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FILIP V.

GABRIEL

Vademecum roman-englez
pentru cadeti i electromecanici

Ro manian-English Guide Book


for Electromechanic Cadets

Editie electronica
2011

Material cu drept de autor


REFERENT STUNTJFJC:
Prof. univ. dr. ing. ANASTASE PRVIV
(Academia Navala ,Mircea eel Batran", Constanta)

Tehnoredactare computerizatll: Filip V. Gabriel


Desene $i grafidl: Filip V. Gabriel

ISBN 978-973-0-11905-3

Filip V. Gabriel 20 I I
Toate drepturile rezervate, inclusiv dreptul de a
publica pe suport de informatie electronic.

Material cu drept de autor


Crm en es1e dt:stintuO studt:JlfUo, pemru formare<J si imbogil(ireat"Qcrtlmlamlui c11
Jermeuii ii1 limbt1 en,t:lev i :.pedfid acu\itU(ii de e:rplOftWrc ~i iutre(iuere a imUtht(iilo r
uamle. Utcmren penuile studeJJ(Uor .# dobltndlrea cuno.~tin(elor iu t:eea a prive~te
iiiSitumemarulle lmic, specific acfhitfltii lor d e Ia bordul na"ei
iu luaa,e Je:aul este prew uwt ~ub jonu/1 dt! ('OIOdut.' parale le a:.ifel i11tli1 fietflfe
paragraf in limha tY;muimt i~i are core.rpomltmwl 1i1 limlm ~:mgle:/1 :rp re a fncilita
reCIIrtO<I~teren ~i fruu.)'ireo ttmuenilor uecunoscu{i si a sen.ndui paragrc'.fidlli. fiirit (J mc1i
fi uccesarci comulwretl tlic(iouambu' de specitditme. in p re:.nruuctl de:.ene/or .Nl Opltll.
pe crit fHI.\'UJU, pemru repre z_emilrile a.touometn'c e ~~; schem ele explmlme pemm o mai
u~oor(J recurt00$1ere a p(irtilor compouem c ale tliferitelor masiui ~i iu.smloJii ale uavei.
fu ceca cc pri1re~te .stnrcwra. t:tlrft'tleste tli 1i!/lllt t11 32 Ctlpitale t'(trc Jx>tji' gmpftlc
iii OJU pfir{i.
irt prima pane. care pl'iw:>~te nma come rda i/J In general. sw11 preumaJi temumi
refcri!Ori ht difen'tele llpuri de ntn't! ~'l t:tlmcteriwreft ,\'lnlt:ltmtl-constructiwi u wrpului
IUII 'ei.
A do11a pa n e um earjj 1ermeni cu pri11ire Ia tmelle, itts mtmtm e de miismV $i
t."'m rol llf!Ct'J'(ll'l! cadettrlui iu acfhiuaea wrruui.
Parten a t reia tratentlt tenm:.tti rt-feritori Ia comp(memele ilwalntiilo r ~i rt
fiiJe/egerii repret)!ut(Jrii In .scllemele de Ia bord. o 1ipurilor ~i f orme /or consm, ctil~e a
\'0/m/elor. pompelor $i jil1relor.
Parten a patm este dedicat/J imtalntiilor de Jortci ale IUII'ei ~i trtuea;P nmtimm{it
m 01oml cu ard<>te illl<>mli.
Ptll'lec't a cineca t'llflrinde termcni referitori Ia ccildcirile mmtle. imwltl{lile de
producere tJ aburului t i mrbinele cu nbur.
/)arten a sa.sea se refe,(J Ia combus tibili. proprielli(i ~; camcleristici. prccwu $i
inNwla(iile tit :.epttrtll'e t1 tQmbuNiibi/ilor.
Parten a .yap1ea este desn'uma descrierii con.uruc:(iei ~; fimc{iouOrii mu) r iu.wnlrt(ii
tmxi/i(lr'e de lxml.
fu parteti tl opw .wmt prezeu Ut[i al(l lenueni f olosi(lltt bordul n(n'ei. cm e 1w till
f o:rt iuclu~i in capiwlele prttcedem e.
Desi lucmrea se pre~jnt(J cu 1111 bogm conrimu 1elmic, ea JW inlocuie~'lt'
iw:ilmctiuuile de utiliztue il iluwltl(iilor de h1 bord11/mwe i. exemplde ttlese stmt m:,u ri
prmiculrtre :;i SIIIU mtmitefonuilrii wwi Jimbaj te lmic cursiv.
A ceil'Stli <>di{ic ccleb rea?P 10 ani de lit obsol~irea Acodemiei NMo/{1 ,.Mirr:ea eel
8i1trfi11", Omsum(tr.
.fl1ul{lmle.sc dQJJmlllui pf'Qj'eso r 1111ivusiwr dr. i11g. Ana~o;ta:;e Pmiu ptmtm
documeul(l(itt ttltnic/1 $i ('tiiiO~tiutele puse Ia dispc:,i(ii', peu1n1 illt lll'djdl'eo ~i SIIJ'Ortlll
(lC(}n/tu.

A w om l

Material cu drept de autor


FILIP V. GABRIEL

Vademecum roman-englez
pentru cadeti i electromecanici

Ro manian-English Guide Book


for Electromechanic Cadets

Editie electronica
2011

Material cu drept de autor


REFERENT STUNTJFJC:
Prof. univ. dr. ing. ANASTASE PRVIV
(Academia Navala ,Mircea eel Batran", Constanta)

Tehnoredactare computerizatll: Filip V. Gabriel


Desene $i grafidl: Filip V. Gabriel

ISBN 978-973-0-11905-3

Filip V. Gabriel 20 I I
Toate drepturile rezervate, inclusiv dreptul de a
publica pe suport de informatie electronic.

Material cu drept de autor


Crm en es1e dt:stintuO studt:JlfUo, pemru formare<J si imbogil(ireat"Qcrtlmlamlui c11
Jermeuii ii1 limbt1 en,t:lev i :.pedfid acu\itU(ii de e:rplOftWrc ~i iutre(iuere a imUtht(iilo r
uamle. Utcmren penuile studeJJ(Uor .# dobltndlrea cuno.~tin(elor iu t:eea a prive~te
iiiSitumemarulle lmic, specific acfhitfltii lor d e Ia bordul na"ei
iu luaa,e Je:aul este prew uwt ~ub jonu/1 dt! ('OIOdut.' parale le a:.ifel i11tli1 fietflfe
paragraf in limha tY;muimt i~i are core.rpomltmwl 1i1 limlm ~:mgle:/1 :rp re a fncilita
reCIIrtO<I~teren ~i fruu.)'ireo ttmuenilor uecunoscu{i si a sen.ndui paragrc'.fidlli. fiirit (J mc1i
fi uccesarci comulwretl tlic(iouambu' de specitditme. in p re:.nruuctl de:.ene/or .Nl Opltll.
pe crit fHI.\'UJU, pemru repre z_emilrile a.touometn'c e ~~; schem ele explmlme pemm o mai
u~oor(J recurt00$1ere a p(irtilor compouem c ale tliferitelor masiui ~i iu.smloJii ale uavei.
fu ceca cc pri1re~te .stnrcwra. t:tlrft'tleste tli 1i!/lllt t11 32 Ctlpitale t'(trc Jx>tji' gmpftlc
iii OJU pfir{i.
irt prima pane. care pl'iw:>~te nma come rda i/J In general. sw11 preumaJi temumi
refcri!Ori ht difen'tele llpuri de ntn't! ~'l t:tlmcteriwreft ,\'lnlt:ltmtl-constructiwi u wrpului
IUII 'ei.
A do11a pa n e um earjj 1ermeni cu pri11ire Ia tmelle, itts mtmtm e de miismV $i
t."'m rol llf!Ct'J'(ll'l! cadettrlui iu acfhiuaea wrruui.
Parten a t reia tratentlt tenm:.tti rt-feritori Ia comp(memele ilwalntiilo r ~i rt
fiiJe/egerii repret)!ut(Jrii In .scllemele de Ia bord. o 1ipurilor ~i f orme /or consm, ctil~e a
\'0/m/elor. pompelor $i jil1relor.
Parten a patm este dedicat/J imtalntiilor de Jortci ale IUII'ei ~i trtuea;P nmtimm{it
m 01oml cu ard<>te illl<>mli.
Ptll'lec't a cineca t'llflrinde termcni referitori Ia ccildcirile mmtle. imwltl{lile de
producere tJ aburului t i mrbinele cu nbur.
/)arten a sa.sea se refe,(J Ia combus tibili. proprielli(i ~; camcleristici. prccwu $i
inNwla(iile tit :.epttrtll'e t1 tQmbuNiibi/ilor.
Parten a .yap1ea este desn'uma descrierii con.uruc:(iei ~; fimc{iouOrii mu) r iu.wnlrt(ii
tmxi/i(lr'e de lxml.
fu parteti tl opw .wmt prezeu Ut[i al(l lenueni f olosi(lltt bordul n(n'ei. cm e 1w till
f o:rt iuclu~i in capiwlele prttcedem e.
Desi lucmrea se pre~jnt(J cu 1111 bogm conrimu 1elmic, ea JW inlocuie~'lt'
iw:ilmctiuuile de utiliztue il iluwltl(iilor de h1 bord11/mwe i. exemplde ttlese stmt m:,u ri
prmiculrtre :;i SIIIU mtmitefonuilrii wwi Jimbaj te lmic cursiv.
A ceil'Stli <>di{ic ccleb rea?P 10 ani de lit obsol~irea Acodemiei NMo/{1 ,.Mirr:ea eel
8i1trfi11", Omsum(tr.
.fl1ul{lmle.sc dQJJmlllui pf'Qj'eso r 1111ivusiwr dr. i11g. Ana~o;ta:;e Pmiu ptmtm
documeul(l(itt ttltnic/1 $i ('tiiiO~tiutele puse Ia dispc:,i(ii', peu1n1 illt lll'djdl'eo ~i SIIJ'Ortlll
(lC(}n/tu.

A w om l

Material cu drept de autor


Tabla de ma1erii Table of con1en1s

Prcfatii .....................................................,........ ... Pref:u:e ...............................................,........ ..... 4


Cl:.sific:ln:tl nave lor ............................................. Ships Classific!lliOn ......................................... 7
Schema senerala a unui car,11.obot ......................... General View of ZJ Multi-deck Vessel ............... 9
Sislcmul osaturii i invclisul corpului .............. ..... The Hull F'r:tming Syslem and Plat i n~t II

Miis1r ijrori Mrosurrmc nt ?Q

Miisuratori pe motor ~ i in compai imentul maini. Measurements on Engine nnd in Engine Room. 35
S imboluri ........................................................... .. Synbols....................................................... .. 37

Mtueria k Materia ls

Pompe .............................................................. .... Pumps........................................................ .... 60

lnstalatii de foflil .............................................. .... PO\\'e-r Pl!lnts .............................................. .... 82


~l otoru l principal ................................................. ~1ain En.~ i.ne .................................................. 88
Cilmaa cilindrilor si chiulasa ............................. .. The Cvlinder Uner :lnd Cover...................... .. 91
Pistonul si tiin pistonului .................................. .... The Piston and the Piston Rod ....................... 96
Biela i Jauarde de pat (principale) ...................... The Connecting. Rod and Main Bearings ........ 99
Arbofl"k <"Oiil The Cranksbaf! 10?

Supap<.:k: .............................................................. The. \'alves .................................................. 105


Pompa de injectie ............................................. .... Puel Pump ................................................. .. 112
lnjectorul ............................................................. Fuel Valve ................................................... 116
Uzuri si defectiuni ................................................ Wearing and Brtakdowns ............................ l l9
Cfll di'jJj BoBers !?7
T urb ine c u abur S1ea m Turbjnr s 148
Combust jhilj Combnstih les

lnstalatia de-separare ............................................ Separatio n S>stem ....................................... 169


Generatorul de apil tehnic-l NIRE.X ................... ... NIREX Fresh Wate Generator ................... . I88
Genenttorul de e~ pfi tehnidi Atla.o; .......................... Atlas Fresh Water Generator ........................ 193
lnstafatia de-ttatare biotogicl! a ape lor uzate ......... Oiological Sewage Treatment Plant. ............. 196
Canna si mas ina d mei ................................... .... The Rudder and the Steerin2 Gear ............. .. 200
Tancuri Ia bordul navei ...................................... .. Tanks O il Board of Ship ............................... 207
Ahe echipamente ................................................. Other Equipment ......................................... 209
t\ hi te.~m en i ...................................................... .... Other Tenns ............................................... .. 211
Bibliogtalie selectiva ........................................ ... Selective References ................................... . 218
s Material cu arep1 ae autor
6 Material cu drept de autor
CapiiOiul I Unil t

Clasificarea navelor Ships Classificatio n

I. Nave pentru trnllS-port mal'fl I.Cru-go ships:


a) Nave pentn.l transport miirfuri sol;de : a) Dry carg:o ships:
Cargou; {\lulti-dc:ck vessel;
Vrachicr~ Bulk canier;
Nav~ pot( contaiJler: Container ship:
Na\'a frigoriftcfl; Refrigerating cargo boat;
Ro-Ro; RoUo n-roll off vessel;
Fcribot; Ferry bont:
Mineralier: Ore eaniet:
Carbonier: Collier self trimmer:
Cerea l ic:r~ Grain carrier ;
Siep: River barge:
Batj3. Flat bouom craft.
b) Nave ptnlru transport ruiirfuri lie hide: b) Liquid <:.argo ships:
Petroltcr; Oil canker;
Nav~ pe:ntru transport gaze nalllr.~ le: LNG carrier:
Nav~ pemtu transpon substante Chemical carrier:
chimice:
c) Nave pcntru transportul m3rfurilor c) Dry and liquid cargo ships:
lie hide $i solide:
OBO OBO (Ore bulk-oil c.arrier)

2. Nave auxilia-e: 2. Auxiliary ships:


Remorcher: Tug:
lmpingiitor; Push tug;
Nav~ de salvarc: Rescue ship;
Sp3.rglltor de gbeatll: lcebJ\.->tLker:
Na\'t:. p.:ntru stins incendii; F'ire.-lighting \'t.SSCI:
Pik>tina. PiiOI bom.

3. Nave lthnice: 3. Technic.al vessels:


Mac.ara plutitoare: Floating: crane:;
Drago; Dredge;
IX1'0$eOzll: Rock breaker:
Doc plutitor: Floating doc:
F':.r plutitor. Light vessel.

4. Nave cu deitinatie specialll.: 4 . Special vessels:


Traul.:r; Trawler:
Nuva pcntn cc:rceliiri maritime:; Oce:.nographic vessel;
Navll pent'ru ranfluaea epavelor: Heavingoff ship:

7 Material cu drept de autor


Nava colectoare. Collecting ve-ssel.

5. Nave pentru transpc.m persoaoe: 5. Passenger ships:


Nava de dllfitori: Passenger liner:
Navii de croa~ iera; Cruise ship;
Pcribot; Rerry.

s Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul 2 Un il2

Schema general;l a unui cargobol General V iew o f a Multi-deck Vessel

I . Etambou: I. Stern frame. stern post:


2. Pic prova. pic pupa; 2. Peak:
3. Scam de salvare: 3. Escape ladder:
4. Calft. ruag:.azie: 4. Hold:
S. Tancuri de balast In dublul fund; 5. Double bouom ballast 1an.k;
6. Perete etans: 6. Watertight bulkhead:
7. Co.npartiltleiHUI masinilor: 7. Engine room:
8 . Buncar de c5 rbuni ~ 8. Coa.l bunke r~
9. Scalii de serviciu: 9. AccomnXJdation ladder:
10. Coli!rdam: 10. Cofferdam:
II. Sabord; 11. Scupper, wash pOri;
12. Ch;ln: 12. Keel:
13. Pere.te etans de coliziune: 13. Collision bulkhl."ad :
14. Etrava: 14. Stem;
15. Putul lantului de ancor!\: 15. Chajn locker:
16. ~<fagaz ie ; 16. Bowlocker;
17, Al'lC'Qrii; 17. Anc hor;
IS. Vinci de ancod'i: 1S. Wildlass:
19. Castel proYa. teuga: 19. Porecastle;
20. s;ga: 20. Derrick:
2 1, Catarg d ub lu penuu b igi; 21. Derrick mast:
22. Prima puntc, puntea principalii: 22 . Main d t:ek:
23. Puntca a doua: 23. Lower deck:
24. Timonl.".r ie: 24. Wheelhouse:
25. Camera hfiJ1i~r: 25. Chart n)()m;
26. Cabina comandantului: 26. Captain's quarters;
27. Ruf: 27. Deck house:
28. 8:"~ rca de salvare; 28. l)fe boOI :
29. C~tcl central; 29. Uppr works:

9 Material cu drept de autor


30. Spirai: 30. Air shaft:
31. Duncta: 3 I. Afterdeck;
32. Cambu11i.: 32. Stemlocher:
33. Bare-it de s.olv!ln:-: 33. Life boat;
34. Bocaporte. capac de magazie; 34. Hatch;
35. CO$ de fum: 35. Funnel:

Catgoutile sunt cele mai rlispfindite The multi-deck vessels are the most
lipuri de nilve mtlrilime de lr:lnSpOrl. used type of merchant ships. They can
Aceslca pot op<;r.~ c~ na"c de linic (de operate as liners (deep-sea Liners or shon
curs1l lung1l sau de em-sa scurtl1) sau ca se.a liners) or tramps (widlout regular
mhil tramp (de c-urse neregula!e). Unele routes). Some arc also designed 10 carry a
su111 a~n ajate $i pentru transponul unui limited number of passengers.
mmlir Jimitat de pasageri.
Cargourile :tu deplasamente fOM1e The multi-deck vessels htlve a very
di.fcritc care variaza de Ia e5tcva sutc lrt large scale of displacements between a few
peste 30000 tdw. Cele mai utilizate sunt hundred and 30000 tdw. Howe.\er the most
insa cd e intre 4500-8000 tdw. Cre~terc.a used an: those bc:twcc:n 4500 and 8000 tdw.
exageraH\ a tonajului este eviw.tli pentru a A ,ery extensive inc-ease of vessel tonnage
lu se prelmlgii perioadeJe de sta\ionare in is avoided 'ot
to exteod the berthing time.
port uri.
Cargourilc cu mai multc pun1i pot fi A multi-deck vessel can be of
de. tipul "shelterde<::k" (cu pun1i adiipOStite). "she.herdeck" (ooating dock) type. Tile
Puntea de prolectic C$1e <) pltttiOrmii situatii Shelter deck iS !I pltttiOrm placed firSt tlbo\e
imediat deasupm puntii supel'ioa-e. the main deck covering a strucwre without
aooperind o sttucturl'i llird de.schideri in openings in boards.
borduri.
Pentru inc~rcarea si desc~rcarea For loading and unloading cargoes,
mfirfurilor. cargourile de miirfuri generale the. general goods multi-deck vessels are
sunt dot ate cu bigi sau macarale (gnmke). endowed with derricks or barge deck
cmoes.
Pentru rn{rrirea randamentului To inc.re.ase bert..hing pe.rfonnance
opcrn1iilor Ia danii $i deci sciidcrca timpilor and consequently lo decrease bcrltting
de sta1ionare in pi:>nui nmrf.1 este ins!\euitll.. times the cargo is bagged. unitih"'d.
pachetizata. paletizata sau containc:ri>l'.tlti. palletizc:d or containerized.
J)e obicei ncest tip de n:tvil e.ste Usually these lypc- of ship is
dotat cu un motor diesel In doi sau patru powe.l'ed by a dtesel two stroke or Ib m
timpi. De aseruenea se mai utilizeazii $i stroke engine. Steam turbines are also used
turbinele in cazul IJ<l\'elor port-container at IJjgh speed container l.i.nc.rs.
mpide de linie.

10 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul 3 Unil 3

Sistcmul osaturii si invelisul comului Tile Hull Framing Svstem and Plating

~ ~ 4~1 maU~!i I !! ; II'


I II I I d I !! ! !! I !!I I Fig. 3. I

I. Etambou: I. Stem:
2. Chila; 2. Kc:c:l:
3. Car li ng~ cemralll.: 3. Middle line keelson:
4. Etrava: 4. Stem frame:

Corpul navci cstc un complex care The hull is a complex which


este lOn u.at In princ.ipal dintr-un c.adru de consists mainly of a st~l frame covered
Otel in vel it cu l:tblii. Cadrul de Otcl pO:lle fi wilh pl:lting:. T he Slc:el fra me: c<>uld be
connruil tn pall'u moduri: consuucted in tb ur ways :
sisle mul ttansve.tsal: u ansve.1'Se ftarning system:
siste mullongitudinal: longitud inal framing system:
sistemul combinat; cOmbinatiOn S)'Siem Of framing :
sislemul mix I ; mixed framing system:
in mod obi$nuil se foloSC$lC un Usually the used system is the
sistern mixl de osalUd! cunoscut sub mixed fram ing: syste m named
denumiren de SiS-Iem longitudinal ' Jon~i l ud in allr3R$\'Cf'Se framing S)'Siem'",
transversal. unde oonstruqia navei este in where the con~ruction o f the vessel is of
sish:m lo ng itud inal exceptilnd d ublul fund longitudinal framing system except for the
in co mpanime nlUI ma$inilor. picu l pupa. double bouom in m ~c hi.ncry spac-e, aft peak
partea din pupa a covenei, construc~ ii $i tank. after e nd o f the upper d eck, erect jons
rufuri c.are au un siste m de osatura and houses which are transverse fra ming
trtiQS\'ersal . S)'Sicm.
Copul navei este tn mare pane The hull is of exte nsively welded
sudat T ipul principal de lntbin are a construc1ion. Outt welding is considered
clcmc01eJor c travei. a c taroboului $i a the main type of connectio n of separate
cavale)ik>r arborelui 1XH1elice este sudarea pan s of Mem. stemframe a nd shaft
cap Ia cap. Pentru celelalte lmbin8ri ale brackets. Riveting: is also used lOr the other
os.nturii ~i in veli~u l u i se mai IO io~tc ~i joiniS o f the hull framing :tnd plating.
nituirea.
'fmbinfirile asamb lfirilo r sunt de. The connections of fitti ngs are. also
ascmenea &udatc c:it mai molt c u puti.nHi. in welded as widely :I.S possible. J.n general
gene ml sudurn este tblosi t~ Ia toti perelii weld ing is used o n all uavel'se and
despiiJ1itori lransversali sau longitudinali lOngitudinal bulkhe.ads indud ing the
incluziind legiitura c u long iiUdinalek connection of shell lo ngitud inals
bol'dajului. care 1i s.u~pu1lg. $i cap~tul througho ut. and end fram ing. All butts and
coastelor. Toate cape1ele $i cuSliturile seams of shell and deck plating do not have
bordajului nu au imbin8.ri nituite daloritJ r iveted seams as per classificmion society"s
regutik)l' societ! tii de clasificare. Or icum. rules. Howeve1. the b ilge keel is riveted to
chila de: m liu c:stc: ni1ui18 pc comicrul care the an~l e bar which is wc:klod 10 lhc: shell
cste sudat pc bordajul lll(:taJic al cocii. plati.ng.
Exist~ do ua tipuri de e~r.we: e ttavi\ The1-e are two types of ste ms:
din tabla de otel s-udatli inliiritfl c.u bracheti fabric.ated welded Stem OOnStructcd Of Sled
uansversali sau e travli. w mat!i. care are- o plates strengthe ned by horizontal brackets.
executie simpl3 c u a ze de 1umare ctit mai or cast ste nt whic h is simple in design with
II Material cu drept de autor
mari posibil $i es1e prt.\i!zm<"i c.u nervuri all li llets having large cast radii and is
transvcrs~ l c de -int3.rire. reinforced by horrtontal webs.
Ambele tipuri de etrave se leag1l de Both types of stems are efficiently
<:hila masivil sau de c hila plalii ~i, doca e-Sie connec ted 10 lhe bar or plate keels ttnd.
posibil, cu carlinga central&. La c:lr:t\'clc whenever possible, to the bouom centre
turnate. pentru tmbinarea cu cal'linga g6der. A specia l web is provided in cast
ct ntralil. se. va pre.vedea Ia talpa e travei o stems fo r au achmenl to 1he centre g.rider at
nervura special3. the stem foot.
Construqia etamboului es(e The stern post construction is. in a
SimiiMii inlr-un fc:l c u COnSiruq itl etTtl\'ei: way. similar 10 lhe Sle m co nstmctio n:
di.n table sudute sau turna1. Particularil3.tilc fabricated stern post or cas stern poSl.
sunt d ate de prezenta e licei. axului elice i. Particulari,ies oome from the presence of
c ftrmei ~ i axului dirmei. the propdler, !he propulsio n shaft. the
rudder and the rudder spindle.
f o ma e tamboului este a le.as3 c u The form of the stenl fra me is
gTijii astfel tnd il curenlul d e ttpH sa nu carefully decided in a way l h~H 1he Oow o f
i.nt1uentezc curgcrca in jurul elicei. water does not diswrb the flow around the
Etamboul e lic:ei $i e tamboul c.firrnei pot fi propeller. Tile stem (>OSl and the rudde.
co nstruile inlr-un oorp a)mun. Deschidcn::!l pOSt could be made It$ one piece. T he Spt-m
cadrului dintre etamboul ciirmei si of the frame lo\~;er JXH1ion between the
e tamboul e licei este cfit rnai mica posibil. propeller post and the rudder pos( is as
sma ll as pracl icall)' possib le.

31 30 12 P.O. 12

23
12

11

23 ~7
17

12 Material cu drept de autor


I. Varangft~ I. Floor;
2. Supott cemral (In cazul n.avelor cu 2. Central gride.r (at hulls with ilnet
dublu fund) sau carlin.g.ii c.entraiU ( in bOnom) o r centre/ma in keelson (at
cazul nave lor cu simplu fund): hulls with sing le bottom):
3. Supott latetal (in cazul navelor cu 3. Side gl'ider (at hulls with ioner bottom)
dublu fund) sau cttrlingii lttLerniU ( i n or side/sister keelson (tl.l hulls with
cazul navclor cu simplu fund)~ sing le bonom):
4. Nervuril de rigidizare a varangei: 4. Floor stiffener:
5. T abla marginala: 5. M!lrgin plate:
6. Guseu de g uma: 6. Bilge bra<:ket/knee;
7. CoaSI5 de cal5: 7. Hold frame:
8. T rtt\'erstt puntii inlermediare; S. Midd le-deck beam:
9. Coasta de intcrpuntc: 9. Bctwccnrtwccn frame;
10. Traversa pun\ii principale: 10 . Main deck beamlgrider:
II. Guscu de lega~t~ril intre coasta ~ 11. Deck beam frame bracket;
traversa punJii (braJol):
I2. Curent de pume: 12. )R(:k Jongirudina l:
13. Ouseu de lcg$1Urii intre tr.l\'ersii ~i 13. Beam knee;
curcntul de puntc:
14. Parapet: 14. Bulwark:
15. Guseul pttrttpetului: IS. Bu tw:~rk knee:
16. CopaMie: 16. Bulwark rajl;
17. Pontil de callS: 17. Hold pillar/stanchion:
18. Pontil de int crpuncrc~ 18. Middle-deck pill:lr:
19. Chila: 19. Keel (centreline-skeg):
20. fnveli$ul fundului: 20 . Bouom plating:
2 1. fnveli~ul (punte:.) dublului fund: 21 . Doub le bouom plating;
22. i nveli$ul guroei (guma): 22. Bilge planking/platilg:
23. f'n vtlisul bordajului: 23. Planking :
24. Centum puntii intcrmediarc; 24. Sheer stroke of middle deck ~
25. Tabla Uicrimarl.\ a punJii intermediare: 25. Middle deck stringer plate;
26. fnveli~ul pun\ii intcrmediarc; 26. Middle deck plating:
27. Ouscu de legaturil intre co:tstn de 27. Between fro me middle dce-k bracket;
inte.punte $i pume.a intermediadi:
28. Cemura puntii princ.ipale; 28. S hee.r Sttitke. of main deck:
29. Tabla l.icrimara a punJii principaJc~ 29. Main deck stringer plate:
30. i nvelisul puntii principale: 30. Main deck plating:
3 1. Ciiptu ~.ala puntii prindpale.~ 31 . Main deck planking:
32. Cornier l3erimar; 32. Watcr.vay lxt.r~
33. Guseu de Jegiituril lntte pontil $i punte. 33. )R(:k pillar bracket:

13 Material cu drept de autor


Elcnlntul principal al sistcnmlui de The majn clement of the hull
osanld\ este cal'linga (in caz.ul navelor cu framing system is the keelson ( 1()1' hulls
simplu fund) Stlu suportul (in cazul navdor with single bollOm) Or the g:rtder (for hulls
cu dublu fund ). Accsta este clcmcntul de with inner boUom). This is tbc clement of
osaturl\ longitudinal. inclus in s.tructura 1he long.itudinal framing system. included
bloc-sectiei de fund, situat in planul in the Strucmre or the bolll)m section.
diamctral navci (carling5 central! I supo11 placed in the centre-line plane (centre/main
central) sau Ia o :mumit3 distanHI. de aces1 keelson I cemre--grider) or at a cerwin
pl!ln (carling:it lttLernliJ I SupOrl later:'!.l). De di$1:1n<.-e from il (Side/sister keelson I side
carlingti sc sudeaza varaogcle. Acestea sum grKier). On the keelson arc welded the
elernente de osatura transversala incluse in floors. Tilese are elemerlts or 1he
Structura bloc.-sectiei de fund ~i aviind transverse framing system induded in the
capetcle limitate de ccle doua bordaje (in structure of the bottom seclion, having their
ca-w l navelor cu simplu fu nd) sau de butts limited by 1he ship's sheathing (for
tabk:le m:trginale (in c:nul navd or cu hulls with singJe bouom) or by lhe mttrgln
dublu fund). plates (for hulls with inner bottom).
Ele.rneniUI de osamra transversaL The element of the tl'ansverse
indus in S.tructura bk>c-seqiilor de punte ~i framing. system included in the Slmctun: of
av5nd capetele prinse de cele doul!. txwdaje, the deck sections. having its butts attached
respectiv de doi pere,i Jongitudioali sau de 10 1he ship's sheathing or between two
un percte longiwdinnl ~i de un bordaj ( in side-wing butkhe:ds or a side-wing
cazul cxistcntci pcrctilor longitudinaJj), sc bulkhead and one side of casing (if there
nume$te. traversa pun1ii. Ace.s ta este are side-wing bulkheads). is named deck
elementul trans\erS.'ll principttl de Structurit be:tm. This is the main d ement of the
a puntii. deck ttansverse framing system..
Yntre ''llnlJlgli s.au guseul de gurnli $i The frame is IOund between the
traversa sau inveli$UI puntii (principale, bouom floor or bilge- brackcl and deck
imermediare. respectiv a suprastruclUrii), beam. ne.lH to the side plating. This is the
IAnga in ve.l i~u l bordajului se gase~te element of the transverse. framing S)'Stem
co:lSia. A<.-eas-1:\ e$1e elemcntul de structuril which provide sh:1pe and strc(lgtbening of
transve1sal care asigurll fomlll $i rigiditatea 1he side section on the f'aming body plan.
bloc-sectie.i de hordaj in plan vertjcal-
transvcrsal.
Aceste elemente sum rigidizate These elements are longitudinally
longitudinal prin intermediul IOngitu Strenglhened by means of bonom lOre-and-
di.nalelor de fund (sud:ue pe invel istl aft lines (welded on the bollom plating).
fuod ului). P'in longitudinale de tx)l'daj side tO-e-and-an lines (welded on the s ide
(sudate pe inveli$ul bordajului) $i curtn1i plating) and deck stringers (welded on the
de puntc (sudati de invclj$ul puotii). deck plating)
in cazul c:ind coastele din Where the 'tween deck and
interpunti ~j supmstructuri sunt intrerupte superslructure frames are cut tu decks. Iheir
In punte capetclc lor infcrioarc sc vor k>wcr ends are atwcbcd by brackets..
pti11de cu gusee.
In ca?:ul navtlor mtari se pOl On the ships larger in siu there.
int.ilni ca clemente de sustincrc a puntii si might be deck holding clements and hold
pomilii de cal! cu rol de rigidizare pillaJ's /stanchions with vertical
vertic-ala. St ren~J he ni ng role.

14 Material cu drept de autor


C:cl)iWIu I 4 Unil 4

Unelte Tools
Measuring Apparatus
Dispoziti,c dt mil~u rat
Dial gauge with Microme-ter

~
magnet holder (outside)
Compaator cu Micrometru (de ~
supott magnetic exterior)

Vcrn.ier caliper Hand tachometer

~ ubler
IW
Tahometru de mfina kb
Clinometer Marking SCriber

Aparat pe.ntru
masur:tt inclim:m:tl
ill Ac de trasat

Surface gauge Surface plate

Tras:Hor parnJel ~ Masa de t rns:u


Q

Stroighl edge Square

Riglfi
~ Echer (vindu) l
Feeler gaug.e Steel scale

Lere de grosime
~ Rig:Ja gradalii de
otcl
/
Steel tape measure
Cloth tape me-asure
for sounding
Ruletli din otel
pentru sondil
&Y Ruletli din material
te.xtil
~

cp
Spring balance Compasses
~
Compas pcntru
Cilruar cu arc
trasat

Inside caliper Outsid.:. caliper

Compas de interk>r A Compas de exterior


({)
15 Material cu drepl de autor
Thcnnometer with lhermomctc:r with
holder alcohol o r mcrtury
Termometi'U cu ~ TemlOmetru cu /
suport (teadi) alcool sau me.n:-ur

Working Tools
Unelte
Portable electric Po rtable electric
grider drill with chuck
~
Masin! e1ectric1\ de
~
Polizor electric
gaurit pOrtabila cu
ponabil
mandrinli
Tap & round die
Straight shank d rill

~
with case
..---..."""
Burg:hiu cu coadii TruSfi de.tarozi $i
cili ndr ic~ fil icre

Spanner Spanner
( Single endt:d) (double e nded)
~ ~
Cheie fixli Cheie fix!
(cu un singur c.apiil) (cu douil capete)

Box spanner Monkey wrench

Cheie tubularl'i ?' Cheie 1'e;glabilli


~

Pipe wrc:nch Screw driver


Gl1;;!--=. ,, =
Cheic pcntru
.$urubeln~il
tubulaturi
Screw d river
Pliers
(cross head type)
~ ~
$urubelni1<1 c.ap
Patent
crucc

File File ( t'lat. ro und and


(for white m.:tal) half-round)
~
-
--=:::;-
. co
$ab.\r (pcntm Pill\ ( platA. rotu nd~
material tultifrictiune) $i semirotm,dli)
File (flat. round.
hnlf-rouod and .,;.-..;<iF' File ht~ nd le
lriaoe:ular)
(plata. rotundli $i
Pil~
-=-0 ""' 6 =
P.liiner de pili
semi.. lriunghiularii)

16 Material cu drepl de autor


File brush Hand hnnuuc r
~ F
Perie pentru pile: Ciocan de mfinA

Lead hammer Wooden hammer

Ciocan de plumb
0==
Ciocan de )emn
0=
Sledge hammer Chippir)g hammer
ID== ~
Ma11agon
Baros (cioctlndalti'a)

-
Scrapes Paint scraper
""'==.
Ra~u i tor ~
Razuitoare- pentru vopsea

Ccnler punch

P\lJ)ClatOI'
/
Cuuing punch

Preducea

Chisel
-
Chi,se.ts

.:8
(oil grove cut)
Dalt3 (pentru t3iat
-
~
Oiilti
canalul de ulei
Scissors lOr me.Jal
Scissors for packi.ng
ee
~
(flat and round)
R>arfeci penlru Poarfeci pt. mew I ~
gatoitul'i (dreapt~ ~;rotund3)
Hacksaw frame.and Pac.king tools (hook,
h:tcks:~w screw and stick)
Fierl'istrnu pe1uru rm;:\:> lnstrumenle pentru
mc:tale (bomfaier) .t>i gurnituri (cfu'lig, ==:P
piinUi til'l>u$01l $i s.patul3)

Packing knite Patallel vi<:e

Cutit pe.mru
eu 1l.

Menghina paralclii
~
garnituri

Leg vi Bench vice

Mc:nghimi de m!inil rt Mc:nghimi de bane Cf1


17 Material cu drepl de autor
To rch lamp
Flash lig ht

~
(kerosene)
~
Lampi de benzina Lanternil de bu-zum'lr

u
Screwjack with
Wire rope sling

Leg<itudt din parfimfi


mct~Llid
/ tatdlet
Cric cu $Urub $i
clichet

Shackle Chai11 block

Cheic de tachclaj

Crow bar
@ PaJanc co

Wedge
l~tn1 ft
Ranga c.u gheate / Pana ( ic)
~
Valve handle
Porg.e with heart
spanner 1--1:
Cheie pentru
manevrat valvolc
I I
Fotjli cu vatt3 flf
Anvil with Smith tongs
wooden bed (ilal and round) P'
N ico,a l ~ cu ~ .
C le$ti de lietar .#"
pOStament de. lemn ( plat $i rotund)

Smith hammer Eyebolt

Ciocan de fierar
~
Oche1 ~
Misr.cll!tnOOus Artich.~

Articole di"et'St'

w
Oil hopp.:r with
Oil measure

~lasura pentru ulei 7J fil ter screen


P!ilnie pentm ulei cu
ccrnn fi ltranl

Oil f.:eder
Oil feeder
-=::] (S)<inge)
~ UnglitOr
f4:=-
Ung5tor
(siringlij

18 Material cu drept de autor


Grease pump with
OiJ pao with strainer
microhOse

Tec-a lcmil cu furlun


# ~ravli pcntru ulci cu
fthru
#

fJ
Water bucket Wire brush
(}
Ghiordel Perie de sfirm.li

~
Painting brush Paint can

Pensule penlru
vopsit
BKion de vopsca B
Rubber air hose:

~
Lislening rod

T ij3 de ascultal
/ with nozzle
Furtun pt. ae. dill
c.auciuc cu ajutaj

Flexible rnc:tal Canvas cover


hose
Fun un metalic
d I II Ow:
~
Prelatii lcxlilil
llexibil
Aluminium lOot
Scaffolding plate

Plad'i de. sc:hellirie.


~
stool
Bil ncu~ii cu picioan:
de aluminiu
fi
Desk (for engine
ShOe mill

~
room)

Pre$ de $1ers pe
PEJJ Birou pentn
compru1imentul
picioa.re
m.asinilor
Blnckbonrd and Waste box

Q ~
eraser
Tablli de scris $i Cutie pentru
burete reziduuri

\Vel stone
with bed
Grcsic de apft
CU SUpOrt
~
Oil stone with bed

Grcsic de ulci cu
supOrl
,
19 Material cu drept de autor
Unit 5

M~sur~tori Measuremem

in IOale ramurile 1ehnicii mils-urarea In all branches of eng:inee.ring.


joacli un rot vital dcon.nx-c proicccarea. measurement plays a vital role since the
fabricarea si utilizarea oric-Arui p1'0dus nu design. manufacture and use of any product
pOtue fi consideratil fflril a SC face reli:rire Ia cannot be considered withOut reference ro
:1cest concepl. this conccpl.
Mli.sumtea este ml proce.s de The measurement is a oompaing
oomparare. Pentru a mlis-urn m:&rimea. proces.fi. To measure si2e. quantity. volume.
can tit~llea. volumul. unghiul. grcutatca etc. degree. weight etc you compare the size of
se comparn mll.rimea acestei P'<>prietll.ti cu chat fe.ature with the size of a measuring
miJ.rimea unui d iSp<)l':iliYde mitsura. device.
Pentru d miis.ur3torilc sunL :.'l$ll Si.nce measurement is SQ important,
importante. ex ist~ o la.rg~ gamli de it follows that there is a wide range o f
instrumenlt! des-linate sa indil'C foarte pn:cis devices and instruments which are
lungimea. prcsiunca, timpul si asa mai designed 10 indicate very precisely length.
departe. ptessure. time aDd so on.

Sl - u11ittJ(i # ca,t.itii(i Sl Units a11d Qua11tiJit~


i n oontOrmitate cu SJ (Systeme According to Sl (Syst~ me
lntern:uional d ' UniiCS - c.are in france:r.a lnlemtnional d'Unih!S - which in French
inseamna S istemul l ntema~iona l de Unil31i) means l memationnl System of Units) units
unit3tile de mll.sudi pol ti lmplirtite tn doull. can be divided in two classes:
d:ase:
unit31i fundamcnta lc~ the base units:
uniH\1i deriwlte: the derived units:

U~titfiJilefuTidam entale ale $1 sunt: The base units of Sl ltre:

Canlitatea Unitatea Kotart Quantitl' Uuil A.lill't\di:ir:l


lungiml! mclru on length mt'1er m
Masa kilomm kJ< Ma~ kilo2rnm k
1irlll) secui)(L'I s Time second
lmcnsitatca curentu lui
~ )~ef A Electric currc.m amr1ert:
'
A
elooric
Tempers tum S1'3d K Temperature. kelvin K
kelvin
lntcnsitatca luminoos3 candela cd Luminous intensity candela od
Cantil ate dl! substa11~a lnl.ll llll.l l Annuli. tlf.suhsttu11.-e mole mol

Aceste unitli.li su01 definite prin tbrmule 1bl:se units are defined with physical
IO.ic::et-a accaSla, fobs-ilft pentru a defini tnc:"trul: fonnulas such as this ore used co deline tre
meter:
"Lungim('t~ /}(llt'm:sil de n~za ltutr in "The leug/JJ of JXllll ll'tllv:iltd by laser
11299192458 .\'et'JUide. Rtt:tl.fiintl obtinuJii pdn light in /1199792458 ,\'et'Ofltk The liglu bf'illl]
folosiroo wmi fa..o;t>r SU1bilit111 iod heliuneou." rt>aliwl thrvuglt the 14S<' OJ' iodine swl>iliwl
litlimti-IIWIIaser. "
AceSlc: unitilti ~ pOt combina Spre a da 1n:!se unitsc.an be t"'mbined LOgi\'elhe
zmitii(ile de mi!surii derimJe, pra:um deri~wt u11i1s, like tt: following:
unl\l1Ioarele:

20 Material cu drept de autor


Nota1ie. Unit
C:mtitate Nol:lP., Unittte
unital~
Quuntil)' Symbol Unit
~~nbol
Fo"A F newton N fOJ'Ce F lleY<tOO N
Presiune p pascal Pa Pressure p poscal Pa
Lucru
rrecJnic
L joule. J Work w joule. J
Encre.ie E oulc J Encre:v E ioulc J
Pulerc w WJH w Power p WJ!l
Viteza . m/s Vdocit . m/s
Ac:cdera1ie "a . m/s- Acoeleration "a . m/s ~

FrecvenHi. f hertz Hz f -equency f hertz Hz


Chiar daca SJ este in generul folosit. Although Lhe Sl is generally u.m the
SUA ~i rvl:~rea Briumie fo!oo:sc inca un siSlc:m USA :lrd (iretll Britain Slill retain a
de n"'surli. care este diferit de c:e1 folosit in restul rreasu-enlenl syYem that is diffe-em from the
lumii one used by the ~$1 of the world.
Tabelul d: con''CJ"&ie dintrc sistcrmt The US customary lo SJ o::JUiva\cnl
US obi$nuit $i Sl echivatem es(e dat rm..i jos. oonversion table is done below:

Cantitate us SI Quantity us SI
Lungimc I pK:ior 0.3048 m Length ft (fool) 0.3048 m
I to I 25.40 mm in (inch) 25.40 mm
mila 1.609km mi (mile) 1.609 km
I yard 9 1.44 e m I yd ( ~ard) 9 1.44 (.~Ill
Arie 101p3trat 645.2 mm' A1>ea in' (square 645.2 mm'
inch)
picior piitrat 0.0929 tl) n (square 0.0929 m
foot)
acru 4046.856
, acre. 4046.856
,
m m
milfi pltlrallt 2590 km miw (square 2590 kro
mile)
Mns1i dram 64.80 ffijl Mass 1grain 64.80 Ill~
unde 28.35 ~ O< 28.35 ~
livra 0.45359243 lb (libra, 0.45359243
kg pound in kg
wei~ ht)
(OI11i lungli 1016.047 Jong ton 1016.047
kro kg
{Onli scurtli 907.18 kg shon (On 907.1 8kg
Volum gaJon 0.0037854 Volume gal (gallon) 0.0037854
m3 SUA m.l USA
0.0045461 0.004546 1
m) MB ml GB
acru
I picior
o ri 1233.485
m.l
acre ft
(acre-loot) Il1233.485
l,
~o l cubic 16.387064 in' 16.387064
em' (cubic-inch) cm3
picior cubic 0.0283 1684 1\ (cubic- 0.02831684
6 m3 fOOl) 6m'
ya1xl cubic 0.7646m yd (cubic- 0.7646 nr
I yard)
21 Material cu drept de autor
Cancitace. us Sl Quantity us Sl
VileUi picio r pe 0.3048 mls VeiOdly ft/s 0.3048 m/s
securxlli
\01 pe 0.0254 m/s in/s 0.0254 n11s
secunda
galon pe 0.0407 gavr.- per 0.0407
picior p31rat mlmin mjn m/min
intr un
minut
galon pe 58.678 ml>i gal/ft pe.r 58.678
picio r pillntl day m/d~y
iJUfO z.i
Putere picior ori 1.356 w l'owr filbls 1.356 w
li\rli pe
secunda
<:.ttl putere 745.7 w hp 745.7 w
(e n~le~se)
Presiune livrii pe 47,88 Pa Pn::ssure lb/ft 47.88 Pa
oicior oatrat
li\'rii pe tol 6.895 k Pa lb/i_n- 6.895 k Pa
eatrat
picior (apa) 2.988 k Pa f\ (of water) 2.988 k Pa
Foota livrii 4.448 N force lb 4.448 N
Ene rgie pic.ior ori 1.356 J Energy lilb 1.356 I
livrA
Debil picio r c ubic 0.0283 oris Plow rr /s 0.0283 m Is
pe secuod~
galon pe 0.003785 gaVmin 0.003785
min ut m)lrnin rn~/min
ConcenlraJie pMJi livri 0.1200 mgll O:lno.mtrati:>n lblmillion 0.1200 ong/1
per milion gal
Ia ~a lo n

in practicA CStC irnposibil sli SC In procttcc it is impossibk to work


lucreze Ia mlirimea exact! $i si\ se m3soal'e and measure to an exact size. T hel'efore
Ia o marime. exactfi. De aceea Jrebuie allowauc.e has to be. made for d i ruerL~iona1
prcviizutli o croare dimcnsionnl3. Pcntru a deviation. To control this deviation. tbc
oomro la aceas1! e1'0are. proiec1antul designer specifies a range of d ime nsions
pn::vede un domeniu de d imensiuni inlre wilhin which the COmpOne nt will work
care compo nc nw l va funct ion; ~ll ist"acii tor. s.:Hisfnctorily. The terms associated with
Te m1enii asociali c u 1imile $i ajustaje po1 fi limits and tits can be summa rized as
re2umati astfel: folk>ws:
M1irimen "omi11alii. care estc Nomi11al size. whic h is the
d ime nsiunea dupli ca1-e se identificli pentru dimensio n by which a featUI'e is identilied
co nvenientil fic:cMe miirime. fo r comenience-.
,\1/irimen de bat ri, care cste Basic l'ite, which is the exact
mi'irimea funC\ ionallS de bazi't de Ia care se func.tional size from which the limits are
co nsid erii limitele pnn folos irea derived by applic-:u io n of necc:ssa r)'
permisiunii $i tolerantclor necesare. allowance aOO tolerances.
Mtlrimt.a medie, ca-e este mlStimea Mea, sizt. which is the size that
c-are se sil uea~il ltl (Tlij locul dislantei intre lies h:llfway between lhe upper a nd k>wer
limitcle supe rioara .$i infrioara $i care nu limits of size and must not be mistaken
trebuie confundatii nici c u ml'irimea either for 1he no minal si1.e o r the basic size.
22 Material cu drepl de autor
nominata nici cu m5r ime.a de bazti.
Miirimca de bat ti", care estc t\ctual site. which is chc size
m3rimea m.11suratA corect Ia 20C. correctly measured at 20C.
Limite, care sum \'alol'ile maxirni\ $i Limits. which are the high and low
minima inlrc care se po:ue siHUI mRrimea volues of sb.:e between which the size o f :1
pro priel3.tii componetului. component feature may lie.
Tt)/f!rtm(a, care es1e di lC!ren~a Tt)/t ratt u . w hich is the arith metic
arilmelica intre limilcle miirimii. d iffe rence belween !he limits o f size.
Emarea~ cal'e este djferen\a intre Del'iatitm, whDch is the d ifference
mlirimea de baza $i limite. between the basic size and the limits .
./Qcu/ mi,im (pcnt~ i~itmea). care Mi11imum cleara11ce (allowance),
este jocu l dintre un ax $i o gaurn in which is the clearance between a shat( and
conditiile dihuftrii rn.axime a metalului. hok- under maximum me.ta l d ilatation
condit ions.

' 2 3

Fig.5. 1

I. Surub pentru reglaj fin I. Ratche t


2. Piulita man~nului 2. T himb le adjusting nut
3. M;m~o n gndtt 3. T himb le
4. T ijl\ gradat3 4. Bam I
5. Piulitit de bloc-.are- 5. Locknut
6. Potcon\'3 6. Steel frame
7. T ij3 (J.mpoo 7. Spindle
s. F'c *le ltlmpoanc::lor 8. Spindle and !In vii face s
9. Tampon capitt 9. Anvil end

Fig.5.2
'

I. Clanlli. pentru reglaj fin I. Fine adjuf.ltnelll clamp


2. $urub pentru rcglaj fin 2. Fine adjuSiment screw
3. Scm~t \'Cmlcrului 3. Vcrnicr scale
4. Faldi mobili'i 4. S lid ing jaw
5. F'c'e pentru masurat interior 5. Inside measuring faces

23 Material cu drept de autor


6. Fete pen1ru rnii.c:ural e-xle.rior 6. Ou1side me-asuring faces
7. fntd fixa 7. Fixed jaw
8. .Sinli 8. Beam
9. Sc-nrii 9. Sct~le

-!--
- 5
W--- 6
MilSurarea obiectek)r Measuring objeciS
M15surarea tungimii Measuren.1ent of length
24 Material cu drept de autor
Prin mllsura..re.a lungimii se inlelege To measure. length means to
m3sumrca dis.tantci in linic drenpt3 intre measure the shortest distance in a str.1ighl
dou1l punc(e, linii sau fete. line between two points., lines or faces.
Principalel!! instrumcntc: pentru T he main tools for le ngth
m3sumrc-a lungimii sunl urmiiloarclc: mcasuri.ng arc the fonow:
Riglele, iglele gtadate.. liniil.e: Rules:
Comp.asuri de interior (e-xterior) Inside (outside) caliper< Ifig.5.3.b(a) ]:
(fig.5.3 .b(n)]:
Sublere [fig.5.2j: Vernier calipers Lfig.5.2J ~
rvlictometre (lig.5. 1]: Micrometer calipe rs [fig.5.1J:

MAsu11lrea fomtei Shape measureme-nt


Datoritli actiunii solicitlirilor Due to 1he action of Sll'e ss and time
mecanice !jl coroz.iunii in limp. corrosion the: components lose !he ir initial
componcntek! i~i pic:rd form: ini~iala. Oc shape. Tbcreforc it is necessary to design
aceea este necesar s.1l se proiecteze unelte tools for <:he<::king the shape. like the
pentru a verific.a lOnna. unel!e precum: fo llowing:
Muchii ( pcntru paralclism $i Edges (for parallelism and flatness);
planeitate):
Sabloane (pentru formii): Templates (for shape);
Calibre: pc-ntru ra1.ii [lig.5.4 ,tl); Radius gauges (for mdius) [tig.S.4.a}:
Calibre de i.ntcrstit ii (spion)l fig.5 .4,b'J ~ Feeler gauges (for ~llowancc)
[fig.5.4.b]:
Calibre. pentru lilete (pentru n\ilsurarea Screw pitch gauges (lOr checking the
pasu Itti)[ fig. S.4,c): pitch) [fig.5.4.cj:
- Comparatoare (pentru ovalitate, O.T.I. - Dial Test Indicators (for
cin::ularitate. parale.lism etc.)[fig.5.3.d]: ovalty. circularity. parallelism etc.)
[fig.5.3.dl:
Ech:r (pcntru unghiuri dreptc) Lfig.5.3,cj; T ry square (for right angles) Lfig.5.3,cJ;
Raportor (pe!llru aile unghiuri dec.fit Be\el angle (lOr angles other than right
celc: drepte): angles):
I . Opritor ram3 geam; I. 8ez.cl clamp;
2. C'adtan rotativ $i ge.am: 2. Ratable be-zel and dial:
3. NumflriHor de rotalii: 3. Re.,olution counter:
4. Picsli de ccntrnrc: 4. Spigot:
5. T ij3: 5. Plullge.:
6. Cap de schimb; 6. Removable anvil;
Fig.7.2

b c
Masur.J.reJ proccsclor Mcasuri.ng processes
Mi'llu1U1!a IJropricfitilor Mea..<ruring propc rtic~
M.aoonx:tnJ: Pressure gauge (mar10meter);
T<:nnomctru:
,-
_.) Material cu drept de autor
DebitiiiCliU (indK:atorde ck:bit):
Tempe.rature s,uuge (t.hennometer):
Cbsif""""' l<mX>rlr<rebr: l~w gauge, (flow indicator):
Cu indic.a,ie localt=
Tcrmometrc: stn~ionare cu ecran: Thermometers cl.t$51 r~Cation:
Ecrnn pl trnt toe:\ I indie:tting type:
l!cr.1n tubula Stntionary thtrmome-lcrs with frame
Termomec.re temponue: Square fr.1me type
Tcnnome1.re cu teacl Tububr fl'llmo l)JX'
Tern':1n~~Jecu lichi:J in rub de sticla Tempornry thcrmometen
Cu indic~llie Iii di'>Uin\ii: Marioo pocketthermonk.!ters
Tr:rmomctrc ckclr!cc: - l.lquidinglass thermometers
Tcrmomet cu tennQ('upkl Rcmole indic11ing type;
Tcnnometrc: cu n-t.istentii Electric type thcrnKUnt(ers
Tcrmometre cu tub Bourdon: Therrnodc.octr-ic ther mometers
- T~1nretre cu 11~1t:ut in tubde~el Resistance thcrmomctci'S
Bourdo1ltube type thermometers
T""""""" c:u """"'"'de ~
Me:rcttr')-inSitt'lthemiOmeters
Vapour pressure thermometers

Termomctre $13\iOntii'C cu ecr3n IJfllrat Squtii'C rrome type Statio nary thcrmomete.rs

Fig.5.3.

T ermomcJre st3\iorul.l-e cu ecran tubuln Tubular frame type Slationary


thermomclers

26 ".ll<llc r al
~I

I -

Fig.5.4

lndkaloare de nhel: Level gauges:


IJ\1i:atordc nivel dil otel fojat de tip cu reflex Forged steel refle x type water gauge with
cu mbilr te penlnl ci'tldari navale. (fl8. 5.5): cocks lOr maritime boilerS (fig. 5.5):

2 9 25 1 s 2 1 20

Fig.S.5

I. CorpulrQbinetului superior I. Upper cock body


2. Corpui 'Obinewlui inferior 2. Lower cock body
3. Corpul robinetului de go lire 3. Drain rock body
27 Material cu drept de autor
4. S tu~ superior 4. Upper gauge. hokler
s. $lot inferior s. Lower gauge holder
6. Fl an,s~ 6. Flange
7. Cepul robinetului 7. Cod plug
8. M"ma 8. Bonnet
9. Piu lit~ tnfundati\ 9. Cover nut
10. Pfirghie de. manevrii 10. Lever handle.
I I. Opritor II . Stopper
12. Indicator 12. Jndicato
13. Piulitil hex:l&Onttlil 13. Hex:l&On nut
14. $pliiJI (cui dcspical) 14. SpJjm pin
15. Presewpa 15. Packing gland
16. Piulitfl pn:setupei (olande1'.ii.) 16. Gland nut
17. Bila de O!el 17. S1eel ball
18. .Surub de rezemare penuu bini. IS. Steel ball se.atilg plug
19. Dop 19. Plug
20. Prezon 20. Swd
21. Piulit5 hexagolalli 2 1. Hexagon nut
22. R:'!.c()rd penlru ,cavil de cupru 22. Nipple lOr copper pipe
23. Piul i1~ o landezli 23. UnKm nut
24. Racord ptntru \eava de 01el 24. Nipple lOr steel pipe
25. Buqt\ de ctan~are 25. Sleeve packing
26. Etan$JrC 26. Packing
27. Garnitu ra 27. Gasket
28. GarniturU 28. Gasket
29. Garniturli 29. Gasket
30. Gamiturl'i 30. Gasket
31. 01Lrniturii 3 1. Gasket
32. $ til\ de fixare 32. Set pin
33. Tabla indicatoare 33. Ind icator plate
34. Suportul l:lblei i.ndkntoare 34. Support fo r indicator plate
35. Piul it~ hexagonal! 35. Hexagon 1lUl
36. Nil 36. Rive-t
37. Corpul ind ic~lorul oi 37. Wntcr gauge body
38. Sticla indicatorului 38. Gouge glass

Ind icator de nivel din otcl forj :~ l de lip fo rged S-led transparent lypc water g:~ uge
ttansparellt cu valvule pentru c3 1d~ti navale with valves l(w matine boile1s (fig. 5.6):
( lig. 5.6):

I. Q)l'pul valvulei supeioa-e I. Uppe1 valve body


2. Corpul valvulei inferioare 2. Lower vnlve body
3. Corpul valvulci de golire 3. Ora in valve body
4. Man$()n 4. BOillli!t
5. Jug 5. Yoke
6. Tija vaiVlllci 6. Vai\'C stem
6A.Tija val\u lei 6A.Valve stem
7. Ventilui v:'!.lvulei 7. Valve disc

28 Material cu drept de autor


Fig.5.6
8. Piulita ventilului S. D isc nut
9. $aib3 de blOcare a \'entilului 9. Disc lOck washe r
10. $aiba tijei valvulci 10. Va lve stem washer
I I. Presetupli I I. Packing gland
12. $urub tlrticuhn 12. Hinge bolt
13. Pi u li~ li hexagonalli 13. Hexagon nut
14. Stift 14. Pin
15. Soc sii filet:ttil 15. Screwed bush
ISA. Buc$3 fi letatil 15A.Screwcd bush
16. Surub de. blocare 16. Lock screw
17. Parghie de mnnevrit 17. Lever ha ndle
I 8. P i u li~ li hexagonalli I 8. Hexagon nut
19. Sustinlitorul rnarHalei 19. Bonnet keep
20. Prczon 20. Stud
2 1. P-i u li~ a hexagonala 21. Hexagon nUl
22. F'lan$i'l 22. F1ange
23. lnel de :. ~e~.are:. et an~ftrii 23. Packing. seat ring
29 Material cu drept de autor
24. Tabla indicmoare 24. Indica lOr plate
25. Indicator 25. Indicator
26. Plllcut~ etichet~ 26. Name plate
27. $ plinl (cui de-.spic:u) 27. Split pin
28. Roatit de manevrli 28. Handwhccl
29. Bil3 de otel 29. Steel ball
30. Sc.aunul superior al bilei de otel 30. Upper steel ball s<t
31. Sc.aunul inferior al bilci de otel 3 1.Lower steel ball scat
32. Fl a~3 32. Flange
33. $ urub c u fil el inlinil 33. ContinttOuS-thrcad Stud
34. l.,iulilit hcxagooal3 34. Hexagon nut
35. Fla1.1a 35. Flange
36. Flaru;a 36. Flange
37. $urub 'in cruce cu cap rotund 37. Cross recessed round head machine
screw
38. R:tcOrd 38. Nipple
39. Piulit5 olandczit 39. Union nut
40. Piesa de suport 40. Suppo11ing piece
4 1. $ urubul de reg:lnj !l.l piesei sup()rl 4 1. SuppOrting piece set screw
42. Compensator de dilatatie 42. Expansion pipe
43. Ganlituf.i 43. Gaske1
44. Gnrnituril bobin:tta tn spir:1lii 44. Spiral-wound gnsket
45. Elan$JrC 45. Packing
46. S1ifl de fixare 46. Se.t pin
47. Presetupa 47. Poc king gland
48. Sail>A platll (lus.tl'uitll rotundll) 48. Flat washer (polished and round)
49. Saiba elas1iea 49. Spring washer
50. Corpul i nd ic~toru l oi 50. Wulcr gauge body
51. Sticla indieatorolui 5 1. Gauge glass.

Indicator de nivel mval de 5 kgJ/cni co M:arioc S kgf/cm! k:vel gauge with valve
valvule ( tig. 5.7) (fig. 5.7)
I . C{)rp ($lUI) superior de tip A I. Type A upper body
2. Racord 2 . Nipple
3. Pre-setu pll 3. Packing gland
4 . Piulita pn:sctupei (Olande1'.1i) 4. Gland nut
5. f>iulitit o landc:cit 5. Union nut
6. Gatniturli 6. Gasket
7. Garnitur.l 7. Gasket
8. GarniHnii 8 . Gaske t
9. Cep 9. Plug
I 0. Tmbinnre 10. Joint
I I. Corp (~t ut) superior d e tip 8 II . Type 8 upper body
12. Corp ('f!ut) <uperior de tip C 12. Type C upper body
13. Corp(~tut) inferior 13. L.ow.:r body
14 . .llj ; 14. Stem
15. P-esetupll 15. Packilg glaod
16. Piulita prcsetupei (OlttndezA) 16. Gland nut
17. lncl 17. Ring
18. Mfiner 18. Handle
19. Piulitfl hexag:onalit 19. Hexagon nut
20. $ail>A arcu it~ 20. Spring washer

30 Material cu drept de autor


15 16 14 19

11 8 9 2
3
s
1
6
3

3
l i
f ,~; ~
10
. "I
, : j
6 1 1 I : ~
II ; j ~I
L- ;

Fig5.7
2 1. Splint (cui despic-ttL) 21 . Splint pin
22. Etan~~rc 22. Packing
23. Armlituri'i superioarli de tip 0 23. TypeD upper fiU i11g
25. Silii metalidi tesutil 24. Wire gauze

Indicator de llivel na"al cu plutitor (Jig. S.Sj : Mat i1le float level gauge (tig. 5.8):

I. Ghi<l.ajul pluliloruloi I. Float guide


2. Piesl\ de fixare a fiJului 2. Wire fining piece for float

31 Material cu drept de autor


..,.
,.
..
"

"

..,.

Fig.5.8
~. llacord 3. Nipple
4. J>Jutitor 4. Floal
5. U&lr cu rolilo,ohrc 5. Boll bearlnJ
6. Suportul scripe!elui 6. 8e.1:1ril1g for sbea,e
7. Ax 1. Pin
8. Greulatc 8. WeiJhl
9. Ftr n~~~:lalic impletit 9. Wire rope
10. Ohl!bjuii!J<Ulili I0. Weighl auide
II Pbco de ocali II. Scole pla1e
12. fndk':uor 12. Jnd;c.otor
13. Scr1pctc 13. Shea<
14. Sb.'l plo14 14. Pt:tin washer
IS. Etan$3re de cauciuc I 5. Seal rubber
16. Buc~n 11rului 16. Wire sleeve
17. Fl an~4 17, Fl:~ n&c
18. Piesll de etan$are 18. Sc!li JJk'Ce
19. J>iesn de fi xarc n grculiltii 19. Wii'C lilting piece for weighl

32 n 11 u r pt de autor
20. Capac.ul ghidajului plutitorului 20. Float guide oover
2 1. $oiba plo13 21. Plain washer
22. $ plim (cui despicol) 22. Split pin
23. Gamitura 23. Gaske-t
24. $urub cu cnpul in crucc 24. Cross pan head machine screw
25. s urub cu capul in cruce 25. Cross pao head machine screw
26. Surub hexagonal 26. Hexagon boiL
27. Pi u l i~ a hcxngonalii 27. Hexagon nul
28. Piulit1i hexagonalii 28. Hexagon 11Ut
29. Sup011ul ghidajului greutiltii 29. Weighl guide suppOrt
30. Agli.tlttoarc pcotn1 ridica1 30. Lifting lug
3 1. Supo11 pentru laglire 31 . Seat for beariog
32. PoSJament pc:ntru g.hidajul plutitorului 32. Base for lloat guide
33. LegAIUra fl.rului 33. Bind wire
34. Adaos pentru cepul de aerisire 34. Boss tOr air \'ent plug
3S. Cep 3S. P l u~
36. Gamitura 36. Goskcl

Masuriiri electrice E1e<:tric:almeasurement

Na\'a este ml sistem care se A ship is a self-sustaining system.


autosustine. Yntretgn cnergie clectrica The entire cleclrical energy needed is
occcsa.rii. este produsa. distribuita ~ ~ folosit3 produced. distributed and used on the
Ia bordul navei. De ac.eea masuni torile board. ThereiOre the electric.al
d ectrice jOttdi un rol impOrt:lnt in me:lSurementS pl:l)' it \'cry impOI1:1nt n)le in
aetivitatea zilnicii. in pcevenicea avarilor $i the daily ac(ivity, in preventing damages
(cel1nai rli.u) a black-out-ului. and (in the worst case) blackout.
BlackouH I cslc siHmtia ciind na\'3 SlackOUI is the siluation when the
r3m:ine tarn nici o surs!i de energie. ship remains without any electrical power
Ace-aStlt situa~ ie este. criticii deoarece toate supply. It is a critical situation be<.~ause all
sistcmele pOt clide:t, m1v:1 cstc SCiipnta de systems can breakdown, lhc ship is out of
sub control si se poate scufuoda. control and it may sink.
La bordul navei sunt utilizate doua On the board of the ship two types
lipuri de aparatc de masurit clcctricc: of electrical gauges arc used:
f 11dicatoar e de tablou care - J>a11el g auges (indicators)
sunt montah: pe tabk)Urile d~ which are plac.:d on the control
com:tndft sau de distributic. bo;"JrdS or swilchbonrds. Tbc.y
Acestea pot m3sura o singutli can measure a single feature
rnitrime $i .de obicei. pe o and usually a single. range.
si.ogurii. scala.
ampennetl'u de tab lou: panel ammeter:
\'Oitmetru de t.ablou; panel vQitmcler;
waumctru de lablou: panel wa tt meter~
\'annetru de tablou: panel 1\".active ene=~g:y ll"le:(er:
frec wn~metru ; panel frequenc)' mt ler:
Multimetre.. Accstc tipuri de J>ortable multimeters. These
apaate de ml'isur! sum l0al'te types of gauges are very useful
utile pentru orK:oe rc:pttnuor cnre tOOlS fo r e:tch serviceman
lucrcaza Ia cchipamcnl clcclric, working al clcclric equipment.
datorit~ multiplelor scale de due to heir many measuring
miisurare ~i mtmipulfl rii simple. ranges and simpl.: operation.
Multimetrele portabile pot The portable multime(ers can
mli.sura de obicei: usually measure :
tensiuni CC $i CA: DC and AC vollages:
33 Material cu drept de autor
- curenti CC $i CA: - DC and AC currents;
- rezistcntc: - resistances;
adesea aceste pot mliium $i: and ol)e.n thest can measure:
- capacitiiti; - c.apacit ics;
- frec\'cnte~ frequencies~
Un multimetru obi.$nuit este atlitat A common type of portable
mai jos: mullimeter is shown below:

14 16

6
11
4

3
.;.
-&
0
f9 10

~ Fig. 5.9
unde sunt indicate ditcva componente where severn I important components of Ibe
importante ale apatamlui: meter are ind ictued:
I Comutato rul sc.ftrilor: I Range Switch;
2. 3. 4, 5 Borne; 2. 3, 4. 5 Jacks;
6 Corectorul de zero~ 6 Mechanical Ze:ro Adj ustment
Control
7 Scara rcz.istentclor; 7 ResiSiance Scale:
8.9 Sdirile te.nsiunilor $i curentilor 8.9 DC/AC Vohage a nd Currem
CC ~i CA; Scales;
10 Corectorul de zero al I0 Ohmmeter Zero Adjustment
obmmeuului: Control:
II Comutator CC/CA: II DC/AC Switch:
12. 13 Sigurantc 3. I5N250V: 12, I 3 Fuses 3,15A/250V;
14 Daterie tip D 6 I' 22 (9 Y); 14 T ype 6 F 22 Dauery (9 V):
15 Balerie tip R6 AA ( I ,5 Y) : IS Type R6 AA BaueryCd l (15 Y);
16 Sigurantli ION500 V: 16 Fuse ION500 V

34 Material cu drept de autor


Capi1otut 6 Unil 6
M ~ udt ori pe motor si i n MeasuremenLs on Engine and in
comparri mentul masi ni Engi ne Room:

7 1

M dsurflto ri pe motor: Uniiiifi Meas urtmelfls o" t 11g bre: Units

I . Pt Pmu~i P~..,tfiJ'(bar] I. P;, P..,,,, and Pt'UIIIp[bar]


2. lndic.ati:t t ijei pompei de injectie $i 2. Puel pump index :..nd p,...x ndjustment
reglaj ul p..,." lmmJ index [mmj
3. Ten11)erawra gazdor de. evacuare (C0 ] 3. Exhaust tempermure fC0 ]
4. Tc:mpcr3lUrtl gazdor de evtlcuare 4. ExhtiUSt Lcmpennure before ttnd artcr
lna intc ,si dupa 1Urbosunant3(e) lCoJ turbochnrger(s) (C0 j
5. Presiuoea dup ~ tubill\ ( mmHgj 5. TUI'bile back pressure LmmHg)
6 . Presiune:t gazelor in colc:ctorul d e 6. Exh:iust g:.s receiver pressure ( mm.Hg
cvacuarc [mmHg sau barj or barj
7. Ten11)ermurile de intrare. In 7. Turboc.harger inlet and outlet
turbosunantil ~i de: ie$ire Ia fil!m d e temperature. at inlet filter (C 0 ]
admisie lC."'j
8. CMe1ea de presiune pe li lttul de &. Pressure drop <lCI'OSS inlet filter
admisie (nunHg sau harJ (mmHg]
9. Caderea de prcsiunc pc r3citorul de acr 9. Pressure drop across air cooler
( mmHgj [mmHg.]
10. Temperatura apei Ia intrare,n ~i ie$irea 10. Air cook:r water inlet nnd outlet
infdin riicitorul de aer (C 0 ] te mperat ure (C0 ]
I I. Pl'esiuoea de baleiaj (J>b.:.) [mmHg sau I I. Scaveoge air pressure (Poa\) tmmHg
bar] or barf
12. 'fcmpcr:.u ura aerului de ba Jcinj (COl 12. Scavenge air tcmpcrawre IC0 l
13. Temperawra aerului de lxtleiaj inaime 13. Sca\'enge air temperature bei'o re air
de r3c;too'Ul de aer (C'] cooleo tc]
14. Tc:mpcraturtl ac:rului de btlleiaj dupi 14. Sctlvcnge :.ir temperature afler ai.r
r3citorul de acr (C0 ] cooler IC0 l

35 Material cu drept de autor


15. Temperatura apei de rl'tcire. Ia ie..$irea 15. Fresh rooting water ou l ~t te.mperature.
din mo1onll principal (~I from main engine IC0 1

Mdsuri'ilor; ;u cmnptlrt;,mmtul ma#11;: Mea.mrem enls in e11ghre romu: U11it.s


Unitii(i
Turatia turbosuflan tci ~i motorului Turbocharger and e ngine rc\olutions lrpmJ
(rolfmin]
Presiune:t uleiului int1in1e ~i dupil liltru Fuel o il pressure before ttnd :1f1er filler
(bar] (bar] ]
Tempera!Ura uleiului Ia intrarea ln motor fue l o il temptature before e ng ine (CO)
(C']
Tcmpcratum apci ( tchnid) de racire Ia Main engine fresh cooling water inle t
intrarea in motorul principal [C 0 ] te mperature. (CQ)
Presiunen baromelricil (milibar] Barome-tric pressure rmilibar]

Peulru.'iii sefacil ac:e.de IIHln,rtUor;? Wiry do the.'fe m etuuremeul:s?

Evaluarea Ia intervale regulate a Regular pe rfonnance evaluations


func tion3.ii motorului pemite dete<:tarea enable many problems to be detected and
mullor probleme ~i re~.o hr-m::a aceSlOr!l solved beiOre lhe y beco me c ritica L For
"inaintc ca accstca sa d evinli criticc. De example:
exemplu:
Presiunea indicatii (Pi) $i luratia The. indicated pre..c:s.ure (P~ a nd the
m()IOrului rro1/min] pOl fi fOIOSile pentru a eni:ine Speed (rpm) c-an be used 10 calcul:tlc
calcula tnc-1-carea curent!\ si pemru a afla the actual load a nd to lind o ut if the
daclt regimul elic.ei este "greu". propeller is 'heavy'.
Presiunea ind ic:-atfl ( Pi), presiuoea T he i nd ic~ttcd pressure ( PI}, the
maxima (Pmax), prcsiunca de compresic maximum pressure (PM:~..,;) che compression
(Poomp) si miirimea temperaturii gazd or pressure (P...,,111,) and the exha ust
de e\'acuare pOt fi fo losite pentru !I Sl:lbili temperature level can be used tO j udge the
starea fiec!\rui cilindru. individual cylinde cond ition.
lodexul pompei de i11jec,ie. tmpreunli The fuel pump index together with the
cu inciirc.art.a curentfi a motorului pot li actual e ng ine load. ca n be used to j udge the
folos itc pcntru a stabili starca pistoanelor condition of the foci pump plungers/barrels
plonjoaoe sau a corpului pompei de iJljectie. and suc tio n valves.
Presiunca d upa lurbina ~ i di.dere.tl de T he turbine back pressure a nd the
presiune pe r3:citorul( lc) de-aer $i 111trul(lor) pressure d rop across the air cooler(s) nnd
de admisie al turbosunantei indid dacli turbocharger ill!ake filte r(s) reveal if
milsur:i.torile tre buie. luate in considerare pe. measures should be taken re.garding the
caile de ncr sau ga:r.c. ai.r/gas ways.
Presiunea de ba1eiaj ( Pbal). presiunea Scavenge ajr pressure ( P~v) . the
de comp1-esie (Pco mp), turatia compression pressure ( P~1,). the
turbosuflantei rot/min ~i te mpcr:nuro turbocharser rpm and the te mperature
inainte ~i d upa curbinli permit stabilirea before and after the 1urbioe enable the
stl\rii tutbosutlantei. condition of(he tmbocha~ger to be j udged.
Oricum, eSte impOrUlnl c:. tOate Howe\'er. it is impOrUlnl to lake :til
masuriltorile sa sc ia in considcrare pc ntru mcasurcmc::nts into consid eration if a
o evaluare. corectii. a perfonnan\elo r reliable e\':.tluation of the engine
m<)IOrului. pc:rfo nnanc:e is lO be made.

36 Material cu drept de autor


3

Capi10iu17 Unil 1

Simboluri Symbols

Piot->s tmd Pioe )llitrts

Not com.ecting Conne-<::1ed crossing


crossi n ~

-+--
pipes pipes
Tevi c~'\re se Te vi carese
intcrsecte.:u~a $i nu inter.scc<ea:ca $i sunt
sunt cooectate cooecuue
Flexible joint,
Tee pipe Flexible oioe ioim
l lrnbinare rtK'lbil3.,
imbinae cu teu imbinate cu tub
Oc.xibil

f langed joint S lee"e joint


II
imbinate 11an$at11. fmbinare prin mufe

Reducer Screwed joinI


I> ]
Manson de ceductie imbinare filetatli
(scctiune)
Sleeve type
welded jo im
expansion joint
Compensator de
-=-
Tmbinare sudatii
dilatalie cu muni.
Bellows type

-o- Expimsion pipe joint


expansion pipe. joint
CompenS.'HOr de Lirii de dilawre din
di.latarc cu burduf tcava
Penetrating. Penetmting. non-
watel1ight bulkhead watertight bulkhead
and deck crossing and deck crossing
T recerc prin pcreti I Trcccre prin pcreti T
desp~f1itori etan$i $i oeetan.si si punti
punti elafl!$e neelan~

BLank llange Spectacle llange


---ll
Flan.sa oaibli

37 Material cu drept de autor


38

Collfrol and Rcgulatitm Parts


Com 10fleule JJCIItru rt~lare ~~ cmrtm l
To bil ~e. Hand-operated

Spre S."lntinil I Actionare manuala T


'"
Remote control Sprin~

( 0..
Comandii de Ia
dis1ant3
Arc
~
Weic-ht Float

Conwlg;reutate
,.--a Plutitor
,--D
Diaphragm with
Diaphragm
positioner

Membrana I Membrana cu
pOZitioner
9
Electric motor
Piston

Piston
r=p d riven
Ac~io nare cu m01or
ekx:t ric
~
Air motor driven Solenoid driven

Aqtonare cu motor
pnc:umtlt ic
~ Ac~ ionare ele<::trid'i
prin bobinit ~
Valve.v a"d Cocks
Va lule ~i rubim:te

Globe SlOp valve Ang le SlOp valve

Vttlvulii dre.ttplil de t:kJ Vttlvulil de cOlt de


!:1
i.ncbidcrc lnchiderc
T hree way v:.lve GlOb<: lifl check
(crosSQvcr valve) valve

Valvula cu trei cai ~ Clapctii dreaplii de


retinere cu miscare ~
vertie.ala
Angle Jill check Screw down gJobe
valve Mop check valve
Clapet[ de roll de
retine.re cu mi.$Care
vcrtic~ta
~
- Robinct drcpt cu
ventil de re1ine1-e -
~

38 Material cu drepl de autor


Screw down stop
Swing check valve
c:;...
-~ -
angle valve
Robinet de oolt cu Venti! de. retine.re cu
cnti.l de rctincrc clapcta
Pressure reducing
valve
Valvula roductoarc
de presiune
t><(]
Angle safety valve

Supapft de sigu1.1.n1li.
de COli
b
-
Sel.f closing globe Self closing aogle

~ -~
valve \'alve
Supap3 drcapt3 de Supap~ de co~ de
sigurantit cu siguranta cu
inchiderc automalii inchidere uutOmtta

Regulating valve Butterfly valve


J<J ~
ValYuh\ regulatoare Vanli 0uture
4

Gate valve. Breather valve

Vana cu scrtar
l>kl Supapa de respir.~tic
c:::J

Hose gk>bc valve Hose angle valve

Valvula dreaptil t:k:Jo Valvulii de COlt


!Jo
pentru funun pentm funun
Needle jtiObe valve Needle tlnftlc valve

Vanii drettplit inelaril


(robinct cu :1c) tk Vanii de (."()It inelaril
(robinct cu ac) b
Relief ~lobe valve Relief an~le valve
Supapa drcaptii de
desclrcarc (de .J... Supapa de colt de
dcscjrcarc (de
go lire)
}.
golire)

Foot valve Cock

Robine-t de fund
!t Robinet
[;:O:J

Titree-way cock L- Three..wayoock T-


port p011
Robinet cu trci di
cu ca113 I L
C1fl Robinet cu trei c~ i Clfl
cu canal T

39 Material cu drept de autor


f\lanifold valve Mn.nUOid check
valve
IXIXIXI Caset! <:u valvule de
m
Cascta de valvulc
re~ i nere

Remote O(X'.I'ated Emergeo<:y shut off

~ ~
''alve valve
Valvula actionma de Vanii de inchidere
In distan(li. de ~varie

Loc.ked coc.k Air motor vah,e.

Robinet zavorftt
--6-o Valvull\ actionatl\ cu
motor Ple.umatic:
c%
Eleclric 111010r valve Solenoid valve

Valvula ac(ionma cu ~ Valvulii c%


rootor electric c Icc Irol"llig.nct ica
Diaphragm opertued

l
Pis.ton valve
~
v:1lve
Valvula ac1ionata Valvu l~ ac)ionat~
prin piston prin diafragm!
CtnmectinJ: emf., r>J~td~es
lmbimirile capttelor ~tllu/elr>r

fmbinare (:U 031l-$li c*J Flanged end

imbi.narc cu $Uruburi ~ Screwed end

imbinare sudat:i ~ Welding end

Pipe jilliltf:.\'
Accesorii pentm tubulaturi

Rose box Mud box

Camera cu IZI c~uucrii de 0


pulveizare decantare

40 Material cu drept de autor


4

Simplex strainer OupJex strainer

Filtru siruplu
~
Piltr u dublu ~
Separator Drain trap
~ liiiil
Separator oara de scurge.-e

Y type. strainer Hopper


g y
Filtru tip Y P31nic

Air 'iCnl pipe

Tubula turil de
acrisirc
r Scupper

Scurgere de pe
punic
y
Sounding head with Sounding head with
cap self closing valve

C.p de sondarc cu
capac
I Cap de sooda-e cu
valvulit cu inc.hidere
r.r
au tomat~

Orifice Hose coupling

Duzii
--i:l-
Cupl.aj de furtune.
-{}-
Hand pump Ejector

Pompa manualii
--0- Ejector
---0--
Sea chest 01'ain silencer
I}X:J -ill]
Che.~on
Amortizor de
zgomot al scurgerii

Hull d iswncc: piece Bil~e hat

~~r~- -E)
Distanticr de bordaj Capac de santina

Sig ht glass Fusible plug


C) 1ll
Vizor Dop fuz ibil

41 Material cu drepl de autor


Thermometer
Boss
pocket

Supon pemru /' p


J>rocminent3
tenuometru

Boss and plug Rose plate

Proeminen,a c.u dop


!=o Placl'i pulverizatoare
0.
Change piece Goose neck type tti.r
pipe head
(chan~e over piece)

Pie.sa de comutare.
-m- (\\'ithout wire. net)
CJp ubul:uurlide
ac.Ttsire.gilt de.k:biidri
~
(lli.ri plasii de sinn.i.)
Bonnet type ait pipe Goose neck type air
head pipe head
(withoUI wire net)
Cap tubolaturii de
aerlsire ( t" ld\ plasli
de Siirmit)
I (with wire net)
C:IP tububturi. de
aerisire g5.t de leb1!.dli
(cu pia_<; de ~omii)
~
Bonnet type air pipe
head Oil tray
(with wire net)
Cap tubulatura de
aerislre (cu plusa de
T T:1va pentrn uleiuri
slinnli)

Belhnouth

Evazarc
l
Ctmtrbl and lll.\'lrumtmtatitJu
co,trol ~i aparate dt llttisurd fi control

Hydraulic oil line Control ai line


>St >~ >jl
Tubulutura de ulci 1'ubulatur3 de aer de
hidraulic oomandli

Capillary tube Electric wiring


----
Tub eapilur Linie el:tric-3

Local indicator Remote indicator

Indicator Joe:. I
0 l_ndicator 1:. di.st:..n~.ii
8
42 Material cu drepl de autor
Thermometer Pressure.gauge

Tennometru
<p M~ nometru
cr
Compound gauge Vacuum gauge

Manovacuummetru <> Vacuummetru <f


Oiffcrentitll pressure Chtmge o.,er switch
gauge box
I cos I
Manometru
difertntial

l''ressurc switch
'
@
Cutie de comuture

Temperature switch
@
Presost~ t Tennost~ t

Flo~t switch Limit switch

Traduc.tor de nivd
@ @
Limitator

Transmiucr S:tlinily cell

Transmitiitor
0 Celula detectare
wlinitate
@
Seal pot

Recipient de
et~nsare
9Q
Loop seal

Oucl5 de atenuare
g 9~
Glass level gauge. Float glass oil level

IL IL
oaue.e
Indicator de nivel cu
Sticl:i de nivel stidli plutitoare
pcnlru ulci
Float type level Inner float type
gauge
lndic~ti Orde nivcl cu
plutitor -l level g.aug:e
Indicator i.nterior de
nivel cu flotor
R I
:6:
Omer float type
level gauge

lodicator exterior de
nivel cu flo tor
IT
43 Material cu drepl de autor
or I mist l

0~"'0'----11"""0 y
or

~7------1-ill v~l
:debit or alarm
:debit FS l.D 1 Flow
1 nivel le LiA I Leei
p)I
PDSA Presr.ure difference for alarm

PDT Presr.ure difference tr.ulsmiuer


r de p
P:
lia r
1fo1
PSA or alarm

pentru
-w
PEA

I ocnttu1 ., PEl
senso~ for remote

pcnlru sonsor
PESLO
ipccd
iA ipccd for alarm
I Oprire ipccd for

TSA 1 lor alarm

1 oorirc or
or
TE
pentru sensor
TEA
sensor for remote
TEl
I ;.vt "'" ' '
pentm
TE-SLD
sensor down

Vll
v
Zl I Position
r de z:
ptOirU I for alarm
WllA
Wl
pentru
WS-SLD Vibr:.n ion switch for slow down

44 Material cu drept de autor


CapiiOiul 8 Unil 8
Val vule Valves

Df'ji,i(ie: Deji11iti<m:
0 v~ l vii cstc Ull dispozitiv pcnlru A valve is a flow-control device.
controlul debimlui. Valvcle sunt utilizate Valves are used to regulate the flow of
pentru a rest.a debitul lluidelor (lichide sau fluids (liquids and g.asc:s) in piping systems
gaze) in sistcmek cu tubulnturi ale and mach.i.ncry. ln machinery, tbc- flow
instalatiilot de e.xpk>atare. J.\desea. in phenomenon is frequently of a pulsating or
insmlatii, debiml are. un c.aracter pulsatoriu intenniuent nature and lhe. valve with its
sau intermitcnt, iar valvelc $i mccanismclc associated gear provide a timing feature.
asociate dau o cttl'acteristicli de eglae.
l'aramelrii: Parameters:
Oiamctrul no m.i.nal ~ Nominnl diameter;
Numlirul desemlui: Number o f drawing:
Ma!eri.alul corpului: Body mmerial;
Regimul de lucru: Operating range:
P1-e.siuoea nomilalli: Nominal p1'eSSm-e:
Pre-Siunen de proba: Testing pressure:
Ia rcz.istcntii: in resistance;
- Ia etan$titate: in tightness:

Tipuri tie tmniituri Types of ahes


in practic.a se lnt3lnesc: mai multe There are many difltrent Lype..t; or
tipuri de valve - ficcarc proiccwta sii valves i.n operation -each designed to
efectueze o opeatie specifld . perform a specifte fun<:tion.

11 Fig 8. 1
13
12
9
7
8
6
6
2
16
3
17
2
4 16
5 17
4 5

45 Material cu drept de autor


Valvula n~v~ l de drcnaj t~nc de M~rinc f uel Oil Tank Self-Closing Orajn
combur.tibil cu inchidere automat3 (fig. 8. I) Valve (fig. 8. 1)

I A . Corp (tip U) I A. Body (T)j)C U)


I B. Corp (tip F) lB. Body(Type F)
2. Disc 2. QjS(_.
3. Sc~unu l supapci 3. Valve scat
4. Venti! 4. Plug
5. Capac 5. Bonnet
6. Tija 6. Stem
7. Buc$li de et<111$:lre 7. Packing bush
s. Presctupil 8. Packing gland
9. Arc 9. Spring
10. Supot1ul :li'Cului 10 . Spl'ing suppott
ll. rvl:'iner l l. Handle
12. l"i u lj~a hcxngon~ l ii 12. Hexagon nul
13. P i u li~a hexagonala 13. Hexagon nut
14. $uruburi cmce cu cap plat 14. Cross-recessed nat head machine
screws
15. Etan$are I 5. Packing
16. Gamitura 16. Gasket
17. Gamitura 17. Gasket
18. P i u li~a olande.z a 18. Union nut
19. R:-~co rd 19. Nipple
20. Gamiturli 20. Gasket

Valvula drt-ilptil li leunli navalli pentru aer Marine Porged Steel Screwed (i)obe Valve
comprim~tl (fig. 8.2) fo r Compressed Air (fig. 8.3)

I. Corp I. Body
2. Ghi<l:lj filctat 2. Bonnet
6. Tiia 6. Stem
7. Romii de manevril 7. Handwheel
8. Sc~t un 8. Scat ring
9. P i u li~ li olande.zli 9. Glaod nul
10. Pres,gamitur:i 10. Gland
I I. l"iuJjt!i hcxngonalii II. Hexagon nul
12. $plim (cui spimecat) 12. Split pin
13. $urub cruce cu cap tronconic 13. Cross-recessed pan head machine
screw
14. P l~cu)li. de blocare a ghidaj ului liletal 14. Bonnet lock plale
16. Etan~art 16. Packing
17. Gamitura 17. Gasket
IS. Racot'd pentru teavli de cuptu 18. Nippt;, I(><' copper pipe
19. R:-~co rd pc:nlru teavil de Otd 19. Nipple for Steel pipe
20. Piuli1a olandcza (de cuputrc) 20. Union nut
2 1. P l~cuJil etichetli 21 . Name plate

46 Material cu drept de autor


7
6
9

1
8

1
1

Fig8.2

19
Valvula de co l~ navnla din fontit (fig. 8.3) M!lrine Cast Iron Angle Valve (fig.. 8.3)

Fig8.3

47 Material cu drept de autor


I. Corp I. Body
2 . Ghidaj file tat 2. Bonnet
3. Romii de nl.;"lnevra 3. Handwhed
4. VcntiJ 4. Disc
5. Scaun 5. Valve seat
6. Pi u li~ii disc 6. DiS(.. nut
7. Buc~a filccaca de gllidarc 7. Screwed bonnet bush
8. Scaunul gamituJ'ii 8. Seat ing
9. Pn:sB-Ornituril 9. Packing 8.1:tnd
10. T ija 10. Stem
I I. Pre1.on I I. Scud
12. Prt>l'.On 12. Stud
13. Pi ulit1i hexagonala 13. Hexagon nUl
14. Piulitli hexagonal:i. 14. Hexagon nut
IS. Piulitil hex:lgOnalli IS. Hexn.gon nul
16. $cifl de blocore 16. Lock pin
17. Splint (cui spinte<:at) 17. Split pin
18. $aib3 disc de bloc.ttre 18. Disc k>ck washer
19. Etansare 19. Packing
20. Gamiturli 20. Gasket
2 1. P lflculil etic hctii 2 1. Na me plate
22. $aib3 pcntru tijli 22. Washer for stem

C lapetii d e retincrc: g hidalii (cu mi ~are Marine CMI Iron Lift Check Angle Vttlve
ven icalli). navalli. din font!\ (fig. 8.4) (fig 8.4)

2
9
8
5
3
4
1

I. Corp S\tpapi'l I. Body


2. Fla n ~li 2. Bonnet
3. VentiI 3. Disc.
4. Scmm vcntiJ 4. Valve seat
5. Buc~a 5. Bush
6. Prc.>l'.()n 6. Scud
7. P i u l i~a hcxngonalii 7. Hexagon nul
8. Sutub de tixal'e 8. Set screw
9. Gamilura 9. Gaske.t
48 Material cu drept de autor
1 1
15
6 5
7 14
12 2
8
4
13 19
3
1

Valvul!\ oovnllidin bronz ~~ funun (fig. 8.5) Marine Bronze Hose Valve (fig. 8.5)

I. Corp I. Body
2. Ghidaj fi letat 2. Bonnet
3. Roata de. maneVr1t 3. Disc
4. Piulita disc 4. Disc nul
5. P-esgarnitudi. 5. Packing gland
6. Piulit5 olandeza 6. Gland nut
7. Tija 7. Stem
8. Surub in cruce cu cap tronconic: 8. Cross recessed pan head machine
screw
9. Roata de maoevrli 9. Hand wheel
10. Piuliti'i hexagonal! 10. Hexagon nut
I I. Splint (cui spintecat) II. SpJi[ pin
12. I,Li.cuta de ghidarc a ghidajului fi letat 12. Sonnet lock plate
13. Sail>A platll de blocare 13. Disc lock washer
14. Etan ~are 14. Packing
15. Pllicuta cticheta 15. Name plate
16. imbinatea mufei 16. Base conne<::tion
17. Capac 17. Cap
18. loci de cuplarc IS. Coupling ring
19. lnel de Ci:-:a-e 19. Set ting
20. Surub de fi xan:: 20. Set screw
2 1. Lan1 2 1. Chain
22. Garniturli 22. Gasket
23. Garnituril 23. Gaskel

49 Material cu drept de autor


1-- jf--- 5

Fig 8.6

Robinct naval cu sc11ar pon3 din IDntli. (fig. 8.6) Marine Cast Iron Gate Vai\'C (fig. 8.6)

1. Corp I. Body
2. Capac 2. Bonnet
3. Sertar d isc: parll'i 3. Disc:
4. Romii de mancvra 4. Handwheel
5. Scaunul oorpului 5. Valve seat of body
6. Scaunul strtarului 6. Valve seat of d i,sc
7. Pie-s a fileUllii 7. Screwed pi_ece
8. Presetup3 8. Pack ing glaDd
9. Indicator 9. Indicator
10. ~fli.blitii indicutoarc 10. indicator plate
I I. T ij3 I I. Stem
12. Surub cu cap hexagonal 12. Hexason head boiL
13. Prc:oon 13. Stud
14. surub ru1i<:ulat 14. Swing bolt
15. $ tift oonic cu filet I5. Taper pin with thre-ad
16. l"iuJjtli hcxagonalfi 16. Hexagon nul

50 Material cu drept de autor


17. Surub cruc.e cu e.ap tronconic 17. Cn>ss recessed pan head machine.
screw
18. ,Splim (c:ui spintecat) IS. Split pin
19. EL'\n ~are 19. Packing
20. Onrniturii 20. Gasket
21. Ganlituf.i 2 1. Gasket
22. Plrtcula e.tid.eta 22. Name plme
23. Jug 23. Yoke
24. Angrenaj conic (ro:u3) 24. Bevel gear (wheel)
25. Angrenaj conic (pinion) 25. Bc:vc:.J ge!lr (pinion}
26. Suc$3 de ghidare 26. Guide bush
27. Buc$lS de ghidare 27. Guide bush
28. Bu c.~a de ghid.are 28. Guide bush
29. Axul rotii de manevrli 29. Handwheel sh.aft
30. T ija ind icato rului 30. Indicator rod
31. $ unJb cu c:tp hexagon:!I 3 1. Hex:tg.On head bolt
32. Piulit5 hcxagonal3 32. Hexagon nut
33. $ till 33. Pin
34. $aibio 34. Washer
35. Saibii 35. Washer
36 . .Saibl'i Growe.r 36. Spring washer
37. Plmfl 37. Key
38. Pana 38. Key
39. Surub de bloca.re cu c.ap piitrat 39. Square head se1 screw
40. $ urub de blocnre 40. Set screw
41. Surub de blocare 41. Set sccew
42. Splin (cui spintecat) 42. Splilll pin
43. $ plilll (cui spintcc~ t) 43. Splint pin
44. Rulment de presiune (axial) 44. Thrust ball bearing
45. Niplu pentru ungere 45. Grease nipple
46. Capacul jug ului 46. C:p for yoke-.

Val1ulti de trecere Stroiglltway alve


Se utilizea1.a ca ann5mra de regi a~ ll is used as adjusting and closing
.$i -inchi<lere pcntru: ap tchnicil, ap3 de fiuing for. fresh water. seawater. oiJ
mare-. prt>duse. petroliere. procluc.ts.

Valvulli de trecere cu re(brere NIJ" return srraig/u.wa)' mlle


Se utilize.azli ca at mflturli de te4inere ll is used as lOH~turn ::mel closilg
.$i inchidcrc- pcnt.ru: 3p3 dutcc. apa de m:Lre, fiuing for: fresh water, sctwatcr. oil
produse. petroliere. products.

Vab,u/ii de cti/f A11gle valve


Se utilizeaz!\ ca arm ~ tu i de reglare It is used as adjusting aocl closilg
~ i inchiden:: pentru: apii dulce. apil de mare, filling for. fresh water, sct~water, oil
produse petroliere. products.

Vallru/t'i tie col[ cu r e(inere No11 refltnt Ollf.:le l'llie


Sc util i~c~t:tii ca armillUrli de rctinere It is used us nonreturn and closing
~i inchidere pentru: apil duke!. apa de mare, fitting for: fr!!Sh water, seawater. oil
produse petro1iere. products.
51 Material cu drept de autor
Valt~ulil. c11 sertar Slide ale
Se utilizeazit ca armiilurit de It is used as closing filling lOr: fresh
inchidere pentru: ap~ duke. ap!\ de mare. water. seawater. oil products.
produse petroliere.
Val~JIA cu strtar lu,gime ariabiM ttdjustablc le11gth slide al.,e
Estc 0 armlilurii de inchidcrc II is !I dosing liuing for naval
deMinat~ iJlStalatiik>l' navale. $)'Stems.
Val,fti de colt comragreutate tingle couruer weight valve
Es-te utili1..at:a c.a valvula de zona in It i,t; used as a zone valve. for CO:
inr.talatiilc de stillS inccndiu cu C<h_ a fire fighting systcnlS of !he fire-protected
compartimentdor aparatt:. contra rooms on board or a ship.
ioceodiilor Ia bordul navelor.
Valmlil dreaptii cu t:tmtragreutilte Straight courtier weiglll 'llbe
Este o arn~ tura indu stria l ~ de It is an industrial fitting fo r
inchidcrc-dcschidcrc complct5, utilizatii ca complete dosing opening. used as a zone
4

valvula de zona in instala1iile. de stins valve fo r the co! fire fighting systems or
inccndiu cu CO: a cornpartimentclor the fire protectc:d rooms on board of a ship.
4

apllrate oontra incendiilor Ia bordul


navdor.
R<1bine1 butelie Boftle mck
Este destil)at instal.atiei de stins ll is used in the COz fire fighting
inccndiu cu C02 in compartimcntclc S)'Stems in Jhe firt protec.ted rooms on
4

aplirate contra incendiilol' Ia bordul board of a ship.


navclor.
Cltipel cu re(inere C01 co1,on-rewm flap
Este destinat instal.atiei de Mins ll is used in the COz fire fighti.ng
inccndiu cu C01 in comparti.mc:ntele system in the ship rooms.
navekw.
Valt~ultl dreapttl. incltidere mpidii Quick sfnii~ltf clleck l'tJive
Se utiliuazil ca anuaturil de It iS used as closing fi ttiJlg lOr:
inchidcrc pcntro: :tpJi, acr comprimat, Wtller, C(}mprcs.sed air, Oil produc!S,.
produse petroliere.
Val~ulA de colt111cllidere raphliJ Quick ot~gle check mlve
Sc: utili:-.eaza ca arrrnitura de: It is used as closirlg tilling for
iochidere pemru: .apli. aer compl'imat, WJlcr. compressed air. oil producls.
produse pelroliere.
V(l/tmltl de btJrdaj drt apttl Side straightl'trlve
Sc utilizcaza ea armitur!\ de rcglarc It is used :'IS adj usting and clOsing
~i inchidere pentru: apri dulc:e, apit de rna~. fitting lOr: water. seaw.atet. oil products.
prod use petroliere.
Valmlil de btJrdaj de t:l)/( Side ang le mll'tt
Se utilizeaza ea armlitura de reglare II is used :ts :djust i.ng and closing
~j inchidcrc penlru: ll.pii, spuma fining tOr: wate.r. mechanic fOam. oil
aeromecanicii, produse. J>ewliere. products.
Valt~ulti de sigwon(ii de coif Augle Sl{/'ety ale
Se utili:-.eaza <:a armiilurU de reg1are. It is us...--d as closing fi tting for:
~i tnchidcre pcntru: apa. spuma Wtller, ffiC:Ch!'l nk fO!I m. Qil pr()dUClS.
aeromecanicii, produse pdroliert-.
Val~1lti de sigurtrn(ii Jltlltru aburi Steam safety ''alve
Sc u tili~calii ca annatura de rcglarc It is used as adj usting and dosing
$i inchidere perltru abur. fining for ste.am.
Robinet seMJiciu ttrchidere automalii Auwmatic clleck senice C(lck
Se utilizeaza ea armiimri\ de reg1are. It is used as closing fin ing for the
$i inchi<lcre pcntru instalatiilc de ungcrc $i lubric-ating ( lube.) and fuel oil systems.
combustibil.

,_
-, Material cu drept de autor
Vo/lruld fncll idere ll1110mtllt1 A utomatic du~,:k t'Ofare
Se otilh:eatii c:~ armiiUrii de It is used ~\S closing fiu i.ng for the
tnc:hidert pentru ins.talatiile de ungere ~ lubricating (lube.) and fuel oil systems.
combustibil.
Va/l>u/6 im:llidere tlllttJmatt'i de ctJI( Angle autonwtic check lllle
Se o1ilizeazA ca arm!\1Urli de It is used as closing fitt ing fo r the
tnchiden: pentru ins.t:-.la\iile de ungere ~~ lubricating and fuel oil systems.
combus1ibil.
Hidmm drepl Straight lrydrant
E.~h~ utilizat tn cadrul ins.talatiilor de It is used within water fire fighting
stins incxndiul cu apli. systems.
llidrtmf de cl,[f Angle hydra11t
Este utilizat in cadrul inr.talatiilor de It is used within warer lire figluing
Stins incendiul <:-u tlpil. S)'Ste.ms.
Va/!>u/ii pru:ittre iujerioart1 Lt>Ht!r pt)llrf:iiiJ: tah>e
Se monteaza Ia ciild!rile de abur din It is mounted on the steam boilers
instalatiile navale. pentru e-:<tractia de fund. in the ship systems fo r bouom pourging.
Vab>u/li dublii de "'igura11(ti Double Sll[ety val~e
Se montea71i in c.adrul instalatiilor It is mounted within the. ship boilers
navalc de caldarine systems.
Robi11et cu cep drept Stroigllt stop cm:k
Se U1ilizeaz.il ca arml\turl'i de It is used as closing fin ing for:
tncbiderc pentru: apJi, pnxluse petroliere. w<tc:r. oil products.
Rohimtl .w?nit:iu titlt(}fudritlere Self t:lo...illK .wtrl'ice co,~k
Se utilizcaza pc tancuri pentru It iSn10tmtcd on tanks tbr control or
oontl\')lul sau pentru purjare. tn c.adrul disdtarge within the lube or fuel oil
instalatiilor de ungere sau combustibiL systems,
Rohilret cu trei dH Three way cqck
Se utilizeaza penuu actionarea It is used for air dl'iving at skylight
poeumatica :acapacelor spiraL co..-c:rs.
Rr>himtl tie .\ix urtur(rl Safety cock
Se monteazii In cadnl in~ala{ii lor lt is mounted witbi.n the naval
n:hale sau pe rccipienti sub presiune c.u S)'Ste.ms or on tanks under pressure 10
scopul de a regia presiuoea din interior adjust the internal pressure when this
d ind nceasta cre~te peste valoan::!l pressure exceeds the established value.
prescris3.
Clapel refinere bordoj Side IIQ,relunr flap
Are rolul de evacuate a apei It is intelded for residual water o
re.z.Kiualc si a impuritlitiJor din tubulatura impurities from general scupper discharge.
instalatiei de scurgeri generate.
CIOJJI!I c11 jlotor F/OQtjlap
Se monteaza pe conductele de ll is mounted on the oil product
SCUI'ge-e a p1'0dusekH' peuoliere, avftod leakage piping, having the function to
rolul de tl re~i ne lichidol tn tancuri tn ca~u l retttin the liquid in the tank in case or
de\trs.iirii lichidului sau sparge.rii. overnowing discharge or bre-aking.
climin:ind pcricolul de inundarc a navci. eliminating the possibility of ship
overnowing..
Vabd fluture Butterfly val~e
Se utilizea711 pentru controlul It is usod to control wtue-r llow in
debitului Ia reglarea puterii de ie.$ire eu o order to regulate power output with
eficientil miiritil $i co o pierdere minima de sustained efficiency and minimum waste of
apa $i pentru siguranll'i tn oonditiile water and to ensure safety under ine11ial
''ehiculfirii unor mari ca.ntit3ti de apil. flow conditions of large masses of waler.

53 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul9
Matcriale Materials

Un material este tn general fo losit A material is generally used


pentru dl oferii rezistenta nece-sara. beeause it offe-rs the required Strength,
aparent~ $i alte propriet~ti Ia un cost appearance. and other propen ies at
minim. minimum cost.
Lemnul a fost primul material Wood was the titstmaterial used by
fo!osit de ciilre o m pentru constrnirea man for ship building. But nowadays.
ambarcatiunilor. in zilele ooaste i"ns!\ wood is only used to buikl small ships
lemnul mai este utili:tat numai Ia (lifeboats. fishing bools or recreation
conS11'uctia aml>a'CatiUililo r mici (bli.1'Ci de boats). some d umb boats (float bl'idges.
S.'llvare, biirci de pescuit sau agrement). :. scows) or decks. Wood is .also used for ship
uno r nave nepropulsate (bacuri. $1epuri) safety equipment and shi1)'s furniture.
s.nu pcntru confcctionarea puntilor. Lemnul
mai este utilizat Ia coofe<:~ io narea
materiak lor pentru vitalitatca navei ~i a
mobilei $i amenajcirilor interioare.
Metalcle suot cclc mai utiJiz.alc C\lctals arc I he most commonly used
materiale in cQnStmctiile navale. mtHerinls in ship <:QnStmctions. T he main
Principale le avmuaje ale metaldor sunt advantages of metals are their strength and
rezistenta ~i tenacitatea lor. toughness.
Nu toate metalele sum rezistente. Not an metals are strong. Copper
Cuprul $i aluminiul. de exemplu. s.unt and aluminium, for example, are both f:lirly
ambele foaHe slabe. weak.
Metalcle pot fi produse sa Metals can be prodt1ced lo meet
lndeplineascli otice cerinl~ sau specificalie every kind of eog.iMtWiog specificatioll Md
tebnica. requiremenl.
Alieren este o metoda important:i Al/(,)'illt; is an impOrtant method of
pcntru obtincrca oric3ror proprietli.ti obtaining whatever special properties arc
speciale sunt cerute: rezisteotli. te.nacitate. required: strength. toug.Jmess. resistance to
rezistent~ Ia uzuli, propriet3.1i magnet ice $i wear, magnetic propenies and high
rez.istentfl de<::tr ica sau rezistenta Ia electric-al resistance or l"Olmsion resistance.
coroziunc.
Proprieti11ile metillelor pOl fi mai The properties of a metal can be
depane imbun3.tll.tite prin fo losirea further improved by use of heat treatment.
lrmamenle!Or termil-c. ''Tra1ame-nt termic" "Heat tre-atment" i.s lhe tenn g iven 10 a
este denumjrea unui numl'it de procedee number of diffe.-ent p1xx:edure.s io which
d ifer ite prin c~lre proprietitile metitfeiOr ~i the properlies of metals and alloys :Ire
aliajek>r sunt schimbate. De obicei oonst~ changed. It usually consists o f heatillg. the
din incalzirca m<;talului sau aliajului Ia o mew! o r alloy to a scJcctcd temperature
anu mit~ temperatura. sub punctul s~u de below its melting point. maintaioing it at
topirc. mentinerea l t~ i I:I nceasta that tempernturc for a certain time and then
temperatura pentru o anumit:i perioada de cooling it at a certain rate to obtain
ci.mp $i apoi racirca lui cu o anumita ''itcza whatever special propc11ics arc required.
pentru a obtine orice proprtetiiti speciaJe
sunt cerute.

54 Material cu drept de autor


Principalclc cratamcntc tcrmicc The main heal treatment procedures
sum: are:
Cll liren , care este rotositii Spre tt flllrdellillg, which is used LO make
face mctalclc mai rigidc. Acc-.st trntamcnl metnls harder. This treatment is
este caracteri$tic otelului. dat poate fi chatactel'istic 101' steel but it can be applied
aplic.at fontek>r cenu ~ i i ~~ anumitor metale to gray cast irons and some non ~ fe rrous
.$i aliajc ncfcroasc. Calirca const~ in metals or alloys too. Hardening consists of
tnc3Lzirea ~i men1inere.a tempera1Urii heating and maintammg the metal
mc:talului Ia o temperatura super-ioam ~i temperature ttl a hiB-h value, followed by a
urmatli. de o racirc rnpidfl in apa sau altc fast cooling in water or other solutions.
solutii.
Retmirea. care face metalele ~ i Tempering , which ma.kes the:
aliajele mai maleabile si mai putin cas..1.nte. metals or alloys soft er and less brittle. This
Acest ttatament oonst3 dintr-o Jncllzire Ia o ue.atment consists of heating the metal at
temper(lluril lnferioara urllUltil de: 0 riid n:: an inferior lemper:Hure, fo llowed by :t sk>w
lcnta si sc aptica mctalclor c!lite. cooling: it is applied to tmrdcncd metals.
RtctHiu relt. care se efeclUea?1i Amutali11g. which i,s carried out to
pc:ntru a fttce un me~ at moalc: nstfc:.l tndlt sa make a mel:ll soft so that it can be
poml!. fi pretucrat mai usor. AceM tratamem machined more easily. This treatment
OOilStl\ dintr-o lnclilzire Ia o temperatul'li consists of a heatiog. at a high tempetatUJ'e.
in:illii . o mentincre ~ i 0 r3dn:: lenlii . a mainwining and a slow cooling.
Nil rurarea, este un trmamenl Nitriding, is a surface treatment
tennic pentru durific-nrea p5J1ii exterioare a made fo r hardening the outside of 1he.
m:Herialului. in timp ce Ia interior ttce$1:l material while keeping !he inside tough.
r3m.-'tne tenace. Aceasta este un trntamem This is a final treatment: no further heat
final. nu se mai aplic:i nici o alta pl'e lucrare l.l't..ltmems or mechanical proce.ssing should
tcm1i<:ii s.uu mec:mid dupii nceasta. be appl ied,

Cele mai utilizate metale. $i aliaje The tnost frequently used metals
metalice l:t bordul navei sunt: and metal tllloys on the board of ship nre:
Otelttl: ma)Orltalea p ~rtik.,. com~ Steel: major pares of tbe hull framing
porlente ale sistemului de osatul'i1 $i system and plating ate made from a
tnveli~ul corpului sunt cons.truite din laminated Stee.l called rolled iron:
O\el de laminare denumit otellaminat:
O(el11l f otjat: ca-e este folosit pentru F r1rged .~Jeel: which is used for piston
tije.J.e pistoandol' In parcea de abur $i rods on the steam side. and fuel oil
manipulare combustibi.l; pcntru cuplajc; handling; for couplings;
Otel jotjal Sieml!lls il-fartin : care sc Sieme11s Marti11 f orged steel: which is
fo lose$te penuu bielele ~~ at borii cotiti used tO the compressors connecting
ai compreso:tn::lor; rod and cr:m.k sh:lft;
Otel inoxidabil: care cstc fo losit pcntru Slfli llless steel : which is used for valves
:-.upape Ia pompele de alime111are cu on the feed water pumps: vacuum pump
apil: axul pompei de vacuum. Acest o,d shaft. This sted c.an be alloyed with
poate fi aliat cu crom Ia du:t.cle Chrome for stetm turbine nozzles
tu,binek)l' (1 3%Cr). lamele tutbinek)l' ( 13%Cr) , blades ( 12%Cr) Md governoo'
( 12%Cr) $i supapa de Jaminare.: \alve.:
0Jel 11i1ru ro1: care sc fo lo sc~tc pcntru Nilrided sJet:l: which is u.scd for
suruburile si angrenajele pompelor cu screws and gears in screw and gear
$Urub .$i celor cu roti dinlate: wheels pumps:
Otel de ;mlltti cn lilate: cttre este folOsit fligh~qualily steel: which is generally
in general Ia arborii cot i~ i; used for crankshalts:

55 Material cu drept de autor


f/Qnta: care cstc folosit.ii pentru Cast irmr: which is used for turbine
carcasele turt:linelot: carcaseJe casings; bearing boxes: pump cylinders:
ltagiireiOr: cilindrii. segmenti ~ i pump pistons, piston rings and valve,s
supapek) pompelor pe pa11ea de abut on the steam side aod fuel oil handling:
~ i manevrare combustibil: carcasde casings on the screw and gear pumps.
pompelor cu surub si cu roli din)ate, a centrifugal pumps (for boiler water
pompeJor <.o.enlrifuge (pe.ntru pOmpa de circulation and fresh water handlin8,):
circu la~ic a d ldarii $i p<.:ntru circularca
apei tehnice):
Jloma Melranite: care este ut i l iz.at~ Melumite cast irou: which is used for
pMtru blocul cilindrilor: the cylinde.J' block:
Fonta J)erliticil; care cstc utiJiz.ata l'earliric cast iro11: w hich is used for
pe.ntru d lmti$ile-cilindrilor: cylinder linerS:
Cuprul: c-are este utiH:t.at pen1n1 tevile C(1pper: which is used lOr air coolers
.'icitoarelot de aer: pipes:
8roll'!.ul: care cslc folosit Ia anumitc ltro, ze: which is used fOr some v~\ l vc s;
valve:
Oronzu/ r(J~'lt : c-ttre e.ste un ali:lj Cu 87- Gtmmelal : which is ttn Cu $7-80% and
80% si Sn 13-15% si este: utilizat penuu Sn 13-15% alloy :wd is used tO bushes:
cuzine-ti; cfl m.ii~ ile cilindrllor Ia pompc::le C)'linder liners and pistons on the sea
pemm circulat ap!\ de mare. pompele de water handling, feed water and stripper
ttliment!lre cu apa $i ceJor de Stripping; pumps;
Aluminiul: cstc foartc mull folosit in ,1/u minium : is used a k>t in ship
oonstructiile navale. Ace-sta se IOkHit'$te. constructklns. It is used for eng:ine.s.
pemru: motoare. tubola1Uri etc. Sau pipes etc. There have even been ships
-e.alizat chiar nave In lntregime din cons-tructed entirely by aluminium.
aluminiu.
Bron ;.ul cu tilumi11iu: care. este fo losit Alumi11ium brmrze: which is used fl)r
1: cuzinetii :a xu lui ~i l:i rotorut pompelor sh:aft sleeves and impeiJer :11 sea water
centrifugale de ci1-cula~ ie a p~ de mare: handling cerllrifugal pumps: vacuum
pcntro rotorul pompclor de vacuum; pumps run.ncr;
Brou zul c11 mag11cziu: care es.te fo losit Maugatrese brotr ze: which is used for
pentru sup!pele ~i tijele pistoaneiOr 1:! valves and piston rods at sea water
pompele de ap.'i de mare $i de haodling. Stl'ipper pumps and feed water
alimcntare c.u apt.; pumps;
Bro~r zul cu f os}Or: care este folosit PhosJJIIor brom,c: which is used for the
pentru rotorul pompci de :lpii tehnica; fresh w:nc:r handling. pump impeller;
Alnma cu alumin iu: care cstc fo losil~ t1 Jum i11ium brass: which is used for
Ia tuburile schimbatOarelor de clalduril; heat exc.hangcr lubes:
Metalul amifric{iwle. (alb): folosit White metal: used for lining bearing
pe.ntru cliptu$irea suprafe:telor de surfaces.
reazem.

56 Material cu drept de autor


Mnterialcle plastice sunt mai Pl::stics arc lighter and more
u$l()are. mai rezistente Ia coroziune dar. but they are not usually
corros ion~res i stam.

ilt:estea nu s:unt in mod obi!inuit ttt ~t de as strong as metals. A problem with


t'e'liS(etue ca metalele. 0 problem! cu plastics is that they burn easily and could
tK.este miUeriale este d! acestea ard u!i()r $i be lirt starte-rS. Another problem with
pot cauz.a incendii. 0 alt! problemA cu plastics is what to do with them after use.
mtuerialc:le plastice este ce se int!lmpla cu
acestea dupii uti.ltzarc.
CeJe. mai utili?.ate. materiale plastice The most oommonly used plasti<:$
Ia bordul navei sunt: on board of a ship are:
BacludiUt: c.are este fo losit~ pentru Bakelite: which is used lOr piston rings
scgmcn1ii pis(Oanclor Ia pornpclc de al sea water handling. stripper ~ nd fuel
circulatie apa de mare: De asemenea oil handling pumps. Bakelite is also
b<tcheliw se t.ll ili~Mii Ia :1proape tome used lOr almost all casings ()( the
carcasele apmtajului electric: electrical equipment: relay switches...
contactoarc, relec tenniee, contro~lere, thermocouple rel:tys, controllers..
comutatore. tntreruptoare auto ~mate etc. switches. automatic switches etc.
PQiietilena: c-are se fo lose~te c~'l PQI)'trtlty letre: which is used as
matel'ial electl'oizolant. pentru insulating matetial. fo' packages...
ambalaje-, diverse piir\i cOmpOne-nte etc. \'tlrious other partS etc-. Polyethyl.:ne
Polietilena este lb ane reziste.mA Ia has great chemical enduraoce but it
ac1iune!l Jtg.entilor chimici, dar se melts easily.
topc:}tc u~or.
Teflmwl (politetratl uor~e i len a): care se Teflon: ( pO iytNratluor~eth ylene):

fo lose$tC izolatori electrici, piese which is used for insulating, stressed


solicitate mecanic. Tdlonul es(e pru1s. Telloo is uninflammable.
neinflamabil.
Polidorunt de vi11il (P.V.C.): c.are se POI)tJiJI)'IclrliJride: ( PVC) whi<::h i,s
fo lo se~t c l:t rcalizarea izola~iilor pentru used fo r cable insul:tt ion, flexible pipe.s
cabluri. tevi tlexibile pentru instala\ii for i'stallatK>ns etc. PVC chars but lhe
etc. PVC- ul sc carbonizenzli., dar nu flame docs ool sp re~d .
po'Opag3 t1ac3ra.
PQ/is tiremtl: se fo lose~tepentru PQ/y sryretre: wb.ich is used tO
imp-egna-ea lesli.turikw etc. Polis.til'e!lul impre.g nate textu-es etc. Expanded
expandat se IOioSC:!ife Ia izoliirile polystyrene is used for thermal
tennice Ia camerele frigorifice etc. insulation of refrigerating chambers C{C.
PQiimetacrilatul de metil: care se MethylpQ/ymeJ/uu:ril)'te: which is used
fo loscslc Ia obJincrea de lacuri $i to obtain varnishes and adhesives..
adeziYi, plexiglas etc. plexiglas de-.

Alte materi.aJe IOiosite Ia bordul Other materials ~.tsed on board or


navci sunt: ship are:
Fihm d e .'ilicM: pe.nlru oorpuri mici de Glass fibre: for small hulls. <:-hemi<:.al
navii, tancuri pentru produsc chimice, tanks. deck houses. superstructures,
rufuri. suprasttucwri. bl!rci de salva,-e, lifeboats. life raft casings etc.

57 Material cu drept de autor


carcasele plutelor de salvare etc.
S ticlo: pcntru luminatoarc. fcrestrclc Gloss: for skylights, ctbin windows.
c.abinelor. sticle de nivel etc. level gauges etc.
Cnuciucul: penlru fununuri, g:1mituri. Rubber: for m:mifokls. gaskets life
plute de salvare. izolatii etc. rafts. insulating etc.
Klingen't (clingherit): pcntru gamituri klinkerite: lbr gaskets etc.
etc.
Oelmwl pO:Ite fi fo losit in cons- m:ly be used in ship
Cm"rete
tructiile navaJe avj.nd o inimil de otel oonsuuction with a core of steel for
pe-ntru rigidizare. Strength.
(J mentul, care este utilizat to tancurile Cement , which is used in freshwater
de: !lpfl tehnid i !ii t.ttncurile dublului tanks and double boiiOm tanks.
fund.
Az}Je.d: pentru izolari ignifuge; Asbest~is (asbest): for fireproof
isolations:
Materiale pentru fabricarea partimelor : Materials fo r ropes:
(Anepti: care cstc fo losit5 Ia Hemp: which is used on sailing boms
ambarc.a~ i uni Je. c.u vele pentru di e.s te because it is stn)ng and tle:<ible and
flexibilii ~i no se contr:ct5 nici nu se does not shrink or swell in contact with
u mtl ~ dupii contactul cu apa. Par9.rnele wate. Hemp ropes ca' be tarred or
de dncp3 pot ti gud r~.:ma te s.1.u untam:d.
negudronate.
btu/: care este m:ti n::zistent dec5t Flax: wb.ich is stronger then hemp;
d nepa:
Mtmiln (mtmelil): care este fo losita Manila : which is used fo r a number of
pentru numeroase operatiuni legate de operations connected with cago
m.ttnipularett mfirf ii ~ ide Iegan: Ia chc:u handling and mooring because it is
pcntru ca cstc rczistcntli $i fle xibil3.. strong and flexible;
Siwd: care este fok>sit pentru Iegare Ia Si.:m l (henequen): whic.h is used fo r
cheu $i matelotaj. Este mai putin mooring and lashing. It is less strong
rezis.tent decllt manila. dar este. mai than manila, but it is cheaper.
iefti n.
Cocwml: sub fonna de fibre de cocos, Ct1ir (grass): which in shape of
este folosit pcntru funii de Iegare Ia coconut fibres, is used fo r mooring and
<:heu $i remorc.are. Plute$te foarte bine towing lines. It is very buoynnt and
$i cstc foruie clastic. dar put:rczc$tC very clastic but it rots easily w hen wet.
U.$0 1' cfind este mned.
Bumlxu:ul: care e.ste re:dstent, flcxibil Co1to11: which is strong, flexible nnd
arata rrunlOs. dat eS!e foaHe scump. has a nice aspect but is \'ery expensive.
Nylo11-ul: c-ttre e.Sle fok>sit Itt parnmcle N)'lou: which is used for synthetic
din fi bre sintetice este rezistent Ia fiber ropes: it is strong. elastic and
tracfiune. elastic ~i fO.!Irtc n:zistc:nt Ia "ery rcsislant tO the act ion of water but
aqiunea apei, dar se 'intt\reste .si devine becomes harder and less flexible at
putin Oe:<ibil la temperaturi SC-iiZ.ute. low temperatures.
Tcrilcllul: care este fo losit pe iahturi: Tef)le11e: whtcb is used on yachts: it
are eel mai tnalt punct de topire. has the higher melting point

58 Material cu drept de autor


Polipr(Jpilena: care cstc fo losilii penlru Poi)'WOJI)'hme: which is used for log
saule de loch $i fungi. are eel mai Lines and halyards. has the lower
SCii7.ut punct de tOpin::.. melting pOint
Cdlti: care se folosesc pentru izolarea Oakum (hemp combing): which are
fitingurilor in sistemele de tubulaturi: used to isolate the. fitt ings o n piping
systems:
T..acuri, g rrmduri, ''"P~ele, \opsele Vami.sh es, g rounds, painting:;, lead
antivegcwtivc (cu plumb). smoalii etc. p~in tings, tar ccc.
grmtduri. c.are sunt aplit.ate. une.i metal primer.,. which are applied to a
su p rafc~e curate pentru a-i asigura b..1re surface to g i\'C protcctton against
protec, ie lmpotri\'a rugioii $i care rust aod they act as a base for the next
co n~ituic suportul pcntro stratul coat:
urrnillor:
vopsele pe11tm straturile intermediare mtdert;f}(tl paiuts, which arc used over
care sunt fo losite peste g.r undut i the pimer before the top coat:
inaintc de-strntul superior.
vopsele petrlru stratul superior. care top coat,l(lillfs. which provide a hard
asigurii o suprnfa,a fo ortc rezistentii ~i wearing surf:tce :tnd g ive the required
dau culoarea ce rut~: ookw:
l'tlp.5ele termtlrezi:;teufe can: sunt lleut-re.~b.tallt
paints. which are used
fokts ite Ia l'adiatoare si 1evi incll.lzite for radiators and hot pipes. and for the
dt ~i pcntm co~u l de fum al navei; ship. s funnel:
VOJISele a11tiegctative em con)in a1Jtifoulilrg JMints. which contains
agen~i toxici care sunt o tritvitori pentru toxK.~ants that are pOisonous for marine.

fauna marin3. Ace$ti agen)i toxici life. These toxicants pro tect the ship s
protejea71i corpul rlavei lmpotriva hull agains.t biological deposits (corals.
dcpu.ncrilor btoJogicc (corali. scoici biv~lvcs etc.):
etc.):
opsele mrtideropante, care sunt IIOtr-slip pairrts. which arc: used o n
utilizate pe p un~il e exterioare. scl\t ile wt-atht-.r decks. oompa1lion-ways etc.
dintrc punti etc.
lacurile. care asigur3 o aoope1'i1-e de ~amisltes. which g ive a clear
protecfie tr:msp:.rentii len.mikiei~ protecti'le coat tO \VOOdwork:
a.'ijiJitul (b illlmul) <:a-e este tOiosit "In bit-ume11. which is used in bilges. peak
santine, tancurile de nsieta ~i puntile tanks a nd metal decks before they are
metalice inainte de a i'i cliptusite cu sheathed with wood.
lcmn.
Vasclimi; Vaselbre ( petro leum jelly)~
Uleiuri 1le ungere; Utbricltlillg tJils:
Ultilm' de roc;re; Cooling oil,,.;
Piictmi, mtJUiri~tti; Hemry futl oil , Dit.nd t1il:
C1inimidti rejro~tarti; pcntru izo lare~ Refractory brick: for isolating chc
ttmnica a camerelor de. ardere a boile.r oombus-tion chamber.
ciUdarilor.

59 Material cu drept de autor


Unil 10

Pompc; Pumps

Cbsif.earea pompelor.

.()ca "'h'"-..:1rump5
Sc.:n.."W' 1>1unrs

~==:::.. ROllil;,IJJ ..ld: \atlo:'S


pwnpo.
LiqliJtJ.OIIJ pull'lpS

.....,.,amn~.,.

P'<lfltl)e / f\'lnfiC ;u.i:tl


lidmdinmio: ~ rndi;tlc

Polhpe a."UIIk

P~)lllf"= o.~l)ll:\~ r.tdta.l

< ~:U:i::IJ
rot:I.Ch~ Q l
pi..~

Pofnpc cu ru,l di:ll~tc

~====== Pompc
41:
Porn~ nN ppaktc
ub

j~1i!illl\l ('

l i)C 'u ind


de lidliJ

60 'JI ter pld


Accas.t3 varietatc de tipuri estc This variety of types is necessary in
necesad\ pentru a satisface ne\'oile orde1 to suit tbe needs of auxiliary
instalntiilor au:<ili.are cnn: sunL numer()ase machinl!ry systems. which an= in a large!
~ i indeplinesc mulle functiuni (~tisfac number and have many fu nctions (to
lle\'Oile motoarelot p.-ineipale $i c!i.ldli.rik>r. supply the needs of main engines and
pentru manevrarea marfii sau a altor lichide bOilers . to handle cargo and other liquids
in diverse ins.talatii cum ar fi instalatia de in diffcrcnl syslems like bilge and ballast
santi n~ $i balast). systems).
Pentru it core.spunde cerin1d0r To <."'()mply w ith the Clussification
socic(li.\ii de clas.i.ficarc. proi'tarea unci requirements. a naval pump design must
pompe navale trebuie sa indeplineasca fulfil the IOJiowing cooditions:
unnatoarele <.Xmditii:
Constructia pomp<:i trcbulc sa c:<cludii
Pro,tision is to be made to prcvem the
posibilitatea p3trundel'ii lk:hidului pe1lel1'a tion of pumped fluid into the
pompm Ia laglire. Fac exc.ep~ ie. pompele l~arings. However. this does not apply
Ia care lichidul pompat cslc fo losit si to the pumps where tbe pumped fl uid is
pentru ungerea lag!\relor. also us....->d for lubrication of the
bearings.
Pn::setupcle pompdor amplasttte 1:. The pump glands set on the suction side
partca de aspiratic se rccomandii a fi arc recommended to be fi tted with
prevazute cu un siste10 de etM$<).1~ hydraulic sealing system.
hidraulic.
Daca construc1ia pompei nu e:<cludc If the design of the pump docs not
posibilitatea cre$tetii ptesiunii peste preclude the possibility of pressure
valoarea de cakul. pe corpul pOmpei rai.t;ing above the rated value, a safety
~ ~~ pc tubulamra de rcfulnrc trcbuic sa valve is 10 be fitted on the pump casiog
ite prevlizut3. inaime de prima valvu l ~ 01 on the delivery piping. before the
de inchiderc, 0 supapit de sig:urtlntii. first StOp valve.
La pompeJe destinate pentru p0mparct1 In the pumps intended for transferring
lichidclor inOamabilc, supapclc de int1ammable liquids. the by-pass from
sigurantti t.rehuie sa aibli evacuarea In salC!ty valves is to be affected to the.
spatiul de aspir:\1ie :l l pOmpei. suction side of (he pump.
Trebuie prevlizute mlisuri construC1ive Provision is to be made to prevent
care sl\ excludi'i. posibilitatea producerii hyd1autic impacts: the use of by-pass
$QCUrilor hidrnulicc; fo losire:t in accst valves fo r this purpose is not
scop a supapelor by pass (de ocolire) nu n:commcndcd.
este recomandabil5.
Turatia crit ica a rotorului pOmpei nu The c.rit ical speed of the pump rotor is
trcbuic sii ftc mai mica de-l.3 ori turntin not to be less. tba.n 1.3 of the r.ucd
de calcul. r.p.m.
Pompele prevazute c.u dispozitive de The pumps provided with setf. priming
autoaspirt~tic trcbuie sa functioncze in devices shall ensure Oper:uion under
coodi1ii de aspiraHe uscatli'' $i de '"dryr.uction'" conditions. and as a rule.
regula. vor fi p1~vl'izu te cu o instala~ ie are to be 1ined with arraog.ements
care sii nu pcrmitii functionarca pn:venti.ng the self-priming device-from
dispozitivului de autoaspiratic cu apli operating with contaminated water.
murdar.t
La pOmpe.le cu autoamorS."lre trebuie The self-priming pumps shall have a
prevazut un Joe pcntru cuplarca unui spot fo r connecting a vacuum-pressure
manovacuummetru. gauge.

61 Material cu drept de autor


pompcle care ehiculcaU flukle ror pumps with hot combustible Oukls..
1....<1
combustibile fierbinti. etan$area the shaft sealing shall be so that the
~uborel u i ttebuie s~ fie astfel inclt leakage does not buildup \':lpours and
pierderile apiirute- sii nu pn.n,.oace gase-s in an amount that could let1d 10 an
formarca de vapori ~i gaze tntro inflammable mixture oi' air and gas.
<:.antitate <:-are sli rx>at:i IOrrua un
ttm:Siec inflttm:lbil de aer $i gttz.
Trebuie avut grijA sl\ se excluda Provision is to be made for precluding
posibilitatea aparitiei unei lnd'ilziri the possibility of ove.heatilg and
e: :esive. ~i aprinderea piesti rounive de ignition of the sealing rotating, part due
etansare din cauza cnergici de frecarc. to the friction energy.
Atunci c:lnd se i'olosesc i n constructia When materials with a low
pompei materiale cu o conductivitate electrooonductibility (such as plastics.
dectricii mica (masc plastice, c~tuciu c rubber, elc.) nre used fo r the pumps
etc.) trebuie sA se ia m~suri pemru pro\'ision is to be made for remo\'ing
indeplirtarea sarcinilor electrice prin the electric charges by introduc-ing
indudere-il in aceste m:Heriale t u1.10r some conducthe additions in these
adausul'i constructive snu s.~ se utilizeze materials o r by using devices fo
dispozitive de de~~dirca~ a S:li'Ciuilor discharging the electric charges and
ck!ctricc $i indcpiirtarca lor de pc corp. removing 1hcm from the body.

Fig. IO.l
I. Rotor blind~t (tnchis) I. Shrouded i.mpeller
2. Camera spiral 2. Volute casing
3. A.x de antrenare 3. Dri\'ing shift
4. F'la n ~it de :15-pira1te 4. Suction nange
5. flansli de l'efulare 5. Discharge flange

62 Material cu drept de autor


Ccl mai utilizal tip de pompil Ia The most ff()ue ntly used type of
bordul navei este pompa cenuifug1i. ((ig. pump aboa'd of a ship is the centrifugal
10. 1) pump. (fig. 10. 1)
Ul pompa ccntrifug5 un iropo11an1 Ln the cemriJugal pump. cnse ~m
factor tn fuoc1ionarea ei este ac.ela c3 important f.'lctor in its operation is that
presiunea cre~te. in r01or cLnoritii fo11ei pressure inc.reases within its rotor due. to
centrifuge. 0 astfcl de pomp3. const5 dintr centrifugal action. Such a pump consists of
un roto care se rote~te lntto carcas1i. an impeller rotating within a case. Fluid
Fluidul intril in rotor in pQJ1iunea (.'COtnllii, enters the centnd section or the impeller,
numit5 ochiul. curgc insprc exterior si cstc called the eye, flows outwardly, and is
aruncata In jur pe to:ua circumltrinta In discharged 31\)Und the ernire circurnltrence
c.arc.asa. Tn timpul curgc:rii prin rotorul ce sc into the casing. During its flow throush the:
rote$te nuidul prime$te energie de la pale, rotating impeller, the fluid receives energy
avfind ca efect o cre$tere atilt a presiunii cat fro m the vanes. resulting in an increase. ill
.$i tt vitet..ei absolute-. De<Htrece 0 mare p:trte both pressure and absolute velocity. Si.nce :t
din energia fluidului care p3r3sc~le rotoml large pan of the energy of the 11uld lc~wing
e~~te c.inetid i este nece~~ar sa se reduca vite?.a the impellel' is kinetic. it is nece.Ssa.t')' to
!lbSOiutil ~ i Sii $e transfonne 0 man: pOf1iune reduce the tlbsolute velc)city and tnlnSfonn
din in1iltimea cioet ic~ tn presiune dinamieli. the large ponion or vekx:ity head into
Ac.eas.ta este realizata ln carcasa spiralata ce pressure ht-ad. This is accomplished il the
inconjo:trli rotorul sau prin curgerea prin volute casing surrounding !he impeller or in
difuzor. the now through the diffuser.
Pompde centrifuge sunt impltrtite Cenlrifuga l pumps are dividt-d into
in pOmpe cu imrtn-e simplii ~ i pOmpe cu single-suction pumps and double suct ion
imra-e dublli. Ultimul tip are avantaj ul pumps. Tile latter have the advantage of
simetriei, c.are In caz ideal ar trebui sl'i symmetry. which should ideally eliminate
eliminc lmpingerea axialil. De ascmcnca end thrust. Tbey also provide ~ larger inlel
aces(ea prezintli avantajul unei suprafete area with lower in!ake velocities than
mari de a.~piratie cu viteze sc.azute de would be possible. with a single-suction
i.ntrure <:!Ire nu :1r li posibile in pompele cu pu~np of the same db.mc:ter of the impeller.
imra-e simplli cu acela$i diametru al
rotorului.
De asc~nea pompcle centrifuge se Centrifugal pumps can also be
pot im p~Jli in pompe monoetajatc $i pompe divided in single-stage pumps or multistage
multietajtne. Pompele multietajate sunt in pumps. The multistage: pumps are mainly
principiu construitc din douii sau m::i mullc constnlc(ed fro m 1wo or more identical
J'Otoare identice care sunt dispuse ill setie. impellel'S which :ll'e aranged in series.
de. reguta pe. un ax ve.rticaL De.bitul e.ste usually on a vertic.al shaft. The. quantity of
ace:la$i ca Ia una singura. dar prcsitmea tlow is the same as for a single one but the
tota11i dezvoltat! de unitate este produsul total bead devek>ped by the unit is the
pn:siunii unui etaj cu numU.rul de ettl.je. product of the head of One S.t:'l~e multiplic:(i
by the number of stages.
Rotoarele pot ti de tip lnchis Impellers cao be either of shrouded
(blindat) sau deschis (neblindat). La type, or unshrt)Uded (Or open). With the
rotoarcle dcschise carcasa formcaza un unshroudcd impeller. the casing fo rms one
perete de mlirginire pentru trecerea p1in bouoday wall for the rotOI' passage. which
rotor can: necesita ca palele sa :lib-a un joe require-S the vanes tO h:lve small clet~rttnce
mic cu carcasa. Dimpotriva rotoarcle with the cnsing. By contrast. the shrouded
blindme au trecerea prin J'OtOl' complet impelle.r has rotor passages which a1e
milrginitii. R01oarele desc.hise sunt fo losite completely enck)sed. Open impellers are
aoolo uncle materinlul pompat este posibil used where the material being pumped is
sli infunde trecerea prin I'O(Orul blindal. likely to dog the pass.ages of a shrouded
impeller.
63 Material cu drepl de autor
0

Fig. 10.2

I. Ct~ rcasa I. Casing


2. Rom a dintatli oonduc!toare 2. Driving gearM wheel
3. Rom a dintatl'i 3. Gear.wheel
4. Ointe pfl rilsind c::m-.era de aspiratk: 4. Tooth leaving the suction chamber
5. Ointc imriind in camera de aspira\iC 5. Tooth entering suction chamber
6. Dinte intrftnd in camera de refutare 6 . Tooth entering dd ivtry chamber
7. O inte pilrilsind c~'lmc:ra de :1$pir3tte 7. Tooth leaving the delivery c.hambc:r
8. Aspirn1ia pompei 8. Suction side
9. Refularea pompei 9. Delivery side

Jlompele cu roti dintate au o mare The gearwhecl pumps are widely


raspfindire datoritl't robuste.tii $i fabriC.a\iei used because or their robustness and the ir
rd ativ simple. Cu to:ne acestetl fo losirea q uite simple C()nstruction. Even so. chd.r
)or este limitatl\ de presiunea maxim1i. use is limited by theit maximal pressure
pOSibilil ( 200 daN/cm1). Pe scu11 acestea (cc.a. 200 daN/cm2). In brief they consist of
constau din doua roti dintarc care two interlocking gear wheels. These gear
angreneazli. Aces.te rofi dintate se rotesc wheels are rotating in a casing. One of
intr-o carcasa. Una din roti prime~t e them receiv.:s the. movement from lh.:.
mi~area de Ia motorut de :ctionare. driving motor. 1be variable volume
camerele cu volum variabil se (ormeaz11. chambers are l<.wmed between the
lntre 1..ona de. angre.nare-. dintii 4. 5 interlocking area, teeth 4.5 re~copecti ve l y
rcspcctiv 6,7. carcasa $i capacclc pornpei. 6,7. t he casing and pump covers. Each
Fiecare dinte care pl\rnseste camera de tooth which exits the suction chamber
aspirutie lasii un vacuum pcntru hchid Spre leaves a vacuum for liquid 10 now into.
a pittrundc tnauntro. Lichidul imrli in Tbc liquid enters the spaces between teeth
spatiile dimre dioti $i este uaospcu1at and is eattied round to the delive.ry
lmprejur pftnit Ia c.amera de refulare. Un c.ha mber. A phenomenon like that happens
fenomcn asemitn3tor se produce tn cmnera in the delivery chamber with the exception
de refula1-e. cu deosebi1ea e~ dimele intrli in that the tooth enters the chamber aJld fo1'CeS
camera $i fortea1.<i lichidul in !lfnrii in the liquid o ut into the delivery tube.
colcetorul de rcfularc.

64 Material cu drept de autor


Pom p~ produce un t1ux pulsator. The pump produces a pulsating
Ffuxul este cu at<lt m~i unifonu eu cfit este flow. l11e lager the numbe1' of teeth is
l't.)IOSit un numar ma i mare de dinti. used. the more uniform the Row is.
DcbiiUI cslc cgal cu &uma The quantity of flow equals tbe sum
\'Olumelor dintre dintii ro1ii diJl\ttte. of space volumes between gear wheel
teeth.

Fig. 10.3
5

I. Care asa I. Casing


2. .Surub condus 2. Screw
3. Surub oondudHor 3. Driving screw
4. Surub condus 4. Screw
5. Aspil'atia pompei 5. Suction side
6. Refulnrc.a pOmpc:i 6. Delivery side:

Pe ntru n imbuniltiiti unifonnita tea To improve the Row uniformity


dcbitului sc fok>sesc pompe cu surub. (fig. screw pumps arc used. (fig. 10.3) They are
10.3) Acestea sunt mai silentioase i11 nx:.-e silent in opel'3tion. they have a Jonge1
funcl iOnare. au 0 duratii de: utilh:are m:li life time. smaller weight ttnd d ime nsions. :t
lunga. grcumtc $i dimcnsiuni rnai red usc. o compacLdesign and a conLinuous tlow.
OOilStructie compacta $i un dehit uniiOrm.
Pe sc.urt nc.easta consta din douit sau In brief it consists o f lWO Or three
trei $UI'uburi care angreneaz3 $i care se interlocking screws which are rotating in a
rotese imr-o carcasli. casing.
Acest tip de pompii se fo!Qseste de This l}'pe of pumps is usuaiJ)' used
obicei pentru combustibil grcu sau aile for heavy oil or other lluids with high
lluide c.u visoozitate rnare. viscosity.

65 Material cu drept de autor


7'?~__.-----s
1
5

2
t
3
JC
I
I
\ 4
'~

Fig. 10.4 fig. IO.s

Pompa cu actiune simpla (lig:. 10.4) Single-acting pump ( fig. 10.4)


I. Cilindru I. Cylinder
2. Piston 2. Piston
3. Biela 3. Con.necting rod
4. Arbor<:: cotil 4. Crank shafi
5. Supapa de refulare 5. Discharge valve
6. Supapa de tt$piratie 6. Suction \'alve
7, Aspirnlia pompei 7. Suction side
8. Refulal\"a pompei s. Delivery side
Pompa cu ac1iunc dubl3 (fig. 10.5) Doublc-octing pump (fig. 10.5)
I. Cilindru I. Cylinde.r
2. Piston 2. Piston
3. T ija pistonului 3. Piston rod
4. Prima camera hidraulidi 4. First water chamber
5. A douu camera hidr.wlica 5. SC<.'Ond walcr chamber
6. Valva de refulare a camerei a doua 6. Second chamber discharge valve
7. Vaha de aspiratie a camerei a doua 7. Stx.xmd chamber suction Yalve
8. VaJva de rcfu lare a primei CMlcre 8. Fi.rst c:hamber discharge valve
9. Valva de aspitatie a primei came-e 9. Second chamber f.uction valve

Ccle mai utiHzatc dintrc pornpclc T he mos.t f-n:qucntly used of the


alternative sunt pompele <:u piston. Aceste reciprocating pumps ae {he piston pumps.
pompe (."(JnStau in principal dintr-un piston T hese pumps consist mainly of a piston
care- se mi~il intr-un ci lindru ~i un moving in a C)lindcr, and a dis.tribution
meca1lism de dif.tribut;e cu valvule unisens. gear with non-retum valves. At the big
La pompe1e. rnari putt m intll1ni <:.lima~ de pumps we can lind a C)'linder Jine.r and
ci.lindru $i scgmcnti pcntru a can$a piston riogs to seal the piSlon and improve
piMonul $i imbun3t~ti frecarea. Pistonul friction. The pis{on is driven by a crank
este actiOntH de un arl:,x)re cotil prin shaft by means of a connecting rod. T he
intcoucdiul unci biclc. Uzual arborele cotit cmnk shaft is usually driven by an electric
este ac,iOilat de ml motor electric. mmor.

66 Material cu drept de autor


i n acc.st tip de pompe volumul ln this kind of pumps the volume of
camerei pompei este mli.rit prin ooborfirea the pump chamber is increased by lowering
pistonului. Ac.eaSUl c reeazii un vflc.uum i n the piston. T his c reates a vacuum into
care lichidul este tra.s din conducta de which the liquid is drawn from l he suc tion
aspiratie pri n valva de aspiratie. Pis.tonul pipe through 1he suction valve. Tile piston
este ap0i ridicat. mic ~rftnd volumul is then raised. decre-asing the volume of 1he
camcrci pompei $i fot15nd in afara prin pump c hamber and forcing the liquid o ut
supapa de refulare iJl coDducta de refulare. through the delivery valve into the delivery
pipe.
l.,istonul poatc fide tip cu lame de The piston can be of buckc t type
oonact" dod es.te prev1lzut cu una sau mai when it is provided with one or more non-
multe valvule unis.::ns permitAnd lichidului return valves permitting the fluid tO pass in
sa treaca intN m singur sens. in acest caz one dlre<:tion only. In this case the
supapele ata$ate tn exte.ior dispar. externally attached "alves disappear.
Oneil miidmea pistonului este eg:tlit lf the si1..e of the piston equals the
c u cca a tijci pistonului pompa cstc o size of the pisto n rod the pump is a ram
pompii. c u piston plonjor (plutUer). Pontpa puntp. Tile ram pump works in the SJ.10e
cu piston pJonjor functionea:-...i in ttce l ll~i m11nne r tiS the piStOn pump.
mod ca pompa c u piston.

O:tcil lichklul este aspintt numai Ia IJ the liquid is o nly sucked on lhe
dcplasarca pistonului intr un sens.. pompa piston o ne-way the pump is a single-acting
se nunlot$te cu ac,iune simpla. dad'i l nsa pump. but if the. liquid is sucked in both
lichklul es.te aspir.tt in :lmbele sensuri :l\'em wsys we h:lve a double-acting pump. In
o pompli. c u actiuoe dubl!\. in ace:st caz this case thee are two ware chambe'S. one
avern douli came.re de licbid. una de.o parte oo one side of the piston and one on the
:t pis.tonului $i un~\ de ceala llii pane. ficcarc other side, each of them being fined with 11
fiind prevAzute c u o va l vul~ uniscns de non-rentm suc tion valve a nd a non rentm
a.spiratie ~i o ''alvula unisens de refulare. i n delivery valve. Consequently the ltquid
consednta Lic hidul pO:te fi uspirat *i refu lat can be drawn a nd disch:trged on e11ch
pe Jiec-at'e CUI'Sl\. S-li'Oke.

7
Fig. 10.6

67 Material cu drept de autor


1. Carc-asa I. Casi.ng
2. Disc 'ioclioat 2. Inclined disk
3. BuiUc 3. Cylinder block
4. Placii de distributic 4. Distributi.ng plate
5. Pistona$ axial 5. Axial pluljet
6. GamiiUril 6. Gasket
7. Ax de antremare 7. Driving shaft
8. LagJ. de rostogolire 8. Roll-er bearing
9. ArLicultltic Sfericii 9. Sphericttl joint
10. FcrcasLr3 de aspiro1ic 10. Suction opening
I I. Fereastd\ de refulare I I. Discharge opening

Jlompele rotati\'e cu pistona$e (fig. Rotory plunger pumps (fog. 10.6)


10.6) sunt frecve m utilizate In sistemele are widely used in hydraulic systems when
hklrtiUlicc !Hunci dind sunt ccnne pre-Shmi high v(llues of pressure and now are
*i de bite mari. required.
Aceste po.npe oonstau din ctiteva TiliS pumps consi,st or se.\'eral ram
pis.tontt~c pkmjoare dispuse axial sau pistons dispOsed raditllly or axially. When
radial. C5nd piMoanele sum dispuse axial the pistons are disposed axially. they enter
acestea intra ltllr-un butoia$ rotitor care a rotating cylinder block which slides orl a
aluned pe o pbe-il de di st ri bu~ie care este distribution pkte fi.xed on the casi.ng
fixatii pc carcasa. care lnconjoara buto ia~ul. surrounding the cylinder. T he pistons are
Pi.~toane le. s.unt articulate cu un disc articulated with an inclined disk with
inclin:u prin ar1kultttii sferice. spherical joints.
Butucul este rotit de un motor 11le cylindet is turned by an electric
elect6c. Plaea de distri bu~ie are doua motor. The dis-tribution plate has two
deschlU turi astfel tnc~ t j umilt:tte din openings so lbat h:1lf of 1be pis.tons arc
piMOil:l.$e sunt in contact cu o deschizAtura always in contact with one of them.. while
in timp t.-.clelahe s.unt in t.-ontact cu cealaltii 1he others are in contact with the othe.r
desc l:li~iilura. 0 desc hj ~iilura duce l:t opening. One opening le:tds tO the suction
cooducta de aspiratie. iar cealaltli Ia pipe and the other to the delivey pipe.
conduc.ta de refulare.
inclinatin discului d o mi~.arc The inclination of lhc d isk gives a
altemativ! pistonaselor. Fiecare pisona~ reciprocating movement to the pistons.
comunic.ii cu 0 deschizlituril penlru o E.ach piston communicates with an opening
jumauuc de rowtie ~i cu cealahi for half of a rouuion and with the other
deschi71i.turli ill cealaltii. j um!tate. Aceasta opening on the other half. This means that
inse.ammi. d i j urnittate din pistona$t sunLI n half of pistons are on the suction stroke and
cur~ de aspiro1ic. i;ar ccalalta j um3tatc in the other half on the discharge stroke.
cursa de refu lare.

Name of pump Suction from l>ischarge to


Oenumirea pompei AspirJ din Re fuJenzJ l n

Pump s[Qr prtlf'ltlshe l lSl!

Pumpe ptmlru ;,~talaJi ill! priJJHtbic


Fresh wattf cooling Cooling SCI'Vit Outlet. Maio engirlc <:ylindc:r.; & <..-ylin.Jcrs
pump Conlle'C(ion to be provided lo covcrs.
fn.sh w:uer c:.xpansion umk. Turbo-chars~o-':1' casinv for rroin
engine.
Main g..:n..:r.nvr engirll.!.
Turboct"'rec casines for tk'falor

68 Material cu drepl de autor


Namt from

~ ~~ ~
61)iler wacer circulating J)Uillp
cooling..
Main air oompressor thruu_gh fresh
w:~tcr cooler :and heat

t do api ' ,.pi ' "''""'


de rikirc Lcg!itura pre\'!'i7.ut3 spre tsncul pn. nc1pa.
'' I
de e>:pansiune ~p(l tchnica CM~.o'tlsele cu ct>osuflttnle lor
lnl)ll)tUiui pc'if\Cip<'l l.
Molorul gcncratorului principaL
R!circa fl'"'ll1>Ci do c ircul:tt]c a
c-aldarinei.

,..
Con-ptcsoncl princi,);.\1 de O'ce-r ptin
rad torul apii tdU\k3 ~i
schi mb3to rul de clldurii a l
de
Sea water pump hiaair 'Col' mait~
'""" c ngtne and condcns<.'fS ol
disti lling pl:uu.
L.O. coolers.
F'r~sh wacer cooler.
L.O. cooler for turboc.harg.
Fuel V'!ll 'lc cooling dh.scl oil
cooler.
L.O. coolers fO< main genennor
e ngines.

. ,,
~:~;::~~c~lock
l'c'Sle bord plio
. . . de a t':f
t do api do "'""' . do bordaJ
de riic lfC 10 1I.'TI03fC al1 m tUl)l'tJ lui principal $i
condcns::nonl gcncratonllui
<lc api tchnieft,
Ricitc., arclc de uld.
R!citorul de ap3tchnicl.
Rlciton.l do combus1ibil al
tutbosuOantei.
R:kitc., arck de uld ale nolc.larelor
gc:ncratoorclor principale.
La.g!i.ml palict :11 arbordui J'll.l rt
t l.ice.
Tubul etambou,

rcscn c.
cooling. & auxiliary I ~~~~rgency bilge "[.~Q. .
Coolet fot cargo oil
drain
(;Ondenser Cin::ul:ning J)UJ'1' & clt.-an ballast pump
pump IUrbint..,;.
( Sltlndb)' S\.'IVicc of Air cj\.'Chlr alk r cookr.
fresh wall."r coolins O\'l."rho.1rd
pump and se3 wmer
c.-ooling pump)

69 Material cu drept de autor


combinatlt de rae ire $i S3ntin.\ tn caz de u r~ent:l de ult:i de scurgere. R:lcitonl
a condensatorului p<:llt\1 turbinele pompelor <le
auxiliar m:.uf:i ~i de bala~ cur<l
(Pompa de rczcrvii R!kilorul de 11cr dup3 ricilor.
reste l)(l(d,
pell:lru pompa de
me ire. c.u apa tehnica

water
L.O. roofe-rs fM main
gener:.uor engi1lCS-.
Air cooler'S fol' main genctator

mocoarclor gcm'f'atoarclor
prirw::i(Xll.::.
Rac-it0.1tcle de .-.er p1\U\t nKJ(OI\JI
~ttR>tawrului principal.

gent.'f:lt(l(
pump unit gtnel':llOt engines. and cylinder oovct.
(Fresh wat<.r hundling) Connection to be providOO to Turbo-charJ."Cf ct~sings for
fn.'Sh water expansion umk. gcnerntor engine.
M:lin air compressor. vi;. fr..::sh

i:JCtnru nl()(0.1mk getlCf:ltorului principal.


C-Ill'=nlloarelvr. Carcasdc IUrbc.l:>uflanlcklr
l.cg:ilum prcvizuti sprc tancul motoarclor g.cncmtoorclor.
de expansiuoc apli tchnicll.. Con'{l'rcsorul principal de aer. prin

""

de

t<ink turlxl
via L.O. cooler for

tuli)osufl:tntci

Fuel supply pun-p oil r-ud


vulvc cooling di..se-1 oil Main engine fuel pumps.

70 Material cu drept de autor


Namt from

~
combu~ i bil
Tanool
~~
rilcit~W I cu

Fuel o;l pump 1 o;c'S<I o;l ' tank v;o fuel Eoch fuel pump ond fu<l valve
(attached hl gcncrntor :~~:r cooling diesel oil cooling system.'\ of gl.'n~o:mtor

- . I Cpri~l d ' si~<:m de"'-'' "' ~I I


1i1Cih)1U CU :t C lnJCC{IC ~I ln.)CCh)l ~

injeaoat'kll', moto-tului gt.)U<HOI'ului.

1 Hoo well oank

i l'll"{JililMlil de
ulimcntare.
i k r

""'I 1 drum)

I al

tank Puel o;l

<de " " '"'


nr.diloan:: JX'fllru

' I)UII'Il ~=---~l ~=


~w
e~JI!I~a
nk ______~
Baja co ld!t
Pumpt for Ship's Stnice

Fud ool pump 1 Fuel o;l oanks ~~cl~ii !Unks. . . _,


U ICl)C J il! J ~ 1;11111;
1 de 'de
' I d<
Fuel oB
,& I ~:: ~~:~:~"' g:~:: ::: ~ :~:~
I de
1 L.O. sum1>1ank. L.O. i ' lor '
pump l.: for generator t..o. :seulins tan_k
t..O. sump 1an_
engjnc.
L O. drain tank.
LO. box drain.
J ulci , ""'"' ' ulci. . , """' de . . . ulci al
Tancul de scurgcre ulc:1 aI motoru 1u1 pn nc1pa 1.
I de .
71 Material cu drepl de autor
fpump t from ~ .

~ ~
Toncul "'; :~~i ~ci
~::.

~& pump
~~=in bilge. 1 Druin
Overboard.
Alh.':T peak 1 a~~~c
1 ~:~;
hal;;~
'$i
~~"~ . .p.1 II. .
anima rnnc1 Pi:SlC l)nrd.
Pi'-'ll~ _P~P<~- Pi<;ul

s.-.;~~~- ,
'bilge
Ovttbo..'\r<l.
~~~:~ , ( taotk.
!)Uil'lJ)

~i ~~~tina ~!~~~la priX:ip<1lii. Pt:sce bord.


Pirul pupo. I Picul pupo.
1 Bilge pump and/or vio oil
o:ls. tank. wa1er sepa\'twr.

.. T 1 PeSte """'"
bO<d diroet Si/s.;u prin
Ttmcul de retiduui separalorul de
dil~~pi.
I Fire"""'" s... I Fire onaiot

' Mor~
""' '.
1 Fresh wat(.'t pump r taotks. water
sysll~ln one for potable. one
for wash and one for Cflmmon

o deop<! ' ;
'dcop<!
..
SCI'\'IC IU. uno .,a
pcnlru
d<

poabilrl. uoo pemru s11al$i


una oomuni de rezcrv:i pcn1ru

Hol Ho w;;uer heaer. H04 wa.os~) w;:uer S)'Stem for deck


(.IUOlJ) S(;('lt~t

I de*' c.;l<l;i, 1de apa ealda pcmru sp<\131


I~;i.il
I(cu
.. 1 pumt> s...
{COlt i llUOtiS 1\Jilllillg),
Rd'rigl'.fllting cooling for

.. T M ;or~

I!~
Sea for air
pun~ fo;~i;"

i de More de nidre pcnlru atr


a-.;T condi{i onm.

72 Material cu drepl de autor


Namt from

~ ~~ ~
' "" ' oil & Fuel oil
Pompt pcntru ;,~talajil'le tie ~cptm.ire ultli ~i c:omlmstihil
Pltmt

, 1, .0 . ; '""k ,., ., onoin 1_.0. vio lu>.,.cr


""~~t 11_.0 . ~.Q. fQr
r,
eng.inc. pun 11'
side) L O. Sl.'ttling tank for stuffing
box drairL
t..o. ~umtl tank.
L.O. sump tank fOt' g~nctator

de ulci
....., ~ .. . I
Ul()(()l\1 Ul p fii)Cip<l .
ol ...... ":v:" .., u~~i. uki
(~ raroort~ de aspimtic) Tancul de decantarc uld al "" " '
scurgcrilor pnsctupd.
T:.mcul de drenaj ulei.
Tancul de dtcnaj ult.i al
motorului
>1_.0. 11_.0 . . ~. o. s1uu1) t an~
"""'!' Generator engines oil p.'l.ns.
, ;,,.,
I <k oleL
. d::Ire;;~; uli.
ata$;.1t:l
stp.1mtorului de ult.i ~iiVJie ale notc.ar<:lor
(pC ran'll.r<J
F.Q. o;,, _,l nil ;tank. F.Q.
""'~'r
l 1

~de)
I ~-~~;:,s1~1::~~ tank boctom.
Toocul
st(Xfiltorului d~;: ru.)(lul tant:ului de SCI'Vic iU
combu~ i bil motorin3.
(ll< '
Pu~~'-' >1'. 0. I P.O. ' "i5leSei'<liI "'"'k
osidc)

scparntorului de
'"'K'UIde
combu~ i bil
(ll< '
. . "" Plmt
Pomrw pe111r11 imtala(iu d~ gt'llcrar~ apr1 ttlmieti
Ej< .. 1Sea ~~~:.~ rr<sh wa1er gcncrawr.

1 More ' dco1XI


tehni~-a
pUill> condenser or fresh watcr tank.
wa~er generator Wash \Wlter t~nk

de
apO tdmica.
de
'
Tar~eul de 3p&
'"~ pcntru
I spiil:.t.

73 Material cu drept de autor


roump t from ~ .

~ ~ ~::.
Pumps in Mt;hr ~.(~ A11xilitrr,r Pmt~p Room ([(mkt~n only)
l'f1mp~ in camera princ.ipa/4 !ji ucmrdard a pcmJHior (numai Ia petro/iue)
pu n~ ltunks.
sco: lcaroo oHtonk<
T'
I marfa M:.re Tnncurik de marll .
C;"go oil ltiutks. .
Ig;~o~~~;tlks.
1
ptunp:t ~1ah1 putnp room btl~>t.
St.':!. Buffer t.snk for lank ck:mins.
Moin caro oil ,
....
marta Santina c:uncrci do ('IOill(X\fC Tsncurik de mariti.
p'iJx:ipala. Tancul de inn);lg;a.ilt'lfe j)I!I)I,Al
prindp.;"llc de curl l,a.w. cancurilor.
Carc::rfa.
I F.O. ' T . ,. Fuel oil ton~< 1 Fud oil tanks
I ~:;~):<' tary pumr)
'
(in camcru auxiliarn de

1 ~ilgc punlp Sea .


(ln auxiliary pump Au:<thary putnp l'()l)lll bilge Pit\: main.
room) suction. Pud oil tank
Fuel oH Ilk
(in~~ncr:. auxiliar3 de ~~~I . .
. Of U S3nllRCI CS IOCn!l :tUXI 13
. .,. rii
Magistrai:J de inccndiu.
de
f e ball;oSI pump s.... 1 tanks.

Ig;~;~~;~~nks
Ball!ls.!t!lnks.
r I tanks

~~.tl~~1rilc <k htil:tSI.


~
rural ' balast.
Peste bord.
' de marta.
T ank . Sla. Tonk . '"'"''"
: \'ia salt water hl>atcr
Buffer tank via nily watl!r & drain cooler.

~!XI ~,a,r~~
More.
tan~:;ri T :mcul de irutlllS:tzin~rl! prin cte
5eJXH~Wn.l de hidtocarburi r:\citOI\11de scur8eri.
din ap5.

74 Material cu drept de autor


CapiiOiul II Unil I I

Filters

Fig. II. I

I. Copulli luului I. Shell


2. Capac 2. COlcr
3. Lncl de strilngere al eapacului 3. Cover clamping ring
4 . S u pap~ de siguran~i'i. 4. Relief valve
5. Cep de ventilare pe.ntru pozitia 5. Venl plug for vertical pOSiliOn
vcniealii
6. Ganiturli 6. Gasket
7. Tnlrare pentru pOrititt verlicai{J 7. lnlel fo r .,ertic:.l posiliOn
8. Scurgerc pentru pozitia orizontal 8. Drain for horizomal position
9. Cep de. .,entila-e pentru pozi\ia 9. Ven1 plug for bori1..ontal position
orizon1a1a
10. S u pap~ amiscurgere cu retinere 10. Anlidrain check valve
11. Elemente filtrante I I. Filter eienlents
12. Scurgen:: pentnl poziti:t .,ertic:lil 12. Drain fo r verticul position
13. lntrare pcntru poz:itia orizontal3 13. Inlet for horizontal position
14 . fe$ire 14. Outlet

Paniculele metalice rezuhate prin (\fetal pan icles outcome from


e.-oziune. pn:-cmn $i cele chimic.e rezultate erosion and the chemical ones. resulted
prin oxidarea lic hidt~ l u i . pot ajungc pc fro m the oxidation of liquid. cot~ ld reach to
supmfe tele active ale diverseJor elemente the active surfhces of different pa.1s of the
ale nw:JIOrului determinfind griparea engine causins Sluck pis1on..c: or bearings.
pistoanclor sau lagiirelor, u1-uri abrazive, abrasion. diSC()ntinuO\IS lubricating oil
discontinuiti\ti ale peliculelor de ungere. films. obstruction of valves aod
obliterarea supapelor sau distribuitoa.-ek>r. disll'ibutorS. Therefore the most sensible
De aceca eel mai rezonabil mod de a way to maintai.n and preserve an engine or
mentine si conserva un motor s..1u un sistem a high-performance hydraulic system is
hidraulic: de inallil pc::rfo rman1a este pu.r ~i simply tO keep the S)'SI~ m clean.
simplu de a piistn sistc:mul cumt.
Penttu a asigura putitatea In order to ensure the liquid
lichidului, in circuilul hidraulie sunt pure.ness in filters are. introduced in the
i.ntrodusc fiJtrc. Multe tipuri diferitc de hydraulic circuits. Many different types of
filue sum fabricate pentru a se potJivi cu filters ace manufactured to accommodate
diferitele lipuri de sisteme hidraulice-. the \'arious types of hydraulic systems.
Filtrcle sunt ctcmcntc de siguran\ii prin Filters ~ rc lifcli.ncs because tbcy remove
aooea di. elimina comaminantii $i prin cootaminants and thus pl'Otect the system.
aceasta protejeaza sistemul. rvtarimea The s i ~.e penniued fo r the lilter pores
75 Material cu drepl de autor
admisa pentru porii filtrului depinde de depends on the minimal cle.arance between
jocul minim tot:rc pc:rcch.ile d e frecarc. fr ictional pairs.
Produc3torii ioMaleaz.li initial 11le manufactures o riginally inMall
filtrd e, Sitcle ~ j ri!Suflilt()<trele. 8i the fil ters. strainers and breathers. T hey
furni :z.ca~a de aseme ne~ manuale de ulso pro"idc scr\'ice manuals with precise
utilizare cu ilstructiuni precise pemru a ilstructions in order to ensure troublefree
asigura () runctionare rara inc.idente a operatio n lOr the S)'Stem co mponents.
componcntck>r sistemului. Cu toalc Nevertheless. foreign mancr enters the
acestea, pru1icule str3iJle p~tmnd iJl siMem system usually through careless Ol'
de obicei d:uoritii neg lijentei sau lntretinerii inadequate mttinten:\ncc., o r through n()nn:ll
necorcs-punz3toarc sau prin uzura norn1nUi wear of lhc components within the system.
a compone1nelor d in sistent
Existii trei clase de filtre: mecanice. There are three classes of fillers :
cu absorbant inactiv si cu absorbant activ. mechanical. inactive absorbent. and active
Filtrele mecanice constau din ecl'ane sau absol'l>elll. T he mechanical ti tter consists o f
discuri SArfins lntn::piltrunse. ln generol closely WO\'en met:!I scn::ens o r metal discs.
climina numai p~niculc lc chiar grosierc It generally removes o nly fairly coarse
insolubile. Fihrele cu al~rbanti inactivi se insoluble particle-..'>. Inactive absorl,ent
cOmpun d in mtHerittle ca bumbac, SfilOtil. fil terS !l.re cOmpOSed of mtllerials Such ItS
pos.av. pislli, h:lrtie impregnatli sau me1al cotton, yarn, clo th. thick felt. impregnated
poros. Acestea vor elimina paticu lele mici cellulose paper. o r porous metal. T hey will
de tOt $i chiar unele tipori tnlii lur3 chiar ~i n::mQ\'e quite smtLII particles and some
apa si contaminantii solubili tn ap8 care sc types even remove water and watcrsolublc
gase..~ in sistem. rvlaterialele pentru liltrde contaminants fo und in the system. Active
cu :'lbSOrbanti activi ca de exemplu ubsorbent lifter materiuls such as charcoal
c~rbune.le. inUitudl panicule.le prin remove pa11icles by absoptKln as well by
absorbtie dt $i prin filtrare. Acestea nu filtering. Tiley are not used as filter
stmt fo losite ea materi~LI filtro.nt pcntru m ~teda l for the: lubrication or fueJ..injection
sistemek de. ungere sau de. injec1 ie a systems, They are however used as filter
combustibilului. Ac.e stea sunt, oricum. material lOr the exhaust systems.
fo!Qsite ca material fill rant pentn1 sistemele
de evacuae.
Existii cinci tipuri de liltre. lOiosite TI1ere are li ve tyves of fi lter in use
Ia OOrdul navci: filtrc mecanicc, filtrc cu on board of ship: mechani-cal fi.lters..
suprafat!. i'ilue de profunzime. filtre cu surthce ty~. deep type, edge type and
disc.uri ambutisate ~ i li ltre centrifug.ale. centrifugal filters.
Fihrele mecanice cum nr li pl:ascle Mcchnnical fi lters such ~\S inlet
de stlm3 sau sitele previn intcarea iJl sistem .screens and stmine.ts prevent large. tCu'eign
a pat1iculelor str5ine de. dirnensiuni mari. particles fn> m entering the system. The.y
Accstea sum clasificntc In fonctic de are classified according to a sieve number
numli.1'ul sitei care este. in le.g3tUI'li. cu which -elates to micrometer rating.
va)()area nominala microme.tric.il.
Elcroentek fillrante ale filtrclor cu The surface-type fi lter clement is
suprafa\a sum oonfectionate d i1l hfittie composed of a specially treated cellulose
special tratatil. Hfirtia este indoitii. in papt:r. The papt'r is fo rmtd in vertical
convo lu1ii (tncrctituri) .$i dis.puncrc convolutions (wrinkles) and in a cylindrical
cilindt idi.. E.ste hn3.1'it la intel'io1 .$i exterior pauern. It is reintOrced on the inside and
~i e.Ste echip:H cu un d ispo:dtiv de el tln ~are o utside and is equipped with a seal on the
Ia panea supcrioarii si i.nfcr ioarn. Cfitcodata top aOO oouom. Somet imes multifoldcd
se fo lo sesc elemente din h.ftrtie multistrat. paper e.lements are used.
Constructia li ltrel<)r de profunzime The cOn$tructin Of the deep-type
este mull diferitfi de cea a filtrelor cu fi lter is rather different from that of
suprafa\a. Acestea sunt construite d intrO surface fi lter. They ace constructed o f a
piesit din material p0ros. \eSitturii de cupru piece of porous woven cooper material or
76 Material cu drept de autor
sau un cilindru de bronz lOrmat sa se. bn>nze cylinde-r eJemenu; lOrnk'd to lit the
potrive~sca cu carcasn. Aces.tca pot fi housing. They can also be made of minUic
f~bt icate din bile lb ane mici din otel S-tainless steel balls joined as one inflexible
inox:idabil prinse impreuniJ intr-o pie-sa pk-c-e. This type of filter is mon: efficienl
rigidlt. Accst lip de liltro este mai cficicnt and has a Jongcr service life.
.$i are o perioad1i de utilizare mai lung~.
Fihrele din 1abll1 ambuti:wua sunt The edge-types filters are ustd as
utilizatc ca filtrc primarc pcntru sistcmcle primary filters for lubricating and fuel
de ungere .$i oombustibil de alimentare: in inject;on systems where many cooper.
ilceste sisteme multe discuri de cupru, bronze. paper, Or Steel disks ilre pOSitiOned
bronz. bfirtic snu O\el sunt fl:~ate de un tub over the center tube. Tbc tube acts as a
central. Tubul central actionea11i c:a o linie hidraulic line a1ld directs oil to the outlet
hidraulicit ~i direc,ionea.zii uleiul spre pOrt. Some edge-l)'pt: filt.:rs have an exira
orificiul de ie$irc. Uncle din aceste fihre ~~~ automatic or a hand-operated scraper for
in plus facil itatea unui curll.ti'itor automat clea1ling the outside of the disk. This. of
sau :\c\iOn:U rnanu:1l pentru curilt:trea piirtii course-. helps tO extend tbe life or the filter.
cxtcrioarc a discului. Aceasta, dcsigur.
ajutl't Ia prelungirea durate.i de milizare a
fillrului.
Filtrele centrifugale sum utilizate Ia Centrifuga l filters are used at some
unele mecanisme cu mi$Care de rotatie. mechanisms with rotary motiOil. By
Prin ro1irea lichidului suspensiile soUdc co rot:.uing the liq\lid, the solid suspensions
dcnsitatc mai marc sunt proicctatc pc with high density a.J"C projected to the filters
pert.tii li ltrului, uude. lOrme..azli o pelicuta walls where they !Orm a dense film. with a
denSii, cu aspect bituminos. prin bituminous appearance., by joining the
amestecarea cu aditivii din lichid. additives fro m the liquid.
inceea ce prive$1e constructia unui Re.gardless of 1he design of a li ltt l'
fiJ1ru (fig.J I.I). elemcntul filtrant este (fig. 11. 1). the filler d ement is scaled in 11
incapsulat int r~o carcasli. lnelele -o sau housing. -o rings or gaskets separate the
gamiturile separli lichidul liltrat de ce.l filtered from the unfiltertd liquid. Liquid
ncfillr:tL Licb.klul i.ntrii in :tpropicreu piirtii enters near lhc top of the fiJter housing or.
supe.1ioa1-e a cmasei sau. in cazul fi ltreiOI' with sc1ew-on type oil or fuel filte1. it
in$urubate. aces(a intra pe la placa fixii $i enters via the adapter plate and flo ws into
curge s.pre zona de ie$ire a clemcntului the outer area of the filter clement. 'l'he
filtrant. Presiunea din sistem fo11ea.tii system pressure forces. the liquid thi'Ougb
lich;dul prin elementul de filtrn.re in 1..0na the filter d ement into the (.'enter area.
cent.ralii. Lichidul fih rnt t.rcce prin orificiul Fillcred liquid then p:tsses thro\lgh the
centl'31 $i mai de.parte prin eel de ie.$ire. center and on to the outlet po11. Some lilter
Unele co nstruc~ ii de li ltre incorporeaza o designs incorpOrate an antidrain c.heck
supapii antiscurgcrc cu rcti.oerc pcntru a valve to prevent fluid from draining from
preveni scurge1-ea lichidului din vas cind the lilte1 bow when the engine is S-topped.
motoarde s-au opriL Aceasta asig:ura This ensures inS.Hmt oil or fuel pressure
prcsiunca uleiului sau combustibilului. when re-starting. Some oil filters have
imediat dupii. repornire. U1lele li ltre de ulei either a built-i1l bypass valve or a bypass
c.u curgere continuit au fie 0 valvit dt! valve which is mounted separate-ly. The
ocolire "incorporat3 fie o valva de ocolirc purpose of tOO bypass valve is to bypass oil
ca1-e e momati\ separat. Soopul acestei ensuring tbe lubricant to tbe system i1l the
vahule de ocolire este de [I (."()nduce uleiul event th:al the fil ter clement becomes
pe o calc oeolito:lrc. asigurfmd lubri.fiant in plugged.
s istem chiar $i in cazul dnd elementul
fillrant devine incitrcat.

77 Material cu drept de autor


flcntru curiitirca filtrclo r de ulci sau for cleaning the lubricating or fuel
combustibil. trebuie t11cute urm~toarele o il filters the foUowing operatio ns should
Operatii: be made:
pentru inceput inlilwnti c:tpacul first remo\'C the liltcr cQver
apoi scoatcti clemcntul fi ltrant then extract the tiJtcring clement
apo i spliktJi elementul cu tr iclo retilenli. then wash the element with
tridoretM sau alt solvent crclnd un threecblorethylene. threechlo rethane o r
curent de- 11uid in sens invers sensului Other solvent by crc~ll ing a liquid flow
de ci.rculatic al combustibiluhi sau in reverse to natural flow d irection of
uleiului: dad'i elementul fi ltrant este din lubric.ating o r fuel oil: if the fi ltering
h5rtie $3U libre le:\tile Se va iniOcui eleme-nt iS m!lde of paper 0 1' textileS it
will be removed
d upli aceea fi ltrul trebuie sutlal cu aer atlet that the fi lter should be b lown
co~uprimat
in sens invers circuhl\iei with C(lmpressed nir in reverse sense 10
ulciului s.1.u combustibilului. pcntru natural flow direction of lubricating o r
inliiturarea patticu le.lor solide. fuel oil. for re1uo ving the solid particles
apoi "erificati suprafetele de et!ln!iare ~i then check the se-aling surfaces and
cu riit~lti-lc clean-them
apo i verificati gamitum sau inelele after that check the gasket o r O..ings
"0 ". iar dad1 sunt u?.ate inlocuiti-le and if damaged remove them
apoi i ntrod uce~ i elementul liltrant then insert the lilterinS d ement:
pOtriviti g:.rniturn fit the gasket
puneti cnpacul .$i str3ngcti $Uroburilc put on the cover and screw the bolts
in final \'etificati etan.,area. in the end check the insulatio n.
Conslructia fiJtre lor: FiUet constnu:tion :
4 --...,w' n

Fig:. 11.2

Pihru de :tpH n:"al de d ime-nsiuni red use M:trine Small Si?.C W!lter Str:tiner
(flj!. 11.2): (fig. 11.2):
I. Corp I. Body
2. Cnpac 2. Cover
3. Jugul capacului 3. Yoke of cover
4. Surubul jugului 4 . Bolt of yoke
5. Cep 5. Plug
6. Placa fi ltrantli 6. Slraincr plalc
7. lne.l de. e.tan$are. cu sectiune circulara 7. 0 ring:
8. Gamitura 8. Gnsket
9. $urubul j ugului 9. Bolt of yoke

78 Material cu drept de autor


16 19 4 3 14 9

"

0
00
000
00
0
7

Fig. 11.3 0

Filti'U de u ~i .~a va l dublu. de dimensiuoi Mat iJle Small Size Duplex Oil Strainer
r<:(lose (fig. I 1.3) (fig. I 1.3)

I. Corp I. Body
2. C:lp!IC 2. Cover
3. P-e-sgarnitur3, bucsA de presare a 3. Packing gland
garnilurii
4 . Cep de robinet 4. Cock plog
5. Milner 5. Hand le
6. Cilindru fi llranL 6. Sttiliner c ylinder
7. Si1a met:~lica 1. G:m;:e wi.re
8. Mitnerul $i SUp!.WlUI c iHndrului filuant 8. Handle and strainer c yliJtder hoklel'
9. Jugul capacului 9. Yokeofco ver
10. $urob al j ugului 10. Yoke bolo
I I. Surub de blocare supapli de aerisire I J. Air valve keep bolt
12. Bita 12. Boll
79 Material cu drept de autor
13. $urub ram cap 13. Machine screw
14. Opritor 14. Stopp<;r
15. Surub cu cap hexagonal 15. Hexagon heod bolt
16. Prc.~.on ~i piulitii 16. Boll and nul
17. Ccp lilctat 17. Screw plug
IS. Jnel de etan$are cu seq iune circularli. 18. 0 ri1lg
19. Jnel dt>. e1 an~are. c:u sec~ i une cinularfi 19. Oring:
20. Gamitura 20. Goskct
2 1. Surub aljugului 21. Yoke bolt

21
18
19
16
21
17
ll)

7
:a;

----
8
5
3

1
Fig. 11 .4
82379102422

so Material cu drept de autor


f iJtru naval sirnplu cu plfici de otcl Marine Steel Plate S implex OiJ Strainer
( fig, I L4) (fig, I L4)

L Corp L Body
2. Plac<l de fund 2. Bottom plate
3. Re-a?:emul plil<:ii despl'lrlitoare 3. Partition plate seat
4. Flan$a supcrioar3 4, Upper t1angc
5. Tubulatura de intl':tl'e: si i~ire 5. Inlet & outlet pipes
6. Fltl n ~e de intrarc: ~i ie~i re 6. Inlei & outlei flttng.es
7. Picsa pcntru montarca $Urubului 7. Swi.ng bolt mounting piece
aniculat
8. Pkior 8. Pc:des1al
9. Ghidul cilindrului filtrant 9. Strainer cylinder guide
10. Otiliciu de golire 10. Drain hole
I I . C.apnc 11. Cover
12. Ncrvura 12, Rib
13. Ansamblu pentru ridicarea capacului 13. Cover litling mount
14. Rnmii 14 . Frnme planking
15. Orificiu de aeris ire 15. Air vent hole
16. Surub aticul:lt I6. Swing bolt
17, $lift 17. Pin
18. J>iuliH\ OOxagonalli 18. Hexagon nut
19. $aihli 19. Washer
20. $aioo 20. Washer
2 1. $plim, cui spintecat 21. Split pin
22. Cep 22. Plug
23. Cep 23. Plug
24. Gamitur!\ 24, Gaskeo
25. Gamitur3 25. (iasket
26. $ tift de fJX:trc: 26. Sel boil
27. Inet de etansare cu sec~ i uoe citeula'li. 27. 0 l'ing;
28. Mfinerul $i suportul cilindrului fihrant 28. Strainer cylinder handle and holder
29. Supo11ut cilindrului Ciltmnt 29. Stminer eylinder hotdcr
30. Surub de strflngere a cilindrului flhram 30. Strainer cylinder tigbtening bolt
31. Piulitll hexagonahi 31 . Hexagon nut
32. Magnet 32. rvla_gnet
33. Supo11ul magnetului 33. r\'lagnet holdillg piece
34. Suportul cilindrului fillzant 34. Sttiliner cylinder holde.r
35. Pinel d csp3rtitoare 35. Partition p l~t e
36. Placa supedoari\ a cilindrului filtl'ant 36. lmem~ l strainer cylinder top plate
interior
37. Placade fund :t filtn lui 37. Strainer bottom plate
38. Cilindru riltram exterior 38. External sttainer cylilder
39. Cilindru rill rant interior 39. Internal strainer cylinder
40. Sita mctalic3 cxtcrioaro 40. External wire gauze
41. Sita metalici\ interioar3 41. lmem~ l wire gauze
48. $urub cu ochi 48. Eye bolo

81 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul 11 Unil 11

lnslalalii de forta Power Planls

Ma~.;,; c11 ahur cr1 pisM11 Reciprocating .\team e11gi, e


Ma$ina aflernmiv'fi (cu piston) cu The reciprocating ste.am engine was
abur a fost primul tip de 11UI$i.n folosit Ia the tlrst type of engioe used on board of
lx>l'dul nave lor. Acest 100tor eS(e o m.rt~inli ships. This engine is a heat engine that
termicit carl! converte~te energia potential& cOn\'<!r1S the potential energy Of the Steam
a aburului in lucru mecanic. into work.
Ma$inile altetnative cu abur sunt Reciprocatiog steam engines have
folos ite din anul 1736 c1ind Jonathan Hults ~n used sin(."!C 1736 when Jonathan Hulls
a teS1at prima nav propulsat3 cu abur $i tested the first steam-powered ship and
din 1755 clnd James WaH a inventat since 1755 when James Watt invented the
ma$ina cu dubla e-:<pansiune. compOund engine.
Chinr daca sunt a$3 \'echi ma$i.nik Even if they arc so okl. the
alternative cu abur suot IncA IOiosite $i i'n reciprocating steam engines are still used
z.ilele noastrc in ciuda rnndamc:ntelor lor nowadays, despite their low efficiency, in
scazute Ia pctrolierc datorita sigurnn)ci i.n oil tankers, because of their safe operation
functiooa-e mai ales i'n alllX>Sitta specially in flammable conditions on board
inflamabilii de Ia bordul acestor nave. of these ships.
Motoarcle alternative cu abur sunt "'l"hc reciprocating steam cngi.ncs
101<>site pentru aclioOAI't.a pompe.lor de are used lOr driving the c.argo pumps.
marfa. pompek>r de strip ~i a unor instalatii Striping pumpS and some deck machinery
de punte cum ar fi vinciuri $i cabestane. such as windlasses and capstans,
Ma$inile alternative cu abut pot ti Reciprocating steam engi11e.s cao be
cu dublii uctiune ~i cu simp!$ actiune. of double acting or si.nglc act ing type-.
intr-o Ola$inil alternativ3 cu abur cu In a double acting reciprocating
dubla ac~ i une lucrul mecanic este produs de steam engine the work is per10nu00 by a
un piston c-are se mi ~a ahemativ intr-un piSton sliding alternately in a <:)'Iinder.
eilindru.
Aburul venit de Ia cAklare e.ste The steam coming from the boiler
introdus inlr-un scrtar de distributic cu is introduc-ed into 11 two position slide
doua pozit ii. Sertarul T$i schimbfi pozi)ia valve. The slide valve changes its position
alunedlnd de Ia dreapt.a Ia sttit1ga $i de Ia by sliding: from right to left and from left lO
st iin~< I:\ dre:tpta schh:nbiind sensul rig.ht, changing the stc:tu:n direct ion. So the
abmului. Astfel abUI'ul p~tru nde lil eilindru steam enters the cylinder on ooe side of the
lntr-0 p3J1C a pislOnului detennin:lndu-1 Sit ()iston. causing it to nX>ve. in the opposite
sc deplasc-.::e tn dircctia opusa. Dupa o direction. Al\cr a period in which the
perioadli fn care pistonul atinge caplitul piston reaches the cylinder end. the slide
cilindrului sertarul i~ i sc.himbii pozitia valve changes its position, dri.,ing. the
dirij3nd aburul in parte~ opusii pistonului ~~ s1eam on the opposile side of the piston.
deschide orificiul pentl'u evacuarea and opens the discharge opening 101' the
aburului din parte.a aeeasta a pistonului used steam on this side of the pi,ston
determ.iniindu-1 sa-~i inversczc mi$Carea. causi.ng. it to reverse its movement. The
Abuml folosit merge mai depa11e lntr-un used steam goes fu11her into a condenser or
condensator sau in atmosfera. into the atmosphere.
inlro m:t~i.nii altcrntl iva cu abur cu ln a single acting reciprocating
simplli ac~ i une luctul mec-.aoic este efectuat steam engine the work is also periOrmed by
de asemenea de ditre un piston <:e aluneca a piston sliding aliematel)' in a cylinder but
intr-un cilindru. dar acest piston produce this piston produces work on only one side
1uctu mecanic doar inti'O singmli pane (one stroke only).
(intr-un sing.uril <:ursil).

82 Material cu drept de autor


Acc.as.ta mi$ca.re alternativli cstc This rcciprocati.ng motion is
transfonnat~ in mi~<ue de rotatie pin changed into a rotary motion by means of a
intem!ediul unui mecanism bieliinl!'lnivdii. connectint:, rod !lnd crankshaft mechanism.

Turhina cu abur Stetwl lurbille

intr~ turbin3 cu abur encrgia In a steam turbine., the energy of the


abutului p1'0dus lntro cli.ldru-e este steam p'Oduced in a boiler is converted imo
transformilt3 in lucm mecanic prin work by means or some rouuing blades
imcntKXIiul unor palctc ln mi$carc de attached to a shaft
J'Otalie fixate pe un arbore.
Princ.ipiul de fun c~ ionare al turbine.i The working principle of the St.eam
cu abor este cuooscut inc11 din anul 1629 curbine h.as been known since 1629 when
clnd Giovanni de Ia Branca a P'Opus pl'ima GiovMnlli de Ia BtallCa proposed the first
turbina tn mJnjmurii. de fo rm:. pe c.ore o small turbine in the shape tl:l:t we know.
.$tim. in zilck noastre turbinclc cu abur Nowadays, the steam IUrbine is used for
sunt fo lo.site pe1nru propuls ie in navele po11 propulsion in fas1 coruainer ships. nuclear
cOnllliner rapide, submarine ~ i Spirgfltoare submarines tmd ice-breakers. and for
de ghea!li nueleare, In petroliere pentru a driving larg.e cargo oil pumps in tankers.
acliona pompe mati de matlil.
Pcntru :\ obtine lucru meconic intr~ To obtain work in a steam turbi.ne.
turbin3 cu abur. mai int5i encrgia the energy accumulated in the steam by
acumulatit in abur prin inc.ilz.ire este heating is first conve.rted into kinetic
transformilt3 in energic cinetkii prin energy by Stettm exp:msion in :1 number of
destioderea aburului intr-o seie de ajutaje nozzles or blades. 11lis kinetic energy is
sau palete. Aceast:i energie este apoi further converted iruo stereorne<::hanic.al
convert itit in encrgie stereomccnnic.il prin energy by means of the blades rot:tting on a
imermediul paletelor ce exec.:ut3 o mi$care shaft
de rotatie in j urul unui arbore.
Bxishl uncle :\'anwje tn fo!Qsirc:t There :iTt' some :tdvnntages in usi.ng
tubinelor cu abm. cum :u li: the steam turbines such as:
Turbinele cu abur sunt potrivite aoolo Ste.am turbirles are suitable tOr great
unde sunt cerute puteri mari. care nu power demands., whic.h c.annot be
pot fi satisfkute de ma$inile alternative satisfied by reciprocating engines due
datorit~ IOrtelor lor ilte11iale. to thei inetiai iOrces.
Turbincle cu abur s.unt complct Stettm turbines an: comple-tely b:tlanccd
cchilibrntc pcotnt ca nu ~u pirti in because they do not have rcciprocaJiy
misc.are altemalivll.. moving pans.
Datorita faptului dt toate pitrtile. lor Since all their moving parts are
aO:ue m.isc:trc sunt <."((mplet ocoperite co.npletely <."(1\'e.re(l, thei.r operation is
functionarea lor cstc sc face in dcpl.i.nii thoroughly safe.
siguran~a .
Sunt lOarte cconomice Ia puteri mari. They are very economical at great
OUiplliS.
Pot suporta sarcini mari. They can bear g1-eat oveloads.
Au mas1i micl $i dimensiuni reduse pe They are sm.all in size aod weiglu
unitatea de putere. ac.oording to lh.:ir output rate.
Au ccntrul de masli mai cobortit dec:lt Their center of mass is lower than thal
eel al motoa-elo altemative cu un efect of the -ecipl'ocating engines. with a
favorabil in .stabilitatea n.a.vei. good result in the ship"s s1ability.
Eliminaft'tl C'()mpletil a ulciului din The complete removal of oil from the
aburul cvacuat. discharge s1eam.

83 Material cu drepl de autor


Ex.i&t:i de ascnwnca $i c5teva There arc also some d isad va01agcs
dezavantaje In fo losi1-ea turbioelor: in using steam turbines:
Sunt ireversibile. Tht:.)' are irreversible.
Au co nsum specific de nbur rid k .ot Ia They ha.,e high Specific Steam
sarcini rcdusc. consumption at lo w loading .
N"esit3 un redue tor. T heir use requests a gearing .
Consumul specific de oombustibil este The specific fuel consumption in using
m:-.i m:lre ltl fo losirea turbinelor dedi Ia stei'lm turbines is g:rettter th:ln when
fo losirea motoarelo r c u combostie using i.ntcrnal combustion c ng i.ncs.
interna.
T urbina cu abur este strict leg.atll de The steam turbine is stricti)' related to
existent:t unci ciildiri. the boiler.

Molorul cu aprbrdae ,,n, sdime;e Spark lg~r itiQn E"gbre

MOtOrul Quo a fOSt de'I.VOitat in Quo engine was de\'eloped in 1865


1865 de ciltrc Nicolas A. Otto si 8. l.:tngcn. by Nicot:ts A. Otlo :nd E. Langen. Tbis
Ace.st nx:.tor a utilizat priocipiul de engine used the working pr inciple proposed
funqion.are propos d e Beau de. Rochas in b)' Beau de Rochas in 1862 and worked o n
I862 $i a fimc1ionat cu combustibil gazos.. gas fuel. Only in 1883 did they c reate a n
Abia in 1883 au realizat un 1110101' engine working o n petrol. being considered
funqiOruind CU pe-trol, mO{()r C-:lre pOtlle fi the predecessor o r the present-day Spllrk
co ns ider.~! prcdecesorul nxllorului :lctual co ignition engi.nc.
aprinde1-e prin sclinteie.
Acest motor cu ard ere interna. c.a ~i This internal combustio n engine
altclc. foloscstc un amcsu:c de oombustibil employs. like o thers, a fuel mjxturc as a
drept mediu de lu<:I'U. de u OOe rezu lt3 d \ workiog medium. with the result that the
energia Lennic{J din procesul d e !lrdere cste therm:ll e nergy fro m the co mbustion
disponibilfl in llHt.$ina d e produe<:rc n process is available withjn the work
lucrului nle<:anic. de exemplu a nsa mblul producing machine. fo r example a piston.
piS.IOn-cilindru. and-c ylinde r assc:mh l)'
Din punct de vedere tennod inamic The internal combustion engine
motorul <:u combust ie imern ~ nu does not. thermodyoamically speakilg .
demonstrenzii str ict un proccs cidic strictly demonstrate :-. complete c yclk ul
complet pc ntr u ca amc&tccul de acr process, since the fuel -air mjxturc is burned
combustibil es.te ars $i produsele de ardert. and the products o f combustion are reje<::ted
sunt evacuate in mediul int:<)njuriltOr. tO the environme nt.
Datoritl\ panicu larit3tilor caracte- Because of the c haracter istic
r istice motoarelor cu a1'Ciere intemli acestea features o f the inte.J1131 combustion e ngine.
pot fi t.XmStruite ca o instalatie de fOI'\il it may be built as a small co mpact power
polrivit3 pentru apltca~ii nesta~ ionare $i plant suitab le fo r nonstationary
function!lnd Ia telllpel'aturi mar i $i de aceea applications a11d opernted at high
c u rand~Hnent e rdativ m:l.ri. temperatun::s and therefore at rel:ltively
high efficiency.
Ciclul Otto consta d intr-un timp de The Ono eogine cycle. consists o r
admisie Ia o presiune co nstanta in fond. in an intake s.troke tlt essenti:'llly constant
timpu l drei perioade ame.ste<:ul aer pressure: during this pe riod the fuel air
combustibil pl'itrunde in cilindru. Pe durma rnixtul'e tlows into the cylinder. During the
celui de-al doile: timp, to:He sup:tpcle sunl second stroke, !Ill valves are clOsed and the
inchisc, iar amcstecul acr-combustibil eslc fuel--air mixture is compressed. The
compriru.at. Amestecul este atunci aprins mixture is then ig nited by use of a sparking

84 Material cu drept de autor


prin intenned iul unci bujii. iar arde.re..a este p lug, and the combustion is so rapid with
~a rapid3 raportat Ia vitc.za d e d cplas..m a respect to the rate of the pis.ton movement
pistonului tncfit volumul rnmane ap1'03pe that the volume remains neal'ly oonstam.
co nstant. Atunci unneatil limpul de Then fo llOws the work-producing Stroke-, in
produccrc a lucrului mec-anic. tn care which the high-temperature, high-pressure
produsele de ardere cu lnalt3 temperatul'li $i products or combustio n expand. When the
presiune se. de~~tind dlnd supapa de exhaust valve. is opened at the. end of the.
cvacuan:.:: cstc. deschisa In siarsitul expansion stroke. the pressure is rnpid ly
destioderii. presiuoea este rapid redus3 Ia o reduced to a value just above the exhaust
valoarc: :tprottpe de presiunea de evacuilre. pressure. This is., approximately, a co nstant
Acesta cs.tc cu aproximatic un proccs d e "'Oitune process. Finally. during the cxtw.ust
volum OOilStant. La un nli. In timpul stroke. the piston pushes out the
evacua.rii, pistonul impinge in afttrii g:azde combustion gases remainins in the cylinder
de ardere rli.mase In cilindru Ia o presiune at about constant pressure.
aproape cons.tantli.
8 1Cctul crc~terij raportului de The effect of increasing the
compresic c&tc crcstcrca randamcntului compression ratio is a growth in the
motorului (Cre-$terea cantiti't,ii de Jucru elf tciency of the engine ( the increase o r
mecanic produs pe unitatea de cilnt itnte de work produced per unit o r quantity of fuel).
combustibil).

Mu((Jr11l c11 apriudtrre pri11 (:omprtrsic Cumpressio11 /f:11itio11 E11gin ~

Acest m>tOr a 10 $1 proiect:lt in 1893 This eng inc was designed in 1893
de cli.tre Rudolf Diese1. Motoul lui Diesel by Rudolf Diesel. Diesel's eng ine was a
a lOst un motor in pmru timpi. motorul in tOur stroke engine. the two stroke eng ine
doi ti.mpi fi ind de--tvollat de dtrc Clerk being develo ped by C lerk Dugard in 1879.
Dugard in 1879.
Matorul Diesel difera de. motorul The Diesel eng ine. differs from the
Quo to pri.mul r:ind prin :.ceea cit 0 110 eng ine prim~lrily i.n that the
temperatura Ia sffir$itul procesului de temperatu-e at the eod of the oompressio l
OOUIJ)resie este de 3$tl maniera incfit arderea process i.~; such that combustion is initiated
cstc initiut5 spontan. Acca&t3 tcrnpcmtura spontaneously. This higher temperature is
inaltli este o btinutli. pl'in continuarea cursei obtahled by continuing the compressio n
de '-"Ornprimare pi\mi Ia 0 presiune mai stroke to a hig her pressure, o r hig her
inalt5 sau 1:-. un rnpon de comprimare mai compression ratio. Fuel is not injected until
mare. Combustibilul ou e.ste injectat p:i:nli the end of the compression process. and
Ia snlr$itul proC".esului de eompriruare $i then it is added in such a slow m1e in
cstc. amnci adii.ugal cu o vitcza asa micii comparison with the r.11c of the piston
.-apoctatli. Ia viteza pis.tonului incfit are toe u'avel that lhe combustio n process occurs.
procesul de ardere, ideal, In pn:siune ideally, ill constant pressure.
constantft.
in genetal motorul Otto are un In general . the Ouo engine has a
randament mai bun dedt motorul Diesel Ia higher dlicit:ncy than the Die;,s,el eng ine for
acela$i rnpon de comprimarc. Oricum a g i.,.cn compression ratio. However,
d iti cultlitile aprindetii timputii limiteaz.~ preignitioo difficult ies limit the
roportul d e '-"Ornprimare Ia m:ltoare1e Ono compression r:u io in the Quo engine. so
ustfcl inc3t Ia motoarclc Diesel pot li lhat higher rotios can be used in the Diesel
utilizme tapoarte mai mari de oomprimare engine. and lOr that reason. hig her
~ i de aceea pOt fi Obtinute mndamente mai ef ficie-ncies ca n ~ Obtained.
mari.
Motoarele cu combustie ime.n3 ca Internal combustioo engines such as
de exemplu mOtoarele Quo sau Diesel sunt Quo e.ngines o r Diesel engines are widely
ss Material cu drepl de autor
larg rl'ts.pilndite tn propulsia navala datoritU used in ship's prt>pu1sion due to the
urm3.toruclor ~vantajc: following advantages.:
0 mai bunli transform~re a energiei A better change of the chemical energy
chimice tn enetgie mecanid a v5nd ca imo mechanical enecgy resulting in a
efecl un nmdament mai bun. better efficiency.
Dur:1te mtci de porni.rc. SmaJJ staning timing.
Folos ire~ aeestora ~sigurl.' mari Their use ensures great sail ranges.
autonomii.
Nu necesitii ciildari. They do not need boilers.
Utili.zarea acestora are c:1 efect \'alori Their use results in smaller temperature
mici ale valorilor temperaturii i:n values in the engioo room and
<."Ompartimentut mrujini ~ i de a<.-cea co nsequently in better work conditions
condi~ii mai bune de lucru pcntru lOr personnel.
peJ'sonalul de deservie.

Dewva01ajclc lor sunt: T heir disadvantages arc:


Au o consU'UClie mai eompled. They have a more complex
constru<:tion.
Constituie o surSil de ~go mot putemic They ttre a source of g.rcttl noise and
$i sunt gencratoarc de vibratii. they arc vibration generators.
Nu pot fi utilizate Ia turatii sclizute. They cannot be used at low revolut jons
per minute.

Turbi,a cu gat Combr1sfhm Gas-Turhine

Primul patent de turbinli cu g~z The f'u'St patent of a combust ion-gas


apar~ i11e lui Joh11 Bad:>er din 1791 . turbine belongs to John Barbel' in 179 1.
Obscrvaret rootoardor Quo ~i Consklcntion of the Ouo and
Diesel a arlltat eli utiliza.rca d irect~ ~ Diesel engines has shown that direct
energiei gazelor e u presiune $i te ntperaturfi utili7'.atio n of the energy of high
inalte, l'aril tr:tnsfer e:derior de c.iildur3. temperature :tnd hig h -pres.~u re g:tses.
posed:i anumite avant~je tn p roducece~ without extenal transfer of heat. possesses
puterii: some advantages in power prt>duction:
Este de o const.nctie foarte simpIii ( un It is of a very simple conSiruction (a
comprcsor, o ca~ra de ardcrc $i o compressor. a burning chamber and a
IUI'bio3). tul'bioe).
Dimensiunile reduse ~i greutate,:\ mi'C-3 Their very small size and weight
rnportntii la puterea de ic~ire. nccording to tbeir output rate.

Princ ipalele de29\'9ntaje sunt: The main d i,sadvantages are:


Sun! mtti pu\in eco no mice dec-ftt It is less eco no mica l th11n internal
motoae$e c u combustie intern! $i chiar combustion engines any even than
decat turbinele eu abur. steam tmbines..
Dimensiunile m:ri ale schimbatonrelor The gre:t site of the heat exchtmgcrs in
de c31dura fn caw! rccupcr8rii de case of heat recovery.
clklurlL
Pericolul de incendiu. The lire danger.

86 Material cu drept de autor


De accc: turbinn cu gat e.ste Therefore, the combusciong:as-
utilizatl acokl unde se dispune de spatiu uubine is used where there are small spaces
mk: ~~ cen::n:tt de putcn: estc mare, locuri and a grem demtlnd for power, in place,s
cum a fi: avioane. nave milita-e s.au nave like: aircrnl'cs. naval vessels or thst
port container rapide. container ships.
Pe de alta pane. turbina este mai On the other hand, the turbine is
efic.icntfl in u tilizt~rea ace-.stei e-ncrgii dedi more crticicnt in utilizing this energy than
pisloanclc i.n mi$Carc altcrmlliv3, in primul cbc reciprocating piston. primarily because
rSnd din cauza fredirii care. insote$-te of the friction accompanying the continual
invcrsarca con tinu ~ a dircc1lei pistonului si reversal of piston direction and friction in
fredirii In fwlqiolarea supapelor. che valve operations.
iurbina cu gaz cstc rczultatul The combustion gas turbine is the
ince.rc.Urilor de a combina intr-o singurli resull or the ouempts to combine the
u nit~H e tavant:ljele COmbustici interne si advantages of internal (."Qmbustion and the
IUI'binei. Hltbine io one unit.
iurbin:l cu g:li! fo losc*tc gm:ek cu The g:as turbine utili.zcs high-
inaltl temperanuil din spatiile de ardere cempecature gases from the combustion
pcntru a :lqiona 0 turbinii cu expansiune. Sptlce,s tO Operate !In e-xpttnsion turbine.
Penttu a ob,ioe t'aodarneote ridicate To obtain high efl'iciency. the air
aerul tn"buie comprimat (supraaliment:u) Ia must be compressed (supercharged) to a
o presiune de cflteva atmosfere inaime de pressure of severn! atmospheres be(ore
ilrdcre, cxil.ct ca in motorul cu ttrdere combustion, j ust ttS in !he internill
intcrnii cu piston prin anlrcnarca unui combustion piston engine-. by employing a
compresor (.'.tnlrifugal, turbina ~i centrifugal compressor. the. turbine and the
compresorul funct ionind pe acelasi arbore. compressor operating on the same shaft.
cu o pal'te din luctul mec.anic de Ia tutbinil with a pan: of the work from the turbine
folosit pcnlru actionarca comprcsorului. used to drive the compressor.
0 astltl de. unitate este o i nstala~ ie This kind of unit is a complete.
de tbr\il, precum un motor Otto s:m Diesel. power pkmt, just li.ke an Ono or Diesel
engine.

87 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul t3 Unil tl

Motorul principal Main Engine

Motor Diesel reversibil in pntru timpi eu rhe reversible four stroke Diesel engines
turbowflant~ - P!f1i compooente whit turlx><::harger Pa11s

Scctiune tnmsvers.ulii: Cross section:


I. Postament I. Bedplate
2. Blocul c.ilindrilor 2. Cylinde.r bll)C.k
3. Chiu IC~.sa 3. Cylinder head (cylinder cover)
4. AI'IX>-ele cotit 4. Cmnkshaft
5. Biela s. Connecting rod
6. Piston 6. Piston
7. C i.m.a$3 cilindrului 7. Cylinde liner
&. Injector 8. Injection valve (fuel valve)
9. Axul cu came 9. Camshofi
10. {\,tec:wismul de aqionare a valve lor 10. Enclosed valve drive
II. Tubui:Hurii de ttdm.isie ac:r I I. Chttr8ing air piping
12. Tubu iC~ tura g:tzc ev:tcu:.te 12. Waste gas piping
13. Rilcitor cu apa prin wburi 13. TUbular wmer cooler
14. Filtru dublu de: combus.tibil 14. F'ucl double filter

s ec,iune )oogitudinalii.: l.olgitudioal section:


I. Supapa de adm.isie .<~ i ce~ de e\'acu:tre I. Tnlet and exh:ust valve
2. Suporlul culbutorului 2. Rocking IC\'Cr jock
3. Tija lmpingUtoare 3. Tappet bar (push rod)
4. Tachet 4. Valve: tappet
5. Cam! de comand~ 5. Conti'OI cam
6. Pompa de injeqie I'Oonobloc 6. Glock~type injection pump (fuel pump)
7. Pompa de nlimenture cu combustibil 7. foci suppl)' pump
8. Regulator de curatie S. Speed governor
9. Consolii de mane.vrli a motorului 9. E11gine operating stand
10. TahOmc:tru 10. Speedometer
II . Supo11ul turlxlsuflantei eu gaze I I. Waste gas tm'bo..chager attachment
evacuate.
12. ~rermosUi t agent de rlicire 12. Coolant thcrroostal
13. Dispozitiv pe:ntru verificarea vizualli a 13. Cooling water visual inspection device
apei de nicire
14. Pihru dubtu de olei 14. Lubrkating oil double filter
15. Pomp! cu angrenaje pentru uleiul de 15. Lubl'icating oil gear pump
ungere
16. l'ompa co pistona$ pk>njor pcntru apa 16. Cooli.ng water plunger pump
de r!cire
17. Pompa centrifuga penlru ap.a de rftc.ire 17. Cooling water centrifugal pump
18. Oistribuilor de lansarc 18. Starting control St!Lr

ss Material cu drept de autor


11

&9 \1 1 nal cu drepl de autor


90 d Dl de clUIDr
CapiiOiul 14 Unil 14

Camasa cilindrilor si chiulasa The Cvlinder Liner and Cover

..!)
.:
50
:==::::jl

Fig. 14.1
Piese componente: Spare parts:
I. Prczon; I. Stud;
2. Piulitfl; 2. Nul:
3. Piu li1~: 3. Nut:
4. Prezon; 4. Stud;
5. Tubulamr~: 5. Pipe:
6. Gnrnjturii de cnuciuc; 6. Rubtx:r seal;
7. Tubulatur3; 7. Pipe;
S. Piu li1~: 8. Nut;
91 Material cu drept de autor
9. Prezoo: 9. SulCi:
10. l"iuljt:i; 10. Nul:
II. Prezon: I I. SulCi:
12. Capac: 12. Cover;
13. Pn:-:ron: 13. Sul;
14. Cooso1a \alvulei de lansare: 14. Lint't tOr st ~u1ing valve:
15. $urub: 15. Screw;
16. GamiiUril de etan$are: 16. Gasket;
17. Cep filetat: 17. Scew plug:
18. $aiba :~ n::u i toare: 18. t.ock washer:
19. $urub: 19. Screw:
20. l'rezon lung, mcdiu sau scurt In functtc 20. Stud long, middle o r short depending
de tipul mo torului; on engine. type;
2 1. Piulit3: 21. Nul:
22. Pn:-w n pentru corpul supnpei de 22. Stud for exhaust valve housing:
evacuare:
23. l'n:zon: 23. Stud:
24. SupOI'I pentru Y:llvula de siguran\ii: 24. Lin.:r safety vah'e;
25. Piulita: 25. Nul:
26. Oistantier; 26. Oisr:.nce piece;
21. Pre1.on: 27. SulCi:
28. Nut: 28. Nuo,
29. Saibi'l arc.uitoare; 29. Lock washer:
30. Flan$3: 30. Flange:
3 1. lnel de c:uciuc: 31. Rubber ring:
32. Supo11 pentru injector: 32. Liner F.O. valve:
33. Pn::zon: 33. Stud:
34. Pi u li~ it; 34. Nut:
35. Tubulatudi.: 35. Pipe:
36. Prewn: 36. Soud:
3'7. Pre1.on: 37. Stud:
38. PiuliJ!: 38. Nuo:
39. lnel de cauc.iuc-: 39. Rubber ring:
40. Prezon tung. mediu sau scm1in functie 40. Slud lo ng, middle O l' shol't depeoding
de tipul motorului; on engine-type;
4 I. Chiulasa: 4 1. Cylinde. oover:
42. Inc! (saib:i) de etan$.1.re: 42. Scaling ring;
43. Cilma~a cilindmlui; 43. Cylinde r liner;
44. Tubulatudi.: 44. Pipe:
45. Prczon: 45. Soud:
46. Piulit1i: 46. Nut:
47. Prezon: 47. Stud:
48. Piulitit; 48. Nut:
49. Capac: 49. Cove:
50. Prczon: 50. Stud:
5 1. Bloc.ul c.ilindrilor (blocul motor): 51. Cylinde.r frame:
52. Gamitura (etansarc): 52. Patklng;
53. lnd de cauciuc: 53. Rubber ring;
54. Ghidul arcului: 54. Spting guide:
55. Arc; 55. Spring:
56. Bila: 56. Ball:
57. $oin (boll): 57. Pin ~
58. Cnrcasa; 58. Housing;
59. Jnel de cauciuc: 59. Rubber ring:
60. lncl 212: 60. Ring2/2;
6 1. Pre1.on: 6 1. Stud:
62. Camera de aer: 62. A irbox~
63. Capac: 63. Cover;
64. Capac: 64. Covel':
65. Prczon: 65. SOU<I;
66. Placa: 66. Plaoe:
67. l"i u li~ 3: 67. Nuo:
92 Material cu drept de autor
Cilindrul t$te suspe.ndat lntr-un The cylinder is suspended in a
cadru din lb nt3 Mcchao.ite de marc frame made of Mcdmnite cast iro n of grc~t
-ezistenHi.. Cad.rul formeaz.li o manta de s.u-ength. The frame forms a oooling jacket
ric:.ire In j urul poirtii superioare !I ciimfl~i i ro und the upper part o f the cylinder liner,
cilindrului, pc care o cuprinde complct. which encloses it completely. Tightness
Etan$area itltre cadru $i dma$a cilindrului between 1he frame and the cylindt-.J' li1ler is
e asiguratfi prin intennediul unci lmbinilri ensured by means of a solid joint at the top
striinsc in pan ea supc.rioarli $i prin and a stuffing box at the bottom.
imemediul unei p1-esetupe Ia patea
inferionril.
$uruburi d istanticrc piilrund pri.n Stay bolts lead through the cooling
c-amera de admis ie $i cadrele "A"In soopul jacket. the scavengi1lg air box. and the "A'
de a transmite presiunea de oombustie fra mes with the purpose o r transmitting the
postamentului. combustion pressure to the bedplate.
Clima$3 cilindrilor este The cylinder liner is made of a
con.1ec1ionalil d intr-un :lliaj de fOntil pe:~rlitic: cast iron Ti-v aUoy pOssessing
pcrlit ic5 Ti-V avtind mare stabilitate $i great strength and resistance even at high
rezislen1a chiar $i Ia temperawdi ridicma. temperatul\'.
C8m3~'l estc akzatil fin in p!lrte!l The: liner is bored Sm)<)thly o n the:
imerioarli. In panea exterioar!\ este inner side. On the o uter side it is ro unded
rotmljit3 pe toati\ lung.imea. cama$a este on its whole length. The cylinder liner is
pn:..,awtil cu ferest re de bnleiaj pe toatli pro,ided wilh scavenge ports on its entire
circu mfc rin~a. Ciima$a cilindrului cstc circumference. The cylinder liner is
fixatil in partea superioaril printr-un inel secured a1 the. top by a collar beJween 1he
intre chiul:lsa ~ i blocul cilindrilor. pentru cover :1nd the rrame for cylinders, and
d ilatarea libern este prev~zut un joc. allowance is made for free expansion.
Etarl$area di1llre c-..tma$a cilindrului Tig ln ness between the c.ylindt r
$i earner< d e admisie (balei:j ) este rcn li ~til liner :tnd scavenge box is obtained by
prin inele de eta~are din cauciuc. means of rubber tightening rings.
Fiecare dima$il de c.ilindru are Each cylinder liner h3S a number of
c~it eva orifK'i.i, prln core este introdus uk:iu I lubric:uiog quills. through which o il is
de Ia lubrificatoarele OSS (dependeme de introduced from the LCD ( Load Change
schimba.rea sa.rcinii). Dependent) C}'linder lubricators.
Uteiul este JX>mpat i.n cili.nd ru (pri.n The o i.l is pumped into the cylinder
\'entile de retinere) c:i:nd segmentii (via non-rerum valves) when the piston
pisto nului tree de orificiile de ungere, in rings pass the: lubricating orifices. d uring
timpul cursei ascendente. the upward Stroke.
Lubrificatoaele suot de obicei The lubricatOI'S ru-e usually supplied
alirnentate c.u ulei de. Ia un rezervor wilh o il frt> m a head lank. and are equipped
gravitational $i sunt ccbi.pate cu un flotor with a bui!Hn float. which keeps the o il
lncorporat care tine nivelul uleiului Jevel constant. They are also equipped with
co nstant. De asemenea de sunt echipate cu alarm devices for k>w oil level and low o il
disp<.n:itive d e ~ l armil pentru nivcl sc3zut flow.
de ulei $i debit sdi.zut de ulei.
Chiulasa este turnatii d intr o bucata.
4
The c)lind.:r cover is cast 3S one
Ea constituie suprafhta supcrioara a piece. It is the upper sealing surface of the
canlel'ei de a'de-e. E.a poate deservi unul. combustion chambel'. It may serve one.
doi. tn:i. patru s:1u ~ase cilirn.lrii. tWO. three, rour Or Si:t cylinders.
Chiulasa, proicctat5 din otcl special The cylinder cover, designed of
Cr-Mo asigura o mare rezistentli Ia special a Mo st~l, ensures great strt.ngth
4

temperatura ridicati. Chiulasele mai pOL fi at hig h temperature. C)linder <.'()vers also
confeciionate prin turnart~ d intr-un aliaj de can be made of a special iro n alloy casting
tier cootinll.nd carbon. siliciu $i cupru. containing cal'l>On. silicon. and copper.
Acest aliaj dil elasticitate $i buna This alto)' mi:<turt provides elaSti<::ity and
93 Material cu drepl de autor
conduc.tivitate h~nnid'i $i are un gyad mic good thermal conductivity. and has a low
de dilatarc tcnntca. thermal expansion rate.
Chiulasa lrebuie sli fte suftciem de 11le cylinder cover must be
rezislenta nstfel indll sa nu se fis u re~.c: inlrc sufficiently Strong: so that it doe.s not crack
1ir.m1ii chiulasei, imre sup:.1pele de admisie bclwecn the cylinderhcad bolls (~ ud s),
$i e\'acuare (Ia motoa.rele t.l palru timpi} betweeo the intake and exhaust valve (at
sau intre supape. $i injectoare (buc$(! sau the fo ur stroke engines). or be.twee-n the
gliuri). valves and injector (sleeve or bore).
in chiulasli sunt presate ghidajele Tile valve guides. wbo guide the
supapelor care ~hidetr~.ii 1ija supapei in valve Stem during lhe Opening: and closing:
limpul inchidcrii $i deschidcrii supapci. of the valve. arc pressed into the C)li.nder
cover.
Supapele lrebuie dispuse astfel Th.: ''alves must be toc.ated so that
inc:at jetul de combuscibil poate atinge toat3 the fuel spray can reach the total
suprafa\a de ardere. dar trebuie ~ fie combuMion area. bUl they must be far
indeajuns de dep811ttle ind l :.gentul de enough :lpM1 so that the coolant c:m
rae ire sa poatli ci.rcula litx:r printre elc prin circulate freely between chem. thereby
aceasta prevenind cn'i.pare.a chiulasei i1nre preNeruing 1he cylinde. oove.r fn> m
scaunele supnpdor. cracking: between the vntve seats.
Valva de evacuare este situatli In The exhaust valve is situated in the
cemru. respectiv cele de lansare $i de center and lhe stru1ing and safety valves.
sigurantii ~ i injectoarele in jurul ei. Aceaslii and fuel vnlves round il. This cenlral
pozi\iC central~ a valvei de cvacuare este position of the exhaust valve is designed co
f"acutti spre a da o bunii descarcare a give a good disc.harge of the. exhaus1 gases
g:~~elo r de evacuzm: combin:ltii cu nccesul combined with easy access 10 the Other
usor Ia celelalte valve. valves.
Chiulasa e.ste suportul lagarului Tile rover is the support or the
consollt :tl culblllorului supnpei de bearing bracket lbr the exbaust lever.
evacuare.
Miirimea thiulasei nu es-te The size. or the cylinder cover is no1
determ.inatii. de numarul de-c iHndri, cat ~t i determitted by the ttumber of cylinder but
degrab3 de faclod precum costul total at -athet by such factors as the overall cost of
motorului, pn>iec:tarea blocului cilindrilor. the engine. the-cylinder block design. the
numArul lng5.rek>r principalc, solieitarea number of main bearings, the expected
(ennicli p reco nizat~ si dificultlitile therma.l stress. and the anticipated cooling
anticipate in rilcir.: ~i etan ~re (a chiulasei). and sealing difficult ies (of the cylinder
head).
Fie di este fo losit c:ite o chiulasli Whether an individual cylinder
individualil pentru fiecare cilindru fie. c.a head is used lOr e.ac.h cylinder or the
chiulasa acopcrli doi. trci, patru sau $fiSC cylinder cover covers cwo, chrec. four or
cilindrii. aceasca trebuie lOtu$i sli aibli six cylinders. it must nevetbe1ess have
re:dstenta ~i rig:iditatea adecvata. E.n tn:buie adequate Strength and stiffness. It must act
s.ii se comporte ca o supmfalii de claosare us a seali.ng surface between the cyli.ndcr
lntre cama$3 cilindrului. fhla supe.rioa.ii. a slee\'e, cyli1lder-block top deck. al\d oil al\d
bkx:ului cilindrilor. c.analdor penlru ul.:.i ~i <.-ooling passages. withOul distorting tht:.
de riicire tara a defonna buc$a sau sleeve or valves..
supapele.
Canalele interne de racire trc:buie Sii The internnl cooling passages must
fie dispusc pcntru a asigu1.1 curgcrea be located co ensure that the coolant flow
agentului de ri'tcire cu o vite?-1 mare in j urul has a high velocity at and around the valves
valvdor ~ i tuburilor injectoare. Ac.easta and injector tubes. It must remove heat
uebuie sa elimine c~ ld ura (bulele de abur) (steam bubbles) and prevent the
$i sli previnli acumuUi.riJe sau depunerile de accumulation of deposit or scale. The
piatrii. Canalele trebuie sii. nu fie infundate. passages shoukl have no dead ends-. The.
94 Material cu drept de autor
Desc.hiderile e.xterioare t..re.buie sa pn:wina external openings must prevent turbuleu<:e
tulburen~a $i s.i p<.:rmiH\ circulatia and permit unrestricted circulation from the
nesti ngh erit~ de Ia blocul cilindrilor Ia cylinde1 block to the cylinder cover.
<:hiulasa.
Chiulasa $i manwun de racirc sunt T he cover and the cooling jacket
imbinate prin inte.rmediul uoor pre't oane are joiled togethe.r by means of heavy
solide. studs.
Ln dcroontarca chiulasci trclluic The following rules sboukl be
aplicate umli\toru-ele 1-eguli: applied when renx>\ing cylinder cover:
sanu se demonteze nici<)d!llil chiul!lsa Never re.m()\'C the cylinder cover when
c5nd c c:tldi pcntro ca sc \ ttl torsiona it is bot bccnusc it wiU become
(defonna): distoned (warped):
Trebuie avuta grij 5 Ia demontarea Care should be take.n when removing
prezoandor sau piulitdor chiulasei; the cylinder-co\er bolts or nuts;
Daca chiulas: esle foane grc~ (olositi If the cylinder cover is very heavy, usc
un palanc pentru a o ridica de pe blocul a hoist to lift it from the cylinder block:
cilindrilor;
Dadi chiulasa este mici1, in~urubtt i rr l hc cylinder cover is sm;lll, screw the
m:iDt':l'ele de l'idicare in chi u l as~ pentru Hft handles. into the cylinder cover to
a o ridica de pe bloc. lift it from the block.
Oac.ii chiul:ts.o este fo:rte strfinsii nu If the cylinder c()\'er is e;(cessivcly
introduceti o daltii sau o $Urubclnit3 light, do not drive n chisel or
intre blocul cilindrilor ~i chiulasli. pentru scewdriver between the cylinder block
a o indepiirta, pentru ca aceasta vn !lnd cover 10 remove it, !IS this will
viit3roa ambek suprafctc. Lovit i U$Qr damage both surf11ccs. Lightly Ulp the
chiulasa cu un ciocan de bronz sau de cyli1ldt-r head with a bronze or lead
plumb sau IOiositi un bloc de le.mn hammer Or use a block Of wood 10
pcntru a o sl3bi. break it loose.
cand se demonteazli chiulasa aveti When removing the cylinder cove.
grijll sa nu o deteriorati sau sa take care not 10 damage it or the
detcriorati supraf:*' sau li lclclc cylinder block surface or threads..
blocului cilindrilor.
Dadi sunt 101osite prezoane ave\i grija If studs are used. take care not to bend
sa nu le indoiti. them..
Dup3 dcroonwrc, puncfi chiulasa intr After removal. place the cylinder cover
un dispozitiv de fixare sau dacli cunwa in a holding fixture. or if happens to be
e p1ltratii, o pute(i pune pe un bane de squart., you may place. it on a
lucru. workbench.
Examinati cu atentie camera de m'dere Carefully inspect the combustion
oda1a ce este desooperitli. Cerceta1-e.a chamber once il is exposed. Close
atenlii pOate adesea dezvalui c.nu?:ele scrutiny can oflen ren~a l the cause of
consumului m3rit, s.upraalimel1!3rii cu high consumption, overfueling. water
coml>ustibiL illfihra1iikw de apa sau leakage. or oveheating. Damage 10
supraincill.zi.rii. Oe asemenea pOt fi pistons. c>linder sleeves, and cylinder
vazutc dcfcc,iuni ale pistoanek>r, bJock can also be seen.
c5mll$ilor cilindrilor sau blocului
cilindrilor.

95 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul t!i Unil l !i

Pistonul si Lija pistonului The Piston and the Piston Rod

1
2
3

'

11
12

,. _...,
13

--
---1

21
22

23
24-
Fig. 15. 1

% Material cu drept de autor


I. Segmco1 (de piston)~ I. Piston ri.ng ;
2. Segme m (de pislon): 2. Piston ring :
3. Segmc:nl (de piSIOn); 3. Piston ring;
4 . Scg.mc nl (de pi ston)~ 4. Piston ring;
5. Se gmem (de pislon): 5. Piston ilg :
6. Segmenl de ungere: 6. Oil d istributing ring ;
7. Canal pcntru segment: 7. Piston ring grove:
8. Piston - parte f.uperioat~: 8. Piston - uppe pa11:
9. Piston - p:lrlc infc:rioarii: 9. PiSIOn - lower part;
10. $urub; 10. Scre w~
I I. Dol(: II . Pin:
12. $aibit de sigurantil (de bloc-a re): 12 . Lock washer;
13. Prezon: 13. Stud:
14 .Piuliti'i: 14. Nut:
IS. Bulon/bolt c u c ui spin1cc:.1 (d e 15. Cotter pin:
siguramli)
16. T ija pistonului: I6. Piston md:
17. Do~: 17. Pin;
18. Cap de e ruce: I8. Crosshead:
19. ~ UJ'Ub: 19. Screw:
20. $:tibii de sigumntii (de blocnre)~ 20. Lock washer ;
2 1. $aib.i de s igurant3 (de blocare)~ 2 J. Loc k washer:
22. Bolt de ghidare.: 22. Gu;de pin:
23. Ptttin:l (capului d e c ruce); 23. Guide shOe:
24. Piulita tijei piMonului: 24. Piston rod nut:
25. Saiba de siguranta (de bloc.are}: 25. Lock wasller:
26 . $aibli de sigurant3 (de bloc:tre)~ 26. Lock washer;
27. $urub; 27. Screw:
28. Prese1upa lij ei piStonului; 28. Piston md stu!'ling bo:<;
29. rntrarca uleiului de riici.re a l pistol)ului; 29. PisiOn cooUng-<Jil inlet:
30. Ie$i-e.a uleiului de ri\cire a l pistonului: 30. Piston coolilg-oil outlet:

Pisw anele sunt di\'izate in do uil Pistons are d ivided in10 two
pitrti de o construe-tic extrcm de re:cistc ntil. sec-l ions of an extremely strong design. l he
Par1e.a supe.rioarlL caput pistonului. este upper pa1't. 1he pif.ton head. is made of
e:<ec.ulatii d in otel special Cr-Mo in limp ce. special Cr-Mo s1eel while 1he. Jowe.r part is
partea infcrionrii estc excculata din fo ntii made o f a pcarlitic c ast iron panic ularly
perlitic:\ poU'ivitli f.pec ial functio nlirii cu w itable for WOI'king wgether with the
ciima~a d lindrului. cylinder liner.
Ficcarc piston cstc cchipal c u un Each piston is pro"idcd with 11
mmlir polrivil de seg.mt-llti. f.U itable number of pis1on rings.
Functia St'g mentilo r piSIOnului este The funct ion of the pisw n ring is to
de a asigurn o ctan$Jre impcrmcabilii. Ia give gastight sealing of the c learance
gaze a jocului d iml'e pistoo si dim as:\ between the pistoo and cylinder liner.
d limlrului.
Bcan.$area cstc rc:tlizali de c3trc This seal is bro ught about by the
presiunea gazelor d easupra $i tn spate le gas pressUI-e above and behind (he piston
segmentului piSIOnului care il preseaza in ring, which IOrccs it downwards, against
jos. pe partea inferioara a canalului the bouom of dle ring groove. and
segmentului $i "In afatl'i In peJ-ete le outwards the cyli1lder wa ll.
cilindrului.
97 Material cu drept de autor
0.:-. acee-a pentru a asigura o In order to erL~ure optimum sealing.
ct~Ul$arc optima cs.tc important ca 11 s therefore impon:uu that the piston
segmenlii pistonului, canalele $i perelii rings, the grooves. and the cylinder walls..
cilindrului sa aibil fo rma pOirivilit ~i are of proper shape, and the rings can move
segmcntli sa se po:Hft ml~cu liber tn canale fred)' in the grooves (since the pis.ton will
(pe1uru eli pistoml va 13ce de asemenea also make small horizontal mo\'entents
mici mi~cfiri ori:-..ontaie in timpul cursei). during the stroke).
Jlcntru ca scgmcntii pistonului A5 piston rings work at a somewhat
luc:(eaz~ Ia o temperatudi ce\a mai mare higher temperature then the liner. it is
dedi citmn~, es.te impOrtant ca ei ~i :libil 0 important th!ll they have a gtap which is
fantft c.arc sa fie sufte icma pcntru a pcrm.itc sufficient Lo pcnnit the cxtm thcnnal
dilatarea tennicl1 suplimentarl'i. expansio1l.
Segmentii pistonului sun! de IOrme Th~: piston rings are of d iff~:r~:nt
diferite In func~ie de pozitia pe piston $i shape according to the position on the
rolul pe <:are in au. piston and the role that they play.
Segm.entii de piston pOt li de The piston rings can be of
urmatoarele tipuri: following types:
segmen~ i de piston (obi$nui~i) (01-dinary) piston rings
segmenti de eompresie compression rings
seg:menti de ungere lubricating rings
scgmenti de radere scr.1per rings

Pistoanele pot (i rlicite cu ulei pe Tile pistons can be oil-cooled via


calea cap de cruce- tija piSIOnului. crosshead- piston rod.
Tija pistonului cstc construit3 din The piston rod is designed of forged
O\el forj at pe.ntru a asigura o mare steel to ensure a high strengthening. At the
rezisten\iL rn ptlrtea superioarn este top it is provided with a heavy flange (for
prev!zuH\ cu o tlans.'i puternid (pemru the joint with the piston) and at the bottom,
imbinarea cu pistonul) iat Ia partea whe.re it is connected with the crosshe.ad. it
inferioara unde este lmbin:H3; cu capu1 de is pro\ided with :a thread for the nut.
cruce este prcvizuta cu filet pcnt-ru piulit3.
Tija pistonului este ale7.<Uit in centru Tile piston rt>d is bored up on its
pentru a permite uleiului de rikire sii center tO allow the coolin~-o il to get 10 the
aj ungli. Ia piston $i inapoi. piston and back.
Caput de cruce este I01jat din otel Tile crosshe.ad is forged from hard
dur cu fuse de mari dimensiuni. Aees.ta es1e steel with journals of tm1ple dimensions. lt
de asemenea alezat pentru a pennite is also bored to allow the cooling-oil to get
uleiului s5 ajung:fi de Ia tubultuura de. rficire from the cooling pipe to the piston rod.
Ia tij:t pi$.tOnului.
Patina capului de C(UCe este Tile crosshe.ad shoe is made of cast
executata din fo ma placat cu metal steel lined with white metal on the bearing
anti.frietiunc. surf.1ce.

98 Material cu drept de autor


CapiiOiul 16 Unil 16

Biela si lag~re le de pat l principale \ The Connecting Rod a nd the Main


Bearings

Biela TI1e conne-<::ling rod:


l. Piulitil l. Nul
2. Saibli pl at~ 2. Ring
3. Cep filetat 3. Screw plug
4. Lagi\r- pnrle superioara 4. Bcnring - upper part
5. Lain~ 5. Shim
6. Cap de -Cruce 6. Cros<head
7. t..agar- p:lrle inferioaril 7. Be-.aring- lower p:nt
8. Bie l~ 8. Connecting rod
9. Dol] 9. Bolt
10. $tift de ghidarc 10. Guide pin
I I. Lag!\r - pa11e superioar!\ I I. Bearing - upper part
12. La ina 12. Shim
13. Lagar- p:lrte inferio:lri 13. Be-nring- lower part
14. Dol] 14. Bolt
15. Capac 15. Cover
16. $aib.i de bloc arc 16. Lock washer

L..tlg:ilrele prindp.'l.le (palien::): The main bearings:


17. T'ubulatura 17. Pipe
18. Ttlbulatur3 18. Pipe
19. Piulita 19. Nut
20. $aib.i plat~ 20. Riug
21. Sutub 2 1. Screw
22. Cap:lc 22. Cover
23. Lainil 23. Shim
24. ,Sul'ub 24. Bold
25. Cu.l'.inel superior 25. Shell - upper
26. Cuzinel inferior 26. Shell - lower

Biela trans.nite IOr~ele de Ia c.apul The oonnecting rod transmits 1he


de cru<.~ (sau de Ia piSIOn Ia mo1oarelc taro fo rces from the c.rosshet~d (from the pistons
cap de cruce) Ia art>orele eotit. at engines without crosshead) to the
crankshaft.
Bid:l este exocUiatil din 01e1 forjat The connecti.ng rod is made of
.$i lungimca sa este de doua ori curs..'l forged steel and its length is twice that of
pis1onului. 1he. stroke.
t~gard e biclei sunt sep:lr:ne de The be:lrings of the connecting rod
corpul bielei si imbinate de acesta prin are separate to the shaft and joined to the
$Uruburi ajuslate. later by filled bolts.

99 Material cu drept de autor


"" 16.1

100
'vial nat cu dr pi d autor
Tija nu cstc in fu.rcii (dar ar putca fi The shaJ\ is no1 forked (but i1 might
Ia nx>toarele in "V" ) si cap3tul superior be at "V'' type engines) and its top end is
( piciorul bielei) este previizut <:u nan~:\ pe carried out with a llongc OntO which the
care sunt monlate in ~uru buri lagiirelc crosshcad bearings are OOitcd. whereas lhe
capului de cruce. in timp ce caplitul infe.rior bouom end. to which the crank shells are
(c.apul bielei). pe care. se. monteaza lag,arele bolted. is forged in "T'-shape. The
arborclui. cstc forjal 'in form~ de ....-. bearings arc provKlcd with shims for re-
Laglrele sum prevll.zute. cu Iaine pentru adjustment. Tile shims allow adjustment of
reaj uswre. Lttinele permit :tjuS.t:lrea jocului the ''ertical pl:ly; the horizontal play c-ttn
\'Crtical; jocul orizontal nu poatc ti ajustal. not be adjusted. Crosshead bcari.ngs and
Lag}"u-ele capului de cruce $i arborelui ootit crank bearings are made of ca.st s1eel and
sunt confectionate din Otd tumat (d ur) ~ i lined with white metaL
metalizate cu aliaj antifri.ctiune.
Surubul'ile de b iell!. d in tCujat o,el The forged steel connec1ing rod
sunt gaurite ~i traUlte termic. Suruburi.le de bolts :.re bored up and heat-treated. The tOp
Ia piciorul $i caput biclei pot fi and bottom connecting rod bolls can be
interschimbate. Suruburile au supral'e-te de interchanged. The bolts have
sus1inere a t."Qmp.ttrtlLOrului de care este oountc:rmlding. surfaces on which the tOOl
fixat comparntorul ciind suruburile sum is fined when the bolts are tightened. The
strfulse. Scola permite stclngerea sau tool permits tightening and loose.ni11g the
slabirea ~uruburi lor de catre un singur bolts by o nly one engineer. T he connecting
ing incr. Suruburile de b icl3. trcbuic scoase rod bolls muSI be taken up altcrnmcly and
altemativ $i unifOrm evitllnd defl)nnarea unifonn ly avoiding defonnatio n o f the
lll!):iire!or. Piulitele sunt p rc:va~ute cu biOcaj bearin!):s. The nutS Z~n: provided with Penn
Penn. securi1lg.
Biela este gauritil pentru ungerea The connecting 1'0<1 is bored up for
lngiirelor cupului de crocc. Jocur ilc $i lubrication of c:rosshead bearings. lhe
ungerea trebuie verifte:ate Ia intervale bearing clearances and lubrication should
regulate ~i ajustaJe daea este net.-esar. be c.hec:ked at regular intervals and adjus-ted
if nec.es.s:uy.
Lag~rele de pat (paliere) au cuzineti The main bea1ings have shells of
d in o~el acoperiti cu me1al antifrictiune. steel lintXI with white me1al T he bouom
Cuzinetii i.nfcriori sunt astfcl d i spu ~i lndt shel.ls arc so arranged thai they can be
sli poatli fi denxuuati 111rli ridtcarea removed without lifting dle cmnkshatl. The
arbord ui cotit. Capacc::lc lag:iirelo r main bearing covers are made of sound.
principale sunt confectionatc din fontii Sli"Ong cast iron of ample dimensions.
"eZistent1i si au dirnensiuni mal'i.
Prezoanele lag::irului principal sunt The main bearing: studs are of
suficient de lungi p<::ntru a avca elast ic i tate~ &uffte ieiJI lcng1h to give the required
necesar~. Prezoanele sunt subtiate Ia tij!t elasticity. The studs a1-e turned down on the
iar p011iunea filc: tati itl!jurub.'ltil in Shank and the lhread screwed into bedplate
poslamcnt este de lungimc marc. PiuliJc:lc is of a.mple length. The nu1s arc provided
sunt prevlizute cu bk>caj Pe.n11. Jocul with Peon securiog. The vertical bearing
''.:rtic.al al lag:arului este ajustm prin clearnnce o r the crankshaft is adjusted by
imcnnediullamelclor de reglare. means of shims.
Lag~rele priocipale sum unse d i1l The main beatings are lubricated
instal:ltia de ulei de joasa presiunl!. fro m Ihe low-pressure oil system.

101 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul 11 Unil 11

A rborele col it The Cranksha(\

2 Fig. 17.1

I. F'la n ~it I. Flange:


2. Rom a dintata pentru conducerea axutui 2. Gear wheel for camshaft drive
<:u <:ame
3. F'usuri mancton 3. Cnm.kpin jourmls
4. Fusuri palicr 4. Crankshaft journals
5. Dratele arborelui ootit 5. Cranktrows
6. Contrngn:-uune 6. Counter weigh!
7. Surub 7. Bolt
8. Jntra1-e ulei lrl arborele ootit S. Lubric.ation oil intake
9. Canale pcmru ulci 9. Lubrication oil passages

Arborele ootit este o rganul The crankshaft is the engine part


m()IOrului care fina l i~eaUi lransformttrea Ihill co mpletes !he conversion of the work
Jucrului mecanic produs lil cilindrii produced in the cylindes. by reciprocating
motorului prin mi$('.area de translatte a lllO\'ement of the pi,stons. in rotary fi!Otion
pi:;.toanelor in mi~are de R.llatie proprie Sii suitable to provide active moment rotation.
furnizeze un moment motor uti I.
Arborele (.'()tit transmile puterea The crankshaft lransmits tht:. power
gener:a1a tn cilindrii :.'I;(Ufui eUc-ei prin generate<.~ in lhe cylinders to the propeller
intennediul arborelui de impinge1-e ~~ shaft by means of the tcus.t shan and the
arborilor internkX!iari. intermediate shafts.
Arborele <:otil este montal intNIO The cmnkshaft is positioned in a
poS~:amen t rigid cae este tumat d intro rigid bedplate, which is cast in one pit.~e
singurit ()ucalit ~ i este proiecttl.l pentru and desig ned for long, elastic-, hold ing
$Urul.>uri de ancororc lungi $i elastkc. down bolts.
Fom1a gene.talli a atborelui cotil l11e general shape o f the cca~tksha ft
depinde de: tipul mo torului. numilrul $i depends on: the type. or the engine. the.
dispuncrca pistoanclor. ordinc-a aprindcrii, number and the disposal of pistons, the
echilibrnrea nx:~ tou l u i ~i nmel'ialul fo losit. igniJion sequence, the engine balancing_ and
lhe used mttlcrial.

102 Material cu drept de autor


.. -"'
,..:

:I .~
""

--.(f

103 de dUIUJ
Arborele COlit e.ste de o bicei The crankshaft is as a rule s.emibuih
construit din mai multc bud~i cind fusur ilc when crank journals and end flanges
$i flan ~le de caplit sum frerate in coturi shrank in the individual cranks.
individuate.
Unghiurile dintre coturi sunt astfel The :mg lcs between cranks arc
alese lnc:lt sa se ob\ina cooditii optime in chosen so tlull optimum conditions are
ceea ce. prive~te e<:hilibrarta mec.:anic.:.a. oblained with regard to ffirt.hanic.al
vibratiile torsio nale $i supraalimcntarca. balance, co rsional vibrations and
supe'hag ing.
Clind arborele C()lil este din mtli When the crankshart is semi built
rnulte buciiti fusc lc suot din O\cl forjnt up the crankshaft journals arc of Si~ns
Sirneos ~l arti n tn timp c.e btatele sunt din Martin forged steel. whereas the crank
o~e l tumat, iar contrug:re-utiltile din fontil. throws are o f cast stc:el and the co unter
weights of cast iro n.
ArOOrele cotit este prelucrat fin Ia Tile crankshatl is Stnooth-tumed o n
fusuri ~i Oanse. t.agarul de impingere este journals :md thnges. The th.rust bearing
imbinat cu artx>rclc cotit prin llan$3. $i shaft is llangcd to the cr.ankshaft and
suporta volantu l. canies 1he llywhee.L
Dacil ma n ~n u l lag:amlui de If the thrust co llar of the thrust
i mpingere este mic este posibil sli se bearing is small, it is possible to forge the
fojeze arborele n\Otorului incluza.,d e11gine crankshaft. includ ing the thrust
man)nul lagilrului intr-o sing:uril buct11il. collar as o ne piece. T his will reduce the
Accasta va reduce grcutatca $i lungimea weight and length of the eng ine compared
motorului tn comparatte eu notoare&e with an engine having a fully-built o r semi-
avfind :nborele dinlr-() bucatii Sttu din mtli built crtmksh.ttft.
rnulte bud\tL
La mo1narea arborelui cotil. acesta When 1he crankshaft is lilted. it
trebuic ajuslat in d ircc1ie ax.i:tl3 :s.tfel tnc~ t should be udjusted in !he axial d irectton so
mijlocul cotului de lingA lagMul de that the middle of the crank next to thrust
impingere sa fie. d eplas.at cu 1 pfina Ia 1.5 hearing i,s d isplaced by I to 1.5 mm
mm tnspre \'()l:iot mpOrtat Ia axn centralii :t towards the flywheel in relation to !he
cilindrului corespunz~tO I'. centeline of the 001'1-espondiJlg cylinde
Pe.ntru a stabili gn~du l de deplasare In o rde.r (0 oscertajn the d egree o f
a axei fus.uri lor palicn: rnponttlii la axa displacement of the axis of the crank
leoreticA a arborelui cotit datoritli uzwii jo urnals in relation to the theoetical
lagilrd or, dellex:iunea bratelor (coturilor) crankshaft axis due to bearing wc:ar. the
tre.buic milsur:Ha Ia anumitc int el'\~ l e. cnnktrows deflection has to be checked :u
Aceast1 verificae este ti\cut<l cu aj utorul intervals. T his check is caried out with the
instruruentului de verifteare a arborelui aid of the c.rankshaft leveling instrument
eotit care este furnizat imprcuna cu which is supplied togelttcr with the engine.
motorul.
MiisurUtQrile S.Unl tn:cute tntr-un The me,nsurementS an: entered intO
rapo1. Punctetc d e misurure Lrebuie tlrep<Jn. The measuring p<Jinls should be
marcate pe arborele cotit $i de asemeoea matted o n the crankshaft and entered into
tm:ute tn raporL the rtpOrt also.

104 Material cu drept de autor


Cap.IOiul 1$ Unill 8

Supapele T he Valves

Fig. 18. 1

105 Material cu drept de autor


I. Arborele <:u c.ame I. Camshaft
2. Canlli 2. Cam
3. Tacbet 3. Follower
4. Cnpat srcric 4 . Ball cmd
5. l ij3 impingt\toare 5. Push rod
6. surub de reglaj 6. Adjus.ting screw
7. Culbutor 7. Rocker arm
s. Ax.ul culbutorului 8. Rocker arm spindle
9. Cap~tul supapei 9. Valve tip
10. Tija supnpd 10. Valve Stem
I I. Arcul supapci I I. Valve spring
12. Ghidul supapei 12. Valve.stem guide
13. Ta l~:ru l s.upap.:i 13. Valve head
14. Scaunul supapei 14. Valve seat
15. Comrapiulitli. 15. Lock out

Prin d iSpOZitivul de c()mandii !I By valve driving gear. we ~.!In the


supapelor intelegem supapele (de obicei de valves (usually o f poppet type and taper
tipul cu tija. taJet $i scaUI\ cotic) $i seat) and the valve.operntiog n1e<:haoism
mecanismul de ~ctionare a sup:tpelor care by which an internal combustion engine
inlrun motor cu ardcrc intcrnA introduce takes air or a fuel air mixmrc into the
aer sau amestec aer<XHnbustibil ln cilindrii cylinde~ and disc.harges the combustion
~~ evacuea~ii produsclc arderii 1:1 colectonll products tO the exh:luSt.
de evacuae.

Pri.ncip:Liele ctmtcleristici ~Li e supapelor Tbe-main cbar.~ctcrisl ics o ( va lvcs arc:


sunt:
ele etan$eazii c:ilindrul tn timpul they close off the cylinder during the
curseiOr de comprimare ~i act ivit compression ttnd pOwer Strokes.
(dclcnl3).
sunt cflt mai mari posibi l. pentru a they are as big as possible to thcilitate
fac.ilita admisio aerului, sau mai mici. tn the air admissio n, o r smaller in high-
motoarclc rapidc. d in cauza f011elor de speed eng ines d ue to the inertial forces.
ine11ie.
sunt nkite prln transfcran:a c-iildurii they are cooled by transferring heat I()
mamaJei motorului. Ia ceJe rnai multe the engi.nc jacket, mostly through the
pri11 tija supapei valve stem
sunt a<:otionate de came $i cu tnchidere they are can1-opermed and spring:-
prin reS<)J1. IO:>ded
curgetea ptin motor trebuie sA fie the tlow thro ugh the eng ine has to be
stSnjenit1i. cfit mai pu\ill posibil. restricted as liule as possible
lrebuie sfl Salisfacfi C-ererca de et nn ~are they bnve 10 meet the demand for
Ia tempcraturi $i prcsiuni lnaltc de tightness with high o perating
func\ionate. te.mpuatures and preSSUI'eS.

106 Material cu drept de autor


Fig. 18.2

107 Matcnal ~u drept de autor


Mecanismul supapci (fig. I8:2) Valve ~e.ar (fig. 18.2)

I. Atborele cu came I. Camshaft


2. Canm supapei de evacuare 2. Exhaust c.am
3. Tachct cu rota 3. Roller guide
4. Ro l~ 4. RoUer
5. Rulmenl cu il.t."~C 5. Needle be-aring
6. C~pac 6. Cover
7. lnel raclor 7. Scraper ring
s. Cllpac s. Cover
9. Tij3 imping3toare 9. Push rod
10. Jnel de cauciuc 10. Rubber ring
II. R:nnii I I. Bow
12. Inc! de p5s13 12. fell ring
13. 6UC$ii. 13. Bush
14. Culbutor 14. Rocker arm
15. Consola 15. Bracket

Supapa de cvacuare (fig. J8.3) Exhauf.t valve (fig. 18.3)

I. C:m:a.sa supapei I. Vulve housing


2. Tija supapei 2. Valve spindle
3. Raoord pemru apa de r.tcire 3. 0>1'1Jlection lOr cooliog wate.r
4. cran 4. Shield
5. Talerul supapei 5. Valve head
6. Raoord pt>ntru apa de r1tcire 6. Connec.tion lOr cooling water
7. Ghidul sup:tpei - p:lrtea infcrio:wa 7. Spindle guide -lOwer
8. Ghidul supapei - pattea supel'ioarn 8. Spindle guide - upper
9. Tija de t.ransmisie 9. Pull rod
10. $aiba de blocarc cu dinti intcriori 10. Lnlcmal teeth lock washer
I I. Arc - interior I I. Spring - internal
12. Arc- exterior 12. Spring- eXll!rn.al
13. lncl de chcie 13. Split ring
14. Discul atc:ului 14. Sp1ing retainer
15. Jnel conic in dour. pftr~i 15. Conic.al ring in two parts

Supapele Ia m otoarele ;, doi timtli

La m01oarde in doi timpi avem: At lWO-stroke engini!S we. have


supapc de cvacuarc. supapc de lansarc cxhaus1 valves, staning valves (if the
(dad\ motorul este lansat cu aer). injectoare engine is started with compressed air). fuel
~i s.upapc: de: siguranta. Supttpu de :tdmisie valve$ and S.ifety valves.. The intake valve
esle i.nlocuitli prin fc.rcstrclc de balcinj is replaced by scavenging pc;H1S made in the
practicate in ci'una$a c:ilindrului. cylinder liner.
La mmoare.le in doi timpi mari In large tWO.Stn)ke l!ngine.s lhe
supapele sunt dispuse pe chiulasa astfel valves are arranged on the cylinder covers
"i'ocfit tiecare supapli sli poatli li demo ntat~ so that each valve can be. rellx:.ved
independe.nt de celdalte s.upape. independently of the other \alves.
10s Material cu drept de autor
15

Fig, 18.3

Supapa de IMsare es.te actionatli cu The slatting valve is air-opemted


aer $i lal'g dimensionma pentru a asigura and amply dimensioned to ensure a quick
pomirea rapidii. Aces.~e supapc sun1 de &~art. 1'hesc valves arc of spri.ng-loaded
tipul <::u inchidere prin reson. Carc-asa este type. Tbe housing is of cast steel. and the
d in fontii ~i supapa eStt! prevazutii cu un valve is provided with a guide piston of
piSIOn de ghidare din bront TOSUcu labirinl gunmeta l with l:byr inth packing. The
de etans:ue. Supapele de lansare sum S-tarting valves a-e operated pneumatically
actiorune pneumatic prin sertare. dite unul through slides. one for each cylinder. The
pentnl ficcarc ciJindru. Scrtarelc sunt sl.idcs arc ~ctuatcd by cams. one set lb r
actionate prin came. una reglati!i pentru "Ahead'' and one set for "Aste rn.. ( if the
'tnainte" ~i una pc:ntru "fnnpOi" (dacit engine is or reversing type). These cams
motorul e.ste rcversibil). Aceste ca.me- sont are made o f hardened Sleel and titled
din o'el clilit $i fixate demontabil pe axu l displaceably O il camshatl.
c.u carne.
109 Material cu drept de autor
lnjectoarele. sunt pre.vazute. cu The fuel valves are provided with
tubulalUr3 de admisie $i retur pc:ntru rlicirea i.nlet pipe and return pipe fo r cooliog by
de dill'e motorinli. d iesel o il.
Supapde de sig:urantil sunt de tipul The safety valves are of spring
cu inchklcre prin resort. loaded-type.
Supapa de evacuare (fig. l8.3). care Tile exhaus1 valve ( fig. I8.3). which
este cea mai mare. es-te s-upusri efectelor is the larger in side, is subjec-t to effectS o f
tcmpcra-wrilo r tnaltc ~i Lrcbuie proicctatc the extreme temperature and must
cu atentie $i fabl'icatli din aliaje metaJic:e. a(XX)rdingly be moM carefully designed and
M!lterinlcle valveiOr Lrebuie Sii nibil 0 <:OnSLmch::d of nlloy metals. Valve
cxcclcnt3 rczistent3 Ia coroz;iunc $i oxid~lrc maler iaJs must have excel.lcnt corrosion
pentru a rez.ista arderii Ia inaltii and oxidat~n resistance pl'operties to res-ist
temper:uuril. A<:e-ste-n trebuie sa aibii "burning. at high temperature. T he)' must
suficient3 rezistent!i la oboseala Ia have sufficient high-temperature fatigue
tempetatur i inalte. rez.isten~3 Ia fl uaj. strength and creep resistance to resist
penlru a rc-:cist.n Ia rupere -5i 0 d uritate failure, t~nd suitt~ble hot h:lrd ness tO resist
potrivit3 pcntru a rezista uz.uri.i $i wear and abrasion. T he exhaust valve is
abraziunii. Supapa de evacuate es-te made with spindle o f heaH -esis-tant Ni-W
construitii cu LijU d in Otd rczistenl In Steel.
c~ ld ur3 Ni W.
Carc.asa supapei. care es1e r3citlS cu Tile valve housing. which is water-
ap3 este 13cutil d in font3. cu gmnulatie cooled. is made of closcg.ntincd cast iron
mic~ $i fixat3 de chiulas3 prin prezoanc and is secured to the oover by means of
rez.istente. heavy studs.
Tijcle sup:lpeiOr de rilcirc sunl The exhaust \'3lve Spindles are
prev!zute cu d ispozitive de protectie iar pe provided with protective guards and
supralt \ele de etatl$3re ale talerelor welded with a layer o f corrosion and hem.
supapclc sunt metaUu ltc cu un stnlt d in resistant m terial of stc:Uilc o n the seali.ng
material rezistem Ia ooro ziune $i faces of the valve heads.
1empera1urii stelit.
M_iscarea supapelor de evacuare. T he movcmcnl of the exh:tust
care sunt a<:tio nate d e camele de eva<:uae valves. which a1-e operated by exhaust
fixate pe arborele cu came. care es-te c.ams fitted o n the c.amshaft i,s trans-minOO
lmnsmis prin i.ntcrmcdiu tijck>r th.rough the push rods with hardened steel
i mping3toare cu role din o1e1 c~Uit $i rolle1'S and I'OCking levers o f steel. The
cu lbutoare de Otel. A:<ul cu c-ame: es-Le camshaft co nsists of shafting with suitabl.:.
alcluit din axe de lungimi polrhite lengtb. assemb led by mc.:ms of henvy
asamblate pritt ll:tll$t rezisteme. Lagli.1'eie llanges. 1l)e bearings a1-e lined with white
sunt metalizate cu material antifriq iune. me.tal.
Axul cu came este cond us de The camshaft is dr iven from the
arlx>-ele COlit printt un d ispozitiv <:u lant Cl'ankshaft through a chain dr ive p1'()\'ided
pre viLJ'.uL cu inLinziltOr. with Lightener.

St~JHlpele li1 11Wftmrele mici iu Va le.,\' in small ftmr.\tr(Jke e11gine:;


plltru tim pi (lis. 18. 1) ( lig. l 8.1)

La motoa-ele cu pauu titnpi avem: At fo ur SI:roke eng iles we have


supapil d e !ldmisie, sup:'lpil de e vacuare. int.ake v:-.Jve.s. exhaust valves, st.al1ing
supape de lansarc (dad motorul estc lansnt valves (if Ihe engine is started with
cu aer.comprim.at) si injectoare. compressed air) and fue.l valves.
La motonrele in p!lLru Limpi In fo ur stroke eng ines, the valves
supapele sunt de tipul cu tijli si taler cu are of the inward-opening poppet type,
deschidete lil ~U iltl'll . cu taJ;e.I'UI supapei with the valve head ground to tit a cooical
$1efuit sa se. pOtrive.asca intr un sc.aun conic seat in the. <:)Iinder bbck or C)linder cover.
110 Material cu drept de autor
din blocul cilindrilor sau <.".hiulasa.
Supnpele sunl confcctionate de Valves arc usually made of a
obieei din aliaj iooxidabil (CO.S5 Si2. 75 stainless. non-scaling alloy (C0.85 Si2.75
Mn0.7 Crl7 Ni 1.5 V0.3), c.e limitc::aza Mn0.7 Crl7 Ni 1.5 V0.3) .that will keep its
dcpunerilc care i$i va p3stra tbrm1. .. rigidii Ia :arengcbcned sh:.tpe at high temperature.
temperatul'i i1lalte. SupapeJe de evaeuare Exhaust valves ate sometimes holk>w and
sunt dlteodata giiurite $i umpluh.. partial partjaiJy (60%) filled with metallic sodium,
(60%) cu sodiu n~ta l ic, NaNOJ sau KN(h NaN0 3 or KN05 to permit more effective
pemru a pemlite o r~eire mai eFicie.n3. cooling.
Talerul s.upapei es.te ~ in ul inchis de The valve head is held clOsed in its
ciilre un arc clicoid~tl comprimat pri.n scat b> a compressed bclic.al spring by
intennediul unei tije. ce se mi.$el1 1n ghidajul means of 3 cylindrical stem runniog in the
sup.apei. Supapa c:-ste larg: desc.hisa prin V!llve guide. Th~: valve is opened wide by
ridicarea ei de pe scaunul sau cu o distantli lifting it from its seat a distance equal to
eg.al3 cu aptoximativ 25% din diametrul app"Oximately 25% of the valve diameter.
supapc:-i.
Supnpclc sunl de obicci deschi.se The valves arc usually opcn<:d by
prin intennediul camelor tn fonnl't cu means of cams shaped with a rarnp to
rtlmpS care:: reduce ~ocu l incepftnd rtdicarca reduce the shock by starting the lift a!
cu aproximativ 0.61 m pe secundli chiar $i about 0.6 1 meter per second. C\'Cn though
atunci dnd jocul supapei variazli din timp the tappet clearance varies from time to
in limp. time-.
J()(;ul supapci estc prcvazut pcmru a The tappet clearance is providod to
a,t;igura lnc.hiderea strfirLt;li a supapei c.hiar $i ensure tight closing or the \'alve. even when
!llunci dinfl tija Sup:lpei $e 1U08C$1C, din the V(llve S.tem len81hens fro m lhennal
cauza expansiunii tennjce. dispozitivul de expansion. the valve gear being adjusted to
oomanda al supapelor fiiod reglat sa aib5 p1-ovide some clearance when (he fl)llower
un joe dnd tachetul este in partea cea mai is on the low part of the cam.
joasa a cameL
Pe fiecare. camii este un dispozitiv Riding each cam is a follower
de unniirire S:lll tachct, c::lre po:lle n Q (t:ippct) or valvc 1ifter, which m:l}' be :t flat
4

suprafatli dreapti\ sau U$01' convex!. sau o ot slightly convex sutface. ot a rolle. The
rola. Tacheml glisea11i In ghidajul fo llower slides in a tappet guide and it has
taghctului $i arc o U$Qilrii mi~carc de rotatic a slight n.uation m.Hion fo r a more uniform
pe.ntm o ufur!\ mai unifonn1i.. wear.
Supapa este dc::schisil de dtre fo11a The valve is o penl!d by fo rce
<~ pli catii Ia cnpf!IUI tijei supnpci printr o 4
applied to the cod of the valve sc::m
leg3tul'1i. mecanici\ (tiji\ lmping5toare $i thtough a mechanical linkage {push tod
c.ulbutor) acivata de tachet. and rocke-r ann) activated by the. cam
fo llower.
Tija impingli.toare este o barli The push 1'0<1 is a light rod ot tube
u:sonrii c:u Stlu un lOb cu capc::tele rotunjite wilh b.'\II ends. which c:arrics the motion of
care cransmite mi.,carca de l r~ tachct Ia the cam fo JJowcr to the rocker arm. lhe
culbutor. Culbutoul este o pfirghie rocket anu is a lever pivoted oear its centel'
oscilanlii articulatii In apropierea t e.nlrului so that, as !he push rod raises one. end. the
sau asU'c l inc5.t pe ml'tsura ce tija other end depresses the valve stem,
1mping3toate tidic!i. un capli.t. cel31alt capi\t opening the valve.
apasa tija supapei, deschi ~!ind sup.:.pa.

I ll Material cu drept de autor


l:11)i1C1lul l(j

Pompn de in jectjc Fuel Pump

Fig. 19.1

112 de deato
Pompa de injcctic (fig. 19.1): Fuel pump (fig. 19. 1):
I. Corpul pompei J. Housing
2. Pistona 2. Plunger
3. Bu c~a clerncnlului 3. Bush
4. Bloc de ghidare 4. Gu<le block
5. $urub de ghidare. 5. (iuiding screw
6. Aniculatic 6. Pivot
7. Conect:lte rubulatud\ 7. Pipe connection
8. C:lp!IC S. Cover
9. Brat regulator 9. Regulating anu
10. Distantier 10 . Distance piece
I I. Apir81oare oombustibil 11. O il guard
12. $tifi de fixare 12. Dowel pin
13. Scurgere 13. Drain
14 . Pl:tcil de b:l7-ii 14 . R>otpl:tte
15. Dlsc de otcl Is. Steel disc
16. r latJ.ia 16. Flange
17. C:m:as,.'\ amorli't:Qrului de: ~uri 17. ShOck absorber hou.sint:
18. Pis1onul amonizorului de soeuri IS. Shock absorber piston
19. Arc 19. Spring
20. Gnmituril 20. Gasket
21. Fla~a 21. Flange
22. S upap:& de refulare 22. Pressure valve

Dis.poz.itivul de actionare a pompei de Fuel pump dr iving gear (fig. 19.2):


injtc~ ie ( tig. 19.2):
23. Man$<)n 23. Collar
24 . Gamiturli 24. Gasket
25. lnel de etan~re 25. Seal ring
26. Capac 26. Cover
27. Arc ime1'io1 27. lnoer s.pt ing
28. Arc e:<terio r 28. Outer spring
29. Clama 29. Clip
30. Rolll 30. Roller
31. Rulment cu role 31 . Roller bc:aring
32. Ar. 32. Slt:tft
33. $aH>li 33. Washer
34 . Ronde lAelastic:& de sig urantli 34. C irclip
35. Arc 35. Spring
36. $tifi 36. Pio
37. Butuc 37. Hub
38. Cama 38. Com
39. Pan ~ 39. Key
40. Brat in fo rma dt! furd't 40. Pork arm
4 1. Ccp pc111ru urnpl-crc ulci 41. Funne l
42. Rolll 42. Roller
43. Rulment cu ace 43. Needle: bearing
44. G hidajul rolci 44. RoJJcr guide
45. Baliu 45. Frame
46. Consola 46. Bracket

113 Material cu drept de autor


Fig. 19.2

114 Material cu drept de autor


Pompde de. injeqie in linie. sunt Line fuel pumps are usually used in
folosite de obicei pentru motoarele navele. maritime engines. The essential feature of
0 c-al'a<:teristic3 esen~ia l i'i. a acestOI' pompe these pumps is that they have a pumping
e..ste aceea c{J au dte un clement de dement for e!lch cylinder or the cnl}ine,
pomparc pcntru fieearc ciJindru al included in ~~ single body.
motorului lngloba' i lntt-ull corp oomuo.
La nlOtoarde mari, unde este In large engines. where a larger
pompat~ o cantitate mai marc de amount of fuel is pumped. each cylinder
combustibil. fiecare cilindi'U poate (i dotat may be Citted with an individual fuel pump
cu 0 pOmpa de injeqie individu.:tlit de 0 of tl similar construction with the line fuel
consLructie ascmli.n.itoarc cu cea in linic cu pump. with the di.ffcrcocc that it has only
deosebirea ea are doar un element de one pumping elemenl.
pompare.
Pompa este aqionati'i. de came The fuel pump is operated by
reglabile. iar mi$Carea e.ste transmisli Ia adjustable cams fitted on the fuel camshaft.
pOmpe prin role. and pump motion is t:rtu:1smiued through
rollers.
Corpul pompei este din otel nx>ale The pump housing is of mild steel,
(cu continul mic de carbon). pis.t ona~ul ~~ and the plunger and the liner (bush) are of
bucsa elementului din o1c1 niuurot. Camele nitrided steel. The cams aDd the rollers are
$i rolele surH di1l Olel c!ilit. of hardeood steel.
Pistonasul pompei cste de tip co The p\lmp plunger is of hclicol edge
muchic clicoidala. Reglan:.:a are loc prin type. The regulation takes place by turning
roti.re..a pistona$ului pompei. c.are este the pump plunge.r connected to the
concct:n Ia n:gulatorul aq ion.at prin p5rghia governor, which is oper.tted by
de manevrn pcin imenuediul unui sistem de maneuvering handle by means of a rod
piirghii. system.
La o cursii mai marc a p!l.rg.h.iei de A l ~rgcr angle curning of the
reglare ii corespunde o rotire cu un unghi plunger. increasing its active stroke
mai mare a pistOnl.$ului cresc.Andu-i cursa corresponds to a Large-r nlOtion of the
activit. Astfel, chi:.r daca. cursa pistonului adjustitlg rod. So. even if the plunger
r3mitne constant! cutsa sa activl var-iaz.i'i. in s-ll'oke remains oonstam. its active sttoke
functie de rotirea sa. varies according to its turning.
Pentru cit pomp~ de injcc~ic cstc Because the fuel pump is connected
conectatl eu injectorul prim:r-o teavi\ tung::\ with the fue l valve by means of a long and
~ ~ rel:uiv dasticil, pentru a !l\'.:a o injeqic:. relatively clastic pipe, in order to haw a
netli, c&le monWiii o supapi de rcfularc. plain injection. a pressure valve is fitted.
Combustibilul este primit de Ia The: fuel is received from the fuel
pompele de alimentare cu oombustibil. supply pumps. Tile fuel supply pump..t; are
Acestea suOl de tjp cu angrenaj actionatc of gear type driven by electric motors.
de motoare electdce.
Pompele aspirit din tancul de The pumps draw the fuel oil from
scrviciu $i refulea:t3 combu.stibilul Ia the service tank and deli\'CJ it to the fuel
pompa de m;ectie Ia o presimle pumps at a sui1able {ll'eSSure th.rough a self
<.'Orespuntiitoare printr-un filtru care sc:. cleaning filter.
curllta automat.

115 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul 20 Unil 20
lnjectorul Fuel Valve

13
12

11 -f--11

Fig. 20. 1

116 Material cu drept de autor


Pulverizator cu ~ift: Atomizer with pin:
I. Capsula de injeqie I. Cap
2. Cilindru 2. Spindle guide
3. .$tift de centrare 3. Dowel pin

Acul ( pistoiJ~-$U I) .$i ghidajul aculoi: Spindle & guide:


4. Ac (pistona$) 4. Spindle
5. Ghidajul arcului 5. Spring guide
6. Lnel de o prire 6. Stop ring
7. Suport (piulita pulvedzatorului) 7. Hokler
8. rnel de c:mciuc S. Rubber ring
9. Arc 9. Spring
10. Ghidajul arcului (taler) 10. Spring guide
I I.Tijo inject()rului 11. Spindle
12. Ghidajul arcului 12. Spring guide
13. Corpul iojectorului I3. Valve housing

Filtru complet Filter complete:


14 . Saiba etas1ica de siguran1a 14. Circlip
IS. Ghidajul tux:ului 15. Spring guide
16. Arc 16. Sping
17. Supapa 17. Valve
18. lnel de c.auciuc 18. Rubber ri.ng
19. Elansare 19. Seal
20. Fihru 20. Pilter
2 1. f.cr:m 21. Shield
22. Piu li t~ Emeto 22. Em1e.to nut
23. $ urub 23. Screw

Stilt de testa.e complet: Test pin complete:


24. Piulitfl 24. Nut
25. $:tibi 25. Washer
26. Arc 26. Sp1ing
27. Stifl de testare. 27. Test pin
28. $ urub 28. Screw
29. .Surub de inchide-e 29. Plug screw

$urubol de aerisire complet: Air vent screw complete:


30. htel de cauciuc 30. Rubber ring
3 1. $ urub 31 . Screw
32. Bil3 32. Ball
33. Racord 33. Nipple
34. lnel de couciuc 34. Rubber ring

117 Material cu drept de autor


lnjectorul e~~te partea sistemului de The fuel valve is the injection
injectic care arc rolul de a pulvcri:w $i system part, which has t bc role of spraying
dis.persa combustibilul in camera de arde1-e and spreading the fue l oil in the cylinder
a cilindrului. <:Ombustk>n chamber.
lnjectoarcle pol fi fie de tip inchis, The fuel valves can be of either
fie de tip deschis. La injectoareJe de tip closed type or ope.1led type. At the ck>sed
lnchiS- orificiile p u l veri~.a torului sunt type fuel \alves. the atomizer holes are
inchise pin intermcdiul unui vcntil in forma dosed by means of a nc<lc shaped
de ac. Acestea pot ti comandate hidraulic. spindle. They can be hydraulically.
mecanic sau eleclric. me<:hnnic:llly or electrically driven.
lnjectoarclc pot fi de tip cu masc The fuel valves can be of
reduse pentru a reduce \ibratiile acului lightweight type in order to reduce the
pulverizatorului. spindle vibrutions.
lnjectoarele pot fi riicite cu ap1\. The fuel valves can be cookxl with
ner1icite sau lncli.lzite. clnd tempetatul'a lor wate.r. uocooled o heated when their
este controlatil prin combustibilul cin::uhH temperature is controlled by constantly
continuu. permi\ind pomirea. oprirea $i circulati.ng the fuel oil, aiJowing stan. stop
operarea eu combu.stibil greu. and maneuvering on Hr-o (Heavy f'u~ l
Aranjnmentul estc IUcut pcntru colectttrea Oil). The arrangement is made fo r
$i inlli.lurarea scurgerilor de combuslibil, collection and leading away of leakage oil.
daclS exista. pentru a preveni piitrundere.a in if aoy. in order to prevent it fro m llowing
cUindrU. down into the cylinders.
Dcschidcrca injeccorului cstc The opening of the valves is
controlata prin presiunea comlmstibilului. controlled by the. fuel pressure. and the
iar injee-IOrul eSte inch iS printr-un an:. val"c: is closed by :1 spring.
Pemn a evita deform!\rile datomte In oder to avoid temperntw-e
tempennurii $i imbunatati dur.lbilitatea sunt distortion and to improve durability
utili.zatc componentc simetricc. symmetrical components are used.

lnjectOarele prezentale in ligura The fuel valves shown in the figure


20.1 SUtll pre"ilz.ute cu :u: inchis prin n::sort 20.1 nre provided with spring-lo:ded
$i sunt actiooate de p1-esiunea spindle and are operated by the oil pressure
combustibilului c.e vine de Ia pornpele de from the fuel pumJ)S.
injectic.
Corpul injectorului este din otel cu The housing is made of steel. with a
cilindru din Otel nitrurtll. iar acul e.ste d in spindle guide of nitrided steel. and tht:.
otcl special ciilit. spindle is m::1dc of hardened special steel.
lnjectoru-ele sunt prevlizute cu Tile fuel valves ae fitted with
pulverizatoare $i sunt reglate pentru o atomi?.~rs and are adjusted lOr fa ultless
ardere pcrfccta. combustion.
h\jectoarele sunt prevlizute cu Tile fue l valves ae provided with
tubultnuri! de admisie ~i tubuhnuri! de retur inlet pipe nnd return pipe for cooling by
pcntru rii.cirea cu molorinii. diesel oi.L

118 Material cu drept de autor


Capi10iul21 Unil 2 1

Uzuri si defectiuni \Vearing and Breakdowns

F ig. 2 1. 1
2

I. Coroziune ~i oxidare I. Corrosion and o.xidation


2. Ardere $i erodare 2. Burning a nd abrasion
3. Uzura de.obosealii 3. F'tuigue failure.
4 . u~.u rfl prin frecarc: 4. Scuffi.og
5. Jo<:ul valvei 5. Valve lash
6. Zona d litii 6. Harde ned 1.one
7. Mcla1it.1.J'Ca capli.tului 7. T ip weld
S. Metaliza.rea suprafe\ei tijei 8. Stem wekl
9. Mela li>l'.tl.re-tt ta lerului 9. Dome t.X>at
10. Zona lovilii de gazclc de-cvacuan: 10. Ex.hausl gas impingement

Uzura supapelor Valve wear

S upapele de evacuare dinlr-un T he exhnust valve$ in a n interntlJ.


motor cu ardcrc intcrna sunl tbk>site intr-un combustion engine arc used in a difficult
mediu dificil. eovi1'01llllt:-1n.
Regiunik c ritict! de. defeqiune Ia 0 T he c ritical fa ilure regions in an
supapli de cvacuarc su111 urmatoarclc (dupa exhaust valve arc the fo llowing (as shown
cum sunt alitate in figurli): zonele I si 3 in the figure): Tile areas I and 3 whe.-e
unde in Special C()l'():r,iunej ~i oxidarea sum corrosion arn.l oxidation tlre .:.specially
critice. Zona de sub talerul supapci, zona 3, critical. The undcrbcad area of the vni\'C,
supo11i1 incild ri ciclice $i d atorit~ area 3. experience.s c~rcling loading, and
co nce ntnirilo r modertlte a tensiunilor u:wra bec-a use o r rhe mild stress concent rtn ions,
de oboseaiA ponte apiirea 'in acest punct. fatigue fa ilure may occur at that point. The
Fa\a supapeL zona 2. t'UOC\iooeaz:i Ia o valve face. ru-ea 2. ope.tates at somewhat
lc:mpertllur[l 0:\r<:eU(ll SCiiZUI[l d:tlOrilil lOwer lemper:Hure because Of t he heal
conductici tcrmicc a scaunului s.upapci. conduction in che valve seat. However. if
Oricurn. dac.a o depunere izolmoare se an insulating depOsit builds up o n the vah'e
depune pe fata supa pei, nceas.1a pO!IIe duce fttcc, i1 can lead 10 burning.. The vttlve seal
119 Material cu drepl de autor
Ia ardert.a fete i s.upapei. De. asernenea c.an also be damaged by abrasive fud ash
scaunul supnpci ponte fi dcgrod~l de clitrc deposits.
depozitele abrnzive de cenu$!\ rezultale i'n
urma arderii t.Vmbustibilului.
Ghidul supapci cstc m~i rccc dccflt The \alvc stem is cooler than the
caput supapei. Oricum.. uzura suprare1ei vahe head. However. sud3ce wear of the
ghidului supapei, 1.ona 4, poate duce Ia valve. sys.tem. area 4, can lead w scuffing,
uzurli prin frccarc care va cauz.a griparea which will c.ause the valve to stick open
valvei in poz.i1ie "deschis" $i arde-ea and burn. Wear at the valve tip. a1-ea 5,
acestea. Uz.urn cnpiitului supnpei zonil 5. where valve contilcts the rocker arm. will
undc "~ I va intra in contact cu culbutond. cause valve lash and the valve to seat with
va cauza jocul supapei $i va cauza apariJia higher than normal fOrces. Evemually. that
fortc:Jor mai mari dec.fit cele normale. will cause failure.
EventuaJ, ~ceasta v~ determina defec)iuni.

Uzura lagl'irelor Be:uings Wear

De ce.le mai 10ulte ori uzura care Most bearing wear that occurs
apare in timpul primdor dlteva ore de durlnt: the firS-t few hOurs of Openuion is
func)ionare es.te minimA $i este acccptaH\ e~
minimal and accepted as "normal''. Under
"nonnalli''. io timpul utilizl"itii o parte din
lormal usage some of the thio lead-tin
suprafat: subtire de acoperire din plumb overlay surface wears off, expOsing the
cositor sc $tcrgc, dcscopcrind cuzinctul lining (cooper, nickel, or aluminium). The
(cupru. nichel sau aluminiu). Striatiile depauem of we.ar is concent.rated toward,s the
uzurii sunt concentrate ciltre cenLnll center Of the be:tring b<:c:IUse Of its larger
l~g!\rului datorit3 d i~metru lu i s!\u mare.
diameter. If an engine bearing show this
wear after le..ss than 2000 hours of
Dac.li un motor prezintli aceasta uzurli dupa
mai pu1in de 2000 ore de functionare u:wra opcr.uion. the we~tr is considered to be
este consideratli anonnalli., sugerii.nd eli
abnormal, suggesting that the contact
rug:ozitatea suprafe-tei de contact dintre fuse
surface roughness between the journals and
$i cuz.ineti este milritii. the be:.rings is i.ncreased.
Acest lucru poate fi cauzat de: Til is can be. caused by:
Avarierea abrazivli Abrasive damage due m contaminatioll
datorat~
<.'()ntaminiirii ul-eiului din sistem. of the system oil.
Avaricrca coroz:iva datorat5
Corrosive damage due to sea water
oontaminlil'ii cu apli. de mare a uleiului contamination of the system oil (acidic)
din sistern sau oxidare.a fuselor datorita or oxidation of the journals du-e to the
cooden~ tulu i. condensate.
Electroeroziunii ce apare in laglirele Spark eros;on which appears in main
principale. L>e.a.ings.

Avarierca abr::lz.ivii estc cauz.atft de Abrasive d.amage is caused by the


particulele abrazive care au intrat In uleiul abrasives 1hat have entered the lubricating-
de un~ere. in aoest c.az trebuie veriricme oil. In this cases the foUowing shOuld be
urmll.toarele: slalxt ftltrare a aerului. checked : poor air fiiU'ation. intake
fm1unul de admisie spart. slaba filtta.re a manifo ld leakage. poor lubricatioll
lubrefi:mtului. supnmliment:.ren cu com I"Utmtion. overfueling or res.tricted engine
bustibil sau un regim redus de alimcntarc breathing. Fine abrasives may also enter
cu ae.r. Pa.rti<::ufe abrazive fi ne pOt de the oil during the engine rebuikling period
asemenea intra in ulei in timpul or through carelessness while m.ttking oil
recoodit ionli.rii motorului sau prin and fi lter changes.
neglijen1ii in schimbare.a uleiului sau
filtrolui.

120 Material cu drept de autor


CeJe. mai niUite defeetiuni ale. ~los.t bearing failures are due to
la.gArclor sunl datorme particulelor strili.ne foreign maHer passing between the journals
ca-e p3truDd intre fuse ~i lag!l-e. Aceas(a se and (he bearings. This also applies., of
aplic.ii de AS!!menea ~i AllOr compOn!!nlc: course. tO Other Opc:rtuing C()mpOnentS.
functionalc. in func~ie de tipul materlei Depending on tbc type of fore ign mauer in
strlii1le din lubrefiant. fusele. lag~rele $i the lubricant the jounals. be.aiogs and
<.'Ompontntele pOl deveni 1.gflrit11e. cu compOnents may became. scratched. pined
ciupiwri sau dccok>ratc, ccc. or discolored. etc.
Particule grosiere pot proveni ca Coru-se particles. may originate as
re-1,iduuri de Ia depl:lSi'lretl. (.'()mponentc:lor residue from moving entire (.'()mpOnc:nts,
tntrcgi, de Ia mnnipulnrca nccorcspunza- fro m improper handling of lubricant or oil
toare a lubrefian\ilol' sau ti ltrelol' de ulei fille.rs. o incomplete removal of booing or
sau inliHurarea ineompletii a ))a\turii in boring abrasives.
urma honing-ului sau gAuririi.
1\cest tip de p;ll'ticule c-auzeazlS This ki1td of par1i<:les cause long
zg!il'ieturi adiinci, can:: scade eficient:l deep t~cmtches which dc:c re:lt~e the
lubrifiantului $i disiparca lcnnica. efficiency of the lubricam and heat
Particulele vizibile di,sloca 10etal dissipation. The visible particles di,SJ)Iace
(.nluminiu) C-llre adaugat Ia abraz.iune metal (aluminium) and, ndded tO the
c-auzeaz3 ere$terea cemper.nurii $i topirea abrasion, cause heat to build up and melt
suprafe{ei de plumb. in aces.t caz lagatul the lead surface. In this case the beal'ing is
estc pierdut delinitiv. Oricum. dacii lagiirol definitively Jos.t. Howe\'er. if the bet1ri.ngs
prczintli zgiricturi fine ca urmare a show fine scratches as a consequence of
parti<::ulelor incastrate-, dar eu toate aceste.a the embedded particles.. but ne.vertheless
SUpl'tlfat:l eSle $1efuitii $i n::fOrm:ltil, pO:IIe fi the bearing surface is smooth and
reutilizat. reformed. it can be reused.

Reguli pentn.l pre\enirea Rules for Preventing Lubric-a nt


colllaminArii lubrifiantului cu mizerii: Contamination with Oi11:

Zona de lucru 1rebt1ie Sii fie curtttil; The wOl'k an::a and tOOlS mu$1 be clean.
inaintea mmmbliil'ii motorului ~Lsigurati- Before assembling tbc engine, make
va eli tome componentele $i alezajele sure (hat aJI components and bores are
trtbuie sa fie. curate. Cilnd motond nu c.le.an. When the engine. is. not being
c:ste in fuoctiune, ncoperit i-1cu li)lii de worked on. cover it with plastic sheets
plas.tic pentru a-1 tine de.parte de orice to kee.p out any tine dust.
praf fin.
Piistrn1i toute containerclc de piistr<Lre t Keep all oil storage containers and
ulciului $i echipamcntului de masurnre measuring equipment clean.
curat.
Unnati procc:durn recomand:llil de FollOw che rntmufacturer's
produciitor c:ind fnce~ i sch.imbul recommended procedure when making
uleiului $i filtrului. oil and filter changes.
Evi1a1i inttinie-l'i excesive intre. A\oid excess.ive. delay between oil
schimburile filtrelor deoarece ace-stet~ filter changes because this mtly cause
pot devcni iocarcate. the filters co become plugged.
Cftnd se adauga ulei. .$tttgt'\i zona dill When addi11g oil. wipe the area a1'0U1ld
jurul jujei (tijl!.i de nivel al uleiului) $i !he dips1ick and clean it beiOre
cur3ta1io inaintc de a o reintroduce. reinserting.
Aducetiv!\ aminte c-3 int1'a1-ea chia $i a Remember that the emry of even a
unei c.antitiiti rnici de mizerie in small amount of dirt into the lubricant
lubrdiant va produce a\'adi insemnatc wiiJ create e,:tcnsivc damage at a Iuter
mai tiir.tiu. time.

121 Material cu drept de autor


A varierea comz.ivli apa-e atunci Corrosive d amage appears whe-11 the
ciind uleiul produce un acid slab s:w ciind o i.l develops a weak acid, when the strong
anhidride putemic acide sun1 adiiugate In acid anhydride$ are added to the o il whic.h.
ulei ~i c:1re, in combi.o:tic cu up:1, vor in combimtliOn wilh wnlcr. will develop
produce acid sau clnd sarea prezentli In acid. o whe.n the salt present io the lube oil
ulei arc o concentr<tic rnai marc de I%. i n has a hig her content than I per cent ln this
acest ca.z apa va ataca. materialul case the wate will attack the white metal
anlifrictiune ~i va cau~a li)rm;m~a unei tlnd rcsull in rorm'lliOnOftl very ht~rdblac k
crur.te negre foatte dure de oxid de staniu tinoxide encrur.tation (SnO) which may
(SnO) care pot zsllria ~i cr.:~l.: rugoritat.:a scratch and roughen the journal surface-.
suprafetei fusului. Fom1area oxidului de The formation of tin oxide is intensified by
staniu este intcnsific:nil de rug in:l d in rust fro m the bonom Hmk. Therefore it is
tancurile d ublului fund . De accca cstc recommended to keep the internal surface,
recomandat sa se tina suprafata intema In especially !he "c.e iling". d ean.
special tawmul curat.
Electroe.\)z.iunea apare numai in Spark erosion appears o nly in the
lag3rcle $i fuscle pri.ncip:tk . Accastli main bearings and in the main journals.
en):rjune se ase-.amiinii cu p itingul ln stadiile This erosio n resembles pitting erosion in
incipiente, dar mui tiiniu cmterc m:Lri vor lhe early stages. bul IIIler the sm:all crt~ lers
rl\zui si extrage din materia lui an tifric~ iune. will scrape off aod pick up white metal.
Electrocroz.iunca cstc cauzatii de Spark ero sion is caused by a
desclrcll'ile elecuice tnu-e lag~ru l principal voltage discharge between the rnaiJl
~i suprafa1a fusu lui prittd p:tl. Aces! bearing tlnd the journal surf:lce.. This
poten\ial es.te cauzat de tOrmarea unui potential is caused by the develop.neot o f a
d ement galvanic lnlre oorpul navei, apa de g!ll\'anic element between the ship' s hull,
mare si axul elicei $i arborele cot it. the s...~ water and the propeller shaft!
Proleqia impOirivtl e l eclr()cr()~iuni i crankshtlfl.
estc facut3 prin utilizarca unui dispozitiv The protectio n againSl the spark
foarte. perfonnant de imp iim1i.nta~. erosion is done by using a high efficiency
Oispozitivul de impmiintare trebuie sl!. earthing device. The eanhing device has to
men\ina nivelul potentialului Ia m.axirn 80 mai.uain the potential level m maximum SO
mV de aceea eficacitatea lui trcbuie mV, therefore its effectiveness must be
verifttatft in mod regu1at. c.hec.ked regular!)'.

Uzura dmii$U cilindrului CyHnder liner wear

Coroz.iuDea apare atunci clnd sunt Corrosion occuts whell heavy fuels
a~i combustibili grei cu un marc continul with a high sulphur content arc burned.
de carbon. Uzura OOI'OZivl'i este cauzatl'i prin Corrosive wear is caused by cond ensatio11
condensare ~i formarea ad dului sulfuric pe tlnd the fonnation or sulphuri>C ::td d o n the
peretii cilindutui. cylinder wall.
Coro~iunca uddului sulfuric pOale li Sulphuric .1d d corrosio n may be
cauzatli dacli temperatura de apei de rncire caused if the cooling water temperature is
t$te prt!a mica. Aceasta pennite ume.:-.elii sii 100 low. This allows mo istur.: lO <.'Ondense
oondenseze in tnamaua de ri'lcire a in dle cylinder cooling jacket and

122 Material cu drept de autor


I Cylinder liner
I Piston rings
II Piston skirt
I
co.rosive wea 1 Abrasive wc~r

I I
HzSO.t HCJ Mic-o-seizure Scratches

L;"'~ ...:::;;.. ~~ .:::;-' ~


Wfltcr dn:p k1li Salt in iniJike air C)li)lkoil lilm Impurities in fud l'il
w:.lt"r leakage:; Sea w:ttl' in. fuel del1dendcs lmpu.ilics in int:d:e air
''C,)IJ'' lilti:l' W:IJI Sea wmer in ~~li lllll'f '-hteri:ll We:r J):'rtidts
Cle:udng agents !A-sign
Cylinder >il fi lm
ddld<!ncie$
'"'
Air I.'(IOkr k:1k:1gc
Cyl_iruJcr l)i l fi_lm
M :1t~iling
Mcd unic:11 k;.atl
d..:lkicn"iC$ Thamo.II<K&d
Lac-k of rin~ tcn.sion
o..~rormation of piston
r ings (during fiuing)
Mis:lllgnn)Cnl
F:u.:tors lnOuencing T(lO h igh C'~lind'>1" oil
Cylinder Wear dosage ( dq)l)lii.S)
WO!t(!r drqllo..'tl>
Ckun in~ u~cnt$

I Cilmt1-5:l cilindrului II Scgmcnti.i pistonului II Manunm pistonului I


Uzud\ coroziv! I Uzul'li abmzivll.

I I
HzSO.t HCJ Uzurli pin Zgftrieturi
rrecan=
L;"'~ ~"'>-- ..:::: "'>-- .<:('"'>-.
PiGituri fine. (k a_pa Sure in acnll de lk fi c;ienlc ak hnpuri I;W in
lnfill,...ii de ;,~
Pere1e ..reo: ,, admisi"
Ap4dcmarein
<)Qillb\ISiibil
pt:lin tki de uld :,
cilit)l)rului
(VInbttSCihil
hnpuril<ili in ;.c:rul <1
<:~'im.'i $ii doe cilindru Mutcriotlul athnisic
API} de m31'c i tl uJciul
Agcnti de o.n'itare d Iindrul u.i Proiett:tr11 Panicuk. d(Mo.._c
JXfidcnle s ic l.nli hr<ll!ii i_n rJ,c:iiQntl Aj~$1'Ca UZlltii
p.:liculci de uld a de ~ S tux:iua (l}('(:ulic:l.
6 Iindt ul u.i !Xtkk nte ale Stu"<:itls ltnnk~t
po.:Uculci de uki u litU;:t 1o.'ft ~itllt ii in
cilindtului
~C!! tnenti
O.:IOrm~n:-.
:;c.~mcnti lor pistonului
(ill limptll monllirii}
t\batcri
Factori c;ue influenJeazii Supmdozarea ulciulu.i
uzura dm3~i i cilindnllui tn cilindru (at'umu~ri)
Piciltw-i litte d..- :l{lli
Agcnti de l.'ttr..i{:~re

123 Material cu drept de autor


ei.lindrului si in eonsccint3 acidtll sulfuric oonscqucnlly sulphuric acid may form in
se poate forma in cilindru. the cylinder.
Apa de mare (sau S.'\re) din aerul de Seaw~H er (Or S.'\lt) in the inlnke air,
admisie, cornbustibil sau uleiul cilindrului fuel or cyli.ndcr oils will invoke the risk o(
va crea riscul de uzul'li coroziv5 a corrosive cylinder wear. Tile COI'I'OSion is
cilindrului. Coroziunea este c.auzatii de caused by sodium chloride (sail), whic.h
clorura de sodiu (s.arca), c~rc fonncaza forms hydrochloric acid.
acidul clorhidric.
Un alt rise de uzurtl (.X)r():tiva it AnOiher risk Of cOIT()Sive we.or iS
constitute agcnti.i de curii~arc. ( Dad the cleaning agents. (lf the ncccss..vy
echipamentul Jleeesar este irlstalat. partea equipment is ins.talled. the air side of the
de aer a nkitorului de tler poate fi cura1ata sca\enge air cooler can, be d e.aned by
prin intermediul a.gentiJor de cur3tare means of cleaning agents dissolved in fresh
dizolvati In ap~ tehnicli). wateJ').
tn func1ie de temperatum $i Depending 0 1.1 the temperoture :tnd
umidit~t ca ~cndui i.nconjur3tor $i humidity of the ambient air and on the
temJ>ermura apei de mare. apa poate tempe-rature of the sea water. water 1nay
condensa pe Luburile mai reci !lie condense on the (.'(lkJe,st air cooler tubes.
r!\citorului de aer. De ~ceea. colectoare de Therefore. water mist catchers are installed
ceatli de apli sunt iostalate imediat dupa directly aner the air coolers to prevent
ri\citOrul de :ter pentrU a preveni C:t water droplets fro m being carried intO the
ptcawrilc fine de ap3 sa fie mmsponatc in cylinders.
cilindrii.
Oac.ii ap:l intrii in cilindri i, pelkuhl If the water enters the cylinders. the
de ulei poate fi inrrenptli $i poate cauza oil (ilm may be 'U ptured and cause wear
uzura (in lOrma de trifl)i) pe orificiile de (d overleafing) on the cylinder lubricating
intrarc ~ ulciului de ungcrc. oil inlets.

Pentru a reduce riscul uzurii To rtduce. the. risk of com)sive


c(>r'O:t.ivc: altttd::
Urmati lndeaproape instructiunile de Strictly follow the supplier's
utilizare ale produditorului pentru instructions lOr the use of the cleaning
in st~ l~t ia de curfttarc $i dozajul system and for tbe dosage of the agent.
age.ntului.
Tineti tcmpcntlura de ic~irc 11 apci in Keep the cooU.ng wmcr outlet
imervalul s.pecificat. temper:uure within the specified
interval.
FoJosi(i uleiuri alcaHne pentru uogeoea Use alkaline cylinder lubl'icating oils.
cilindrului.
Preloclilziti motorul1naiote de porni.re. Preheat the engine belOre starting.
Verificati d!lcil scursere.!\ c.aptatorului Check if the drain from the water mist
de ceatli functioneaz.li. corespunzlitor. catcher functions pcoperly, to peve.nt
pentru a pn:.,eni intrnrc::l pkiiturilor fine w:uer dropletS from entering the
de apli in cilindri. cylinders.
tvl entine~ i etan$e diferitele anc.uri de Maintain the various oil tanks leak
hidrocarburi. p1oof.
Separa~ i hidrocarbura cu grij5. Centrifuge. the oil c:a.refully.
Nu folositi tancurilc de buncar pcntru Do not usc th<:: bunker tanks for ballnst
apa de balast. wmer.

124 Material cu drept de autor


Abr.lziunc:t cslc cauzatii de p:tni- Abrasion is caused by hard pJ11iclcs
culele dure ca1'e imrl\ in cilindru prin which enter the cylinder via the fue l oil
intern!ediul combustibilului (particule (cat.ai)'SI fi ne.s) or air (sand). These may be
catalitke) s.:tu :erului (n.isip). Accstcn pot fi the product of combuSlion or mechank:tl
produsul arderii sau uzurii mecaoice. De weat. Hard pal'ticles may also be produced
a.~eme nea paniculele. dure pOt fi produse by cOm)s-ion.
prin coroziunc.

Uzura t11>ra~i vii a cilindnlui pO:ne li The nbrnsive cylinder wear can
~u l tatul : rcs.ult of:
zgli6eturilor sau a canalek>r adfioci io SCI'atches or rather deep "trumpet
fo rma de. trompetii shaped" grooves
cavitatiei (''viir$.'1 1de V1int") piuing: ("pOck-m:lrks")
uzurn prin (rccarc scuffing (micro-seizure)

Uzura prin frec.are depinde de. Frictional wear depe.nds- on the


m:terialele li>k>site pentru ciima~a ~i m:iteri:ls used in the liner !lnd in the piston
segmentii pistonului. Ea poate fi cauzat3 de rings. h may be caused by ineffic ient
ungerea ineficientl\ a cilindrului S."lu lubric.ation of the c.ylinder or by
supnuncarcarca moLorului. in plus overloading the engine. Ln :tddition. engine
conditiile de funct ionare aJe motorului opel'ating conditions also affect friccional
.afecteaza de asemc:nea uzuru prin frecare wear (frictional wear mtl}' increase if the
(uz.ura prin (rocarc se po:ue miiri daca aenl air and fuel :1re contamin:ltcd).
.$i combustibilul suot contaminate).

AUe avac-ii, defec tiuni si incidente Ol.her damages, breakdowns and


Ia bordul 11avei: .sltuatious on board of shjp:

arborU pot fi corsionati s:uJ rranti (npti) shnf1s may be twisted or broken
lagircle si arbori.i pol nve:t abaleri de bearings or shafts may have
coaxialitate. sau paralelism misalignment
motorul peate pre?.enta r.ueuri Ia engine may present misfiring
:tprindere
nYJtorul se poate gripa the engine may s1ick
llYJto,ul poate fi suptatnc!i.J'C.at the engine may be overloaded
n~ torul poa1e fuoc~ iona cu mra\ie. prea the e.ngine may ove.rSpeed
mare
rtK'ltorul poatc fi supraali.mental (cu the engine may be ovcrfuelcd
combustibil)
tamburul poate fi supralnc.iilzit the drum may be overheated
cQk:ctorul de abur al dildii.rii poate the boiler Steam drum may blow up
exploda
tablele sub1ii sau 1es~tutil e se po1 the thin plates and textlu-es (fabrics)
sf~.$ia may tear
apa. acrul, gazelc e1c. $C pOl scurge water. air, gases etc. may leak
apa dintr-un tunc c:1re se umple sc the water from a tan.k that fills up m:ty
poalc rcvil'sa overflow
motori$tii pot mtlple excesiv un taoc. the engine operators may O\'erli ll the
tank
trtseele. fi hrele, pliicile perfo"ue. sitele passages, filters, strt1iner plates. sieves/
pot fi lnfundate gauzes may be clogged
aparatele indic.atoare pot fi ne.reg.late the indicati1lg g.auge.s may be
125 Material cu drepl de autor
unadjusted
arborele cot it poate fi neechilibr:n the crankshaft can be unbalnnced
in sistemul encrgct;c putcm avea on the electrical system we may have
sarcinli. uifa7'..:1tl'i oeechilibrntli unbalanced th-ee~phase load
Cl"e$tert.a presiunii poate 1i the pressure raise may be
necont rolabilr, uncont rollable
nava ponte fi debalaswta, dckstatA sau the ship may be unbalastcd or unstable
instabilli.
n3\'3 p03te fi intacta (neva ta malil) the sh ip may be undamaged
mwa s.e poate scufund: the ship may sink
memb1.1na poatc fi pcrforata the membrane may be punched
traversa poate fi flambatA. the beam can be crinkled
partimele vegetale pot putrez.i natual tibe1' I'Opes may rot
aliajul autifric~ iune dintr.tlll !agar se lhe white metal from a bearing may
pOnte IOpi mdl
un material int1amabil se poatc aprindc a t1nmmablc material may ignite in
in contact eu fla<:lira deschisli. contact with open tlame
o roata din\atli poate fi deJ)Iasma a gear wheel may be displac:ed
o n)atii de manevril peate cad.:a a hand wheel may fall down
chiul:.sa se pOttte fisura the cylinder cover may fissure
carterul motorului poate avca cri\pituri the crankcase may ha\'e cracks
o placa sc poate indoi a plate may bend
o 't~~l'i.t u ra se poate de$ira a fabric. may rave.!
o ,e.ava poate ple~~ni a pipe may split
un tirant se pO:IIe alungi a St:ty boll may le ngthe-n
o ctnie .se poate curti a box may be flatten
clicca poate fi ciupit! the propeller may be pitted
pomjlul poate fi suprnsolieitat l he stanchion may be over-stressed
''opseaua se poate usca lhe paint may dry
mecani,smul se poate. defecta lhe mechanis m may be out of order
(bre.a.k down)
cli.ptuseala se poate desthce the lining may detach
a"Cul poate sl'iri 1he spl'i1lg may spring
metalele pot rugini n-.etals may rust
i:<-.{Jlatia poate imbfl trl ni lhe insulation rt"l!l)' ag.:.
ruptura datornlii obosclii este c:w~:u a fatigue f:lilure is caused by :lltern:tte
de tensiunile altern ante stresses

126 Material cu drept de autor


Capltolul 22 Unit 21

C~ldiiri Boilers

C31d3rile sum fo losite Ia bordul Boilers arc used on board ship lbr
navei pemru producerea aburului. Aeest pt'Odueing steam. This steam may be used
abur pOate fi utili>l'.tll penlru actionarea for driving the main engines such as
moto:trelor principale- cum ar fi m :-..~ini rcciprocating steam engines (which are
alternative cu abur (care sunt rnr utilizate tn rarely used nowadays) or steam tutl>ines in
zilele. noastre) sau turbine cu abur In large tankers or nuclear .submarines and
petroliere mari submarine ~i sp3rg3toare d e tee-breakers, or for driving auxiliary
gheatli nucleare sau pentru ac1ionarea machinety such as tutbopumps.
instahltilor ttuxiliare de bord cum ar fi
turbopompcle.

Clasitkarea ciUdlirilor navale Marine--S team Boilers Classification

Cilld&rile pOl fi dasificate dupii m:\i Boilers can be classified by sc:"ernl


multc critcri.i dupli cum urmcaza: criteria like the following:
Dupli substaota care curge prin 1evi: By the. sul>staoce that tlows in the
boiler tu~s:
- cflldfiri ig~tilubulare: undc ga:r.clc SIIWke-tube (/iretube) bqi/ers: where
fterl>inti curg prin tuburi, iat' apa le the. hot gases flow in the tubes and the
inc.onjoarfi. water suiTOund them
ct11dtlri acaJubulare: Ia care apa water-tube boilers: where tbc water
cutge ptin tul>uri care sunt plasate in flows in the tubes. which are placed in a
curenl de gaze arse. hot gas now.
Oupil SUI"Sit de ciik1urit folositil: By I he henl source-:
crildtiri cu ctirbmri: care fo losesc coalflred /br1rnbtg boilers: which use
arderea drbunilor pentru a ge.nera coal combustion to genernte he.a1.
cilldurii.
ciJ/dliri cu tlllcrmJ: care fo losesc o;J.Jmmingl oil-fire-d boilers: which
arderea rornbustibilului lichid pentru a use oil combustion to generate steam.
genera clildurli.
c:ltldiiri recut'erotoare: care fo losesc exllaust-gas boilers: which usc the
dildura gazelor evacuate. Acestea sunt waste gase...t; heat TI1ese are placed in
pl:lsttle in CO$Urile de fum :tie navei. the ships funnels.
Oupli destinatie: By destination:
- t~ t11dt1ri pri11cipale: care sunt destinate mltill hoi/en;: which are destined to
producerii aburului pentru alimentarea produ<.-c and supply steam tO propulsion
unit3.tilor de propulsic. units.
ct71dt1ri llllxiliare: cate sunt destinate. tloukey bailers (auxiliaty bo i~): which
pn:Xlucerii aburului pentru instal:ttiile :tre dcSiined 10 produce Steam lOr
auxilinrc debord. auxiJiary m~c h.i.ne ry .
Dupli valoarea presimlii aburului By the gerle.rated steam pressure value:
gene.rat:
- c:illdtlri de j(J{Isi'i presimre: ciildilri care low pressure boilers: boilers th:tl h ~t ve
au presiunea de lucru mai mic~ declt 15 the. wotk pressuJe less then 15 bar.
bar.
crildtiri de medie presiuue: dkliri care medim11 (moderaJe) pre:isure boilefl':
au l)(esiune de lucru tntre 15 si 29l>ar. boilers that have the pressure between
127 Material cu drepl de autor
IS and 29 bar.
high duty boilers: boilers thai have
ctildtiri de fnolttl presiune: c-lildllri care
au p1-esiunea nominal:\ mai ma1-e de 30 rming pressure higher than 30 bat.
bar.
Dupii valoarca temperawrU :1burului B> lhe gencnHed stetlm tcmper.uure
generat value:
4
c:lld5ri care generea11i abur saturttt: - boilers which gc:merate ..wtumttd
e-ttre produc Zlbur 1:l tempertuura de steam: lhey prod uce Sleam at lhe
satul'3tie. Acestea nu sunt prevll.zute cu s..1.1urmion temperature. They ae not
suprainclilzito are. p1'0vided with supetheaters..
4
cAkl3ri care gcnere:L.l3 abur supmiJJcfilzit: - boilers which generate supe.rheated
care produc abur La o temperatur~ mai stetm: they produce S(eam at a
mare. dedlt temperatura de sat ura~ie. temperatu.re highe.r than the sa1uration
temper:llure-.
Dupll. modul i n care este c ircu l at~ apa By the mode the water is circulated in
in c~lda-e: the boiler:
- ciUdtlri cu circula(ie traturali'i : unde - 1wtuml circult~thm boilen: where the
circulatia apei se face tara ajutorul water cirtulates without any device
vreunui d ispozitiv. Aces.te c31dlil'i se help. The.se boilers <:an be di\'ided iJt
tmptlrl in:
Clildiiri cu circula(ie naturolii dow IIOfllra/ circulatio"
leuti1: unde. apa circu15 cu vitezii. bt)ilttrs: where water ll<H\'S at low
mica. sp<:<.
dlldtiri cu circula[ie naturolii cOmJJO.vite boilers: where water
acctdentlli: Ia care apa cutge cu llows at high speed.
vitezil m:.re.
ctildtiri cu circularie artificialti: Ia - n:ts isted circulntiou boilers (forced -
c.are apa este circulata In interio rul water- c.irculation boilers. fo rced-llow
cilldii.rii cu :.jutorul unor p<>mpe boilers): where inside the boiler the
speciale. water is circulated by means of special
pumps.
Dupii modul in care cSic rcaliz.:tt cirojul: 13> the way the d raoghl is done:
- ciildtiri cu tirqj 11a1uraJ: unde aerul fi IIOillral draught boilers: when the
neces:u ardedi plhruode libed'n focar. combustion air enters the furnace
muur:llly.
- c illdtiri cu timj artificial: undc acrul arlificial iforced) drar,glu boilers:
necesar ardt rii es(t pompat de when the combustion air is pumped by
ventilatoare sau lurbosullanle. fans or lurbochargers..
Alt i tenn:::ni folosit i: Other related lcnn:
- ctilcfare ctmtrttliJ - ctnter boiler
- c tUcfare de im:e 11diu f ire bucket
cli/(/are automatizat1i arJtomotic boiler
cil/tfltrt: Cl)ntp/et (IUUJm(ltiZ(lli1 -full lullomatic br)i/er
- c illdare cu alimentare autqmatii automatic-jeedi11g b(Jiler
eli/dare cu ardere dubiO dual-fired boiler
- c tildare t:u c:tm wucfti de Ia distan(U - remtJte c tilll'rtJIIed b(Jiler
- c iildare cu dublil evapqrare double e taporation boiler
-ell/dare cu }Tactlrtl l11toarstl retum j1ame boiler
- c tildare cu .ft)t:ar eaa11at - all-wtili!r- wall br>iler
ctlldare cu ~upraft ciilzitqr automat Colltrolled-s uperheate.r boiler
cilldare c11 tei fierbfaoare trtms cros.v wbe boiler
~ersttle
- ciildare cu tuburi curbe be11t tube b(Jilttr
- c1Udare radia11ttJ - radia11t builer
128 Material cu drept de autor
ciildllre Sllbnwrini1 c:auldrmr, c:aldr<m
ctildare ig nituhulare verticalc tulmlar ~cttical boil~r

C:m1c1eristic:ile principale ale Boiler mnin d:lta


dldilrii

Dehitul cii/diirii: care. e su: Boiler capac:ity : which is the


can tit~t ca de ap5 convcrtitii in abur in amount of water comcrt<.:d into steam in
unitatea de tim p. La cli.kli\ri sunt fo lo site time unit. With boi1ets we have the
unnliiOttrele c:lp!l<'itiiti: fo llowing c:lpttcities:
Debilul n ominal: care inscamna debilu l Ralbrg capacily: which means the
maxim de vapor i al c~ ldi'iri i. maximum d isc harge of the boiler.
Debitul , fm,al til ciildlirii: aproximativ Ntlrmal cllpac:il)': about 80 p-:r c-:nt of the
80% din d ebitul nominal, ce oorespunde rating capacity. when the boiler reaches the
randamentului optim. optima l efficie ncy.
lJehilul minim a/ ciildt'irii: care rc: pre~intil lllinimal cnpm:ily: w hich 01ettns the
v~ lo~re~ cclui m~ i rcdus d ebit cu c~re k>wer d isctlargc value when the boiler can
pome funq iona c51dare.a tr.rl'i sa l>Ufere work without suffering damages fol' an
de lerioriiri pcntru 0 periondil indelin itil de inde finite a mount of Lime.
timp.
Debitu/ t.'Pecijic al ci'Jidtirii: care Specific capacity : w hic h is the l'ating
reprezintil rapo rtul d intre dcbitul no minal capacity divided b ) the hetlt in.g surfnce.
al c31d3r ii $i r.uprafata de inc~ lzire.

Presirmea de lucru Workiug pressure


Pre."iwrett mmrinahi: care. este presiunea Rllti11g pre.ur1re: w hic h is the maxima l
de lucru maxim admisibilli hmta in calcu l allowed working pressure. pressure taken
Ia proiectare. in consideration a t d esign time.
Presiunea "ominnld de regim: c~rc este o,wroting pressure: whj:h is tbe max.imal
presiune.a ma:<ima mentinutri constantli in pressure. mainta ined constantly during the
tirnpultUnc~ iona ri.i no nnale. no rm~ I opcrnlion.
Pre.n'uut"U tie tllilkllre: care este presiunea Output pres.\ure: whid1 is the pres..~ure o f
pe care o au vapo ri.i in momcntu l ic$irii the steam aL the supcrbc-.atcr d ischarge
a<.".estora d in supraincalzitoru1 d ldUr ii. outlet.
Presimren de probe: care cstc prcsitmca Test J' rel'Sllre: which is lhc nw.x.imum
ma:<im1t Ia <.".are Sau fac ut proba hid raulicU pressure. used at the hydraulic testing
u caldtirii. dt; obicci de 1.5 ori mai marc usuaJJy o f 1.5 times the rating pressure.
dec.ftt pre siunea nominalli.

Temperatura ahumlui: <."-!lre este Sleam lemperaft1re: that is !he


tcrnpcmLUra ~buru lui care po~ t c fi satur:.u temperature o f the slc~m . whic-h can be
sau nesaLuraL e ither S!Uurated or superheated.

S upra.fa(a de ;ucti/zire a ci1/diirii: Boiler lreali11g s urface: which is


care cstc sup r.~fata mclal.icli. care the metaJ surface that accumulates the hc~t
acumule-azil c.iildura nece.sarn transfonnilrii needed fo r converting the water in steam.
upci In vapori.
Aceastit supra fatii peate li : This surface c.an be:
Supriifatil de fnctilrire Jlrillcipnhi: care Main lleati11g s11rface: which is the metal
este suprafata meta lic.it care este in <.".Ontact sur-face that is in c.ontac:J with wa.ter whic.h
cu apa care vnporizcaza pe o parlc _,; cu vnporizcs on o ne side and the hot gases o n

129 Material cu drepl de autor


gazele tlrSe te cealaltil pa rte. the Othe r side.
Suprcifa(iJ de fn ciJ/zire cmxilianl: care A uxiliary heatittk surf ace: which is the
e ste supnlfttVl c-a re Jlcumuleaza C-itldunl me tal s urface th:lt J'tc."Cumulttle-S the heat
oocesadi. unei mai bune vaporiz1i.ri. 11eeded for a better vaporizatioo (air
(preinc-itlzitor de aer, econo mir.or. pn::heate r, C'C(Jn()mi:i.er. s uperheater etc.).
supraindilzitor e(c.).

Rauclamtmr,l ct11dt1rii: care este Boiler ejjicie~~C:y: which is the


raportul dintre c:lnl iUllea de cilldurii !!mOunt o f heat released in t he furnace
degajat!i in lOcarele c31d:ir ii $i camitatea de divided by the amount of heat transmitted
cilldurit t rtms misa apci spre a vap<>ri1'.1L 10 water tO vnpOri:<-.e.

Conswuul de cQmbustibil: care Fuel cQm:umpti<m: which is t he


este cantitatea de combustibil as3 In amount of fuel that is bumed in the
unii:Uett de limp. furnilces. in lime unit

Captu:ifafea de mporit.are " Vaporizathm f uel captzr.ify: w hich


cr)mbm.tibilufui: c.a1'e rtpre"t int11. ca.u itatea is the amount of air obtained in the boilet
de !ler Obtinulii in citldare prin :lrdere :l unui by burning :1 kilOgr am of fuel.
kilogram de combus.tibil.

Tt mimea temictl a j(JUtmffli: F11rtUJce themarf !'Ires.~:: which is a


care: es te o c-tl.r:lctcrist ica care di in fonna~ii fe:u ure g iving iniOrmation nbout the
asupra cantitl11ii de c1i.ldura degaj ata prin amount of heat released by fuel combusiol
arderea co mbus.t ibilului fiecilrui metru cub 10 ettch cubic me ter of the furnnce .,'Oiume .
aliOcarului.

Ctlracteri.'~ticll de greuUtlt a Boiler weight churacteri.\tic.\:


cdldilrii: care e;Ste raport ul d intre greut.olea which is the weight or the boiler with o r
d'i ldl'itii cu sau fiil'li ap11. $i debitul orar. without water di" ided by its capacity.

130 Material cu drept de autor


F'ig. 22. 1

C~ ldarea auxiliarli venicaiA(fig. 22. I) Venical auxiliary boiler (fig. 22. 1)


I. Focar I. Furnace
2. Tub de foe 2. Fire tube
3. Coroana focarului 3. Furnae<: crown
4. E-$apament eliptic: 4. Elliptical flue pipe
5. Plncit de ancorare 5. Suay pl:nc:
6. Trnversli principal! 6. Grider say
7. Nivelul normal de apa 7. Normal water level
8. Gura de vi:titii 8. rvlanhole door
9. Coroana anvcJopci 9. Shell crown plate
10. Tirant central 10. Center stay
I I. Camera apa abur 11 . Steam/water chamber
12. Plad tubularli superioarn 12. Uppe tube plate
13. Tuburi ordinare 13. Plain tubes
14. Tuburi coboriltoarc 14. Oowncomer tubes
15. Tuburi tirante 15. Stay tubes
16. Camera de apll 16. Water chamber
17. Pl:lca tubularii inferioarii 17. Lower tube plntc
18. Guri de vizitli. IS. Manhole doo'
19. Anlitor de oombustibil 19. Oil burning unit
20. lzola1ic rcfroctara 20. Refractory
21. Zid!\ria ve11ei 21. Brickwork
22. h:olatie 22. Insulation
23. Can:1l vertical de ga.te de :trdcre 23. Uplake
24. Cutiafcame.l'a de fu m 24. Smoke box

131 Material cu drept de autor




132 Material cu drept de autor


Caldarea funqioneaza cu combus.- The b\)ile.r is oiJ.fired. The oil
tibillichid. Arz3torul introduce un amcstec burning unit i.ntroduces ~ mi..-~ ture of fuel
de combustibil ~i aer jil focar prin tubul de oil and ai1' in the furnace by the fire tube.
IOc.
l n focar arc kJc arderca rezull:ind o Combustion takes place in lhe
c:unitate de gaze fierbinti care urcl'i io furnace resulti1lg in an amount of bot gases.
<.-oroana focarului ~ i de acolo prin which go upwards to 1he furnace <.~rown
c,sapamcntul eliptic in camera de fum. in and through !he elliptical flue pipe to the
camtwa de fu m gazele cedeaz~ o mare smoke bo:-:. In the smoke box the gases
cttntitste de dilllurii apei prin intcnnediul release tt lnrg.e nmount of heat 10 the w!lter
supmfetci marl de schi.mb de caldura a by means of the large beating surface of the
tuburilor. Aceasta c.il.klura este fo lositl'i de wbes. This heat is used by water to
apr. pentru a se v!lporiza. vnpori1.e.
Vaporii u rc~ in camera de The vapours go upwards in the
apli/aburi. Apa rece di1l camera de s.teaml\\'atet chamber. Due to g1-a\itation
tt piil:~buri coboar3 datorita gr:tvita1iei, prin the colder water fro m the ste:~mlwater
tuburile coborUtoarc, inapoi in camera de chamtx:r goes downwards through the
apa. Ga1..ele reziduale me.rg mai departe downoomer wbes back to wate.r chamber.
prin cannlul vertic:ll de gn:<-.e de ardere Ia The waste g.nses go further through the
oosul de fu m. uptake to the funnel.
J\burul produs este desdircat el'itre The produced steam is discharged
consum:Hori prin valvula principal de through a m.:1in seam s.top vaJ..e 10 the
abur. consumers.
intreaga ciildare are o oonstruc~ie. The entire. boiler ha..c: a weklod
sudttt3. Tirtmtul centrnl intan:~Lc tmvelopa. construction. The center St:ty Slrengthens
Zidll.ria are rol fn izolalia tennic3. iar the shell. The brickwo1k is for thermal
i1..ola~ ia refractara de a directiona cl'ildura insulmion and the refractory is 10r directing
spre camera de apii. GuriJe de vizitii sunt the heat to the water chumber. rvl:mhole
prevl\zute pentru curll.tarea cll.ldftrii. doors are provided for che cleaning of the
boiler.
Cald:a.n:::J cu fi:Jc-ftr li tmoursa (c~17-an Scotch) Return !lame boi.ler (Scotch boiler)
(lig. 22.2) (fig.22.2)
I . Anvelopa c51d5rii I. Boiler shell
2. Vutvulii pri.nciputa de abur 2. Steam main stop valve
3. Gurll de vizitare superioarli. 3. Top manhoie
4 . Tirun~i in spa~i ul de abur 4. Ste.am spa<.-e stays
5. Annawn carn:rei de foe 5. Combustion chamber gridcr
6. Camera de foe 6. Combustion chamber
7. Antreloazele came.rei de foe 7. Combustion chamber stay
8. fla~t~o go1 de lcbOda 8. Goose neck flange
9. Tuburi de fum 9. Smoke tubes
10. Tub de Ooc.iirii (fumal) cenlrfil 10. Center furnac.e
I I . Tirant I J. Stny
12. CmJi. de " izilli. inferioara 12. Bonomma1lhole
13. Tub de nac.f!ril (fumal) lateral 13. Wing furnace
14 . Tub tirant 14. Stay wbc
15. Tub tiram cu piu lit~ I 5. Stay tube with 11ut
16. Tub ordinar 16. Plain tube
17. 1\lbulatura vertical3 de evacuurc 17. Uplakc
18. Culia de fum IS. Smoke box
19. Gum de vizitil 19. Inspection opening
20. Arzlltor lateral 20. Wing oil burner
21. Atz~ tor central 21. Ce.mer oil buroer

133 Material cu drept de autor


Principalde oomponente ale. unei The main oompanents of a rt turn
ellld3ri cu fl nclirli intoarsi :mnt: anvclopa. llnn1<: boiler arc: the boi.ler shell. the end
peretiL furnalele. camerele de ardere. plate. the furnaces. tbe fire box. the boiler
tuburile fierbiHoan::-, legaturile c-ii.ldii.rii. tubes, the smoke bo:<, the boiler stays.
Anvclopa esle de o eonstructie The boiler shell is of welded
sudata. are o lOnna cilindric5 $i este construction. has a cylindtical shape. aod is
co nfcx~t io natii din Otd d in lrei p<lrti. made. of steel and consistS of three parts.
AnvcJopa sustinc cclclaltc componcntc ak! The boiler shell sustains the other parts of
c~ ld~rii $i limiteaz3 spatiul de ae1 in pi'itlile the boiler and limits the water space at the
superioam. inferioara ~i l:nende. tOp. bottom and on the side-s.
C.ik:larca arc doi pcrcti c:lrc The boiJer has two end plates which
limiteaza spatiul de apa tn plan limit the water space in k>ogitudilal plan.
lon.g.itudinal. Acestea pOL li executate dintr- They c.an be made in a single part or many
o singura bueat1\ sa.u din mai multe buc!iti. pans. When the end plates arc made of
Cfrnd suot executati din mai multe buc~ti many welded pats. they are of variable
sudate aceste:l au o grosime variabilii. De thickne.ss. Usually there are three zones of
obicci sunt trci zone de trci grosimi different thickness: the upper plate zone
dilt rite: zona plitcii supe6oare care are o with relatively snall thickne$S, the middle
grosime relativ mica. :I'.Ona pli1cii mijlocii pltlte zone (which has the large-SI thickness
care are cea mai mare grosime pentru cA in because it has many holes in it and
ea sunt practicate multe gliuri $i este supusa undergoes diiTeremial tht-nnal strains) and
etOrturiJor termice dU"ercntiale ~ i zona the k)wcr pble :tOne which has the same
pl3eii infcrioarc care arc accia~i grosimc c.a thickness as the upper zone plate.
ln zona pliicii superioare.
Peretii sunt tlmbutisati lnSuntru The e.nd pltlteS :Ire Oanged inside
aHulci c:i:nd sum nituiti sau ambutisati in when they ae riveted oc nanged outside
afarli atunci ctind sunt sudati. when they are welded.
Tubul de tlae-ara. eunoscut ~i sub The fi.rc lUbe, also known as the
denumirea de "furnar. eMe k>cul unde are furnace... is the place where combustion
lot t."Ombustia. furnalul e~~te de !Ormii. takes place. The furnace is cylinde.r shaped
ciHndric-ft -'i este e-onfectionat din otel and is made or special steeL Becnuse of the
special. DatOI'it1!. a'del'ii furoalul es.te supus buming the furnace undergoes high
Ia o tensiune l(mnic.U deo.sebit de puternic.a thermal strt's." the.refore the furnact-. surface
de acec~ suprafata furnalului cste ond ul ~1 3 is corrugated in order to resist it.
pentru rezis.ta acesteia.
La o caldare putem sasi doua sau In a boill!r we can find IWO or three:
trei furna lc. Fiecore fumal este conccwt Ia furnne-es. E.uch furn:tcc is connected ~1 1 its
cap~tu l sau posterior Ia cutia de lOc prln back end to the combustion chamber by
intennediul unel flan.$e de tip "g.flt de means of a gooseneck t)rpe. nange.
JcbMa.
Oacl c1ildarea este tncMzitii cu If the boiler is coalfi'ed the
cilrbuni fumalele au un gratar pe care sunt furnaci!S have a g.rote on which the coni is
a~i c.irbunii. burned.
Cuti.:l de foe (camera de ardere) este Tile fi1'e box (oombustioo chtunbe)
0 prelungir~ a lUbului de Oac.ii.rit ln c.are is an e:ttens ion or the fire tub~ whert lht:.
ardcrca con tinu~ $i sc sf~$1C . Accast3 combustion continues and ends. This
camer~ este executat1i dintr~un matetial cu chamber is m.ade of a material with good
0 bunS t.'()nductibilitate termidi ~i 0 mare therm.il conductibility and great strength at
rez.istent5 Ia tcmpcroluri inaltc. de obicci high temperatures; usually special s.tccl or
este fo losit O\elul s~ia l sau cuprul. oopper is used. The back wall of the lire
Perete.le pOSterior al cutiei de JOe I!Ste box is tilted and could be provided with
ioclinat .si ponte fi prevazut cu zidftrie refractory brickwork.
refracta!i..
Tuburile d ilditrii constituie o mare Boiler tubes constitute a large.
134 Material cu drept de autor
suprafatit de sc.himb de c.a Jdura fiind In heating surface being in contact with hot
con1act La imc:rior cu gazelc fic rb i n~i . inr Ia gases at the i1mer side and water at the
ex1e1'ic>l' <:u apa. Existli doul\ lipuri de tuburi outer side. lllere are 1\\'0 types of smoke
de fum: tuburi ordinnn: ~i tuburi tirtmte-. tubes: plain tubes and stay tube.s. They are
Acestca sunt fixate in douit pl5ci wbularc fastened i.n t wo tube pl;11es :LS follows:
dupil cum urmead:
- tuburile. ordinare. sunt mandrinate sau - plain tubes are drifted or electrically
sudate electric welded
.. tuburile ti1ante sunt in$urubate $i stay tubes are screwed and secured
asigunue cu piul i~H ~i COnlrapiulita S<'tu w ith nut and Jock-nut or dectricttlly
sudate electric. welded

Tuburile tirantc: (.xmsolideaza Sta)' tubes Slreng:then the tube


p l ~cile tubulare $i ajut5 de asemenea plates and also help the heal trnnsf'er. They
schimbul de clldm'!i. Ele suot amplasate Ia are placed on the outer side of tube plates.
periferi:. pliicilor tubulttre.
Camera de fum a c1kl3rii estc The boiler smoke ctw.mtx:r is
destinatii. ~ pennitii. trecerea gaze lor arse Ia destined 10 allow the passage or waste
co ~ul de fum ttl citldarii. Aceasw este 8JISes 10 the boiler funnel. It is made of
executatli din pllici de Ot"el ~i este at~at li de steel plates and it is nY>mUed on the boiler
cliklare prin inte.rmediul ~urubu rilor. by means of screws. The smoke chamber is
Camer:i de fum esle prevazu1a cu orificii de pro,ided with inspection openings tO aUow
vizit3 pcntru a pcrmitc curli1arca tuburilor the tubes to be cleaned and changed if
$i sc.himba..rea lor la nevoie. nec.essary.
Tn earners de fu m, in p11rte:. An econom i~r c:.n be mounted in
inferioarli a eosului de fu m poate fi montal the smoke <:hamber at funnel bottom for
un eoonomi1.or pentru lnc!ilzirea apei de he-ating the lted water in order to increase
:limentarc pentro a mari randament\11 the boiler's efficiency.
cAkllirii,
Pere\ii plani suntlntariti prin tiranti, F'lat walls are reiniOrced by long
antrelo:v;e., gusc:e, wburi 1i.rante, ancore S.'l\1 and shon swys, comer st:lys. stay tubes,
aile elemente similare. anchors or other similar suuctues.
Vatra de c.ii.riimida asigurit pf(ltec,ia Fireplace brickwork ensure...'> the
mctalului in roocle cu tcmper:ituri lnaltc $i protection of metal in the zones with high
uncle apa eirculli foartc tncet (?..one cum ar temperaw re and where the water
fi parte-a inferioa.ra a c.amc:rc:i de ardere). circulation is very slow ( zones like lhe
CQmbustion ch:1mb<:r boiiOm).
Datorit3 faptului d'i Ill intel'iol'ul Because the water ins ide the boiler
c.ltkliirii apa inc::onjoara tuburile de flad'ir.t shell surrounds the. fire tubes, fire box .
cutia de foe. wburile de fum $i plficile smoke tubes and wbe plates, all those
tubulare. tome aces{e.a oonstituie supmfete surfa<:es ae heating surfa<:es.
de schimb de dilduriL
Ciildura dcgajal3 prin ardcrea The heal released by fuel
combuMibilului tn futna l t-ste ttaMmisl\ rombustion in fu rnace a11d fire box is
partiAl furnalului, iar re-.stul e.ste acumulatfi partially transminc:d to the furnace. the rest
in gazele arsc cure intrn in cutia du foe. of it being accumulated in (he waste gases
Ai.ci ard ullimele pa11icule de oombustibiL which enter the fire box. The las.t fuel
ncelea can: nu au :'trS In furnal, nstfel ind t particles which h.ttve nOI burned in lhe
culia de foe acumuleaza c~'lldu ra din furnace burned here, so !hat the fire box
a1'de.rea combustibilului $i de Ia gazele arse accumulates heat fro m the burning fuel and
din interiorul ei. Acc:asta cilklura este waste gases from it. This heat is
transmisli apei care ineonjoar!\ cutia de foe. trnnsmined to the water surrounding the
Din cutia de tO<: ga:1..ele tierbin'i uec pl'in fire box. From the li re box the hot gases
tuburile. de fum in camera de fu m de aiei pass t..rOug:h the smoke tubes to the. smoke
135 Material cu drepl de autor
spre. canalul verti<:.al de ga1.e de. ardere. <:.hamber. from here to the uptake.
cconomtzor (daca este prezent) $i CO$UI de economizer (if present) and fun.ncl.
fum.
Apa in conttH:t cu suprnre,de In contact with hOI surfnces water
ficrbinti vaporizcaza. Aburul se vaporizes. The steam is accumulated in the
acumuleaz.a ill partea supetioaril a clkJl'irii upper side or the boiler - the steam
- camera de. abur ~i pletK.a spre chamber, and ,g.oe.s to the consumers
consumatori printr-o valvula principal de through a main steam stop valve.
abur.

Fig. 22.3.a Fig. 22.3.b

Cii.klare Yarrow (cu o singurii. trecen: Jig. V 3rr()W boiler (Single now type fig. 22.3.!1
22.3.a cu dubl5 trecere tlg.22.3.b) and double now type fig. 22.3.b)

I. Co lector inferior (cambur de abur) I . Steam drum


2. Colcclor inferior (cambur de apli) 2. Water drum
3. f<O<:ar 3. r:um3<:e.
4. Suprainciilzitor 4. Superheater
5. Canal vertical de gaze de ardere 5. Uptake

CiUditri ac,atubulare Walerlube boilers

La c.ii.ldiirile acvatubulare apa In the wttter-tube boilers the water


circulii in intcriorul tuburilor tn timp ce circulates inside the boiler cubes while hot
gazele fie.rbi n~i tree p.e Ia exteriond gases pass on the outside of the. boiler
tuburilor c.iiklii.rii. tubes.
Pentru a discuta dlld~r il e When discussing the water-tube
acvatubulare cea mai re.prezentativl\ este boile.J'S the most represent:ltive is the
citldarca de tip Yarrow, c~1.re este unul Yarrow type boiler, which is one of the
dintrc cdc mai fo losite tipuri de cllldliri most used types of water-tube boilers.
acYatubulare.
Tipurile timpurii de ccildilri Yarrow The earlier type of Yarrow boilers
au avut o oonstrUC\ie si m p ! ~: d\ldarea a had a simple design: the OOiler was made
10st oonstruitil din trei tamburi cilindrici of three. long cylindrical drums: one upper
lung.i: unul superior care esle colectorul de drum. which is the stc.am drum and two
abur $i doi tamburi inferiori care sunt lower drums, which are the water drums.
colectoare de apa. Colecwrul de abur liind The. steam drum was connected with the
conecu1t cu cele doua colecto:lre de apa two water drums by rows of wttcr tubes
prin rfiod uri de tubuti fierblitoare care se which were extended on the complete.
intindeau pe intreaga lungirne 3 tamburului. length of the drunL
136 Material cu drept de autor
La partea inferioara a dildill'ii intre. T he oil burnerS which heated the
cci doi tarnburi erau arziiloaretc de boile r were situated at the bottom of the
oombustibil care inc1Hzeau cl\ldarea. lxliler. between the t wo watet drums.
La parte.a inferioara erau StrtHuri de At the bottom side there were
zldiirie $i rcfractarc. pentru izolarca bric kwork and refroc tory layers for the rmal
termid. insula tion.
lmprejurul tuturor componentelor Surrounding all compOne nts there
sc at1a o carcasa rczistcnt3. Ia foe c u o rificii were a fireproof casing with nl<mho le and
de acces sau vizit3.. Tuburile erau d t-epte si inspecttc>n openings. 1lle water tubes wet<e
fi xate prin ma ndrinare. ln ilfara citkliirii S.tntight Shitped !lnd fastened by drifting.
4

e mu tuburi cobor!itoare pentr u circulatia OutsKic the boiler !hen; were downcomcr
.apei. tubes lOr water circulation.
Construqiile ma.i recente de d ldari P.lore rec-:nt conStruction o f boilers
a u ad3.ugat proiectului o riginal un alt have added a nother water drum to the
oolector de apa. otiginal project.
Oupa fel ul in care gazele c-urg pe Sy the way the gases no w :~rou nd
l:ing tambur i exista doua tipuri d e dJdiiri: the drums there arc tY..-o cypcs of boilers:
cu o singurli trece re. unde gazele tree siogle now type. where the gases pass
pe sub t."lQloctorul de abur. under the Steam drum.
cu dublit lrecere-, unde gazele double now type, where the g:~ses
inconjoara cotcctorul de abur. surround the steam drum.

Tuburile coborUtoare !lu fOSt The downcomer tubes have been


abando nate pentru d apa circ ula prin abandoned because the water circulated
tuburile fied:mtoate. Pemtu pt'Oducerea de through the boiler tubes. For the
~t bur supr:inciilzit a fost a mplasat un superheated stettm produc tion a superheater
supralncalzitor int:re tuburilc fic rb3toarc. was placed between chc boiler tubes. A
Un registru de OO$ a lOst adiiugat p.entru dampe.r wa.~:; added fo r complete or partial
inchiderej complelii sau pa.,iala a uneia closing of o ne o f the gases wtty 10 d irec t
d intre clile d e gaze pe ntru a directio na the hot gases to the superheater tubes..
ga1.el-e tierbinli prin supralnclilz.itor.
t n accst tip de c31darc apa cstc Ln this kind of boilers water is
oontinutli. In colectoarele de a pli $i tuburile contained in the water d rums a nd tubes and
fierbfitoare $i se ridldi pSnii Ia jumfitate..a extends halfway up the steam d rum. Ho t
d i.n COleetOn I de abur. Gazc:le lierbinti tree gases p:~ss round the tubes on their way to
pe l:lng3. wburi in drumul k)l' spre canalul the uptake and funnel.
"en:ic.al d e gaze de ardere $i CO$UI de fu m.
Tuburlle d in mlimmchiurilc de T he tubes fro m the water tubcs 4

tuburi fterb!\toare se comport!\ In doufi bunches act in 1wo differe nt ways: the
moduri diferite: tuburile d ins-pre focar sunt tubes o n the furn.ac.e side are upt.'Omer
tuburi urc3toare. pcntru cit de inu mai tttbes. bocause they take more heat from
multli cl\ld uri\ de Ia gazele liel'binti. In timp the hot gases. while the tubes on the o ther
<:e tuburile din <:ealaltit parte sunt tuburi side. are. downoomt-r tubes. In upcomer
cobortitoare. in t\lburile urc3toare apa wbes chc water uses the hcac 10 vaporize.
fo loseste cl\ldum pentru a se vaporiza. The steam goes upward to the steam drum
Aburul urcil in colec torul de a.bur unde este where it is collected in the lOp half.
colcc tal in jum3tntca superioarii. Pcntro ca Bcc,ausc the :ueam dnm pro \'idcs u
colectorul de abur constituie un re?..ervor de rese.noir of relatively cold water. d ue to
.apii rel.ativ rece. datoritit g:ra.vita\iei ~ i the gravitation and the difference of
d ifcrentci de dcnsitatc, sc formcaza curenti gra\tity. convection c urrcms are set up,
de oonvectie. apa rece d in oolectot'UI de coklet watet from the steam dtum get into
tlbur aj unge in cOie<:IOnlf de ap3 Cilllz,ii nd the water d rum c!lusing the nalllrtll
clrculatia natumlii a :tpci circular io sistcm. circulation of the water within the syste m.
J\burul t1-ec<e spre consumatori The steam passes to the consumers
137 Material cu drepl de autor
pr intr-o \a hula principala de abur. through a ste.an1 stop valve.
Apa d e alimcntarc cstc introdusa in The feed water is fed into the steam
colectoi'UI de abur liing! nivelul de apli. ia drum bellow the wate r level and the supply
alime ntarea este reglata de d11re un is n:gul!lted by an automatic fl!ed water
regul:.ttor :utomat de ~pa de alimentarc pe rcgulatol' on at least one of tbc separate
eel putin una d imre iostalatiile de reed syste ms required oo the boilers.
alime ntare separate impuse caldiirilor.
CAid3.rilc acvatubularc sunt Watcr tubc boilers arc designed fo r
proiectate pentru presiuni mai mai declt higher pressure than smoke-tube boile1s
ciildarile i8:nitubularc: lara a deveni excesiv withOut !)e<."()ming exce.s sive in weight.
de grclc.
CUldiirile ac\'atubulare modeme Modem boilers
incorpOre-azil un economizor in caldare sau incorporate an eco no mizer in the boile r o r
in canalul "enical de gaze de ardere. in the uptake. The economizer is a feed
Economizowl este un indSizitor ill cal'e apa wate.r heater in whic h the feed wate is
de :tliment.Ore este incill.zita de dtre ga:cele heated by fl ueg:.ses instead of steam. :IS in
:.usc tn Joe d e abur ca Ia indlzitoarcle de the feed water heater normal d esign.
apa de alime ntare nonnale.
C.iUdlhi recuperatoare Exhauslta.S boilers

Aceste d ldari sunt de o constructie These boilers are of simple desig n


simpl3. si dau un scns cfcctiv utiliz..\ rii a nd provide a n efrccti\'e way of using the
dlldurii pierdute prin g.azelor de evacuare a waste heat frt> m d iesel engine exhausts.
motoarc:lor diesel. Aceste:l sunt vert kale ~i T hey sn: vertical itnd in most cases their
cons1ruC'jia Jor este potri vit~ in cele mai construction is suitable fo accommodation
multe cazuri pentru potrivirea in OO$UI de in (he funnel.
fum.
De obicei c3kl1irile recuperatoare nu Exhaust boile rs are not usually used
sunt utilizate ind ivid ual acestea ind ividually they operate together with
functionea~;ii combimu cu nile c-ftkiRri Olher Oil-(ired water lube boilers in steam
acvawbulare incAlzite p1in ade-ea generating plants. as they can only wok
combustibilului. in instala~ii de generare. a whe n the e ng ines are operated.
abul'ului, pcotru d accstc~ functionc-azi
numai cand func1io neazl!. si motoarele.

Pics.eh: auxiUare ale d lditrii Mouralin.gs 011 a boiler

Prin ptcsclc a ux.iJiarc ale ciild!rii By mouo1ings o n a boiler we


intelegem toate arrn3turile si apal'3tele de uodei'Stand all fiuings aod gauges whic h
miisura $i control c-are indeplinesc functia act as operational o r safety devic.es needed
de dispo:titivc functionnle sau de sigumnt3 for good and safe opcration of the boiler
lteCesa.3 peotru fu nctiooa.-ea buo.l $i in except the piping systems. drums. furnaces
siguran\ii a cilldiirii e.xcep t~nd tubula turile. a nd Other heavy equipment.
colcctoarde, focarc lc $i alt cchipm:ncnt
greu.
Suptlpe de sigura~ttli: cnre sunt necesare Safely ml'e.s: which are needed tO n:le:.se
pcntru u cvacua oricc abur suplimentar din uny excess S-team fro m the boiler. These
d'ildare. Aceste valve. se deschid automat Ia valves open autom.'ltically at a maxil'num
0 presiune maximil. ce nu depfl~et e cu mai pressure no t exceeding 10 per cent of lhe
mutt de lO% presiunea de lucru $i permit working pressure and allow the S(eam to
aburului s1i iasl\ prin tubulatura de scurgere escape by the waste steam pipe o n the
a aburului in CO$ul de fum pfina cnd funnel until the pressure fall s to nonnal
138 Material cu drept de autor
presiune.a se.ade din nou Ia normal. Oaca again. If the discharge. steam pipes are
tcvilc de evacuare ~ aburuhi s.unt k>catcd below the valves, a drainpipe;
amp l as~te dedesubtul supapei. o te~vli de without any shutol'f devices i,s ptwided to
golire 13rii org::lne de inchiden: este remove the t.Xmdensale from valve plate.s or
prcv3zutii pcntn cvacu.area condcns:uului fro m discharge steam pipes.
din corpul su p~pelor sau din le\'ile de
ew1c.uare a aburului.
Du p~ dccla n$~re. supapclc de After releasing. the safely valves of
sigu'antli ale c31dll.l'ilor pincipale si ale main a!ld essernial boilers completely shut
dildiiriiOr suxilitn-e impOrtnnte intren1p down the Steam Outlet in cnse the boiler
complct icsirca aburului in cazul cadcrii pressure drops down to maximum 0.85
presiunii in d ldare Ia eel tnult 0.85 ori times the wo!ting: pressure.
presiune-a de luc.ru.
Sum eel p u~ in doua supape de There are~~ le~st two springloaded
sigurontli cu arc. de aceeasi oonstruc~ ie $i safety valves of identical construction and
at:'Cia~i dhnensiune montate pe t:tmburii equal si:.:e fined 0 1) the drum of each boiler
oriciirei c3kHiri de regula pc un tub de usuaJJy on a conunon br::tneh piece and one
legiitura comun precmn $i o supapa de valve on the superheater outlet header. TiliS
sigurllntit mOnlatit pe colectorul de ie-~ire al V'lllve is SCI 10 Opc:rate before the snfety
supralnclilzitorului. Aceas.ta este asti'el valve installed on the drum.
reglatil sa de deschidli. lnairuea supapei de
siguntntil mont:uii pc utmbur.
Valvclc sunt astfcl construite inciit The valves ~rearranged so that they
sa poata fi deS(:hise. manual priutrun can be. lifted by a special hand operated
mecauism de sqionare special. easing gejr. The e:tsing gear of one of the
Mecanismul de ac~ion~re a uneia din valve valves is operated f-om the boiler room and
trebuie comandat din compartimentul lhat of the other valve is located on the
clikliirii. iar comanda celcil:llte s.upape se upper deck or on other loc:ltion.
af13 pe puntea superioarli S.1.U alt Joe permanently accessible bot outside the
permanent accesibil dar in afara boiler room.
compartimentului c-ii.fdiirij.
Supapele de sigucan~3 sum The safely valves are directly
raoordate direct Ia Sp<l.liul de abur al connected lO the boiler steam space without
clikl8.rii, fa ra organcle de inchidere de orice any closing device, and are so designed
fe L ~i sunt astfel eonstruite tncilt sA poat3 fi that they could be sealed or provided with
sigilate sau prcvilzule cu un dispozitiv d.:. :ln equiv3Je.nt safeguard 10 make il
sigurnntil corespunliitor cnre sa e;(cluda impossible fu r the \';.lives to be sci without
posibilitatea de reglare a supapelor ti\!3 the knowledge of the personnel.
$tirea perSOnalului de de.servire.
An::uri.lc supapeJor de sigurantl sunt The springs of the safety valves arc
p rot~jate contra actiunii di1-ecte a aburului pl'O tecled fro m direct exposure to steam
e\acunt ~i sunt exec.utate, Ia fel ca !ii and are manufactured, as well as the
suprufcte le de elan.sare nle .scaunclor $i SC<Lling surfhces of sents and \'lllves. of
COlurilor supapelor. din mateiale heat-and OOITOsion-resistant materials.
re'J.istente Ia temp.:raturii ~i coroziune.
Supapclc de sigurant3 pot fi de The safety valves can be of the
urml\toruoele tipu1i: fo llowing types:
. supape de inti.hi! presiune high--lift valves
- supapc de sigurnnta de marc caJXlcicme: high-capacity safety valves:
- cu gaudi. oomplet1i. . fu ll-bore safety valves
-de tipul Hopkinson "Hylir' . Hopkingson "Hylif'' safety
waives
- consolidate . consolidated safety valves

139 Material cu drepl de autor


Valmle de tdimenltlre priu cip~lle: pe.ntru Maifl feed wrl~es: lOr wmer admission in
admisia apei in cltldarc, accstca sunt the boiler. these arc usually p l~cOO on the
plasate de obicei Ia cap!Hul c-!kl11.rii si end of boiler and admit the watet just
introduc apa chiar in apropierea ni\'c:.lului bellow the working water le\'el.
de lucru al apei.
Val"ulele de alintentare sunt de Tile teed valves are of a lon-return
1ipul cu autoretinere. l nlre valvula de type (check valves). A shut-off valve is
alimcntare si c31dare cstc inswlat5 o in st~ llcd between the check valve and the
valvulli de inchiclere pentru sepamrea boiler. fot sepata tiJlg the boiler fl'om the
ciildarii de tubulawrile care due L't acdSta. pipes leading tO it Non-return valves ttnd
Valvulele de re\iocrc ~i valvulcle de shuH>ff valves may be mounted within the
lnchidere pot li amplasate In acelasi corp. same body. The shut-otT valve should be
Valvula de: inchid<:re se va monta direct pe fi ned direetly tO the boilc:r.
corpul c1kl3rii.

Valmle de alimcmtare au.riliare: care: sunt Auxiliary f eed talves: which are alw:tys
montate "intotdcauna ca rczcrvli in caz de fined as a stand-by in c35e of damage of
deiOCtare a celeilalte sau pentru the other one and are also used for feed ing
:') limentarea ciildiirii in pOrt. the boiler in pOrt.

Vltf.,ule de putjare: care $Unt amplasate in 8/o,.-do wll ale: which are placed lear
apropierea fundului cilldiirii penlru a-1 goli the boHOm of the boiler to empty it either
in intrcgimc sau paJlial. Accast3 vahul11. wholly or pat1ially. This valve is connccuxl
este conectatit Ia o valvula amplasatli pe to one. \'alve. on the ship's side. Water is
bordajul ntl\'ei. Apa CSte sufltttii in mare de blown out into the sea by the steam
presiunea abUI'ului din clildare. pressure ft'Om the boiler.
Valvulele de pmjare sunt montate Tile blow-down valves are tined
direct pc corpul c31dltrii sau instal:tc pc dircclly to the OOiler sbcll or installed on
racorduri tubulare sudate. the tubular welded-in branch pipes.

Di"'l'ot.itie tumtru extractia de SUJJrafarii: Upper blo w-off vall'e~: which :rc: placed
care $UOt arnplasate pe colectotul supetior Oil the upper header at boilet'S with a free
Ia d'ildil.rile cu suprafat5 Iibera de t:\aporating surface (0 etL.~ure the scum and
vapurizarc pcntru ~ asigura cl.i.minarca sludge rcm(.wal from the evnpornting
spumei si reziduurilor de le wprafata de surthce.
tWtlpOrtlre.

V(l/~ule pe11rru extrat (ia de /lliUI: care Battom blow-off val~es: which are placed
sunt amplasme Ia par1e.a inferioara a at boiler bottom to aUow the removal of
c51d5rii sprc a pennitc cli.minarca sludge from the boiler bottom or for the
rez.iduurikw de Ia furxlul dldl\rii sau pemn 1 whole 01 partial use of the boiler watet
fo!os irea integ:rala sau partialit a tlpei dnd when needed.
cslc ncvoic.

Valmle de g~Jiire: c-are sunt montate direct Drain mlles: which are litted directly tO
pc corpul cl\ld3rii sau instalate pe rncorduri the boiler shell or installed on the tubular
Htbulate sudate spre a pennite golirea apei welded-in bmnch pipes in order to alk>w
din inStitl:ltie. water 10 be drawn fro m the S)'Stem.

V(l/.,,te tie t'ircultt/ie: care sunt amplasate c ;rclll(ltilll: alve: which are fi tted near the
in apropierea fundului ~i sunt folosite bottom and are only used to produce an
numai pentru a produce o circulatie artificial circulation of the water when
artificiall\ a apei Ia iclicarea presiunii raising steam to minimize the strains due (0
pentru a minimiza eforturile datorate. unequal expansion of the boiler plates.
140 Material cu drept de autor
dihu8rii inegale ale plUc.ilor.

Rr)bimtte penrm lutlrta pnlhelor dt tlpti Salitwmeter alles: which ru'e fined in an
din ciildare: C-3re $Unt pn::vilzute intr-un J()c appropriate pL'\c.e tO allow stlmple.s of water
corespunziitor pcntru a perrnitc luarea to be drawn off fo r testing. The fitting of
probelol' de ap~ . Nu este petmisa montarea such valves Ol' cocks oo pipes attd bcaoches
tK.estor robinete pe IUbula!uri ~i ra<:.orduri intended for Other purposes is not allowed.
destinate altor scopuri.

S ujliftt,are dejtmingi,e: care sunt montate StJot hltJwers: which are filled on boilers
pc ciild.iri pentru lndcpiinarca dcpu.ncri.lor for wot removal from the exhaust gases
de funing.ine datorate g.a1..tJor arse pentru a passages in order to n1aintain the heating
menJine curaL-: suprafetele de in<:itlzire. surfaces cl-:an.

Vallrule pri11cipale tie almr: care SUJlt Maitt steam .\'lop alles: which are fitted
mont~H e pe citldan:: pentru :t (."()ntrola On lOp of the boiler in Order tO C()nlr(ll the
trcecrca aburului sprc motor. Acestc.a sunt passage of steam to the engine. These arc
de tip cu retinere. of norH'eturn type.

Dispo;;ilile penlru tnactttrrea atrul.ui: care l'aht .\' for detftr(llirm (atr(llir>lf cock!o):
SurH folosite pemru a elimina aerul dill which are used to evacuate the air fro m the
cliklare :nuoci dlnd ceasta este umplutii cu boiler when the boiler is filled with w!lter.
apii. Acestea sunt montatc pc These arc fitted on the superheater and on
suprainC-iilzitoare $i economizoare. intr-un economizer'S in a suO'ic.ient numbe.r.
numilr suficient.

R11binete tie Ct)lltn>l: a<:eSh!a sunt fo losite Coutr(}l/iuJ: cr)(:k.\: these are used to check
pentn a verifica daca exislt\ apii sau aer Ia if there is water or ~Lir :11 a certain lc\el.
un anumit nivel. Ei se fo losesc de obicei Ia They are usually used on the low-pressure
dikhlrile de joasii presiune in dreptul boilers at the minimum level height and
nivclului minim *i maxim.. maximum level height.

l11dicafoare de ,;,el: care. sunt pre.vitzute Wal-er level indicawrs ( u"tl/er gauge.v):
pcntro a indica in pcnuancntii nivclul apei which arc fitted to pcnnanently indicate the
in cli.ldare. Apa urdi In mbul de sticl11. kt Jevel of water in the boiler. The water rises
ttt.-cia~i inilltime ca nivelul din interiorul in the glass tube to the s.ame height as the
clikllirii. Din mot ive de sigur.Hl{li fiecarc level inskle the boiler. For safety reasons
clklat'e trebuie sli. aibi\ eel putill dou ~ every boiler must ha.\'e at least two
indicatoare. de nivel pentru apr.. independent wate.r level indicatorS.
Accstc iOOicatonrc pot fi de These indicators can be of the
urm!\toa'ele tipmi: following type:
indic.:uoare de nivel locale local gaug-:s
cu t\lb de sticlli C)lindrictd glnss type
- cu sticl3 plata t1at prismatic glass
- cu renexie - rellex 1ype
- trnnS-parcntc: - trttnspttrent type
de Ia distant3 remote gauges

lnchcatoarelc de nivcl sunt montatc The water level indicators arc titled
in pattea l'tontal3 a c3ldllii Ia acelasi nivel on the front side of the boiler. at an
selc:ct:n, Ia dist.anta cea mai mica pOSibil appropriately selcch::d equal height and st
fat3 de ptanul diametral vcnic.al al c31d3.rii. the shortest possible distance from the
respectiv tamburului. ve11ical centel'line of the boiler (drum).
141 Material cu drepl de autor
Aceste di:spezitive sunt previizute These gauges are. provided with
cu dispozitivc de -iDChiderc c u nctionarc stnnoff devices with safe drives fo r
sigud\ pe nuu deconectarea aparntelo i'n d isconnecting the apparatuses in case o f
caz.ul spargerii sticlei. g:tass brc:!lk.
lnd ic:tloarcle de nivcJ pcntro apii Water kvel indicators nre
sunt rarordate Ia <:31dare ptin intermediul connected to tbe boiler by mea.1lS of
,evilor de legfilurii independente. f n independent pipes. No pipes le.ading to the
inter iorul c31d3rii nu sunt per mjsc tevi de water k!vcl ind ic-ator arc a llowed inside the
eonduce-e Ia indiea torul de nivel pentru boiler. These connecting pipes are
apii. AoeSie tevi de legiituril sunl protejtHe protected from expOsure 10 hot ~oses'
impotriva expuneri.i Ia dldur:l radianta a rndinot hc<~ L and intense cooling.
gazelo r tierbinli $i r3cirii intense.
Fiecare cilld.are cu circulatie E..1ch natur!ll circulation boiler (with
natural!\ ( cu suprafat~ de evaporare a ape:i a free water evaporating surface) has its
liberli) are nivelul minim de apl marcat cu lowest watet level matked with a reference
0 linie de referintii tras:Hil pe c:\drul corpul Line dr:'l\vn on the boiler water lt~,.eJ
indtc::norului de nivcl p<.:ntru a pli. In plus. ind ica tor frame o r body. Additionally. the
nivetul minim de apa e$te n-.arcat pe o lo west water le\eJ is marked o n a plate.
pliicutil iUtltHil pe c()rpul cilldirii aproape !UI!lched 10 the boile r shell d ose 10 the
de indicatorul de nive l pe ntru apli c u o linie water level ind icators, in the form of a
de referintli $i o insc-riptie "Nivel minim refere1lCe lioe a1ld an illSCription "Lowest
infer ior". level".

Mtmometre: care sunt prevaz.ute pentru a Pre.~.wtre g auge.\: which are pro"ided to
indica presiunile din ciikl:\re. ind icate I he pressures in the boiler.
Fiecae cJUdare este prevlizutll cu Eac h boilet is fined with at least
eel pulin do wl ma.nometre rac:ordate Ia two pressure gauges conoec100 to the ste.am
spatiul de abur prin 1evi separate previizutc space through sepa rHe pipes provided with
cu valvule de inc hidere sau robinete de stop valves or cocks. Three way valves or
lnchidere. f ntre ma nometru ~i te..a,cl, se vor cocks are provided between the pre..ssure
mont a robinete suu ~J ivul e cu I rei ciii, care gat~ge :1nd the pipe, thus m:lld.ng it pOssib le
s3 penuitli d eoonectarea mano me.trului de to s.hut o ff the pressure gauge frorn the
la d'ilda.re, punerea sa. In comunicatie cu boiler. connect il to the wastel1e..at boilers.
cltldltrile rccupcratoarc, puncrc~ sa in connec1 it to the atmosphere, btow-off the
comunicatie cu a1mosfera pentru p01jarea connecting pipe and install the control
'evilor de: legaturil lji racordarea pressure gauge.
manomctrului d e control.
Unul d in mano metre este ux:.mat pe O ne of the pessu1'e gauges is
parte.a fro ntat.a a dldarli fiind protejat ln installed o n the front side o r the. hl)ile.r.
mod cficient contra ac1iunji c31d urii de which is &uit-ably protected from the heat
radiatie degaj ate de c!\ldare. iar al do ilea Ia emitted by the OOiler and the o ther in the
pOStul principol de comandit a l m:l!jinilor. m!lin e ng ine c()ntl'()l Station.
Manomctrclc trcbuic sa fie Pressure gauges shall be d uly tested
controlate Ia timp $i ma.rcate cu data a nd stamped with the check-up data by the
verifteflrii de cittre org.ande (.'()mpe tente. (.'()mpetent authorities.

TemwmtJre: care s.unt fo losite penuu a Thermom eters: which ae used to indi<:ate
indica lemper!llurile din dldare Sprc: a evitn the temperatures in the boiler in order tO
supralncatzirea. nvoid superheating .

Alarme de lliel millim de apil $i oprirea Llrw waler 11/tmns a11d tJil fuel :;hut (if{:
combustibilului: care sunt prevAzute whic h are provKied in order to protect the
peotru a proteja c31d::u-ea impotriva boiler from ser-ious damages and the
deltc~iuni lor majore $i pe.rsonalul de perSOnnel from injuries thai may O(.'(':ur
142 Material cu drept de autor
deservire de rl'i niri care pOl apllrea <:And when the water level is too low. When the
njvelul apei este prea mic. Cdnd nivelul water level is 100 low lhe boiler gets
a pei este p1-ea mic d\ldarea se oveJ'heated and may blow up.
suprtline-ii.lze~l e ~i p0a1e cxploda.

lnstala1i.a d e genera.re a aburului Steam gene-rating plant


(fig. 22.4) (fig. 22.4)
I . ClUdare auxi1iat3 I. Donkey boiler
2. Citld:\re rccuper:UO!ln: 2. 8xhaust gns boiler
3. 1nc31z.itor pcnn u apa de aliment:u-c 3. Peed water heater
4. Apa tehn ic~ de J-i!cire a motorului 4. E1lgine cooling 1i-e.sb water
5. Colector de apil in circuitul primar 5. Primary boiler water drum
6. Colec1or de abur i n circuilul secundar 6. Primary boiler steam drum
7. Circuitu l secundar 7 Secoodai'Y boiler
8. Pompa de compensa S. r>.l:tke-up pump
9. De Ia tancul de a p8 distilata de 9. From distilled make-up water wnk
compensa
10. Supraincal:.-.itor 10. Superhe!lter
I I . Abur spre eonsumatori I J. Steam to services
12. Serpemin.l de tllciilzire pentru 12. Steam heating coil for keeping boiler
mentincrea c~ ldil rii in Slare de o n stand-by cond ition
a$leptarc.

Pig. 22.4

17 18

143 Material cu drept de autor


13. La lxt~a caldii 13. To hoi wecl
14. Alimentare de La ba$a caldli. 14. Feed fro m hot weel
IS. Rc:gistru de! fum 15. Damper
16. Pompa de npJi principalii 16. First feed w~ler pump
I7. Pompa de apll. secundal'1'i 17. Secondary feed water pump
IS. Pompa de circula\ie (au.:<iliarit) 18. Circulation pump (auxiliary pump)
19. Aer de Ia ventilatoare 19. Air from fans

lnstalatia de generare a aburului TI1e steam generatirlg plant OOilSis.ts


cons-tituitit din: 0 ciJidare recuperatoare
c:SI.c: or: one exhaust-gas boiler with two boiler
cu doua pompe de circulatie a apei In water cirtulating pumps. and two donkey
clUdare. dou1i c!ild1iri auxiliare cu doui\ boilei'S with two feed watel' pumps. one
pOmpe de alimentare cu :tpR, 0 pOmpii auxili:try feed water pump, one feed water
auxiliarii de alimcntarc cu apa. un heater, one boiler water makcup pump.
lnclllzitor de apa de alimentare. o pompit de two fuel oil burning pump. two IOI'ced draft
compensa apa pc:ntru c-iildare, douil pOmpe fans and Other necessary equipment.
pentru arz1itoarele de combustibil, doui\
ventilatoare pentru tirajul artificial.
Ciiklarea recuper.Hoare functio- The cxhausl-gas boiler is opcraled
ocaza lrnprcunft cu unul din tamburii in combination with one of !he secondary
se<::undari ai c.ii.kliirilor auxiliare $i o pompii drums. of the dl)nkey boilers and one boiler
de circulaJie !tpil in citldan:: ~i fu mh~e-il~ii water circulating pump, :lnd supplies steam
abur necesar pe1ltn1 setviciul pe navli. In required fo r the ship's secvice a1 normal
ser\iciul maritim nonnal. dnd d ildal't.a sea se.rvic.e. when the boiler is heated with
este tncillzitit cu ga:lele ~tdu nle de Ia the ex.hausl gas of the main engi.ne.
motorul principal.
Conectarea t.Stt filcuta astfel ind il The arrangement is made so that the
sa se po:tta n::~tliza functionarea simulwnil :t simuhancous operation of the cxh:tust
c~ ld3r-ii t-ecuperntoare (fu!lc~io nfind boiler (operated with exhaust gas heating)
lnclllzitl\ c.u ga1.e evacuate) $i c:ildal't.a and the donke.y boiler (being oil fired) can
auxiliarii (inciilzitii prin ardcrea be carried out.
combustibilului).
Ct.ktarea recuperatoare poate The! exhaust-gas boil!!r c-an Op!!rate
func-tion.:t fok>sind tamburul sccundar nl using the SCCQndnry drum of lhe donkey
c31d3tii auxiliare r.irli c:a circuitul tietblitot boiler without the primaty boiler being
primar sa fie aprins. burned.
Capacitatca catdarii auxiliarc cstc The donkey boiler's capacity is
astfel cat.culatli sp1-e a fi capabilli. sli c-alculated to be capable of supplying steam
furnizcze t~bur pcntru SCr\'iciul t!lncuriiOr for tanker ser\'ke !It sea and fo r ct~rgo oil
pc marc $i opera)iunii de de scarc~rc marla. discharging operation using three cargo oil
tOiosind tl'ei pompe de rna.r.i. tn port. pumps in port.

CAtdarca rccupcratoare

Supmfnta de inciilz.irc a ciildii.ril The heating surface of the e;c.haust 4

recuperatoare este ttwmatli din colaci In gas boiler is composed of heating coils iJl
spirnle p3trole. Ac~ti colaci sunt nmnjati squnre spirals. l hese coils ure arrnnged
intre oolectoarele de intl'at'e $i ie$it-e $i betweell the inlet and outlet headers and
fixate cu Oan$C pcntru a fi i nk>cuite cu fi;c.ed wilh flanges 10 the headers in order 10
U$-Uti ll\~ . be replaced easily.
144 Material cu drept de autor
Mantaua d'ildilrii este bine izolatfi $i The boiler casing is well insulated
cch.ipaH\ cu U$i pentru U$Urarea inJocuirii. and equipped with doors for convco.ience
inspectli.rii $i cud\tll.l'ii colaci. of l'ellx.wal, inspec(ion and cleaning of the
coils.
La cii ldare~ rec:opcratoare sunt On the c:<.hausl-gas boiler soot-
prev3zute dispozitive de sutlare a blowing devices of manually operated
funinginii. de tipul cu abur operate manual s.team blow type are provided.
Registrul de ocolirc tncorporat cstc The built-in by-pass damper is
prevlizut pentru a Cte$te sau descfe$te. p1'0\'ided to decrease the evaporation of the
vapOri~area in dld:\rca n:c:upcrn10are dnd cxhnust-gas boiler when the Sletlm demand
ccrcrca de abur cstc rcdusa. is reduced.
Pentru dldarea recuperatoare este For the boiler there is a boiler water
previlzut 0 ins-1a1a1te de circubl1ie a apei in c-irculaling: system with two boiler water
cAklare cu douli pornpe de circulatie apAin circukning pumps.
c.lldare.
CapaciUllca fiec.iirei potnpe este Each pu01p c:apacity is cakui:Hed
cak:ulatli pentru vaporizarca maximii ciind for maximal ewtporation wh<:n the main
motorul principal este utili?.at La puterea engine is operating aL the maximal
ma:<imil <:Ontinuil iar una din etc eSie de continuous output and one of !hem serves
rezervll.. as stand by.
Pompa este 10Josit3 pentru The pump is used to force-circulate
circulati:l lbrt~1 t ii 1 t1pci din lamburol the boiler water imo the SCC'()ndary drum of
sccundar al clildfi.rii auxiliarc prin d ldarca the donkey boiler through the cxhaus1-gas
recuperntoare, astfel lndlt aburul este boiler so th.at the ste..am is separt~ted from
sep:lr:lt de tlmeste<:ul reintors in mai sus the mixture returned iniO ttbove mentioned.
aminlitul.

Ciildarile " u:<iliarc Donkey boilers

Fiecare d ldare cu dublfi \'aporizare Each double evaporation boiler


c:onsta dintr-un circuit fierb..<ttor prim:lr, un consists of :t p ri.m :~ty boiler, a sccond:1ry
Cii'<::Uit f.erbll.tOt secundar. Ull boile1. a superheater and a gas ait heaH'I'.
supralnc-filzitor $i un lnd'ilzitor de aer cu
gat.
Circuitul fie.riXItor primar este o The primary boiler is a high
c:flklare ac:\'atubularii de lnaltfi presiune ~i pressure 1wo-drum water-tube boiler and il
fo losit3 in cxcluSi\'itate pcntru inciih:irca is used c;(dusivcly for heating of lhe
ci1'<::uitului tierbll.tor secmldar in circuit secondary boile.1' i1l (he closed cycle. No
inc-his . Nic.i o impuritate petroliera S.:'l ll impurities of oil and scale. are mixed in the
p i ~tra de cazan nu este amestccata in primary system.
ci1'Cuitul p1im.:u.
0 serpentinil de inciib:ire. ce A he.nting coil is provided in the
p ri.mc~tc. pe marc. :tbur de Ia circuitul water drum of lhc primary boiler to keep
fie1b:itor secundar. este pl'e\1Szut11. l1l the primary boiler waJ'm. receiving. steam
<.'Oiec.torul de apa al circuitului fierbfitor fro m lhe. secondary boiler at se..a. so that it
primar pentru a tine cAidarca calda. astfel is carried out 10 put lhc boiler quickly in
incitt este posibilli. punetea l'apidli. a clklli.rii llOI'mal steaming COildition aner litiog oil.
in stare nonnalil de genernn: a ttburului
dupa aprinderca combostibilului.
Circuitul fierblitor secundar este The secondary boiler is lOr
IOlosit pentru generttrea at>urului pentru genertlting Steam for actual use of various
utilizare curentli in diferite scopuri. purposes.
Ulng3 tambmul secuodar este Beside secoodai'Y drum. a steam
IOJosit un separator de abur pentru separator for the steam-water mixture
145 Material cu drepl de autor
amestec.ul de apii-abur relntorS de Ia returned fro m the exhaust-gas boiler is
cllldarca recupcr.uoarc. used.

Jnstalntia de alimentare cu apit Feed water system

Pe.mru c~ ldl\rlle auxiliare suot For donkey boilers boile.r a feed


prevazute ins-tala1ia de alimentare cu apa a wate.r system lOr secondary drum. a make
camburului secundar, instalatia de up distilled water system for the primary
compens~ ap~ distilatli pentru ci'<::uitul boiler and boiler compound feeding system
ficrbiltOr primM ~i inSU'IItltia combin:ltil de ilre provided.
al.i.mentarc.
lnswlatia de alimentare cu apli a TI1e secondary drum feed s-ystem
1amburului sc:cundar are doua pompe has 1wo IC:ed water pumps, one auxiliary
pentru apa de alimentare. un incAlzitor feed pump, one feed water heater, one
pentru apa de alimentare.. un tanc pem111 cascade tank. and an the 1lecessary
condens:u -5i tOt echjpamentul nccesar. equipment.
Apa de alimcntare cstc introdusa in The feed water is fed to the
1amburul secundar. automat reglat. de. <:litre secondary drum under automatic regula ion
rcgui!IU)rul tlutom.m de apa de alimentare by feed water regulatOr$ through the feed
prin inclllzitorul de ap!\ de alimentare de water heater by either one off the feed
ditre orica1e din pompe cea lalt~ pompa pump: the other pump is on stand.by.
este de rezc:rvii.
Cind cllldan:.:a rccupcratoare este When the exhaust gas boiler is
folos itii. tn serviciul u.aritim normal pompa operatod in normal sea se.rvice the auxiliary
auxilinrU aq ion:llil electr ic pentru :lpa de feed wttter pump or electric motor driven
alimentare este folositApemru aceasHl. type is used for this service.
Compensare..a apei disilate In TI1e make-up of the dis.illed waer
circuitul primar estc cfcciU:tta de-o pompii to the primary boiJcr is performed by an
de eompensll actionati electric din taocul electric nxuor driven make-up pump fro m
de compensli. the distilled make-up water tank.
lnciil:.!itorul de apa arc capucitatc:t The feed water henter has the
de a inc~ lzi cantitatea de apli de alimentare capacity to heat the amoum of 1eed wate
necesan1 pentru ambele c51diiri la lOr both boilers at the raling evaportnion
vaporiz:trea oominnta de l;160C Ia 100C from 60eC 10 IOOOC when suppl)i.ng
c5nd furnizeaza abur masinilor auxiliare exhaust steam to the steam driven
aetionate cu abut. auxiliaies.

lnsta.Ja~ia anliorueJor de rombustibil TI1e oil bmning system

lrlstalatia arzlitoa.-elor de TI1e fuel oil bul'rling: system for


combus,ibil Ia d ldarile auxili:tre esle donkey boilers consists of: two fuel oil
a lclituit~ din: doua pompc pemru burning pumps. duplex change O\o"Cr 1ype
combustibilul dears. liltre de tip duplex cu suction and delivery stra ine~ and othe.r
comuta1ie pe aspiratie ~i reful:lre $i alt nc:cess.ttry equipment.
echipament necesar.
Pompa de oombustibil aqionma de TI1e 1wo-speed motor driven fuel oil
un motor eu douii vitcze aspirii din tancul burning pump draws oil fro m the diesel oil
de decantare motorinA $i refuleazA Tn settling tank and discharges it 10 the burner
lubulatura din fttla liedirui arz.iitor printr-un manifo ld on each boiler fronl via duple:<
filtru dublu. str:dner.
lnstalatia este prevlizut~ cu o Tile plant is provided wi1h a 1-eturn
1ubulamri\ de. retur pe.ntru oombus.ibil $i oil line. lOr burne~ and fuel oil relief line
146 Material cu drept de autor
tubulamrii de suprapresiune. de Ia valvula fro m h.:-. pres.~ure regulating valve.
rcgulatoarc de prcsiunc.
Fiecace din pompele de Each of the fue l oil buming pumps
combustibil pcntru 3rl'.iJIOtlre are 0 has tl c.apa.city <:tlkulated tO scne both
capacitate calculalii pentru a servi ambelc boilers when opernted m m:tximal rating,
ciikUi.ri filllC1ionfi nd Ia debitu1 maxim and the othe.J' unit serving as a stand-by.
cealallii fiind de rezervii.
Pc tubulatura de alimcntarc a On the supply line to the donkey
cli.klli.Jikll' auxiliace este prev3zutli un boile1s one fuel oil flow is provided.
debitmetru pentru combustibil.

lnstala\ia de tiraj artificial The forced dratl system

Doua seturi de vemilatoare cu Two sets of horizontal motor driven


motor orizontal pentru tiraj ul artificial sum forced drnrt fans are provided on boiler
prc:.,'ii7.Ute in camera ciilditrilor astfel indit space so that each fan can supply the
ficcarc vent iJntor ponte fumiza acr pentru combustjon air to each boiler at maximum
a1'dere d itre fiec.are cilldan- Ia vaporizarea evaporation.
m!l:<imiL
Ventilatorul asplrli aer cald din The fan draws hot air from the
camera c!iklririlor $i refuleaza ill foca.rele boiler $pace and delivers it m the boiler
clikliiriiOr prin incillziloarc:le de uer. furnace through air he!lters..
Canalul de acr cstc confcctionat din The air duct is made of stl plates
plac.i de ate! $i e.$te bine rigidi2at cu and well braced with angle stifleners to
<:Oitare de rigidi:!.ttre pentm a pn::\'cni prevent wttrping or distortion during
defom1area sau su:imba-ea in timpul opemtKm.
funC\iOnlirii.
l ntrc c~tnalul fiedrci c31d3d este Between each boiler duct an
prevlizutli o interconectare cu registru de interconnect ion w ith cut -out damper is
ob1urare. astlel ind il fiecart. ventilator pome pro,ided so !hat either fan can supply air to
furnh:a :tcr <:-litre fiecare caldare sau spre either boiler or to both boilers..
ambele dldliri.
Ae.rul n~sar arde.rii este reglat The combustion air is regulated
automat prin sistcmul CAA (Controlul automatically by ACC (AtllomaticaHy
Autom:u al Arderii) sau manual, numai in Combustion Control) system or manually,
caz de urgentil cu valvula d.: intra.re cu care but only for emer,&en<:)' cases by lhe inle-t
e.ste c<:hipat ficc:trc vcntihtlor pentru tiraj ul vane each fo rced draft fan. is provided
a1'tificial. in situatia ciind un veotilator with. i1l case of ooe fan se1ving OOth
serve$te ambele dHdtiri. boilers.

147 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llut 2.1 Unil 2.1

Turbine cu abur SLeam Turbines

Turbin:. cu abu este o lll3$ill1i de The steam w tbine is a powe1 plant


forti care oon vene~te. in lucru n)IX':anic that oonverL" the. energy of the steam
coergia aburului produs intr-o citldarc prin produced i.n a boiler by means of some
intennediul uoo palete in mi.$Care de rotating blades into wok. This can be done
rotatie. Act::lSHI pOate fi fflcutii in doua in twO Sli\,SeS One Of high prtSSur.: and One:
trepte, un:l de tnalla presione $i una de of low pressure.
joasli. p1esiune.
Turbinele c.u abur pOl fi d asific.ate. Steam turbines c.an be dassified as
dupii cum urmcazii: follows:
Dup1i. principiul ternXldinamic de By their thermodynamic working
function.are: priociple:
turbi11e cu acfimre h care toatii acricmlimpllls e turbi11es where ull
cMcrea de cntalpic ( c-iiderca de steam enthalpy drop (heat dro p)
dtldurit) a aburului. disponibilii pe. available for the turbine. is converted
turbinii .:st.: t rnnsfo rm~Hil In cnergic intO kinetic energy only in the turbine
cinetid, paletele rotorului aviind cylinder blades. the turbo blades only
numai rolul de a transfonna energia con\'ert the kinetic energy into
cineticil in encrgie stereomecanica. Slereomcdt:tnical energy. The
Fo11a tangc.ntiata care da na.$tcrc tangential force that gives the motor
cuplului mmor e..Me ob~in ut:i prin couple is obtained from the steam flow
devierca curcntului de abur de ciitre devi!l.tion by the: IUrbo blades.
paletele I'O(OI'UIUi.
turhi11ele Cll rettctiuue urlde re/Ictio~t turhi11ts where the steam
cadt'~a de t'ntalpie a aburului are loc enthalpy drop tahs place only
numai partial "intrc palatck sta.torului. partially in the turbine cylinder blades.
care sum numite palete directotue. which aJ'e named guide blades. the J'eSt
restul c.ii.dcrii de ent:llpie avti nd toe of it taking place in the turbo bl:.dc:-s.
intrc palctelc rotorului.
turhi11ele n>mhinate sunt turbine comhilltllit>ll turbillt"!>' are
multietajate undt:- trcptdt: de inalta
muhistagt! turbin.:s where the high-
presiunc sum conMruite de tipul cu pressure stages are of an action turbine
consuuctiol and the IOW PJ'eSSU(e
aetiune.. ia u-epele de joas3 p(esiune
st:lges are of a react ion turbine
sunt construitc de tipul cu rc:tqiunc.
construct io o.
Dupl modul In care se realizeazli By the way in which the energy
transfonn3rile eue.rg,e.tice: transfonnations are <.'()mplet.:d:
turbi11e Iwietajllte: (mrbine single-~tage(d) turbi11es (s imple
~'implt!) unde cMerea de entalpie este wrbiue) where tbe e:mhalpy drop is
reali1..at~ intun singur etaj. done in a single stage.
tul'bim:.le cuasietajate, (llltbine Curtis turbi11es wbich arc action
C11rtis. wtbine Cit rrepre de vite?/1) turbines where the available enthalpy
care f.Uilt turbine cu ac\iune unde d'OP is conve.11ed into kjoetic ene.rgy
caderea de: entalpic: dispOnibilii e-ste by means of one single no~.;:le plate:
cransfonnat3 tn cncrgic ei.octic3 printr (like in the si.ngle stage turbines) but
o singurd comana de ajutaje. (ca Ia the kine.tic ent rg.y is converted into
turbina mouoeujatii), dar euergia Slereomechanic.a l enc:r8,y gradually by
cinetid e.ste tro.nsforrnata "in energie means of two or three blade rows
steroomecanic~ In mod treptat lo doul mounted oo the tutbioe drum.
148 Material cu drept de autor
sau 1rei coroane de pa1ete lixate pe
rotor.
turllilttle multietajate (1urbi11C cu m utr;.stage turbi,t.f (pressure
treple de preJiune) unde cilderea de compowuV:swge w rbine.t ) w h.:re the
cntalpic se reaUzcaza in m:ti multe enthalpy drop takes place in sc.,cral
uepte dispuse in sede. serial Mages.
D upli direc\ia curentului de abur: By the steam flow d irec1io n:
turbine n.xiale Ia c-are liniile d e axial (flt~14') turbines where the
curgcrc- ~~ nburului sum si1U11te pc o steam flow line s arc siuwtcd on tt
suprafatli de re..olu\ie av5Jld axa revolution sutface w ith ils g,eomeu ical
g:eomNri<:.a situma in ax.a de. rt>t.atie .a axis corresponding: to the revohuion
rotorului lurbinci. axis o f the turbine drum.
turf1i,e rod;aJe Ia care liniile de radial (jlow) turbiltes where the
c.urgere a aburului sunt situate in st.:am llow lines are situated on
planuri pcrpcndicuh:re cu axa d e p lanes, w hic b arc perpendicular with
'Otatie a rmotului tmb inei. the revolulion axis o f the tul'bine
drum.
Dupa valoarea presiuni i fi.nale: By the final pressure value:
turbi1te cu COitden.w{ie Ia care condens ;,g steam turbines w here
destiodetea aburului se thee p5n1S Ia o the steam expaosion is done to a value
valoare i.n fcrioara presiuoji lower than the ~H mospherk pressure-,
almosfcricc, abunl fiind cvacuat inlr cbc steam being discharged in a
un c:onden.m tor. conden.-ter .
turbine cu ctmtrapresiune Ia c.are bac:l.:pres,m re turbines where lhe
uburul c stc ev~ICU tll cu o prcsionc mt1i steam is discharged wilh a pressure
mare decfit presiuooa atmosteric3 fiind higher than the mmospheic pressure
utilizm in a he procese. being used fo r other pro<::esses.

Fig. 23. 1

149 Material cu drept de autor


:<: -

150 Material cu drept de autor


151 de <lUIOr
Fig. 23.4

I. Carcasa mrbinei (partea de joa..'>it I. TUrbine c.asing (low pressure side)


presiune)
2. Carcasa turbinei (partea de inaltli 2. Turbine casing (high pressure side)
p1-esiune)
3. Carcnsa "'alvulci de urgcntil cu 3. Emergency stop valve c~\sing
inc hide re rapid~
4. Scaunul valvulei reg:ulatoare 4 . Govemor valve. seat
S. Sc:IUnul v:.lvulei de urgentil cu 5. Emergency SlOp valve SC:tll
inchide1-e 1apid~
6. Valvula regulatoare 6. Go\'emor valve
7. Valvula de urgentacu inchidere r~tpidii 7. Emergency stop valve
8. Ajutaj. coroan3 (sector) cu ajutaje 8. Noz.zle. nozzie plate
9. Ajutaj , d iafragma 9. Nm..zle. diaphrag m
10. Tcrmometru 10. Thermometer
I I. Rotol'ul rutbinei I I. Turbine I'OtOI'
12. Paleta 12. Blade
13. l''ioion 13. Pinion
14. Rom[ 14. Wheel
IS. Arborele de actionare 15. O utput shaft
16. ta n~are cu l ~bi rilll 16. Labyrinth packing
17. Ap!l'3toare pentru abur 17. Steam guard
IS. Apiiriiloare pentru ulei 18. Oil guard
19. Ali~j pentru lag8rul fusuh1i 19. Journal bearing metal
20. Aliaj pentru lag}lrul de impingere 20. Thrust beati1lg metal
2 1. Piltru de abur 2 1. SLeam S.lrniner
22. Bue$a valvulci de urgenta cu inchiderc 22. Emergency stop valve bush
rapid a
152 Material cu drept de autor
23. But -$3 \'alvulei rtgulatoare 23. Governor valve bush
24. Tijn valvulei de urgcnta cu i.nch.idcre 24. Emergency slop valve stem
rapid!
25. Tijo valvulei resul1noare 2.~ . Governor valve Stem
26. Arcul valvulci de urgenta cu tncb.idere 26. Emergency slop \'alve spring
rapidli
27. Roata melcmii 27. Wann wheel
28. Axul de conduc5tor al valvulei 28. Governor driving shaft
regulatoare
29. Cuplajul cu roti dintate 29. Gear coupling
30. Arborc de dccuplarc 30. "f rip shaft
3 1. Carcasa reductomlui cu roti din~a te 31 .Reduction gear casi1lg
32. Angrenaj de pompare pentru pOmpa de 32. Pumping: gear for main gear L.O.
ulei pump
33. Aliaj pentru lag1i.rul pompei de ulei 33. Bearing metal for main L.O. pump
34. A.;-:ul conduciitOr !II p<>m.pd de uld 34. r-.l:tin L.O. pump driving shafl.
principale.
35. Prt.setupa frontal1i. 35. Front gland
36. Pre.sctupa pOSierionri 36. Rear gland
37. Tubulatur3 pemru aburul de eumsare 37. Piping for sealing steam

Pentru a co"'rcrti cfK"ient in lucro l.n order 10 efficiently convert into


mccanic marca cadcrc de catdurn cc aparc work the g,rem heat drop occurring when
atunci e.ftnd aburul cu presiune $i high prtssure high temper.nure steam
temperttturil inaltil iese IZI 0 presiune de passes through and goe.s out ttl a high
evacuare negativ! (i'nalt vacuum). este vacuum exhaust pressure. one Curtis wheel
adoptata o roata Cu11is cu doua lfinduri de with 2.row blades is adopted for the lirst
palcte pentru primn tre.:tp15 pelllrtl a face s.tage tO cope with the rMhcr great he~!
fat! cliderii de c31dur1i chiar mari, iar drop and for the second m sixth stages the
pentru a doua La a ~t;;ea trtaptii e-ste folosit Rateau type is used to rtduce. the whole
tipul R.:llcao pcntn1 a reduce numii.rul tot:d number of Sll~ges.
de u-epte.
Din mmive tehnok>gice $i alegerea For manufacmring convenience and
mrti U$0ar3 a materialck>r carcalkl wrbinci easy llHllcrial selection the wrbine cnsing is
este irnpl\J'\itli in planul vertical in doufi divided along the vertical plan into two
pflrti din c.are cea de inaltfl presiune contint:. sections. of which the high pressure section
c~tmer: de distributie n aburului *i de Ia contains the steam chest and the first 10 the
prima piin3 Ia a treia treapt3. iar patea de third stage. and the low pl'essure sec.tioo
joasa pre-siune contine. treptele a patra pi na contains the. IOurth to sixth stages.
Ia a $asca. Pe lftngli aceasta intre~ga carcasa Moreover, the whole casing is horizontally
este "impli1it! orizontal in dou!\ p:\J1i pentru divided into nvo pa11s for easy opening aod
deschiderca ~i inspectare.a facila a IUrbinei. in$peclion or turbine.
Carcasa turbinei de joasii prcsiune The low prcss.ure turbine casi.ng is
este prevlizut3 cu guri de vizitare pentru pl'O\ided wi1h openings for the inspection
\'t:rific.area paktlllurii ultimdor trepte. of blading in the last stages.
Caplitul carcasci de joasa prcsiune The low pressure end of the casing
este fixat3 igid de carcasa reductorului. iar is tinnly bolted to the 1'educ.tion ge.a1
cap.atul cttrcasc:i de inaltii prcsiune e$le housing and !he high pressure end is
su.s1inU1 de un picior (o capra) t1cxibil pri.n s.uppo1ed by a flexible pedestal through
c.arc.asa Jagl\rului frontal pentru a absorbi the front bearing housing to absorb axial
dihuarea termid i axiala. th.:rmal expansion.
Anurnite piese turnate si Stuturi Some cast elements and branches
pemru racordarea recipiemekw. tubulaturi for colll\e<:ting receivei'S. piping and tiuings
$i armlturi sunt imbinme prin sudare. are joined by wekling.
153 Material cu drepl de autor
Pe.ntru et3U$3re intre nan$(:le de For the purpose of packing between
imbinarc orizontaUi $i vcrtical3. a turbinei the llanges of horizontal and vertical joints
se fok>se$te acopei-ea suprafe1elor de of turbine. coating with graphite pasle of
imbinare cu un SWl.l de unsoare e-u g.rtllit in joint faces is used ins1cad of gaskets.
Jocul garniiUrilor.
Diafragmele fixtlle ill corpul Tile diaphtagms fitted in 1he tmb ine
turbinei au pOSibiliunea dilatllrii termil.e in have the possibility of radial thermal
sens radial. in limitclc dcscentrlirii expansion with permissible misalignment
admisibile. limits.
Cakulul di:'tfrtag:meiOr este efec1uat The ditaphrngms are de-s igned for a
pcntru o sarcina corcspunz3toarc ddcrii load corresponding to maximum pressure
maxime de presiune pe treapta respectiva. drop in the respective stage. l11e actual
Sagea.t::l efectiva a diafragmei trebuie sa fie deOecliOn Of I he diaphragm is leSS than that
mai micA deciit s3.geata Ia care wnt posibile which may cause touching of the
atingetile de disc sau garnitut ile de diaphragm packing.
et:lns:'tre a diaf.rt~g:Olei.
Carcasa condensatorului cstc The condenser casing is provided
prevazuti\ cu guri de vizitare pentru with op-enings for inspection or the upper
controlul r!indurilor superioare de tevi ~i pe rows or condenser lubes and, where
c5t posibil. pentru acces in interiorul possible, fo r provKiing access inside the
condensatOI'Uiui. 0011denser.
Turbina este C(mslruil3 ~ast iC I incfil The turbine: is designed as 10 :tltow
s1i. pcrmit3. ridicarca capacdor lag3.rclor lifting of bearing without dismantling the
faril demon1area corpului turbinei, a turbine easing. ends of sealing
capetelor pieselor de el:ln*arc *i a tlrr!lngements and pipelines.
tubulaturiJor.
Rotorul tmb inei este decupat Tile turbine rotor is roughly cut om
grosic:r dintNm otc:l fo rjnl solid dupa o of a solid forging steel after strict material
testare striet3 a materialului $i un trntament testing and heat treatment and then
ltrmic *i apoi li nisat c.u precizie dupa un tK-eurately finished after a he-at stability
test de: sUJbiJil:ue lermidi. Apoi, dupa cc: lest. Tben, aflc:r being fi ned with !Urbinc:
este prev!zut cu palete de Hl.tbio! si blades and accessories. it is subjected to the
accesorii e.s te supus testului de echilibru dynamic balance test.
dinamic.
Calculele de rezistentli ale pieselor The strength of rotor parts is
rotorului sunt cfec1uate penlru puhm:a calculated for maximum power as well as
max.ima prc:cum ~i alte sarcini posibilc:- l:t for other possible loads. at which stresses
care tensiunile pot atinge valori maxime. may rise to maximum values.
Mai mult caleulele. pieselor Moroover. the calc.ulation of rotor
rotoruh1i trebuie verificatc pentm o tura1tc and parts thereof is checked fo r a speed
care dep3s~te valoarea maxim!\ cu eel exceeding the maximum value by at least
put in 20 %. 20 per cenl.
lrnbioiirile palc:telor cu ccp cu piirti Joints of blade: tenon witb
demontabile ale discului sau alte detachable pans of the disk side and othe.J
constructii asern.Uniitoare nu se folosesc similar constructions art not used bec.aust:.
pcntru d pol ducc Ia sl3.birea localii they may cause considcrnble k>cal
considerabil3 a pe.1ife.1'iei tototuluL loosening of the rim.
Pentru paleLde lllrbinei, din C-ttuza For the turbine blades, bc:c-ttuse of
cercri.i de man:: rigidilate i.mpotriva fortci the demand for great rigklity against the
centrifuge si vibra\iei, $i rezisten\i'i Ia c-entrifugal lOree and vibration. and
coroziune ~~ eroziune Ia vi1eze mari ale res istanc-e against com)Sion and erosion in
aburului vari:i:nd din starea de temperaturi\ high speed steam ranging widely from high
de supralnci\lz.ie Ia starea de oondensaa-e tempe.l'tllute supel'lleated condition to wet
este. utilizat un O\el de. c.el mai inall grad condition. the. highest grade 13CrMoWV
154 Material cu drept de autor
13Cr~lo\VV. Ani indelungati $i atentie. steel is used. Long years' technique and
anliinunriHi sau acordat ou numai minute attention Rave been given not only
verific!J'ik)l' din timpul nuxului tehnologic to the inspection during the manufacn1riog
c i\1 ~i fi xikii paletel()r. course but also 10 the: fastening of blades.
Rotorul turbinei $i U.'tUI pi1tionului The turbine rotor and pinion shaft
sunt sustimte tiecare de cl'itre douli lagl'ire ate suppol'ted each by two beari1lgs so that
a.~U 1 inct axele de mare vitezil pOt li the high speed shafts c.an IJe.stabilized.
stabilizatc.
Lagl'ire cu cuzineti cu autocem.ral'e Bea1ings with self-aligning shells
sunt fo losi\i pcntru a preveni efoctiv are used tO effectively prevent the
deviatia datorata sitgcJii tt.'tului flcxibiJ al deviation due to shaft deflection of the
J'Otorului turbinei. flexible.shafl turbine rotor.
Lagard e sunt previlzute cu c.ale de The bearings are lined with pivoted
rulare rotmivli sau cu dispozitive pentru races or with devices for automatic
eg.alizarea automata a presiunii exercitate equalizing of pressure exerted on the pads.
pe re!l~me.
Rotorul turbinci $i axul pinionului The turbine rotor and pinion shaft
sunt oon~tate printr un euplaj flexibil cu are connected by a nexible gear coupling
roti d i n~~\Le astfc:l inc-:it puterea pOtlte fi SO that lhe pOwer can be transmitted
transmis1!. lin flr1!. interferenta angren1irii smomhly without interference of the
reduct01'U iui cu roti dintate. Axul \'Oiamului meshilg of the rOOuction gear. The wheel
$i :~x ul generatorolui, imbin:He imprcuna shaft and the generator shaft. connected by
printr un cuplaj rigid sunt sustinute de trci a rigid coupling. arc supported by th.rce
lagare din care douii sunt de ambele. pilr~ i be..aring.s of which two are on both sides of
ale volantului ~ i unul in apropiere de the whoel and one ne;(lr lhc gener:nor SO
generato astfel incilt este redus1i lungimea that the axial length can be reduced.
axialil..
Rcductorul cu ro~ i dint~I I C cstc cu o The reduce ion gear is of the single
singuri\ pereche de roti dintate cu un singur helical singlereduction type. The pinion is
inceput. Pinionul este rt-alizm prin finished b)' grinding after casehardening
reel ificarc- dupi cement:trc, b r ro;;na este and the wheel is fi nished by shaving after
terminati'l pril ~veru i1'e dup1!. nonnalizare. no1'malizing. Inside the 'Wuction gea1'
ln inte6orul carcasei reductorului este casing 1he. gear-type main L.O. pump
prcviizutii p<.unpa de ulci de ungcrc de tipul driven by gears fro m cbc wheel stlaft is
cu I'Ofi dintate condusli prin roti din1ate de P'Ovided.
Ia asul volantului.
f..lan$iiri cu labirint sunl prcvii:.:utc L:tbyrinth pncking.s nrc provided
in locul unde rotorul tutbinei trece ptin where 1he tubile I'O tOI' passes 1hrough the
c.arc.asa 1urbinei. Penlru d l aburul de. turbine casing. Since the e.:<haust see-am is
cvacunrc este de obicci dirijat Ia gencmlly led to cbc vacuum condenser. the
condensatorul cu vacuum p1-esetupa rear gland (low pressul'e side) is always
pOStcrioaril (in partca de joas.ii presiune) s.ubjccted tO negative pn::ssure and even the
est"c sopusit intotdc~ u na unci prcsiuni front gland (high pressure side) som:timcs
legative $i chiar presetupa din fhl~ (i1l incurs oeg.ative pressure.. both glands are
partea de inalta prtsiune) i!ii fat.-e dl.teodatfl provided with a device. to suppl)' stalins
prcsiunc negativii. ambcle presctupe sum steam at cootroJJcd pressure of 0.150.05
prevlizute cu un dispoz.itiv penu'U a furniza kg/em' .
abur de cttm~'lrc Itt prcsiunea c()ntrolatii de
O.l5t0,05 kg/em'.
Pentru d acest dispozitiv are Ja As this device has positive pressure
presetupa fron1alil presiune pOZiti,a at the fron1gland e:<cepl for lhe. time of low
e;ccepl5nd timpului ciind sarcina este load, lhc steam lc!lk.ing from il is led (Q the
sc1izut!i. aburul ce se scurge de 1a aceasta reat gland as sealing steam. which. if too
este dirijat la presetupa posterioara ca abur much. is restored to the- condenser by
tss Material cu drepl de autor
de e tan$<)..fe-, care . daca este. prea mull este means of the three way diaphragm \'3lve.
lnapoiat La cond cns~tor prin intcrmediul a nd if too little, nwre ste~m is
valvulei c u membranl\ cu trei c1ii. iar dac1i a utomaticall) supp lied from a sepamte
eSLe prea putin mai mull abur este furni:-..llt Steam soun:e.
automat dintr-o sursii de abur scparol3.
in a fata reglajului automat existi\ In addition to automatic comrol
pnsibilitate.a reglajului ma nual a l presiunii there is a pOSSibility for hand contn)l of
sis1emului de aspiratic a l abur ului de the Slcam suction pressure in the g land-
e1an~are. sealing syste m.
Fic:cttre turbinii este previizutil c u un E.."'ch turbine is provided with a
sistem de purjarc care sii asigurc eli.minarca b lowing syste m to ensure comple te
mtaUi. a coodensatulu i din tome trepte le $i rem(na l of coode rtsate fro m all stage.s and
spatiile turbinei. S istemul de purjare este housings of the turbine. 'The b lowing
connruit aMfel lnc5t sli excludii syslem is arranged so as to prevent the
posibilitate.a intr1iii oondensatu lui In condens.;lte fro m ente.ing 1he id le tubiles.
turbinele can:: nu sunl in functiunc:.
Turbin~ cs.tc prev3zutii cu un The turbine is pnwided with a
reeulator de wratie constantl! Woodward Woodward constant speed governor thai is
can:: este conectsl direct 111 axul vertica l de d in::ct ly c()nnc:cLc:d tO the: vc:rtkal governo r
aclionare ~ I regulatorului a cllrui turotie d riving sha lt the speed of which is reduced
este redusi\ primr-un set de aogrenaje mete by a set o f wonn gearing fi tted m the
roatii dintatii prcvilwt Ia cap3tul axului turbine sh:-1ft e nd .
Hlrbinci.
Pe.ntru a imbuntitflti e ficie nta la In order h) improve efficiency in
carnctenStiCI de: S.."'rt:1m pa11it1le :.le partial )()ad chttnlctc:ristk.s of the 8C:nc:r:uor
genemtorului (efiJld turbi1l<1 ae1ioneaz.li un ( whe n the turbine drives a n e lectric
generator electric). este adoptma o valvula generator). a 3 nozzle group governol'
c u un grup de trci :tjutajc. Constructi3 ei va lve is adopted. Its constn1ction is of the
este de tipul cu p:i:rghie oscilantli controlata bar- lilt valve type. contro lled by opening
prin desc.hiderta sau inc.hiderea supapelor o r closing o f the three nO?.Zle valves
de ajutl!j in tn::pte de l:t rc:gul:uorol stepwise fn.u.u the Woodward Governor
W<Xldwatd p1in pfirghia regulatOI'Uiui. tija thro ugh the govemor lever. va lve spindle
valvulei si pilrghia oscilantit. Cum numai o a nd lifting bar. As o nly one \'a lve SJ)indle
lijli de valvli trece prin carcas.li pentru trei pJsses through the valve casing for three
valvule de ajutaj constructia este simplli si nozzle valves. the construc tion is simple
scurgerea din partea presetupei pOt li a nd lea kage from the gland pOrtion ca n be
reduse Ia minimum. reduced 10 the minimum.
Ot ice val'iatie a pare ill turatia Whenevel' vatia tion occul's in the
1u rbinei regulatorul de turatie cons.tantl! turbine speed the. Woodward constant
Woodward o scsizeaz.1. ac~ ioncaz.i valvula speed go,-crnor senses it. operates the
pilot a sei'VOillOtorului hidcaulie prin hydr aulic sevomotor piJot valve through
p:irghia de lega tul'ii , m1~ca pistonul the link lever. moves the strong h)draulic
hklraulic putcmic ~i dcschide sau inchkle pislon and o pe ns o r ctoses the go,ernor
valvulele regulatoare. Mai mult ptin vahes. rvlor>ve.r. by means o f the knob
intennediul clape-tei prtvUzuLe pt:. acest provided o n this governor o r the speed
regulator sau comutatorul de control a comro l switch in the engine control room.
Hltatie i din punc tul de control at came~i speed can be c hanged withio the range of
masinik>r IUrtttia p<)tlle fi mod if katil in 5% or rated Speed.
inlervalul de t5% din luratia oominala.
Turbinele sum prevlizute c u un T urbines are provided with an
dis.poz.iti., de protec, ie Ia supr.:uurare c.are overspeed devic.e acling o n a safely
actio ncazii. asuprn unui automat de ammgc:ment (q uick-closing stop vaJve) 10
sigut3Jlt1i (o valvulli cu iochidete rapid1i) shut off a utomatically the admissio n of
care. s~ lntrerupa automat accesul aburului ste.am to the mrbine when the rotor exceeds
156 Material cu drept de autor
in 1urbina in momen1ul in cart. ro1orul by 15 pe.r cent the number of revolutions
depll~$tC co 15% tul.ltin corcspunz3toare com~sponding to L he maximum output. The
pute1ii max.ime. Valvula cu inchidere quick-closing S(op-valve is actuated by the
rtlpida eSie tH:-t iontHil de diSpOZilivul de overspeed devic-e direct!)' connected 10 the
supralurare legal direct de arborcle turbine shaft or an oil swilch. which may
tUI'binei sau de un 'inueruplitor cu ulei care be used as an overspeed device J"eOeiving
poale li fo losit ca dispozi1iv de protectie Ia impulse. from an impeller directly driven by
supr.uurarc care primc.$tC impuls de Ia un the turbine shaft.
rotor de pompare inslalat pe axul nubioei.
Fiecare lurbina este prevazuiS C-U 0 Each IUrbine is filled with tl hand
aparntur3 de <tction~ manualll pentru operated dC\'kc Lo shut off the Sleam in
intreruperea aburului in caz de urg:en\li prin emergeocy cases by closing 1he quick
inc.hiderea vai\'Uiei cu inc.hidere rapidil. c-losing stop valve-.
in afara de intrerup3torul de limilli, In addition to the emergency
tubinele sunt prev3zute cu dispozitive overspeed release. the tubiles are lined
c-itptlbile sa actione:('.e in mod :miOm:u will:l devices capable of tiUIOmtll ically
valvula cu lnchidcre rapidli inlrcrupli.nd acwme the quick-closing stop valve and
ad1nisia aburului in urmiitoarele caz.uri: slmuing of Lhe admission of ste.am in the
fo llowing cases:
Ia sc3derea presiunii uk iului de drop of the lubricant pressure in
ungere in sistem sub limita minimlS the system. below the minimum value
indicma de uzina eonstructoare: specified b)' the. manufacturer.
Ia cre$terca prcsiunii in rise of pressure in the condenser
condens..uor peste limila maxim;:\ alxl\'e the maximum value specified
Sttlbililil de u?:ina construciOtlre: b)' the manufacturer;
Ia dcplns:.re-ll axklii limitii : ma;(imum shifting or r()l()r;
rotorului:

Un sistcm de sernn :tliz~ nvcrtizarc An alarm signal system is provided


este prev3zut pentru a peveni cre$terea in order to prevent an inadmissible rise of
inadmisibilii a h:mperalurii uleiului in the lubricating oillcmperaturc: in any of Ihe
oric,re din kgitrcle turbinei. wrbine bearings.
Pe wbulatura de evacuate a tuturor Safety valves or equi\alent devices
turbinelor sunt pre.\llzute supape de are lined on al1 1urbine exhaust pipes. The
sigurant3 sau dispozitivc echivalentc. cxhttust boks of 1bc safety valves arc
Orificiile de evacuate ale supapelor pot fi visible and can be provided with screens.
pn::vilZule cu tlpil.ri!IOri.
Pc priz.u de abur a dispozilivului de On the maneuvering gear valve
manevrl\ sau pentru admisia aburului sum s.team imake steam fiiEers of a reliable
pre.vllzute liltre de o constructie sigura. construction are lined.
Poswrile de comnnda ale turbinclor The turbine control stations are
sum dotate cu apar:ue ca-e s3 iJldice fined with instl'uments for measuring the
unniltoarele: fo llowing:
tu rati~ arborclui IUrbi.nei $i revolutions per mimne of the
mboriJor: turbine shaft and shafting:
presiunea $i temperatura aburului SINlm pressure. and temperature
dupii valvula de manevrii, camerele cu aner the maneuvering valve. in lhe
ajutaje, 'iil camera treptei de reglaj. in nozzle boxes.. in the governing s.tage
mag:istralele prizelor de abur $i in ch.ambel', bleed mains and suction and
sistemul de aspiratic $i ctan~1rc~ glandseal.i.ng system;
temperatura ukiului lucral. Ia outlet lubricating oil temperature
fiecae lag! pin tOk>sirea in each bearing by use of local
157 Material cu drepl de autor
tennometrdor l<:le.ale $i indic:noare de. thermome.ters and remo1e tempert~ture
tcmpcr.llurii In d istan~li ~ i.ndicators;
regimurile de se.rviciu cum ar fi: parameters or conditions of
pregiilirea pOrmm, inwrsarea presuuting. reversing, stand-by
mar$tllui. mentincrea in st:.uc de keeping and bring ing to prolonged idle
functionare sau aducerea In starea de state:
Sla~ ionare
de Jungfi duratii:
vidul. the vac uum

Sunt prevlizUle mijk>ace de sem- Warning signals are riHed fo the


n:aliz:re de preveni.re pe ntr u urmiitorii following paramelcrs:
paramctrii:
c.ii.dere.a uleiului de unge.re in lub oil pressure drop in the
ins.talati.n de ungcre; l u bric~Hi nf:
SyStem:
cre$terea temperaturii uleiului Ia rise of oil pressure at the outlet of
ie~irea din fiecare lag3.: e:tch bearing:
C:Te$terea presiunii uleiului la rise. o f pressure at 1he turbounil
intrarca in IU.rboagrcgal; i.nlcl;
Cl'e$te-ea p1-esiunii in condensator: rise of pessure in the condenser
deplasarea axialii a rotorului. axial movement of the rotor.

158 Material cu drept de autor


CapiiOiul 24 Unil 24

Combustibili Combustib les

Prin cornbustibil i ntelcgcm


o By a combustible we understand a
substantli sau amestec care genereazli o substance or mixw re that generates a high
mare canlittlle de citlduni prin ardere amount or heat by burning (c.he.mic.al
(combustibili chi mici) sau rc~tcfii nuclcarc combustibles) or n uclc~1r reaction (nuclear
(oombustibili nudeat i). combustibles).
Combustibilii chimici pOl fi Chemic.al combustibles can be
clasificati dupii starea lor de agregare in classifted acoording to their state of
combustibili solizi. lichizi. sau gazo~i. agg1egation in: solid, liquid and gaseous
combustibles.
Combustibilii solizi: Tile solid combustibles:
maogal charcoal
roes ooke
sc:mkoc-s semi-coke
coes de pee ro I petroleum coke
deseuri combustibile (rumegus.. tala~. combustible wastes (sawdust. shavings.
coji de se.minte) husks)

Combustibili lic hi~i: Tile liquid combustibles (fuel oils or fuels):


petrollampant ke.rosene ( Lamp oil)
m:>IOrinil Diesel oil (gasoil)
piicur3 heavy oiJ
benzinli petrol
gaze lichel'iate liquefied gases
alcool ak:ohol

Combustibilii g:tzosi suot: n)e gaseous oombustibles are:


gM~ de apii water gas
gaz de ace (gas acrian) nlr gas
gaz de cocserie coke gas
gaz de cracare cracking gas
gaz de furna l furnace! gas
hidrogen hydrogen
ace1ilenli acetylene

Combustibili li chi~i Fuel oils

Pentru a putea fi folosit un In order to be operable. a fuel


combustibi l lrcbuie sii indcp l i.ne-~ scil should meel ccrlain require me nts included
anumitc ccrinte inclusc ln spccificatiile in fuel specifications.
oombustibililor.
CombtJSiibilii fumiuati unei nttve Fuels supplied 10 a ship must be
trebuie tratali kt bord tnainte de utilizare.treated on board before use. Detailed
lniOnnnlii dealiate despre irlstalaliile de infOrmation on fuel oil S)'Stem layout can
159 Material cu drepl de autor
alimentare cu combustibil pOl li gasite In be IOund in the CI~IAC Rt'0nuuendatiorLt;
Recomandarilc CIMAC privind proicctarea co~rni.ng the design of heavy fuel
ins.talatilor de trnta-e combuslibil penuu treatment plants i'o r diesel engines.
motoan::.le diesel.
Toatc speciftcatiilc combustibililor Practically all fuel specifications
se refef.i. prac1ic Ia rombustibil ca fui'Oizat. refer to fuel as supplied and. as such. setve
~i de a<.-eea. dau in primul rllnd specificatii primarily as purchasing specificouions.
pcntru curnpArarc. Oatdc suplimentare din Furthermore. the data in a standard fuel
analizele standard a combustibililor se analysis serves to adjust the onboatd
referil lit reglajul trntamentului Ia bordul tre.Otment ami is actually of linle use 10 the:
navci $i este de un put in (olos opcrntorului operator w~n rcfcrri.ng to the engine
cfind se referti Ia datele func,ionale ate operatioo.al data.
motorului.

Calilatta combuslibililor Fuel oil qualily

Specifiea\ii orit ntative (valori maximale) Guidin ~ Sl)<!(:ilicatM:ms (maximum values)


Ot.nsitatea Ia I5C Kgtm 99 1 Densi1y at I soc Kg/m 991
Viscozitate.a c.ine.nat ica Kinematic viscosity
Ia 100c eSt 55 ~t 100C eSt 55
Ia 50"C eSt 700 at 50C eSt 700
Punctul de inilamabilitate oc >600 Flash point c >600
l'un<.1UIde eurg= oc 30 Pour pOint c 30
Cilia de eo<s %(m/m) 22 Carbon residue %(111/111) 22
Cerw$il %(onion) 0.15 Ash %(ru/rn) 0.15
Sedirrentde t(l(alc dupi1 %(m/m) 0.10 Total sediment !lfter %(mim) 0.10
TnlbAttfulire ag.e ing
Apll %("/v) 1.0 Watet %("'") 1.0
Con{inut de sulf %(m/m) 5.0 Sulphur %(mlm) 5.0
Continut de vanadru mg/Kg 600 Vanadium 111g/Kg 600
Aluminiu + Siliciu mg/Kg 80 Aluminium + Silicon mg/Kg so
In confonnitate cu ISO 8217/CIMAC HSS I E<tuolto ISO 82 17/CIMAC HSS

l'isctJziflltea Vi$C(I$ity
Viscozililtc:a c:ste propriet.otea Viscosity is lhe feillure of liquids..
lichidelor ca-e caracte.rizeazli tensiunea which characterizes the tangential stress
1angen~ ial li care apare tn timpul curgerii $i that appears during the flow and opposes
se opune mi$Carii straturik:Jr lichidutui. the liquid lnyer mo,ement.
Viscozitatea poatc r. dinamica sau The viscosity can be dynamic
cinemmic.a. Viscozitatea cinernatid i este viscosity or kinemmic viscosity. Kinematic
rap011ul dintre viscoz.itate:\ dinamica ~i viscosity equals the dyn:lmic liquid
densiw.tea absolutli a Jichidului. viscosity divided by its absolute density.
La combustlbili marini prin In 1t.arine fuels by .ne.ans of
viscoziwte intelegem \'iscozitate viscosily we understand k.i.ncmulic
cinemaricli. viscosity.
Viscozitatea <.X>mbustibililor se Fuel vis<.-osit>' is usually measured
rniiS()ttrii de obicd in centiS.IQkes ltl SOOC in centistokes at SOOC or second Redwood.
sau secund~ Redwood (viscozit;uea (Conventional viscosity).
conventionala)
Viscozit:tlen po:tle fi considcl.llii Viscosity c~lll only be consklercd a
numai un criteriu de calitate pemru qua lily criterion i'or fuel oils, and is staled
combustibili ~i este enuntatll in principal mainly fo r handling reasons. 11 is necessary
160 Material cu drept de autor
din motive de rnauevrare. Este necesar sa h) know Lhe visrosity fo r the selections of
sc cuooascii viscozitatca pcntru aJcgcrca pumps, treatment (prchcaters and
pompelor. untamemului (preinc-Alzitoal'e, centrifuges) aod injection temperntul'e.
separatoan: centrifugate) ~i temperatura de
injcctie.

De11s ita1en Oemi;y


Dcnsitatca absoluta cstc raponut Absolute density equnls the weight
dimre masa si volumul unui solid. of a solid divided by its volume.
Densiwtca n:lntivii este r:tpOrtul Rc:.ltttive density cqunls the absolute
di.ntrc- dcnsitatea absolulii $i dcnsitatcn u.nui density divided by the density of a
produs de reterinllS aflat lntr-o anumitlS reference product being in a ce11ain state.
stare. (e.x. apa distilatfi Ia 4C ~i 760 torr). (E.g. distilled water a! 4C and 760 torr).
Oe1.1 siwtca absolutii este miisurata in Absolute density is meu.sured in
kilograme pe metru cub lf<.g/m3 ). kilog~nms pe1 cubic metel' lf<.gtmi. or
kilograme pe litru (Kg/1]. sau g:ran.e pe kik>gram.,~; per liters ( ~ell] . or grarn." per
~otimctru cub lg/cm3 ). cubic centimeters lglcm l.
Densitatea este legatli de ealitatea Density is elated to fuel quality
combus-tibilului prin ac<ea cil produsele dt:. due 10 the fact that cracked products ha\'e a
crocare 1111 un continul mai ridict1t de higher carbon content, arc more nromatic,
ca.1bon. sunt mai aromatice si de aceea mai and are thus hea\'i\".1'. ThtwefOI'e fuels with
g:rele. De aeeea combustibilii cu densitate high derL"ity are atso rich in carb\)n rtsldue
marc sunt de ascmcnca bogati i.o rczi<luur i and asphalt.
de ctui>on si asfalt.
Caracteristidle de aprindere !ji The 1gmt10n and (." 'mbust ion
u'dcrc ale combustibililor cu densitatc characteristics of higher density fuels may
mare pot li inferioare. 0 viscozitate be inferior. 1-\ low viscosity. log_ether with a
sdzutii, impreuna cu o densitate mare, pOt high density. n.ay indicate pOOr ignition
indica o calitatc de aprinderc slaM. quality. Limiting the density for reasons of
Posibilitatea separlitii apei di1l combustibil ceott ifuging ensm'eS the water sepa1ation
e.ste nsiguratii prin limitnrea densitiitii din ability or the fuel oil.
motive de ccntrifugarc.
Densitatea es.te irl mod normal Density is normally measured at
masurtnil Ia tempemtura mai inalta !ii higher temperatures. and the dens-ity at
dcnsitatca Ia 15eC cste c~lculat pc baza 154 C is calculated on chc basis of tables
tabeJeJor cru-e. depinzfind de originea lo. which. depeoding on thei Ol'igin, date of
data c:ditHrii, ~i de datdc pe care sunt issue, and Ihe dma on which they nre based,
bawte. pot da dcnsit31i u.~or diferitc- Ia may give slightly differing densities at
l 5C. J50C.
i n timp ce limita de 99 1 Kg/m3 Whereas the limil of 99 I Kg/m~
trebuic: observtHS d'ind sunt utiJi_ 7-:Hc: must be observed when trtlditional
separatoare:le tl'aditicmale (Purifl.catoal'e centt ifuges (PurifierCiarifie.r) ru'e used
Clarific.atoa.re) li1t1ita de 1010 Kg/.n;. este 1010 Kglm;. is ac~ptable in case
cceptati't in cazul sunt inM:tlatc separatoare centrifuges capable of handling fueJ of this
c-apabile s3. opereze combuitibil cu density are installed.
asemenea densitate.

Pli!ICIIJI deinf/tmwhilitate Fltull point


Punctul de inflamabilitate. The flash point is the. lower
temperatura cea mai scazut In care, in temperature, in the standard conditions and
condi~ii detenninate .si p1esiu1le atmosfel'icl\ atmospheric pessuJe of 760 ton. when the
de 760 tOr, vaporii de dcasupra fuel vapOrS in addition with the
combustibilului se aprind pentl'\l prima datii s.urrounding air ignile fi rst time-in contncl
i1l comact cu o llac!l'il. deschis3. with an open flame.
161 Material cu drepl de autor
Limita punctului de. inllan.abilitate The flash pOint limit is set as a
cstc iropusii pcntru prolcctic irnpotriva safeguard against fire.
incendiului.
Limittl leg!llii cc:rutii l!l bord ul navei The legal limit required fo r
este in mod normai()OOC. shipbor.rd use is normally 60C.
Ciind un rcz iduu grcu de cr.:~carc a When a hca,ily cracked residue has
fast d iluat cu un d iluant U$0r ''olatil been cut back with a lig ht volatile dilue nt,
a mcstee-ul d e co mbus.tibil v:'l :1\'t::a un punct the fuel blend will have !l flnsh pOint o ften
de inflarnabilitate in regiuoea de 60C. Un in region of 60C. Suc h a low n ash point
punct de il\flamabilitate 3$3 sclzut ind id i o ildicates a teodei\CY of the \'Olatile d iluem
tendintil de cvapomrc :a d ilua ntului \'Olatil 10 ev:pornte, which would cause the: fuel to
care va cauza ca viscoz itatea increase its viscosity over the storage
combustibilului sa creasd'i d upa perioada period. ultimately leading to an incorrect
de depotitare, in cele din urma dudnd Itt 0 viscosity at fuel injectors.
incorect! viscozitatc Ia injectoarc.

Punct111 (leiiiJU.~-rawra) de curgere Pour JUiirtr


Jlunctul de curgere (inghe\) csle The pour point is the lowest
ltmperatura cea m.ai sdzuta c.ilnd, in tempe.rature when, in standard cond itions
conditii dctermin:.tc. combustibilul ine-ii the fuel stiJI flows.
mai curge.
0 "aloare. ridicata a punc tului de A high \'alue of the pour point
c urgere indica. de obicci. un con1inut usuully indtcates a higb contelll of paraffin .
r id icat de parafine, care este bun pentru whic h is good for combustion but c-reates
combustie-, dar crec.;u:ii <.X>nd itii proastt:. bad co nditions fo r fuel storage and
pc:ntru stocarea $i maoevmre.a ha ndling. H:tnd ling should be: done: m n
combustibilului. Maoevrarea u ebuie s! se tempel'alul'e 5 10 higher than the pour
fad~ Ia o te mperatur:J mai mare (c u 5-IOQC) point to avoid the congelation o r fud in
dedi punc tul de curgere combustibilului in pipes.
tubulaturi.

Ct.m{inuwl de sulf Sulfu r (sulplwr)


Sulfu l cslc prczcnt in combustibil Sulphur is prcscn1 in fuel by means
prin intennediul compu$ilor organici. cu o o r organic compounds. with a conq)le:<
Struc turit COmplexii, d e :lt~eea ttceasta Structure.; therefore this concentrnliOn is
co ncentrn~ ie este dat! 'in sulf eleme ll!ar. g iven in eleme n1ary sulphur.
Principalu l efett al sulfului este TI1e main effect of sulphur is
coroziune~L Pr-in arderc sulful este corrosion. By burning. sulfur is combined
combinat c u oxigenul si da d ioxidul de sulf with oxygen and gives sulphur d ioxide
(S02) at-esta. mai depar1e a<.-.esta In co ntact (SOz). Purthtr. in contact wilh water. this
cu :lpa dii acidul sulfuric c:.re es.te 0 g i\'t::S sulphuric :.cid - a highly corrosi\'e
substant~ foate coroziv3.. substance.
Efe<:tul coroz.iv al acidului sulfuric TI1e corrosi"e e nect o f sulphuric
in ti.mpu l combustici cstc conLracarnt prin ttcKI duri.ng combustion is countcroctcd by
folos irea lubreCiantilor adecva1i $i controlul adequate lube o ils a nd te mpernture contro l
1empermurii perttilor camerei de ardere. o r the combustion chamber walls.
Continutul de sul.f arc on efect The sulphur. C()ntent has a
oeglijabil asup1a p'OCesului de ardee. neglig ible effect on the combus1ion
prt>cess.

Ret}dtwrilt dt carbt)ll Ctir/J(m re.\idue


Re~iduu rile de c.arbon sunt The c-arbon residue is me-as:ured as
m3sur.tc In Carbon Conradson sau in Conmdson Carbon o r as r-.licrocmbon.
Mic-rocabott Co mbustibilii <:u o caotitate Fuels with high ctt1'boll residue come nt may
162 Material cu drept de autor
mare de reziduuri de cari>On produc cause. increa.r;ed fou ling of the gas wa)'S,
dcpuncrea sporitii pc c~Hic de gaze necessitat ing more frequent cleaning,
necesitfi.nd cu3tarea mai frecve m3. in especially of the nubochage'S :llld e:-:haust
special a turbosunantelor ~i caldarine.lor gas boill!r.
rccuperotoare.
Unele schimblSrl in ardere Some changes in combustion.
necesitiind reglarea presiunilor m.axime din requmng adjustment of maximum
motive de ccooornK:itatc. pot fi atribuitc pressures for reason of economy. may also
continutului t idicat de reziduuri de carbon. be auributed to a high eatlX)n residue
0 pane din (."(>ntinulul de re~iduuri de c()nlenl. Ptlrt of the carbon residues
carbon rcprezinta continutol de asfui!Uri. represents the asphaltcncs.

CoT1(i11utul de asfalturi Aspha/Jenes


Asfalturile sunt molecule mari cu o Asphaltenes are large molecules
rat3 carbon/hidrogeo ridicatlS. foaf(e with extremely high carbon/hydrogen ratio.
aromatice cu carbonul c001binat in vaste highly tlr()mtllic with the carbon combined
strucwri circularc. Accstea nu sunt in large ring strucwres. They are insoluble
insolubile tn nonnal heptan (care e-.ste un in normal heptane (which is a totally
solvenl partll'inic l()tal), dtlr sunl solubile tn plln~ffi nic solvent) bul soluble in l()luene
toluen ( care este un solvent aromatic (which is a totally aromatic solvent).
total).
Bl(:cwl asfaltorilor asupr:l arderii The effect of :lSph:tltene-s on the
cste similar cu accla at rez.iduurilor de combustion is similar to that of the carbon
c.arbon. Se. considerl'i tn general ca residue. 11 is ge ne~ lly considered that
a.Mttlturlle sunt componenh:: c!'lfe tu'd gn:u asphaltenes are slow burning C()mpOnents
cae e posibil sA intfirz.ie procesul de ardere. that a-e likely to delay the combust ion
P I'OCeSS.
Asfalturile de ucmenctl afec teaza Asphallenes also affecl the fuel oil
propriet~Jile de ungere a uleiului. in cazuri lubrication propenies. In extreme cases,
e:urtme un continut ridicat de asfalturi high asphalt oon1en1 rna)' Je.ad 10 fuel pump
poate duc.e Ia b locarc~ pOmpei de s-ticking. Fuels wilh a high c()nlent of
combustibil. Combustibilii cu un oontinut asphaltene.s may tend to emulsify with
ridic.a1 de asli'llluri tind sa emulsione.?..e cu water.
npn.

Cofl{itwtul de apo Water


Cantit:nen de ~pft din combustibil The amount of water in fuel is
esh!: limitatli. de c~tre P\ldudtori ptin limited by fuel suppliers by me.aos of
intermediul spe<::ificatiilor. Apa inniulli1e$te specific.ations. Water wocsens the. fuel
ardcrea combustibilului $i iotro cantitate combustjon aOO in a high contcol it can
mare o pome chiar opci. even stop it.
Apa din oombustib il trebuie W!lter fuel shOuld be removed from
tnliiluratii prin centrifugarca the fuel by centrifuging the fuel before usc.
combustibilului lnainte de utiliZ:ll'e. This applie.s especially to salt water. the
A(.casta se aplic-il in Spec.ial apei silrate, sodium conlt'nl of which may result in
sodiului nl ciirui continut se ponte depozita deposits on valves and wrl>ochargers. In
pe valve ~i tmbosullam3. in situatiile difficult cases the use of chemical emulsion
dificile e.ste recQmttnd:al foiOsirea breakers is recommended 10 assist the
untiemulsionantilor chimici pcntru a ajuta scpar.~tion of water. If walcr canoot be
separarea apei. Dac3 ap.a nu poate fi removed. homogenizing after centrifuging
tnlii luratil eSLe reoomandatii OmOgl!nizan:a is recommendt'd.
dupli centrifugure.
Cootioutul de apa este dat in Watet content is gi"e'l in per cent.
proce.nte.
163 Material cu drepl de autor
Cou{iuurul dt! C:t!llU-$0 A sit
Cenusa rep-ezint~ comamjnMtii Ash ep-esems solid comaminants
solizi pn:cum ~i meltllde prdenle in as well as metals pn:sc:nl in the fuel in
eombustibil ln compu ~i solubili. Continutul soluble compounds. The ash coment of fuel
de cenu$1\ es.te 'iil mod notmal deriv:u din is notmally derived from otganic/ metallic
compu~ii organici/metalici . de obicei compounds. usually vanadium and nickel
vanadiu $i niche! In forme solubilc, in soluble form. together with sodium ot{cn
impreunli. cu sodiu ades.ea prezem c-a $i present as a naturally occurring constiruem
constiiUent apiirut natural sau luat in timpul or pickod up during tr:lnSpOrtation.
transponirii.
0 parte di1l ace$tia pot fi pat(icule Part of them may be catalyst
catalitice cum ar fi silicatul de aluminiu din particles such as aluminium silic.ate from
procesul de rnfinare. Asemenea panicule the refining process. Such panides are
sum foarte. abtazive $i s.um cauz.a ptincipala highly abtasive and there are many cases of
a uzurilor serkmse a pistona~ IOr pompdor serious wear of fuel pump plungers, fuel
de inje<:fic, injcctoarek>r de combustibil $i injectors valves (nozzles) and even piston
chiar se.gn-.entik)r ~ i d'i nli~ilor de cilindru. rings and liners.
Cenu ~a solidii crebuie elimintlta d t Solid !ISh should be removed to the
mai in profunzime posibil prin widest jXlSSible by centrifuging_.
cemrifugare.

COII/illllful de atradiu $i sodiu V1ma~lium ami StHiium


Vanadiul este prt7..ent in Vanadium is pre$ent in the fue l in
combustibil in compu ~i solubili ~i. in soluble compounds :lnd, consequently.
consecinHi.. nu pot it in1~1 uro)i. c-an.not be removed.
Vanadiul In combina\ie cu sodiul Vanadium in combilliltion with
poatc- ducc 1: coroziunca sup:pei de sodium m:y lead to e~tw ust valve
evacuare $i Ia depoz.ite 'in turbosuflantli. in corosion and wrbocharger deposits.
special in cazuriJe. de continut foa11e mare especially in the. <.~ase of high vanadium
de vnnodiu. C() l)(e (l (,

Pem'll contiJlute mai mici de sodiu Fo smaller contents of sodium and


$i vanadiu. rt~ta mil.sidi este conside.rata de vanadium. the weight ratio is considered of
micil impo rtan~5 ( pcntru vanadiu un less imponance (for vanadium content Jess
continut mai mic de l50 mg/Kg). than 150 ong/Kg).
Sodiul elite in mod normal pre"Lent Sodium is normally present in fuel
in combustibil dttloritii conuLminarUcu apa u.s a s:llt-wtHer cont:uni.nt1t ion aod may. as
Si'i.rat3. $i de aceea. va ti lnUituta( prin such. be l'emoved by centtifuging. Sodium
centrifugare. Sodiul poate de asernenea may also reach the engine. in the. IOrm of
ajungc in motor In forma de ccat3 airborne seawater mist.
aeropU11at!.
Vanadiul !ii sulful sunt exprimate in The van.'ldium and sulphur are
piil'\i per mil ion (mg/Kg). expressed in parts. per million (mg!Kg).

Confillultll de alumi11iu $i siliciu Alumittium a11d silicrm


Limita continutului de aluminiu $i The limit to aluminium and silicon
siliciu a tOs.t inu'Odusli spre a reduce has been introduced io od e to restrict the
continutul de particule cat.alitice , in content of cat:\lytic fines, mainl)'
principal Lriox.idul de aluminiu ( AI~O:-J) $i aluminium trioxide (AI20,) and silicon
dioxidului de siliciu (SiO:). dioxide (Si02).
Particulde c:nalitice dau o cre."!jt.ere Catalytic fines give rise tO abrasive
a uzurii abrazive ~ i d e aceea. con1inu1UI Ior wear. and their content should. therefore,
11-ebuie redus c:it mai mull posibil prin be 1-educed as fat as possible by
centrifugarea combustibilului inainte de. a centrifuging the. fuel oil before it reaches
164 Material cu drept de autor
ajunge In motor. the engine.

Calitil(ile de aprindere lgflilio11 quality


In mod normal datele analitice Normally applied a na lyt i~l data 101'
aplic.ate pentru <." 'mbus-tibili nu <." 'ntin niei fuel oil contain no dirtc.t indication of
o ind tcarc ~ calit31ik>r de aprindcrc. nici igmllon q ua l ity~ neither do current
specificatiile CUI'ente $i Mandatdele. De specifications aDd S(andatds. Although not
ilSemc.nca nefiind un pttrttmetru important an important parameter for low and
pcntnl motoarclc lcnlc $i lcnl-rapide cu rate medium speed engines with high
de compresie ridicate. caliw.tea de compressiorl ratios. lhe ignition quality c.an
aprindere pOttte fi pl'CZiSil prin c-alcule be prt'dicted by calculations based on
b~zate pe viscozitatc $i densitate. viscosity and density.
0 mare dens itate IJl combita\ie cu o High density in combination with
vi sco~i t :He sciizuta po:uc fi un indiciu al lOw viscosity m.tty be an indication or poor
s l~be i c~ Lil3ti de aprinderc. ignition quality.

S tabilitatea combuslibi/utr~; Puel Qil S tnbi/ity


Combustibilii sunt produsi pe baz~ Fuel oils are produced on basis of a
unei l~rg i \'arietli(i de \i(ei si procese de wide vaJ'iety crude oils and retinety
ntlnarc. Oatorita incompatibilitiitii. processes. Due to illC()mptt ibility. such
asemcnc~ combustibili pot oeaz.K>nal tindc fuels may occasionally tend to be unstable
sa de.vinli instabili cJlnd sunt amesteta\i. when mixed. therefore mixing should be
din :tccst motiv :lmestec-ttre:l trcbuie evit:llil avoided 10 the w;t.leSI pOSSible extent
cat mai muh posibil.
Un a.mestec de oombustibili A mixmre of incompatible fuels in
incompatibiH in tancuri poatc detcnnina o the tmks may rcsuh in r<th<:r large
chiar mare cmu it~ te de reziduuri eliminate amounts of sludge taken out by centrifuges
de sepannoarele centrifuge sau duce chiar or evt.n lead to centrifuge blocking:.
In bloc~lrea separatorului.
Neomogenitatea in tancul de lhe contents of the
Re~ci'Cu l ati ng
serv1C1U pOate. fi contracarata prin tank lhrough the centrifuge can counteract
rccircularea conti.nutului tnncutui pri.n inhomogeneity in the service tank.
separator.

Tratarea combLL<rtibiiUor Fuel Oil Trearmeul

Separana C(mlrifugnld Centrifugiug


Combustibilii trebuie tmotdeauna Fue1 oils should always be
considernti ca ~i comamitw(i tlupfl livrare considered as cmltflmimued upau deliwny
$i de aeeca lrebuie curiita~ i riguros sprc a and shoukl therefore be thorougb.ty cleaned
lllll'itura roruaminaotilot solizi cat $i lichizi to rento\'e solid as well as liquid
lnainte de utiliznre. Contaminantii solizi contaminants- before use. The solid
din combuslibil sunt in principal rugina. contaminants in the fuel arc mainly rust.
llisipul. ptafu l $i catalizatotii de rafillare. sand. dust and refinery catalysts. Liquid
Contaminantii lichi:d sunt In principal apil, contamin:lntS ttre mainly wtth::r, i.e. either
de ex. sau dulce sau sltr.~t a. f"n:sh water or salt waLcr.
hnpuritl't1ile din combustibil pot lmpuritie-..s in he fuel can cause
cau ~.a defcclare-tl. pOmpelor de injeqil! !ji damage tO fuel pumps and fud vnlvi!S., and
inje<:toarclor si pot provoca uzura can result in cylinder liner wear and
clirnlisilo cilindtHot $i dete.iorarea dete.rioratiol of the exhausl valve seats.
scaunelor supapelor de. evacuare. De. Also increased fo uling of gasways and
165 Material cu drepl de autor
asemenea depunerea miiritl! pe oond ucte&e turboc-hargers blades may result from the
de gaze $i palcle Hlrbosuflantci poale use of iJl"dequately cleaned fuel o il.
rezulta d in folosirea combustibilului
inadocvat curilttU.
Cw'iltarea efeetivii ponte fi asigurolii Only using a centrifuge c,a n ensure
numai prin fo losirea unui separator effective cleaning. The capacity of the
centrifugal. Capacitatea separatoarelor in stalled centrifuge-..s sho uld. a1 le.as.t. accord
ins.talatc trebuic, Ia un na urmci, sa with the centrifuge maker's instructions.
coocorde eu insuuetiunile produc3to rului To obtain o plimum cleaning. it is of most
septmu orului. Pentm a Obtine 0 septtrttre importance that the centrifuge be Opcrnted
optima. este de cea mai mare i.mportaoti ca with as low a fuel o il viscosity as possible.
separatorul sl't lie fo losit cu o \' i ~zitate a and that the fuel oil is allo wed to remain in
combustibilului di:l mai midt pOSib il, ~i the centrifuge bowl lOr as long as possib le.
eombustibilului i se pe:rmite sa rim:i:n3 In A suffi-Ciently low viscosity is o btained by
vaiul separatorului <:fit mai mull posibil. 0 o pera.ling the centrifuge preheate. at
viscozit:.te sufident de sca:r.ulit este m:txhnum :Uowable tempertllure for the
obtinuta prin fok>s irca preine51zilo rului fuel concerned.
separatorului Ia temperatura maxima
permi~i penlru <:Ombustibilul re:;pectiv.
Combustibilul este mentinut In The fuel is kept in the centrifuge as
separator c<lt rnai mult posibil prinreg.larea l011g as possible by adjusting the flow rate
nuei curgerii prin separator :tstfel indh sa through the centrifuge so that it
corcspunda cantil3\ii de combustibil ceruta corresponds with the amount of fuel
de motor litrll recir<::uliiri e.xcesive. i n required by the eng ine. witho ut e-xcessive
cOnSccintii separaLOrul trebuie Sii
nHi.rculating. Consequently the cenlrifuge
functioneze 24 o re pe zi e:<eeptfind duata sho uld opecate fo e 24 ho urs a day except
necesara spaJrrrii. during the rlessary cleaning.
Scparotoarck: cu pompe de Centrifuges with separate feed
alimentare separate cu o capacitate pumps wilh a capacity matched 10 the
patriviti! ie;$irii motorului Stint prtiC!rate. engine o utput are to be preferred.
Av!lnd tn vedcre c:1litate:t Ttk.iog tOdny's fuel q ualities into
combustibilului actual. nevo ia de sp~lla-e a consideation. the need for cleanilg the
separ.u orului ("frecven~a de tragere") nu centrifuges (''shooting frequency..) sho uld
lroboic subcstimat3. not be undercsrim~l cd.
La se.pamtoarele echipate cu On centrifuges equipped with
~u mbu ri sau/.t>i d isc:uri de reglan:, alegerea
adjusting screws and/or discs. their correct
coreccli :t :t<lcslom este de o import ~lnta cho ice nnd ndjustment is of special
specia l~ pentru elimioarea eficient3 a apei. importance tOr the efficient J"emoval of
wate.r.
Manualul scparatorului indica care The centrifuge manual swtcs whjch
disc sau reglaj al .$UI'ubului trebuie ales pe d isc Ol' screw adjuMment should be chosen
baza densitittii co mbus.tibilului. On the b.'\SiS of the density of fuel.
Practtca curcnl3 esle sa se aib3 eel The norm~ l practice is lo h ~''e at
pulin do u~ separatoare disponibile in least two cemtifuges available fo r fuel
scopul sepan1riirii combustibilului. deaning purpOses.
Cca mai bun.i scpararc, in special Tn The best cleaning effect,
elimina-ea pru1i<:uf.elor catalilice. este particularly 1-egarding the removal of
atinsa d nd sepnr:noarde se fo losesc in catalytic fines. is :tchie\'ed when the
scric de ex. in modul ceot.rifuges arc operated in series. i.e. in
Purificator/Clarifteator. purifier/clarifier mode.
Daca c-apacitate:. separatorului If the installed centrifuge c-apacity
instalat este inferioar3, In rapon cu is low. related to the specific viscosity o f
visoozitatea specific~ a combustibilului the fuel o il used. and if more than o ne
utilizat. $i dacli mai mutt dedh un separator centrifuge. are available., parallel operntion
166 Material cu drept de autor
sunl disponibile.. lrebuie aplic.;ua shoukl be considered as a means of
functionarca in paralel spre a sc ob~inc o obtaining an even lower tlow rotc.
ratli de curge1-e si mai micli. Oricum. in However. in view of the above results aod
vederea Obtinerii de rdulwte apropitHc: recommendntions. serious consider!ltion
rccoma.nd3.rilor. trcbuie hmta scrios in should be given lo installing new
considerate instala.re.a unui oou echipamem equipment in compliance with todays fuel
in concordantll cu calit;uea actuala a qualities and now ra"..mmendations.
combustibililor $i dcbitului recomaOOat.

l'rein ciilt}rea l'reheatillg


Sprc a sc asigura o pulverizarc ln order to ensure correct
COI'eeli\temperatura oombus.tibilului trebuie atomization the fuel oil temperature must
reglata in conc.ordantii cu v i sco ~it atc:a be adjusted according 10 the specific fuel
specificfi a combustibilului utilizat. oil viscosity used.
Temperatura inadecvat~ va Inadequate tempe-ature will
i.nfluent:l :lrderca ~i pOate cauza u-;:ura infl uence the combustion and may cause
sporit3 a c3.m3$ik>r de cilindru $i increased wear on cylinder liners and
segmen~ ilor pistoanelor. precum $i piston rings. as well as deterioration o f the.
dc:teriorttrc.a scaundor sup.'lpcJor de: exhaust vnlve se.ats. Too low a prehc:minf:
evacuare. 0 prea mic~ temperat ur~ de temperantre. i.e. too high viscosity may
preindllzire. de e.x. o prea mare viscozitate resull in too high injection pressures.
poate produce prctt mari prcsiuni de leading tO excessive mechanic:ll stress in
injcctic, ducfmd Ia o tcnsiunc mccanica the fuel oil system.
exce.t;iv5 in instala1ia de oombustibiL
Tn cde mai multe instalatii. In most in$1:lllations, prehettting is
preinclUzirea este t3cutli prin intermediul carried out by means of steam. and the
aburului $i viscozitatea este tinuta Ia viscosity is kept at a specified level by a
nivelul spccifieat prin regulatontl de viscosity regulator controlling the steam
viscozitate controtand alimentarea cu abur. supply.
Valoarea reg:latfi a Yiscozimelrului The recommended viscosity meter
este 1015 eSt. Oricum. experienta de sell ing is 10- 15 eSt. However, service
servtC:IU a arlltat c~ viscozitate.a experience has shown that the viscosity of
oombustibilului inainte de pompa de the fuel beiOre the fuel pump is not too
combustibil nu cste un pru-amclru critic, din critic-al a parameter, for which reason n
acest nxniv se permite o viscozitate p5nli. Ia viscosity of up to 20 eSt. after preheate.r is
20 eSt. dupa prdnci! l ~itor. Penlru a evita allowed. In o rder 10 avoid too a rapid
dcpunere:t prea mpida pe prelne-iil:tiiOr fo t~Ung of the prehcntcr the tempernturc
tempe.t-atura nu ttebuie sli depliseasc!\ shoukl not exceed 150..C.
I SO'C.

lnstalaJH de alimentare cu combustlbU Fuel oil systems


h\stala1i.a de. alime.uare cu e:ombustibil The fuel oil system cons ists or :
consh\ din:
lnstalnJia de ambarcare $i tr.tnsfcr Bunker tilling and transfer systems
combustibil
Tancuri de depo ~i Hlre Storage tanks
Tancuri de decunt:tre Seuling tan.ks
Separntoare centri(ugale Centrifuging system (centrifuge
separators)
Tnc.iilzitonre de combustibil Puel heaters
f iltrc de combustibil Fuel fillers
Omogenizatoat-e Homogenizes
167 Material cu drept de autor
Filt.re tine Pine. lilters
Suprndc:c~m toare Superdecantcrs
lnstakt1ia prcsurizat! de combustibil 1-.rcssurizcd fuel oil system
(lnstala1i.:t de injecm-e)

168 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul 2.'i Unil2.'i

lnstalalia de separare Separation System

Fig. 25. 1

I. Separator centrifugal I . Centrifuge (separator)


2. Bloc electrovalvli. apli 2. Solenoid valve bk>ck. water
3. Buton penlru opri.rea de urg.entil 3. Emergency StOp pnShbuuon
4. Unitate de control 4. Control unit
5. Bloc electro\aJva. aer S. Solenoid valve block. air
6. F'urtun ne:<ibil 6. Flexible hose
7. Oebitmetru 7. Flow indicator
8. Presosta.t maximal 8. Hig.h pressure switch
9. PrcSQSt:ll minimal 9. Low pressure switch
I0. l\tanomctru 10. Pressure indicator
II. Val\uta de reglare I I. Regulating valve
12. Valvula cu trei dii 12. Threew:")' valve
13. T ermometru 13. Tempecature indicato
14. Starter 14 . Starter
15. lane apR tchnologicii 15. Operoting water tank
16. Pompli. hidrocarbura separatli 16. Separate oil feed pump
17. Re.gulator debit 17. Flow switch
18. lnsla.latia de iocrHz.ire hi droc~rburil 18. Oil he:lling syslem

169 Material cu drept de autor


lntr<iri $i ie$iri: in- and out1eL~
Ffl) W
A. lntrarc hKirocarbura ncscparota A. Oil inlet
B. le~i-e hidrocarbudl separnt11. B. Clean oil outlet
C. Recirculare hidrocarbuni C. Oil recirculation
D. Aer comprimat D. Compressed air
E. Apl\ tehnic<l E. Fresh water
F. le~irt-tl de evacuare reziduuri P. S ludge discharge outlet
G. Scurgcrc carcasa cup3 G. Bowl casing drain
H. le~i-e apli separat3. H. Water outk:t

Purilicarta comhuslibililor Purification or Fu~l Oils

Combustibili furniz.ati drept Fuels supplied as marine diesel


"combustibili diesel matini" de tipurile oils" of the light. medium and heavy types
u ~r, (nediu $i greu sunt tn general are generally mixtures of oils or reskiual
amesux:uri de hidrocarburi sau hidrocarburi oils from distillation. According to its
reziduale de distilare. 'fn func~ie de origine origin the oil may oontain impurities and
combustibilul pOl\tc COntine impurltitti ~i precipitate$ absorbed during: StOn~g.e Or
precipitati absorbiti in timpul stoclrii sau transport or which are inherent in the oil.
tran.sportului sau care sunt inerent tn
combustibi l.
Aceste impu ri t3~i in combustibili These impurities in the oil may
pot avea urm.tttoarele. efecte: uzura have the fo llowing effects: st.\'ere wear on
pronunl!tlil a injectO:Irdor, pOmpeiOr de injectk>n no:..o::des, fuel pumps. cylinder
nJe<:tie. cli m!\~i)or de cilindrii ~i liners and pistons. valve leakage.
pistoanelor. producerea de neetan$J!it<lti ale carboni?.ation and poor oooling. inadequme
valvclor. cemclllare ~ i r3circ- insuficientii, combustion.
ardere necorespunz3.toare.
Purific.area combustibilului ofer3 The purification of fuel oils offer-s
urmatoarele av:mt:\ic: the follo wing advantages:
ardel'ea optim11. a combustibilik.,.. curati optimum combustion of purified fuels
reducerea uzurii tn cilindrii. pistoane. reduction in wear on cylinders.. pistons.
jicloare, pompc de injec~ie elc. jets. ICed pumps etc.
sc pot fo losi de ascmenca combustibili poor quality oi.ls may also be used
de slaM calitate
prevenire.a tncrustarea ~~ gripan:a pn:vention of encrustation and seizure
piesclor imponante of impol1ant parts
prevcnirca avarilor ncdorite prevention ofundcsiroble bre;~kdowns

J>urificarea uteiului Purification of Lubricating OU

i n timpul functioniirii uleiul During opcrntion the lubricotin_g


unitlltiJor de propulsie mari. fte nlOtoare oils of large propulsion units. whether
d ie~~e l sau tmb ine. sunt in mod constant diesel engines or tutbines. are. constantly
contttmin('lti. Toate piirtile afl:lte in miscare being: cont.amintltcd. All rotating: or sliding
de rotatie sau p!\rtile a1uDeCli.toru-e pats s.hed metallic impurities. Together
rlspftnde-.sc impuritli\i memlice. fmpreu na with dust. coodensation and products of
cu pmf. condcns $i produsc de decomposition, these arc deposited i.n the
descornpunere acestea sunt deJX)zitate in sump. Oils may. however. contain cenain
bain car1erului. Ul.:.iurile oricum contin acids which together with foreign mauer
170 Material cu drepl de autor
acizi c.are lruprt.unli cu mmeriile. str:iine c.e acting as a catai)'Sl ma)' cause premature
ac1ioncnza prccum catallz:.ltori pot cauza aging of the oi.l. Centrifuging prc\'cnts this
i'mblitffinirea prematul'1i. a uleiului. process and the life of the oils is
Sep.'lrtlre-a cc:ntrifugala previnc: ace.st proces considerably prolonged.
~i durata de utiJi.zare ll ulciurilor cstc
prelung_itli considetabil.
Tn c.a-zul m01oarelor diesel. In With die.sel engines. especially
special motoarck>r de tipul cu piston trunk-type piston engines. combustion
coocav. reziduurile din UI'IUa arderii si l'esidues and incombustible matel'ials fro m
m:uerialele incombustibile din cilindru the cylinder also penetrnte intO lhe crtmk
p3trund de ascmcnca. In caner. Rcziduurilc chamber. Sulphurous residues and
sulfuroase $i produsele de descompunere decompositK>n products of the fuel oil
din combustibil combinate cu vapOrii de combine: with the water vapOur, anothe.r
apa. un alt produs in urma arderii In product of the combustion in the cylinder
cilindru. $i dupll. condensate. tOrmeazll. apa and. aner coldensaticm. ronn acid wate.r
acida care pO.!IIe cauza avarieri serioase which m:ty cause serious damage to
lag3relor. pistoanek>r $i cilindrilor. bearings. pistons and cylinders.
'fn cazul motoarelor diesel mari pot With large diesel engines leaks in
aparea scurg.eri In dima~ile cilindrilor ~~ the cylinder liners and on water-t.'(l()lc:d
pistoanelor rlicite cu apa. Separatoarele a pistons may occur. Sepamtors have ol(en
protejat adesea ruo toare~ priJlcipale protected main engiles from otherwise
impotriva dc:fectiunitor nil fel incviu.bile. unavoidable dt~mJge. I n :ddition 10
P<: 13ng3. impuritAtile datorate paniculclor impurititcs due to ~u1K:Ic s of metal. water
metalice. apa care. a piltruns In instala~ ia de th.at h.as penetrated into the. lubricating
ungen: trebuie el i mi n~t ii t."()mplel Spre a system must also be entirely dimin:ned in
preveni fmblitr5nirea prematurli a uleiului. o'der to peve.m premature aging of the oiL

Pu rificarc~ uleiului oferii The purification of lubricot ing oils


urmitoruele avantaje: offers the following advantages:
lnlii.turarea a m:an un~ i ta a noroiutui $i thoroughly reu10Yal of dirt and wmer -
ttpei chiar din ulc:iurile penlm regimuri even with heavy-duty oils
grele
eoonomii apreciabile de ulei La toate appre<::iable saving_s or lubricating oils
tipurile de motoare on all engines
uzura scAzuta a lagt'irelor In motoarelc k>w bearing wear on diesel engioes and
diesel $i turbine turbines
prevenirea a\ariilor nc:dorite prevention or undesirable: breakdowns
pn:lungirea subst:mtialil :t duratei de subst:tnli:tiJ)' longer service life-of the
utilizare n uleiurilor lube oil.

Denlineralizare-a uleiurilor p-cntro DemincralizatJon of Fuel Oil


turhincle cu gaz for Gas Turbines

C.i.teva din elemell!elc infime Some of the harmful trace elen1ents


daun~toare c.a de e-:<emplu \'anadiul. sodiut. suc.h as for example vanadium. sodium.
p01asiul $i c:llciul piitnmd 1:'1 lnalte potassium and calcium le:ld ttl high
tempera1Uri due Ia coroziuoe tn turbinll. sau temperatures to COI'I'OSion in the tubine OJ'
cauzea1.a depunel'i pronun1ate pe lamele. cause pronounced deposits on blades. To
Sprc t prc\'cni distrugerilc costisitoarc prc.rcnt costly fail ures resulting from sucb
rezultand din asemenea defectiuni. damage. gas turbine fuel oils with hig.h
combustibilii turbinelor cu gaz. sunl mineral <.'()nleniS are de.minerali1.ed in
17 1 Material cu drept de autor
deninernli2a1i In inS-talalii de. s-pi'ilare. Aici. washing S)'Stems-. Here. the proportions- of
proportiile de clemente dlmnitoarc infime harmful water soluble trnce clcmcnls such
solubile i'o apl\ precum sodiuL. potasiul $i as sodium. potassium and cakium a-e
calciul sunt reduse Ia valorile S-pecificate de: reduced tO the value.s specified by the gas
producatori $i actiunca COCOZIWI a turbine manufacturer and the corrosive
vanadiului esR~ elimilatli prin adl\ugace de action of the oil soluble \anadium is
magnez.iu. eliminated by the addition of magnes ium.

Pentru !I intc:leg:e functionarea To underswnd the Oper:nion of the


scparatorului centrifugal tn::buic cunoscufi centrifuge some terms shoukl be koown:
c-it~ iva te.nneni:
llidmcilrhuri'i: Aici ulei sau combustibil. Oil: Hc:re e-ither lubricating: oil or fuel oil.
R(tziduuri: Contaminantii separa1i $i s t,dge: Separated oontaminmus and heavy
emulsiile g1-ele aplVhidrocatl>urli. water/oil tmulsion.
Descti.rcttrea reziduurilor: f. vacuarea Sludge discharge: Ejection of sludge: from
o3rnolului din cupa scpar.ttorului. sc par.~tor bowL
Dehiwl: Combustibilul int1xxlus in Thrt) rJf(hpul: Oil feed to separator.
separator. Exprimtlt in ml/h sau Vh. .
Expressed '
in mfh or 1/h.
Suprl{(a(a de .'~tparart: aptllllidructrhl'rtl: Oilhi'Oter illterface: Boundary layer
sttatul mlirginitor lntre faza apei (Ia betweerl the water phase (outet) and the oil
exterior) ~i f:t1.a hklrocarbora (Ia interior) in phase (Inner) in a septmHor bowl.
cupa scparatorului.
Gttmilum de api'i: Apa din Spatiul de. U~t-er seal: Water in the. s-ludge. space of
re-tiduuri al cupd sc:p:muorului pentru the separ:nor bowl tO prevent !he: oil from
prevenirea p.r!sirii cupei de d tre Jeaving the bowl through the water oullet.
hidrocarbura prin ie$irea de apa Ia in puriti er mode.
purificarc.
Purifkare: Separarea a doua lichide Purificatio": Separation of 1\'o'O insoluble
insolubile cu de.nsit31i diferite. ~ i in ace.l ~i liquids with differe nt de-nsities. and. at the
limp inliiturarea solidelor. :>:.me time, removing solids.
CtarijiC'an: Sepamea contamioaJltilo Clarifit:arioll: Sepamtion of solid
solizi din lic.hid. contaminants fro m a liquid.
A/Qd de fuuc(iQtrOn Ia Jmrificare: Purifier mode: Continuous separation of
Separarea oontinu!\ a apei din hidrocarl>urli. sludge and water fro m the oil. The
Cupa St-paratorului e-ste prevazutii cu disc separator bowl is furnished with a gravity
grnviwtion.:tl pcntru a forma g:trnituN de disc to fu nn the w:ttcr seal (positioning the
apli. (pozilionfind suprafa1a de separare oiVwatet interface).
apfi/hidrocarhuril).
Mod de [tmc(iouan Ia clarificare: Clarifier mode: Separation of sludge with
Separarea ceziduul'ikH' P.lrli con1inut de ap!i no water content from the oil. No watec
din hidrocarburiL Nici 0 garniturii de tlpil seal is present in the separator bowl, and
nu mai esle pre-tenl3 in cupa scpar.lloruloi. waterhandling capaci1y is limited.
iar c:apacitatea de opt-tare cu apil es1e
limita!il.
Oisclll graiut/io nal: Disc amplasat tn Gravity disc: Disc in the bowl hood for
dopotul cupei penuu poZI\IOnarea positioning the oillwate intetface between
Suprofc:tei de separare apit/hidrocarburil the disc Sttlck and the Outer c:dg:e of the: tOp
tntrc stiva de discuri $i marginen exterioarii disc, i.n purif~er mode.
a discului superior. In modul de fullC\ionare.
Ia purificare.
Disc clarifitalor: Un disc op)ional, care Clarifier disc: An optional disc. which
il locui~te discul gtavita1ional in cupa teplaces the gl':lvity disc io the sepaator
separatorului, $i de. .aceea g.arnitura de apa bowl. thus riO water seal exis-ts-.
172 Material cu drepl de autor
Ape} de de:)ocuin: Adaus de apli in cupa Displaceme11t water: Addition of water
purifkntorului penlru a dezk>cui into purifier bowl tO disp lace the o il prior
hKiroc.arbura inaintc de desciircarea to a sludge discharge.
teziduurik>r.
Re.,iVe ctmmtli: Re.vizia cupei l11fennediate senice: Overhaul of
separntorului .$i intrliri $i icsirii separator bowl and o il inlctloutlc.
hid1'0Carburii Schimbal'e a etan$1\tilo r cupei E.:-:change or seals in bowl aDd gaskets in
si 8 t1rnituri!or tubultlturHor de inUtln: ~i the inlet/()utle1 piping o f Separator.
ic$irc aJc scparatorului.
Re ..iVe priucipali1: Revizia lntregului Major stnice: Overhaul of the complete
scparotor, induzil.nd par1ea inferioarit. separator, includ ing bottom part. inlet and
intrarea si ie$irea. cupa separatorului etc. o utlet. separator bowl etc. Exchange or
Schimbarea gatnitutilot $i etan~rilor In gaskets aod se.als according to intermediate
conformit.nte cu revizi:i c:un:nta. ettm~ril e service. se:tls and bearings on bottom p:irt.
si laglirclc p3~ i.i infcrionrc-.
Reparatia capitaM: inlocuirea pieselor Ret~tmditir>11i11g sen i ce: Exchange o f parts
pcntru angrcnaj ul c:u ro:ua mdcatii, axe. for lhe wonn gearing. shafts, Springs
arcuri. carcasele lag~relor etc. bearing housing etc.

Principiilc scparii.rii Sctoration Principles

Un lichid rnurdar intr-un vas A diny liquid in a stationary vessel


sta~ ionar se va limpez.i ln<:.et dupa cum will c1ear slowly as the heavy partides in
particulele g:rcle se aseaza in panea lhe liquid seu ae on the bonom under the
infedoar~ sub influenta gravitaHei. in ca:zul intluence of gravit)'. In the case of
lichidelor nemiscibile lichidul mai greu se in soluble liquids the heaviet liquid will
v:t ~I,$CZ.:l S\lb lichklul mai u~r. Continua place itself underneath the ligh ler liquid.
separare $i sedimemare poatc fi o btinut3 Continuo us separation aDd sedimentation
lntr-un tanc de decan1are (vas 11orentin). c.an be ac.hieved in a seuling tank. The.
l e~i.ri le sunt po~i tio n~H e Ia nivele adaplttle OulleiS arc: positioned .:ll levels .adapled 10
diferitelo densit3.ti ale celo douli lichi<le. the d iffe1-ent densities o f the two liquids.
Co rl!aminantii solizi d in amestec.ul lichid Solid contaminants in the liquid mixture
sc vor dccan ta si vor forma un s.tr:ll de wiJI settle and lb rm a scdimcn1 layer
depuneri ( n~mo l) pe fuDCiul tanc:ului. (sludge) o n the tank bottom. The value or
Valoarea g:ravilatiei este mai deg.raba mic.a gravity acceleration is rath~:r small:

173 Material cu drept de autor


$i In consecintit vite7..a de separare este corLc-;equently. the separation speed is small.
m.ici. De accca pentru a m3.ri ''itcza de Threfore. to increase the separation spc<
separare este ne.voie. sll. se c rease~ it is necessary to inc-1-ease the aocelennion:
accderntia; nimeni nu pc:une man no one can incre-ase gravity tlccderation, so
accclcratia gr.wiwtionala. $i de :ceca this is done by replacing the gnt\'ity
aooas.ta este tacut~ prin lnk>cuirea acceler:uion with centrifugal acceleration.
tl<.'-<."1eratiei g.ravitationale cu accd eratia which can be increased by increasing: the
centrifuga. care poatc fi maritli prin m3.rin~a revolutions per minutes (r.p.m.). So. in
turatiei. Astle ! io vasele care se rotesc rapid rapidly rotating vessels gravity is replaced
fOI1!1 de greutate este lnlocuitii de fOI1il by centrifugal force: which increases the
ccotrifugit care ntarc$1C vitcza de dccantarc settling velocity by a factor of seve1.11
cu un f.'lctor de cfiteva mii. Ce durea1.li ore thousands. What takes hours under the
sub influcnta grovitatiei dureaza doar infl uem:e of gravity takes onl)' seconds in a
secunde lntro cupa separatoare de Tnalt~ high-speed separator bowl.
turatie.
Proc:esul de sep4'1 rtt.re este influentat The separation is influenced by a
de o scrie de factori cum ar fi: temperatura. series of factors such as: temperature.
viscozitatea sau dife.renta de dens ittiti (rata viscosity or density diffe.renoe (specific
g:rnvimc:trkit Specificit). 0 tc:mpc:rmuni g:rtlvity nlliO). A high separming:
inalt3 de separnre este in mod normal temperawre is nonnally favorable in
fa \'OrabillS sepa1'lirii hidroc:arburilor mineral oil separation. The temperature
minerale, Tempenttura influente:tzil infl uences oU viscosity :tnd density and
viscozitatea $i dcnsitatca $i trctluic \inutli sboukl be kept constant throughout
oonstant:ri In timpul separiirii. Viscozit:ue.a separt~tion . Low viscosity ftlcilitates
scauuii f:lcilitc::ll;i sep!lr:lrea. fnc{ll-;:irc:a separntion. Heating citn reduce viscosity.
poate reduce viscozitatea. Cu c:it es.te mai The greater the dens ity difference between
mare dife.-enta de dens itate dilllre cele doua the wo liquids. the easier the separation.
lichkle cu nt5t c mai U$()arii scparorctL De Heating c:tn also increase the: density
asemenea indlzirea poate mAri diferenta difference.
de densittue.
Supmfata de separatie dintrc :tp:t de The interfoce between the water
etansare si hidrocarbm'li uebuie pozitionatn seal and the oil should be positiooed
lntre stiva de discuri $i m.argine.a exterioarli between the disc stack and the outer edge
u discului superior. Oacii intcrfata sc mutit of the top disc. If the interface moves
in afara maginii exterioare a discului outside the outer edge of the top disc the
superior etan~re-a de apa se ''a rupe-, water seal will break. discharging: the oil
desciirc3nd hidrocarbur11 cu ~ pa. 0 with the w!llcr. An i.ntcrf:tce positioned
supl'tlfut3 de separatie pozitionatli in inside the disc stack will cause bad
interiorul sti\ei de. discuri va cauza separt~tion results.
rczultatc proastc in separarc.
Rata debitului (timpul in care se The ate of throughput (the Hme in
tlflr1 In d mpul centrifugal) tn:buie sa fie the centrifugal field) must be suitable with
corcspun:ziitoarc in ccc-u ce privc$tc respect to the separator size, type of oil and
marimea separatorului. tipul de hidro- viscosity. Excessive throughput may cause
c.arburi ~~ viscozitate.a. Debite excesive p01 bad separation.
ducc Ia separarea proastii.
Hidroca'buri cu densitate mare Oil with high density and/OI' high
sau/~i viscozitate m:'lre, precum ~i un debit viscosity, :.s well as high throughput; will
ridicat. va pozitK>na suprafata de separatic position the oiVwatcr interface ck>scr to the
mai aproape de perittria cupei declit pentru bowl periphery th.ao lOr oil with low
o hidroc.arbulil cu proprie-tiit-i Sdlzute. propertie.s.
Pentru a compensa factorii de mai To oompens..ue the alx)\'e factors
sus suprafata de separntie este adusli in the ime1face is adjusted to a <:OI're<:t
pozitia corec.ta prin moditicarea ie$irii pOSition by alte.ring the oulle-t for the water
174 Material cu drepl de autor
pentru apa (schimbnd disc:ul (e.xchanging the gravity disc). Changing
gravita1ion~ l). Sch.i.mbarea discul the gr.avity disc with larger hole diameter
gravitational cu unul cu diametru maj m:u-e will move the interface (Owards the bowl
al orificiului. va mi~a suprafata de periphery where,as a disc with smaller hole
separatic lnsprc perifcria cupci in 1imp ce diameter wiJI move the interface closer to
un disc cu un diametru mai mic at the bowl center.
orificiului \'3 muta suprafata dt>. separare
mai ~p ro~pc de ccntrul cupci.
Presiunea excesi v~ Ia te$U'ea Excessively high pressure in the oil
hidroc:lrburii impiedicil pOmpttrett d in Outlel preveniS lhe Oil from being pumped
afara. Nivclul interio r ~ I hidrocarborii sc va out. The inner oil k vcl will then move
muta tnspre centrul cupei. $i in acela$i timp towards the ce.nte.r of the bowl and. at the
va impinse suprafata de separare in afara sam~: time, push th.: oil wat.:r inlerface
spre periferia eupei. Efeetul este o pozitie o utward towards the bowl periphery. The
gre$itli a suprafetei de separalie... care poate effect is a wrong interface positio n. which
cau~a ruperea et:tnsarii de apa. ll.l:i)' c:IUSC broken w:aler se.ol.

Construcfiu sepuratorului: Centrifuge construction:

Pttrlea super-ioaril :lttg:n::gatului (fig. 25.2): M:ichine lOp p:trl (Og. 25.2):

I. Partea superioad't a cadrului I. f'rame top part


2. $urub 2. Screw
3. Surub articulat 3. Hinged bolt
4. $1ifl cilindrie cu ~aura 4. Cylindric.a l pin with hole
5. $lift creStal 5. Sklllc<l pin
6. ca.lig de tnchidere 6. Clamping shoe
7. Piulitii cu strfi.ngere. manuala 7. Handwed nul
8. J.ncl cu scc1iunc drcptung.h.iularli 8. Rectangular ring
9. Oispozitivul cu disc derulator 9. Paringdisc device
10. $urub 10. Screw
I I. $aiba 11. Washer
12. Surub 12. Screw
13. Surub 13. S<.~rew
14. Prezon 14. S1ud bolt
I5. G:uniturli 15. Gasket
16. Oispo:t il ivul de apii le-hnolog:idi 16. Opertlling device
17. $oiba 17. Washer
1s. Piulila 18. Nut
19. lnel cu seqiune circularii 19. 0-ring
20. Clopot eadru 20. Frome hood
2 1. Distan\iet 21. Height adjusting ring
22. $aiba de pro1ec1ie 22. Protecting washer
23. $urub 23. Screw
24. Dispozitiv de alimentare $i evacuate 24. f'eed and disclta:ge de.\ice
25. $urub 25. Screw

175 Material cu drept de autor


~----- 22
~----- 21

10
1
16
"
30

14
2 9
8
6 9

35
32
33

34
71

..s'
F. - -

176 M lill c dr pi d utor


16

18

Fig. 25.3

26. $aib3 26. Washer


27. Tubulatudi. 27. Pipe
28. lnd cu sec,iune dn:ulttrii 23. 0-ring
29. IncI cu scc1iunc circularli 29. 0-ring
30. l nel cu seqiune dreprunghiula3 30. Rectangular ring
177 Material cu drept de autor
3 1. Ecra.n 3J . Screen
32. Racord 32. N ipple
33. Teu 33. Tee
34. Furtun 34. Hose
35. Colier penlru furtun 35. Hose clip
36. Futnul de legilturl\ 36. Conne<:ting hose

Dis.pozitivul de alimentare ~i evacuare Feed and discharge device ( fig 25.3):


(lig. 25.3):
I . Disc dcsfa~ur3to r I. Paring disc
2. lnel cu sec-tiune circulari\ 2. 0 -ring
3. Garnituril 3. Gasket
4 . Disc desta.sur3tor 4. Paring disc
5. lnel cu sect iune circularil 5. 0 -ing
6. Ma n ~n de ghidare 6. Guide sleeve
7. lnel cu scctiune circulara 7. 0 -ring
8. Carcasa de raool'dare. 8. Conne<::tjng housing
9. lnd cu seqiune circulara 9. Oring
10. Suport 10. Suppon
I I. lnel cu sectiune circularil I I . 0 -ring
12. Tubulatura de inlrare 12. Inlet pipe
15. Racordul furtunului 1:5. Hose liner
15A.Racord I SA. Hose liner
ISB.Rttcord cu cot ISB. Elbow
15C.Racoo-d 15C.Sk:eve
1 5D . Piu li~a cu urechi I 50. Wing nut
16. Piulita 16. Nut
17. Tub distan~ier 17. Spacing tube
18. $ urub 18. Screw
19. Tnelcu sc:ctiunecircularii 19. Oring
20. Tub de S< ic l ~ 20. Glass wbe
21. Flao1.1a 2 J. Flange
25. Racord cu col 25. Elbow
26. Manometru 26. Pressure gauge
27. lnel cu seqiune dreptunghiularit 27. Rectangulo.r ring
28. Ro bi.ncl cu bilii 28. 8~ 11 \<:"1lve

Parte.a inferioarn a agregmului (Jig. 2:5.4): Machine. bouom pari (fig. 25.4):
I. Tahomctru I. Revolution coun1cr
2. Fritna de siguranHi. 2. Guad
3. Cep 3. Plug
4 . Stk llt de nivel ulei 4. Oil gauge glass
5. Cep 5. Plug
6. Piulita olandeza (infundata) 6. Cap nul
7, Dispozitiv conduc-3lor 7. Driving device
8. Capacul lag3rului 8. Beating shield
9. Piulita 9. Nul
10. Cadrul itfcrior 10. f'<rame bottom part

178 Material cu drept de autor


e-- - -- 6

Fig. 2.S.4
9
5
0

Cup;~ sep:tr::uorului (fig. 25.5): Separator bowl (fig. 25.5):

I. Tambur I. Bowl body


2. Duza 2. No;.:zle
3. Piston mobil 3. Operating slide
4. Jnel cu sec,iune circularl'i 4. O.ring
5. Obturator 5. Vnlvc plug
6. Arc 6. Spring
7. SupOrtul arcelor 7. Spring suppOrt
8. lnel cu sec1iune circulttrii 8. 0-ring
9. $urub 9. SCI'eW
10. Semicupa inli!rioard aluned'i toare 10. Sliding bowl bottotn
I I. lncl cu scc1iunc drcpw ngbiulnrli II. kecumgu Jar ring
12. l nel cu sec1iune circularli. 12. ().ring
13. Con de distribu\ie 13. DislribUling cone
14. Oistribuitor 14. Distributor
15. Disc se.parntot 15. Bowl d isc
16. l!lement de. inte.r<.".alatie 16. Ving insert
17. Disc separator 17. Bowl disc
I 8. Disc separator 18. Bowl d isc
19. lnel de nivd 19. Len~ I ring
20. lncl cu sec1iunc-circul:trli 20. 0-ring
2 1. Disc super ior 21. Top disc
22. Clopotul cupei 22. Bowl hood
23. lncl de ctan$are 23. Seal ring
24. Jnel de tixare 24. l ock ting
26. lnd cu sec1iune cin:ulttn1 26. 0-ring
27. Gamitura 27. G11.skct
28. Disc: gravita\ional 28. Gravity disc

179 Material cu drept de autor


a:>
<:l::t 21
I----
~-lS

..

,llltor
ISO
Frfina de. siguran1It (fig. 25.6): Guard ( Jig. 25.6):
I. frtioa de sigur::mtli I. Guard
2. Sabot de franli 2. Brake shoe
2A. Pl.iic.util de fr{iniJ 2A. Friel iOn pad
2AA. $urub 2AA. Screw
3. Arc 3. Spring
4. Mner 4. Handle
5. $aitxl 5. Washer
6. Stift crestal 6. Slotted pin
7. Ax 7. Spindle
8. $tift crestat 8. Slotted pin

3- - -- -

7- -- ---lt

Fig. 25.6

18 1 Material cu drept de autor


Mecanismul conducator (tig. 25.7 $i Driving device (fig. 25 .7 and lig, 25.8):
fig.25.S):
I. Buqa 1. Bushing
2. loci cu scctiune circulara 2. 0-ring
3 . .S.aibl'i de bloc.are 3. Lock wasller
4 . Piulita rotunda 4. Round nul
5. Axul cupci 5. Bowl spindle
6. Man~n melcat 6. Wonn
7. Diswntier 7. Sp:tcing washer
8. Lagar cu alunccarc (rulmcnl) 8. Ball bearing
9 . .S.aiba de bloc.are 9. Lock wasller
10. Piulitfl rotunda 10. Round nul
I I. Amortizor axial I J. Axial buf fer
I IA.Suportul arcului I 1A.Spring support
I I B.lnel de uwra 11R..We:tr ring
I IC. Arc I IC.Spring
I I D.Cui spintec.at I 1D.Splil pin
12. C:m:as,.'\ rulme-niUiui 12 . Ball bearing house
13. Lag!\r cu aluoocare (rutment) 13. Ball bearing
14. Defle<::tor 14. Deflector
IS. Carc:\Sl:l arcului 15. Spring casing
16. Amortizor 16. Buffer
17. Arc 17. Spring:
13. Cep fileltll 18. Screw plug
19. Joel cu sect iune circular!\ 19. O~ing
20. $urub 20. Screw
2 1. $:tibli Grower (arcuita) 21. Spring wnshc:r
22. lnelcu sectiunecirculara 22. 0 -ring
23. Carcas.a de prot<x1ie 2J. Protecting guard
24. $umb 24. Screw
25. Coli-er de p1'0tectie 25. Protectilg collar
26. lnd cu secliune eirculara 26. 0 -ring:
27. Pl:td de prolectie 27. Protecting plat'c
28. Surub 28. Screw
29. Axul roatei de p.: mdc 29. Wonn wheel shaft
30. $:tibli de etan~arc 30. Seating washer
31 . Joel cu sect iul\e circular!\ 31 . 0~1ing
32. lnel de etan$i'lre 32. Seal ring
33. Roata de pc Lnclc 33. Wonu wheel
34. Lag!\r cu alunecare (rulment) 34. Ball beal'ing
35. Lagar cu alullC'C-are (rulmc:nt) 35. Ball bearing
36. Saibii de bloc are 36. Lock washer
37. Piu lit~ rotunda 37. Round out
38. Butuc 38. Nave
39. Lagar cu alulli..'Carc (rulmcnl) 39. Ball bearing
40. Distantie 40. Spacing ing
4 1. Lagar cu alunecare (rulment) 41 . Ball be-.oring
41. $:tib.i de bloearc 42. Lock washer
43. Piu lit~ rotundJi 43. Round nut
44. lnel cu seqiune circulara 44. 0-ring
45. Lnel cuplaj 45. Coupling ring
46 . .Sumb 46. Screw
47. Saiba Grower (artuitfi) 47. Spring washer
1s2 Material cu drept de autor
~8 . $urub 4&. Sere\\
49. Gonuowi 49. Gasket
50. Floc: de r..w 50. Friction bloct
50A.Piaculi de fmni 501\.Fricoion p>d
50AA Surub 50AAScrcw
.S I , Pl:~cli. elasticA SI. Elaslic plate
52. Disc de cupl.aj 52. Coupling: disc
SJ. Surub de blocare 53. Slop screw
54. BuiUc de cuplare 54. Coupling nave
55. $urub .55. Screw

5J 51 48 48 47 44 43 42 Cl 40

0
r
" .. ..
29

:n 30 32 34

"'

183 de aUJDr
r ig. 25.9

I. Ap5 de etan$<1-fe $i deslocuire I. Sealing and displacement water


2. lotrarc hidrocarbura ncscparatli 2. Oil inlet
3. l esire hidrocarburli separatli 3. Ctean oil outlet
4. le~ i re apa 4 . Water o utlet
5. Oiscul derulntor api 5. Water paring disc
6. D isc gl'3\'ita\ional 6. Gravity disc
7. Disc d erulator hidrocarbura 7. Oil paring: d isc
8. Disc superior 8. Top disc
9. Stivll de discuri separatoae 9. Disc stack
10. Spatiu pcntru rdiduuri 10. Sludge space
I I. Apii. pentru fnchidcrca cupci I I. Bowl closing water
12. Ap3 pemru deschiderea cupei 12. Bowl opening water
13. Distribuitor 13. Distributor
14. I nc I de ni\'CI 14. Level ring
15. Came1a de de1'Uiare h idrocarbu~ 15. Oil pal'ing chamber

l'rincipiul de t'unctionare Wol'king principle

Hidrocarburn este introdusa in Oil is fed to the separator by :t feed


separato de cJ.tre o pompli de alimentare pu mp (buill-on ot separate). The built-on
(lncorporml't sau separm3). Pompa feed pump is of pOSitive gear type d rive.n
incorporaHi cs.te de tipul cu roti din(atc $i by a take off from the separator motor
deplasament poz.iliv act ionat~ de o shaft. Tbe food pump is not controlled from
derivntic: de Ia axul mo tor al separatorului. the t:Ontrol unit and has tO be manually
185 Material cu drept de autor
Pompa de ac,ionare. nu .:-ste. oontrol:ua de Ia surted and stopped. The. oil which is fed to
unitatca de control $i trcbuic sa fie pornit3 scp~r.~tor must be maintained at a COITCCt
$i oprit3 manual. Hidroc:ubura care este and constant separating tempeature. This
introduSi in separator tn:buie men,inuta Ia is achie\'ed in the heater. whic.h is inswlled
o tcrnpcrntura de separare corcctii *' between tbe oil pump and tbe separator.
constant!. Aceasta este atinsli in The heater cao be electtical or steam
tndil1:il0rul instalm tntre pOmpa de he.ater.
hidroe~rburi $i separator. ine31zitorul poatc
fi electric sau cu abur.
Sep!lrnrea :lre IOc in cupa Scp3raliOn takes place in the
separatorului, care este actiunatii de un scpar.~tor bowl. which is driven by an
motor electric. prin intennediul unui electric motol'. \ia a worm gear
ang:renaj melcroata dintatil. Cupa transmiSSiOn. 'The SeparatOr bowl rotates
separatorului se rote$(e cu o viteza foane with very high speed generating a
mare genetfiod o fo1li oenttifug3 substantial cemrifuga l force. Sludge and
subst:l.ntiala. AIUnd re;:iduurile $i ap:l sunt water is then e(fK'iently septlratcd from the
separate ct'icient din hidrocarbura. oil.
Hid.rocal1)ura ne~o;eparatii este UnseJ>arated oil is 100 to the bowl
intrQduSi tn cupii prin intr3n::!l throug.h the oil inlel tlnd Scp!lrtlled Oil
hidroc~rburii $i ce~ separat3 p3r3se.ste k aves the bowl at the clean oil outlet.
cupa prin ie$irt.a hidroca.buri curate. Apa Separoted water is continuously discharged
separ:uii este dcsciirc:nii conti.nuu prin through 1he water outlet. Separnted sludge
ie$irca pentru apa. Reziduurile separate is collected inside the bowl periphery and
sunt colectate tn interiorul cupei $i discharged at intenals through the sludge
desdircate Ia intervale de timp prin ie~in:a discharge outlet.
de desc3rcare a reziduurik.,..,
Apa de etan~ $i de dezlocuire Sealing and displacement water to
este introdusa in cupii prin dcschi<lerea de the bowl is fed through the opening water
inu-are a apei. Apa de inchidere a cupei este inlet. Bowl ck>sing water is fed through the
introdustt prin intrnrta apei de tnchidert. closing: water inteL
C3ncl sept~ r:i! Orul este IOIOsil ca ~i When !he SCJXII':It()r is Oper:ttcd :iS
putiftcato. hid'Ocabura neseparati\ cm-ge purifie1. uoseparnted oil tlows from the oil
de Ia intrarea pentru hidroc.arburi prin inlet through the distributor into the spaces
distribuitor tn spatiilc dintrc discuri tn stiva between the discs in the disc stack where
de discul'i unde are Joe separarea. Apa $i separ.~tion {akes pia. Water and sludge
re'J.iduurile se vor mi$Cil Spre periferia will move toward the bowl periphery while
cupci tn limp ce hidrocarbur:l separ.uii se the cleM oil moves towards the bowl
mi$C3 inspte centrul cupei. center.
Din centrul cupei hidrocarbura From the bowl center the. clean oil
scparatii i.ntrii tn camct.~ dc:rulatoare a enters the oilparing chamber via the level
hidrocarbUI'ii prin inelul de nivel. Oiscul ring. The nonrotmilg oil pruing disc to the
derula!Or ncrOt!lliv al hidrocarburii clc:'ln oil outlet pumps the de,fm oil out.
pompeazit hidrocarburn scparatii Ia ic$irca
hidrocarburii separat3.
Pentru a impicdica hid.roc.arbura sa To pruvent the oil fro m passing the
trcac~ de discul wpcrior $i s~ iasa cu apa. o top disc and escaping akmg with the water.
etan$are de ap~ se stabile$te in cup4 ptin a water seal is established in the bowl via
intrare.tt de npH. water inlet.
Reziduurilc sunt d c.scarc~tc prin o Sludge is disc h~rgcd lhrough a
serie de orilicii din peretele cupei. Aceste number of portS in the bowl waiL Tbese
oriticii s.unt ' inute tnchisc de C-atre pOrtS are kept shut by the sliding bowl
semicupa glisantA in(erioara care este txmom, which is hydraulically pressed
presat3 hidraulic il sus 'impotriva ioelului upwards against a sealiog ring in the bowl
de etan$art din stmicupa superioaril de. lOp pari by the force Of the bowl d osing
186 Material cu drepl de autor
catre fof1a apei de inchidere cup:t. La wate.r. At d ischarge. adding of opening
dcscarc.are, adiiugarca apci de dcschklcre in water into cbe bowl oper.ui.ng system drains
sistemul de aetionare al eupei evaeueaz1i. the bowl closing water. The sliding bowl
apa de inchidere a <:upei. At unci semicupn bouom is then pushed downwards by the
glisanlii infcrioarii cstc impinsii in jos de pressure from inside the bowl, :md the
d'itre presiunea din imeriorul cupei. iat sludge and wate.r are discharged. A tier the
rez.iduurile ~i apa sunt desc.iirc.ate. Dupa sludge dischargt>. the slid ing bottom is
dcsciircarca reziduurilor semieupa glisant3 pushed l.xtck in position, closing the sludge
este impins~ tnapoi in pozitia initial1i.. potts in the bowl.
inchiz3nd orifid ile pentru re'J,iduuri !lie
cupci.
Alimentarea eu hidrocatburi'i este TI1e oil feed is off during a sludge
Opritfl in timpul deS<:ilrdirii. Pentru a d ischarge. To prt\ent d ischarge of o il
preveni desclrc.area hidroearburii i'mpreuna together with the sludge (aod water),
cu reziduutile ($i ap.a). este introdus1i. apa displaeemem water is tOO through the
de de:dc>cuire prin i t~ t r:\rea apei de d i.spl:~ceme n t w tller inlet. This water will
dcz.Jocuire. Aecastli ap5 va forta supraf.1ta force the oil-water i.ntefaC towards the
de separa\ie apl't-hidroc.arburi\ inspre bowl cenlet. so that only sludge and wate.r
ccntm l <:upei, ast rei i ncnt door :lp!\ ~i tire dischorged. After !I Sludse d ischnrg.e a
reziduurile sun! dese~rcate. Oup1i. new water seal is established and the
descii.rcarea re.ziduutilot o oou1i. etaJl$3J't de separation is resumed.
ap3 cste stabilitil $i sepnmrea estc rdu:ua.
Apa scparatli urea pc liinga pa.rtea Separated water rises along the
exterioara a d iscului superior. peste d iscul Ou[side of the top d ise. over the gravity
gr:lvitationa l ~ i este pOmp!llii in a rara de d isc, and is pumped out by the non-rowting
discul denlato nerotativ pentru ap~. water paring disc. The wate then leaves
Atunci apa pl'irdse$te cupa prin ie$irea the bowl through the water outlet. If the
penlru apa. Oacil scparatorul nu cstc separator is ool equipped witb water paring
ecbipat cu disc derulalor pentru apli, apa nu disc the water is not pumped out bot leaves
este pomp:ua in a farfi. dar parfise~te c upa the bowl through gravity d isc.
prin discul gmvitatkm:L
in limpul sepa'!ii -eziduurile sunt During separation sludge is
colectate in spa~i u l de. reztduuri in afara collected in the sludge space outside. the
stivci de discuri. disc stack.
cand separatorul este fo losit ca si When the separator is opera1ed as
d arific.tuor, in mod norma l hidroc.arbura nu c larifier. the o il normally does not <.'O ntain
continc apii libcrii. Principiul de sep;tmre nny free water. The principle of separation
este asemli.oli.tor cu eel at purificatol'ului.
is similar co that of the pmifier. although
there is no water seal in the. bowl. Neither
chiar dac.a nu mai exista apa de e.tan$art. in
cupa. $i nici o apa de dezlocui.re nu mni is there any displaccmem water admitted
este imrodus1i. inainte de descli.J'Ca-ea before a sludge dischage.
re:dduuri!<)r.
lntervle indelungate 'inlre Long i.ntervals belween sludge
desclrclri pot cauza acunmlnrea $i discbatge cal cause accumulatioo and
compnctarta ~z.id u urilor. Reziduurile se <.X>mpac:tion o f sludge. The sludg.:. rna)' the.n
pol atunci rupe neuniform Ia desc!n:;are si break up unevenly on discharge and cause
dete.Jmi!la eupa s1i. dev i n~ dezeehilibrat1i.. the bowl to become unbalanced. If such
IY.ldi de;:echilibrul e.s te prea mare exista unbalance is tOO large. there is risk of
riscul deterioriiri.i grave a scparatorului si serious separator damage and injury co
de rli.ni1'e a personalului. persoMel.

187 Material cu drept de autor


Cap.IOiul 26 Unil 2.6

Gcneralorul de apa lehnica N!REX N!REX Freshwaler Generator

I. TtlbulalUri\ de ap~ de mare de Ia I. Seawater pipe fro m condenser


condensator
2. Tub de vacuum 2. Vacuum pipe
3. Tubulamra pen1ru apa de aliment are 3. Pipe for feed water
4. Tennometru 4. T hermo meter
5. Valvulli unisens 5. Non l'etUI'Il valve
6. Ejeclor oombin:n saramudi/aer 6. Combine brine/air ejector
7. Pompa de apa lchnica 7. Fresh water pump
8. Motorul pompei de apJi teh.nicA 8. t\lotor for freshwater pump
9 . Tubulatura de apit h:hnicit Ia pompii 9. Freshwater pipe 10 pump
10. M t1n0 mctru 10. Pressure gauge-
I I. Sepa1ator de pidltu1i ! l . Separator
12. Cadru de.sus\inere 12. B.:-d frame
13. Tt~bu t:uu ra saramura 13. Brine pipe
14. SchimMtor de cli.\dura - vaporizator 14. Heat e:-:changer-evaporntor
15. Placil de pre.s iunl! 15. Pressure plate
16. C:op:oc 16. Front cover

AceSt tip de generator este folosit This 1ype of generator is used 10


pentru a transfonnn apa de marc in apa conven seawater into fresh water by
tehnidi.. pentru fumizare de apli tehoicli de vacuum diM illation lOr the supply of high
bunii calitttlc pcntru util i~iri c-ttsnice ~i quality fresh w:Her fo r domeSJic and
Lehnologicc. Pentru inslalarea pe nave ~i process ulilization. For installation on ships
plat!Ontle (de foraj marin). clt $i pentru and rigs and remote onshore k>cations. this
localiziir-i depitrtate pe coasta. ac.cSI tip de. kind of d istiller is des igned for automati<.:
distilator este proie<:tat pentru functionare operation with continuous control of
automatli cu C01Urol cominuu al calit3tii freshwater quality.
apei.
Distilatonrclc pol ti dimcnsionatc Distillers can be dimensioned lo
pentru a sati.~; face orice temperatuni a apei suit any water temperature from 5595C
de Ia 5595C ~i oricilrei te.mperaturi a apci and any cooling water temperature
ISS Material cu drepl de autor
de rl'tcire cerute. Cantitatea apei tehnic.e required. The quantity or fresh wate.r
produsc poatc fi modificatli intrc orice produced can be altered within each size; by
limite variind n u m~ru l de pU\ci in varying the number of plates in the heat
agreg:atele schimbittOtlre de e-iildura. exchanger assemblie$.

Oistilatorul NIREX ofer!i o setie de NIREX distillet offers a series of


avantaje cum ar fi urmiuoarele: advantages like the. IOUowing:
Estc simplu, de o exccutic compacta, It is simple. of compact design. ha\'i.ng
avfind o rlicie combinatli a a combined condenser cooling. ejecto
(.'Ondensmorului, un ejector cu apa $i un w!ller and ICed w!ller S)'Siem.
sistcm de alimc111are cu apii.
Apli tehnic3 de inalt3 calitate. datoit3 High quality freshwate. due to the
sistemului de contn)l al apei tehnice~ fre.shwater control system: 1he low
e-ttntitntea redusil de SOiitle dii'..Oiv:He c()nlent or dissolved solids (salinity)
(salinitate) pennite fumizarea apei pue ensures 1he supply of pul'e water which
c.are poate fi IOJositli direct pentru can be. used directly as m.akeup for
complctarca apci ciildiiriiQr de abur. steam OOilers.
Interval de utiliz.are indclungat. Long life . High grade CQrrosion
rvlate.riale cu grad ridicat de rezistentit resistant materials, such a.r; the titanium
Itt c()rQ:t,iune, cum, ar fi piUcile e-u titan hettt exchanger pl:nes and Other
ale schi mb~torul u i de d ldudi. si alte seawater l'esistam materials (non.-
materiale rezistente Ia a<::liunea apei de comed). ensure a long lili!til\le for the
marc (neacoperitc). u.sigura o durnta de equipmenl.
utilizare indelungatli a eehipamentului.
Costuri sdizute pentru func1ionare $i Low operation and maintenance. costs.
Operore. Funqionttrea nesuprttve~hetl l il The St.ttrl-and-rorgel operttlion.
combinal cu acccsul U$0f In interior combined with the easy access to the
1-educe Ia minimum rata ora-om interior. reduce man-hours required for
neceSani pentru func,i<)nare ~I operation and mainten.t\nce 10
intretinere. minimum.

Principiul de runc1ionare Working principle


Spre a fi distilatfi. apa de alimentare Tile feed water to be dis1iUed is
eSLe luatil de Ia ie~ i n::il apei de rikire tt laken from the $(:j cooling: water outlet of
condensatQrului. Aceasta innii. in the corxlenser. It enters the evaporator.
vapori1..ator unde se vapori1.eazli Ia whe.e it evaporates at about 40-50C as it
aproximitl iv 40-S0C pe mlisurii ce troce passes between the pi:Hes he:Hed by the
printrc pl3cile inc8lzite de dtrc mcdiul de heating medium.
lnclllzire.
AcejStil temper31tlril de vt1p<>ri1.tu-e This evapornting tempcraiUre
corespunde Ia un vacuum de 9095%. COITesponds to a vacuum Q( 9095%,
men,illUt de ditre ejectorul de maintained by the brine/air ejector. The
sarnmuril/:1cr. Vaporii gcncra1i Lrcc print.r generated vapour p:tSSCS 1hrough !I de mister
un scparntor de pic~ IUri undc stropii de apa where any drops Q( seawater entrained are
de mare intrt~ti .sunt inJUmrati $i cad datoritit reruMed and fall. due to g:raYity. to the
gr:lvilatiei in colecl()rul de S.'lr:"mura in brine sump ttl the bouom of the distiller
panea infel'iQal'li a camerei dislilatQrului. chamber. 11le clean freshwater vapours
V.aporii curati de apa tehnid'i tree in continue to 1he oondenser. where they
eondensor. unde condenscalii in apii <:Qndcnsc inlo fresh water :IS they pass
tehnic~ in timp ce tree primre plficile 1-eci, benveen the cold plates CQQied by the sea
rdcite de apa de mare de ritcire, un (.'OOiing water; a salinometer is provided
s.ulinomelru este preWizut impreunii cu () IOgether with :1n electrode unit fined on the
189 Material cu drept de autor
uniune cu dectrozi monuua In partea fre~'>hwater pump delivery side. If the
rcful3rii pompci de apii teho.icli. Daca salinity of the produced fresh water
salioitatea apei tehnice produse depli~te exceeds the permitted maximum value (2
valoan::a maxima permis.ii (2ppm), ppm). the solenoid vnlve and the alarm are
electrovalva ~i alarma sunl :1ctivatc pentru activated to automaticully dump the
a desclirca autom:u apa In santinlt produced fresh water into the bilge.
AceSt generator de. apa tehnicfi este. This freshwater generator is
proicctat pentru functionarc automata tn designed for automatic operntion in
oompartimente masull oesupravegheate periodially unmanned engine rooms aod
periodic ~i !llle moduri de func~io nare Other autOm:lted Openuions.
automate.
Mediul de lndilzire este lie apa de The heating medium is either the
r.f1c.ire a c.ilindrik)r motorului fie un circuit engine jac.ket <.'()<)ling water or a closed
inehis inciilzit prin abur. circuit heated by s.team.
Pompa ejectorului este iostalat~ The ejector pump is separately
separat ~i are asplrotia separ3til de Itt casel:l instttlled and has separnte suction (rom the
de apa de nw.re. Aceasta pompa furnizeaza sea chest. This pump supplies coolant in
age.nt de r:icire sub fo nn:a de opa de mare. In the IOrm of seawate.r in the condenser.
condensator, apa de alimentan: pentna fecct. water lOr the e\'apOration and water
vaporizare si apl!. pemru ejectorul eombinat for the combined brine/air ejector.
de saranmra/aer.
Apa tchnid prc:xlusa cste pompatil The fres hwt1ter produced is pumped
in tanc de c3.trc o pompft de apa tchnica to the tank by the built-on fresh water
lncorporata. pump.
P:lnOul de comanda insualttt separat, The sep:muely installed control
cu comactoarele nx>toarelor si panel. with motor Ma11ers and salinometer.
salinomettul. fu rni1..eaz~ energie e lectric~ supplies electrical power to lhe ejector and
ejectorului ~~ p<.u npci de apii tehnkit ~i freshwater pumps and control ''Oita.ge to
controleaz..ll. tensiunca (aplicat1i) the s.1.linometer and dump valve.
salinometrului $i vatvulei de destarc.are.

lnslalatia care contioe generoton1l The plant which eoe:k>ses the


NlRE.X este compusii In principal din: NIREX generator is mainly composed of:
Unitatca gcncrntorului de apa FrcshwaLer generator unit.
tehnicli ce include pllicile c:u {itan ale including titanium plate exchangers for
schimbiltoarele de calduril pentru evapamtor ond condenser. diStiller shell,
vaporizator ~~ condensor. curca:13 tWO stage brinc/:tir ejector, freshwater
distilatorului ejectoul in douli ttt.p{e pump. freshwater control senso1' and
saramun1/aer. pompa de apfi telmicfi. internal piping. oombined cooling and
scnzorul de control pcntru apa tehnica, ejector water pump, control panel with
pompa combinatli pentru apa de !eire ~i nx.lto statters and saHnomete. teed-water
tlpa ejcctorului, panoul de C()mtlnda cu anti-scale chemical dosing unit (necessnry
contactoarde motonrelor ~i salinometrul, at hcati.ng medium temperatures above
unitatea de doza1'e chimie~ ant ita1ru ?soc.
(depunere de. piatrii) (necesari Ia
temperatura mcdiului de inc.l!Jzi.rc peste
75.C).
Pentru a lmbunl'tt<1.li func,ionarea To improve plant operation. the
insta.k1tici rnai pot fi ~ditugate urmiiloarclc fo llowing ov-ional equipment could be
echipamente op1ionate: added:
Un sistem de injectare abur, A steam injector system. equipment
echjpament de accderare a :tbumloi $i un for steam boostiog Md hot w:1ter loop
sistem de devialie a apei ealde, filtru pentru system. fl'eshwater pH adjustme.nt
re.glare.a (l'tduri1.a1't.a) pH - ului apei (rehardening) filter. freshwater disinfection
190 Material cu drepl de autor
1ehnice. echipament pe.ntru dezinfectia apei equipment.
tchniec.
Pentn pomirea dislilatorului fo S(a1ing the distille the
trebuiesc tacule urmilLOarelc Operatii: fo llowing Opera! iOnS ShOuld be done:
I. dcsehidc'i valvele de !:1 aspirntia ~i I. open valves on the suction aOO
refularea pompei ejectomlui. discharge side of lhe ejeclor pump.
2. deschide'i d ape1ul de bordaj al 2. open ove.rl)()ard valve lOr combined
cjcctorului combinat acr/saramura. air/brine ejector.
3. inchideti valvula de aer din pa11ea 3. close air valve OJl the uppe part of the
superioaril a vasului septtrttiOrului. sep;~rator ve,ssel.
4. porni~ i pornpa cjcctoruJui. Verifienti 4. start ejector pump. Check the pressure
p1-esiunea inainte de ejeclor - min. 2 . 8~ befol'e ejeciOl'- min 2 . 8~3 bar a1ld afler
3 bar ~i dupa eje<:IOr - max 0.6 bar. ejeciOr - max 0,6 bar.
5. c:ind exiMli un minim de 90% vacuum. 5. when there is a minimum of 90%
deschide1i valvulele de imrare ~i ie~ire vacuum. open hm water iolel and
din sislemul de rildre a cUindrilor. Qullet valves from jacket cooling
system.
6. Lrimite.ti alimentarea cu apl\ caldii. spre 6. start h01 water supply 10 e.\'aporator
seqiunea vapOri-;..uomlui prin rcg.htrea sc:ction b)' adjusting by-pass \r-Jive-.
valvulei de ocolire. pfin!\ c:irxl este until desired jacket water temperature
atinsa tem.petatura dotilii apei de riicire is 1-e.ached (inlel 75C. outlet 60C).
cilindrii (Ia inlr:lre 75C. Ia iesire TI1e boiling temperature inside lhe
60C). Temperatura de ficrbcre in separator vessel ought to be about
intedorul separatorului trebuie sli fie 40"C.
de apro:<imativ 40C.
7. pO rn i~ i s:llinomelrul. 7. switch on the S.'llinomcler.
8. l'orniti pompa de apii tehn.icli. 8. stan freshwatel' pump.

Trebuie 3\'Utfl atentie penlru a se Caution should by taken to avoid


evita un flux de ap!\ necorespunzlitor care improper hot wmer flow which will cause
ar avea urmlitoarele efecte: Ihe fo llowing effec.ts:
in cazul dlnd flu;(ul esle prea mic - in case lhe flow is 100 low. low boili.ng
ternpcr:ltura de ferbcrc scazutii va temperature will drop the fresh water
scadea P'Oductia apei tehnioe. in aces1 production. In this case we. have high
<:-i\7. avem un nivel ridicat de saramurii brine level in the sight glass of the
in vizorul vasului separator. separator vessel.
in cazul clnd tluxul este ptea mare in case the llow is too high. high
temperatura ridi<:.ata de fie.rbert. va boiling temper:.lture will drop the
scadca produc~in de ap5 tcboicii, va freshwater production. increase saJinity
Cl'e$1e salinitatea $i scMea vacuumul. in and drop vacuum . In this case we ha"e
ac-eS.! en:~.. avem un nivel scazut al k)w brine level in the sight glass of the
saramurii in vizorul ''asului separator vessel.
sepatatorului.
Pentru a sutbili lluxul modific:ati To establish the tlow adjust, the
valvula de ocolirc. by~pass valve.
in timpul primelo citteva minute. During the first few minutes., al"te.r
dupi1 pOrnin:a pOmpei de apa lehnic-ii lhe (reshwaler pump Slans, S:llinity Of
salinitatea apei produse poalc fi mai marc produced water may be higher than 2 ppm:
de 2 ppm. de acee.a. es1e reoomaodat sa se thus. it is l't(:()mmended LO dump it into the
descarce in santina. p.:ntru ac.:asta bi lge~ for chat, open the valve on the
deschidc(i valva de Ia refularea pompei de discharge side of the fresh water pump.
apil lehoic3. Cftnd incepe vap<)l'izarea. When evaporation starts, th.: boiling
temperaturtl de vapori~arc: scttde in 1imp t.-e tempenllurc rises, while- the obwined
19 1 Material cu drept de autor
\'acuumul scade Ia aproxim.:u iv 90%. Dupa vacuum drops 10 aprox. 90%. After a few
un timp sc stabi.liz.catii vacuurnul ~~ minutes, nonnal vacuum and boiling
temperatura de Cie1bere nonnale. temperan.re are established.
Penlru a opri distilatorul tn::buie To SlOp the distiller the fo llowing
facu te urm3toarde operatii: operations should be done:
I. oprili alimentarea cu ap5 cakl1i. a I. stop hot watel' supply to e\'aporatot
seetiunii vapOrizatorului. sec1ion.
2. opriti pornpa de ap8 tchnicli.. 2. stop fresh water pump.
3. optili salinometrul 3. switch orr salinometer
4 . Opriti pOmptl ejeclOrului 4. StOp ejeciOr pump.
5. dcschidcti valvula de acr. 5. open air valve.
6. lnchideti vahulele de pe aspira\itt $i 6. close valves on the suctKln and
reful.area pompei ejectorului. discharge side Of ej~ciOr pump.
7. lncbidcti elapetul de bordaj at 7. close overboard valve fo r combined
ejectotului combinat aer/saramutl'L ail'/brine ejecto.

192 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul 21 Unil11

Generatorul de a pa tehnica A tlas Atlas Fresh Wate r Generator

/6
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....... -~-l--
.......' F;g. 27. t

I. f\totor diesel I. Diesel Engine


2. Pompa de apii de riicire nx>tor 2. Engine cooling wate.r pump
3. Pompit de ttpa de mMe 3. Seawater pump
4. Rlicitor de aer 4. Air cooler
5. Ri'icitor apa te.lmicl't 5. f resh water oooler
6. Pestc-bord 6. Overboard
7. RAcitor ulei 7. Lubricating oil cooler
8. le$ire. apei de. mart de. rlk .ire 8. Cooling: seawater outlet
9. lntrttre :lpei de m~re de riid.re 9. Cooling se:\w~H cr inlet
to. lmm-e ap1i de !'!eire moto 10. Engine cooling water inlet
I I. le$ire op5 de r-dcire motor I I. Engine cooling water outlet
12. C8Lrc t~ncu l de api tchnica 12. To fresh water lank
13. TernX>metru 13. lbermometer
14. Vacuummc::tru t4. Vacuum gauge
15. Valva de sigurnntli t5. Relief vah.c
16. Robioet de i~ire aer 16. Ai outlet cock
17. Val\uta eliminare vacuum 17. Vacuum breaker valve
18. Manovncuum.mclru t8. Compound gauge
19. Van1i sferica 19. Globe valve
20. ~<fa nometru 20. Pressure gauge
2 1. Riisufliitor pc:ntru apa de :tlimcntarc 2 1. Peed water oriftcc
22. Van1i atmatli cu J J'C 22. Sptilg loaded valve
t93 Material cu drept de autor
23. foihru 23. Filter
24. Pompa cj cctoarclor 24. Ejector pump
25. Valvulli inve.rsabiU\ 25. Check valve
26. Ejector cu tl.pii ( pentru S.Ortlmurii) 26. Water ejector ( lOr brine)
27. Ejector c u :tpi ( pcntro acr) 27. Water ejector (for air)
28. Pompa de apil tehnic~ 28. Fresh water pump
29. Celuli! detectare. Stl.linitate 29. Salinity cell
30. Indicator de sa.linitatc 30. Salin ity ind icator
31. Buzet de alarmli 31. Alarm buz.zer
32. Vitlvulil electromagnetidi 3'2. Solenoid valve
33. Vulvulii de invcrsarc 33. Check valve
34 . Robinet mostre 34. Test <::<>ek
35. Debitmetru 35. FlOw meier
36. Schimblitor de catdurn (vaporizator) 3-6. Heat exchanger
37. Separatotul de pid'itui 37. Separator shell
38. Condens.mor 38. Condenser

Separatorul de apti tehnica Allas The Atlas fresh water generator


cuprinde un v!lpOri1.tliOr, un sepanu or de comprises tl heat exchanger, a scptnnor
picl!turi si un cond ensator ciit si accesorii and a condenser with such accessories as
cum :u fi ejectorul perutu aer. ejectotul cu air ej ecto r. water ejector lOr brioe
~pii pentru desciircarea saramuri, pompa discbarge, ejector pump. fresh water ptlmp
cje<:toarclor. indicator de salinitate pcntru salinity indicator. solenoid valve. flow
apa tehnic.ii.. electn"J\'alvli. debitmetru etc. meter etc.
E.ste in fonna asemSniitQtlre cu un It is Sh:lped like a vertical cylinder
cilindru vettical cu vaporizatorul atasat Ia with the heat exchanger attached to the
partea inferioard. La partea superioara a k>wer part On top of 1he heat exchanger.
vaporizatorului este monwt oblic the separator wilb a buiJtin condenser is
separatorul cu un coodensator incorpornt. k>cated skewerly. The beating tube nest of
(irupul de tuburi al schimbii.torutui de the heat exc.hanger is stt in a perpendicular
c-ftkluril cstc fix nt pe 0 direqic direction; the tubes are rol.led into the tube
petpeodicular~. tuburile ca-e s.um trase in sheets at both ends. The dellecto is located
plr.cile tuburilor La ambele car)C!te. in the lower part of the separator ru1d the
Deflcctorul cstc situnl tn pane.a inferioara a condenser. composed of a lateral cooling
separatorului, iar condensatorul compus mbe nest, is ho used in the upper part.
dintr un g:rup lateral de tuburi de nicirc: este
incostnt in parte:. superioara.

Un asemenea separator Such a separator operates as


funqioneazii dup3 cum urmcaza: fo llows:
Du p~ cum este ar~tat in sche m ~. As indicated in the piping diagmm.
leg,iiturtl cu circuitul de rilcire cu apa the connection with the cooling fresh water
tehnicii a motorului diesel este fo~ute system of the diesel engi.nc is so si.mple
simpl~ aslltllocfit nu este nevoie de 11ici o that oo chaoge is oecessaty in the size of
schimbare a miirimii pompei de apa dt! the engine <.'OOiing water pump of the: main
riicire a moto rului c3nd sc instaleaza Ia engine when. installing the Jicsh w.-.tcr
generatOI'UI de ap3 lehnic3. genel'ator to it
0 parte din apa tehnid de rilc:ire (Ia A part of the cooling fresh water
:proximativ 60-65C) c-are icsc din motor (alx.Jut 60-65C) llowi.ng o ut of the diesel
este tndreptatli s.pre schimMtorul de engine is lead to the heat exchanger of the
c.ii.klur.. at g,eneratorului de apil 1ehnid i ~ i fresh water generator and supplies its hem
ccxlenza c-iildum sa :pei de mare tn timp cc to the se:water wblle it flows along. the
curge pe lfingli suprafata exterioadi. a outer surface of the beating tubes. The
tuburilor de inc.alzire. Apa de dicire c.urge cooling water flows back into the engine
194 Material cu drepl de autor
inapoi in sistemul de ritcire. cu apfi a oooling water c.irculation system. with its
molorului, cu tcrnpc;ratura redusii cu 5- tcrnper.-turc reduced by 5-10C.
10c .
Apa de mare de r1icire a Tile cooling seawater of the
condens:uorului pl eac~ de I:\ reful:tre.a condenser. lend from the discharge side of
pompci de apii de marc, curgc prin tuburile the seawater pump, !lows through the
de rite ire J)entru a condensa vapOrii generati oooling tubes to oondense the vapor
Ia extc:riorul tuburilor. Se intoarce Ia generated Outside the tubes. It n::HtmS tO the:
cittuitul de r1icire cu ap! de mare at cooling seawater system of the lubricating
rlicitorului de ulei de ungere $i rlicitorul de oil oooler and the fresh water cooier. or it is
apa tchnic-ii, s.:u es.te dcsclircat peste bord. discharged O''erboard. its te mpernHtre
temperaiU.ra sa crescfind Cll aproximativ having risen about 6C.
6C.
Ejectorul cu apa pentru aer mentine The water ejector fo r air mainUtins
vacuumul inveli$Uiui generatorului de ap1i the fresh water generator shell vacuum.
1ehnid'i. Apa de mare \'enind de Ia pompa The sea water comirlg from the ejector
cjectoardor o parte antrencaza ejectorul pump partly drives the w~a l er ejector for ~t.ir
pentru ap3. iar o pane aJime111eaza cu apa and partly feeds water to the heat
sc.himb:ritorul de c!tkturfi (vaporizatorul) $i exchanger and drives the water eje<:.tor lOr
antn:neazii ejectorul cu apa pe.ntru brine disch.n.r~e.
desclrc:u-ea saramurii.
Apa de atimetnare t.re<:e prin filtru. Tile Jted water passes through the
valvula armata cu arc, r3su03torul apci de fiher. the spring loaded valve, the feed
alimentare p5n1i cfind ajunge Ia capacul water orifice. until it flows. in the bottom
inferior al schimbiltorului de c.itldurii cover of the heat exc.hanger. While passing
(v:tporil;ttQrului). i n limp cc trece prin 10 the heating tubes, it is he!lled with the
wbutile de inc1ilzire. es.te tncllzit de apa engine cooling ftesh water (6065C) and it
1ehnidi de tl\cire a mmorului (60-65C) $i is evaporated Ullder a high vacuum that
este vapOrb..at sub \'acuum ridic:u care re.ache~'l 70.5 em Hg. Vas (at about 40C).
aj unge Ia 70.5 em Hg. Vas (1a aproximativ
4QC).
Oellectorul sc:pnrit Stropii fi ni de The deflecto r separ.ttes tine drops
ap3 de mare de vaporii generati care of seawater fro m the generated vapor
pattund in condensator. Stropii de apa de which flows into 1he condense.. Separated
mare ~i apa de mare neevap<>rata seawater drops and unevapOr!lted seawater
(s..m unura) sunt absorbite In afara corpului (brine) are sucked out of the separntor shell
sepa'tltoului ~i descli'Cate In afal'a navei de and discharged outside the vessel by the
ciitre ejectQrul pcntru desca.rcat saramurii. water ejector for brine discharge. The
Vnporii gencrati. condcnsati de ciitre apa generated vapor, condensed by the
de rnare <:e curge prin ,e,ile de rlicire ale seawater flowing through the. cooling tubes
condensatorului, se trttnsfonnii in :lpii or the: (.' (mde.nser. turns into fresh water and
tehnie!\ ~i este trimisJI. de c!tre pompa de is led by the fresh water pump to the fresh
apil tehnic3 in tancul de apa tehnicl\ instal.at water tarlk innalled in the vessel.
Ia ntw3.
Cind s..'llinitatca In npa produsa When the salinity in the produced
deplt$t-$te. 10 p.p.m. electro,aha de pe water e~ceeds I0 p.p.m.. the solenoid \'al"e in
calea rduliirii p<>mpc:i de apii tehnid este the freSh water pump Outlet line is activated
aclionat! de c!tre indicatoi'UI de salinitate by tbe salinity indicator and automaticaJJy
$i retumeaza automat apa ditre oorpul retu.ms the wate.r to the sepa1<1I01' shelL Wen
separatorului. C5nd purit:.u ca 11pci produse the purily of the water produced rn:ets
satisf.1ce standardele (e sub 10 p.p.m.) este standards (bek'lw 10 p.pm.) it is autormtieally
automat introdust. in 1ancul de apa tehnidi. led into the fresh water t.ank.

195 Material cu drept de autor


CapiiOiul 2$ Unil 28

Inslalaiia de tratare biologica a Biological Sewage Treatment Plant


apelor uzate

o--6 II fb
, 3~
~I
L2~
10_

I >.f
14
I~

-
2 ~

t
~I l L
16

\o
15

~8 ~ 19 -IlJ 17
t_
Fig. 28.1
I. Camera pre liminara 1. Preliminary chamber
2. Camera de activare
rez.iduurilor, namolului
(aerare)
2. Activated sludge (acr:1ting) chamber

3. Camera de decantare 3. Sedimcnttltion chamber


4. Camer3 de clorinare 4. Chlorinating chamber
5. WC-uri 5. we scuppers
6. Pi~oarc 6. Urin:tls
7. Valvulii unisens 7, NoHcturn valve
8. Compresoare 8. Compressors
9. PreSOS1:ll 9. Pressure gauge
10. Dusuri .si dlzi de baie 10. Sho\vers and bathtubs
I I. Chiuvete I I. Wash/hand basin (wash bow)
12. E lcclrovalvii 12. Sokookl valve
13. Valvula cu membrnn3 13. Diaphragm valve
14 . f.ihru 14. Sttiliner
I 5. l)o~JH Or 15. Satche r
16. Indicator de nivel 16. Float switch
17. Pon11)a de descarc.are 17. Discharge. pump
18. Pompa de circulatic IS. Circulating pump
19. Pahnr de labor::nor 19. Beaker
20. Spre santinil 20. To bilge
2 1. Vah'tlii dretplii 2J. Straight 1brough Vnlve

196 Material cu drept de autor


Jnstalatia de. tratare a apelor u?..oue. The sewage treatment plant is
cstc desti.natli ncutrali.Urii materiei fccale designated for neutralization of fecal
$i ape)or uzate sanitate ce se produc pe matter and sanitay sewage ansng on
nava. ln concordantil cu Conventia ships. According tO MAR POL Convention,
MARPOL materia fccalii cstc dcnuroitli fcc~LI mancr is named "bl ~1ck sewage..
aplS uzatlS neagrll." tn timp ce apele uzate while sanitary sewage is lamed "gray
sanilare sunt numite ''apa u?..ata g:ri". Acest sewage.". This kind of sewage plant c.an be
tip de instalattc de tratare a apelor uzatc mounted on the ship of unlimited cruising
poate fi mo nt at~ pe nave cu arie de area and runs in a fully automatic mode.
croazicrii ndimitatit ~ i functioneaza intr-un
mod complct automatizat.
Fur)Ctionarea instalatiei de tratare TI1e operation of the biological
b;o~gic-il a apelor uzate se bazca:~iJ pe sewage treatmc:nt plant is based on the
procesete biologice care au loc in can-.era biological processes taking place in the
bioiogid. Procesul de ttatare a apeior uzate biological chambet. The sewage treatment
fo!Qseste efectul naturol al proce.sului process utiH:.:es the n:uur:d effect of sewage
autopurificarii apclor uzatc. datorat self-cleaning process owing to micro-
rnicroorganismelor. in special bacteriik)r organisllls. specially to the ae.robic
:'lcrobe, can: tntns fo rma subSHmta organic-it. bacteria, which LrtlnSfOrm organic
in alte mier<x)l'ganisme si dioxid de carbon. subsumce into other micro-organisms and
c-ai'I>On dioxide.
Moth.ul principal pentru inswhtre.a The main reason tO i.nstall the plant
inSialatici pe mwa cste de a feri apele on lhe ship is to guard lhe coastal sea water
litoralurilor sau altor acvatorii protejme de and other water areas protec100 by
MAR POL S.i u alte reglementari impOtrivn MARPOL or by Other regui:Hions !l!ltlinst
polull.rii cu ape uzate. po11uting with sewage.
lnstalalia poate li IOiositli pentru Tile plant can also be used for
trntarea apclor u:tate ce sc- produc Ia biological treatment of sewage arising in
bucat~ria navel si pemru dezinfectarea the galley and for disinfecting of sanitary
ape lor uzate sanitare. sewage.
Pentru functiomn-e, i n stt~.l otia de For its operation, the sewage
u-ata-e a apelor uzate utilizeaz~ procesul treatment plam utilizes the natucal
biok>gic natural al desoompunerii rnate.rie.i biological process of ltcal mauer
fecalc de c5tre bactcriilc aerobe. Apclc decomposition by aerobic bacteria. The
uzate sunt aerate in camem apek>l' uzatc sewage is aerated in the a<:tivated sludge
activate apoi transfcrate intr-un tanc de chamb.:r and then transferred into the
dccanture. Scdimentdc colectatc in camera scuing t:tnk. The scHiog collected in the
cfit $i sputt\a de pe supmfa\a suot chambet as well as the surface scum are
recirculate pentru o desc-ompunere recirculated for additional decompOsition
suplimentar3 'in can1era ap<;lor uzatc i.nto the activated sludge chamber. The
activate. Apele uz.ate pul'iflc:ate sunt purified sludge is directed into the
direc~ionate in camera de ciOrinnre ptmtru chlorination chamber for disinfection.
de:tinfcctare.
Clorul este utilizat to trata1-ea apei Cliloine is used io water treatmem
pentru dezinfectart-, pru\enirea ~i lOr disinfection. prewntion and destrue-tion
distrugc.rea mirosurilor ~i inlilturarca of odors and color removal.
culorii.
Tn timp ce principala sa utili:!.ttre While its principal use is as a
este ca mccanism dez.infcc tant. ac~ i unea sa disinfectant mechanis m. its bactericidal
bacte.ricidl1 e.ste nesigurl'i. Este p1'0babil sa action is uncertain. It is likely that c.hlorine
dis.truga enzimelc extracelulare ale destroys the e-:<trat:c llular enzymes of the
celulclor bacteriilor ~i este posibil ca el sa bacterial cells, and possible that it might
ll'eaCli I01U$i P'irl peretii celulelo peruru a actuaJiy pass through the cell wall to attack
ataca sistemele intracelulare. Elicienta intrac--ellular syste-ms. The. bactericidal
197 Material cu drept de autor
bactericidit a dorului es.te redusa prin efficiency of chlorine is reduced by
crqtcrea valorilor pH ului si tcmpcrawri.i.
4
increased pH values and low temperatures.
CJorul este un element lb arte activ ChJorine is a very active element
~ i dind e-.ste ndaugm in 9pil en d ement tiber and when added tO wtltcr as free. or as
sau ca rezultat aJ altor reactii chimicc, result of other chemical reactions. chlorine
acesta se va combina cu materia orgMic3 $i will combine with organic and inorganic
anorganid ~i \'3 oxida alti co mpu~i matter and oxidize some organic and
anorgantci. inorganic compounds.
CJorul liber disponibil reactioneaz3 Free available chJorine reacts with
cu :tmonincul ~i multe amine organice ammonin and m..'ln)' organic amines tO form
pcntnl a lbmw cklraminclc. chlommincs.
Clorul in apa In oombinatii chimice The Chlorine in water, in chemical
cu amonincul ~i alti comp u~i c.u 31.01 c.are combination with ammonia or Other
modificfi gradul de actiune lxtctericidli estc nitrogenous compounds which rlK'Jdify its
CUJK>SC-ut dJ'e pt clor combinat disponibiL rate of bactericidal actiOJt is known as the
Cerercn :tpei este diferenta dinlre canlit:uett combined avai.lnble chlorine. The chlorine
rczKiualli de clor prezenta. fie in stare demand of water is the difference between
Iibera fie combinat. dupa o anumitlJ the amollln of chlorine p1-esent as residual,
periottdil de limp. either free or combined, after some
designated period.
J\pele u1.ate sanitare (apele uzate The sanitary sewage ("gray''
g ri'') sunt vlirsate direct in ace,aslii cameril. sewage) is fed directly into this chamber.
Dcz infectarca esu: rcalizatli prin The disinfection is obtained by means of a
intermediul so l u~ ie i de hipOclorit de sodiu sodium hypOChlorite solution (NaOCI).
(NaOCI). Nttvtl trcbuie echip.ua cu un The ship shOuld be equipped with separate
sistem separat de tubulatui pentru ambele piping sys.tem for both fecal ald s..1.nita1y
tipuri de ape uzate. fec.aJe $i sanitare. sewage.

Componentele principale ale The main components of the plant


instalatiei sunt dupa c.urn urme-azil: are as follows:

Elementul principal al ins.talatiei este The bas ic element of the plant is the
corpul din otel !aminal divizat i1l steel sheet m:.~de body divided into the
urmiitoard.: patru camere: IOIIowing lOur chambers:
4
camera preliminara - preliminary chamber
4 came.'tl de activate a ~~.zidu u rilor. - activated sludge (aecating) chamber
oii(TlOiului
4
camera de dccantare - scdim<:ntation chamtx:r
4
camera de clorin.a-e - chlorinating chamber
De ascmenea instalatia mai c.uprind.:. Th.: plant also comprises following
urmiitoarclc instalatii: instalh:Hions:
Tubulaturile de ap3 uzat3 $i pompele: Sewage pipewol'l\ with pumps:
4
ramura de circulatie cu pOmpa de. - circulating branch with circulating
circulatte. filtru. indtcator de pump, strainer, pressure gauge,
p1-esiune. valva plat1i: diaphmgm va l ve~
4
circuillll de evocuare cu pOmp.'\ de - discharge circuil with discharge
cv:1cuare. indie;1tor de prcsiune. pump, pressure gauge a.nd cock lbr
robinet pentru luat nlOst.re de apa sampling the sewage pumped
uzntfi pOmpata pes-te bord ~i \a l vu le~ outboard and valves:
4
Sistcmul de acr comprimat cu oomprcsoarc.k: 4
Compressed air system with compressors:
doul'l comp1'e.Soare oelubefiate: two oil-free compressors:
4
tubultllurii de (."()lectarc cu indicator . collecting pipe with pressure gauge,
de prcsiune, COR(X'tat3 prin robinete connected by shutoff cocks with the
de stparare de refulii.rile outlets of both compressors:
198 Material cu drepl de autor
conpresoarelor:
- tuOOiaturii cu val\'u ~ pcntru distribuirc.1 - pipi.ng with valves for distributing
ae1ului comprimat elementelor the compressed air to the individual
ind ivid uale; ite ms:
- sistcm de tubuluturi eu sup:tpe de - piping system w ith a check \'alvc
retinere protejfind compresoarele protecting the oompressors against
impotri\a ine<:arii. fumiziind aer flood ing:. supplying <.' (unpressed a ir to
comprimat duzelor de aerare $i the aeration nozzles and ejecto rs~
ejectoare:lor:
- douit electrovahe cu trei c.iii - two three-w!l)' solenoid val"es
-Sistemul electric cu panoul de comand3 - Electric system with control panel

199 Material cu drept de autor


CapiiOiul 29 Unil 29
C.nna sl lll3Slna c.:1rmei Tile Rudder and the Steering Gear

--- 11
9 16

1 6

,.

Fig. 29. I

I. ValvulAdreapt! I. Strojght valve


2. Venti) de lnchidere (supapU o blura 2. Shut-off valve
to tLre)
3. ValvA de siguranH\ 3. Safety valve
4 . Valva cu contragreutale eu blocare a 4. Counlerbalance valve w ith break
pen<lulului release shunlc valve
5. Se1tar de dist1'ibu1ie cu u e i pozitii, 5. Sp1ing k>aded three positiOil, four
patru d'ii cu aqionare manualii $i connection manuaf.solenoid slide
clcclrK:a $i rcenirc cu ~rc ( rc,c nirc valve
mecanic!)
6. Serlar dt:. d islr-ibutie c u do uii pozitii $i 6. Spring loaded IWO pOSiliOn four
patru cai cu revcnire c u arc connectio n. slide vnlvc
7. Se1tar de diMibuHe (valvA e lectromag. 7. Sp1ing loaded two posit ion. four
netidi) cu dou:i pozitii. patru citi $i connection. soleno id \'a lve
rcvenirc cu arc
S. Indicator de pozitie a l cfu'mei 8. Rudde position indicator
9. Echc:a dirmei 9. Rudder Iiller

199 Material cu drept de autor


10. lndicatode presiune 10. Pl'essure gauge
11. RilciLOr de ulc:i cu ner I I. Air Oil cooler
12. lndic~ l or de fl uidiHtc 12. Pouring meter
13. Filtru de ulei 13. Oil strainer
14. Pompii de umplere a<.~t iontufi manual 14 . Manual operated refilling pump
15. Pompa cu volum fix 15. Pump. single fixed displacement
16. Tija pislonului 16. PiS{On rod
17. Oriliciul axului cilrmc:i 17. Ruder SlOck hOle
I S. Cilindn1 hidraulic (motor hidmulic IS. Hydraulic cylinder
liniar)

Masina c:i:rmei (i'mpreuna cu c:i:rma) The steering gear (with the an ached
pe langli. rooloul principal es{e unul dintre rudder) besides the main engine is one of
cele m:ii imporlanle d ispo~i tive !lie n11vei, Ihe most impOrl:tnl ship de\'ice Ihal eosures
care asigurli functionarea in si.gur.m)li a the ship operational safey. This device
navei. Acesa dispoziti\ i'ndeplineste perlOrms the IOIIowing: two basic tasks:
urmii.IOtlrdc snrcini de bft~it:
Jine cursu I d.rept at navei keeps the right course of the ship.
schimbli. cusul pentru a manevra nava. changes oourse of the ship in order to
maneuve.r it.

Claslticarea cfinnelor Rudder classificaUon


C1irmele pot fi clasificale dupii. Rudde.r:s c!ln be classified by the
urmliloarele critedi: fo llowing criterions:
Dupli modul de asamblare a penei By the n'Klde the rude blade is
c.:lrmei cu corpul navei: assembled with !he ship's hull:
dlrma simpla ordinary ruddc:r
c5rm~ semisuspc:ndata partially undc.rhun,g rudder
cfu'm-1\ suspendati\ suS-pended/ hangedf hanging/
underf1ung rudder. (spade).t)1)e
rudder
Dupii pozitia axutui c5rmci fnt3 de By the rudder stoc.:k position relative co
muchia de atac: entet iJlg edge:
c!lrma necompens..ua u nb:~Ja ncc:d rudder. doorl)'l>e
rudder, ordinary rudder
cfu'm-1\ insufic iem oompensati\ mlderbalanced ruder
cftnn:a semicompensatll semi-suspended/underhang rudder
dlrma compenstltit (full)-balanced rudder, equipOised
rudder
ctiJ'ml'i suprnoompelsatl'i ovetbalanced rudde.1'
Dup:i fo rma geome-tricii a sectiunii By he rudder blade shape:
longitudinal-orizontalc:
cirm~ plata center-plate rudder, flat plate rudder
streamlined/ h)drofoiV fariform
cfu'ml'i ctu~n ati\ (cu p1'011l rudder
hidrodinamic)
Dupii po~itia de :tmplas.:trc h corpul
By the posilion on the ship's hull:
ll<l\'ei:
middle rudder
cftnn:a ce.ntralli
200 Material cu drept de autor
c.annii. tateralii. quarter/ side. rudder
d rmii o riwmnla pi'O\'a ( I~ bow/ forward plnne (~11 submarines)
submarine)
clrmli. oti7.ontall\ p1xwa ( Ia allel' hydropl:ule/ plane. stem diving
submurine) plane, S-tern plane/ fin (at
submarines)
carmli. prova bow/ auxiliaty rudde
d .rmii verticalii (la submarine) steering/ vertical rudder( at
subm:trines)
c:im\3. vertK;:alli. superioarli.(la dorsal rudder
subma rirh!)
Oupa scopul indeplinit: By the action that they perform:
drmli principal3 main ruder
carma de asieta (Ia submarine) trimming plane (at submarines)
clrmli. de guvernare steering 'Udder
dlrmii de reducere a ttpupilrii lirting rudder
d rmii de :tv:trie jury mddcr
cirma suplimentara de 111..1.nevra manoeuvring rudder
Dupli. nmnil.l'ul de safrane: By the number of blades
dlrmii cu un singur sa fra n ordinar)' rudder
cfirmii cu do ua safrnne twin rudder
d rmii cu trei s.1.frane triple-bladed rudder
<::lrnlli cu mai nmlte saf'tlne multi(ple)-blade tudder
Oupit eonstruc,ie: Oy oonstructio n:
dirmii compens:ua react iv balanced reaction rudder
d rmii cu ndtiOS salmon l:til
clmlli cu atipli flapped l'udder
c.:lrml'i cu aripioarli. flapped fin/ruder flap-type rudder
dlrmii cu balamale hinged rudder
c.arma cu bordaj metalic sidc-plmc rudder
clirnl! c:u bulb bulb rudder
<::lnllli cu oonsolli. hom tudder
dirmii cu ~hidaj 110Z't,le rudder
d.rmii cu contrag.b.idaj contra (-guide) rudder
cirma c:u eliee stcerable propeller. ruddet propeller
c.:lnnii. cu jet jemvator
dlrmii cu pene v.:rtic.alc: kitch.:n rudder
d'irmii cu spa~i u i.ntre bordaje hollow ruder
c.arma din lemn wooden rudder
Cllrnlli In tune! orientabil bo:<l bucke' type rudder
c.ilrmii reactiva reaction rudder, je tavator
dirmii reversibilil kitchen rudder

Echi(,amcn t mccanic Mcch.anical equipment


201 Material cu drept de autor
Ac,ionarea c.firmei e.$te fi'icutit Rudde.r driving is perfo rmed
hKlraulic in limp cc conlrolul mi$ciirii ci bydraultcally while its mo,cmcm control is
este tacut electrohidrnulic. cai'J'ied o ut electrohydraulically.
Ma~iml dlrmei e.ste aldHuitit din The $-leering gear consists of the
urm3to~c lc parti: fo llowing units:
a) partea motorului hidtautic cu a) rudder actuator unit with main
urnlftOarele clemente: elements such as:
cchca cirmci rudder tjJicr
doi cilindri bidtaulici ( motoare two hydrau1ic cylinders
hidtaulice liniate)
b) douii uniliiti de actionare, liccarc din b) h"''O indc::pcndcnl drive un.ils. each of
de contin:lnd: chcm containing:
tanc de circulalie ulei oil cir<:ulatio n cank:
diSpOZitiv de pOmpare pump unit
blOc cu valve valve block
me ito de ulei cu aer ai oil cook:
c) tanc de pl\strrue ulei c) oil storage tank:

Echipament electric Electrical equipment

f.chipamenlul electric cSic menit sii The electrical system is intenc.lcd to


functioneze impreuo11. cu masioa eJecuo- co openue with (he electrohydmulic
4

hidraulidl a c.lrmei. A<:est sistem pe.n nite stee.ring gear. Thi..t; $ystern enables the
scpnrarca circuitclor hi<lmulicc principalc separatio n of the main hydraulic circuits in
in caz.ul diderii unuia dinrre circuite. case of failure in o ne of the circuits.
Acest sistem este akiltuit din: ThiS system C()nSiStS Of:
douil tablouri de tlimenlarc: two supply power boxes
4

un panou de scmnaJizarc $i oon1rol o ne signaling and control panel


bridge
un plnOu de semnalizare pcnlru o ne signaling panel for Engine::
Puncwl de Comandii *' Control Control Room (ECR)
(PCC)

lnst ructinni de exploatare. Operating instmctions

Fiecare dintre pOmpc are propriile Each or lhe pumps has its
sisteme hidr:tulic ~i electric de control independent hydraulic and electrical
independente. Exist~ dou3 moduri de a comrol system. The.re are two ways of
orienta c:Arma Ia nava- primul. de pc punic rudder ddlection control in the. ship - first,
iar at doilea. din camera ma~inii cfi.rmci from the bridge and second, from the
pl'in intermediul distribuitoarelor de control stee1ing gear room by means of the control
cu pftr~Nc-. Sistemul pennile urmiiiO:lrde Slide levers. The following: Steering gear
posibi l itii~i de control ale m~ini i cftrmci: control possibilities arc prO\'idcd by the
sysh:~m:

a) Comanda de la distallfti a) Remote control


cu sincronizarc" prin intcrmcdiul "follow-up" by means of the ste<.:ring
timonei wheel
rara "'sincroni'l.are" prin intc::rmediul "n<)nIOIIow-up,_. by means of buliOnS Or
butoanclor sau controlcrclor cu p5.rgh.ii lc.,er controller (rudder movcmcnl is
( mi.scarea c:\rmei are Joe pfi n~ La catt-ied on until imerrupting mamal
intreruperea manualfi a funt\ iOniirii) <~ontrol operation)
203 Material cu drept de autor
"automat" prin imerrnediul pilotului ''automatic'' by means of an automatic
automat. pi.lot
b) Coma11dtl Jocalfl ( in companimentul b) Local control (at the Sfeering gear
ma~inii dnnei) room)
in caxul controlului local prin Ln c~tsc of local control by mc~m s of
imenuediul butoanelo $i pftghiilo de buttons or oomrol levers of the solenoid
control a distribuitoardor electromagnet ice. directional control slide. valves (when the
(cind ..comand~ de In distan1a cstc ..remote control" is nonnally cffteicnt) it is
funct ional ~) este necesar sli se deoonecteze requi'ed to discxmnect the -emote control
cin:-uitul de comanda de Ia distantit de Ia circuit at the pOwer switchboard. Actual
tabloul de alimcntarc. Poziti: curcnt3 cstc rudder position is indicated on the rudder
ildicatl\ de indicatorul de pozilie al c.:ii'O)ei. positioo indicator.

Mod de functionare Operatin2 mode

Mn-$ina dirmci sc po:ttc afla in unul T he steering gear may be in one of


din cele trei modud de opetate iJl timpul thtee opetation modes dudng its
e:<ploatarii: exploitation. i.e.
a) Func(ionare de bazii. adic3 o pompii n) Basic operalion, meaning one pump
lucte~z~ cu doi cilinddi hidmulici, works two hydraulic cylinders. that is
aceasta este runctK>narea nonnala. normal work. Pumps shoukJ be
Pompclc trebuic schimb,utc Ia ficcarc switched over e\cry 24 hours.
240I'e.
b) Ftlnc#mranm de marie, ins.: m n~nd cfi h) Eme-rgtmcy tJperalirm, i.e. one pump
o pomp! lucrcaza cu un cilindru works with one hydraulic cylinder
hidraulic care ii apat~ine. in genetal. belonging to it. Generally the speed of
vite-:t-1 navei trebuie SC-ii;:uta pentru a the ship should be decreased in order
nu crc~tc prcsiunca nomjnalii in to not exceed the nomi.nnl pressure of
instala~ia hidraulicl\. hydraulic installation.
c) Ftmc#mrarell in parnle/, estc 0 c) Additimwl operolitm, is a special kind
functionare speciaiAa masinii carmei: of steering gear operation: two pumps
dou11. pompe $i doi cilindt i and two hydraulic cylildets operate
functionea;:ii simultan. Functionarc:t simultaneously. Simultaneous
simultana ~ ambclor pompc cstc o pera~ ion of both pumps is pcnnissiblc
pennis.1 in zonde unde Autoritit\ile in areas whe.re Adminis-tralion
Administrntive cer accSL tip de AuthOritieS require such kind of
functionare. operation.

NOTA NOT6
Functionarca cu doua pompc si un singur The work of' 1wo pumps with one cylinder
cilindru NU ES'TE permisli! IS NOT permissible!

Procedura de pornirc Starting procedure

Pornirea i.nstalatici ma~ID II carmci Switching on the s.1ecring gear lbr


4

depinde de pomirea oricarui motor electric basic operation depends on switching-.on


al unitiitii conducfitoare. fn c-azu1 dind any ekc.tric motor of lh~: drive. unit. In c.as-e
u n itt~ t ea I lucn::a:;.o..ii, unitatea 2 trebuie sa lie ()( Ihe drive unit I working, Ihe drive unit 2
in sm~a a~teptru-e (pin a p~satea shoukl be on standby' mode (by pushing

204 Material cu drepl de autor


butonului A$TEPTARE in rona unitli1ii 2 a the bunon STAND-BY at the. lield of the
t:tbloului de comandfl pc panoul de control drive unit 2 of the control box on the
de punte). AceaMa permite funetiona1-ea bridge control panel). l1lis enables the
sistemului automat - in c-azul in c-are vreo functioning or the automatic system - in
dcfectiunc intcr\'i.nc in unitatca care the event that any fault occurs i.n the
lucreaza. uoitatea atlata in s.tarea wotking dive unit in the ..stald-by'' mode
"a$tt>ptare" va pOrnii automat. Acest tip de shall start ..vorkin_g automatically. This state
eontrolare a masinii e5rmci estc ricit ca Ia of steering gear controlling is cooled as in
"functionare euplat'' si mai mull aces.ta este "coupled work"' and moreove1. it is
Optimul din punct de vodere !I sig.urnntei Optimum on the openHionttl safety side.
functionirii.

Oprirea pe tennen scurt Short-term stopping pl'O(;edure


(masina cirmei este gata sli funeHoneze) (steering gear is still ready to operate)
Aceast3 procedutl'i de oprire COilS.til 11lis way of steering gear stopping
in o prirea ambd or motoare :tie unitiitii de procedure depends on sw i tchit~g -off both
forta. electric motors of drive units.

Oprirea pe te.rmen hmg Long-temJ stopping procedure


(ex. repa.-atia capital! a masinii c5rmei) (e.g. overhaul of steering gear)
Acest mod de oprire a masilii 11lis kind of stee.ring gear stopping
c5rmei cons1ii in o prirea ambelor motoare procedure consists of switching off both
de lucru ale unit3tii de fo13 si lntrerupcrea working electric motors of drive unit and
alimentlirii cu energie. c.uuing off pawer supply.

Cu vinte suplimentare: Additional word.c;:

Ttmcul de pOsmrre ulei Oil ,fromge resen'Qir


Niplu de ungere Grease nipple
Echea d irmei Rudder tiller
Tij:. pistonului Piston rod
Venti! de aer Vent valve
Orificiul axului c.!lrruei Rudder stock hole

Uuiuut>a de fortO( comlucOtoare) Dd~c tmit


Valva de go lire Drain valve
Indicator nivel ulei Oil level indicntor
Filtru de ulei Oil filter
Supapa de sigurantii principala f\lain safe.ty ''alve.
Valva clectromagnctic-3 Solenoid valve
Mfinerul valvei de inehidere Cut-off valve handwheel
MotOrul electrtc at pOmpei principnle Main pump electric motor
lndic.:ttonrc de nivel scfl_zut si foane scirun Low and .,cry low level i.ndicators

Riidwml de ulei cu aer Air oil awler


Valva de tnchiderc Cut-off valve
Supapi\ de reglae a debitului Throttle valve
Te nnos.~ :n Thermostat
Lndic.ator de prc.siune Pressure gauge
Ri'tcitor Cooler
Motorul electrtc at n~nti l!l tOrulu i Fan dc:ctric motor
Ventilator Fan
Blocul de wJ/mle ttl dlbulrilor hitlmulid Nydmulic cyli11der wlfl'e block
205 Material cu drept de autor
Tija pis.tonului Piston rod
Ci.lindru hidr:wlic Hydraulic cylinder
VaMi de s igurant~ Relief valve
Valvii de ocolire By-pass valw

Supt'lfUt pilot ~lirec(iontllci COIItrv laJti Pil01 opertlle~l so le110id controlled


elecmmwsnetic: directimwl wJ/ve
Carcasa trcptei principalc (a Main stage spool
distribuitorului)
Trttductor induct iv de pO~itic marginalft !II Ind uctive sensing d ement of mnrginal
valvci main v:tlvc position
Blocul \'alvulelo r de reglare Adjustment valve block
Suprareg.lare manunlit pentru a schimba Manual override to shift pilot Sttlg:e
starea pilow lui mecanic nechanically
Bobina valvei pikn Pilot valve coil
Carc:~s:t tn::ptei pilot Pilo t S*age spOOl

Tab/oul ~le di.'ftrilm(;e I m/J.nmue ~; cmurol Power .~wiu;Jtbonrd


Alimemare Supply
Semnali?..are de control Control signaling
Pompt func\ioneatii Pump run
inc31zirc Heating
1ntre.rup:5h)ru) principal Main switch
fntrerupStOml penlru incUI-;:ire He:uing switch
Mod de functiona-e pomp~: Pump operation
Oprit OtT
Local Loc~1l
~ La distant~ Remote
Tempe.raturii ulei Oil temperature
Confi.rmarea alarmei Alarm confirmation
Filti'U de ulei iJlfundat Oil filter fouled
Comanda de Ia dis.tanti\ deconectaHi. Remote control disconne<::tion
Functiorw.rca ventilatorului: Fa.n operation:
Oprit Off
Auto mal Auto
Po mit On

Pmwul de c:ommulcl de ptmle Bn'dge camro/ panel


Alimcotare pompa l'urop supply
Pompa fuoctioneaz.li Pump I'Uil
Avnrie Failure
Supmsarci.n3 Overload
Separarea circuitelor bidraulice Hydraulic circuits separation
Fiirit fa1:a No phast!
Ni\relul de ulci sc!zut Low level oil
A$-l:eptare StandbY
Confirmarea alannei Al:arm confirmation
Vcrificarc scmnalj:ziiri Lamp test
Comutare comand.t de Ia dis.tatltli Ren>te drive switching

206 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul 3() Onil l()

Tancuri Ia bordu1 navei Tanks o n Board of Shi p

4---::lr+-- ---..
' / 6

5 3

7
F;g, 30.1

I. Tanc I. Tank
2. Valvula de golire 2. Drain valve
3. Serpentil3 de ioc31zi-e 3. He.ating coil
4. Aerisire 4. Air vent
5. J.odicator de nivcl 5. Levcl gaugc
6. Tubulatura de umplere 6. Relill piping
7. Tava penlru .scurgeri 8. Leaking Lrtl)'
lm;tala[ill de bala.rt &/last sy.rtf!m
Ttmc de bnlasl l:uernl superior Upper side ballasl umk
Tanc de balasl dublu fund Double bo1tom ballast tank
Picul proYa Fore peak
PK:.ul pupa Af1 pe.nk

Cmuhw;fibil greu Hem'Y fuel


Tanc de combustibil dublu fund Double-bollom fuel umk
Tanc prea plin cornbustibil Ove r full tank
Tanc rezerlit combustibil ,g.reu Store H.F. tank
Tanc dccanwre Seuling 1an.k
Tanc filtru Filter tank
Tanc se.rviciul oombustibil greu Daily H.F. service. tank lOr
Tanc ser\'iciu combostibil caldarinli Daily scr\rice tank for boiler
Recipient amestec combustibil Mixing tank

Mo10rimi Diesel fuel


TMc rezervli motorinli. Stote diesel fuel tank
Tanc decantare motorinl Settling d ie$el fuel tank
Tanc scrviciu mc.Horinii Daily service tank
Tanc serviciu llXltoin pemru D.G. Daily ser\'ice tank for auxiliary engines
ReZ!!n'Or mOtOrina pcntru caldarinil. Boiler d iesel oil lank

Ulei l.ubricatiJJg Oil


Tanc uJci ci.rculatie Circulation oil tank
Tanc ulei lucrnt Used oil tank
Tanc rczcrlit ulci dlindri Cylinder S.IOrc: !:Ink
Tanc rezcrvli ulei D.O. Auxiliary cngi.ncs store tank
201 Material cu drept de autor
Tanc re?..erva ulei oomprt'$Oare Compressor store tank
Tanc rczcrvit ulci ungerc Store 1an.k
Tanc ulei servicii genemle Service oil tank
Tanc pe-trol Petroleum lank
Tanc serviciul ulci D.O. Oaily service lank lbr auxlliary engines
Tanc antesecate ulei amioc.wozi\' Anticotrosion mixing oil ta.lk
Tanc decant are ulei D.G. D.G. oil senling tank
Rezcr"or ulci anticoroziv Anticorrosion oil tank
Tanc expansiune instalatie de unget-e tub Stel'll lUbe Jubticating oil expansion tank
et3mbou
ranc rczcrvit ulci cilindrii Cyli.ndcr lubricating oi.l storage tank
Tarle control ulei cilindrii Cylinder lubricating oil 001llrol ta.lk

Apt1 dlllce Fresh M'Ofer


Tanc re.?..er\'3 ap3 dulce Store tank
T:lnc apii pOtttbiJii Orin}dng water lank
Tanc cxpaosiunc apii ciJjndrii M.P. Main engine cyljndcr expansion tank
Tane expansiune apii eilindrii D.G. D.G. c.ylinder expansion lank
Ttlnc expansiune !I pit rile: ire piSlOane M.P. M:lin engine pistons water expansion Htn k
Tanc apfi saoitarli Sanitary water tank
Hidrofor apil sanita.a Salitary water hidrophore tank
Hklrofor apa potabilii Drinking water hidrophorc tank
Tanc cxpansiunc injcctoare lnjec;tion expansion tank
Reu.r,or apa comandfi separator Operaion tank lOr fuel oil separator.

Scurgeri DrttiiiS
Tane scurgeri preaplin ulei Lubricating oil over full drain tank
Tanc scurgcri :tpli dulce Fresh water drain ta.nk
Tanc scurgeri separator santina Bilge generator drain tank
Tanc scurgeri sanitare Sanitary sludge tank
T:mc: scurgeri separator ulci Lubric:at ing Oil sc:p:u:ttOr drain t:t.n.k
Tanc scutgel'i sanitat-e Sanitaty drains tank
Tane scurgeri punte principala $i Main and intennedime dock drain lank
i.ntcrll'KXIiara
Tanc scurgeri ulei M.P. Main engine lubricating oil drain tank
Tanc scur&eri bucfl tilri~ ~i compartimentul Galley and cooling pro"ision rooms drain
frigoriftc wnk
Rezer\'Ot scutgeri (ricloretilen3 Ethyle1te trichloride tank
Tanc scurgeri ulei unge.re tub e.tambou. Stern lube. lubricating oil drain tank

Tau curi dil'er.'.:e Mi.tctdlutte(m s Umk ...


Tanc: control condens Cond~nsate control tank
Boiler apa sanitara Sanitary w:tlcr boiler
Tanc curli\ire chimic3 Chemical coolers cleaniog tank
Compartimentulloch Loch room
80$<1 COJda Hot well

208 Material cu drept de autor


C:pil<llul 31 Unil :H

A ile cchipamente O ther Equipment

COrlig de remorc.are Towing hook


Se u1ilizea1ii in c.adrul inslalatiei de 11is used in the. ship towing syS(tm.
remorcare a navei.

Frfilrd li11ie de arbon Shaft li11e brake


Sc tnilizeazli pcntru bloc.arca artx.>rilor port It is used for stopping the propeller shafts
elite din irH;(afa\iil.e de propulsie ale in the propelling: systems of river and
navck>r maritime $i lluviaJc in caz: de seagoing ships in case of emergency.
avarie.

l..agrire radiale pentm linia tie 11rluJri Ratli11l Bellrittgsfor Shaft l..ine
Laglirele tadiale sunt destinate sptijinirii Radial beatings ate destined for suppo11ing
arborilor i.ntermediari din instala\iik de the imernliiatc sbafts in propclli.ng
propulsie ale navelor maritime $i tlu\'iale systerns of rivet and seagoing ships of all
de toale lipurilc $i catcgoriile. types and categories.

Crq1lqj elastic Flexible clutch


Es1e ulili:r,al penlru cupl:lrea !lrborilor 11 is used for line sharts coupling h!lving
coaxiali cu diametre intre 16mm $i 180 diameters between 16 and 180 mm. iJl
mm, in l'mturi cinematice in care in ki.ncmatic chains where there is u belt drive
vecinlitatea cuplajului se aflli o transmisie allowing belt changing by the free space
prin cu re~ pcrmit5nd schimbarca curclci belween the front surfuce of half couples
prin spatiul liber C1-e.at intre suprafata on bolls removal.
frontal! a semicuplajelor Ia denXlntarea
~u ruburi iO r.

lnstala(ie g rui brirci sat.are l.ife boat dm,it ~)'stem


Se utUize311i penti'U lansarea Ia ap3 ~i It is used fo lowering at watel' le\'el and
aducerea Ia p0$1 :1 barcUor de s:l\'are l:t seuing into running position of Ufe bouts
naveJe marilime ~ i Ouviale. on river and seagoing ships.

Vi11ci harcri de sallare Life hoot wi11cll


Este utilizat pentru actionaea gruielor It is used fo r ddving life boat davits fo r
biird lor de snlvare penlm liiS:lrea Itt apit ~i lowering and seuing intO running pOSition
aducerea Ia post a b~rc ilo r de salvare Ia of life boats provided on river and sea
navck maritime $i Ouvialc. Bstc suspc:OOat going ships. It is suspended with fasteni.ng
cu prindere. pe. piciorul g:ruiei $i es1e on 1he d:l\'it bas.:-. and it is de.$ig:ned (0
proMxtnt 53 asigurc viteza minima de ensure chc minimum hoisting speed and
ridicare. ~i forta La tambur. Este oompusa drum fon:e . h is compOsed fro m:
din:
l'OIOr e.leclric de ac,ionare driving dec.tric motor
reductor cu roti dintate reduction gear
frfina ccntri.fugallt cenLrifugal bmkc
tambur drum

Cabe,ttJJI de ma11e'rii l-1'apinl: t:llp.~ttJIJ


Se folo~tc in cadrul instalatiilor de It is uSed in mooring systems of river and
manevrli $i Iegare a navet()r maritime ~i seagoing ships.
fluviale.
Cantctcristici principale: M;Lin c h ~r.c l crisl ies:
IOrta nomioa!N de (ractiune nominal tensile f01tt
vitc-ta nominata de virare hnuling rnLcd speed
viteza de virare In go I idle having: speed
209 Material cu drept de autor
v;uci de ()ll(:onJ si manc~nJ Au t /tor tmd mllJieneriiiJ:: wi11dlass
E.ste folosit in cadrul insta latiilor de It is used o n anchor ge:1r of se.agoing ships
a ncornrt al nnvtlor maritime ~i este and it is designed for manoeuvre-, mooring
destimn operatiik>r de manevra. acostare si and depanure operations.
plec.are de Ia cheu.

Stopfi cu roM 1i cu{iJ Roller aHd dog stopper


Se utilizeaz! pe navli in cadrul ilstalatiei It is used on board of ship within the
de ancora si arc ca scop bk>carca lantului anchor gear system and it is intended lbr
tntr o anumitll pozitie pentru a evita o
4
blocking the chain in a ce rta in position as
solicitare prca mare a vinciului. Aile cipuri to a\'Oid too much stressing on the
de stope: w indlass. O ther typ.:s of stoppers:
stopfi c u $urub screw stopper
S.tOpfl cu cu~ i t dog SIOppt:r
s.topa c u rolii. $i c ut it sudate wekiOO ro lle. and dog Sl:Opper

Di."pt);,itiv pt ntm elibt rartti ropidti a Htwk dwin quick n lea.'fillt; d~'ict
lan(ului c11 c/irlig
Se utilizeaza pe navele de s.upra fatli de It is used on surface ships. of all <:.ate.g:ories
toate categoriile in scopul fidrii ~i to secure and let go of the end of the chain
declnnsarii capiitului l:mtului din put in arranged in the chain well if e\'er the
situatia Clind anco1't1 ue buie abandon:ua. anchor mus.t be abandol\ed.

PlJd mlattl c u brtt( c11listmt O'erlread craue witlr slidiut: blJOm


Sc ut i l lzc~z.ii pcntru transportul diversclor It is used lbr carrying diffcrCnt parts. heavy
pie..'>e $i suban.'>amble. grele tn s.ubunits in lhe engine room o n board of
compartimentul ma$1lll de Ia bordul rive1 and seagoing ships.
navelor maritime si fl uvi:.le.
Se compmle din: It oonsis.ts of :
c3rucior longitudinal longitudinal carri:ige
d1ruciot ttansvetsal transve.rsal cattiage
rcductor reduction gear

Amortiz.or COIItra 11ibra[iilor llibratimt damper


Amortizorul C()nlr:t vilm'ltiilor se utilizeaza The vibmtion damper is used fo r stnbili?:ing
Ia stabilizarea conductelor de evacuate a gas exhaust pipes. steam and air maine
ga;t_ek)r, inst.ttl:ttillor navale cu tubulaturi de piping systems o n bo:lrd of river and
abut $i aer Ia botdul navelot maritime $i seagoing ships.
flu viale.

Pomitor mag11etic m:reesibil Nmt rtm~.rsing magnetic .~1-artcr


Sl! utilizea:.-..a pcntru pomirea d irl!clil a It is used for direc.t StartS of thr!!e phased
motoaelor asincrooe trifazate cu rotor in asynchl'onous motors with shon circuited
scurtcircuit cttre se a mplaseaza in impeller ttmmged in rooms and Spaces with
OOmJ>artirue nte $i spatii cu grad de pro tectie JP 54 pJt)te<:".tion.
IP 54.
Arurrot de prmere ;, paralel a Parallel comu!ction tle~ic~ f or altemators
altcnwtoarelor
Se utilizeaza pentru sincroni:.-..area manuala It is used fo r manual S)'nchronizatio n of
a generatoarek>r sincrone trifazate in three phase synchronous generators for
vcdcrca cuplarii l:t b:tre a accslora. their coupling to bars.

AJMTal pe11tru CO!Itrolul itoklfiei ApJ'araJus for itJs uklrion control


Esle deslin:n s.upravegherii ~nnanente a It is designed to pennanently c heck the
rczisten1ei a rc1elek>r clectrice navalc insuJation resistance of the three ph..'lSCd
trifazate c u nul izolat. marinee~lri~l nth'.'Ork with insulated zeJt).

210 Material cu drep\ de autor


C:pil<llul 32 Unil 32

AHi tcnneni Other Terms

Sidon vaselinli Vase line con


Canii de luat probe de apa caldorina Water dumping con
Canii de uns sup;pli Vahe-lubric;lling con
Caali. de ullS cu cioc scun Short pipe lul>ricatilg coo
Ladil pentru scule. Tl)())S bo:<
Lad3 mctalicj Metal box
Cutie metalici\ peouu s!pun Soap metallic box
Cutie eta n ~it pentru bumb<c imbibat Valve.s keys
Cap pri.mirc produsc pctrolierc Receiving cap fo r petroleum product
Foale de m.ftni'i. Belk>ws
Pl11nie cu silii Funnel with seize
Pcrie de curlitat wburi Tubes slriping brush
Platou de lemn Wooden plate
Cheie penlru ridicttre:t prod uselOr petroliere Key for mobile ptmds lifting:
Siringa de $prituit cioc drcpt Lubricating syringe right norde
Siringi'i. de $prituit cioc indo it Lubricating syringe bent nozzle
Trusa de scule pentru tevi Tool se1 for pipe-S

Attcsorii clcctnllchnic rndio Radio ele<:lmte<:hnical accessories

Cre:ion indicator de joas3 u.:nsiune Vollage indicator pencil


Vohmetru Voltmeter
Ampennetru Ammeter
comutator volt metr ic (cheie voltmetrid\) Voltmeter switch
Lampli de control i n cutie Co ntl\lllan-lp in box
Lampa so:tre Cargo closter lamp
Ciocan de lipit drept Soldering iron
Ciocan de lipiLin col~ Angle soldering in)n
Ciocan de lipit cu vtirf schimbabil Soldering. iron whit changeable end
Ciocan de lipit electric Elecuic soldering iron
Mfiner cu revenire Collapsible handle
Oat.ii de Lopil cositor Soldering crucible
Indicator de succesiunea faze lor (ponabil) Phase sequence indicator ( portable)
Cle~te pentru extras sig.uranle tubulare Tube fuses tongs
$unbelnitil cu prindcre 11 ~urubului Screwdriver with screw f:1stening
Penar Pe.ncil box

AIJi termeni electrotehnid

Tensiune de ser viciu Service \'Oitage


Tensiunen de alimcntare Supply vohage
Telsiune nominaHi Rated voltage
Tensiuni de. verificare Test voltages
Curcnt nominal Rated current
Curentul maxim Maximum current
Putere instaltllil lnswlled capacity
Puterca absorbit3 Absofted power
21 1 Material cu drept de autor
Preciz.ia de miis.urare Mea..~uring precision
Poziria de montare Mounting position
Gmd de protectie Protection degree
Tempc:rtltura ambientului Ambic:nl tcmpertnurc
Frecvent5 Frequency
Microlmrerupll.tor Mic-ro switch
intrt.ruptor pachettripol.ar Three pOle packet switch
intreruptor autonw USOL Automatic switch USOL
inu'ei'Upi1tor cump~nli. Toggle switch
Comutator cu came Cam switch
Buton de acrionarc Bush butlon
Buton de oornarldk'i prott-jat Prot~ted control push buuon
Buton cu l.ampii Press-buttOn wilh ltlmp
Contactor tripolar Three pole contactor
Sigurantil fuzibill\ Fusible plug
Sigurttntii automttta Automatic fusible
Siguran1a minion Mignon fuse
Releu termic Tilermal relay
Ltlmpfl de: semnalit.tlre cu transform.ator Sig.nalltlmp with trnnsfonner
Lamp de semnalizare fomlal fi.sl\ Plug shaped signaling lamp
Lampl cu incandescen,a Bulb lamp
Socluri pentru liimpi Lamp sockets
Motor trifhzat Tbrce phase motor
Motor cu tt)h)rulln scurtc.ircuit Squirrel cag:e. induction motor
PoSI de comandil Control post
Releu de timp Timing relay
Rezisten1li de lnclilzire He-ating -e.sistance
Rc:zist'en1li bobinat.ii Wire: wound resistance:
Contactori fr:i:nl!. Break contactors
Indicator de sm:cesiune a fazd or Phase sequence-indicator
Automut tripc>lar Three pOle relay
Contactor de comaocUi. ConU'OI OOilttlCIOI'
Soclu Iampi incandesc.ente Glows-lamp base
Soclu 13rnpi cu mcrcur Mercury vapour lamp base
Sonerie Bell
Tra:.ere PnsSl\g.e
Soma de trccc:rc f>assing termin:tl
Borna unilateralli. Ole side tenninal
Priza Plug
Priz5 ctan$3 Watertight plug
Priz!\ oeetan.s1l Non watertight plug
Trtlnsformator monofl\J'.tl.t Single phase transformc:r
Modul puntc rcdrcson.rc Rectifying bridge: modulus
Modul elenteot se.rie Serious eleme1n modulus
rvlodul filtrate Filtering modulus
Modul rcglare Adjusting modulus
Modul de p1'0tectie PI'Ot~tion nx:~du l us
Placa modul relec Relays modulus plate
$unt de curent Current shunt
Bare de curent Cun-ent bars
Balast Ballast

212 Material cu drept de autor


Aparate $i instrumente d e. conta'Ol Controlling instrnmeuts and apparatus

Cnlcu lntor de v!int Cour:se-cnd speed computer


Cuttc ctnn$3 pcntru bfiJ'li Walenight container for maps
OglildlS de sernnalizare e:u plic Sig_lal mil'rot
Compas g:rosime Thickness oompass
Compas de gaurli Hole compass
Com.pas de trnsat Matking compass
Compas de fungime Length (."()mpass
Compas de tr.~sat variabil Vari ~bl c marking compass
Echer variabil Variable square rule

Disporiti,e

Bor:tci cu r(ltllii ~i d inchet Rtttchet drill with :lnd dog wheel


Dispozitiv de indoit 1cvi Pipe bending de vie
Dispoziti\ pentru scoaterea flan~e.lor f lange removing de vi~
Dispc>zitiv de rldicat sarcini Load lifti ng device
Oispozitiv pentru deplasare nan$C Flanges shilling device
Dispozitiv pentru presat ocht:li Eyelet cable pressi1lg device
Dispozili\' pentru pres~tre~l cablurilor C:tble pressing device
Dispozitiv de prcsat capsc fo i cort Torpondim hooks pressing device
Dispozitiv pentru t:riiat g:arnituri Gasket lOr cutting de.vire
Dispozitiv pentm decupttre garnituri m :l~ini Machine-tOOls gaskets device
unehe
Dispozitiv pentru taiat tevi Pipes cuuing device
Oispozitiv de stringcrc Tightening dc\ice
Dispozitiv de ridicat butoaie Barrels lifting device
Dispozitiv pentru scoatere rulmenti Rolling bearing extractor
Oispozitiv de ~l efu i.re :t C()lectonrelor Collectors gri.nding device
OiSJXlZitiv de scos cup\e. lag1\te. etc. Bearings couples exttacting device
Dispoziti\ pentru extras bucse Gushes removing tool
Oispozitiv pcntru cur3tirca canalclor Key graves cleaning device
Oispozitiv de mandrinat tevi Tube expanding device
Foo.rlt!cil pe.ntru tftiat otel profil Sled section scissors
Instrument combinat pentru tiliat inveli*tll C:tbles co\'er cuuing combined tool
cablul'ilot
Menghini pentru tevi Pipe. \'ice
Coloanii pcntru eric manual Manual jock column
Oispozitiv peouu golit butoaie Ba-el discharging device
Dispc>zitiv pentru Slrfins Ill menf:.hini Vice tightcninf:. device
Oispozitiv pentru flan$al tcvi de cupn Copper pipes llanging device
Oispozitlv penttu $)efuit scaune pemru robioete Cock seats grinding device
Dispozitiv pentru ~fuit Srt.'ilune.pentru valve Valves seats g:Tinding device
Oispoz:itiv pcntnt dcplas."l.fca tl ansck>r lc 1cvi Pipes flanges moving device
Menghinli I'Otmiv3 Turning vice
TennOmelru anntll Armored temp. gauge

Scule Tools
Bac pe:ntru menghin3 Vice s lide blade
C1'ipuitot Riveting set
Ciocan special de lemn pentru matisat Splicing wooden special hammer
213 Material cu drept de autor
Ciocan special met.alic peruru matisat Splicing metallic. special h.anuner
Ciocan de lemn pentru t5mpl3rie Wooden hammer lbr joinery
Ciocan de lemn pentru cli R\ I~t uit Wooden hammer lb r caulking
CiOc!ln de lemn semi Half wO<)(Ien hammer
Ciocan de ruginit Rust hammer
Ciocan de alurniniu Aluminium hammer
Ciocan de cupru Coppe.r hammer
Ciocan planator Sc l hammer
Ciocan de stemuit Calking hammer
Cavilfl !Ire de lemn Wooden needle spike
Ciocan drept scmirolUnd Hnlfround st1.1ight hammer
Ca\'ilil dreaptl'i Straight spike
Cavila indo itit Bent spike
Dorn pentru scos prezoane rupte Stud bolts taking out spike
Cl~te cu lillci drepte Right.nose pliers
C le~te cu fit lei r()IUnde Roundnose pliers
Punctator Droppoi.nt
Ca\'iJa pentru parnma Rope spike
CiOc!ln de lucru pentru tinic.hig.erie Tinners hammer
Ciocan de plumb Lead hammer
Cheie cu lant pernru te\i Pipe chairl shackle
Chcrner Punch
Cutit de frczat stinga Let) mill
Cut it de frezat dreapta Right mill
Cutil de t e~it pe dn:jpt:l Bevel tools-right hand
Cut it de tesit pe: st<inga Bevel tools-left hand
Cut it lateral pe stanga Side 1ool-lefi hand
CuPt later.d pe dreaptn Side toolright hand
Cut it pernru degajare interioari Interior groove cuuer
Ciocan de Utcii tu~erie. bombat Spherical fi ne.r's hamme-r
Cioc:m butc:rolii Soap hammer
Contramattitli cu miner Upper die whit handle
Contramatritl't Upper die
Contrabuteroli Rivc l bucker
Cheie pentru ins.urubat desurubat prezoane Stud screwing/unscrewing key
(SIUd boll wrench)
Oaltii pcntru t.iii:H canale Channels cuuing chisel
Dalt~ dreap l~ Straight chisel
Daltil pe.ntru cratuit (sudurii) Welding chisel
Daltli de ~tcrouit Calking chisel
Dalt3 de c3lli.fdtuit caulking chisel
Dalt.ii pentru inde.stlre Beating chisel
Dalla de dulghcr Joi.ncr'schiscl
Sabk>o pentru raze Fillet gauge
Dorn spc:cial pentru S(:Oaterea nituri)Or Spec.ial mandrel fo r unriveting
Daltii pcntru tAiat nituri cu coada Rivcl cuuing chisel with handle
Dorn IOrmat mic Small shape mandrel
Dorn ... alama Brass ... puncheon
Daltii In cn1ee Grooving chisel
Dalt<l pentru taiat Ia cald Hot cuuiog chisel
Datta format mic Small shape chisel
lnim3 de anrrenare pe strung Carrier heart
M:lller de scule Tools haldle
rvlaniveta pentru tarozi Top barer handle
214 Material cu drept de autor
Data pentru topit oompozitia pentru !.agate B.abbit pOuring pOl
Poncu1it prclucrarc interior lntern working hoklcr cutter
Pon:cu1it prelucrare exterior Extern working holder cuue.r
PL'\cil pentru perforat Perforating plate
Pontarod universal Top lxlrcr holder
Priboi Punch
Preducea Hollow punch
Pan~ de OiCI Steel wedge
Platou de tusm Touch up plate.
R:t~chet ii Scraper
Rangii Crowbar
Randalirlli striere dreapta Milting tool
Rae pentru scos gnmituri Auachmenl fo r gaskets squeezing
Rizuitor dreptunghiular Rectangular semper
R11.zuitor cutbat Curved scraper
R:ln<.itllinli striere in cruci~ t a Crossed knurling tOOl
$ablon pcntru scrierc cifrc Number writing template
Sablon pentru scriere. litere Template for writing the lene.rs
$ablon pentm verific.area ascutirii Templ3te for ched:ing the drills
burghielor
SabiOil penuu eu~ite de strung Cutlet control template
$:1blon rate R:1dius gauge
Suporl nicovali Anvil holder
Sablon pentru verific.area asc:u~ir i i cu~itului Template for checking the tum tool
de Strung
Trng~tor Metal dmwer
Trasator paralefe Surface gauge
M5ncr scule Tool h ~ nd lc
Lingurli pentru tumat compozi~ in White metal pouring ladle
Riizuitor unghiular Angular semper
Pont::u-od univc:rsal Univer$:il lOp borer
PAgJlie cu role Roller lever
G:ltuitor pentru nicoval5 ascu~i t Pointed anvil necking device
Giituitor pcntru nicovala scmisfcric Half-round M\'il necking device
Gatuitor pentru nicova l~ conic Conical anvil necking device
Plato u tu~at Lapping plate
Ciocan pcntru boltori chci term.i.nale $ide Ha.mmcr for the end wrench bolts
impteuttal'e
Ciocan $tifturi Hammer for studs
Ciocan de plumbuit Lead hamn'ICrs
Oispozitiv penuu dezang..-enarea cheikH' Kemer wrench disengaging device
Ke-nter

Urilajc

Cric cu surub Screw jack


Oisptnitiv de ridicat cu pigbia Litling device w hit J.eve
Ma~inii de frec-:lt .,opse:. Point rolling machine
[ompa manuala pcntru scos produsc Manual pump for oil produces taking off
petroliere
Cric cu ~urub mic Small screw jack
Pompa ma nu al~ dublii hidraulic!\ Hydraulic double hand pump
Pompl\ cu mlioet de loalt~ presiune High p1~ssu re hand pump
DispOZitiv manual de ridicat arbori Shafts lift ing hand de.vice
215 Material cu drept de autor
CUrucior de ridicat $i transportal tn CM Lifting transpOrt c.arriage. ER

Acccsorii inctndlu Firt' accessorie.~

Br3larii de strimgere a furt unelor Hose clamp


Cioc de barzi\ cu je1 compact "Roth'' Roth oompactjet hose.lozz.le
C ioc de barzi! cu jet <.'Ompact "Stortz" Stortz compact jet hose-n01.z1e
Cioc de barz3 cu jet combinat "Roth.. Roth combined j et hose-nozzle
Supon penu'U furtun de exterior Exterior bose basket
SupOrt pentru fur1un de interior Interior hose bitSket
Furtul de incendiu Roth Roth fin: hose
Fm1un de incendiu Sto1t?. St011z fue hose
Filra~ pentru nisip Sand sho\el
i mbinare imerni' Roth Lntemal jointing Roth
l mbinare imern3 Stortz Internal jointi1lg Sto11z
Cutie e-u nisip Sand box
Panou ci invemar de incendiu fire extinguishing tools panel
Rangit U$Oarl'i Light bar
Reductic StOrt'i. S t0 11Z reduc.tion
Reduetie Roth Roth -eduction
Supo11 pe.mru pere' i din o~el peotru Steel bulkhe.ad suppo11 for C0 1
StingiitoMe CU C01 cstinguisher
Supon pcmru pcreti pcntru sting3toare cu Lighl walls suppon for col estinguishcr
CO:
SupOrt pentru pereti din mttrinit3 pentru M:lrinite wall es.ting:uisher suppOrt
sting3toare
Stinglitor portabil cu spuma aeromecanicl'i Air foam pottable estinguisber
Piituril Blanket

Corpul omenes.;: l:luman body

Cop Head
Frunte f'ort-head
Ochi Eye
Spr11.nce.anil Eye brow
Geanli Eye lash
Pleoapa Eye lid
Nas Nose
Nara Nostril
Gurii Mouth
Buze Lips
Limbii Tongue
Dinte Tooth
Barbie Chi.n
Ol>raz Check
F:o1o Face
Ureche Ear
Par Hni.r
Barba Beard
Muswtli Moustache
Giit, ce:da Neck
Gfit. g:ltlej TI\roat
Spate Back
Piept Chest
Picpt, s;in Breas.t
216 Material cu drept de autor
Sftni Bl'eaStS
P:lmece Belly
Me.mbre Limbs
Brat Arm
Umflr Shoukler
Cot Elbow
lncheieturn mainii Wrist
Palmli Palm
Deget f inger
))e,g:e-tul m.are Thumb
Picior Leg
Genunc.hi Knee
Gle-nli A nkle
Laba pkiorului Foot
C1Ucfii Heel
T~ l plt Sole
))e,get (de Ia picior) Toe.
Stonwtc S ton~ch
Creier Brains
PIAmini Lungs
Fic:tt Liver
Inim3 Hea11
Rinkhi Kidneys

Boli Diseases
Rlicealli (guturni) Cold
l)urerc: de c:.p Head-ac he
Durere de dinti ( mlisele) Tooth ache
Durc:re-de SI Om~c) Slomac h-ac hc
Durere de gfn Sore throat
G riplt lntluen:w (fl u)
Pneumonie Pnc:umonia
Tutxm:ulozli Consumption (tuberculosis)
Rron ~itil Bronchitis
Faringit11. Pharyngitis
A.mjgdalita TonsiJil is (Om)'gd:l Htis)
Meni1lgitli Mel ingitis
Enccfalit3 Encephalitis
Reurruu ism Rheumatism
Cancer Cancer
Holeril Chol<rn
Cium! Plague
Malttrie (frig uri) Ague (malaria)
Variola ( \~irsat negru) Smallpox
Variola (vrsat de v:int) Chicken-pox
Difterte Diphtheria
Fcbrn tifoid Typho id fever
Pojar Measles
Oreion Mumps
Tetanos Tetanus
Tuse oonvulsi\a Whooping ooug.h
Lepra Leprosy
SIDA AIDS
Sifilis Syphilis

217 Material cu drept de autor


Bibliogra(ie selectiva Selective References

I. )t. Rcgisrul Naval Roman Reguli J>I!IIIYII clasificareo ,yi construc(ia nov<>lor
.,

maritime Bucure$ti 1982


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4. V. r>-taier: Mecrmica .)'i c:on:>tnlc(ia mnei mUll - Coustruc(itl navel Ed. Tehnidi
BUCUI;$li 1989
5. *" " Japanese Industr ial Standatd 1979
6. G. Husd n, M. Tudose: De.fen ud~nic; - manual cis. a IX .# fl X-a &L Didttcticii ~i
Pedagogica Sucurc$-l i 1977
7 . I. Vtanca: Deseu imhwritll Ed. Tehnidi Buc ute$ti 1984
8. T imings, R.L. , Roger Leslie Geneml Engineering Harlow: Longman Scientific &
Technical 1995
9. G. Uzunov. A. P1uiu. I. Dragomit. E. Dinu. D. Catan3. A. PeU'e : Mtmtwlld oji(tmlui
mecanic mnritim \'01. I Ed. Tehnicil Bucure~ti 1997
10. A. Pruiu, 0. Uzunov. 1. Oragomir, B. Oinu, D. C~tan.i., T. l'opa: Manualul ofitentlui
meamlt muritim \'01. I Ed. Te.hnid'i Bucut't$li 1998
I I. V. Carp: Telmologia mmeriali!lor Academia Nnvala "Mircea eel Biitcln.. Constanta
1995
12. Blackey T. N. Euglillrfor Marilime StudieJ Cambf'idge 1987
13. V. A.nton. M. PopOviciu. I. Pitero: Hidmulicis .yi ma.#lli lritlrrmlice f.d. Didactica ~~
Pedagogicj Bucure$1i 1978
14. EJ. Schul-z: Diesel Met:htmics McGraw.Hill 1985
15. llie Patrichi: :rplomnrea .yi repararea i11swla(iilnr ~i :ti.wemelnr m1mle Ed.
Academiei Nawale ''Mirceacel Blitran Constanta 2000
16. C. Alexandru: Ma$ini ~'i inswltl(ii navtde de flrtJ{ml!.ie Ed. Tehnidi. Bucu~t i 1991
17. Smith & V~111 Ness: lmroduction to Chemical I!Jrginee,ing Thenuodynamic,,
McCraw-Hill 1975
18. A. Dragalina: Ctllculul trrborelul t:otit nl mlJWarelor dieselmtmle Ed. Muntenia &
t.eda Const:mta 2000
19. *,. ., Encyd()ptdia of Science am1 Ttdmology McGrawHill 197 I
20. D. Ab:!iietancei. C. Ha~gan. I. Stoica. D. Claponi. I. Ciobanu: Mowttre pemru
rtiHomobile ~i ~ractoare vr>/.1 C.CilStructit ~i e.rploo-lflre Ed. Tchnid Bucu ~ti 1978
2 1. Tudor Albu: Englislt fOr Nmuicol &gincers - Studems BMk 3 {\<faritime l nstiuue
press. Cons-tantza 1971
22. LA. Toacii: e.,plootarert citldiirilor IUlWIIe Ed. Muntenia Conswnta 1995
23. Lupu Paula: Tehnidal &gUsh Cot~rse Book Const:lJl\3 1993
24. G. Cre\a: Turhine t:u abur~i CIJ gaze Ed. Didactid'i $i POOagogid'i Bucure$ti 198 1
25. P. Boclmctc: 1irrbine c u obur - C'QflStructie ,fi t'.\7)/()(lliU't' Ed. Dobrogca 1996
26. F. Chivu: iudrumar de laborauw Chimie Academia Navalli "Mircea eel B:itrfin'
Cons1an1a 1996
27. J.C. Ioniti. J. Aposlolachc: bmn ln(ii 1unale de bon!- Ctmstructie $i e.:rplomare Ed.
Te.hnicl'\ Bucure$ti 1986
28. D. FUtu: J,drumtiiOr de e.rplomare # imrethrere n ed1ipmue11telor hidnmlice Ed.
Tchnicj Bucu~ti 199 1
29. Steel & McGhee Wmer Supply and Seu>enlge McGraw-Hill 1979
30. G. Niculcscu * *,. Dic(imwr telmic E11glezRomr1t1 Ed. Tehnicil Bucure~li 1997
31. l. Lcvitchi, A. Ba_nda* Dic(iQII(II' englez.Rom(ill Ed. 'foom Bucuresti 1993
21 s Material cu drepl de autor
32. C. Neddcu, I. Murar. A. Bratu. A. Banta$: Dh:timwr Romlin-Et~glez l!d. Teora
Bucurc$1i 2000
33. * ., * Di<:Jiontmtl expli<:tuiv allimbii r(um1m: Ed. Unive1s Eociclopedic 1998
34. CJ . Pop: nglislt-Romtminn Dictionary Maritim e Termit~ology Ed. Dobrogea
35. C.l. Pop: Dic{iQn(n' Romlin-nglez Termi11ologie mm'itimii Ed. Oobrogc-u
36. f\linea Alina: Dic{ioutlJ' de mea:mid1 nwilli Et~,t:lez- Rouul11 Ed. Academiei Navale
"Mircea eel Bii.trlln" Conslanta 2000
37. 41 Documeuto{il! telmiciJ cargou IZSOO TDlV
38. * ., * Documenltl{ie telmictlwacllier 55(}()() TOW
39. * " * Documema{ie telmicll petmlier 90000 TD\V
40. Catak>g produsek>r tipizatc folositc ln industr'a navalii . ICPRONA V Gulati
1982

219 Material cu drept de autor


M t ' I J r pt de aL