeciune la acel moment cu o probabilitate
F(t
p
). Costul ateptat pentru intervalul (0,t
p
) este dat de C
p
R(t
p
)+C
c
F(t
p
).
Lungimea intervalului de mp ateptat este egal cu t
p,
valoarea mpului
pentru probabilitatea R(t
p
) a ciclului prevenv, la care se adaug lungimea
intervalului de mp pentru probabilitatea F(t
p
) de defectare. Numrul de
defeciuni ateptate pentru intervalul de mp va dat de:
This me the equipment may reach the PR me tp. This will
happen with a probability equal to R(tp), or fail before that me, with
a probability equal to F(tp).
The expected cost for the interval (0,tp) is now equal to
CpR(tp)+CcF(tp), and the expected length of the cycle is equal to tp
mes the probability of the prevenve cycle R(tp), plus the expected
length of the failure cycle mes the probability of the failure F(tp).
Total expected cost per unit me:
(6)
Costul total ateptat pentru unitatea de mp va dat de:
(7)
The expected number of failures for the me interval tp will be:
5. Studii de caz
Studiul de caz 1
Presupunem c trebuie s efectum mentenana unui sistem/
echipament care are funcia densitii probabilitii de defectare
denit prin f(t) n intervalul de mp [0,36] sptmni. Se presupune
c valorile costurilor de nlocuire sunt Cc=300 uniti monetare,
respecv Cp=90 uniti monetare. Dorim s calculm mpul opm t
p

pentru minimizarea costului total ateptat pe unitatea de mp pentru
mentenana sistemului/echipamentului n situaia ulizrii policii de
nlocuire la intervale constante
Numrul de defeciuni ateptate pentru intervalul de mp tp va :
.
Studies case 5.
Study case no.1
We assume that we need to conduct the maintenance of a system/
equipment which has the me to failure probability density funcon
dened by f(t) within the me interval [0,36] weeks. We assume
that the value of the unit cost for correcve replacement is Cc=300
monetary units and the value of unit cost for prevenve replacement
is Cp=90 monetary units. The intenon is to calculate the opmum
me t
p
in order to minimize the total expected cost per unit me for
the system/equipment maintenance in the situaon of the constant
interval replacement policy. The expected number of failures for the
me interval tp will be:
(8)
Military Technology no. 2/2011
STUDIES, STRATEGIES, ANALYSES 9
unde f(t) este denit asel: where f(t) is dened by:
Valoarea minim pentru TEC(tp) se obine pentru tp=18 sptmni
cu o valoare TEC(18)=16.55 uniti monetare pe sptmn.
The minimum value for the TEC(tp) is obtained for tp=18 weeks
with the value TEC(18)=16.55 monetary units for a week.
Asel, numrul ateptat de defeciuni va deveni dup integrare:
Aer the integraon the expected number of failures for the me
interval tp will be:
unde: where:
Costul total ateptat pe unitatea de mp este denit prin: Total expected cost per unit me is dened by:
Calculnd funcia TEC(tp) pentru valori ale t
p
cuprinse n intervalul [1,
36) se obine reprezentarea grac din gura 3.
For values of t
p
within the me interval [1, 36) we obtain for the
TEC(tp) the chart from Figure no.3.

(9)


(10 )

(11)


(12)
Fig. 3 - Mentenan cu nlocuire la intervale constante de mp/Constant interval replacement maintenance
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
STUDII, STRATEGII, ANALIZE 10
Studiul de caz 2
Considerm aceleai date de intrare ca n cazul anterior, prezentat
la punctul 5. Vom avea pentru numrul de defeciuni ateptate
urmtoarea formul:
Study case no.2
We will use the same input data like those from the study case no.1
(5). We will calculate the expected number of failures by
Bibliograe/References
[1]. ADOLFO CRESPO MRQUEZ. The Main-
tenance Management Framework, Springer-Verlag
London Limited, 2007;
[2]. ANTHONY KELLY, Strategic Maintenance Planning,
Elsevier, 2006;S
[3]. MOHAMED BEN-DAYA, SALIH O. DUFFUAA, ABDUL RAOUF,
JEZDIMIR KNEZEVIC, DAOUD AIT-KADI - Handbook of Maintenance
Management and Engineering Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009.
anning,
DUL RAOUF,
Maintenance
Limited 2009.
(13)
Soluia opm pentru TEC(tp) va deveni:
(14)
The opmum soluon for TEC(tp) will be:
Calculnd funcia TEC(tp) pentru valori tp cuprinse ntre 0 i 36 se
obine reprezentarea grac din gura 3.
For values of t
p
within the me interval [0, 36) we will obtain for the
TEC(tp) the chart from Figure no.3.
Valoarea minim pentru TEC(tp) se obine pentru tp=12 sptmni
cu o valoare TEC(12)=19.33 uniti monetare pe sptmn.
6. Concluzii
Studiile de caz anterioare prezint n detaliu modul n care se pot
esma fondurile necesare pentru asigurarea mentenanei unor sisteme
tehnice. Decizia nal referitoare la ulizarea unuia dintre modele se
va baza pe fondul total care poate alocat pentru mentenan.
The minimum value for the TEC(tp) is obtained for tp=12 weeks
with the value TEC(18)=19.33 monetary units for a week.
6. Opinions
The above studies case has presented the way by which could
be esmated the necessary funds in order to conduct the technical
systems maintenance. The nal decision regarding the opmum model
to be applied will be made based on the aordable funds allocated for
maintenance.
Fig. 4 - Mentenan cu nlocuirea prevenv n funcie de durata mpului de exploatare/
Prevenng replacement maintenance according to the exploing me
Military Technology no. 2/2011
STUDIES, STRATEGIES, ANALYSES 11
Abstract
The term performance is used to cover all aspects of an imaging
system that have a bearing on its ability to perform a specic task. The
task may be one that can be dened in relavely objecve terms such
as the ability to detect or track a certain object at a given range, or
can be a subjecve one such as the ability to produce a photograph
that is pleasing to the observer. This paper presents some aspects
on evaluaon of the parameters that determine the performance of
imaging systems.
1. Introducon
A wide variety of devices and systems exist whose main funcon
is to generate an image. These devices and systems are used for many
dierent purposes and nd applicaons in many dierent walks of
life. We are all very familiar with some of these systems such as the
photographic camera (that can produce a permanent record of a scene
on sensized sheet material) and the television set (that can receive
a suitably coded electromagnec signal broadcast through space and
convert it into an image). Less familiar are systems such as an image
intensier sight that is used to amplify the intensity of a very poorly
lit scene (e.g. one lit only by starlight) so as to produce a brighter
image that is clearly visible to an observer, or a thermal imaging
camera that generates a visible image of an object from the infrared
radiaon that the object emits. Imaging systems nd applicaons in
science, medicine, industry, defense, surveillance, space, educaon,
leisure and a host of other areas. If an imaging device or system is to
adequately perform the task for which it is intended, it must be capable
of producing images of a certain minimum quality.
The ability to be able to dene this quality in objecve terms is
of importance to the user, the designer and the manufacturer of the
imaging system. Several dierent parameters are required to fully
specify the performance of an imaging system. Some of these are very
specic to parcular types of system, whilst others are more generally
relevant. This paper is mainly concerned with one very important
characterisc of all imaging devices, which is the ability to reproduce
faithfully the relave intensity distribuon of the original scene in
the nal image generated by the system. The parameter that is now
used almost universally to describe this aspect of imaging is in fact the
opcal transfer funcon (OTF).
2. OTF and image quality
The OTF/MTF of an imaging system is only useful as a criterion of
performance if it can be used to predict how a system will perform
when the system is used for a parcular applicaon. The image of an
object or scene, generated by the imaging system, will virtually always
be degraded.
Rezumat
Performana unui sistem optoelectronic reprezint totalitatea
aspectelor care sunt n legtur cu capacitatea acestuia de a executa
o anumit misiune. Aceast misiune poate denit n termeni relav
obiecvi, cum ar capacitatea de a detecta sau urmri o anumit int
la o distan dat, sau n termeni subiecvi, cum ar capacitatea de a
reda o imagine care s convin observatorului. Lucrarea trateaz unele
aspecte privind evaluarea parametrilor ce determin performana
sistemelor optoelectronice.
1. Introducere
Exist o mare varietate de dispozive i sisteme a cror funcie
principal este generarea unei imagini. Aceste dispozive i sisteme
sunt folosite pentru diferite scopuri i se regsesc n mai multe aplicaii
n diferite domenii ale vieii. Suntem cu toii foarte familiari cu unele
dintre aceste sisteme, cum ar aparatul de fotograat i televizorul.
Mai puin familiare sunt acele sisteme, precum luneta cu intensicator
de imagine, care este folosit pentru a amplica intensitatea unei scene
foarte slab luminate (de exemplu, luminat doar de lumina stelelor),
asel nct s poat vzut clar de un observator, sau camera pe baz
de termoviziune care genereaz imaginea unui obiect din radiaiile
infraroii pe care acesta le emite. Sistemele optoelectronice gsesc
aplicaii n in, medicin, industrie, aprare, supraveghere, spaiu,
educaie, recreere i o serie de alte domenii.
Dac un dispoziv optoelectronic i poate ndeplini n mod adecvat
sarcinile pentru care este construit, trebuie s e capabil s produc
imagini de o anumit calitate minim. Capacitatea de a deni aceast
calitate n termeni obiecvi este foarte important att pentru ulizator,
ct i pentru proiectantul i productorul sistemului optoelectronic.
Exist civa parametri care sunt necesari pentru a descrie n
totalitate performana unui sistem optoelectronic. O parte dintre
acea sunt specici unui anumit p de aparatur optoelectronic,
alii sunt general valabili. Aceast lucrare este canalizat pe cea mai
important caracterisc a unui sistem optoelectronic abilitatea de a
reproduce distribuia relav a intensitii din scen n imaginea nal
generat de sistem. Parametrul folosit pentru a descrie acest aspect
este funcia de transfer opc (OTF).
2. OTF i calitatea imaginii
OTF a unui sistem opc sau optoelectronic este folositoare ca i
caracterisc de performan, dac poate folosit n anciparea
reaciei sistemului ntr-un caz parcular.
Imaginea unui obiect sau a unei scene generate de un sistem opc
este ntotdeauna degradat.
FUNCIA DE TRANSFER
OPTIC I CALITATEA
IMAGINII SISTEMELOR
OPTOELECTRONICE
OPTIC TRANSFER FUNCTION
AND IMAGE QUALITY OF
IR IMAGING SISTEMS
Cpitan inginer Cornel TODIRIC, cercettor inic gradul III
Locotenent-colonel inginer Daniel LEPDAT,
cercettor inic gradul III
Cpitan dr. inginer Daniel URCANU,
cercettor inic gradul III
Agenia de Cercetare pentru Tehnic i Tehnologii Militare -
Centrul de Cercetare inic pentru Armamente
Captain engineer Todiric Cornel,
scienc researcher III degree
Lieutenant col. engineer Lepdat Daniel,
scienc researcher III degree
Captain engineer urcanu Daniel, PhD,
scienc researcher III degree
Military Equipment and Technology Research Agency
Armaments Test Evaluation and
Scientic Research Center
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
STUDII, STRATEGII, ANALIZE 12
n parcular, zonele cu intensitate mare sunt transformate n zone
cu intensitate mai mic, rezultnd asel o pierdere de contrast, o
rotunjire i prelungire neregulat a contururilor.
Acest efect este ilustrat n gura 1.
In parcular light from areas of higher intensity will be spread into
areas of lower intensity resulng in a general loss in contrast and a
rounding and smearing out of sharp intensity gradients. These eects
are illustrated in gure 1.
Fig. 1. - Distribuia intensitilor unui obiect i a imaginii sale, ilustrnd efectele degradrii imaginii/Intensity distribuon across
a secon of an object and its image, illustrang the eects of image degradaon
Exist cteva diferene ntre a observa direct un obiect i a observa
acelai obiect printr-un sistem opc sau optoelectronic. Acesta din
urm va afecta contrastul de prag pentru obiecte simple cum ar
intele disc sau barele vercale. Factorii principali sunt urmtorii:
contrastul imaginii generat pe ren va diferit, deoarece -
va afectat de MTF a sistemului optoelectronic;
dimensiunile unghiulare ale obiectului pot diferite, -
datorit mririi sistemului optoelectronic;
nivelul general de iluminare, aparent, va diferit, ca rezultat -
al transmisiei sau amplicrii luminii prin sistem;
nivelurile de zgomot vor diferite, datorit transmisiei -
sistemului, inecienei conversiei electronilor n fotoni, zgomotului
suplimentar introdus de curentul de ntuneric i datorit limitrilor
date de performana amplicatoarelor, diferenele de diametru ale
pupilelor de intrare i, de aici, diferenele numrului de fotoni colectai
de la obiect etc.
Curbele contrastului de prag pot determinate, experimental,
pentru diferite sisteme optoelectronice i, apoi, ulizate pentru a
ancipa distana la care un disc de diametru i contrast date poate
detectat, sau diametrul i contrastul minim necesare pentru detectarea
unui disc la o distan dat. Aceste curbe reprezint o metod
important de evaluare a performanei sistemelor optoelectronice,
mai ales n cazurile de detecie a intelor la distane mari. n cazul
sistemelor care opereaz n zona vizibil i infrarou apropiate, curbele
sunt de obicei reprezentate de MRC (contrastul minim rezolvabil).
Pentru sistemele de termoviziune, acestea sunt reprezentate de MDTD
(diferena de temperatur minim detectabil) cnd intele sunt discuri,
sau de MRTD (diferena de temperatur minim rezolvabil), cnd
intele sunt periodice (bare vercale).
intele reale sunt foarte rar att de simple ca i cele disc sau bare
vercale. n cele mai multe situaii pracce, se impune anciparea
nivelurilor contrastului de prag pentru inte mult mai complexe. n
parcular, se dorete a se cunoate nu numai nivelurile de contrast care
permit detecia unui obiect ci i nivelurile care permit recunoaterea
acestuia. Este evident faptul c se pot face msurtori folosind asel
de inte. Oricum, este o sarcin relav dicil i nu poate folosit
ca o metod uzual de evaluare a sistemelor optoelectronice. n
plus, ulizarea intelor complexe mrete dicultatea calculului de
ancipare a parametrilor de performan n faza de proiectare a unui
sistem optoelectronic.
Criteriul Johnson. J Johnson [2] a efectuat o serie de msurtori
ale curbelor contrastului de prag pentru diferite inte cum ar : tanc,
autoturism de teren, obuzier, soldat etc.
There are several dierences between viewing an object directly
and viewing it through an opcal or electro-opcal imaging system,
which will aect the contrast threshold for simple objects such as discs
and sine wave grangs. The main factors are as follows:
The contrast of the image generated on the rena will be -
dierent because it will be aected by the MTF of the imaging system;
The angular dimensions the object subtends at the eye -
could be dierent because of the magnicaon produced by the
imaging system;
The apparent general luminance level will be dierent as -
a result of opcal transmission losses, or light amplicaon, through
the system;
Noise levels will be dierent as a result of opcal -
transmission losses through the system, ine ciencies in converng
photons to electrons, addional noise introduced by dark current
and by limitaons on the performance of devices such as ampliers,
dierences in the diameter of the entrance aperture and hence in the
number of photons collected from the object etc.
Threshold contrast curves can be measured experimentally
for dierent imaging system and can then be used for such tasks as
predicng either the distance at which a given diameter and contrast of
disc can be detected, or the minimum diameter and contrast required
to detect a disc at a given distance. These curves are an important
method of both specifying and assessing the performance of an imaging
system, parcularly where it is required to perform such threshold
tasks as detecng targets at long ranges. In the case of systems that
operate at visible and near infrared wavelengths the curves are usually
referred to as MRC (minimum resolvable contrast) curves. For thermal
imaging systems they are referred to as MDTD (minimum detectable
temperature dierence) curves when the targets are discs or MRTD
(minimum resolvable temperature dierence) curves when the object
is a specied form of periodic target.
Real objects are rarely as simple as circular discs or periodic
grangs and therefore in most praccal situaons one wishes to predict
threshold contrast levels for more complex objects. In parcular one
wishes to know not only the contrast levels that allow one to detect the
presence of an object, but also the levels that enable one to recognize
the object. Obviously one can make threshold measurements using
such objects. However, this is a relavely complex task and not one
that one would wish to use as an everyday means of assessing the
performance of imaging systems. In addion to this the use of complex
objects increases the di culty of theorecally predicng performance
when designing an imaging system.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
STUDIES, STRATEGIES, ANALYSES 13
A comparat aceste msurtori cu cele efectuate cu inte periodice,
cu aceleai aparate i a fcut o corelare ntre abilitatea de a executa o
anumit misiune (detecia sau idencarea unei inte) i abilitatea de
a rezolva un model periodic, cu dimensiunea minim ct dimensiunea
minim a intei, cu contrast egal cu cel al intei i cu un numr precis
de bare (vezi gura 2).
Rezultatul acestei comparaii este dat n tabelul urmtor.
The Johnson criteria. J Johnson [2] carried out a series of contrast
threshold experiments with image intensiers sights, using objects
such as tanks, jeeps, howitzer guns, soldiers etc. He compared these
measurements with the threshold contrast levels for periodic paerns
viewed through the same instruments and found a correlaon between
the ability to perform specied tasks (such as detecng or idenfying a
target) and the ability to resolve a periodic paern that extended over
the minimum dimension of the target, had the same contrast as the
target and had a specied number of bars that was a funcon of the
task to be performed (see gure 2).
Fig. 2 - Criteriul Johnson pentru recunoaterea unei inte/
The Johnson criterion for target recognion
Tabel 1/Table 1 - Rezultatele corelrii ntre anumite inte reale i modele de bare paralele/
Results of correlaon between threshold tasks using specied targets and periodic bar paerns
inta real/ Target
Numr de bare pe dimensiunea minim a intei/Number of bars per mimimum dimension
Detecie/Detecon Orientare/Orientaon
Recunoatere/
Recognion
Idencare/Idencaon
Camion/Truck 0.9 1.25 4.5 8.0
Tanc /Tank 0.75 1.2 3.5 7.0
Transportor blindat pe enile/Half-track 1.0 1.5 4.0 5.0
Autoturism de teren/Jeep 1.2 1.5 4.5 5.5
Soldat/Sodier 1.5 1.8 3.8 8.0
Obuzier 105mm/105mm howitzer 1.0 1.5 4.8 6.0
Aciunile din tabelul 1 sunt denite asel:
detecie: decizia c inta este prezent; -
orientare: determinarea orientrii intei; -
recunoatere: asocierea unui obiect cu o anumit clas de obiecte; -
idencare: capacitatea de a numi exact obiectul. -
Rezultatele acestui studiu reprezint baza ulizrii MDTD i MRTD
ca parametri de performan a sistemelor pe baz de termoviziune.
MDTD face posibil prezicerea distanei la care sistemul termal permite
ulizatorului s detecteze prezena unei inte, iar MRTD distana la care
ulizatorul poate recunoate inta.
MDTD reprezint cea mai mic diferen de temperatur ntre
o int disc i fundal, care permite observatorului s detecteze inta
folosind camera termal. MDTD este, de obicei, reprezentat ca o
funcie de inversul mrimii unghiulare a intei.
MRTD reprezint cea mai mic diferen de temperatur ntre o
int patru bare i fundal, ce permite observatorului s rezolve barele
intei folosind camera termal. inta are limea spaiilor egal cu
cea a barelor, iar lungimea barei este egal cu de 3.5 ori limea unei
perechi.
Metoda ulizrii curbei MDTD sau MRTD pentru a prezice distana
de detecie sau de recunoatere const n transformarea inversului
mrimii spaiale sau frecvenei spaiale n distane folosind relaiile:
Distana = h x pentru MDTD, unde h este nlimea intei implicate,
iar este inversul mrimii spaiale de pe scala MDTD.
Distana = (h x s)/3.5 pentru MRTD, unde h este nlimea intei
implicate, iar s este inversul mrimii spaiale de pe scala MRTD.
Pentru o ancipare exact a distanelor este necesar s se ia
n considerare efectul absorbiei atmosferice. Aceasta nseamn
c diferena aparent de temperatur ntre int i fundal nu este
constant, ci se reduce odat cu creterea distanei. Funcia ce descrie
aceast atenuare cu distana va diferit n condiii atmosferice
The results of his comparison are summarized in table below.
The Johnson criterion for recognion of a target
The tasks listed in table 1 are dened as:
Detecon: decision that a target is present; -
Orientaon: determine orientaon of object; -
Recognion: assignment of the object to a parcular class; -
Idencaon: ability to name the object. -
The results of this research form the basis for proposing the use
of MDTD and MRTD as performance parameters for thermal imaging
cameras. MDTD allows one to predict the range at which a thermal
imager enables a user to detect the presence of a target and MRTD the
range at which the user can recognize a target.
MDTD is the smallest temperature-dierence, between a circular
target and its background, that enables an observer to just detect the
target using the test piece. The MDTD is usually ploed as a funcon of
the reciprocal of the angular diameter of the target.
MRTD is the smallest temperature-dierence, between a 4-bar
target and its background, that enables an observer to just resolve the
bars of the target using the test piece. The target is specied as having
an equal mark to space rao and to have bars with a length equal to
3.5 bar periods.
The method of using an MDTD or MRTD curve to predict the
detecon or recognion range converts the reciprocal angular diameter,
or spaal frequency scale, into a range by using the relaonships:
x h Range = for MDTD, where h is the actual height of the
target concerned and is the reciprocal angular diameter of the
MDTD scale.
( ) 5 . 3 s x h Range =
for MRTD, where again h is the actual
height of the target concerned and s is the spaal frequency of the
MRTD scale. For an accurate predicon of range it is necessary to
take into account the eect of atmospheric absorpon. This means
that the apparent temperature-dierence between target and
background is not constant, but is reduced as the range increases.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
STUDII, STRATEGII, ANALIZE 14
diferite. Poate msurat experimental sau poate determinat cu
ajutorul unor baze de date cu modele atmosferice, cum ar Lowtran
i al unui soware specializat.
Teorec, transmisia atmosferei la o anumit lungime de und este
dat de legea Lambert-Beer:
The funcon that describes this aenuaon with range will be
dierent for dierent atmospheric condions. It can be measured
experimentally, or can be determined using transmission data from
atmospheric models such as the Lowtran series of models available
in the form of soware that can be run on a PC. Theorecally, the
transmission of the atmosphere at a parcular wavelength is given by
the Lambert-Beer law:
Fig. 3. - Schema de aranjare a unui stand desnat msurrii performanelor unui sistem pe baz de termoviziune/
Arrangement of equipment for measuring MDTD and MRTD of a thermal imaging camera
Corpul negru i intele sunt pri foarte importante ale sistemului.
Ele trebuie s e capabile s genereze o diferen de temperatur ntre
mir i fundal de 0,01C, sau mai mic.
Deoarece msurtorile se fac cu mai multe inte de diferite
dimensiuni, acestea sunt de obicei montate ntr-un carusel motorizat
ce permite ulizatorului s selecteze inta dorit.
Msurtorile sunt fcute prin observarea imaginii intei pe ecranul
camerei termale sau pe ecranul computerului. Se ajusteaz valoarea
diferenei de temperatur pn cnd inta este detectat (MDTD) sau
rezolvat (MRTD). Pentru a elimina o parte din erori, msurtorile se
fac att pentru diferene de temperatur pozive, ct i negave, iar
valoarea nal a msurrii este media celor dou.
The blackbody and target unit is a crical part of the system
since it must be capable of generang target paerns with uniform
temperature-dierences that may need to be as small as 0.01C or less.
Since measurements are made using a range of targets of dierent
dimensions, the target plates are usually mounted on a motorized turret
so that they can be selected remotely by the observer. Measurements
are made by observing the image of the target on the display of
the thermal imager and adjusng the set value of the temperature-
dierence unl the target can be just detected (MDTD) or just resolved
(MRTD). In order to eliminate the eect of any oset errors in the
indicated temperature-dierences, measurements are made with both
posive and negave temperature-dierences and the mean of the
absolute value of the two readings taken.
(1)
(2)
(3)
unde k() este coecientul de atenuare al atmosferei pentru o
lungime de und i o distan D. Valoarea coecientului k() va , n
general, diferit pentru diferite condiii atmosferice. Factorul prin care
diferena de temperatur dintre int i fundal este atenuat la distana
D este dat de relaia:
where k() is the exncon coe cient of the atmosphere for a
wavelength and D is the range. The value of k() will in general be
dierent for dierent atmospheric condions. The factor by which the
temperature-dierence of the target is aenuated at a range D will be
given by:
unde N() este radiana relav a intei n funcie de lungimea
de und, R() este rspunsul spectral relav al camerei termale, iar
integrarea se face pe toat banda de lungimi de und la care camera
termal rspunde. Dac admitem c sistemul termal rspunde la o band
de lungimi de und cuprins ntre
1
i
2
i c N() i r() sunt constante
n aceast band, atunci ecuaia de mai sus de simplic la:
where N() is the relave radiance of the target as a funcon of
wavelength, R() is the relave spectral response of the thermal imager,
and the integraon is over the band of wavelengths to which the imager
responds. If we assume that the imager responds to a wavelength band
of
1
to
2
and that N() and r() are constant within this band, then the
above equaon simplies to:
unde
a
() este transmisia atmosferic medie pe toat banda de
lungimi de und, n care rspunde camera termal.
3. Msurarea MDTD i MRTD
Schema de aranjare a unui stand de msurare a MDTD i MRTD ale
unui sistem pe baz de termoviziune este prezentat n gura 3.
Acesta este alctuit din:
colimator; -
corp negru i controler de temperatur; -
carusel cu inte de diferite frecvene spaiale; -
- computer plac de achiziie de imagine i so specializat n
testarea aparaturii pe baz de termoviziune.
where
a
() is the average atmospheric transmission over the band
of wavelengths to which the imager responds.
3. Measurement of MDTD and MRTD
A typical arrangement for measuring the MDTD and MRTD of a
thermal imager is illustrated in gure 3. It consists of:
collimator -
blackbody and temperature controller -
turret wheel and targets -
computer with image acquision board and IR specialized -
tesng soware.
( )
( )D k
e D



=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

= d r d R N D D
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
a
d D D = =

2 1
Military Technology no. 2/2011
STUDIES, STRATEGIES, ANALYSES 15
Fig. 4. - MDTD msurat pentru diferite modele de camere pe baz de termoviziune/
Measured MDTD for dierent types of thermal imaging camera
4. Msurarea obiecv a MDTD i MRTD
Metoda de msurare a MDTD i MRTD prezentat anterior este
subiecv i depinde n mare msur de judecata observatorului.
Asel, au fost dezvoltate mai multe metode de a face msurtoarea
obiecv. O asel de metod presupune msurarea parametrilor de
performan obiecvi ai sistemului termal, cum ar MTF i NETD
(diferena de temperatur echivalent cu zgomotul) i ulizarea
acestora ntr-un model de calcul al performanei observatorului pentru
a determina MDTD i MRTD. Aceast metod poate folosit, de
asemenea, i n faza de proiectare a sistemului termal pentru a ancipa
performanele acestuia. n acest caz, se folosesc valori teorece pentru
diferii parametri de performan.
Pentru a determina MDTD, se admite faptul c inta este ptrat i
c observatorul i altereaz distana de observare pentru a opmiza
abilitatea de a vedea inta. MTF a ochiului atenueaz contrastul imaginii
cu un factor independent de mrimea intei. Un efect ce trebuie luat
n considerare este acela c mpul de integrare al ochiului altereaz
valoarea NETD cu un factor

tm/tetm/te, unde t
m
este mpul de
integrare folosit la msurarea NETD, iar t
e
este mpul de integrare al
ochiului. Ecuaia de determinare a MDTD este:
4. Objecve measurements of MDTD and MRTD
The measurement technique described above is subjecve and
depends on the judgment of the observer. Several authors have
described techniques for making the measurement objecve. One
approach is to measure objecve performance parameters of the imager
such as MTF, NETD (noise equivalent temperature dierence) and NPS
(noise power spectrum) and using them with a model of observer
performance to predict MRTD or MDTD values. This approach can also
be used to predict the performance of an image at the design stage
using theorecal values for the dierent performance parameters.
For predicng MDTD one can assume that the target is square and
that equaon and the observer alters his viewing distance to opmize
his ability to see a target. MTF of the eye will for all praccal purposes
aenuate the image contrast by a constant factor independent
of the size of the original target. An eect that must be considered
is that of the integraon me of the eye that will alter the value of
the NETD by a factor tm/tetm/te, where t
m
is the integraon me
used in measuring the NETD and t
e
is the integraon me of the eye.
The equaon for predicng MDTD is:
(4)
(5)
(6)
unde este inversul mrimii spaiale a intei;
T() este diferena de temperatur;
K este o constant i reprezint raportul semnal/zgomot de prag
necesar ochiului s detecteze inta;
() este dat de ecuaia:
where p is the reciprocal of the angular width of the MDTD target,
T(p) is temperature dierence, K is a constant that is a measure of the
signal/noise threshold required by the eye to detect a target and (p)
is given by the equaon:
unde MTF
h
(s
x
) i MTF
v
(s
y
) sunt MTF ale ntregului sistem
termal (inclusiv ecranul) pe orizontal i respecv pe vercal. Dac
presupunem c cele dou MTF sunt egale cu MTF

(s), ecuaia se
simplic la:
where MTF
h
(s
x
) and MTF
v
(s
y
) are the MTFs of the complete
thermal imaging system (including the display) in the horizontal and
vercal direcon respecvely. If we assume that these two MTFs are
the same and equal to MTF

(s), the equaon simplies to:


Trebuie menionat faptul c, valoarea NETD folosit n ecuaia (4)
trebuie s e cea msurat pe ecranul folosit de observator. Mai mult,
n teorie, determinarea NETD ar trebui s e limitat de frecvena
spaial a ochiului. n pracc, ntregul sistem i, n parcular, ecranul
vor avea o plaj mai mic dect cea a ochiului, n condiiile n care
observatorul i opmizeaz distana de observare.
It should be stressed that the value of NETD used in equaon (4)
should be that measured o the display used by the observer.
Moreover, in theory, the bandwidth in which the NETD is measured
should be limited to that of the spaal frequency bandwidth of the eye.
In pracce the overall system and in parcular the display, will normally
have a bandwidth less than that of the eye under condions where the
observer opmizes his viewing distance.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
STUDII, STRATEGII, ANALIZE 16
O comparaie ntre MDTD msurat subiecv pentru un sistem
termal i cea calculat folosind ecuaia (4) este artat n gura
urmtoare. n acest caz, valoarea K a fost aleas pentru a gsi cea mai
bun potrivire.
A comparison of the subjecvely measured MDTD for a thermal
imager and that calculated using equaon (4) is shown in gure 5.
In this case the value of K has been chosen to give a best t.
Fig. 5. - Comparaie ntre rezultatele unei msurtori subiecve a MDTD (punctele) i valorile calculate din msurarea obiecv a MTF i NETD
(linia connu)/Comparison of the results of a subjecve measurement of MDTD (diamond shaped points) with the values calculated
from objecve measurements of MTF and NETD (solid line)
O metod similar poate folosit pentru determinarea MRTD.
Diferenele mari care apar la frecvene spaiale mari sunt rezultatul
att al incertudinilor mari ale msurtorilor, ct i al incertudinilor
mari (procent din valoarea real) care pot aprea n valorile MTF care
pot de ordinul a ctorva procente.
O alternav n determinarea obiecv a MDTD i MRTD este
msurarea diferenelor de intensitate, sau modulaie, direct de pe
imaginea prezentat pe ecranul camerei termale, ca funcie a diferenei
de temperatur a intei, precum i valoarea ecace a zgomotului. Asel,
se poate determina diferena de temperatur (MDTD sau MRTD) pentru
care raportul S/Z va avea o valoare de prag necesar observatorului s
detecteze sau s rezolve o int.
5. Concluzii
Calitatea imaginii este considerat cea mai important caracterisc
a camerelor termale din punctul de vedere al observatorului care vrea
s aib cea mai mare raz de detecie, recunoatere i idencare a
intelor inamice.
Metoda clasic de msurare a MDTD i MRTD este subiecv i
depinde n mare msur de judecata observatorului. Asel, au fost
dezvoltate mai multe metode de a face msurtoarea obiecv. O asel
de metod presupune msurarea parametrilor de performan obiecvi
ai sistemului termal, cum ar MTF i NETD (diferena de temperatur
echivalent cu zgomotul) i ulizarea acestora ntr-un model de calcul
al performanei observatorului pentru a determina MDTD i MRTD. O
alternav n determinarea obiecv a MDTD i MRTD este msurarea
diferenelor de intensitate, sau modulaie, direct de pe imaginea de
pe ecranul camerei termale, ca funcie a diferenei de temperatur a
intei, precum i valoarea ecace a zgomotului.
A similar approach can be used for predicng MRTD. The larger
dierences that occur at higher spaal frequencies are typically a result
of both the larger uncertaines in subjecve measurements and of the
larger uncertaines (as a percentage of the actual value) that can arise
in MTF values in parts of the curve where the MTF will only be of the
order of a few per cent.
An alternave way of determining MDTD and MRTD objecvely is
to measure the intensity dierence, or modulaon, directly from the
image on the display, as a funcon of target temperature-dierence,
as well as the RMS noise. From this one can predict the temperature-
dierence (i.e. the MDTD or MRTD) for which the signal/noise rao will
have a threshold value equal to that required by the observer to just
detect or resolve a target.
5. Conclusions
From the observers point of view image quality is the most
important characterisc of thermal imagers in order to obtain the
larger detecon, recognion and idencaon range.
Because the subjecve MDTD and MRTD measurement method
depends on the observer judgment, there was developed some
methods for making it objecve.
Such a method measures objecve performance parameters of the
imager such as MTF, NETD (noise equivalent temperature dierence)
and using them with a model of observer performance to predict
MRTD or MDTD values.
An alternave way of determining MDTD and MRTD objecvely is
to measure the intensity dierence, or modulaon, directly from the
image on the display, as a funcon of target temperature-dierence, as
well as the RMS noise.
Bibliograe/References
[1] CREU E., NICOAR L., - Opca ondulatorie i Fourier, Editura Academiei Tehnice Militare,
Bucures, 1996.
[2] TOM. L. WILLIAMS, - The Opcal Transfer Funcon of Imaging Systems, IOP, 1999;
[3] BOREMAN G, - Modulaion Transfer Funcion in Opca land Electro-Opcal System, SPIE PRESS,
USA, 2001
[4] JOSEPH S. ACCETTA, DAVID L. SHUMAKER, - The Infrared and Electro - Opcal Systems Handbook, vol.4;
[5] HOLST G.C., - Tesng and Evaluaon of Infrared Imaging Systems, JCD Publishing Company, 1993;
[6] GOODMAN, JOSEPH W. - Introducon to Fourier Opcs. Roberts & Company Publishers, Greenwood Village,
CO, third edion, 2005;
[7] CURTIS M. WEBB, GERALD C. HOLST, - Observer variables in minmum-resolvable temperature dierence, Infrared
Imaging System: Design, Analysis, Modeling and Tesng, SPIE Vol.1689, 1992;
[8] F. A. ROSELL, - Levels of visual discriminaon for real scene objects vs. bar paern resoluon for aperture and noise
limited imagery.
RESS,
ok, vol.4;
1993;
Greenwood Village,
dierence, Infrared
on for aperture and noise
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 17
1. Introducere
Caracteriscile stealth asigur capabilitatea unei nave de a evita
detecia de ctre un radar advers. Aceast capabilitate reprezint numai
unul dintre factorii ce trebuie luai n considerare pentru a realiza o
nav nedetectabil. Ceilali factori sunt: amprenta acusc, amprenta
vizual, amprenta termic, semnalele electronice neecranate.
Bazele tehnologiei stealth au fost puse nc din anii 1950, dar
puterea de calcul numeric necesar pentru a proiecta un avion stealth
a fost disponibil abia n anii 1970, i numai de prin anii 1990 a fost
posibil aplicarea tehnologiei stealth la nave. Navele stealth au suprafee
orientate asel nct s reecte energia radar departe de direcia
sursei sale. O asel de tehnologie este ecient mpotriva sistemelor
radar monostace, dar nu este ecient mpotriva sistemelor bistace
sau mulstace. Suplimentar, este important i materialul din care
este executat nava. Sunt fabricate structuri mulstrat din materiale
compozite asel nct impedana structurii s se apropie de cea a
mediului nconjurtor, asigurndu-se asel condiii ca o foarte mic
parte din energie s e reectat, i apoi sunt absorbite progresiv prin
ulizarea materialelor compozite care au n compoziie carbon rezisv.
Acestea sunt cunoscute ca materiale absorbante radar RAM (radar
absorbing material - RAM).
Sunt n desfurare cercetri pentru a crea o plasm care s poat
acoperi nava. Plasma reprezint un excelent material RAM, ntruct nu
este reecv i n plus asigur un grad ridicat de atenuare. n anumite
condiii, un strat de plasm de 1 cm poate reduce reecvitatea radar
de ordinul a 20 dB.
n acelai mp cu desfurarea cercetrilor pentru obinerea de
capabiliti stealth sunt executate i acelea referitoare la contramsuri
electronice. Sursele de zgomot de band larg mresc zgomotul de
fond i reduc ecacitatea unui radar. O nav cu capabiliti stealth nu
poate opera n tcere electronic total, din acest mov sistemele
de comunicaii i cele radar de pe o nav stealth trebuie s aib o
probabilitate redus de interceptare iar radarele trebuie s aib
lobii laterali extrem de mici pentru a reduce ntr-o mai mare msur
probabilitatea deteciei.
Tehnologia an-stealth include urmtoarele tehnici:
radare cu lungimile de und mai mari dect lungimea
navelor adversarului;
conguraii radar bistace sau mul-stace. Acestea
pot uliza emitoare dedicate sau emitoare radio n banda FM
existente;
radare de band larg, ntruct este dicil a realiza un bun
material RAM de band larg;
detecia i urmrirea siajului i a gazelor de evacuare,
deoarece niciunul dintre aceste fenomene nu poate eliminat;
detecia vrtejurilor de p arip, ntruct vrtejurile
genereaz turbulen care modic indicele de reexie a aerului i
asel reect semnalele radar.
UTILIZAREA ECRANELOR
DE AP PENTRU REDUCEREA
AMPRENTEI RADAR A NAVELOR
Dr. inginer Niculae ALEXE, cercettor inic gradul I,
Colonel dr. inginer Liviu COEREANU,
cercettor inic gradul I,
Comandor dr. inginer Georgic SLMNOIU,
confereniar universitar,
Comandor ing. Gheorghe CALANCEA,
cercettor inic gradul III
Agenia de Cercetare pentru Tehnic i Tehnologii Militare -
Centrul de Cercetare inic pentru Forele Navale, Constana
1. Introducon
Stealth characteriscs provide ships capability to avoid detecon
by adverse radar.
This capability represents only one of the factors that need to be
considered in the development of a stealth ship; other factors are:
acousc signature, visual signature, thermal signature, unscreened
electronic signals. Bases of the stealth technology have been set
since 1950, but the numerical calculus capacity needed to develop a
stealth aircra was available in 1970, and hardly during the 1990 was
the stealth technology available for ships. Stealth ships have oriented
surfaces that reect the radar energy away from its source direcon.
Such technology is e cient only against mono-stac radar systems; it
cannot be applied against long range or mul-stac systems. Moreover
the material used for the ship is important.
Mullayer structures from composite materials are manufactured
so as the structure impedance to be close to that of the environment;
thus a small amount of energy is reected and are gradually absorbed
by using composite materials containing resisve carbon.
These are known as radar absorbent materials (RAM). Analysis are
undertaken in order to create plasma that could cover the ship. Due
to the fact that it is not reecve and that it provides a high degree
of aenuaon, plasma represents an excellent RAM material. In
certain condions, 1 cm layer of plasma can reduce a 20 dBZ radar
reecvity. Concurrent with stealth capabilies, analysis for electronic
countermeasures are undertaken. Broad band noise sources increase
ambient noise and reduce radar e ciency.
A stealth ship cannot operate in absolute electronic silence;
thus communicaon and radar systems of a stealth ship must have a
reduced intercepon probability, and radars should have extremely
small secondary lobes in order to reduce probability of detecon in a
signicant extent.
The an-stealth technology includes:
Radars with bandwidths broader than the adverse ships length.
Long range or mul-stac radar conguraons. These
could use dedicated or radio transmiers in FM band.
Broad band radars, because it is di cult to realize a good
broad band RAM material.
Detecon and tracking of wake and exhaust gas, because
none of these phenomena can be eliminated.
Detecon of wingp vortex, because vorces generate
turbulence that modies the reecon index of air and, as a result, it
reects radar signals.
APPLICATION OF WATER
CURTAIN IN ORDER TO REDUCE
RADAR SIGNATURE OF SHIPS
Doctor eng. Niculae ALEXE Ph. D. scienc researcher
Col. lecturer eng. Liviu COEREANU Ph. D. senior researcher
Commander lecturer eng. Georgic SLMNOIU Ph. D.
Commander eng. Gheorghe CALANCEA senior researcher
Military Equipment and Technologies Research Agency
Research Center for Navy, Constanta
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
18 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
2. Principiul ulizat pentru dispersia undelor radar
Principiul de baz ulizat pentru dispersia undelor radar este acela
de a ascunde prezena unui obiect fa de detecia prin radar, prin
ulizarea de nveliuri sau suprafee care reduc considerabil energia
radio reectat ctre radar.
Acest mod de abordare se concentreaz pe desfurarea unui ecran
care n primul rnd nu permite semnalelor radar incidente s ang
obiectul i apoi ntr-un fel sau altul s e capabil s disperseze ecient
aceast energie n toate direciile posibile. Acest efect de dispersare
poate obinut prin ncorporarea unei structuri 3D ntr-un material sau
suprafa care poate aciona ca un dispersor la ntmplare.
Fr ecran de dispersare, aproape toat energia radar incident
este reectat napoi ctre radarul care ilumineaz obiectul int.
Prin desfurarea ecranului de dispersare, n funcie de reecvitatea
materialului, o mare parte din energia radar incident va dispersat
ntmpltor n toate direciile. O mic parte din semnalul radar incident
care trece prin ecran va din nou dispersat la ntmplare n interior
datorit fenomenului de reectare pe cele dou fee ale materialului.
Ulizarea unui asel de ecran de dispersie radar ntre obiect i radar are
ca rezultat o descretere considerabil a semnalului reectat napoi,
obiectul int prezentnd o seciune transversal radar mult mai mic.
3. Ulizarea ecranelor de ap pentru dispersia undelor radar
Ceea ce se propune este o tehnologie fundamentat pe crearea
de ecrane de ap n jurul navei prin ulizarea apei de mare refulat
n jeturi, pentru adugarea de proprieti stealth la navele de lupt
de suprafa ale Forelor Navale. Tehnologia const n pulverizarea
apei aspirate din mare prin ajutaje dispuse pe perimetrul navei, ntr-o
manier prin care se creeaz o suprafa de ap relav connu n jurul
navei. Ecranele de ap create n jurul navei constuie suprafeele pe
care undele incidente radar sunt reectate.
Obiecvul crerii ecranelor de ap const n acela de a devia i a
dispersa undele radarelor inamice asel nct s se reduc semnicav
seciunea transversal radar (RCS) a navei.
Pentru a reduce suplimentar RCS-ul navei, ecranele de ap pot
modulate asel nct ecourile radar s apar ca ecouri parazite ale
mrii (sea cluer). Acest lucru se poate realiza prin determinarea strii
locale a strii de agitaie a mrii din vecintatea navei i prin execuia
de comenzi adecvate n sistemul hidraulic pentru realizarea imitrii
opme.
2. Principle Used for Radar Waves Scaering
The base principle used for radar waves scaering is to hide
the presence of an object from radar detecon by using layers or
surfaces that signicantly reduce the radar energy reected to radar.
This approaching mode focuses on unrolling a screen that rst does
not allow incident radar signals to touch the object and second, in
one way or another, is capable to e ciently scaer this energy in all
possible direcon. This scaering eect can be obtained by including
a 3D structure in a material or surface that could act randomly like a
scaerer. Without a scaering screen almost the enre incident radar
energy is reected back to the radar that illuminates the target object.
Unrolling the scaering screen, in relaon to the material reecvity, a
large amount of the incident radar energy shall be dispersed randomly
in all direcons. A small part of the incident radar signal that passes
through the screen shall be again dispersed randomly inside due to
the reecon phenomena on the two faces of the material. Using
this kind of radar scaering screen between the object and the radar
oers a considerable decrease of the returned signal, the target object
presenng a much smaller cross secon.
3. Water Curtain for Radar Waves Scaering
The paper proposes a technology based on development of water
screens around the ship using sea water jets in order to gain stealth
characteriscs for surface war ships of the naval forces.
The technology consists in spraying sea water through nozzles
disposed on ships perimeter so as to create a relave connuous water
surface around the ship. The water curtain created around the ship
form the surfaces on which the incident radar waves are reected.
The purpose of creang the water curtains is to deect and scaer
the enemy radar waves thus signicantly reducing the ships radar
cross secon (RCS).
For further aenuaon of the ships RCS, the water curtain can be
modulated so as the radar echo appear as sea cluer. This can be
realized by determinaon of local sea state in the vicinity of the ship
and by appropriate commands for the hydraulic system in order to
obtain opmum take-o.
Fig.1. Ecran de ap connuu - stnga, ecrane de ap n trepte/straturi dreapta/Connuous water curtain (on the le); Layer water curtain (on the right)
4. Caracteriscile tehnologiei ecranelor de ap
Caracteriscile tehnologiei ecranelor de ap sunt:
reducerea seciunii transversale radar (RCS) a navei;
atenuarea amprentei IR a navei prin ulizarea ecranelor de
ap pre-rcit;
reducerea amprentei vizuale (camuaj);
capabilitate de a imita ecourile parazite ale mrii (sea cluer);
modularea jeturilor de ap pentru mbuntirea mascrii;
capabilitate de a reaciona la ncrcrile datorate vntului de
pe ecranele de ap.
4. Characteriscs of Sea Water Technology
Reducon of radar cross secon of the ship.
Aenuaon of IR signature of the ship by using pre-cooled
water curtain.
Reducon of visual signature (camouage).
Capability to simulate sea cluer.
Modulaon of water jets in order to improve the concealment.
Capability to react to loads that appear on the water curtain
due to the wind.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 19
5. Elemente de teoria curgerii prin ajutaje
Pentru determinarea vitezelor, a presiunilor sau a unor nlimi n
funcie de alte mrimi cunoscute, care condiioneaz curgerea unui
uid printr-un ajutaj, se ulizeaz formula lui Bernoulli scris ntre
dou puncte situate pe aceeai linie de curent.
n cazul n care se are n vedere un rezervor din care apa, considerat
a lichid perfect, se scurge printr-un oriciu mic liber, ecuaia curbei
jetului de ap la un moment dat i evoluia acestuia n mp se determin
dup cum urmeaz.
5. Basic Concepts Regarding the Theory of Nozzle Flow
Bernoullis formula for two points on the same current line is used
to determine velocies, pressures or some heights in relaon to other
known parameters that condions the ow of a uid through a nozzle.
If a tank from which water considered to be a perfect liquid is owing
through a small free outlet, the equaon of the water jet curve at a
certain point and its evoluon in me is determined as it is presented
below.
Fig.2 Curgerea printr-un oriciu lateral dintr-un rezervor/Flow through a lateral outlet in a tank
n sistemul xOz, (g.2), cu originea n centrul oriciului s-a
reprezentat un punct oarecare P(x,z) de pe traiectorie. Viteza v are
componentele:
One point P(x,z) on the trajectory was represented in the xOz
system having the origin in the centre of the outlet. Velocity v has the
following components:

cu 0
2
0

i
v
v
, iar cderea total de presiune se obine
cu relaia
with 0
2
0

i
v
v
, and the following relaon is used to
determine the total drop pressure:

g
v
v
d g
l
H
i
n
i
i i
2 2
2
1
2
, 1
+

=

=


(3)
(4)
(1)
, (formula lui Toricelli/Toricellis formula),
(2) , (formula lui Galilleo/Galilleos formula),
Scriind i integrnd, se obine ,
(pentru t=0, x=0), apoi se elimin t ntre cele dou ecuaii:


Rezult asel ecuaia traiectoriei:


care este o parabol cu parametrul 2h.
ntruct suprafaa liber din rezervor coboar, parabola i reduce
parametrul, apropiindu-se de axa Oz, pn la anularea adncimii h
(x
2
=0), cnd parabola degenerat se confund (pentru un mp scurt,
de prelingere) cu axa Oz.
n cazul unei conducte n care de-a lungul ei sunt praccate la
distane egale un numr de i oricii prin care se scurge apa cu debite
egale, formula lui Bernoulli capt forma:
Wring and integrang we obtain ,
(if t=0, x=0); then t is eliminated between the two equaon:

Thus it results the equaon of the trajectory:

which is a parabola with parameter 2h.
Because the open space of the tank descends, the parabola reduces
its parameter, approaching the Oz axis unl vanishing of height h (x
2
=0)
when the conuent parabola intermingles (for a short period of me,
trickle) with the Oz axis.
For the case of a pipe with i number of outlets set at equal distances
through which the water ows at equal outputs, Bernoullis formula
is:

(5)
(6)
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
20 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Din condiia de connuitate, se obine debitul pe poriunea de
conduct cuprins ntre oriciul de rang i-1 i cel de rang i:
The output on the pipe between i-1 degree outlet and i degree
outlet is determined from the connuity condion:
Conexiune/Joint G3/4 G 1 G1 1/2
Grosime pnz apa/Thickness of water skin 3mm 4mm 5mm
Distana/Distance L, (m)
Q P A V Q P A V Q P A V
l/min mca mm mm l/min mca mm mm l/min mca mm mm
0,50 29 1,00 220 120 40 0,50 120 310 67 0,25 120 450
1,00 34 1,35 380 250 60 1,00 250 530 106 0,50 250 780
1,50 37 1,60 540 370 78 1,40 370 750 136 0,75 370 1100
2,00 38 1,78 700 500 95 1,70 500 980 165 1,00 500 1400
2,50 108 1,92 620 1190 190 1,22 620 1750
3,00 122 2,10 750 1410 212 1,40 750 2000
3,50 134 2,20 870 1640 232 1,55 870 2400
4,00 250 1,70 1000 2700
4,50 267 1,80 1120 3000
5,00 280 1,90 1250 3300
Material/ Material Alam/ Brass Alam/ Brass Alam /Brass
Masa/ Weight, (kg) 0,37 0,79 1,25
Tabel/Table I Caracteriscile ecranelor de ap create de ajutaje Fan Jet/Characteriscs of water curtain created by Fan Jet nozzles
Fig. 3. Caracterisci dimensionale ajutaje Fan Jet/Dimensional characteriscs of Fan Jet nozzles
( )
2
, 1
2
1
4
1
i i i
v d V i V V

= =

& & & (7)



( ) [ ]
2 , 1
1 4
d
V i V
v
i i


& &
(8)

( ) [ ]
g
v
V i V
d g
l
H
i
n
i
2
1
8
2
2
1
5 2
+


=

=
& &


(9)
de unde rezult: and it results:
Introducnd aceast expresie n formula cderii totale, se obine: Introducing this expression in the total drop pressure formula,
it results:
6. Ajutaje ulizate n crearea ecranelor de ap
Pentru crearea ecranelor de ap n jurul navei pot ulizate
ajutaje p Fan Jet disponibile pe pia n tehnica fntnilor arteziene.
Ajutajele Fan Jet creeaz ecrane de ap deosebit de compacte sub
form de evantai. Ecranele de ap realizate cu ajutaje Fan Jet sunt
foarte stabile la aciunea vntului i prezint zgomot redus. Ajutajele
Fan Jet prezint cerine de debit i de presiune relav reduse pentru
crearea ecranelor de ap.
6. Nozzles Used for Water Curtain
Fan Jet nozzles for spring wells can be used to create the water
curtain around the ship.
Fan jet nozzles create compact fan shaped water jets. Fan
Jet water curtain is stable to acon of wind and present low level of
noise. Fan Jet nozzles demand relave low outputs and pressures
for creang water curtain.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 21
Bibliograe/References
[1]. ZAHARIAH A. - Stealth Technology,
www.scribd.com/-Adapve-Water-Curtain-Technology-AWCT;
[2].***/Stealthy Ships Improving Ship Stealth
using Sea Water Curtain, www.scribd.com/
Stealth Technology;
[3]. BRIGGS J.N. / - Target detecon by Marine
Radar, Ed. The Instuon of Electrical Engineers,
London, 2004;
[4]. FLOREA J.; PANAITESCU V. - Mecanica Fluidelor,
Editura Didacc i Pedagogic, Bucure, 1979;
[5]. FLORESCU I. -Mecanica Fluidelor,
Editura ALMA MATER, Bacu, 2007;
[6]. OASE LIVING WATER, G u s h i n g N o z z l e,
www.oase-livingwater.com.
Fig.4. Caracteriscile dimensionale ale ecranelor de ap create de ajutaje Fan Jet/Dimensional characteriscs of water curtain created by Fan Jet nozzles
7. Obiecve ale cercetrilor experimentale
Cercetrile experimentale planicate pentru a realizate, au ca
obiecve urmtoarele:
determinarea proprietilor radar ale ecranelor de ap,
ale jeturilor, ale apei pulverizate etc. i anume: absorbie, difuziune
(scaering), refracie i reexie;
determinarea efectelor vntului asupra suprafeelor ecranelor
de ap create;
determinarea efectului ecranelor de ap asupra amprentei IR
a navei;
determinarea efectului apei n cdere asupra amprentei
acusce a navei;
determinarea debitului de ap necesar pentru o ecien
opm;
determinarea caracteriscilor necesare pentru imitarea strii
locale de agitaie a mrii.
8. Concluzii
Tehnologia ecranelor de ap poate ulizat n cazul navelor de
lupt existente ce nu au caliti stealth, pentru a se asigura reducerea
amprentelor acestora.
Pentru asigurarea cantilor de ap necesare crerii ecranelor
de ap, se pot uliza instalaiile existente la bordul acestor nave, de
exemplu instalaia de sns incendiu cu ap de peste bord.
Este necesar s se realizeze cercetri experimentale prin care s
se stabileasc eciena ecranelor de ap n asigurarea unei capabiliti
stealth pentru navele de lupt existente.
7. Objecves of Experimental Researches
Planned experimental researches have the following objecves:
Determinaon of radar properes of water curtain, jets,
sprayed water etc. such as: absorpon, scaering, refracon and
reecon.
Determinaon of wind eects on water curtain surfaces.
Determinaon of water curtain eect on IR signature of the ship.
Determinaon of cascade eect on acousc signature of the ship.
Determinaon of water output needed for an opmum
e ciency.
Determinaon of characteriscs needed to take-o the local
sea state.
8. Conclusions
Water screens technology can be applied to war ships with no stealth
characteriscs in order to assure aenuaon of their signatures.
Exisng onboard plants can be used to provide the water
quanes needed to create the water curtain (for example, over board
re-ghng plant).
It is necessary to undertake experimental researches to establish
the e ciency of water curtain in providing a stealth characterisc for
exisng war ships.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
22 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Rezumat
Lucrarea prezint o metod de analiz pentru mecanismul de viraj
al vehiculelor pe enile.
Prima parte este desnat cerinelor pentru viraj, cu referire la
viteza de viraj i la momentele de traciune.
A doua parte prezint analiza mecanismului de viraj al transmisiei
ZF 4HP250, i anume, calculul razelor de viraj i conguraia circulaiei
de putere.
Metoda propus poate exns la alte puri de mecanisme de viraj
i poate inserat n modelele de simulare ale dinamicii vehiculelor pe
enile.
Abrevieri
B ecartament
b lime enil
F fora aferent rezistenei la rulare
f
r
coecient de rezisten la rulare
i
r
raport de transmitere reductor intermediar
i
C1,C2
rapoarte de transmitere angrenaje conice C1 i C2
i
LD
raport al transmisiei nale dispuse ntre arborele de ieire al
cuei de viteze i roata motric
i
GBj
raport de transmitere pentru etajul j
i
TC
raport de transformare calculat ca raportul dintre viteza
unghiular de intrare i viteza unghiular de ieire
i'
TC
- inversul raportului i
TC

in indice pentru enila dinspre interiorul virajului
K constant pentru mecanismul planetar, calculat ca raportul
dintre produsul numrului de dini al roilor conduse i produsul
numrului de dini al roilor conductoare
L indice pentru mecanismul de nsumare planetar stnga
L
c
lungimea suprafeei de contact dintre enil i sol
M
0,1,2
momentul coroanei, roii centrale i sateliilor
M
st
moment de rezisten la viraj
n turaia motorului [rot. /min]
out indice pentru enila dinspre exteriorul virajului
P
in, out
puterea transmis la enila dinspre interiorul virajului,
respecv enila dinspre exteriorul virajului
p
in, out
puterea specic distribuit pe enila dinspre interiorul
virajului, respecv enila dinspre exteriorul virajului
p
r
puterea specic a ntregului vehicul
q
N
presiunea normal exercitat de enil pe sol
q
L
presiunea lateral exercitat de sol asupra enilei la luarea
virajului
R indice pentru mecanismul de nsumare planetar dreapta
R raza de viraj
r
sprocket
raza roii motrice
T
in, out
fora de traciune la enila dinspre interiorul virajului,
respecv enila dinspre exteriorul virajului
t
in, out
fora de traciune raportat la masa vehiculului
v
in, out
viteza liniar la enila dinspre interiorul virajului, respecv
enila dinspre exteriorul virajului
W masa vehiculului
Abstract
The paper presents a method for analyzing the tracked vehicles
steering mechanisms. The rst part is devoted to the presentaon of
the requirements of tracked vehicle turning in terms of track velocies
and tracve eorts.
The second part of the paper presents the analysis of the dierenal
superimposed steering mechanism of the transmission ZF 4HP250,
consisng of the calculaon of steady turning radii and power ows
conguraon. The proposed method may be extended to other types
of steering mechanisms and can be inserted into simulaon models of
tracked vehicle dynamics.
List of notaon
B gauge of tracked vehicle (the distance between the symmetry
plans of the tracks)
b track width
F force of rolling resistance
f
r
coe cient of rolling resistance
i
r
gear rao
i
C1,C2
raos of the conical gears C1 and C2 respecvely
i
LD
rao of the nal drive located between the transmission output
sha and the sprocket
GB
j
i
- gearbox rao for the stage j
i
TC
torque converter rao calculated as rao between the input
angular velocity and the output angular velocity
TC
i - inverse of the torque converter rao
in indices for inner track
K the constant of the epicyclic gear mechanism, calculated as
rao between product of the teeth number of the driven gears and
product of the teeth numbers of the driving gears;
L indices for le summing epicyclic gear mechanism
L
c
length of the contact surface between track and soil
M
0,1,2
torque of the carrier arm, sun gear and planet gear
respecvely
M
st
moment of turning resistance
n engine speed, in rpm
out indices for outer track
P
in, out
power transmied to the inner and outer tracks
respecvely
p
in, out
power-total vehicle weight rao of the vehicle tracks
p
r
power-total vehicle weight rao of the vehicle
q
N
the normal pressure exerted by track on soil
q
L
the lateral pressure exerted by soil on track due to turning
moon
R indices for right summing epicycle gear mechanism
R radius of the track moon around the centre of turning
r
sprocket
sprocket rolling radius
T
in, out
tracve eort for inner and outer track, respecvely
t
in, out
tracve eort to vehicle weight rao for inner and outer
track, respecvely
v
in, out
linear velocity for inner and outer track, respecvely
W weight of the vehicle
ANALIZA MECANISMULUI DE
VIRAJ AL VEHICULELOR
PE ENILE
ANALYSIS OF TRACKED
VEHICLES STEERING
MECHANISM
Locotenent-colonel inginer drd.
Constann Alexandru CARAVAN
Director de program/Direcia Tehnic i Programe de
nzestrare/Departamentul pentru Armamente
Lieutenant colonel engineer graduand
Constann Alexandru CARAVAN - Program Manager
Armaments Department
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 23
track
randamentul enilei
raportul dintre viteza enilei interioare i exterioare
coecient de rezisten lateral
coecientul razei de viraj calculate ca raportul dintre raza de
viraj la enila exterioar i ecartament

0
coecientul razei de viraj pentru virajul liber (enila dinspre
interior se rotete liber)

0
viteza unghiular a coroanei mecanismului planetar

1
viteza unghiular a roii centrale mecanismului planetar

2
viteza unghiular a sateliilor mecanismului planetar

a
viteza unghiular a motorului

st
viteza unghiular la virajul vehiculului pe enile
sarcina motorului
1. Introducere
Mobilitatea vehiculelor pe enile reprezint factorul cheie pentru
proiectare, simulare i antrenament. O mobilitate ridicat conduce
la viteze o-road mari, precum i la viraje care s permit evitarea
obstacolelor i ochirea vehiculului de ctre armamentul inamicului.
Virajul vehiculelor pe enile reprezint rezultatul balanei dintre
cerinele terenului i capabilitatea agregatului energec de a asigura
vitezele i momentele de traciune necesare la enile.
Procesele la interfaa propulsorului enilat i teren depind n mod
considerabil de caracteriscile solului. n general, sunt dou abordri
ale interfeei vehicul teren.
Pe de o parte, exist abordrile teorece [1-5]. Principala dicultate
n adoptarea mijloacelor teorece pentru stabilirea relaiei dintre fora
de rezisten i de traciune la viraj deriv din ulizarea unui coecient
msurat cu un instrument specic bevametru.
Pe de alt parte, exist abordarea empiric [6]. Relaiile empirice au
aprut dup ani de teste, iar expresiile conin indicele conic care este
o mrime direct msurabil, cu avantajul ulizrii unui parametru unic
pentru caracterizarea solului. Dezvoltrile ulterioare ale acestui model au
fost fundamentate experimental, conducnd la o mbuntire a relaiilor
empirice [7]. Oricum, modelul NRMM bazat pe indicele conic a fost dezvoltat
doar pentru micarea 2D, fr aplicare direct la virajul vehiculelor.
Procesele specice date de interfaa enil sol au fost studiate n
[8 -12] cu concentrare pe fenomenele generate de rezistena la viraj i
alunecarea lateral a enilei. Aceast lucrare ignor rolul motorului i
transmisiei n procesul de viraj; chiar i lucrrile dedicate prezentrii
transmisiilor ulizate la vehiculele moderne pe enile acord o atenie
sczut mecanismelor de viraj i uxurilor de putere aprute pe durata
virajului [13].
Dezvoltrile recente ale transmisiilor electrice i electromecanice
pentru vehiculele pe enile aduc n actualitate nevoia unor invesgaii
teorece asupra mecanismelor de viraj. Lucrarea de fa se
concentreaz asupra corelrii dintre regimul de lucru al agregatului
energec i cerinele terenului pentru stabilirea traiectoriei virajului
vehiculului pe enile.
2. Virajul vehiculelor pe enile
Pentru scopul acestui arcol, a fost adoptat un model simplicat
pentru virajul vehiculelor pe enile. Reprezentarea schemac a
forelor i momentelor ce acioneaz asupra enilelor sunt prezentate
n gura 1. Asupra ecrei enile acioneaz fora de rezisten la rulare
F i fora de traciune T (gura 1).
Presupunnd c centrul de mas este localizat pe axa vercal ce
conine centrul suprafeei delimitate de cele dou enile, presiunea
vercal exercitat de enile pe sol, notat cu p, este uniform distribuit.
Ca urmare, distribuia presiunii laterale, notat cu q, datorat micrii
de rotaie, este, de asemenea, uniform:

track
track e ciency
rao between the velocity of the outer track and the velocity
of the inner track
coe cient of lateral resistance
turning radius coe cient calculated as rao between the
turning radius of the outer track and the gauge of the tracked vehicle

0
turning radius coe cient for free turning (the inner track
rotates freely)

0
angular velocity of the carrier arm of the epicyclical gear
mechanism

1
angular velocity of the sun gear of the epicyclical gear
mechanism

2
angular velocity of the planet gear of the epicyclical gear
mechanism

a
angular speed of the engine

st
tracked vehicle turning angular velocity
engine load
1. Introducon
Mobility of tracked vehicles is a key factor from the design,
simulaon and training perspecves. A high mobility capability involves
o-road high speed, as well as fast steering of the vehicle in order to
avoid obstacles and targeng. The steering of the tracked vehicles is
the result of the balance between the requirement of the terrain and
the capability of the power pack to provide adequately the speeds
and the tracve eorts for tracks. The processes between the running
gear and the terrain depend dramacally on the soil characteriscs.
Generally speaking, there are two basic approaches on the vehicle
terrain interface.
On one extreme is the theorecal approach [1-5]. This end of the
spectrum is largely populated by civil and mechanical engineers and
expressions are in terms of cohesion modulus and fricon angle. The
main di culty involved in adopng the theorecal tools for predicng
the turning resistance and tracon relaonship derives from the use of
coe cient di cult to measure with a specic device, the bevameter.
On the other end of the spectrum there is the empirical world [6].
Empirical relaonships were derived over years of tesng, and the
expressions are in terms of cone index which is a directly measurable
quanty having the advantage of using a unique parameter for
soil characterizaon. Further developments of this model were
experimentally substanated, ending into a connuous improvement
of empirical relaons [7]. Nevertheless, NRMM model based on cone
index was developed only for 2D moon, without direct applicaon
to the steering of the vehicle. The specic processes involved by the
track soil interface were studied in [8-12] focused on the phenomena
generang the turning resistance and the lateral slip of the track.
This work ignored the role of the engine and transmission in the
turning process; even the papers dedicated to the presentaon of
transmissions used in modern tracked vehicles pay less aenon to
steering mechanisms and power ows during the vehicle turning [13].
Recent developments in electric and electro-mechanical transmissions
for tracked vehicles bring in actuality the need for theorecal
invesgaons on the steering mechanisms. The present paper focuses
on the matching of power pack working regime with the requirements
of the terrain in order to negoate a curve trajectory of the tracked
vehicle moon.
2. Turning of the tracked vehicles
For the purpose of this paper, a simplied model was adopted for
the turning of the tracked vehicle. The schemac representaon of
forces and moments acng on the tracks are presented in Figure 1.
Each track is subject of the acon of rolling resistance R and of tracve
eort T (gure 1).
Assuming that the centre of mass is located on the vercal axis which
contains the centre of the surface delimited by the two tracks, the vercal
pressure, noted p, exerted by tracks on soil is uniformly distributed.
Consequently, the distribuon of the lateral pressure, noted q, due to
turning moon of the track is uniform too:

2
L N
c
W
q q
b L
= =

(1)
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
24 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
For the coe cient of turning resistance the following formula is
used:
Fig. 1 Schema forelor i momentelor de rezisten la viraj/
Schemazaon of forces and moment of turning resistance
Pentru coecientul de rezisten la viraj se ulizeaz urmtoarea
formul:

max
0.85 0.15
out
R
B

=
+
(2)
unde
max
reprezint valoarea maxim, obinut cnd R
out
= B (enila
dinspre interior este blocat i vehiculul se rotete n jurul ei). Fora de
rezisten la rulare se denete ca:
where
max
represents the maximum value of the coe cient of
lateral resistance, obtained for R
out
= B (the inner track is blocked and
the vehicle turns around it). The rolling resistance may be expressed as:

2
in out r
W
F F f = = (3)
Condiiile de echilibru pentru ecare enil dau relaiile pentru
forele de traciune necesare la enile pentru a putea executat virajul.
Acestea sunt urmtoarele:
The equilibrium condions of each track give the relaons for
tracve eorts needed to be applied to tracks in order to execute the
turning moon of the vehicle; nally, the tracve eorts are done by
the following relaons:

2 4
c
out r
W L W
T f
B

= +

(4)

2 4
c
out r
W L W
T f
B

(5)

Eforturile de traciune devin:
The coe cients of the tracve eorts became:

1
2 2
out c
out r
T L
t f
W B

= = +


(6)


1
2 2
in c
in r
T L
t f
W B

= =



Pentru aceste condiii simplicate, variaia eforturilor de traciune
este prezentat n gura 2. Se observ c efortul de traciune la enila
dinspre interior devine nul pentru
50
i are valori negave pentru
raze mai mici.
For these simplied condions, the variaon of the tracve
coe cients is presented in Figure 2. We may observe that the tracve
eort of the inner track became null for 50 and has negave
values for smaller radii.
(7)
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 25
Cinemaca modelului simplicat presupune c nu apare alunecare
longitudinal ntre enil i sol. Relaiile existente ntre razele de viraj i
vitezele liniare ale enilelor se deduc din gura 1:
The kinemacs of the simplied model assumes that no longitudinal
slippage between track and soil occurs. The relaons exisng between
the radius of the path and tracks linear velocies results from Figure 1:

out in out in out in
st
out in out in
v v v v v v
R R R R B

= = = =


(8)

Din ecuaia (8) se obine: From equaons we have immediately:
;
out in
out in
out in out in
v v
R B R B
v v v v
= =

(9)
Introducnd notaiile: Introducing the notaons:
the equaons and become:
;
out out
in
R v
B v
= =
ecuaiile (2) i (9) devin:

max
0.85 0.15

=
+
(10)

1
out
out in
v
v v

= =

(11)
Ecuaiile (7) permit calculul valorii coecientului razei de viraj
pentru virajul liber, notat cu
0,
pentru care efortul de traciune este
nul:
The equaons (7) allows the calculaon of the value of the turning
radius coe cient for free turning, noted
0
, for which the tracve
eort is null:

max
0
20
0.85
3 2
c
r
L
B f

=



(12)
n virajul cu panare, rorea este posibil doar dac exist o diferen
ntre vitezele enilelor. Din punct de vedere al mobilitii vehiculului, cea
mai favorabil soluie este creterea vitezei enilei exterioare i scderea
vitezei enilei interioare n aceeai msur; asel, viteza centrului de
mas rmne neschimbat. Aadar, n cazul virajului cu panare, rezult
urmtoarele relaii pentru vitezele enilelor:
In skid steering, the turning is possible only if a dierence between
the track velocies exists. The most favorable soluon, from the vehicle
mobility point of view, is to increase the velocity of the outer track and
to decrease with the same quanty the velocity of the inner track;
thus, the velocity of the mass centre remain unchanged. Finally, for
this skid steering method, the following relaons results for the track
velocies:

0 0
1
2 ; 2
2 1 2 1
in out
v v v v

= =

(13)
Fig. 2 Variaia eforturilor de traciune/
Variaon of the tracve coe cients
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
26 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
0 0
1
;
2 2 1 2 2 1
out c in c
out r in r
P L P L
p f v p f v
W B W B

= = + = =



(14)
Fig. 3 - Variaia puterii specice pentru enila exterioar i cea interioar/
Variaon of the power total vehicle weight rao for the outer track and for the inner track
Variaia puterii specice corespunztoare enilelor vehiculului
este prezentat n gura 3 pentru cteva valori ale vitezei centrului
de mas. n acelai grac, sunt prezentate i valorile puterii specice
corespunztoare actualelor vehicule enilate.
The variaon of the power-total vehicle weight rao of the vehicle
tracks is presented in Figure 3 for several values of the mass centre
velocity. In the same graph, there were presented the power weight
rao values of current tracked vehicles.
De exemplu, pentru o vitez iniial de 5 m/s a unui vehicul avnd
1.0 W/N, este imposibil de realizat virajul cu o raz mai mic de 2B, dar
devine posibil crescnd puterea specic la 1.5 W/N.
Presupunnd un randament total al agregatului energec i cuei
de viteze de aproximav 60%, creterea valorii puterii specice va de
la 22,6 CP/t la 34 CP/t.
n concluzie, gracele prezentate n gurile 2 i 3 prezint clar
cerinele ce se impun transmisiei vehiculelor enilate pentru a asigura
enilelor cantatea necesar de putere, n funcie de raza de viraj
dorit, modicnd corespunztor vitezele i momentele.
3. Analiza mecanismului de viraj
Exist o mare varietate de mecanisme de viraj; structura lor
depinde de tehnologiile disponibile i desigur de puterea motorului.
Pentru valori mici ale puterii specice, se prefer soluia cu ambreiaj
i mecanisme planetare, acestea asigurnd dou raze stabile de viraj:
raze mici de viraj, corespunznd situaiei cnd enila interioar este
blocat i raze mari de viraj de aproximav (3...4)B. Creterea puterii
motorului creeaz oportuniti pentru mbuntirea mobilitii, n
ceea ce privete viteza i manevrabilitatea; drept urmare, mecanismele
de viraj difereniale au fost concepute pentru asigurarea uneia sau mai
multor valori ale razei de viraj pentru ecare treapt de vitez. Aadar,
au fost dezvoltate mecanismele de viraj hidrostace, soluie care
asigur variaia connu a razei de viraj.
n principiu, mecanismele de viraj mecanice includ mecanisme planetare,
angrenaje, ambreiaje i frne, asigurnd bune caliti de randament i
siguran n funcionare. O soluie interesant este mecanismul dublu
diferenial regenerav al transmisiei ZF 4HP250; diagrama cinemac a
transmisiei respecve este prezentat n gura 4 [13].
For instance, for an inial speed of the vehicle as high as 5 m/s,
the turning of a vehicle having 1.0 W/N is impossible for radii smaller
than 2B, but become possible by increasing the power weight rao to
1.5 W/N. Assuming an overall e ciency of the powerpack and running
gear of about 60%, that means an increase of the engine power total
vehicle weight rao from about 22.6 CP/t to 34 CP/t. In conclusion,
the graphs presented in Figure 2 and Figure 3 clearly illustrates the
requirement for the transmission of the tracked vehicles to provide
adequate amount of power to the tracks according to the desired
turning rao, modifying the velocies and the torques accordingly.
3. Analysis of a steering mechanism
There is a large variety of steering mechanisms; their structure
depends on the technology available as well as on the engine power. For
small values of the power total weight rao the clutch and epicyclic
gear mechanisms were preferred, these steering mechanisms providing
two stable radii: the small radii corresponding to the situaon on which
the inner track is blocked, and a large radii which is about (34)B. The
increase of the engine power has created the opportunity for a beer
mobility in terms of speed and handling; consequently, dierenal
steering mechanisms were developed, providing one or more
stable turning radius for each stage of the gearbox. Finally, steering
mechanisms using hydrostac units were developed, a soluon which
allows for a connuous variaon of the turning radius.
The mechanical steering mechanisms include, in principal, epicycle
gear mechanisms, gears, clutches and brakes and have a high e ciency
and reliability. An interesng soluon is the regenerave double
dierenal steering mechanism of the transmission ZF 4HP250; the
kinemac diagram of this transmission is presented in Figure 4 [13].
The relaons (6), (7) i (13) and allow wring the power-total
vehicle weight rao for each track:
Relaiile (6), (7) i (13) permit scrierea expresiilor puterii specice
corespunztoare ecrei enile:
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 27
Fig. 4 - Diagrama cinemac a transmisiei vehiculului enilat/Kinec diagram of the tracked vehicle transmission
Transmisia este compus din: hidroconverzor, cue de viteze
planetar cu 4 trepte de mers nainte i 2 de mers napoi, dou
mecanisme de viraj cu raz x i dou mecanisme de nsumare
planetare. Din diagrama cinemac, deriv diagrama uxului de putere
prezentat n gura 5.
The transmission consists of the following main components:
torque converter, epicyclic gearbox with 4 forward and 2 reverse
stages, two xed radius superimposed steering system, including two
summing epicyclic gear mechanisms. From the kinemac diagram
derives the power ow diagram presented in Figure 5.
Pentru deplasarea reclinie a vehiculului, funcioneaz ambele
ambreiaje de friciune B
StL
i B
StR
; drept urmare, expresia vitezei
unghiulare a roii centrale din stnga 1L, poate scris n dou
sensuri:
- de la 1L prin mecanism pn la 1R, cu raportul de transmitere -1/i
r
:
For the straight-lined moon of the vehicle, the fricon clutches
B
StL
and B
StR
are both operated; consequently, the angular velocity of
the le sun gear 1L can be wrien following two paths:
the path fro - m 1L through the gear with the rao -1/i
r
up to 1R:
- de la 1L prin mecanismul i
r
, ambreiajul B
StL
, arborele neutru,
ambreiajul B
StL
i mecanismul i
r
pn la 1R:
the path from 1L through the gear - i
r
, the clutch B
StL
, the neutral
sha, the clutch B
StL
and the gear i
r
up to 1R:
Ecuaiile (15) i (16) pot valabile simultan doar dac
1L 1R
0 = =

The equaons (15) i (16) and could be valid simultaneously
only if
1L 1R
0 = = .
Fig 5 - Diagrama uxului de putere al transmisiei/The power ow diagram of the transmission
1L 1R
1
1
r
r
i
i
= =





(15)

1L 1R
r
r
i
i
= =

(16)
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
28 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
The Willis equations written for the summing epicyclic gear are
the following:

2
GB
1L
1
1
1L
1R
1L 2 0L
1R 2 0R
0
0
0
0
0
0
(1 ) 0
(1 ) 0
j
TC
a
r s
q a
q C n
n r
s r
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
K K
K K

+ =

+ + =

+ + =



TC
1 1
GB
1
2
2
j
L C r
i
K i i i
i

= +


TC
0L 0R
GB
1
j
a
i K
K i

= =
+

Impunnd condiia
1L 1R
0 = = , rezult: Imposing the condions
1L 1R
0 = = , yields:
Aadar, vitezele unghiulare de ieire spre roile motrice sunt
egale, asel deplasarea reclinie este asigurat. Viteza unghiular
2
reprezint viteza la ieirea din cua de viteze planetar:
Consequently, the output angular velocies of the sprockets are
the same and the straight-lined moon is rm. The angular velocity
2
represents the output of the epicyclic gearbox:
unde, raportul invers al converzorului de moment a fost introdus
n scopul evitrii mpririi la 0 pentru cazul alunecrii 100% a
converzorului. Din ecuaiile (18) i (19) i obinem forma nal a
vitezelor unghiulare de ieire din transmisie:
where the inverse rao of the torque converter was introduced
in order to avoid the division by 0 for the 100% slip of the torque
converter. From equaons (18) i (19) and we have the nal form of
the transmission output angular velocies:
Calculul rapoartelor de transmitere din cua de viteze planetar,
pentru ecare treapt j, notat
GB
j
i , este detaliat n [15]. Pentru
obinerea razei mari de viraj, ambreiajul B
LR
este cuplat i unul dintre
ambreiajele de stabilizare (B
StL
sau B
StR
) este decuplat. Pentru acest caz,
rezult urmtoarele ecuaii:
The calculaon of the raos of the epicyclic gearbox for each stage
j, noted GB
j
i
, is detailed in [15]. In order to obtain the large turning
radius, the clutch BLR is coupled and the one of the stabilizaon
clutches (BStL or BStR) is disengaged. The following equaons obtain
for this situaon:
Rezolvnd sistemul de ecuaii, rezult: Solving the simultaneous equaons, the following relaonships
yields:

0L 0R 2
1
K
K
= =
+


TC
2
GB TC GB
j j
a
a
i
i i i

= =


Ecuaiile lui Willis scrise pentru mecanismul de nsumare planetar
sunt urmtoarele:
1L 2 0L 1R 2 0R
(1 ) 0; (1 ) 0 K K K K + + = + + =



(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)

( ) ( )
GB 1 1 TC GB 1 1 TC
0L 0R
1 1 TC GB 1 1 TC GB
;
1+ 1+
j j
j j
C r C r
a a
C r C r
i K i i i i i K i i i i
K i i i i i K i i i i i
+
= =


(22)
(23)
innd cont de relaia (11), se obine expresia nal pentru
coecientul razei de viraj:
Taking into consideraon the relaon (11), the nal relaon for the
turning rao coe cient is obtained:
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 29

0R 1R 0R 2R 0R
0L 1L 0L 2L 0L
; ; ;
1
; ; .
1
in track
sprocket LD
out
sprocket LD track
T K
M M K M M M
r i K
T K
M M K M M M
r i K

= = =
+
= = =
+


2L 2R GB
0 M M M + + =

Fig. 6 Variaia coecienilor razei de viraj/Variaon of the turning radius coe cients
We may observe that the turning rao coe cient depends on the
rao of the gearbox, as well as on the rao of the torque converter.
That means that, for each stage, the turning radius coe cient vary due
to the slip coe cient of the torque converter.
For turning with small radius, the clutch B
SR
is coupled (without
disengaging the clutch B
LR
), and because i
C2
<i
C1
, the freewheel opens.
Following a similar method of analysis, the turning radius coe cient
for small radii obtains:
Se poate observa c acest coecient al razei de viraj depinde att
de raportul de transmitere din cua de viteze, ct i de raportul de
transmitere al converzorului de moment. Aceasta nseamn c pentru
ecare treapt de vitez, valoarea coecientului razei de viraj variaz
datorit coecientului de panare al converzorului de moment.
Pentru virajul cu raz mic, ambreiajul B
SR
este cuplat, (fr
decuplarea ambreiajului B
LR
) i datorit i
C2
<i
C1
, roata liber este eliberat.
Folosind o metod similar de analiz, se obine coecientul razei de
viraj pentru raze mici de viraj:
n gura 6 este prezentat variaia coecienilor razei de viraj n
funcie de viteza vehiculului. La realizarea gracului s-a inut cont de
variaia inversului raportului de transmitere al converzorului: ntre 0 i
0,92 pentru treapta I, 0,6 la 0,92 pentru treptele II i III i 0,6 la 1 pentru
treapta IV.
In Figure 6 there is presented the variaon of the turning radius
coe cients with respect to vehicle speed. The graph took into
consideraon the variaon of the inverse of the torque converter rao
between 0 and 0.92 for the rst stage, 0.6 to 0.92 for the 2
nd
and the 3
rd

stages, and 0.6 to 1 for the fourth stage.
Valorile razelor de viraj prezentate n gura 6 reprezint valori
teorece calculate din punct de vedere cinemac. Aa cum a fost
menionat mai sus, transmisia trebuie s realizeze nu doar modicarea
vitezelor enilei, dar i uxul de putere corespunztor, necesar pentru
a nvinge rezistena la viraj. Calculul de bilan al puterilor trebuie s
nceap cu evaluarea momentelor care acioneaz pe elementele
exterioare ale mecanismului de nsumare planetar:
The values of the turning radii shown in Figure 6 represent
theorecal values calculated on kinemac basis. As it was menoned
before, the transmission has to realize not only the modicaon of the
track velocies but the adequate power ow necessary to overcome
the turning resistance. The balance of powers must start with the
evaluaon of the torques acng on the external elements of the
summing epicyclic mechanisms:
Pentru nodul de ramicaie notat cu p, urmtoarea ecuaie descrie
condiia de echilibru:
For the branched node noted p the following equaon describes
the balance condion:

TC
1 2
GB
1
2
2
j
S C r
i
K i i i
i

= +

(24)
(25)
(26)
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
30 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Fig. 8 Caracteriscile de ieire ale converzorului/Torque converter output characteriscs
Fig. 7 Caracteriscile de ieire ale converzorului/Torque converter output characteriscs
Momentul de ieire al cuei de viteze depinde de raportul
de transmitere al converzorului. Asel, transmisia care include
converzorul i cua de viteze planetar are o caracterisc neliniar,
parametrii de ieire (momentul i viteza unghiular) depinznd de
parametrii motorului (vitez unghiular, sarcin, moment), converzor
(raportul de transmitere, randament, moment de ieire) i raportul de
transmitere al cuei de viteze. Modelarea caracteriscilor motorului se
face prin urmtoarele ecuaii:
The output torque of the gearbox depends on the stage and
the rao of the torque converter. Thus, the transmission unit which
includes the torque converter and the epicyclic gearbox has a non-linear
characterisc, the output parameters (torque and angular velocity)
depending of the parameters of the engine (angular velocity, load,
torque), torque converter (rao of the torque converter, e ciency,
output torque) and the rao of the gearbox. The modeling of the
engine characteriscs obtained the following equaons:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
7 2 2
7 2 2
, 522.875 0.57241 1532 10 85.43 5.8667 0.23305
, 60000
,
2
, 23187.3 22.39 53487 10 1706.29 35.81 0.9856
, 60000
,
2
e
e
e
er
er
er
P n n n n
P n
M n
n
P n n n n
P n
M n
n

= + + + +

=

= + + +

=


(27)
Caracteriscile de ieire ale converzorului sunt prezentate,
pentru sarcina maxim a motorului, n gura 7, care a fost obinut
prin impunerea echilibrului ntre momentul de ieire al motorului i
momentul de intrare al converzorului calculat pentru diferite valori
ale raportului de transmitere al converzorului.
The output characteriscs of the torque converter are presented,
for full load of the engine, in Figure 7 that was obtained by imposing the
balance between the engine output torque and the torque converter
input torque calculated for dierent values of the torque converter
raos.
Lund n considerare caracteriscile de ieire ale converzorului
(variaia momentelor i randamentul n funcie de raportul de
transmitere al converzorului), se vor obine n nal caracteriscile de
ieire ale cuei de viteze, prezentate n gura 8.
Taking into consideraon the output characteriscs of the torque
converter (the variaon of the rao of the torques and e ciency versus
the speed rao of the torque converter), we nally obtain the gearbox
output characteriscs presented in Figure 8.
Caracteriscile de ieire ale cuei de viteze permit simularea
a diferite situaii de viraj. Un exemplu de rezultate este prezentat n
gura 9. Pentru aceast distribuie a uxurilor de putere, valorile au
fost normate cu puterea de ieire a motorului pentru a oferi o mai bun
nelegere privind calea uxurilor de putere, precum i efectele puterii
regenerate transmis de la enila interioar la enila exterioar; asel,
a devenit posibil s se furnizeze ctre enila exterioar o cantate de
putere mai mare dect puterea de ieire a motorului.
The gearbox output characteriscs allow simulang various turning
situaons. An example of results is presented in Figure 9. For this
distribuon of power ows, the values were rated with the engine
output power in order to oer a beer understanding regarding the
path of the power ows, as well as the eects of the regenerated power
transmied from the inner track to the outer track; thus, it became
possible to provide at the outer track an amount of power larger than
the engine output power.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 31
Fig. 9 Fluxurile de putere pentru virajul raz mare/
Power ows for turning with large radius
Considernd vehiculul n micare reclinie cu o vitez iniial,
acesta i poate menine viteza constant pe mpul virrii doar prin
creterea sarcinii motorului pentru a compensa rezistena la viraj.
Dac sarcina motorului rmne neschimbat pe mpul virrii, viteza
scade n mod corespunztor, datorit creterii momentului de ieire al
converzorului obinut prin reducerea vitezei unghiulare exterioare
din cauza alunecrilor mai mari.
Pentru a exemplica consideraiile de mai sus, se detaliaz
urmtorul exemplu de simulare. Vehiculul are o vitez iniial de
6.94 m/s (25 km/h), iar sarcina motorului este de 70%. Raza minim
de viraj teorec este 36.80 m ( = 13.887), dar motorul poate furniza
sucient putere pentru o raz de viraj mai mare dect 576.80 m
(= 217,7). Dac sarcina motorului rmne neschimbat, vehiculul poate
vira cu o vitez de maximum 3.958 m/s (14.25 km/h). Pentru aceast
vitez, raza minim de viraj devine 22.49 m (= 8.487). Dac sarcina
motorului crete pn la 100%, pentru viteza iniial considerat, raza
minim de viraj permis este de 49.5 m (= 18.679). Simularea a fost
realizat pentru un vehicul enilat cu masa de 47 tone i un motor care
poate furniza o putere maxim de 632 kW.
4. Concluzii
Analiza mecanismelor de viraj ulizate pentru vehiculele enilate
trebuie s nglobeze aspectele cinemace care dau raza de viraj,
cu aspectele uxului de putere care ofer date privind capabilitatea
agregatului energec de a furniza o putere adecvat pentru a nvinge
rezistena la viraj. Mecanismele de viraj mecanice analizate furnizeaz,
pentru ecare treapt a cuei de viteze, dou valori diferite pentru
raza de viraj cu pierderi minime de putere datorit randamentului
acestora.
Metoda folosit pentru analiza prezentat mai sus poate folosit
i pentru alte puri de mecanisme de viraj, cum ar mecanismele care
includ uniti hidrostace.
Analiza poate exns prin adugarea limitrilor datorate
caracteriscilor solului, asel nct s putem vizualiza i analiza ntregul
ansamblu al vehiculului enilat n viraj.
Considering the vehicle in straight-lined moon with an inial
speed, it may preserve this speed during the turning moon only by
increasing the load of the engine in order to compensate the turning
resistance. If the engine load remains unchanged during the turning
moon, the speed decreases accordingly, due to the increase of the
torque converter output obtained by reducing the output angular
speed caused by the higher slip rate.
To exemplify the above consideraons, the following example
of simulaon is detailed. The vehicle has an inial speed as high as
6.94 m/s (25 km/h) and the load of the engine is 70%. The minimum
theorecal turning radius is 36.80 m (= 13.887) but the engine can
provide enough power for a radius greater than 576.80 m ( = 217,7).
If the load of the engine remains the same, the vehicle can turn with a
speed as high as 3.958 m/s (14.25 km/h). For this speed, the minimum
turning radius becomes 22.49 m ( = 8.487). If the load of the engine
rises up to 100%, for the inial speed considered, the minimum radius
allowed is 49.5 m (= 18.679). The simulaon was realized for a tracked
vehicle with 47 tones mass and an engine which can provide 632 kW
maximum output power.
4. Conclusions
The analyzes of the steering mechanisms used for tracked vehicle
turning must join the kinemac aspects which give the turning radius,
with the power ow aspects which provide data regarding the capability
of the power pack to provide adequate torques to overcome the
moment of turning resistance. The mechanical steering mechanisms
analyzed provide, for each gearbox stage, two dierent values for
turning radius with minimum power losses due to gear e ciency.
The method used for the above presented analysis may be used for
other types of steering mechanisms, such as the mechanisms including
hydrostac units and gears.
The analysis can be extended by adding the limitaons due to soil
characteriscs so the whole picture of tracked vehicle turning becomes
available.
Bibliograe/References
[1]. BALADI, G., ROHANI B., - A Terrain-Vehicle Interacon Model for
Analysis of Steering Performance of Track-Laying Vehicles, Technical Report
GL-79-6, 1980, U. S.. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Staon
Structures Laboratory;
[2]. WONG, J.Y., CHIANG C.F. - A general theory for skid steering of
tracked vehicles on rm ground, Proc Inst Mech Eng 2001;215(Part D);
[3]. KARAFIATH, L.L.,- Analycal Model for the Turning of Tracked
Vehicles in So Soils, Technical Report No. 12522, Grumman Research
Department, 1980;
[4]. BEKKER, M.G., - Introducon to Terrain-Vehicle Systems, University
of Michigan Press, 1969;
[5]. KITANO, M. AND KUMA, M., - An Analysis of Horizontal Plane Moon
of Tracked Vehicles, J. of Terramechanics, Vol. 44, No. 4, 1977, pp 211-225;
[6]. JURKAT, M.P., NUTTAL C.J., HALEY P.W., - The AMC 74 Mobility
Model, Tech. Report No. 11921(LL-149), May 1975, Waterways Experiment
Staon, Corps of Engineers, Dept. of the Army;
[7]. PRIDDY, J.D., - Stochasc Vehicle Mobility Forecasts Using the NATO Reference Mobility Model, Report 3 - Database Development for Stascal
Analysis of the NRMM II Cross-Country Tracon Empirical Relaonships, Technical Report 95-8, June 1995, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Staon;
[8]. POTT, S., - Fricon between rubber track pads and ground surface with regard to the turning resistance of tracked vehicles. In: Proceedings of the h
European ISTVS Conference. Budapest, 1991;
[9]. KITANO, M., AND OTHERS, - Lane change maneuver of high speed tracked vehicles, Journal of Terramechanics, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 91-102, 1988;
[10]. PURDY, D. J. AND WORMELL, P. J. H.,- Handling of High-Speed Tracked Vehicles, J. Baleeld Tech. Vol. 6, No. 2, July 2003;
[11]. WORMELL, P. J. H. AND PURDY, D. J., - Handling of Tracked Vehicles at Low Speed, J. Baleeld Tech. Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2004;
[12]. MACLAURIN, B. - A skid steering model with track pad exibility, Journal of Terramechanics 44 (2007) 95110;
[13]. MCGUIGAN, S. J. AND MOSS, P. J., - A Review of Transmission Systems for Tracked Military Vehicles, J. Baleeld Tech. Vol. 1, No. 3, November 1998;
[14]. SCHREIR, F., - Les chars de bataille contemporaine. 4e pare: Mobilit -2. La transmission, Revue Internaonale de defense, No.3, Juin 1972, p. 284-293;
[15]. CIOBOTARU T., - A method for the analysis of epicyclic gearboxes, SAE Paper 2000-05-0127, SAE Congress 2000, Seul.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
32 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Rezumat
Lucrarea prezint un nou mijloc de decontaminare care s
nlocuiasc completele CD-3M, confecionat din material rezistent la
aciunea compoziiilor de decontaminare, mai uor, portabil (adaptat
pentru transportul n spate), uor manevrabil, asel nct ulizatorul
s poat aciona prin fore proprii, pentru contracararea ameninrilor
la care este supus.
Introducere 1.
n contextul escaladrii riscurilor i ameninrilor la adresa securitii
mondiale, dintre care se impun cu pregnan cele de natur nuclear,
biologic i chimic, este necesar ca trupele proprii s opereze n arii
cu risc CBRN, sau s poat parcipa la ndeprtarea efectelor ulizrii
armelor de distrugere n mas n mpul parciprii armatei romne n
cadrul structurilor mulnaionale la operaiuni de meninere a pcii.
Situaiile care necesit intervenii urgente pentru neutralizarea
compuilor chimici toxici industriali, rspndii accidental sau folosii
intenionat de fore teroriste, sunt destul de frecvente, iar riscul
producerii unor asel de incidente este tot mai mare.
Contracararea lor implic pe de o parte msuri de prevenire
i de protecie i pe de alt parte realizarea unor mijloace care s
permit nlturarea efectelor contaminrii. n acest context, se impune
ndeprtarea ct mai rapid i ecient a substanelor contaminante de
pe suprafeele cu care militarii intr n contact.
Completele (CD-1M, CD-2M, CD-3M) aate n dotarea armatei
noastre, fabricate n anii 1980-1985, au ca principiu de decontaminare
procedeul de pulverizare - frecare cu perii, depit din punct de vedere
tehnologic i operaional.
De-a lungul mpului, au fost realizate prin cercetare proprie mijloace
de decontaminare cu pulverizare, avnd urmtoarele modaliti de
presurizare: pirotehnic (completul CDAT), butelii cu bioxid de carbon
(complet de decontaminare de urgen) sau aer comprimat de la un
compresor independent, sau din compunerea unui vehicul militar
(dispozivul portabil cu cea acv DIPOD). Materialul din care este
confecionat corpul propriu-zis al mijlocului este metalic, necesitnd
protecie special la aciunea compoziiilor de decontaminare.
Noile cerine pe plan mondial au impus realizarea unui nou sistem
de decontaminare care s nlocuiasc completele CD-3M, confecionat
din material rezistent la aciunea compoziiilor de decontaminare, mai
uor, portabil (adaptat pentru transportul n spate), uor manevrabil,
asel nct ulizatorul s poat aciona prin fore proprii pentru
contracararea ameninrilor la care este supus.
Ulitatea unui asel de echipament este incontestabil, principalul
beneciar ind Ministerul Aprrii Naionale.
Se pot nzestra echipele care au atribuii n intervenii de
urgen CBRN sau ecologice, dar i cele care au responsabilitatea de
supraveghere a instalaiilor sau depozitelor chimice, de a transporta i
transvaza compui chimici cu toxicitate ridicat.
De asemenea, un asel de mijloc modern se preteaz la echiparea
unitilor din specialitatea aprare CBRN, a unitilor logisce sau a
altor structuri pentru care este necesar decontaminarea operaional
rapid.
Abstract
The paper presents the achievement to obtain a decontaminaon
means, which should replace the CD-3M packages, and which should
be made of a material that should be proof against the acon of
decontaminaon composions, lighter, portable (adapted to the
transport on ones back), easily controllable, so as its user could act
on his own to counteract the threats he is faced with. In order to
readapt the decontaminaon means to the present day requirements,
it is imperave to conceptualize a new type of device, which could
be used upon the operaonal decontaminaon of the technique and
materials.
Introducon 1.
In the context of escalade of the risks and threats to the world
security, of which a strong require the nuclear, biological and chemical,
is necessary for the own troops to operate in the CBRN risk areas
or to parcipate in removing the eects of using mass destrucon
weapons during the parcipaon of the Romanian army within the
mulnaonal structures to the peacekeeping operaons. Situaons
that require instant intervenons for the neutralizaon of chemical
toxic compounds emied from industrial plants spreaded accidentally
or intenonally usable by the terrorist forces are quite frequent, and
the risks of such incidents is of a great increase. Countering involves
on the one hand prevenon and protecon measures and on
the other hand achieving devices for removing of the contaminaon
eects. In this context its imposed to have a quickly and e ciently
removing of the contaminang substances from the surfaces that the
soldiers are in contact to. The complete (CD-1 M, CD- 2M, CD-3 M)
that are in our army endowment, made in the 1980-1985s, have as a
decontaminaon principle the spraying-fricon process with brushes,
outdated technological and operaonal. It was made through own
researches decontaminaon devices with spraying, having the following
pressurizaon ways: pyrotechnic (CDAT complete), cylinders with
carbon dioxide (emergency decontaminaon complete) or compressed
air from an independent compressor or being in composing of a military
vehicle (portable device with acve fog DIPOD). The material from
which is made the medium itself body is a metallic one, that requiring
a special protecon to the decontaminaon composions acon. Its
necessary to achieve a decontaminaon device that could replace the
CD-3 M complete, made of resistant material to the decontaminaon
composions acon, more lightweight, portable (adaptable for the
back carriage), easily workable, so the user can act by own forces for
countering threats to which it is subjected. Joining us in the direcon
of rehabilitaon decontaminaon devices to the current requirements,
its necessary to have a concept for a new type of device that causes the
techniques and materials operaonal decontaminaon. The usefulness
of a such equipment is undeniable, the main beneciary being the
Ministry of Naonal Defence. It can provide teams with responsibilies
in the CBRN or environmental emergency response, but also those
who have responsibility for monitoring of the installaons or chemical
deposits, to transport and transfer of chemical compounds with a
higher toxicity.
CD - 3P PORTABLE
DECONTAMINATION
COMPLETE
COMPLET DE DECONTAMINARE
PORTABIL CD - 3P
Engineer Georgiana CIOFRNGEANU,
senior scienst I
st
degree
Engineer Doru ALEXE, scienc researcher III degree
Military Equipment and Technologies Research Agency
CBRN and Ecology Scienc Research Center
Inginer Georgiana CIOFRNGEANU, cercettor inic gradul I
Inginer Doru ALEXE, cercettor inic gradul III
Agenia de Cercetare pentru Tehnic i Tehnologii Militare -
Centrul de Cercetare inic pentru Aprare CBRN
i Ecologie
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 33
Datorit faptului c nu necesit o pregre special a operatorilor/
servanilor, sistemul va putea folosit i de unitile de aprare civil
din cadrul Ministerului Administraiei i Internelor.
Acest echipament va permite ulizarea unor proceduri
standardizate, care presupun e prepararea compoziiilor de
decontaminare nainte de ulizare, cum este cazul compoziiei apoase
pe baz de acid triclorizocianuric (TCCA), e ulizarea unor compoziii
gata preparate (Soluia organic de decontaminare - SOD), care se
aplic pe suprafeele ce necesit decontaminare.

Generaliti 2.
Studiul literaturii de specialitate, coroborat cu precizrile
standardelor militare actuale, ofer un p de clasicare a mijloacelor
de decontaminare n funcie de desnaie (pul de decontaminare pe
care o asigur):
- mijloace de decontaminare individual;
- mijloace de decontaminare operaional;
- mijloace de decontaminare total.
Mijloacele de decontaminare individual sunt desnate protejrii
militarilor mpotriva agenilor CBRN, prin reducerea contaminrii
suprafeelor neprotejate ale corpului, a echipamentului, armamentului
individual i a materialelor de strict necesitate aate n dotarea
personalului combatant (decontaminare imediat).
Mijloacele de decontaminare operaional sunt desnate pentru
executarea decontaminrii iniiale (repetate) i operaionale (CBRN)
a tehnicii mobile i tractate i a armamentului individual cu forele
echipajului.
Decontaminarea operaional este executat de individ sau echipaj
i este restricionat la pri specice ale echipamentului (piese de
schimb de baz), materialelor i/sau suprafeelor de lucru operaionale
eseniale.
Scopul decontaminrii operaionale este susinerea operaiilor
militare prin reducerea pericolului de contact i limitarea rspndirii
contaminrii.
Mijloacele de decontaminare total sunt desnate pentru
executarea complex a decontaminrii CBRN a armamentului,
tehnicii militare, construciilor, cilor de comunicaie, terenului,
echipamentului, mijloacelor de protecie anchimic i pentru
decontaminarea personalului.
Aceste mijloace se clasic n:
- mijloace pentru decontaminarea suprafeelor armamentului
i tehnicii militare, construciilor, cilor de comunicaie i terenului;
- mijloace pentru decontaminarea echipamentului;
- mijloace pentru decontaminarea personalului.
nscriindu-ne n direcia de readaptare a mijloacelor de deconta-
minare la cerinele contemporane, a fost necesar conceptualizarea
unui nou p de dispoziv ulizabil la decontaminarea operaional
a tehnicii i materialelor. Ulitatea unui asel de echipament este
incontestabil, putnd nzestra echipele care au atribuii n intervenii
de urgen CBRN sau ecologice, dar i a celor care au menirea de
supraveghere a instalaiilor sau a depozitelor chimice, de a transporta
i transvaza compui chimici cu toxicitate ridicat.
Desnaie 3.
Produsul este un echipament desnat decontaminrii chimice,
biologice i radioacve operaionale a armamentului de arlerie de
calibru mare - peste 85 mm, a tehnicii militare i a mijloacelor de
transport din dotarea unitilor militare.
Completul CD-3P va nlocui actualele complete de decontaminare
CD-3M, aate n nzestrare.
Also, such a modern device are suitable for equipping the specialty
units of CBRN defence, logiscal units or other structures which require
quick operaonal decontaminaon. Also, due to the fact that it does
not require special training to operators, the system will be used by the
civilian defence units within the Ministry of Administraon and Interior.
This equipment, a classical one in the other armies endowment,
will allow the use of standardized procedures, that require both the
preparaon of the decontaminaon soluons immediately before
using, such as aqueous composion based on trichloride izocyanuric
acid (TCCA), or the using of an already prepared composion (organic
decontaminaon soluon - SOD), which are applied to the areas
requiring decontaminaon.
Generalies 2.
The threats that are generated by the possible uses of CBRN agents
by the terrorist groups, in the case of a military conict or a technological
accident, require the necessity for appropriate measures for the
devices that are enable for detecon, a rapid decontaminaon and
protecon of military forces involved, the populaon and environment.
The literature study, combined with current military standards
specicaons, provides classicaon of the decontaminaon devices
depending on the desnaon (the type of assured decontaminaon):
individual decontaminaon devices; -
operaonal decontaminaon devices; -
total decontaminaon devices. -
The individual decontaminaon devices are intended to the
soldiers protecon against the CBRN agents, by reducing of the body
unprotected surface contaminaon, of the equipment, individual
armament and the materials that are of a strictly necessity being in the
endowment of the combatant personnel (immediate decontaminaon).
The operaonal decontaminaon devices are intended for the inial
decontaminaon performance (repeated) and operaonal (CBRN) of
the mobile techniques and individual armament drawn and crew forces.
The operaonal decontaminaon is performed by the individual or
crew and is restricted to specic parts of the equipment (basic parts),
materials and/or essenal operaonal work areas. The operaonal
decontaminaon purpose is to support military operaons by reducing
the danger of contact and the limitaon the spread of contaminaon.
The total decontaminaon devices are designed to execute complex
decontaminaon of CBRN contaminaon of the armament, military
equipment, construcons, communicaon lines, land, equipment,
an-chemical protecon devices and the personnel decontaminaon.
These devices are classied as follows:
- devices for the armament decontaminaon and military
equipment surfaces, construcon, communicaons and land;
- devices for the equipment decontaminaon;
- devices for personnel decontaminaon.
By joining our resources towards the rehabilitaon of the
decontaminaon devices to the modern requirements, it was required
a new type of device used to decontaminate equipment and operaonal
materials. The usefulness of such equipment is indisputable and can
provide teams with responsibilies in CBRN emergency response or
environmental, but also those that are meant to monitor the plant or
chemical storage, transport and transfer of highly toxic chemicals.
Desnaon 3.
The product is a device designed for operaonal chemical, biological
and radioacve decontaminaon of the large-calibre arllery weapons
more than 85 mm, of the military equipment and transport devices
within the endowment of the military units. The CD-3P complete will
displace the current CD-3M decontaminaon complete, being in the
army endowment.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
34 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
CD - 3P se prezint sub forma unui recipient din inox prevzut cu un
sistem de pulverizare a compoziiilor de decontaminare, ce ulizeaz
ca agent de presurizare aerul comprimat de la butelia ataat sau de la
compresorul din compunerea vehiculului militar.
Modul de ulizare a completului este foarte simplu, necesitnd o
instruire de scurt durat, fr a presupune cunone de specialitate.
Necesit mp scurt pentru pregre i operare, precum i ntreinere
minim. Fiind confecionat din inox, poate uliza att compoziiile de
decontaminare aate n dotarea armatei romne, ct i alte compoziii
similare aate n nzestrarea armatelor rilor membre NATO.
The CD - 3P complete is of a stainless steel case with a
decontaminaon composions spraying, that uses as pressurized agent
the compressed air from an aached cylinder or from a compressor
from a military vehicle.
The uses mode of the complete is a very simple one, requiring a
short training, without requiring specialist knowledge. It requires a
short me for preparaon and operaon, and a low maintenance also.
Being made of stainless steel, it can use the exisng decontaminaon
composions from the Romanian Army endowment or from the other
armies NATO members.
Fig. 1 - Completul de decontaminare nr. 3 modernizat CD - 3M/The modern CD - 3M decontaminaon complete
Fig. 2, Fig. 3 - Complet de decontaminare portabil CD - 3P/The CD - 3M decontaminaon complete
Componen 4.
Noul complet - CD-3P - va asigura decontaminarea chimic,
biologic i radioacv operaional a armamentului de arlerie de
calibru mare - peste 85 mm, a tehnicii militare i a mijloacelor de
transport din dotarea unitilor militare.
Prin realizarea noului complet se va acoperi domeniul
decontaminrii operaionale, care nu beneciaz n acest moment de
mijloace moderne de decontaminare, care s funcioneze exclusiv pe
principiul decontaminrii prin pulverizare sub presiune.
Produsul are n alctuire urmtoarele componente:
- Pulverizator din oel inoxidabil de joas presiune - 1 buc.;
- Pistol pulverizator cu j - 1 buc.;
- Butelie de aer comprimat - 1 buc.;
- Robinet admisie aer comprimat - 1 buc.;
- Adaptor duz 1 buc.;
- Duz 1 buc.;
- Supap de siguran p SSA 3/8 1 buc;
- Muf conectare 1 buc.;
- Ham de prindere pentru transport n spate 1 buc.;
- Corp de alimentare cu plnie 1 buc.;
- Garnituri 1 buc.;
- Furtun de presiune 2 buc.;
- Indicator de presiune 1 buc.
Composion 4.
Made during the project Portable decontaminaon complete
of CD - 3P modernizaon, the new CD-3P complete ensures the
operaonal chemical, biological and radioacve decontaminaon
of the large-calibre arllery weapons - more than 85 mm, military
equipment and transport devices within the military units.
The new implementaon complete will insure the operaonal
decontaminaon, which currently do not have modern means of
decontaminaon, exclusively based under pressure pulverizaon.
The product is composed of the following components:
- Lower pressure stainless steel atomizer - 1 piece;
- Compressed-air pistol with draw bar - 1 piece;
- Compressed air cylinder - 1 piece;
- Admission compressed air faucet - 1 piece;
- Adjustable bean 1 piece; Bean 1 piece;
- SSA 3/8 bleeder 1 piece;
- Coupling sleeve 1 piece;
- Harness for backing transport 1 piece;
- Alimentaon assembly with cone 1 piece;
- Fixings 1 piece;
- Pressure hose 2 pieces;
- Pressure nger 1 piece.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 35
Completul CD-3P se nscrie n obiecvele propunerilor de fore
pentru domeniul Aprare CBRN, intrnd n dotarea companiei de
decontaminare din organica pachetului NATO de fore dislocabile.
Caracterisci 5.
Fiind un produs complex, CD-3P realizeaz caracteriscile de
performan prezentate n tabelele I i II.
Tabel/Table I Caracteriscile de performan/Performance characteriscs
Nr.
crt.
Caracterisca de performan/Performance characteris-
cs
Condiia de admisibilitate/Admissibility condion
1
Tipuri de ageni decontaminai/Types of decontaminated
agents
Ageni chimici de rzboi neurotoxici i vezicani/
Chemical warfare agents:
Ageni biologici/Biological agents
Ageni radioacvi/Radioacve agents
2
Timpul necesar pentru pregrea sistemului/Time required
for the system preparaon
Maximum 5 minute/Maximum 5 minutes
3
Eciena decontaminrii (gradul de decontaminare)/
Decontaminaon e ciency (degree of decontaminaon):
- Ageni neurotoxici/- Neurotoxic agents
- Ageni vezicani/- Vesicant agents
- Ageni biologici/- Biological agents
- Ageni radioacvi/- Radioacve agents
Minimum 99,9 %
Minimum 99,0 %
Minimum 90 %
Minimum 30 %
4
Suprafaa decontaminat fr rencrcare/The decontami-
nated area without reloading
Minimum 5 m
2
5
Durata decontaminrii cu o ncrctur/The decontamina-
on me with a load duraon
Maximum 15 minute
6
Rezistena la aciunea compoziiilor de decontaminare/
Resistance to the decontaminaon composions acon
Corpul recipientului pulverizator, garniturile i toate prile exibile ale CD-
3P trebuie s e rezistente la aciunea compoziiilor de decontaminare/ Body
spray container, exible gaskets and all exible sides of the CD-3P complete to
be resistant to decontaminaon composions acon
7 Portabilitatea/Portability
Portabil, transportabil n spate, iar dimensiunile de gabarit i greutatea com-
pletului ncrcat trebuie s permit transportul i operarea de ctre un singur
militar/Portable, transportable in the back, and the overall size and weight fully
loaded should allow the transport and the operaon by a single military
Tabel / Table II Caracteriscile tehnice/Technical characteriscs
Nr.
crt.
Caracterisca zico-chimic/Physical-chemical characteriscs
Condiia de admisibilitate/
Admissibility condion
1
Capacitatea ul a recipientului pulverizator/The working capacity of the spray
container
10 l
2
Dimensiunile de gabarit:/Overall dimensions:
- recipientul pulverizator ( x H)/spray bole ( x H);
- butelie de aer/air cylinder;
- completul cu piese de schimb/complete with spare parts
(L x l x H).
190 x 530 mm
50 x 280 mm
385 x 265 x 150 mm
3 Masa recipientului pulverizator nencrcat/Unloaded mass aerosol container Maximum 10 kg
4 Masa total a completului/The total mass of the panel Maximum 22 kg
5 Agentul de presurizare/The pressurized agent Aer comprimat/Compressed air
6 Presiunea de lucru/The working pressure 14 bar
7
Presiunea de ncercare (hidraulic) a recipientului pulverizator/Test pressure
(hydraulic) of the aerosol container
25 bar
8 Presiunea de lucru a buteliei de aer/The working pressure of the air cylinder 130 bar

The CD-3P complete corresponds to the objecves of forces
proposals in the eld of the CBRN Defence EL-4461 - NBC specialists
Combat Support, entering in the uses of the decontaminaon unit
from NATOs deployable forces organic package.
Features 5.
Being a complex product, the CD-3P complete made the
performance characteriscs presented in Tables I and II.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
36 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Concluzii 6.
n dotarea armatei noastre exist n diferite faze de asimilare
mijloace de decontaminare din categoria mijloacelor de decontaminare
prin pulverizare sub presiune (CDAT, sistem de intervenie n caz de
dezastre chimice, DIPOD) similare ca performan celor existente
n diferite variante n dotarea forelor armate occidentale. Ele pot
ataate pe un suport n autovehicule militare sau civile, pentru ulizarea
la intervenii de urgen n caz de accident/incident chimic.
Noul produs propus va nlocui actualele CD-3M, avnd capacitatea
ul sucient pentru a asigura aceeai suprafa decontaminat cu
cea realizat de CD-3M, n plus materialul de execuie al recipientului
pulverizator este din inox, iar produsul se poart n spatele militarului,
asigurndu-i acestuia o uurin mai mare la ndeplinirea misiunii de
decontaminare.
Completul CD-3P ulizeaz diverse puri de compoziii de
decontaminare:
pentru decontaminarea chimic a ACR cea mai indicat
compoziie este SOD, care prezint urmtoarele avantaje:
asigur o suprafa decontaminant de 40 m -
2
, ecien
decontaminant superioar pentru suprafeele vopsite;
este gata preparat; -
poate pstrat direct n mijloc pentru 1-2 zile. -
ulizarea soluiei apoase de decontaminare pe baz de TCCA,
chiar dac asigur o suprafa decontaminat mai redus de 6,7 m
2
cu
o ncrctur, are avantajul c asigur i decontaminarea biologic.
completul se poate uliza i cu soluie de DR-18 pentru
decontaminarea radioacv parial.
Conclusions 6.
In the endowment of our army exists in various stages of
assimilaon, decontaminaon devices from the decontaminaon
category of the spray pressure (CDTA, intervenon system in case of
chemical disasters, DIPOD) with similar performances to those exisng
in dierent versions in western armed forces. Its can be aached to a
military vehicle or civilian support, for the emergency uses in case of
chemical accident/incident.
The newest proposed product will replace the current CD-3M
complete, with su cient capacity to provide useful decontaminated
surface with the same realized with the CD-3M complete, the atomizer
material is of stainless steel and the product is worn on the back of the
military, ensuring him to have an easier decontaminaon.
The CD-3P complete uses various types of decontaminaon
composions, for the decontaminaon of CWA the most appropriate
chemical composion is SOD, that presents the following advantages:
it provides a decontaminated area of 40 m
2
, a higher decontaminaon
e ciency for the painted surfaces, is a ready prepared composion
and can be stored for 1-2 days.
The using of the aqueous decontaminaon soluon based on TCCA,
even it provides a lile bit smaller area of 6,7 m
2
decontaminaon surface
with a load, it has the advantage of a biological decontaminaon.
The complete can also use the DR-18 soluon for the paral
radioacve decontaminaon.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 37
Introducere 1.
Implementarea hardware a modulelor componente ale
echipamentelor de criptare devine o cerin esenial n contextul
necesitii procesrii n mp real a informaiilor. n acest sens,
compeia Advanced Encrypon Standard, desfurat la sfritul
anilor 90 pentru desemnarea succesorului algoritmului bloc DES (Data
Encrypon Standard), a promovat ideea dezvoltrii algoritmilor de
criptare pretabili pentru implementri hardware. Unul dintre algoritmii
a cror implementare hardware ofer performane notabile este
algoritmul de criptare bloc dezvoltat de companiile Mitsubishi i NTT,
denumit Camellia. Acesta ofer un nivel de securitate comparabil cu cel
oferit de nalii compeiei Advanced Encrypon Standard [1].
n seciunea urmtoare se va prezenta o descriere tehnic a
algoritmului, parcularizat pentru chei de lungime 256 bii, scenariu
folosit i n implementrile descrise n seciunea a treia a arcolului.
Descrierea algoritmului Camellia 2.
Algoritmul cripteaz sau decripteaz blocuri de 128 bii, uliznd
chei de lungime 128, 192 sau 256 bii. Ambele operaii sunt precedate
de o etap preliminar n care sunt generate patru sub-chei din care
se vor deriva cheile de rund. Numrul de runde necesar pentru
nalizarea operaiilor de criptare/decriptare depinde de lungimea
cheii ulizate. Pentru o cheie de 128 bii sunt necesare 18 runde, iar
pentru chei cu lungimea de 192 sau 256 bii sunt necesare 24 de runde.
Un avantaj al implementrii hardware a algoritmului Camellia este
faptul c decriptarea se realizeaz n acelai numr de cicluri, ci sunt
necesari pentru criptare, spre deosebire de algoritmul Serpent sau AES
unde este necesar un numr dublu de cicluri pentru decriptare.

Planicarea cheilor de rund
Generarea celor patru sub-chei preliminare, notate KA, KB, KL, KR
se face conform gurii 1 [1]. Cheia de criptare este divizat n dou sub-
chei de 128 bii stnga (KL) respecv dreapta (KR), care vor reprezenta
intrrile unui circuit XOR. Rezultatul operaiei XOR va , de asemenea,
divizat n dou sub-chei reprezentnd 64 bii stnga, respecv 64 de bii
dreapta. Cele dou noi sub-chei sunt supuse unor operaii efectuate n
ase cicluri, n urma crora se vor determina i celelalte dou sub-chei
preliminare (KA, KB). Operaiile efectuate n cele ase runde constau
n concatenri, XOR logic i aplicarea unor blocuri F, toate acestea
realiznd o reea Feistel.
Blocul F este o transformare liniar care produce o secven de
64 bii pornind de la o secven inserat la intrarea acesteia, pe baza
unui ir de operaii XOR.
Simbolurile sigma din gura 1 reprezint ase valori constante
reprezentate pe 64 bii [1].
Ecuaiile (1) - (8) descriu n detaliu combinaiile liniare dintre ieirile
Sbox-urilor S1-S7, prezentate n gura 2.
Introducon 1.
Hardware implementaon of the modules of encrypon
equipment is an essenal requirement in the context of real me
processing scenario. In this respect, the Advanced Encrypon Standard
compeon, held in late 90s to appoint the successor for the DES (Data
Encrypon Standard) block algorithm, has promoted the development
of cryptographic algorithms suitable for hardware implementaon.
One of the algorithms whose hardware implementaon oers a
prey good performance is the block encrypon algorithm developed
by Mitsubishi and NTT companies, called Camellia. It provides a security
level comparable to that oered by the nalists of the Advanced
Encrypon Standard compeon [1].
The next secon will present a technical descripon of Camellia
algorithm, customized for a 256 bits key length and the secon three
of this arcle will present the hardware implementaons.
Camellia algorithm descripon 2.
The algorithm encrypts or decrypts 128-bit length blocks using a
128, 192 or a 256 bits key length. Both operaons are preceded by a
preliminary step in which four sub-keys are generated and also used
to derive the round keys. The number of rounds needed to complete
the encrypon/decrypon operaons depends on the key length.
18 rounds are required for a 128-bit key length and 24 rounds for a 192
or a 256 bits key length. Unlike AES or Serpent algorithm, where the
number of cycles needed for decrypon is twice as much as that used
for encrypon, in Camellia hardware implementaon, encrypon and
decrypon take the same number of cycles to complete.
Key schedule
The generaon of preliminary sub-keys, denoted KA, KB, KL and KR
is shown in Figure 1 [1]. The encrypon key is divided into two sub-keys
of 128 bits - le (KL) and right (KR), which will represent the inputs of
a XOR circuit. The result of the XOR will also be divided into two sub-
keys represenng 64-bit le key and 64-bit right key. The two new sub-
keys will be subjected to a six cycle operaon, which will determine the
other two preliminary sub-keys (KA, KB).
The operaons carried out in those six cycles consist of
concatenaon, XOR logic and the applicaon of F blocks, all resulng
in a Feistel network.
The F block is a linear transformaon that produces a sequence
of 64 bits using a sequence as input and a series of XOR operaons.
The sigma symbols presented in Figure 1 represent six 64-bit constants [1].
The equaons (1) - (8) describe in detail the linear combinaons for
the S1-S7 Sbox outputs, shown in Figure 2.
HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
OF THE CAMELLIA
ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
IMPLEMENTAREA HARDWARE
A ALGORITMULUI
DE CRIPTARE CAMELLIA
Lieutenant engineer Gabriel TRA, scienc researcher,
Lieutenant engineer Daniel HRICU, scienc researcher,
Military Equipment and Technologies Research Agency -
Informaon Systems and Communicaon Test and Evaluaon
Scienc Research Center
Locotenent inginer Gabriel TRA, cercettor inic,
Locotenent inginer Daniel HRICU, cercettor inic,
Agenia de Cercetare pentru Tehnic i Tehnologii Militare -
Centrul de Testare - Evaluare i Cercetare inic pentru
Sisteme Informace i Comunicaii
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
38 CERCETARE TIINIFIC

8 7 6 4 3 1 1 s s s s s s y =
(1)

8 7 5 4 2 1 2 s s s s s s y =
(2)

8 6 5 3 2 1 3 s s s s s s y =
(3)

7 6 5 4 3 2 4 s s s s s s y =
(4)

8 7 6 2 1 5 s s s s s y =
(5)

8 7 5 3 2 6 s s s s s y =
(6)

8 6 5 4 3 7 s s s s s y =
(7)

7 6 5 4 1 8 s s s s s y =
(8)
Fig. 1 Planicarea sub-cheilor preliminare/Planning the preliminary sub-keys
Fig. 2 Funcia F/The F funcon
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 39
Cheile de rund vor avea 128 bii i vor generate prin efectuarea
unor operaii de rore circular la stnga celor patru sub-chei KA, KB,
KL, KR. Ordinea folosirii sub-cheilor preliminare, precum i numrul de
bii roi sunt descrise n specicaia tehnic a algoritmului [1].

Criptarea i decriptarea
Criptarea blocurilor de 128 bii cu o cheie de 256 bii se realizeaz
n 24 de runde, cu ajutorul reelei Feistel prezentat n gura 3.a. Dup
rundele 6, 12 i 18 algoritmul ulizeaz dou funcii notate FL i FL
-1
.
Cheile necesare acestor funcii sunt determinate, de asemenea, din
sub-cheile preliminare introduse n seciunea anterioar.
Rezultatul funciei FL se obine prin concatenarea registrelor pe
32 de bii Y
R
(32) i Y
L
(32) denii n ecuaiile (9) i (10), unde simbolul
<<<1 reprezint rorea circular spre stnga cu 1 bit, iar X(64) i
kl(64) reprezint datele de intrare.
Fig. 3. Criptarea (a) i decriptarea (b) blocurilor de 128 bii/Encrypon (a) and decrypon (b) of 128 bits blocks
The 128 bits round keys will be generated by carrying out the le
shi rotaon operaon using the four sub-keys KA, KB, KL, KR. The
order of sub-keys ulizaon and the number of bits to be shied for
each sub-key generaon are described in the technical specicaon of
the algorithm [1].
Encrypon and decrypon
The encrypon of 128-bit blocks with a 256-bit key is carried out in
24 rounds with the Feistel network shown in Figure 3.a. Aer the 6th,
12th and 18th round, the algorithm uses two funcons FL and FL
-1
. The
keys used by these funcons are also determined from the preliminary
sub-keys described in the previous secon.
The concatenaon of 32 bits registers Y
R
(32) and Y
L
(32), dened in
equaons (9) and (10) is the result of FL funcon, where the symbol
<<<1 describes the le shi rotaon by one bit, while X(64) and
kl(64) are the input data.
Similar, rezultatul funciei FL
-1
se obine concatennd registrele
descrise n ecuaiile (11) i (12).
Similarly, the result of FL
-1
funcon is obtained by concatenaon
using the registers described in equaons (11) and (12).
Y
R
(32) = ((X
L
(32) AND kl
L
(32)) <<< 1) XOR X
R
(32) (9)
Y
L
(32) = ((Y
R
(32) OR kl
R
(32)) ) XOR X
L
(32) (10)
Patru dintre cheile generate din sub-cheile preliminare (kw1, kw2,
kw3, kw4) sunt ulizate pentru operaiile de albire iniial i nal.
Aceste operaii constau n efectuarea unui XOR logic ntre textul clar i
primele dou chei de rund, respecv ntre rezultatul rundei a 24-a i
celelalte dou chei de rund.
Principalul avantaj al algoritmului Camellia, din punct de vedere al
complexitii implementrii, const n faptul c decriptarea parcurge
exact aceleai etape ca n cazul criptrii, singura deosebire constnd n
inversarea ordinii cheilor de rund.
Plaorma de testare a algoritmului 3.
Implementarea algoritmului s-a realizat n limbajul de descriere
hardware Verilog. n prima etap s-au realizat simulri n Modelsim,
Four of the keys generated from the preliminary sub-keys (kw1,
kw2, kw3, kw4) are used for the inial and nal whitening operaon.
This operaon consists of logical XOR between clear text and the rst
two round keys, respecvely between the result of the 24-th round and
the other two round keys.
The main advantage of the Camellia algorithm, in terms of the
implementaon complexity, is that decrypon performs exactly the
same steps as encrypon; the only dierence is the reverse order of
round keys.
The tesng plaorm 3.
The implementaon was done in Verilog, a common hardware
descripon language. In the rst stage, several simulaons in Modelsim
Y
L
(32) = ((X
R
(32) OR kl
R
(32)) ) XOR X
L
(32) (11)
Y
R
(32) = ((Y
L
(32) AND kl
L
(32)) <<< 1) XOR X
R
(32) (12)
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
40 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Fig. 6 Criptarea blocurilor de 128 bii simulare/128-bit block encrypon - Simulaon
Fig. 4 Conectarea modulelor de criptare/decriptare la procesorul PPC440/ Encrypon / decrypon modules connecon to the PPC440 processor
Fig. 5 Generarea datelor de intrare / Input data generaon
urmnd ca pentru una dintre variantele de implementare s se
congureze un dispoziv FPGA (Virtex 5) plantat pe placa de dezvoltare
ML507. Schema ulizat pentru scenariul care implic dispozivul
Virtex 5 este prezentat n gura 4.
were made, following that, one implementaon was chosen to be used
with a Virtex 5 FPGA on a ML507 development board. The diagram
used is shown in Figure 4.
Procesorul PPC440 poate furniza datele de intrare necesare
celor dou module (criptare respecv decriptare), prin intermediul
magistralei PLB. Din cauza limitrii magistralei PLB la 32 bii, am fost
nevoii s ulizm o structur FSM (Finite State Machine) pentru a
putea furniza la intrarea modulelor de criptare/decriptare blocuri de
text clar de 128 bii, respecv chei de 256 bii.
The PPC440 processor can provide the necessary input data for the
two modules (ie encrypon, decrypon) through the PLB bus. Due to
the PLB bus width limitaon to 32 bits, we had to use a FSM (Finite
State Machine) to provide the encrypon/decrypon modules with
128-bit data blocks and 256-bit keys.
Spre deosebire de algoritmul de criptare Serpent sau AES,
implementarea hardware a algoritmului Camellia nu necesit dublarea
numrului de cicluri pentru operaia de decriptare. Acesta din urm
realizeaz expandarea cheilor n mod asemntor pentru operaiile de
criptare i decriptare, eliminnd necesitatea stocrii cheilor de rund i
ulizarea lor n ordine invers.
Rezultate 4.
Prima variant de implementare presupune ulizarea unui numr
minim de blocuri (un bloc F, un bloc FL, un bloc FL
-1
) i modicarea
datelor de intrare la ecare impuls de tact.
n gurile 6 i 7 sunt prezentate rezultatele criptrii i decriptrii
pentru textul clar M i cheia K.
Unlike Serpent and AES encrypon algorithm, hardware
implementaon of the Camellia algorithm does not require a doubled
number of cycles for decrypon.
Camellia performs the key expansion operaon similarly for
encrypon and decrypon process and does not need to store the
round keys and use them in reverse order.
4. Results
The rst implementaon scenario involves the use of a minimum
number of blocks (one F block, one FL block and one FL
-1
block) and the
change of the input data with every clock.
The results for the encrypon and decrypon process using the
plaintext M and the key K are shown in Figure 6 and 7.
M = 41133a29b97e3b4231549e8c2d0af27e
K = d3fc99e32d09420f 00a041f7e32914747731be4d4e5b5da518c2abe0a123 9fa8
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 41
Fig. 7 Decriptarea blocurilor de 128 bii simulare/128-bit block decrypon - Simulaon
n tabelul 1 sunt prezentate performanele primei variante de
implementare din punct de vedere al resurselor ulizate. Procentele
s-au calculat n raport cu numrul maxim de componente LUT i DFF
ale dispozivului Virtex 5 (44800 LUT-uri, 44800 DFF-uri).
The performance results, in terms of hardware resources used,
are presented in Table 1. The percentages were calculated relave to
the maximum number of LUT and DFF components for Virtex5 device
(44800 LUTs, 44800 DFFs).
Tabel/Table 1.
Operaia/Operaon Numr LUT-uri/Number of LUTs Numr bistabile (DFF)/Number of DFFs
Criptare/Encrypon 2611 (5%) 1487 (3%)
Decriptare/Decrypon 2630 (5%) 1360 (3%)
Notnd cu T
clk
(F
clk
=1/ T
clk
) perioada unui impuls de tact, putem
determina viteza de procesare (Throughput) a algoritmului implementat,
conform formulei 1.
We can determine the throughput for this implementaon using
formula 1, where T
clk
(F
clk
=1/ T
clk
) is the clock period.
] [
*
128
bps
T N
Throughput
clk cicli
=
(1)
unde N
cicli
reprezint numrul de impulsuri de tact necesari operaiei
de criptare sau decriptare, iar 128 reprezint numrul de bii generai n
N
cicli
. Asel, considernd T
clk
=10ns (valoarea ceasului ulizatorului de pe
placa ML507), pentru operaia de criptare se poate determina o vitez
de procesare de 400 Mbps. n cazul algoritmului Camellia expandarea
cheilor de rund necesit acelai numr de cicluri pentru operaiile de
criptare i decriptare. Asel, decriptarea unui bloc de 128 bii se poate
realiza, de asemenea, cu o vitez de procesare de 400 Mbps.
Aceste valori pot mrite prin creterea frecvenei de tact, lucru
posibil n cazul plcii ML507 prin ulizarea unui modul DCM (Digital
Clock Manager).
A doua variant de implementare presupune ulizarea a 24 blocuri F,
6 blocuri FL i 6 blocuri FL
-1
conectate conform gurii 3, prin re
disncte. n acest fel, se va mri viteza de procesare, dup cum se
observ n gurile 8 i 9, dar totodat volumul de resurse hardware
ulizate va crete foarte mult (Tabelul 2).
where N
cycles
represents the number of clocks needed for encrypon
or decrypon and 128 is the number of bits generated in N
cycles
.
Thus, considering T
clk
=10ns (user clock on the ML507 board), the
encrypon operaon has a throughput of 400 Mbps.
The round key expansion takes the same number of cycles for
encrypon and decrypon, which leads to a throughput of 400 Mbps
for decrypon too.
These values can be improved by increasing the clock frequency,
using a Digital Clock Manager.
The second implementaon scenario involves the use of 24
F blocks, 6 FL blocks and 6 FL
-1
blocks connected by separate wires,
as shown in Figure 3. This will cause a higher throughput, as shown
in Figures 8 and 9, but also the amount of hardware resources will
increase dramacally (Table 2).
Operaia/Operaon Numr LUT-uri/Number of LUTs Numr bistabile (DFF)/Number of DFFs
Criptare/Encrypon 12449(27%) -
Decriptare/Decrypon 12442 (27%) -
Tabel/Table 2
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
42 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
n cazul acestei variante, viteza de procesare att pentru criptare ct
i pentru decriptare a crescut la aproximav 1Gbps (numrul de cicluri
necesare a sczut de la 32 la 13). n contextul diversitii de funcii pe
care le realizeaz un dispoziv FPGA ntr-un sistem de criptare, aceast
cretere rmne totui nesemnicav n raport cu volumul de resurse
necesare pentru implementare.
Concluzii 5.
Arcolul descrie pe scurt algoritmul de criptare Camellia dezvoltat
de parteneriatul japonez Mitsubishi NTT. De asemenea, sunt
prezentate rezultatele a dou variante de implementare hardware a
algoritmului de criptare Camellia. Pentru prima variant s-a ulizat
un volum foarte mic de resurse hardware (Tabelul 1), obinndu-se
o vitez de procesare de 400 Mbps. Cea de-a doua metod propune
dublarea vitezei de procesare, dar cu costul unui volum foarte mare de
resurse hardware (Tabelul 2).
Performanele obinute cu prima variant de implementare
recomand integrarea algoritmului n arhitecturi complexe care au
capacitatea de a lucra la viteze mari de procesare.
In this scenario, the throughput increased to almost 1 Gbps for
both encrypon and decrypon (number of cycles decreasing from 32
to 13). In the context of a diversity of funcon performed by the FPGA
device, this throughput improvement is insignicant compared to the
amount of hardware resources required for implementaon.
5. Conclusions
This arcle briey describes the Camellia encrypon algorithm
developed by Mitsubishi NTT Japanese partnership. Also, it presents
the results of two versions of Camellia hardware implementaon.
For the rst version we used a small amount of hardware resources
(Table 1) and achieved a throughput of 400 Mbps. In the second
version throughput was doubled, but at the price of a large amount of
hardware resources ulizaon (Table 2).
The performances obtained with the rst implementaon
version recommend the integraon of Camellia algorithm in complex
architectures able to work at high throughput.
Fig. 9 Decriptarea blocurilor de 128 bii/128-bit block decrypon
Fig. 8 Criptarea blocurilor de 128 bii/ 128-bit block encrypon
Bibliograe/References
[1] K. AOKI, T. ICHIKAWA, M. KANDA, M. MATSUI, S. MORIAI, J. NAKAJIMA, T. TOKITA, Specicaon of Camellia a 128-bit Block Cipher,
Nippon Tellegraph and Telephone Corporaon, 26 September, 2001;
[2]***RFC 4312, The Camellia Cipher Algorithm and Its Use With IPsec, December 2005;
[3] D. DENNING, J. IRVINE, M. DEVLIN, - A High Throughput FPGA Camellia Implementaon;
[4] K. AOKI, T. ICHIKAWA, M. KANDA, M. MATSUI, S. MORIAI, J. NAKAJIMA, T. TOKITA, - Camellia: A 128-Bit Block Cipher Suitable for
Mulple Plaorms Design and Analysis.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 43
Rezumat
Teoria tubului de oc se bazeaz pe generarea undelor de oc
printr-o modalitate simpl, dar diferit de cele convenionale, precum
detonaia unei ncrcturi explozive sau impactul dintre un proiecl i
o int. Istoria sa se construiete pe contextul anilor 1980 i se connu
cu un spectru remarcabil de ulizri n in i tehnologie. Scopul
acestui studiu este cercetarea generrii undelor de oc slabe i valorile
proprietilor acestora, prin intermediul echipamentelor de pul
tuburilor de oc.
Introducere 1.
Conictele militare moderne reprezint temerea major a societii
prin prisma dezastrelor pe care le las n urm. Rzboiul modern este
din ce n ce mai bine reprezentat de parciparea rilor membre ale
Tratatului Nord Atlanc n teatrele de operaii i de numrul foarte
mare la nivel mondial al atacurilor teroriste. Armele moderne au
efecte distrucve prin ulizarea materialelor explozive cu putere mare
de distrugere din cauza reaciilor chimice, de pul detonaiei, pe care
le sufer. Anciparea amplorii efectelor provocate de explozii este
imposibil fr cunoaterea modului de formare i propagare al undelor
de oc n aer i prin diferite materiale, mai ales c efectele distrucve i
de rnire se manifest chiar i la valori mici ale suprapresiunii.
n 2007, aproximav 1.4 milioane de soldai, dup desfurarea
serviciilor militare n Irak i Afganistan, au prezentat o form grav
de afeciune cerebral, numit TBI, care se ridic la costuri pentru
tratamente de 27 miliarde de dolari. [1] Acest fenomen se explic
prin faptul c un militar cu un echipament complet de protecie poate
supravieui rnirilor zice provocate de impactul diferitelor proiecle,
dar n momentul n care suprapresiunea n frontul undei de oc
depete valoarea prag de 0.1 mbar apar leziuni la nivel cerebral. [1]
Trebuie remarcat faptul c pragul de producere a TBI prin expunerea la
aciunea undelor de oc este mult sub pragul producerii unor rni zice
serioase la nivelul organelor interne, cauzatoare de moarte, care este
de peste 1.5 bar.
De asemenea, n cazul expunerii la aciunea undelor de oc un
soldat care poart o casc de portecie este dobort i lovit cu capul
de pmnt sau de alte obstacole. Casca va proteja craniul de fracturi,
dar deceleraiile rapide de la viteza maxim la zero n urma impactului
exercit o for puternic de decelerare. Cuplajul vscos dintre craniu i
creier nu poate ocro creierul atunci cnd capul este supus impactului;
acesta se zdrobete de craniu i se deformeaz. Rezultatul acestor
deformaii ale creierului i tensiunilor care apar n esuturi reprezint
manifestrile traumei cerebrale, TBI. Pentru c nu exist o for
prag mult mai mic pentru a rni creierul dect exist pentru craniu,
fractura de craniu nu trebuie s nsoeasc leziunile zice ale creierului,
din acest mov traumasmul cerebral rezultat este numit nchis. [1]
Abstract
The shock tube theory is based on shock waves generaon using
a simple technique dierent from the detonaon of explosives or the
impact between a projecle and a target. Its history is built in 1980 on
a social context and connues with a remarkable spectrum of uses in
science and technology. The purpose of this study is to invesgate the
generaon of weak shock waves which travel down a shock tube and
the values of theirs properes using the shock tube facilies.
Introducon 1.
Modern military conicts are a major concern of society in terms
of disasters le behind. Nowadays, the warfare is increasingly well
represented by the parcipaon of NATO States in theaters and the
worldwide large number of terrorist aacks. Modern weapons have
destrucve eects by using high explosive materials which suer
chemical reacons, such as detonaon.
Ancipang the scale of an explosion eects is impossible without
knowing the formaon and propagaon of shock waves in the air and
trough dierent materials, especially when the physical injuries are
manifested even at low levels of overpressure.
In 2007, approximately 1.4 million soldiers, aer the military
service in Iraq and Afghanistan, had a serious brain injury called TBI,
which raises the costs for treatments over 27 billion dollars. [1]
This can be explained by the fact that a soldier who wears protecon
equipment can survive to physical injury caused by the impact of
various projecles, but when the overpressure in front of the shock
wave exceeds the value of 0.1 mbar brain injuries occur. [1]
It should be noted that the limit value of shock wave overpressure
that produce TBI is well below the one that produce physical injury of
internal organs, causing death, which is over 1.5 bar.
Also, consider a helmeted head with a large velocity that impacts
an immobile surface, as might occur if a solider is knocked over and hits
his/her head on the ground.
The helmet will protect the skull from fracture but the rapid
deceleraon from the maximum speed to zero upon impact exerts a
strong force of deceleraon.
The viscous coupling between head and brain cannot stop the
brain when the head impacts; the brain crashes into the interior skull
wall and deforms.
Dierent manifestaons of TBI result from this brain deformaon
and the associated ssue stress. Because there is a much lower
threshold force to injure the brain compared to the skull, skull fracture
need not accompany physical brain damage and the resulng head
injury is termed closed. [1]
CONSIDERAII PRIVIND
UTILIZAREA TEHNICII
DE GENERARE A UNDELOR
DE OC SLABE PRIN
INTERMEDIUL TUBULUI DE OC
SOME ASPECTS REGARDING
THE GENERATIONS OF WEAK
SHOCK WAVES USING THE
SHOCK TUBE TECHNIQUE
Sublocotenent inginer Iuliana Florina CIORTAN,
asistent de cercetare inic
Agenia de Cercetare pentru Tehnic i Tehnologii Militare -
Centrul de Cercetare inic pentru Armamente
Cpitan dr. ing. Adrian ROTARIU, lector universitar
Academia Tehnic Militar
Sub-lieutenant engineer Iuliana Florina CIORTAN,
research assistant
Military Equipment and Technology Research Agency -
Armaments Test Evaluaon and Scienc Research Center
Captain lecturer engineer Adrian ROTARIU, PhD
Military Technical Academy
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
44 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Pentru a proteja mpotriva leziunilor de p cerebral, o casc bine
conceput trebuie, prin urmare, att s absorb energia de la impact,
lsnd mai puin energie pentru craniu i creier, deci s amorzeze
impactul, ct i s minimizeze amploarea decelerrii. Dei o casc
dur protejeaz mpotriva impactului balisc i fracturii craniului, fr
amorzarea impactului, casca este inecient mpotriva leziunilor
creierului. De asemenea, aproximav 80% din vicmele exploziilor
cauzate de atacurile teroriste provin din cauza bucilor de geamuri
crora le-a fost imprimat energie cinec. Aceasta se datoreaz
faptului c la o valoare a suprapresiunii undei de oc de doar 0.15
mbari (valoare inregistrat la distane foarte mari pentru ncrcturi
mari de exploziv) structurile de geam standard sunt sparte.
n prezent, att capacitatea de protecie a geamurilor securizate
i clor militare, ct i metodele de testare ale acestora nu sunt
corespunztoare, cnd este vorba de aciunea undei de oc.
Prima metod de testare a geamurilor securizate dezvoltat n
sfera reducerii efectului exploziilor, ASTM F 1642, Metoda de testare
standard a geamurilor supuse aciunii undelor de oc n aer, publicat
n 1996, este aplicat i n prezent structurilor din scl, n scopul
stabilirii capacitii de rezisten la aciunea undelor de oc n aer, prin
intermediul tehnicii generatoarelor de ocuri.[2]. n gura i tabelul de
mai jos este descris modul de testare al geamurilor securizate.
To protect against impact induced TBI, a well-designed helmet
must therefore both absorb energy from the impact, leaving less
energy for the skull and brain, and also cushion the impact to minimize
the magnitude of deceleraon. Although a hard shell protects against
ballisc impact and localized skull fracture, without appropriate
cushioning somewhere between the impact site and the skull, the
helmet is ineecve against protecng closed head brain injury.
Historically, about 80% of casuales from bomb explosions have
been caused by ying glass with high kinec energy.
This is because a shock wave overpressure value of only 0.15 mbar
(value recorded at large distances for large loads of explosive) is enough
to brake standard glass structures.
At present the protecon ability of secure glass and military
helmets and their tesng methods are inadequate when it comes to
the acon of the shock wave.
The rst test method developed in the eld of safety glazing to
reduce the eect of explosions, ASTM F 1642, Standard Test Method
for Glazing and Glazing Systems Subject to Air Blast Loadings, published
in 1996, is currently applied to glass structures in order to establish the
shock waves resistant capacity using shock wave generators. [2] Figure
and table below describes how to test the safety glazing.
Fig. 1 Seciunea transversal a camerei de testare conform ASTM 1642-04: Geamuri i structuri de scl supuse aciunii undei de oc/
Cross-Secon through witness area per ASTM 1642-04: Glazing and Glazing Systems Subject to Airblast Loading
Tabel/Table I - Nivelul de risc care apare n urma aciunii undei de oc asupra geamurilor securizate/The hazard raing
Nivel de risc/
Hazard Rating
Descriere/Description
Fragmente/Fragments
1-3m Panou martor/Witness Panel
Inexistent/
No Break
Pot aprea suri ns nu este afectat integritatea geamului/
Glazing is allowed to break and there is no visible damage to
the framing system.
None None
Minim/
No Hazard
Ultimul strat din geamul securizat rmne intact protejnd
mpotriva mprtierii fragmentelor din straturile anterioare/
Glazing fractures but is fully retained in the facility test frame
or glazing systemframe and the rear surface is unbroken.
None None
Foarte sczut/
Minimal Hazard
Geamul se sparge ns distana maxim la care sunt expulzate
fragmentele nu depete 20% din valoarea perimetrului
ferestrei/Glazing fractures and the total length of tears in the
glazing plus the total length of pullout fromthe edge of the
frame is less than 20 per cent of the glazing sight perimeter.
<25.4 cm/ <25.4 cmunied
dimension
Maximtrei perforaii/ Three or less
perforations fromglazing slivers and
no fragment indents
Sczut/
Very Low
Hazard
Geamul se sparge iar fragmentele sunt expulzate pn la
o distan maxim de 1m/ Glazing fractures and is located
within one (1) meter of the original location.
<25.4 cm/<25.4 cmunied
dimension
Maximtrei perforaii/ Three or less
perforations fromglazing slivers and
no fragment indents
Ridicat/
Low Hazard
Geamul se sparge/Glazing fractures
Fragmentele sunt expulzate
la o distan mai mare de 1m
dar mai mic de 3m/ Glazing
fragments generally fall
between one (1) meter and three
(3) meters
Maxim10 perforaii la o nlime
de 50 cmns niciun fragment nu
penetreaz panoul martor/<10
perforations 50 cmbelow the bottom
of the specimen and none of the per-
forations penetrate through the full
thickness of the witness panel
Foarte ridicat/
High Hazard
Geamul se sparge/Glazing fractures
Fagmentele pot depi distana
de 3m/ One (1) meter and
three (3)
meters
Peste 10 perforaii i cel puin un
fragment penetreaz panoul martor/>
10 perforations in the area of the
witness
panel and one or more fragments
penetrate
fully through the witness panel

Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 45
Cele mai directe metode de testare ale geamurilor de protecie i
clor, anume detonaia ncrcturilor explozive la o anumit distan
de specimen i analiza comportamentului acestuia la aciunea undei de
oc, necesit o organizare atent i sunt foarte cossitoare din punct
de vedere nanciar. Din acest mov, se cere ulizarea unor metode
de laborator, capabile s reproduc suprapresiuni la nivel relav mic,
de ordinul a 0,1 - 2 bar cu costuri minime. n aceste cerine se nscrie
foarte bine tehnica tuburilor de oc.
Elemente privind propagarea undelor de oc n aer 2.
Unda de oc reprezint o perturbaie brusc a parametrilor de
stare i cinemaci. Aceasta se propag cu vitez supersonic n mediul
neperturbat i subsonic n mediul pe care l las n urm.
O und de oc este denit de suprapresiunea frontului undei de oc,
durata i impulsul fazei pozive. Generarea, dezvoltarea i propagarea
undelor de oc sunt guvernate de legi zice neliniare. Undele de oc
pot generate prin intermediul detonaiei unei ncrcturi explozive
(g.2), la impactul dintre un proiecl i o int, sau prin ulizarea
tuburilor de oc.
n gura 2 este prezentat prolul general al undei de detonaie. La
momentul de mp t
A
, dup explozie, presiunea crete brusc la o valoare
denumit suprapresiunea undei de detonaie, P
s
, mult mai mare dect
presiunea atmosferic P
0
. Presiunea descrete ulterior pn ange
valoarea presiunii atmosferice la momentul de mp t
d
, , connund
s descreasc sub valorile atmosferice i revenind apoi la acestea la
momentul t
d
+ t
d
-
.
Valoarea P
s
este amplicat de unda de oc reectat aa cum s-ar
ntmpla n cazul n care unda de oc incident ntlnete un obiect sau
o structur.
Aceste valori cu care crete suprapresiunea incident sunt maxime
n cazul incidenei normale (unda de oc acioneaz perpendicular
asupra obstacolului) i descrete odat cu unghiul sub care ntlnete
obstacolul. De asemenea, acestea depind de intensitatea undei de
oc, iar pentru valori mari ale componentei stace a presiunii undei de
detonaie pentru cazul incidenei normale, presiunea incident poate
ajunge de ordinul unei magnitudini. [3]
The most direct methods of tesng windows and helmets, the
detonaon of an explosive charge at a certain distance from the
specimen and the analyze of its behavior to shock wave acon, require
careful organizaon and hight costs. For this reason it is necessary to use
laboratory methods, able to reproduce at relavely low overpressure
between 0.1 - 2 bar with minimum cost. The shock tube technique
swets very good to this requerements.
Elements of shock wave propagaon in air 2.
The shock wave is a sudden disturbance of state and kinemac
parameters. It travels with supersonic velocity in the unperturbed
environment and with subsonic velocity in the environment that is le
behind.
A shock wave is dened by the shock wave overpressure, posive
phase duraon and impulse. Generaon, development and propagaon
of shock waves are governed by nonlinear physical laws. Shock waves
can be generated by an explosive charge detonaon, the impact of a
projecle and a target or by using shock tubes.
Figure 2 shows a typical blast pressure prole. At the arrival me
t
A
, following the explosion, pressure at that posion suddenly increases
to a peak value of overpressure, P
s
, over the ambient pressure, P
0
. The
pressure then decays to ambient level at me td, then decays further to
a value under P
0
(creang a paral vacuum) before eventually returning
to ambient condions at me t
d
+ t
d
-
. The quanty P
s
is usually referred
to as the peak side-on overpressure, incident peak overpressure
or merely peak overpressure. The incident peak over pressures P
s
is
amplied by a reecon factor as the shock wave encounters an object
or structure in its path. These reecon factors are typically greatest
for normal incidence (a surface adjacent and perpendicular to the
source) and diminish with the angle of obliquity or angular posion
relave to the source.
Reecon factor depend on the intensity of the shock wave, and
for large values of stac component of blast wave pressure at normal
incidence these reecon factors may enhance the incident pressures
by as much as an order of magnitude.[3].
Fig. 2 Prolul undei de oc/Blast wave pressure
n gura de mai sus se pot observa dou faze i anume: prima este
faza poziv dispus deasupra presiunii atmosferice de durat t
d
, iar a
doua este faza negav aat sub presiunea atmosferic de durat t
d
-
.
Faza negav are o durat mai mare dar este de intensitate mai
mic. Intensitatea presiunii undei de oc i a impulsului fazei pozive
sunt invers proporionale cu distana dintre ncrctura de explozie i
inte.
Aerul din spatele frontului undei de oc va avea vitez mai mic
dect a sa. Viteza parculelor de aer i presiunea acestora depind de
suprapresiunea undei de oc.
Cea de-a doua mrime este asociat presiunii dinamice, q(t).
Valoarea sa maxim poate determinat din relaia:
Throughout the pressure-me prole, two main phases can be
observed (Ngo et al. 2007); rst, above ambient pressure is called
posive phase of duraon t
d
, while the second, below ambient
pressure, is called negave phase of duraon, t
d
-
. The negave phase
is of a longer duraon and a lower intensity than the posive duraon.
Charges situated extremely close to a target structure impose a highly
impulsive, high intensity pressure load over a localized region of the
structure; charges situated further away produce a lower-intensity,
longer-duraon uniform pressure distribuon over the enre structure.
As the blast wave propagates through the atmosphere, the air behind
the shock front is moving outward at lower velocity. The velocity of
the air parcles, and hence the wind pressure, depends on the peak
overpressure of the blast wave. This later velocity of the air is associated
with the dynamic pressure, q(t). The maximum value, q, is given by:

) 7 ( 2
5
0
2
s
s
P P
P
q
+
=

(1)
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
46 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
n condiiile n care unda de oc ntlnete un obstacol perpendicular
pe direcia sa de propagare, unda de reexie crete suprapresiunea la o
valoare maxim P
r
:
If the blast wave encounters an obstacle perpendicular to the
direcon of propagaon, reecon increases the overpressure to a
maximum reected pressure, P
r
as:
3. Principiul de funcionare a tubului de oc
Principiul de generare a undelor de oc prin intermediul tubului de
oc este cunoscut din anul 1861, aceast metod oferind o multudine
de avantaje, deoarece este mai puin cossitoare, permite efectuarea
mai multor teste ntr-un mp scurt, ofer repetabilitate i, nu n
ulmul rnd, permite desfurarea testelor de ncercare n cadrul unui
laborator.
Un generator de unde de oc este un tub, cu seciunea transversal
dreptunghiular sau circular, de obicei construit din metal, n care
un gaz la presiune sczut i un gaz la presiune nalt sunt separate
folosind o diafragm de o anumit form. n anumite condiii de
presiune, diafragma se sparge brusc i d natere unor unde de oc ce
se propag prin seciunea tubului cu gaz la presiune sczut. ocul care
se formeaz n cele din urm crete temperatura i presiunea gazului
condus i induce un ux n direcia undei de oc [4].
Gazul la presiune joas este supus trecerii undei de oc, iar gazul
la presiune nalt este cel cu ajutorul cruia se creeaz undele de
oc. Seciunile corespunztoare ale tubului care conin aceste gaze
sunt numite seciunea de propagare, sau driven tube i, respecv,
seciunea de ncrcare, sau driving tube. Gazul aat la presiune mare
este ales n aa fel nct greutatea moleculelor sale s e sczut,
hidrogen sau heliu, din move de siguran, iar gazul condus trebuie s
se gseasc la o presiune mai mic dect cea atmosferic pentru a se
obine unde de oc puternice.
Dac am considera tubul sucient de lung putem admite
urmtoarele condiii iniiale:
The operang principle of the shock tube 3.
The principle of generaon shock waves with the shock tube is
known since 1861, this method oers many advantages because it
is less expensive, provide repeatability and last but not least, allows
carrying out tests in a laboratory in short me.
A simple shock tube is a tube, rectangular or circular in cross-
secon, usually constructed of metal, in which a gas at low pressure
and a gas at high pressure are separated using some form of diaphragm.
This diaphragm suddenly bursts open under predetermined condions
to produce a wave propagang through the low pressure secon. The
shock that eventually forms increases the temperature and pressure of
the test gas and induces a ow in the direcon of the shock wave. [4].
The low-pressure gas, referred to as the driven gas, is subjected to the
shock wave.
The high pressure gas is known as the driver gas. Relevant secons
of the tube containing these gases are called driven tube, the secon
with high pressure and the driving tube.
The driver is usually chosen to have a low molecular weight,
hydrogen or helium, for safety reasons, with high speed of sound,
but may be slightly diluted to tailor interface condions across the
shock.
If we considered the tube long enough we can admit the inial
condions as:
Fig. 3 Starea iniial a tubului de oc/Shock tube at inial state
x < 0: u (0, x) = u 1.
1
, p (0, x) = p
1
, (0, x) =
1

2. x> 0: u (0, x) = u
4
, p (0, x) = p
4
, (0, x) =
4.

Atunci cnd diafragma se sparge, o und de oc strbate camera de
propagare i un fascicul de unde de desndere strbate n sens opus
camera de ncrcare. n spatele undei de oc se deplaseaz un strat
de aer care, pentru a evita variaiile de presiune dintre frontul undei
de oc i uxul de unde de desndere formeaz regiunea cu presiune
constant [4]. O descriere calitav a zonelor care apar pe parcursul
desfurrii fenomenului din interiorul tubului ar urmtoarea:
starea 4 este separat de starea 3 printr-o und de oc; 1.
ntre starea 3 i 2 este o suprafa de contact sau de 2.
disconnuitate;
3. un fascicul de desndere separ starea 2 de 1, dup cum arat
gura urmtoare.
Fig. 4 Soluia fenomenului din interiorul tubului de oc/Soluon phenomenon of shock tube
When the diaphragm is caused to shaer a shock wave travels
into the expansion chamber and a rarefacon wave travels back into
the compression chamber. Behind the shock front is a ow of gas and
in order to avoid pressure variaons building up the ow velocity
is uniform in the region between the shock front and the tail of the
rarefacon wave. This is a region of constant pressure. [4]
A brief descripon of areas that occur throughout the course of the
phenomenon inside the tube would be:
1. state 4 is separated from state 3 by a shock wave;
2. between state 3 and 2 is a buon or disconnuity;
3. the expansion fan separates state 2 to 1, as shown in the gure.

s
s
s r
P P
P P
P P
+
+
=
0
0
7
4 7
2

(2)
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 47
4. Calculul numeric al tubului de oc
Pentru realizarea unei proceduri de testare a clor militare i a
geamurilor securizate este necesar s cunoatem caracteriscile undei
de oc, generate la ieirea din tubul de oc sau la o anumit distan
fa de acesta, n funcie de locul unde va plasat materialul testat.
Aceste aspecte ale propagrii undelor de oc n tuburi de oc, pe
lng modelele analice, se studiaz cu succes cu ajutorul metodelor
numerice. Aceste metode presupun discrezarea mediilor connue
prin crearea unor reele de noduri sau parcule, iar ecuaiile de
connuitate i echilibru dinamic sunt aduse la o form discret i
rezolvate pentru reelele de noduri. Rezolvarea simultan a acestor
ecuaii se realizeaz cu ajutorul programului AUTODYN.
Programul AUTODYN a fost dezvoltat pentru rezolvarea problemelor
de neliniaritate n dinamica mediilor connue, n special atunci cnd au
loc deformaii puternice. Ecuaiile difereniale care stau la baza codului
sunt derivate din legile de connuitate ale masei, impulsului i energiei.
Aceste legi sunt sasfcute pentru ecare pas de mp. Suplimentar,
sunt necesare legi constuve pentru modelarea comportamentului
materialelor.
Problema propagrii undei de oc n tub a fost abordat cu metoda
Euler, aceast abordare ind n general ulizat pentru reprezentarea
uidelor n probleme de curgere. n abordarea Euler, reeaua numeric
este x n spaiu, iar materialul zic se deplaseaz prin reea.
Un neajuns al metodelor numerice, n general, este necesarul de
putere de calcul pentru rezolvarea unor probleme care presupun crearea
unei reele dense de noduri, aa cum este cazul propagrii undelor de
oc. O metod de scurtare a mpului de rezolvare a unor asel de
simulri este adoptarea modelelor 2D, atunci cnd starea de axialitate
a problemei permite. innd cont de datele problemei analizate,
aceast soluie de reducere a mpului de calcul a fost implementat
n analiz. Asel, structura tubului cu un diametru de 600 mm i
lungimea 5000 mm a fost modelat printr-o suprafa dreptunghiular
cu o latur de 300 mm, reprezentnd raza tubului, i o latur de
5000 mm. Datele geometrice au fost preluate de la tubul de oc prezentat
n seciunea urmtoare. De asemenea, s-a considerat existena unui
spaiu deschis n captul tubului cu diametrul de 2 m i lungimea
1 m. Pentru simularea spaiului deschis, pe fronera acestuia s-a impus
o condiie de grani de p ow out. Mediile au fost discrezate cu
o reea cu densitatea 10 x 10 mm. Membrana nu este reprezentat n
simulare, considerndu-se c spargerea ei este instantanee.
Numerical computaon of shock tube 4.
To achieve a test procedure for military helmets and secure glass it
is required to know the characteriscs of the shock wave generated at
the end of the shock tube or at a certain distance from it depending on
where the test material will be placed.
These aspects of shock waves propagaon in shock tubes, in
addion to analycal models; it is successfully studied using numerical
methods. These methods involve the meshing of connuous media by
creang network nodes or parcles and the equaons of connuity
and dynamic equilibrium are wrien for discrete systems and solved
for the network nodes. Solving these equaons simultaneously is done
with AUTODYN program.
AUTODYN was developed to solve the problems of nonlinearity
in the dynamics of connuous media, especially when dealing with a
strong strain. The dierenal equaons that are baseline of the code
are derived from mass, momentum and energy conservaon laws.
These laws are sased for each period. Constuve laws are needed
for modeling the behavior of materials.
The problem of shock wave propagaon in the tube was treated
with Euler method, this approach is generally used to represent the
uid ow problems. In the Euler approach, node network is xed in
space, and material moving through the physical network.
Generally, a drawback of numerical methods is the compung
power necessary to solve problems involving creaon of a dense nodes
network, like the shock wave propagaon. A method of shortening the
me resoluon of such simulaons is the adopon of 2D models when
axial state of maer allows it.
Given the analyzed problem, the soluon to reduce calculaon
me was implemented in the analysis. Thus the structure of the tube
with a diameter of 600 mm and a length of 5000 mm was modeled by a
rectangular area with a side of 300 mm, represenng the radius of the
tube, and a side of 5000 mm.
Geometric data were taken from the shock tube presented in the
next secon. It was also considered the existence of open space at the
end of the tube with a diameter of 2 m and 1 m in length. For the
simulaon of open space, a ow out condion was imposed on its
borders. A grid density of 10 x 10 mm was selected for the meshing
of the media. The membrane is not represented in the simulaon,
considering that its breaking is instantaneous.
Pentru modelarea aerului, att n amonte ct i n aval de membran,
s-a folosit un model de gaz ideal din biblioteca AUTODYN, prezentat n
tabelul 2. Diferena ntre cele dou seciuni const n energia intern
iniial. Asel, pentru seciunea din amonte, cu o lungime de 500 mm,
s-au introdus valori diferite ale energiei interne, n vederea obinerii
unor presiuni iniiale variate. S-au efectuat simulri pentru presiuni
ntre 1,3 i 3 bari.
For the air modeling, both upstream and downstream of the
membrane, it was used a model of ideal gas from AUTODYN library,
as presented in Table 2. The dierence between the two secons is
the inial internal energy. Thus, in the upstream secon, with a length
of 500 mm, there have been introduced dierent amounts of internal
energy in order to obtain various inial pressures. Simulaons were
performed for pressures between 1.3 and 3 bars.
Fig. 5 Vedere cu modelul construit/View the model built
Tabel/Table II - Modelul de gaz ideal ulizat/The model of ideal gas used
Material/Material Aer/Air
Ecuaia de stare/The equation of state Gaz ideal/Ideal gas
4 , 1 =
Date iniiale pentru P=1bar/Baseline data for P =1bar
= 1,22510
-3
g/cm
J/mg E = 2,06810
5
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
48 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Pentru urmrirea parametrilor undei de oc s-au folosit traductori
virtuali, poziionai n seciunea de capt a tubului i la 0,5 m n faa
tubului pe axa de simetrie. O selecie cu ace traductori i rezultatele
msurate sunt prezentate n gurile urmtoare.
For tracking the shock wave parameters virtual transducers were
used, that were posioned at an end secon of the tube and at 0.5 m in
front of the tube on its axis of symmetry. A selecon of these transducers
and measured results are presented in the following gures.
Fig. 7 a), b), c) Presiunea msurat cu traductorii pentru o valoare iniial de 1,3bari a), 2bari b), 3bari c) bar n seciunea driving/
a), b), c) pressure transducers measured for a baseline of 1.3 bar), 2bari b) 3bar c) bar in the driving
Fig. 8 Dependena dintre suprapresiunea din seciunea de capt al tubului i presiunea iniial/
Dependence of the overpressure at the end of the tube and the inial pressure
Fig.9 Tubul de oc ulizat/Shock tube used
Fig.6 Poziia traductorilor de presiune/Posion of pressure transducers
n gracul urmtor este prezentat evoluia suprapresiunii, obinut
n frontul undei de oc la captul tubului, n funcie de presiunea iniial
din seciunea driven.
The following chart presents the evoluon of the overpressure
obtained at the shock wave front from the end of the tube as a funcon
of inial pressure of the driving secon.
5. Construcia tubului de oc
Generatorul de unde de oc (gura 9) propus pentru studiul undelor
de oc slabe face parte din facilitile Universitii Craneld. Tubul de
oc a fost construit dintr-o eav de oel inoxidabil cu dimensiuni de
600 mm diametrul interior i 700 mm diametrul exterior.
Shock tube construcon 5.
Shock wave generator (Figure 9) proposed for the study of weak
shock waves is part of Craneld University facilies. Shock tube was
constructed from a stainless steel tube with a 600 mm inner diameter
and 700 mm outside diameter.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 49
Fig. 10 Seciunea presurizat/Secon pressurized
Seciunea de ncrcare este de 0,5 m lungime cu ane din oel
inoxidabil la ecare capt. n general, aceast seciune a fost proiectat
s reziste la o presiune de 27,5 MPa (4000 psi).
The driven tube is 0.5 m long with stainless steel anges at each
end. In general, this secon has been designed to withstand a pressure
of 27.5 MPa (4000 psi).
Seciunea de propagare are aceleai dimensiuni cu cea de ncrcare,
cu excepia lungimii, care este de 4,5 m. n plus, aceast parte a tubului
este x (gura 9).
n realizarea unui test, un pas important l constuie alegerea pului
potrivit de diafragm care s cedeze la presiunile dorite la care va
ncrcat prima seciune a tubului de oc. Din acest punct de vedere
se impune o analiz a celor dou puri de diafragm propuse, pornind
de la faptul c procedurile experimentale ce se vor implementa pentru
testarea clor i geamurilor presupun presiuni mici n camera de
ncrcare. Pentru diafragma de aluminiu, o funcionare corect impune
obinerea unor grosimi mici care ar implica un proces tehnologic
complicat i cossitor. O a doua soluie este ulizarea unei diafragme
de acetat de celuloz, material cu modul de elascitate mult mai mic,
fapt care permite spargerea la valori similare ale presiunii diafragmelor
de celuloza cu grosimi considerabil mai mari dect cele din aluminiu.
Fig.11 Diafragma de acetat de celuloz/ Acetate diaphragm
The driving tube is the same size as the other one, except length,
which is 4.5 m. In addion this part of the tube is xed (Figure 9). A
test achevement involves choosing the right type of diaphragm that
bursts at the desired pressures in the driving secon. From this point
of view two types of diaphragm should be analysed taking into acount
that the procedures for helmets and glassing will be implemented at
low pressure in the rst chamber.
For the aluminum diaphragm, the burst at a low pressure reqires
a small thickness which would involve a complicated and expensive
process technology.
A second soluon is to use a acetate diaphragm, material with a
low elascity modulus, which allows the breaking pressure of acetate
diaphragm to be similar to aluminum diaphragms with higher thickness.
O serie de alte echipamente trebuie luate n calcul, ind necesare
pentru pregrea i instrumentarea testului, precum: termocuple,
compresor de aer, sisteme hidraulice, traductoare de presiune,
manometre de presiune i camer de lmare ultrarapid.
A number of other equipment should be taken into account, as
necessary to prepare and equip the test, such as thermocouples, air
compressor, hydraulic systems, pressure transducers, pressure gauge
high speed camera.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
50 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Fig.12 Poziia traductorului de presiune,
canal B/Posion of pressure transducer,
channel B
6. Rezultate experimentale i concluzii
Pentru implementarea unei proceduri de ulizare a tubului de oc
n testarea echipamentelor de protecie la aciunea undelor de oc,
au fost impuse anumite teste de ncercare. Asel, cu structura prezentat
n seciunea precedent, s-a efectuat un numr de trei trageri, ind
analizate modul de funcionare al echipamentelor, presiunea de
spargere a diafragmei i natura undei generate la ieirea din tubul de
oc. Materialul ales pentru diafragm a fost acetat de celuloz.
n urma testelor, s-a observat c la presiuni de ncrcare de
0.5 bar n seciunea de capt a tubului se obine o und sonor cu o
suprapresiune de 0.15 bar, msurat de traductorul de presiune de pe
canalul B, ca n gura 13. n ceea ce privete diafragma de acetat de
celuloz, datorit proprietilor de material, aceasta se deformeaz
ca un balon la aciunea presiunii, deformare urmat de cedarea
materialului ncepnd de la centru, ca n gura 14.
Experimental results and conclusions 6.
For implemenng a procedure of using the shock tube in the
tesng of protecon equipment at the acon of shock waves, a series
of test trials have been imposed. Thus, with the structure presented
in the previous secon, it was conducted a number of three shots, in
which were analyzed the operaon of equipment, the diaphragm burst
pressure and the nature of the wave generated at the end of the shock
tube. The material chosen for the diaphragm was acetate.
As a result of the tests, it was observed that at pressure value
of 0.5 bar in the driven secon at the end of the tube it is obtained
a sound wave with an overpressure of 0.15 bar, that was measured
using a transducer on channel B, as shown in Figure 13. Regarding the
acetate diaphragm, because of the material properes, it deects like
a balloon under the acon of pressure, followed by the breaking of
material starng from the center, as shown in Figure 14.
Fig. 13 Presiunea msurat la ieirea din tubul de oc/Pressure measured at the end of the shock tube
Fig. 14 Modul de rupere a diafragmei/The rupture of the diaphragm
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 51
Dei simulrile au indicat formarea unor unde de oc slabe,
rezultatele obinute experimental nu sunt pe de-a-ntregul
sasfctoare, ntruct unda obinut nu are caracteriscile unei unde
de oc. Movul diferenelor dintre simulri i experimente l reprezint
neluarea n calcul al comportamentului diafragmei n simulrile rulate.
Pentru nalizarea procesului de pregre a instalaiei pentru teste
sunt necesare alte teste, concomitent cu eventuale modicri ale
structurii tubului, care s conduc la obinerea unor unde de oc slabe
n seciunea de capt a tubului.
Autencare
Studiul pracc efectuat pe tubul de oc s-a desfurat n cadrul
unui stagiu de pregre Erasmus, efectuat de slt. Ing. Florina Ciortan n
cadrul Craneld University, n perioada aprilie iunie 2011.
Bibliograe/Bibliography
[1] BLACKMAN E.G., HALE M.E., LISANBY S.H. Improving TBI Protecon Measures and Standards fo Combat Helmets,
valabil la URL hp://www.pas.rochester.edu/ ~blackman/ tbihelmets07new.pdf;
[2] *** Blast Resistant Protecon. Glazing and glazing systems subject to dynamic overpressure or air blast loading,
Kawneer Company Inc., Norcross, Georgia (USA), valabil la URL hp://www.alcoa.com /kawneer/north_ america/ catalog/
pdf/ booklets/ Blast_Resistant_Products_Overview.pdf;
[3] ROTARIU A., TMPLARU F., MATACHE L., CHERECHE T., TRAN E., BADEA S. On aenuaon properes of blast wave
through perlite, 14
th
Internaonal Conference ModTech 2010, May 20-22, 2010, Slnic Moldova, Romnia;
[4] JEANNEQUIN N. Roes Scheme Applied to the Shock Tube Problem. Praccal Numerical Analysis, valabil la URL
hp://www.lfp.uba.ar/mnf/referencias/ROE2-1.pdf.
Although simulaons have shown the formaon of weak shock
waves, experimental results are not sasfying, because the obtained
wave didnt have the characteriscs of shock waves. The reason of
the dierences between simulaons and experiments is the failure in
taking into account the behavior of the diaphragm in the simulaon
runs. To complete the installaon of test preparaon other tests are
needed simultaneously with possible changes in the structure of the
tube that will lead to obtaining weak shock waves in the end secon
of the tube.
Acknowledgements
Praccal studies conducted on shock tube were held in an Erasmus
training course conducted by slt.ing. Florina Ciortan at Craneld
University in April-June 2011.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
52 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Introducere 1.
Muniia nefuncionat este constuit din mijloace explozive
precum bombe, proiecle, grenade, mine terestre, mine navale etc.
care nu au explodat la folosire i prezint un risc ridicat de explozie la
manipulare.
n categoria de muniie nefuncionat intr muniiile de arlerie,
trase n aciuni de lupt i depistate n teren, avnd corpul intact, prin
nefuncionarea corect a focosului. n aceast categorie se ncadreaz i
muniia nefuncionat, ulizat ncepnd cu Primul Rzboi Mondial, care
este gsit cu ocazia efecturii unor lucrri de construcii, genisce etc.
n poligoanele de arlerie exist frecvent muniie nefuncionat
n urma tragerilor efectuate e cu protopuri, e n vederea recepiei
unor loturi fabricate sau pentru vericarea periodic a muniiei aate n
depozitare, nedepistat n momentul executrii operaiunii de asanare
a poligonului.
Produsul Complet pentru neutralizarea prin efect cumulav a
muniiei nefuncionate - CNMN este desnat eliminrii, n condiii de
siguran pentru personal i pentru vecinti, a pericolului pe care l
prezint muniiile nefuncionate.
Generaliti 2.
n principiu, neutralizarea unei muniii nefuncionate prin ulizarea
CNMN presupune penetrarea anvelopei muniiei nefuncionate de
ctre un jet cumulav (perforare, spargere) i iniierea simultan sau
consecuv a combusei ncrcturii muniiei, pn la consumarea
n ntregime a acesteia. Se consider neutralizat i muniia care
explodeaz n momentul n care este ocat de ctre jetul cumulav
sau la care apare tranziia de la deagraie la detonaie n mpul arderii
ncrcturii explozive a muniiei nefuncionate.
Efectul de jet cumulav apare atunci cnd se funcioneaz o
ncrctur de exploziv, n contact inm cu o cptueal metalic,
de form conic sau diedric. Jetul cumulav perforeaz corpul
din oel al muniiei i poate iniia combusa ncrcturii explozive
a muniiei, fr a provoca detonarea acesteia. n situaia n care
explozivul din interiorul muniiei nu se aprinde sub aciunea direct
a jetului cumulav, iniierea combusei se poate realiza cu ajutorul
unui dispoziv pirotehnic suplimentar, prin oriciul realizat n corpul
muniiei de ctre jet. Neutralizarea muniiilor nefuncionate este o
operaiune cu grad ridicat de pericol, necesitnd msuri speciale de
securitate i cunoaterea perfect de ctre operator a echipamentelor
i a procedurii de neutralizare.
3. Desnaie
Completul pentru neutralizare constuie un mijloc modern i
ecient, desnat interveniei rapide pentru neutralizarea muniiei de
arlerie avnd calibrul peste 50 mm; prezint interes pentru structurile
specializate din Ministerul Aprrii Naionale (trupele trimise n misiuni
de meninere a pcii, subuniti de cercetare), Ministerul Administraiei
Introducon 1.
Unexploded ordnance (UXO) consists in explosive devices such
as: bombs, projecles, grenades, missiles, land mines, naval mines,
etc., which did not explode when red and, therefore, present a high
explosion risk when manipulated. Arllery munions, red in dierent
combat acvies and found in the eld with their body intact and their
fuses malfunconed, are an example of such UXOs.
Since the First World War, UXOs that frame this category are being
found on the occasion of dierent construcons, genisc works etc.
In the arllery polygons, there are frequent UXOs following ring
either with prototypes, or following the recepon of fabricated batches
or periodical vericaon of deposited munions, that were not found
in the eld during the reclaiming operaons.
The product UXO neutralizaon by shaped charge eect system
(CNMN) is designed to eliminate the danger involved by UXOs, bringing
a safe environment for the personnel and the near-by materials.
Generalies 2.
Neutralizaon of UXOs using CNMN mainly involves the UXOs
shell penetraon with a cumulave stream (through perforaon or
breakage) and simultaneous or consecuve combuson iniaon of
the munions charges unl its complete consumpon. The munions
explode when shocked by the cumulave stream; when a transion
from deagraon to detonaon appears during UXOs explosive
charges burning is also considered neutralized.
The cumulave stream eect appears when ring a shaped charge,
in inmate contact with a conic or dihedral metallic shell. The shaped
charge perforates the ordnances steel body and it is able to iniate the
explosive charge combuson, without inducing its detonaon. When
the explosive within the UXO does not burn under the direct acon
of the cumulave stream, the combuson iniaon can be achieved
using a supplementary pyrotechnical device, through the perforaon
made in the ordnances body using the stream.
The UXOs neutralizaon is a high risk operaon, involving special
security measures and perfect knowledge of the equipment and the
neutralizaon procedure by the operators.
Desnaon 3.
CNMN is a modern and e cient device for rapid intervenon in the
neutralizaon of arllery munions greater than 50 mm caliber and
is of great interest for the specialized structures within the Ministry
of Defense (the troops involved in peace maintenance missions, the
research subunits), Ministry of Administraon and Internal Aairs
COMPLET PENTRU
NEUTRALIZAREA PRIN EFECT
CUMULATIV A MUNIIILOR
NEFUNCIONATE
UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE
NEUTRALIZATION BY SHAPED
CHARGE EFFECT SYSTEM
Inginer Alexandru ROGOZ, cercettor inic gradul II
Colonel dr. inginer Ioan SAFTA, cercettor inic gradul III
Subinginer Aurica DUMITRESCU
Agenia de Cercetare pentru Tehnic i Tehnologii Militare -
Centrul de Cercetare inic
pentru Aprare CBRN i Ecologie
Engineer Alexandru ROGOZ, scienc researcher II degree
Colonel engineer Ioan SAFTA, PhD,
scienc researcher III degree
Engineer Aurica DUMITRESCU
Military Equipment and Technologies Research Agency
CBRN and Ecology Scienc Research Center
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 53
i Internelor (jandarmerie, poliie, ISU, pirotehni etc.) sau Serviciile
Speciale (SRI, SPP etc.).
Completul pentru neutralizare poate ul forelor speciale de
intervenie i prin executarea de antrenamente i simulri a unor
situaii specice.
4. Componen
Completul are n compunere dou truse p geant-diplomat, dintre
care una este comparmentat pentru pstrare i transport dispozive
explozive cumulave i calupuri de exploziv plasc (TCE), iar cea de-a
doua, pentru pstrare i transport elemente anex pasive, desnate
asamblrii operave, la faa locului, a unor dispozive explozive
cumulave, precum i pentru poziionarea corect a dispozivelor
explozive fa de muniia nefuncionat ce trebuie neutralizat (TCP).
(police, rangers, emergency situaons, pyrotechnic units, etc.) or
Special Services (SRI, SPP, etc.).
The neutralizaon device can be useful to special intervenon units
by simulang special condions training.
Components 4.
CNMN is composed by two cases, the rst one being designated
to the storage and transportaon of the shaped charges (TCE), and the
second one for the storage and transportaon of passive elements,
designated to on site operave assemblage of cumulave explosive
devices and correct posioning of the explosive devices against the
UXO to be neutralized (TCP), presented in gure 1.
Containerele pentru transport i depozitare, care intr n
compunerea truselor TCE i TCP, sunt geamantane din material
plasc, comparmentate i echipate asel nct s asigure transportul
materialelor coninute, n condiii de siguran. Completul conine
dou puri de dispozive cumulave: cilindrice, la care cptueala
metalic ce genereaz jetul cumulav are form de con i un al doilea
p, ncrcturi cumulave exibile pentru tierea rapid a metalelor
(ICTRM), la care cptueala, realizat dintr-un compound pe baz de
pulbere de cupru, are form diedric.
Fig. 1 Container pentru
componente pasive/passive
components case (TCP)
Fig. 3 Diferite puri de ncrcturi cumulave exibile
pentru tierea rapid a metalelor/Dierent ICTRMs
The transport and storage containers included in the TCE and
TCP are plasc cases with shelves equipped so that they assure the
materials safe transportaon.
The system contains two types of cumulave devices: cylindrical
ones, where the metallic shell that generates the cumulave stream
has a conical shape (DCC), and the others exible shaped charges for
rapid metal cu ng (ICTRM), where the copper powder-based shell has
a dihedral shape.
Fig. 2 ncrctura cumulav exibil/ICTRM principle
1 cptueal compound cupru/copper-based shell;
2 exploziv plasc/plasc explosive;
3 carcas exibil/exible shell;
4 strat autoadeziv/self-adhesive layer
n interiorul trusei cu dispozive cumulave se a un tabel de
coresponden ntre pul dispozivului i pul muniiei ce poate
neutralizat cu acel p de dispoziv. Operatorii completului trebuie
antrenai n recunoaterea rapid a muniiei nefuncionate depistat n
teren. ncrctura cumulav exibil pentru tierea rapid a metalelor
este realizat sub forma unor cordoane prismace (gura 3), alctuite
din: cptueal compound cupru, exploziv plasc, carcas exibil
i un strat autoadeziv.
Inside the TCE case, there is a table giving the correspondence
between the device type and the munions that can be neutralized.
The operators must be trained for a quick recognion of the UXO
found in the eld. The ICTRM are prism-shaped bars, as presented in
gure 2 and gure 3.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
54 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
Pentru intervenie operav n cazul anumitor puri de muniie,
precizate n tabelul de coresponden, trusa cu componente explozive
este prevzut cu dou ncrcturi cumulave, exibile pentru tierea
rapid a metalelor ICTRM-15 i dou ncrcturi ICTRM-20.
Dispozivele cumulave cilindrice sunt constuite dintr-un corp
cilindric din material plasc, o cptueal metalic sub form de con
i o ncrctur de exploziv plasc (g 4). ncrcturile cumulave
cilindrice pot congurate n funcie de pul de muniie ce trebuie
neutralizat. n compunerea completului exist un numr de 12
dispozive cumulave cilindrice, menite s asigure o intervenie
operav pentru o gam relav larg de muniii, conform tabelului
de coresponden prevzut n TCE. Pentru ulizare, n trusa cu
componente pasive TCP exist suporturi care asigur xarea la nlimea i
poziia dorite.
For an operave intervenon in the case of certain types of
ammunions, marked in the correspondence table, the TCE comprises
two pieces of ICTRM-15 and two of ICTRM-20. The DCC are constuted
by a cylindrical plasc body, a conical metallic shell and a plasc
explosive charge (gure 4), correspondingly to the type of ammunion
which must be neutralized.
Inside the acve components case (TCE), there are 12 cylindrical
shaped charge devices (gure 5), meant to assure a quick intervenon
for a wide range of ammunion types, and accordingly to the table
placed inside TCE. In order to use it, inside of the passive components
case (TCP) there are dierent devices which allow mounng at the
desired height and posion.
Fig. 5 Mecanism cumulav cilindric/Cylindrical cumulave devices (DCC)
Fig. 4 Principiul de funcionare a dispozivului cumulav cilindric/
Cylindrical cumulave device principle (DCC):
1 Cilindru/Cylinder; 2 Cptueal metalic/Metallic shell;
3 Tij vercal/Rod; 4 Explozibil/Explosive;
5 Capsa detonatoare electric/Electrical blasng cap;
6 Suport/support; 7 int/Targeted projecle
n interiorul TCE se gsete un calup de exploziv plasc, pe baz de
hexogen, nepresat, marcat cu marcatorul orto-Mononitrotoluen, avnd
masa de 500 grame. Explozivul plasc este desnat ncrcrii la locul
interveniei, atunci cnd situaia o impune, a dispozivelor cilindrice
pasive. Cu ajutorul setului de mensuri se dozeaz cantatea dorit de
exploziv, ntre 30 i 100 g. Cu ajutorul dornurilor din TCP, explozivul este
presat n dispozivul cilindric, sub form de trunchi de con, cu loca
pentru capsa detonant, n vrful trunchiului de con.
Fig. 6 Calup de exploziv plasc/RDX-based brick of plasc explosive
TCE includes a 0.5 kg RDX-based brick of plasc explosive (gure 6),
un-pressed, containing o-nitrotoluene as taggant. During intervenon,
this plasc explosive is used for passive cylindrical devices lling,
whenever the situaon claims it. Using the chargers set, the devices
are lled with the desired plasc explosive amount, between 30 and
100 g. The plasc explosive is pressed inside the cylindrical device, in
a tronconical shape, with a gap for the blasng cap, at the top of the
device.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 55
For shaped charge devices iniaon, the operator of the UXO
neutralizaon system will use either no.8 electrical blasng caps or
pyrotechnical blasng caps and Bickford cord.
TCE case contains cylindrical devices which can be lled with plasc
explosive, when the UXO found cannot be neutralized using any of the
devices loaded already inside TCE. There are also devices for cylindrical
devices posioning, above or lateral to UXO, a set of pieces serving
to the achievement of the imposed stand-o (gure 7), a charger set
for volume measurement of plasc explosive, caliber measurement
device, cuer, ICTRM cap-support, scking tape.
Operatorul completului pentru neutralizarea muniiei nefuncio-
nate va uliza pentru iniierea dispozivelor cumulave capse
detonante electrice nr. 8 i explozor sau capse detonante pirotehnice
i l Bickford.
Trusa cu elemente pasive are n compunere dispozive cilindrice
ce pot ncrcate cu exploziv plasc, n cazul n care muniia depistat
nu poate neutralizat cu niciunul dintre dispozivele ncrcate aate
n trusa TEA. De asemenea, cuprinde suporturi pentru poziionarea
dispozivelor cilindrice deasupra sau n lateral fa de muniie, set de
piese pentru realizarea stand-oului, set de mensuri pentru dozarea
explozivului plasc calupat, ubler pentru msurarea calibrului, cuer,
preducea, suport caps pentru ICTRM, band adeziv.
Fig. 7 Suport pentru poziionarea dispozivelor cilindrice/Supports for the shaped charges posionning
5. Caracterisci tehnice
Explozivul plasc marcat care este ulizat n CNMN are
caracteriscile prezentate n tabelul 1.
Technical characteriscs 5.
The plasc explosive used in CNMN has the follow characteriscs:
Tabel/Tabel 1 Caracterisci tehnice/Tehnical characteriscs
Nr./
No. crt.
Caracterisca/Parameter
Condiia de admisibilitate/
Admissibility condion
Metoda de analiz/
Analysis method
0 1 2 3
1. Aspect/Appearance mas omogen/Homogenous structure Visual/visual
2. Culoare/Color alb-gri/White-grey Visual/visual
3.
Densitate, EPH - 90 M presat, (g/cm
3
)/
Density, EPH-90M pressed (g/cm
3
)
1,54 1,57
SR EN ISO
2811- 1/02
4.
Coninut de orto-Mononitrotoluen,
(%)/o-nitrotoluene content (%)
Minim/Min. 0,5
Analiz gaz cromatograc/
Gas-chromatography
5
Interval de temperatur pentru ulizare
(C)/Working temperature range (C)
20 +50
STP M 40522/2-98
6.
Vtezea de detonaie, EPH - 90 M presat,
(m/s)/Detonaon velocity (m/s)
Minim/Min. 6700 PO-07-0-7 AOP-7
ncrcturile cumulave exibile alungite au urmtoarele
caracterisci tehnice:
1. Substana exploziv: exploziv plasc marcat;
2. Forma: prismac, lungimea 300 mm (sau, la solicitarea
beneciarului);
3. Viteza de detonaie: min. 6700 m/s;
4. Domeniul termic de ulizare: - 10
o
C + 50
o
C;
5. Raza minim de ndoire pentru tierea unui material plan 200 mm;
6. Raza minim de ndoire pentru tierea unui material tubular .100 mm;
7. Iniierea ncrcturii:
- cu ajutorul capselor detonante electric, comandate de la
distan prin r sau radio;
- cu ajutorul capselor detonante pirotehnic i l.
The oblong exible shaped charges (ICTRM) have the following
technical characteriscs:
Explosive material: marked plasc explosive (EPH); 1.
Shape: prism, 300 mm length (or at customer demand); 2.
Detonaon velocity: min. 6700 m/s; 3.
Working temperature range: -10 C+50 C; 4.
Minimum inexion radius 5. for the planar material cu ng: 200 mm;
Minimum inexion radius for tubular material cu ng: 100 mm; 6.
ICTRM iniaon: 7.
ectrical blasng caps, radio or wire-controlled; -
using pyrotechnical blasng caps and Bickfo - rd cord.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
56 CERCETARE TIINIFIC
ncrcturile exibile cumulave alungite au urmtoarele
caracterisci de performan:
- IEFC-05.00 adncimea de tiere de 5 mm 300g EPH/m.l.;
- IEFC-10.00 adncimea de tiere de 10 mm 470g EPH/m.l.;
- IEFC-15.00 adncimea de tiere de 15 mm 700g EPH/m.l.;
- IEFC-20.00 adncimea de tiere de 20 mm 1500g EPH/m.l.
ncrcturile cumulave cilindrice au urmtoarele caracterisci:
1. Substana exploziv: exploziv plasc marcat;
2. Forma: cilindric;
3. Domeniul termic de ulizare: - 20
o
C+ 50
o
C;
ncrcturile cilindrice cumulave sunt realizate n patru
podimensiuni:
- DCC-10 - pentru muniii cu grosimea peretelui cuprins ntre
8 i 10,5 mm;
- DCC-15 - pentru muniii cu grosimea peretelui cuprins ntre
14 i 16 mm;
- DCC-18 - pentru muniii cu grosimea peretelui cuprins ntre
17 i 18,5 mm;
- DCC-20 - pentru muniii cu grosimea peretelui cuprins ntre
20,5 i 24 mm.
6. Concluzii
Completul pentru neutralizarea prin efect cumulav a muniiilor
nefuncionate este un produs modern ce va putea ulizat de structuri
EOD sau similare, n condiii de ecien i siguran, n cadrul unei
proceduri specice coerente, de rezolvare a unor situaii pentru care
nu exist la ora actual o abordare unitar.
The oblong exible shaped charges (ICTRM) have the follow
performance characteriscs:
ICTRM-5 5 mm cu ng depth 300g EPH/m.l.; -
ICTRM-10 10 mm cu ng depth 470g EPH/m.l.; -
ICTRM-15 15 mm cu ng depth 700g EPH/m.l.; -
ICTRM-20 20 mm cu ng depth 1500g EPH/m.l.; -
The cylindrical shaped charges have the following characteriscs:
Explosive material: marked plasc explosive (EPH); 1.
Shape: cylinder; 2.
Working temperature range: -20 C +50 C. 3.
Technical data:
plasc material shell (PVC, PP); -
weight and gauge dimensions: 50x100 mm; -
explosive net weight: 40 60 g; -
iniaon: no.8 cap. -
Cylindrical shaped charges are manufactured in four typo-
dimensions:
DCC-10 ammunion shell thickness between 8 and 10.5 mm; -
DCC-15 ammunion shell thickness between 14 and 16 mm; -
DCC-18 ammunion shell thickness between 17 and 18.5 mm; -
DCC-20 ammunion shel - l thickness between 20.5 and 24 mm.

6. Conclusions
UXO neutralizaon by shaped charge eect system is a modern
product, which EOD structures or similar will be able to use in e cient
and safety condions, within a coherent specic procedure, in order to
solve situaons that do not have, at present, a unitary approach.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
Expositions, descriptions, technical assigments
57
Rezumat
n vederea evalurii ntregului sistem de lupt naval s-a efectuat
o analiza a capabilitilor operaionale de lupt AAW, ASuW i ASW,
dintre care, cel mai dinamic este modelul an-aer de rzboi AAW. n
vederea obinerii unei analize complete i eciente, cea mai bun
soluie este aceea de a dezvolta scenarii de lupt, capabile s simuleze
condiiile existente n teatrele de operaii, n mp redus, cu minimum
de resurse de calcul, pentru obinerea celei mai eciente soluii. Acest
lucru poate realizat prin aplicarea algoritmilor moderni de opmizare.
Lucrarea de fa propune o metod complex de analiz a sistemelor
de lupt navale, prin evaluarea capabilitilor pe direcii principale de
lupt, n condiii specice de lupt. Asel, datele obinute pot ulizate
n evaluarea sistemelor de lupt de la bordul navelor aate n uz sau
pentru procesele de achiziie a sistemelor de lupt sau achiziionarea
navelor.
1. Introducere
Necesitatea simulrii situaiilor de lupt reale n scopul studiului
analic reiese din lipsa de experien a forelor armate n operarea
sistemelor de lupt moderne, n condiiile unui conict de scar major.
Pentru creterea ecienei profesionale a acestor fore se apeleaz la
instruirea prin parciparea la conicte simulate.
n vederea evalurii ntregului sistem reprezentat de nava de lupt
[1], cel mai rspndit este modelul analizei capabilitilor operaionale
simultan pe cele trei medii de lupt aerian, la suprafa i subacvac.
Analiza trebuie efectuat n modul stac i dinamic prin intermediul
unor scenarii de lupt care s evidenieze performanele sistemelor
de lupt de la bord [2, 3]. Obiecvul de ndeplinit reprezint alocarea
corect a sistemelor de armament, asel nct s e angajate toate
ameninrile la adresa navei de lupt n discuie.
Lucrarea de fa prezint un instrument soware desnat evalurii
sistemelor de lupt actuale, aate n uz sau n curs de achiziie [1].
Evaluarea capabilitilor de lupt ale navelor se poate efectua prin
raportarea la capabilitile altor nave similare sau cerine operaionale
impuse analiz stac, dar i n cadrul unor scenarii tacce dinamice
complexe care pot evidenia att performanele ct i limitrile i
vulnerabilitile navelor [2].
O evaluare de acest p este extrem de ul i n etapa de proiectare
a navei sau anterior modernizrii acesteia, servind la selectarea
conguraiei opme a sistemului de lupt prin analiza comparav a
diverselor conguraii alternave.
Abstract
In order to assess the enre bale ship weapon system, an
analysis of the constuent warfare direcons operaonal capabilies
was performed AAW, ASuW and ASW, of which the most dynamic is
the an-air warfare component (AAW). In order to aain a complete
and me e cient analysis, we start from developing some bale
scenarios that simulate the condions in the operaons theatre and
solving them, with minimum me and computaonal resources, and
obtaining the most proper soluon this is achieved through modern
opmizaon algorithms. This paper proposes a complex method of
analysis of bale ships by assessing their capabilies on the main
warfare direcons, given parcular bale scenarios. The data
obtained may be used in evaluang the weapons systems onboard
ships, in current use or in the process of acquision of weapons
systems or even ships.

1. Introducon
The necessity of real warfare situaons in the scope of analyc
study derives from the lack of experience of most armed forces in
operang modern weapon systems in a large scale conict situaon.
In order to increase their professional experience, parcipaon to
simulated conicts is employed. For the assessment of the enre
bale ship system [1], the model of operaonal capabilies analysis
in three environments air, surface and underwater, is adopted.
The analysis should be performed in both stac and dynamic
modes, through bale scenarios that render obvious the
performances of the weapon systems onboard [2, 3]. The objecve
is represented by the correct allocaon of weapon systems so that
all threats are engaged.
This paper introduces a soware tool dedicated to the
evaluaon of the current weapon systems in use or in the process
of acquiring [1]. The assessment of ship warfare capabilies may be
performed by referring to the capabilies of similar ships or imposed
operaonal requirements a stac analysis, but also by means of
complex dynamic scenarios to point out both ship performances and
vulnerabilies [2].
Such an evaluaon is extremely useful in the designing stage or
before a modernizaon, for the purpose of selecng the opmal
conguraon of the bale ship system through a comparave
analysis between several alternave conguraons.
EVALUAREA SISTEMELOR DE
LUPT NAVALE
PRIN APLICAREA
ALGORITMILOR DE
OPTIMIZARE
THE ASSESSMENT OF NAVAL
WEAPONS SYSTEMS
BY MODERN OPTIMIZATION
ALGORITHMS
Colonel inginer George COSTEA,
cercettor inic gradul III
Locotenent drd. inginer Georgiana MARIN,
cercettor inic
Cpitan comandor inginer Ovidiu RADU,
cercettor inic gradul III
Drd. matemacian Elena CURC, cercettor inic
Agenia de Cercetare pentru Tehnic i Tehnologii Militare -
Centrul de Cercetare inic
pentru Forele Navale, Constana
Colonel engineer George COSTEA
scienc researcher III degree
Lieutenant engineer graduand Georgiana MARIN
scienc researcher
Captain Commander engineer Ovidiu RADU
scienc researcher III degree
Graduand mathemacian Elena CURC scienc researcher
Military Equipment and Technologies Research Agency
Research Center for Navy, Constanta
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
Prezentri, descrieri, e tehnice 58
2. Descrierea programului
Pentru efectuarea unei analize complexe a navelor de lupt, Centrul
de Cercetare inic pentru Forele Navale a realizat un instrument
soware bazat pe un algoritm de alocare a sistemelor de armament
i de senzori n scopul angajrii eciente a tuturor ameninrilor din
cadrul unui scenariu tacc. Prin simularea comportamentului navelor
n diverse scenarii tacce, se realizeaz evaluarea capabilitilor
operaionale ale diferitelor puri de nave pe diferite domenii de lupt,
relav la misiunile i rolurile solicitate i a performanelor i limitelor
sistemelor analizate [4, 5]. Programul cuprinde urmtoarele module
principale:
congurarea plaormei navale i a sistemelor de lupt din
dotarea acesteia;
congurarea simulrii (ameninri, scenarii, mediu de
operare, condiii de mediu);
modul de rulare scenarii;
prezentare rezultate;
baz de date.
Prin posibilitatea de accesare a bazelor de date se realizeaz
managementul unor iere p Access ce conin informaii detaliate
despre plaormele navale, sistemele de lupt aate la bordul navelor
i caracteriscile ameninrilor din scenariile tacce ce servesc la
evaluarea dinamic a navei de lupt analizate. n cadrul modulului
de congurare a navei analizate se efectueaz congurarea zic a
elementelor sistemului de lupt pe structura navei i a conexiunilor
funcionale dintre elementele sistemului.
Exist opiunea de ncrcare a datelor caracterisce unor nave
de lupt din dotarea Forelor Navale aparinnd diverselor state
membre NATO i nu numai, de la nave de patrulare pn la fregate,
sau de parcularizare a plaormei, pornind de la un model existent
de nav de lupt i modicndu-i sistemele din dotare [6]. Apare asel
posibilitatea evalurii ecienei capabilitilor operaionale a diferitelor
alternave de achiziie sau modernizare, corespunztoare programelor
de modernizare sau de achiziie de noi nave.
2. Program descripon
For the complex analysis a bale ships, the Research Center for
Navy produced a soware tool based on an algorithm of allocaon of
weapon systems and sensors in the scope of successfully engaging all
threats within a taccal scenario.
By modelling and simulang the ship behaviour in several taccal
situaons, there is assessed the operaonal capabilies relave to the
ships missions and purpose and the performances and limitaons of
the analyzed systems [4, 5].
The program has the following main modules:
Conguraon of the naval plaorm and the weapon systems
onboard;
Simulaon conguraon (threats, scenarios, operaon
mode, environment condions);
Simulaon mode;
Results illustraon;
Data bases.
The management of data bases is accomplished by handling
Access type les containing detailed informaon on naval plaorms,
weapon systems and sensors, and the threats involved in the taccal
scenarios.
In the ship conguraon module, the physical arrangement of the
bale system components on the ship structure is performed and the
funconal connecons between system elements are established.
There is available the opon of loading the data of parcular bale
ships pertaining to NATO or non-NATO Navies, ranging from patrol
ships to frigates, or the opon of customizing the plaorm, starng
from a given model and by adjusng its conguraon of weapon
systems and sensors [6]. Thus emerges the possibility of evaluang the
operaonal capabilies e ciency of various alternave conguraons
corresponding to Navy acquision or modernizaon programs.
Fig. 1 Meniul de congurare a plaormei navale i a sistemelor de lupt/
Ship Conguraon Menu naval plaorm and weapon and sensor systems
n gura 1 sunt prezentate meniurile de ncrcare i congurare
a plaormei navale i a sistemelor de lupt de la bord, denite prin
intermediul unor caracterisci principale. n aceast etap, ulizatorul
are posibilitatea modicrii conguraiei prin nlocuirea sistemelor
de senzori i armament ale navei de lupt, fr ns a putea modica
caracteriscile tehnice predenite ale sistemelor. Ulizatorul dispune
de modele predenite pentru urmtoarele componente:
CMS (Combat Management System); -
Rachete nav-nav; -
Rachete nav-aer; -
Torpile; -
In gure 1 there is represented the Ship Conguraon menu with
its opons of loading the naval plaorm conguraon and the systems
onboard, dened by several parcular characteriscs. In this stage,
the user has the possibility of adjusng the conguraon by replacing
some of the weapon systems and sensors on the selected plaorm,
without being able to change their characteriscs.
There are several predened models for the following components:
CMS (Combat Management System); -
Ship-to-Ship Missiles; -
Ship-to-Air Missiles; -
Military Technology no. 2/2011
Expositions, descriptions, technical assigments
59
Fig. 2 Performanele de lupt ale plaormei analiz stac/ System Warfare Performances stac analysis
Tunuri (diverse calibre); -
CIWS; -
Radare de supraveghere (2D, 3D, mulfuncionale, navigaie); -
Sisteme electrono-opce de supraveghere; -
Sonare; -
Radare de dirijare a tragerilor; -
Sisteme electrono-opce de dirijare a tragerilor; -
Sisteme de rzboi electronic (ESM / ECM); -
Lansatoare de inte false (cha, are etc.); -
Elicopter ambarcat. -
Modele predenite corespunztoare navelor i sistemelor de lupt
implementate sunt ntr-un numr i o varietate sucient de mare
pentru a acoperi principalele puri de sisteme ulizate de diversele
ote NATO i non-NATO [6]. Fiecare model de sistem este caracterizat
prin parametrii specici sistemului.
O prim evaluare a navei de lupt, n modul stac, se realizeaz n
cadrul analizei Warfare Performances, care reprezint grac capabilitile
operaionale pe cele trei domenii de lupt anaerian (AAW), la
suprafa (ASuW) i ansubmarin (ASW), n funcie de dotrile navei
i performanele sistemelor respecve, prin raportarea la capabilitile
altor nave similare sau la anumite cerine operaionale impuse.
Torpedoes; -
Guns of various calibres; -
CIWS (Close-In-Weapon-System); -
Surveillance Radars (2D, 3D, mulfunconal, navigaon radar); -
Electro-opcal surveillance systems; -
Sonar; -
Fire Control Radars; -
Electro-opcal Fire Control Systems; -
Electronic Warfare Systems (ESM / ECM); -
Decoy Launchers (cha, are, etc.); -
Embarked helicopter. -
The number and variety of the implemented models
corresponding to ships and weapon systems is enough to cover the
main system types used in NATO and non-NATO Navies [6]. Each
system model is described by its specic parameters.
The inial system evaluaon is performed by the Warfare
Performances stac analysis, which is a graphical representaon
of the operaonal capabilies on the main warfare areas an-air
warfare (AAW), an-surface warfare (ASuW) and an-submarine
(ASW), depending on the ship endowment and the respecve systems
performances, by referring them to the capabilies of similar ships or
to imposed operaonal requirements.
n connuare, ulizatorul poate stabili condiiile de evaluare
dinamic a plaormei selectate la pasul anterior, n modulul de
congurare a simulrii, prin editarea condiiilor de mediu i de operare,
a scenariului tacc i a ameninrilor. Exist posibilitatea selectrii unui
scenariu predenit sau a editrii unor noi scenarii i salvrii lor.
Fiecare scenariu se caracterizeaz prin:
mediul geograc de operare; -
compunerea i evoluia forelor proprii; -
compunerea, dispunerea i evoluia forelor neutre i osle din -
zona de operare;
condiii meteorologice; -
condiii de rzboi electronic. -
Editorul include modele predenite pentru principalele puri de
obiecte i ameninri specice mediului naval:
plaorme navale: principalele puri de nave civile i militare -
avnd caracterisci i dotri specice;
plaorme aeriene: principalele puri de aeronave civile i militare -
avnd caracterisci i dotri specice;
plaorme submarine: principalele puri de submarine avnd -
caracterisci i dotri specice;
rachete an-nav. -
Pentru ecare p de obiect/ameninare sunt denite modele
ntr-un numr i o varietate sucient de mare pentru a acoperi
principalele puri de obiecte/ameninri ce pot face obiectul scenariilor.
Further on, the user establishes the condions of the dynamic
evaluaon of the selected conguraon, within the simulaon
conguraon module, by eding the environment and operaon
condions, the taccal scenario and the threats.
There are some predened scenarios that may be chosen from or
new scenarios can be edited and saved. Each scenario is described by
several elements:
- The geographic operaonal environment;
- Own forces structure and evoluon;
- The structure, distribuon and evoluon of the hosle forces in
the operaons area;
- The meteorological condions;
- Electronic warfare condions.
The editor contains predened models for the main types of
objecves and threats in the naval environment:
Naval plaorms: main types of commercial and bale ships with -
their parcular characteriscs and systems;
Airborne plaorms: main types of commercial and bale aircras -
with their parcular characteriscs and systems;
Underwater plaorms: main types of submarines with their -
parcular characteriscs and systems ;
An-ship missiles. -
For each object or threat there are dened several models enough
to cover the main types of objects or threats that can be the subject
of scenarios.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
Prezentri, descrieri, e tehnice 60
Fig. 3 Meniul de editare a scenariului tacc/Scenario Editor Menu
Modulul permite ncrcarea unui numr maxim de 100 de inte aeriene,
de suprafa sau submarine. Acestea se caracterizeaz detaliat prin
misiune, caracter amic-inamic, drum, vitez, poziie absolut i relav
fa de nava aat n centrul hrii tacce, prol de zbor n cazul
intelor aeriene sau de deplasare pentru celelalte categorii de inte i
prin armamentul din dotare n cazul avioanelor de lupt, a navelor de
suprafa i submarinelor.
Tot n aceast etap de congurare a scenariului, se seteaz i
condiiile de mediu gradul mrii, vizibilitatea, condiiile de propagare
radio, densitatea tracului aerian i de suprafa, precum i modul de
operare a sistemelor de lupt proprii i modul de angajare a intelor
(Shoot Shoot Look sau Shoot Look Shoot).
Urmtorul pas este de testare a scenariului - acest lucru se realizeaz
prin meniul simulare. Se poate ncrca scenariul editat n etapa
anterioar i salvat ntr-un ier text, sau un alt scenariu predenit
de administratori i salvat n acelai format. n cadrul procesului de
simulare, programul dispune de o interfa grac pentru reprezentarea
situaiei tacce n dinamic corespunztoare scenariului selectat.
Analiza dinamic a plaormei selectate se efectueaz prin
simularea modului de interaciune dintre sistemul analizat i toate
intele din scenariu care prezint o ameninare. Pentru o analiz ct
mai complet i mai rapid, se urmrete rezolvarea scenariului n
mpul cel mai scurt i cu o soluie ct mai bun aceasta se realizeaz
prin intermediul algoritmilor moderni de opmizare.
Procesul de angajare a ameninrilor ine cont de:
- caracteriscile stace i dinamice ale navei, elementelor
sistemului de lupt, ameninrilor;
- relaiile funcionale dintre elementele sistemului de lupt;
- mpii specici de reacie a elementelor sistemului de lupt;
- cantatea existent de muniii, mpii de rencrcare cu muniii;
- probabilitile individuale de intercepie/neutralizare ale sistemelor
de armament relav la ameninri n condiiile corespunztoare
scenariilor tacce selectate.
The module allows loading a number of maximum one hundred air,
surface or submarine threats, each described by mission, friend or foe
nature, course, speed, posion absolute and relave to the posion
of the analyzed ship in the center of the taccal map, ight prole
for air threats, or moon prole for the other threats, and by the
weapons on board threats. Also in this stage of scenario conguraon,
the environment condions sea state, visibility, radio propagaon air
and surface tra c density, as well as the ship operaon mode and the
threat engagement model (Shoot Shoot Look or Shoot Look
Shoot) are set.
The next step is scenario tesng, accomplished through the
simulaon menu.
There can be loaded the scenario edited in the previous stage and
save in a text le or a predened one. In the simulaon process the
program interface enhances the dynamic illustraon of the taccal
situaon.
The dynamic analysis of the selected plaorm is performed through
the simulaon of the interacon between the system subjected to
analysis and all the targets represenng a threat in the scenario.
For a complete and fast analysis, the aim is solving the scenario in
the minimum me and achieving a soluon as e cient as possible
this is accomplished through modern opmizaon algorithms.
The process of threat engagement takes into account for the
following elements:
The stac and dynamic characteriscs of the ship, weapon -
systems and threats;
The funconal relaonships between the bale system -
components;
The parcular reacon me of the system components; -
The exisng ammunion quanty and the reload me; -
- The individual intercepon and kill probabilies of the weapon
systems relave to threats in parcular condions corresponding to
the selected scenarios.
3. Opmizing threat engagement
Prior to the start of threat system allocaon engine, the threat
detecon and idencaon is performed.
Detecon is controlled by comparing the threat - ship range with
the sensors detecon range related to the radio propagaon and
visibility condions; the idencaon is then performed by IFF or other
available resources.
Following this process, only the targets represenng a threat are
selected and sorted according to their danger level, given by assessing
their future posions and determining the closest point of approach to
the ship posion and the me within it is reached.
Aer the threat priorizaon, they come as an input to the process
of allocang the weapon systems and the sensor/re control systems,
divided into separate acons.
The process begins with the most dangerous threat, for which
a compable weapon system is search among the weapons list.
The compability is tested also by checking if the respecve system
is not currently allocated to another target. If the weapon system has
its own re control system, as it is the case of most Close-In-Weapon-
Systems, the threat is considered allocated and its engagement
scheduled. If not, there is accessed the procedure of allocang the re
control systems, through which the compability with both weapon
system and threat is tested.
Following the re control system selecon, the threat is allocated
and its engagement scheduled, and the next threat is considered. The
enre process is illustrated in gure 4.
In the analyzed cases a simplied weapon allocaon algorithm was
chosen by se ng some preferences in the selecon of weapon systems
and pairing them with various types of threats.
For instance there was set the condion that, if the ship
has a medium calibre gun, a minim number of threats should
be allocated to it, considering the high intercepon probability
and low cost of ammunion, as compared to the use of an-air
missiles. The results of the allocaon process for each threat are
represented in right part of the taccal map, during run-me mode,
as illustrated in gure 5. Aer running the scenario, the interacon
ship threats results are recorded and quaned.
3. Opmizarea angajrii intelor
naintea pornirii motorului de alocare a sistemelor pentru ecare
ameninare, se veric detecia acestora, prin compararea distanei
dintre int i nav i distana de detecie a senzorilor de la bord
corelat cu condiiile de propagare radio i de vizibilitate setate n
modulul de editare a scenariului, apoi idencarea lor prin IFF sau alte
mijloace disponibile. n urma acestui proces, sunt selectate doar intele
care reprezint o ameninare; acestea sunt sortate n funcie de nivelul
de pericol pe care l constuie, dat de prognoza poziiilor viitoare ale
intei, distana i mpul de ajungere n punctul cel mai apropiat de
poziia navei proprii. Dup aceast priorizare a ameninrilor, acestea
sunt introduse n procesul de alocare a sistemelor de armament i a
sistemelor de senzori/conducere a focului, structurat separat pe cele
dou aciuni de alocare. Procesul ncepe cu inta cea mai periculoas,
aleas dup criteriul intervalului de mp minim pentru a ajunge la
nava proprie. Pentru aceasta se caut n lista de sisteme de armament
de la bord un sistem capabil s o angajeze, care s nu e implicat n
angajarea altei inte i care s e compabil cu inta respecv.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
Expositions, descriptions, technical assigments
61
Fig. 4 Schema logic
a procesului de alocare
a sistemelor de
armament
i de conducere a
focului/The logic
diagram
of the allocaon
process of weapons
systems and re
control systems
The following types of results are given:
- The level of engagement of various threat types on various
direcons;
- The system maximum capacity of me engagement of mulple
threats gure 6;
- The kill probability of all threats.
Fig. 5 Exemplu de alocare a sistemelor de armament i de conducere a focului/
Example of weapon and re control systems allocaon
Fig. 6 Diagrama de angajare n mp a intelor exemplu/
Example of the me engagement diagram
Dac sistemul de armament deine un sistem propriu de conducere
a focului, ca n cazul sistemelor p Close-In-Weapon-System (CIWS),
atunci se consider c inta a fost alocat, iar angajarea sa programat.
Dac sistemul de armament nu are un sistem propriu de conducere
a focului, se acceseaz procedura de alocare a unui sistem de senzori/
conducere a focului, pentru care se testeaz compabilitatea cu sistemul
de armament i cu inta. n urma alocrii unui sistem de conducere a
focului, se realizeaz alocarea intei i se programeaz angajarea sa,
trecndu-se la urmtoarea int. ntregul proces este ilustrat n schema
logic din gura 4.
n cazurile analizate s-a recurs la adoptarea unui algoritm simplicat
de alocare a sistemelor de armament, prin stabilirea unor preferine
n alegerea sistemelor i cuplarea lor cu diferite puri de inte. Spre
exemplu, s-a impus ca, dac nava dispune de un tun calibru mediu,
s existe un numr minim de inte care s e angajate de acesta, prin
prisma probabilitii mari de intercepie i costul sczut al muniie, n
comparaie cu folosirea rachetelor anaeriene. Rezultatele procesului
de alocare a sistemelor de armament i senzori pentru ecare int ce
reprezint o ameninare sunt ilustrate pe parcursul rulrii scenariului,
n partea dreapt a hrii tacce dup cum este ilustrat n gura 5. Dup
efectuarea acestei etape de angajare a intelor, dup terminarea rulrii
scenariului, se nregistreaz i se cuanc rezultatele interaciunii
dintre nava proprie i ameninri. Se pot prezenta urmtoarele puri
de rezultate:
- Nivelul de angajare a diferitelor puri de ameninri pe diferite
direcii;
- Capacitatea maxim de angajare n mp a ameninrilor mulple
gura 6;
- Probabilitatea de neutralizare a ameninrilor.
4. Concluzii
Aspectul dinamic al analizei capabilitilor operaionale ale
sistemelor de lupt din dotarea navei luate individual i a interaciunii
dintre acestea este esenial n stabilirea unei analize ct mai veridice
i mai complete a ntregului sistem de lupt nava [1]. ntruct n
scenariile analizate numrul ameninrilor este relav redus, nu s-a
impus necesitatea folosirii unui algoritm complex de opmizare, cel
ilustrat n gur dnd rezultate bune pentru scenariile analizate, fr a
folosi resurse mari de calcul.
n cazul unui mediu mai dinamic ns, ct mai apropiat condiiilor de
lupt din teatrul de operaii n cazul unui conict major, se impune ns
folosirea unor algoritmi moderni de opmizare, de pul algoritmilor
geneci sau procedeul clirii simulate [7]. ns modelarea unor
asemenea situaii de lupt presupune implicarea unor mari resurse de
calcul, pentru obinerea unor rezultate ct mai bune ntr-un interval de
mp rezonabil.
4. Conclusions
The dynamic aspect of the weapon systems operaonal capabilies
and their interacons analysis is essenal in establishing a reliable
and complete evaluaon of the enre system the ship [1]. Since the
number of threats in the analyzed scenarios is relavely small, there
was not the necessity of implemenng a more complex opmizing
algorithm; the one presented here delivered sasfying results with low
computaon resources.
In the case of a more dynamic environment, close to the modern
operaons theatre condions in a major conict, there emerges the
need for employing modern opmizaon algorithms, such as genec
algorithms or simulated annealing [7].
But modelling the warfare situaons of such complexity involves
high computaon resources, in order to achieve the opmal results in
minimum me.
Bibliograe/ Bibliography
[1] G. COSTEA -Analiza ecienei operaionale a sistemului naval de lupt pentru diferite alternave de dotare, CCSFN, 2005;
[2] S. J. CHAPMAN; K. K. BENKE - Assessment of Ship Air Defence Performance by Modelling and Simulaon, BAE SYSTEMS;
[3] A. M. POULOS- An An-Air Warfare Study for a Small Size Navy, USN Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 1994;
[4] O. RADU, G. COSTEA, G. MARIN, E. CURC - Probabilitatea de lovire a intelor mrime de evaluare a ecienei sistemelor de lupt, a
XXXIX-a ediie a Sesiunii de comunicri inice a Ageniei de Cercetare pentru Tehnic i Tehnologii Militare, 2010;
[5] G. COSTEA, G. MARIN, E. CURC - Angajarea ameninrilor din perspecva probabilitii de realizare a misiunii, a VI-a Sesiune de
comunicri inice STRATEGII XXI, Universitatea Naional de Aprare Carol I, 2010
[6]***/ Janes - Catalog 2000-2001;
[7] D. KHOSLA - Method for automac weapon allocaon and scheduling against aacking threats, United States Patent Publicaon, 2003.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
Prezentri, descrieri, e tehnice 62
Traductoarele cu ultrasunete convenionale pentru NDT, de obicei,
constau e ntr-un element acv unic, care genereaz i primete
undele sonore de nalt frecven, sau dou elemente pereche, unul
pentru transmiterea i altul pentru primirea undelor sonore.
Traductoarele matrice (phased array) constau dintr-un ansamblu
cu traductor de la 16 la ct mai multe 256 elemente individuale,
ce pot aranjate ntr-o band (matrice liniar), un inel (matrice
inele), o matrice circular, sau o form mai complex. Ca i n cazul
traductoarelor convenionale, traductoarele matrice pot proiectate
pentru ulizare prin contact direct (uliznd un lichid de cuplare),
sau ca parte a unui ansamblu fascicul de unghi - cu o pan. Spectrul
traductoarelor matrice este cel mai frecvent cuprins n gama de la
2 MHz la 10 MHz. Un sistem de reele fazate va include, de asemenea,
un sistem soscat de calculator pe baz de instrument ce este capabil
s conduc sonda mul-element, primirea i digitalizarea ecourilor ce se
ntorc, i de plotare a informaiilor ecou n diverse formate standard.
Spre deosebire de detectoarele de defect convenionale,
traductoarele matrice pot mtura un fascicul de sunet printr-o serie
de unghiuri sau refractate de-a lungul unui traseu liniar sau dinamic, s
baleieze un numr de adncimi diferite, crescnd asel att exibilitatea
ct i capacitatea de control prin setri adecvate.
Fig. 1 Traductoare matriciale drepte i unghiulare/Linear and angular metrical transducers
SISTEMUL MATRICEAL
PHASED ARRAY
Inginer Constann STANCU, cercettor inic gradul I
Inginer Alina DUMITRU, asistent de cercetare
Agenia de Cercetare pentru Tehnic i Tehnologii Militare -
Centrul de Cercetri i ncercri n Zbor, Craiova
Convenonal ultrasound transducers for NDT, usual consists of a
single acve element which generates and receives high frequency
sound waves, or two pairs of elements, one for sending and one for
receiving ultrasound waves.
Metrical transducers (also called phased array), consisng of a set
of 16 transducer to as many as 256 individual elements can be arranged
in a band (linear array), in a ring shape (ring matrix), a circular matrix,
or even in a more complicated shape.
Like with convenonal transducers, metrical transducers for NDT
needs can be designed for using in direct contact (using a coupling
liquid), or as a part of a set of angle-beam with a feather.
The range of frequency of metrical transducers is most commonly
included in the range from 2 MHz to 10 MHz.
A phased array system will always include an sophiscated
computer based instrument, which is able to lead mul element probe,
receiving and returning echoes digizing, plo ng and echo informaon
in various standard formats.
Unlike convenonal aw detectors, transducers array can sweep a
beam of sound through a series of refracted angles along a linear path
or dynamic, to sweep a number of dierent depths, thus increasing
both exibility and capacity as appropriate control se ngs.
PHASED ARRAY
MATRICIAL SISTEM
Engineer Constann STANCU, scienc researcher I
Engineer Alina DUMITRU, research assistant
Military Equipment and Technologies Research Agency,
In Flight Research and Test Center
Funcionarea unui sistem de reele fazate (phased array) ulizeaz
principiul zicii, val de eliminare treptat, variind ntre mp o serie de
impulsuri de ieire cu ultrasunete, n aa fel nct undele individuale
generate de ecare element din matrice se combin cu alte unde
reectate pentru a aduga sau anula o cantate de energie ntr-un mod
previzibil, care conduce n mod ecient la forma fasciculului de sunet.
Aceasta se realizeaz prin impulsurile elementelor individuale ale
traductorului de reele fazate la momente uor diferite. Semnalele
elementelor ce alctuiesc traductorul vor n impulsuri n grupuri de
4 - 32, n scopul mbuntirii sensibilitii efecve de deschidere n
cretere a elementelor componente ale traductorului, ceea ce reduce
faza nedorit de mprere a semnalelor sonore i permite o focalizare
mai clar. Soware-ul calculatorului ce guverneaz acvitatea
sistemului stabilete momentele specice de ntrziere pentru ecare
grup de elemente, n vederea generrii formei fasciculului dorit, innd
seama de sond i de caracteriscile penei, precum i geometria
i proprietile acusce ale materialului de testat. Dup secvena
pulsing programat i selectat de ctre soware-ul de operare al
instrumentului, se lanseaz o serie de fronturi de und individuale
n materialul de testare. Aceste fronturi de val, ce se combin ntr-
un singur front (val primar), se transmit prin materialul de testare,
se reect n crpturi, disconnuiti, perei spate i alte limite
Operaon of a phased array system uses the principle of physics,
wave phasing, ranging from a series of pulses as output so that ultrasonic
waves generated by each individual element of the array, is combined
with other waves reected for to add or cancel an amount of energy
in a predictable, leading eecvely to shape the sound beam. This is
achieved by pulses individual elements of phased array transducer at
slightly dierent mes.
Signals that make up the transducer elements will be pulsed in
groups of 4-32, in order to improve the eecve sensivity of the
growing openness of the sensor components, which reduces unwanted
scaering phase sound signal and allows a clearer focus.
Computer soware system governing the acvity of specic sets of
delay mes for each group of elements to generate the desired beam
shape, light gases and plume characteriscs and geometry and acousc
properes of the test material. Aer pulsing programmed sequence
selected by the operang soware of the instrument, is launching a
series of individual wave fronts of the test material.
The wave fronts that are combined into a single primary wave-
front is transmied through the test material, is reected in the
cracks, disconnuies, rear walls and other material limitaons, as any
convenonal ultrasonic wave.
Military Technology no. 2/2011
Expositions, descriptions, technical assigments
63
materiale, ca orice val de ultrasunete convenionale. Ecourile returnate
sunt primite de ctre diferitele elemente sau grupuri de elemente i
mutate dup cum este necesar pentru a compensa diferitele ntrzieri
temporale parcelate i apoi nsumate. Spre deosebire de un traductor
convenional cu un singur element, care va analiza n mod ecient
efectele tuturor componentelor de faz ce greveaz zona sa, un
traductor de reele fazate poate sorta spaial revenirea wave-frontului
n funcie de mpul de sosire i de amplitudinea ecrui element.
Returned echoes are received by dierent elements or groups
of elements and moved as needed to compensate for dierent me
delays and then summed parceled.
Unlike a convenonal single element transducer, which will analyze
the eects of all components eecvely phase causes problems to the
area, a phased array transducer can sort space wave-front return on
the me of arrival and amplitude of each element.
Fig. 2 Exemplu de faz n unghi generat de sonda plat
prin intermediul variabilei de ntrziere/
Example of wave angle generated by linear path traducer
using a variable delay
Fig. 3 Exemplu de concentrat de scanare liniar/
Example of linear signals wave front
Acestea vor prelucrate de soware, ecare semnal reprezentnd
reexia de la o component unghiular special de ntlnire, un punct
special de-a lungul unui traseu liniar, i/sau o reexie de la o adncime
special. Informaiile de ecou pot apoi aate n oricare din formatele
accesibile instrumentului de invesgare.
Controlul defectoscopic cu sistemul matriceal Phased Array,
substuie cu un succes deosebit sistemele de control defectoscopic
cu ultrasunete uliznd defectoscoape convenionale. Inspeciile
cordoanelor de sudur i detectarea surilor sunt cele mai importante
aplicaii, iar aceste teste sunt efectuate ntr-o gam larg de industrii,
inclusiv industria aerospaial, generarea de energie electric,
petrochimia, piese de metal i furnizorii de bunuri tubulare, construcia
de conducte sau metale structurale. Sistemul matriceal de control
poate , de asemenea, ulizat n mod ecient pentru furnizarea unei
palete consistente de date viznd grosimea pereilor conductelor i a
unei game diversicate de tuburi, evideniind aspectele de coroziune
instalate n material. Beneciile tehnologiei Phased Array comparave
cu controalele ultrasonice cu traductoare convenionale UT, provin
din capacitatea sa de a folosi mai multe elemente pentru a conduce,
concentra i scana o palet divers de piese i materiale cu un singur
traductor. Acest lucru poate simplica foarte mult inspecia de
componente cu geometrii complexe, iar amprenta mic a traductorului
i capacitatea sa de a mtura faza, fr a muta sonda, precum i
efectuarea inspeciilor unor componente n situaiile n care exist
acces limitat pentru scanare. Scanarea sectorial este de obicei folosit
pentru inspecia sudurilor. Capacitatea de a testa suduri cu unghiuri
mulple de la o singur sond crete foarte mult probabilitatea de
detectare a anomaliilor, deoarece permite concentrarea i opmizarea
formei i dimensiunii fasciculului n zona esmat a disconnuitii,
augmentnd probabilitatea de detectare. Tehnologia Phased Array
are posibilitatea de a furniza informaii pentru defectele crice la
inspeciile volumetrice, prin mbuntirea capacitii de dimensionare
pe niveluri de adncime a materialelor sau pieselor inspectate, la un
nivel semnicav mbuntit al raportului semnal-zgomot.
Aceast tehnologie ce a generat n mod implicit i hardul
(defectoscoapele) corespunztor, ar putea aplicat pe scar larg
n controalele uzuale de mentenan, ce se execut la avioanele
IAR-99 oim, pentru inspectarea cordoanelor de sudur de pe trenul
de aterizare, a felurilor de joncionare a aripilor la fuzelaj, sau inspecia
zonelor de asamblare sudat a tubului efuzor al motorului.
These will be processed by the instrument soware, each signal
component represenng reecon from a special angle meeng, a
special point along a linear path, and/or a reecon from a parcular
depth. Echo informaon can then be displayed in any of the formats
available invesgave tools.
Control of phased array matrix system fault, replace the highly
successful ultrasonic aw control systems using convenonal
aw. Inspecons welding seams and crack are the most important
applicaons, and these tests are performed in a wide range of industries,
including aerospace, power generaon, petrochemical, metal parts and
tubular goods suppliers, pipeline construcon or structural metals.
The control matrix can also be used eecvely to provide a wide
consistent data regarding the pipe wall thickness and a wide variety of
tubes, highlight aspects of corrosion material installed.
Phased array technology benets compared to convenonal UT
transducers ultrasonic checks come from its ability to use several
elements to drive, focus and scan a diverse range of parts and materials
with a single transducer.
This can greatly simplify the inspecon of components with
complex geometries and small footprint of the transducer and the
ability to sweep the stage without moving the probe, and carrying out
inspecons of components in situaons where there is limited access
for scanning. Sectorial scanning is typically used for weld inspecon.
The ability to test welds with mulple angles from a single probe
greatly increases the probability of detecng anomalies, because it
allows focusing and beam shape and size opmizaon in the esmated
disconnuity, enlarge the probability of detecon.
Phased Array technology is able to provide informaon for crical
defects volumetric inspecons by improving the levels of depth sizing
of materials or parts inspected at a signicantly improved signal-to-
noise rao.
This technology generated also the accordingly hard (ultrasonic
ow detectors), may be resort to on a large scale in usual maintenance
inspecons applied of IAR-99 Falcon aircra, for weld inspecons of
the landing gear, wing iron mounng, or for weld area of jet exhaust
of engine.
Tehnica Militar\ nr. 2/2011
Prezentri, descrieri, e tehnice 64