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CUPRINS

EDITORIAL
Psihologia organizaional pozitiv o speran pentru organizaiile din Romnia (romn)

Psihologia organizaional pozitiv o speran pentru organizaiile din Romnia (englez)

11

DELIA VRG

STUDII I CERCETRI
Deschiderea spre experien i comportamentul de cutare a unui loc de munc

15

ANDREI RUSU, FLORIN ALIN SAVA, TICU CONSTANTIN


Evaluarea implicit i explicit a personalitii n contextul seleciei de personal

24

SILVIA MGUREAN, DELIA VRG, FLORIN ALIN SAVA


Competenele colective n practic: doua studii de caz despre rolul colectivului n articularea activitii

34

MARIA IANEVA, RALUCA CIOBANU


Investigarea impactului emoiilor negative asupra reglrii emoionale n organizaii

48

EUGEN DUMBRAV
Corelatele i predictorii bullying-ului n contexele de munc din Romnia

59

TEODORA CHIRIL, TICU CONSTANTIN

RECENZII
Jan J.F. ter Laak, Evaluarea psihologic a ntrebrilor clientului - ghid practic pentru studeni i practicieni,
2013, Editura Sinapsis Publishing Projects, 524 p.
69

CTLINA MIHAELA NICULCIOIU


Machteld van den Heuvel, Adaptation to Organizational Change The Role of Meaning-Making and Other
Psychological Resources, 2013, Ipskamp Drukkers, Olanda, 237 p.
71

ANDA IORGULESCU

EVENIMENTE
Conferina Profiles International-"10 YEARS OF EXCELLENCE IN HUMAN RESOURCES
DEVELOPMENT, 02-03 Octombrie 2013, Bucureti

74

FLORIN ZAMFIRACHE, MARIUS BARBU

STANDARDE DE REDACTARE
Psihologia resurselor umane ghid pentru autori (romn)

76

Psihologia resurselor umane ghid pentru autori (englez)

80

Psihologia resurselor umane ghid pentru autori (francez)

84

EDITORII

SUMMARY
EDITORIAL
Positive organizational psychology a hope for Romanian organizations (romanian)
Positive organizational psychology a hope for Romanian organizations (english)

7
11

DELIA VRG

STUDIES AND RESEARCHES


Openness to experience and job search behavior: a study on the mediating effect of
job search self-efficacy

15

ANDREI RUSU, FLORIN ALIN SAVA, TICU CONSTANTIN


Implicit and explicit personality assessment in the context of personnel selection

24

SILVIA MGUREAN, DELIA VRG, FLORIN ALIN SAVA


Collective competencies at work: two case studies on articulation work

34

MARIA IANEVA, RALUCA CIOBANU


The impact of negative emotions on emotional regulation in organizations

48

EUGEN DUMBRAV
Correlates and predictors of bullying in Romanian workplaces

59

TEODORA CHIRIL, TICU CONSTANTIN

REVIEWS
Jan J.F. ter Laak, Evaluarea psihologic a ntrebrilor clientului - ghid practic pentru studeni i practicieni,
2013, Editura Sinapsis Publishing Projects, 524 p.
69

CTLINA MIHAELA NICULCIOIU


Machteld van den Heuvel, Adaptation to Organizational Change The Role of Meaning-Making and Other
Psychological Resources, 2013, Ipskamp Drukkers, Olanda, 237 p.
71

ANDA IORGULESCU

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS
Conferina Profiles International-"10 YEARS OF EXCELLENCE IN HUMAN RESOURCES
DEVELOPMENT, 02-03 Octombrie 2013, Bucureti

74

FLORIN ZAMFIRACHE, MARIUS BARBU

STANDARDS OF PUBLISHING
Human Resources Psychology guide for authors (romanian)

76

Human Resources Psychology guide for authors (english)

80

Human Resources Psychology guide for authors (french)

84

THE EDITORS

SOMMAIRE
DITORIAL
La psychologie organisationnelle positive - un espoir pour les organisations roumaines (roumain)

La psychologie organisationnelle positive - un espoir pour les organisations roumaines (anglais)

11

DELIA VRG

TUDES ET RECHERCHES
Ouverture lexprience et lauto efficacit dans la recherche dun job

15

ANDREI RUSU, FLORIN ALIN SAVA, TICU CONSTANTIN


valuation implicite et explicite de la personnalit dans le cadre de la slection du personnel

24

SILVIA MGUREAN, DELIA VRG, FLORIN ALIN SAVA


Des competences collectives en pratique : le cas du travail darticulation

34

MARIA IANEVA, RALUCA CIOBANU


L'impact des motions ngatives sur la rgulation emotionale en contexte organisationnel

48

EUGEN DUMBRAV
Les corrlations et les predicteurs du harcelemnt psychologique en milieu du travail Roumain

59

TEODORA CHIRIL, TICU CONSTANTIN

RECENSIONS
Jan J.F. ter Laak, Evaluarea psihologic a ntrebrilor clientului - ghid practic pentru studeni i practicieni,
2013, Editura Sinapsis Publishing Projects, 524 p.
69

CTLINA MIHAELA NICULCIOIU


Machteld van den Heuvel, Adaptation to Organizational Change The Role of Meaning-Making and Other
Psychological Resources, 2013, Ipskamp Drukkers, Olanda, 237 p.
71

ANDA IORGULESCU

VNEMENTS SCIENTIFIQUES
Conferina Profiles International-"10 YEARS OF EXCELLENCE IN HUMAN RESOURCES
DEVELOPMENT, 02-03 Octombrie 2013, Bucureti

74

FLORIN ZAMFIRACHE, MARIUS BARBU

STANDARDES DE RDACTION
Psychologie des ressources humaines guide pour les auteurs (roumain)

76

Psychologie des ressources humaines guide pour les auteurs (anglais)

80

Psychologie des ressources humaines guide pour les auteurs (francaise)

84

LES DITEURS

Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 7 - 10


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

EDITORIAL

Psihologia organizaional pozitiv o speran


pentru organizaiile din Romnia
DELIA VRG
Universitatea de Vest, Timioara, Romnia

Dac n anii 90, tematica stresului


ocupaional a fost una dintre favoritele
cercettorilor i practicienilor din domeniul
psihologiei organizaionale, anii 2000 au
deschis un nou capitol pentru acetia, i
anume psihologia pozitiv aplicat n
organizaii. Dei, n ultimii 10 ani, psihologia
pozitiv organizaional a ctigat notorietate
n Europa Occidental i n America, n
Romnia aceasta a avut un impact timid n
cercetarea i practica organizaional. n
continuare, vom discuta cteva dintre
contribuiile cercettorilor romni la consolidarea poziiei psihologiei organizaionale
pozitive.
Trecerea de la managementul resurselor
umane la managementul capitalului uman la
nivel organizaional a modificat i modul de
nelegere a relaiei dintre individ i
organizaie. Organizaiile inoveaz iar
tehnologiile i pieele se schimb permanent.
Pentru a ine pasul cu aceste schimbri,
angajaii capitalul uman trebuie s se
dezvolte pe msur prin dobndirea unor noi
competene i abiliti (Vrg, 2007). i aici
intr n scen conceptele specifice psihologiei
organizaionale pozitive: sperana, ca punct
de plecare, emoiile pozitive i inteligena
emoional la locul de munc, precum i
capitalul psihologic ce este n legtur cu
performana
la
nivel
individual
i
organizaional (Froman, 2010). Reziliena
este un concept special ce presupune
abilitatea de a face fa adversitilor i
eecurilor personale i este necesar
angajailor pentru a se adapta cu succes la
stresul ocupaional.

Psihologia pozitiv privire de


ansamblu
Psihologia pozitiv este o oportunitate
remarcabil de a face lucrurile diferit, de a
pune ntrebrile care merit adresate despre
condiia uman i care ofer rspunsurile
potrivite. Psihologia pozitiv, ca orientare
generic n psihologie, a fost descris n
introducerea de la numrul special al revistei
American Psychologist de ctre Kennon
Sheldon i Laura King (2001) n felul
urmtor: ... Psihologia pozitiv reprezint o
ncercare de a determina psihologii s
adopte o perspectiv mai deschis i mai
optimist n privina abilitilor, motivaiilor
i potenialului individual. (p. 216). Mult mai
recent, Sarah Lewis (2011) a descris
Psihologia pozitiv astfel: Psihologia pozitiv
se refer la pstrarea unor cunotine
folositoare oamenilor care doresc s aib o
via bun, lung i productiv, n timp ce
gndirea pozitiv se refer la convingerea
oamenilor c ceea ce li se ntmpl se
datoreaz propriilor greeli (p. 3).
Extinderea
studiului
problematicii
psihologiei pozitive n mediu organizaional a
venit firesc i s-a consolidate n timp.
Psihologia organizaional
pozitiv
Paradoxal sau nu, numrul cercetrilor din
domeniul psihologie organizaional pozitiv
a crescut chiar n anii n care criza economic
a marcat economia mondial. n aceast
perioad, organizaiile i-au dorit, mai mult
ca oricnd, angajai performani, care s fie
7

Delia Vrg

motivai i implicai n munc, dar care s se


i adapteze cu succes la schimbrile
organizaionale, ntr-un mediu organizaional
pozitiv.
Simplu
spus,
psihologia
organizaional pozitiv poate fi considerat
psihologie
pozitiv
orientat
spre
problematica muncii i organizaional
(Donaldson & Ko, 2009). Conform lui
Peterson
(2006),
temele
psihologiei
organizaionale pozitive se constituie pe trei
piloni. Primul pilon implic experiena
pozitiv subiectiv ce include fericire, stare
de bine, speran, optimism i emoii
pozitive. Al doilea pilon reprezint trsturile
pozitive, ce cuprind talente, interese,
creativitate, valori, trsturi de caracter,
cretere i curaj. Ultimul pilon este rezervat
instituiilor pozitive ce faciliteaz primii doi
piloni i promoveaz dezvoltarea persoanei.
n 2009, Donaldson i Ko au realizat
analiza de coninut a articolelor din jurnalele
de specialitate ce aveau topici din psihologia
organizaional
pozitiv
publicate
n
intervalul 2001-2008. S-a constatat c cele
mai frecvente subiecte abordate n literatura
contemporan au fost: psihologia pozitiv i
munca,
dezvoltare
i
schimbare
organizaional pozitiv i leadership-ul
pozitiv. n total, 78 de reviste au inclus
articole n acest domeniu, cele mai populare
titluri fiind urmtoarele: Journal of
Organizational Behavior, Academy of
Management,
Review,
Academy
of
Management Learning & Education, Journal
of Organizational, Behavior Management,
OD Practitioner, Journal of Positive
Psychology i Journal of Applied Behavioral
Science (Donaldson & Ko, 2009).
Dar, psihologia pozitiv, n general, i
psihologia organizaional pozitiv, n
special, au fost criticate n legatur cu
evidenele empirice precare n fundamentarea
unei viziuni asupra cum putem trai mai bine
bazndu-ne pe noua psihologie a fericirii
(Layard, 2006). De aceea, e nevoie ca, pe
viitor, psihologia organizaional pozitiv s
strng mai multe dovezi empirice care s fie
mai puternice i chiar s depesc aspectele
negative pentru a fi considerat ca avnd o
contribuie
semnificativ
la
tiina
organizaional.
Un model interesant i mult studiat n
psihologia organizaional pozitiv este

modelul Solicitri-Resurse ale Postului


(Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner i Schaufeli,
2001) ce permite studierea mpreun a
aspectelor pozitive i negative ale muncii:
solicitrile postului i resursele postului.
Implicarea n munc
n zilele noastre, organizaiile ateapt de la
angajai s fie proactivi i s demonstreze spirit
de iniiativ, s colaboreze uor cu ceilali, s-i
asume responsabilitatea pentru propria
dezvoltare i s fie angajai n atingerea unor
standarde nalte de performan (Bakker &
Schaufeli, 2008). Astfel, este nevoie de angajai
care sunt dedicai i plini de energie, care sunt
absorbii de munca lor, adic angajai implicai
n munc. Dar, oare un angajat implicat n
munc va dezvolta comportamente extra-rol
pozitive sau negative? Rspunsul la aceast
ntrebare l poate furniza studiul realizat de
Sulea, Vrg, Maricuoiu, Schaufeli, ZaborilDumitru, Sava (2012), ce s-a bazat pe modelul
Solicitri-Resurse ale Postului (Demerouti et
al., 2001). Acest studiu, realizat pe 258 de
angajai romni, a identificat rolul de mediator
parial al implicrii n munc ntre resursele
postului i comportamentele civic-participative.
n plus, implicarea in munc a mediat parial,
mai puin intens, ntre solicitrile postului i
comportamentele contra-productive. Astfel,
studiu
a
relevat
extinderea
rolului
caracteristicilor
postului
asupra
comportamentelor extra-rol. De asemenea,
studiu a evideniat rolul contiinciozitii, ca
resurs personal, de antecedent al
comportamentelor
civic-participative,
n
special, i al comportamentelor contraproductive. n plus, creterea strii de fericire a
angajailor inclusiv implicarea angajailor
se poate obine i prin centrarea pe
mbuntirea calitii relaiilor sociale de la
locul de munc (Schaufeli & Salanova, 2007,
2010).
Resurse personale
Modelul Solicitri-Resurse ale Postului a
fost extins prin includerea resurselor
personale, rezultnd o variant extins a
acestuia (Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Demerouti,
& Schaufeli, 2009). Resursele personale sunt
auto-evaluri pozitive, flexibile, care se refer

Psihologia organizaional pozitiv o speran pentru organizaiile din Romnia

la percepia individului asupra abilitilor sale


de a controla i de a influena mediul
personal n mod eficient (Bakker, 2011).
Studiile anterioare au investigat resursele
personale ca moderatori sau mediatori ntre
cerinele postului i resursele pe care le ofer
locul de munc, pe de o parte, i starea de
bine a angajatului, pe de alt parte. n 2013,
Vrg i colaboratorii au realizat un studiu ce
a investigat rolul auto-eficienei i a nevoilor
psihologice n relaionarea cu implicarea n
munc i cu epuizarea profesional (Vrg,
Pascu, Mioc, Drgu, Tepe-Onea, & Petruc,
2013). Participanii la studiu au fost 221 de
angajai ntr-o companie de producie din
Romnia. Rezultatele au relevat c resursele
personale contribuie la explicarea implicrii
n munc (vigoare, dedicare i absorbie) i a
epuizrii
profesionale
(epuizare
i
depersonalizare). Astfel c, auto-eficiena s-a
asociat pozitiv cu implicarea n munc i
negativ cu epuizarea profesional, precum i
cu dimensiunile acestora; iar nevoia de
autonomie i de competen au adus o
contribuie suplimentar la implicarea n
munc i epuizarea profesional. ndeplinirea
nevoilor personale duce la o energizare a
angajatului i la scderea nivelului de
epuizare profesional. Descoperirile studiului
au accentuat importana resurselor personale
ale angajatului n adaptarea acestuia la
dinamica organizaiei.
O alt cercetare recent, n care s-au
studiat simultan diferite forme ale strii de
bine (pozitive i negative), a fost realizat de
Sulea, van Beek, Srbescu, Vrg i Schaufeli
(in press). Acest studiu s-a derulat pe un
eantion 225 de studeni romni i a urmrit
examinarea relaiilor dintre trei tipuri diferite
de stare de bine - implicare, plictiseal, i
epuizare - i personalitate. S-a constatat c
agreabilitatea i neuroticismul au fost legate
de fiecare faet a strii de bine, n timp ce
contiinciozitatea a fost legat doar de
implicare i (negativ) de plictiseal,
extraversiunea fiind asociat semnificativ
negativ cu epuizarea. S-a constat c
satisfacerea nevoilor de baz i aduce
contribuia peste personalitate n explicarea
acestor tipuri de stare de bine. n concluzie,
anumii factori de personalitate joac un rol
n starea de bine, dar ndeplinirea nevoilor de
autonomie, competen i relaionarea au o

importan suplimentar n explicarea


formelor acesteia.
Aceste contribuii empirice se altur unui
numr din ce n ce mai mare de cercetri
centrate pe problematica resurselor personale
n cadrul modelului JD-R (vezi Demerouti &
Bakker, 2011). Cu toate acestea, rolul
resurselor personale n cadrul modelului JDR nu este nc clar definit. Cercetrile
viitoare trebuie s exploreze acest aspect i s
identifice alte variabile cu rol de resurse
personale, utile angajailor n adaptarea
organizaional.
Cercetarea n domeniul psihologiei
organizaionale pozitive a depit graniele
organizaiilor i se preocup i de topici ca:
echilibru
munc-familie,
detaarea
psihologic dup munc, precum i de
oportunitile de recuperare dup munc. i
n acest domeniu, cercetarea romneasc i-a
adus contribuia. Oportunitatea de recuperare
dup munc este un concept-cheie n
cercetrile recente privind stresul. Conceptul
de oportuniti de recuperare a fost
operaionalizat ca "posibilitatea, n termeni de
timp disponibil, s se angajeze n situaii care
s faciliteze experiena psihologic de
recuperare" de ctre Rodriguez - Muoz,
Sanz - Vergel, Demerouti, & Bakker (2012 ,
p. 86). S-au realizat puine cercetri care s
studieze relaia acestui concept cu starea de
bine. Unul dintre aceste studii a explorat
valoarea adugat de oportunitile de
recuperare n plus fa de resursele personale
i familiale pentru starea de bine a angajatului
(Vrg & Macsinga, in press). Starea de bine
a fost operaionalizat ca implicare n munc
i sntatea. Folosind un eantion de 274 de
angajai dintr-o organizaie de producie,
rezultatele analizei de regresie ierarhic au
artat c sprijinul rudelor i neuroticismul au
fost legate de sntate, n timp ce sprijinul
soului i al rudelor apropiate i
contiinciozitatea au fost legate de implicarea
n munc. Rezultatele subliniaz importana
creterii att a resurselor familiale, ct i a
resurselor personale, n scopul de a crea o
for de munc sntoas i implicat. n
general, rezultatele sugereaz c prezena
oportunitilor de recuperare crete starea de
bine a angajailor, att pentru sntate, ct i
pentru implicarea n munc.

10

Concluzii
Dup cum am vzut anterior, pas cu pas,
psihologia organizaional pozitiv strnge din
ce n ce mai multe dovezi empirice care s fie
mai puternice i s depeasc aspectele
negative pentru a-i asigura contribuia la
tiina organizaional. Studiile ilustrate sunt un
pas mic pentru dezvoltarea psihologiei pozitive
organizaionale, n general, dar un pas mare
pentru comunitatea tiinific din Romnia din
acest domeniu. Extinderea numrului de
cercetri i crearea unei comuniti tiinifice
focusat
pe
problematica
psihologiei
organizaionale pozitive este un deziderat
pentru viitorul apropiat. De asemenea,
transferul de cunotine ntre cercetare i
practic va aduce beneficii organizaiilor i
angajailor lor prin creterea strii de bine, dar
i a eficienei lor. Implementarea unor msuri
active la nivel individual, prin intervenii
centrate pe resursele personale ale angajailor,
pot duce la creterea strii de bine i la
diminuarea epuizrii profesionale. Utilizarea
evalurilor de personalitate n selecia de
personal contribuie la identificarea precoce a
potenialilor angajai care se vor implica n
munc, evitnd epuizarea i plictiseala. n plus,
antrenarea angajailor n activiti care
contribuie la satisfacerea nevoilor lor de baz
duce la creterea energiei i implicrii lor n
munc. Impactul msurilor luate la nivel
organizaional
n
sfera
psihologiei
organizaionale pozitive se reflect dincolo de
mbuntirea strii de bine, prin creterea
incidenei comportamentelor civic-participative
i diminuarea comportamentelor contraproductive.
Bibliografie
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Work Engagement. Current Directions in
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Bakker, A.B., Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Positive
organizational behavior: Engaged employees in
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Behavior, 29, 147154.
Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A. B. (2011). The Job
DemandsResources model: Challenges for future
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Demerouti, E., Bakker, A.B., Nachreimer, F., Schaufeli,
W.B. (2001). The Job Demands Resources Model
of Burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499512.

Delia Vrg
Froman, L. (2010). Positive Psychology in the
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Layard, R. (2006). Happiness: Lessons from a New
Science (London, Penguin Books).
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Behavior,
and
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Inspiring Organizations, First Edition. John Wiley
& Sons, Ltd.
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New York: Oxford University Press.
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Bakker, A. B., (2012). Reciprocal Relationships
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Psychology, 11, 86-94.
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Northampton, MA.
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Schaufeli, W. B. (in press). Engagement, boredom,
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Individual Differences.
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89-121.
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Opportunities: One Step Forward for Employees
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personale n starea de bine a angajailor: implicarea
n munc i epuizarea profesional, Psihologia
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235244.

Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 11 - 14


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

EDITORIAL

Positive organizational psychology a hope for


Romanian organizations
DELIA VRG
West University of Timioara, Romania

If, in the 90s, the topic of occupational


stress was one of the favorites of
researchers
and
practitioners
in
organizational psychology, the 2000s have
opened a new chapter for them; namely
positive
psychology
applied
in
organizations. Although, in the past 10
years, positive organizational psychology
gained notoriety in Western Europe and
America, in Romania it had a shy impact on
organizational research and practice. Next,
we will discuss some of the contributions of
Romanian researchers to strengthen the
position
of
positive
organizational
psychology.
The transition from human resources
management to human capital management
at the organizational level also has changed
the way of understanding the relationship
between
the
individual
and
the
organization. The organizations innovate
and technologies and markets change
constantly. To keep up with these changes,
the employees human capital must
develop as by acquiring new skills and
abilities (Vrg, 2007). Here come into play
the
specific
concepts
of
positive
organizational psychology: hope, as a
starting point, positive emotions and
emotional intelligence in the workplace and
psychological capital, which is related to
individual and organizational performance
(Froman, 2010). Resilience is an especially
concept which involves the ability to cope
with adversity and personal failures and is
required to employees to adapt successfully
to occupational stress.

Positive psychology overview


Positive psychology is a remarkable
opportunity to do things differently, to ask
adequate questions about the human
condition and to provide appropriate
responses. Positive psychology, as a generic
orientation in psychology, has been described
in the introduction to an especially issue of
American Psychologist journal by Kennon
Sheldon and Laura King (2001) as follows:
...Positive psychology is thus an attempt to
urge psychologists to adopt a more open and
appreciative perspective regarding human
potentials, motives, and capacities (p. 216).
More recently, Sarah Lewis (2011) described
positive psychology in this way: Positive
Psychology is about accruing a body of
knowledge that is useful to people who want
to live good, long, happy and productive
lives, while positive thinking is about
persuading people that what happens to them
is their own fault (p. 3).
Extending the study of positive
psychology issues in the organizational
environment came naturally and strengthened
over time.
Positive organizational
psychology
Paradoxically or not, the number of
researches in the field of positive
organizational psychology has increased even
in years when the economic crisis has marked
the world economy. During this period, the
organizations wanted more than ever,
efficient employees, to be motivated and
11

Delia Vrg

12

engaged in work, but also to adapt


successfully to organizational changes, in a
positive organizational environment. In
simple terms, organizational positive
psychology can be considered positive
psychology
focused
on
work
and
organizational issue (Donaldson & Ko,
2009). According to Peterson (2006),
organizational positive psychology topics are
founded on three pillars. The first pillar
involves positive subjective experience which
includes happiness, well-being, hope,
optimism and positive emotions. The second
pillar is represented by the positive traits,
including interests, talents, creativity, values,
traits of character, and courage. The last pillar
is reserved for positive institutions that
facilitate the first two pillars and promotes
personal development.
In 2009, Donaldson and Ko realized the
content analysis of articles from especially
journals that had positive organizational
psychology topics published during 20012008. It was found that the most common
topics in contemporary literature were:
positive psychology and work, development
and positive organizational change, and
positive leadership. In total, 78 journals
included articles in this area; the most
popular titles are the following: Journal of
Organizational Behavior, Academy of
Management,
Review,
Academy
of
Management Learning & Education, Journal
of Organizational, Behavior Management,
OD Practitioner, Journal of Positive
Psychology and Journal of Applied
Behavioral Science (Donaldson & Ko, 2009).
But positive psychology, in general, and
positive organizational psychology, in
particular, have been criticized in connection
with poor empirical evidences substantiating
a vision we can live better based on "new
psychology of happiness" (Layard, 2006).
Therefore, it takes in the future positive
organizational psychology to gather more
empirical evidence to be stronger and even
exceed the negative aspects to be considered
as having a significant contribution to
organizational science.
An interesting model, studied in the
context of positive organizational psychology
is the Job Demands-Resources Model
(Demerouti,
Bakker,
Nachreiner,
&

Schaufeli, 2001) that allows studying


together the positive and negative aspects of
work: job demands and job resources and
different outcomes, respectively work
engagement as a positive outcome and
burnout as negative outcome.
Work engagement
Nowadays, organizations expect employees
to be proactive and demonstrate initiative, to
collaborate easily with others, to take
responsibility for their own development and
to be employed in achieving high standards
of performance (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2008).
Thus, organizations have need employees
who are dedicated and energetic, which are
absorbed by their work, namely employees
engaged in their work. But, will an engage
employee develop positive or negative extrarole behaviors? The answer to this question is
provided by the study conducted by Sulea,
Vrg, Maricuoiu, Schaufeli, Zaboril Dumitru, & Sava (2012), based on the Job
Demands-Resources Model (Demerouti et al,
2001). This study, conducted on 258
Romanian employees, has identified the
partial mediating role of work engagement
between job resources and civic-participative
behaviors. In addition, work engagement
partially mediated, less intense, the relation
between job demands and counter-productive
behaviors. The study revealed the expanding
role of job characteristics on extra-role
behaviors. Also, the study highlighted the
role of conscientiousness as antecedent of
civic-participative
behaviors
and
counterproductive behaviors. In addition,
increasing employee happiness status including employee engagement - can be
obtained by focusing on improving the
quality of social relationships at work
(Schaufeli & Salanova, 2007, 2010).
Personal resources
The Job Demands-Resources Model has been
extended to include personal resources,
resulting
in
its
extended
version
(Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Demerouti, &
Schaufeli, 2009). Personal resources are
positive, flexible self-assessments, which
refers to the individual's perception of his

Psihologia organizaional pozitiv o speran pentru organizaiile din Romnia

ability to control effectively and influence the


personal environment (Bakker, 2011).
Previous studies have examined personal
resources as moderators or mediators
between job demands and job resources, on
one hand, and different forms of employee
well-being, on the other hand. But, newest
version of JD-R model (Bakker, 2011)
included personal resources as antecedent of
work engagement, based on empirical
evidence generated by other studies.
In 2013, Vrg et al. conducted a study
that investigated the role of self-efficacy and
psychological needs in a relationship with
work engagement and burnout (Vrg, Pascu,
Mioc, Drgu, Tepe-Onea, & Petruc, 2013).
Participants in the study were 221 employees
in a manufacturing company in Romania.
Results showed that a personal resource helps
to explain work engagement (vigor,
dedication and absorption) and burnout
(exhaustion and depersonalization). Thus,
self-efficacy was positively associated with
work engagement and negatively with
burnout, as well as their dimensions, and the
need for autonomy and competences have
additionally explained work engagement and
burnout. Satisfying the personal needs
leads to higher energy for employee
and to lower burnout. The findings of the
study emphasized the importance of the
employee's personal resources in adaptation
to the dynamics of the organization.
Another recent study that simultaneously
studied various forms of well-being (positive
and negative) has been realized by Sulea, van
Beek, Srbescu, Vrg, & Schaufeli (in
press). This study was conducted on a sample
of 225 Romanian students and pursued
examining the relationships between three
different types of well-being - engagement,
boredom, and burnout - and personality. It
was found that agreeableness and neuroticism
were related to each dimension of well-being,
whereas conscientiousness was related only
to the engagement and (negative) with
boredom, extraversion was significantly
negatively associated with burnout. It was
found that meeting the basic needs has an
incremental value over and above personality
in explaining these types of well-being. In
conclusion, personality factors play a role in

13

the well-being, but fulfilling the needs of


autonomy, competence and networking have
additional importance in explaining its forms.
These empirical contributions get together
with an increased number of researches
focused on personal resources in the JD-R
model (see Demerouti & Bakker, 2011). But
the personal resources role in the JD-R model
is not yet clearly defined. Future research
should explore this concept and to identify
other personal resources variables that help
the employee to adapt better in the
organizational context.
The positive organizational psychology
research overcome the organizational
boundaries and starts to discuss subjects like
work-family
balance,
psychological
detachment after work, and recovery
opportunities after work. The Romanian
research contributed in this topic, as well.
A recovery opportunity after work is a
key concept in recent researches on stress.
The concept of recovery opportunities was
operationalized as the possibility, in terms of
available time, to engage in situations that
facilitate the psychological experience of
recovery by Rodriguez-Muoz, SanzVergel, Demerouti, & Bakker (2012, p. 86).
There are very few research focused on the
relationship
between
the
recovery
opportunities and wellbeing. One study
explored incremental value added of recovery
opportunities on top of the family and
personal resources for employees well-being
(Vrg & Macsinga, in press). Well-being
was operationalized as work engagement and
health. Using a sample of 274 employees in a
product organization, the results of
hierarchical regression analysis showed that
kin support and Neuroticism were related to
health, while spouse and kin support and
Conscientiousness were related with work
engagement. The results underline the
importance of increasing both family
resources and the level of personal resources
in order to create a healthy and engaged
workforce. Overall, the findings suggest the
presence of the recovery opportunities
increase employees well-being, both health
and work engagement.

14

Conclusions
As we can see before, step by step, positive
organizational psychology is based more and
more on empirical evidence aiming to be
stronger and overcome the negative aspects
to ensure its contribution to organizational
science. The studies presented may be one
small step for developing positive
organizational psychology in general, but a
big step for the scientific community in
Romania in this field. The expansion of the
research and creation of a scientific
community
focused
on
positive
organizational psychology issues is a goal for
the near future. Also, the transfer of
knowledge between research and practice
will generate benefits for organizations and
their employees by an increased wellbeing,
and effectiveness. Implementing active
measures at the individual level through
interventions focused on employees' personal
resources can increase well-being and to
decrease the burnout. The use of personality
measures related to personnel selection
contributes to the early identification of
potential employees who will be more
involved in the work, avoiding burnout and
boredom. In addition, employee participation
in activities that help to satisfy their basic
needs increase their level of energy and their
involvement in the work. The impact of
measures at the organizational level is
reflected beyond the improvement of the
wellbeing by increasing the frequency of
civic - participatory behaviors and reduced
counterproductive behaviors.
Bibliografie
Bakker, A. B. (2011). An Evidence-Based Model of
Work Engagement. Current Directions in
Psychological Science, 20, 265-269.
Bakker, A.B., Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Positive
organizational behavior: Engaged employees in
flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational
Behavior, 29, 147154.
Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A. B. (2011). The Job
DemandsResources model: Challenges for future
research, SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA
Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 37, 1-9.
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A.B., Nachreimer, F., Schaufeli,
W.B. (2001). The Job Demands Resources Model
of Burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499512.

Delia Vrg
Froman, L. (2010). Positive Psychology in the
Workplace. Journal of Adult Development, 17, 5969.
Layard, R. (2006). Happiness: Lessons from a New
Science (London, Penguin Books).
Donaldson, S. I., & Ko, I. (2009). Positive
Organizational
Psychology,
Behavior,
and
Scholarship: A Review of the Emerging Literature
and Evidence Base Paper Presented at the First
World Congress on Positive Psychology, June 1821, 2009, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Sheldon, K. M., & King, L. (Eds.) (2001). Positive
psychology [special issue] American Psychologist,
56, 216263.
Lewis, S. (2011) Positive Psychology at Work: How
Positive Leadership and Appreciative Inquiry Create
Inspiring Organizations, First Edition. John Wiley
& Sons, Ltd.
Peterson, C. (2006). A primer in positive psychology.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Rodriguez-Muoz, A., Sanz-Vergel, A. I., Demerouti, E.,
Bakker, A. B., (2012). Reciprocal Relationships
Between Job Demands, Job Resources, and
Recovery Opportunities. Journal of Personnel
Psychology, 11, 86-94.
Schaufeli, W.B. & Salanova, M. (2007). Work
engagement: an emerging psychological concept and
its implications for organizations, in Gilliland, S.W.,
Steiner, D. D. and Skarlicki, d. P. (Eds). Research in
Social Issues in Management (Vol. 5): Managing
Social and Ethical Issues in Organizations,
Information Age Publishers, Greenwich, CT, 13577.
Schaufeli, W.B. & Salanova, M. (2010). How to improve
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Handbook of Employee Engagement, Edward Elgar,
Northampton, MA.
Sulea, C., van Beek, I., Srbescu, P., Vrg, D. &
Schaufeli, W. B. (in press). Engagement, boredom,
and burnout among students: Basic need satisfaction
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Individual Differences.
Sulea, C., Vrg, D., Maricuoiu, L. P., Schaufeli, W. B.,
Zaboril Dumitru, C., Sava, A. F. (2012). Work
engagement as mediator between job characteristics
and positive and negative extra-role behaviors.
Career Development International, 17, 188 207.
Vrg, D. (2007). Practici de recrutare i selecie n
Bogathy, Z. (coord.). Manual de tehnici i metode
n psihologia muncii i organizaional, Polirom,
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Vrg, D. & Macsinga. I. (in press). Recovery
Opportunities: One Step Forward for Employees
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Vrg, D., Pascu, D. M., Mioc, M., Drgu. I.E., epeOnea, A., & Petruca, E. (2013). Rolul resurselor
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235244.

Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 15 - 23


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

STUDIES AND RESEARCHES

Openness to experience and job search behavior:


a study on the mediating effect of job search selfefficacy
ANDREI RUSU
West University of Timioara, Romania and Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Romania

FLORIN ALIN SAVA


West University of Timioara, Romania

TICU CONSTANTIN
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Romania

Abstract
The present study aimed at advancing the findings on the role that personality plays on the job search behavior by
testing the indirect effect of openness to experience on job search intensity and job search effort with the mediation of
job search self-efficacy. One hundred and three unemployed individuals provided data for the present cross-sectional
study. The results do not support the partially mediated relationships, but contrary to the hypotheses, revealed full
mediations. The findings point out that openness to experience plays an important role in the job search process
especially by assuring the needed adaptability to the irregular and constantly changing job search environment. In
addition, job search self-efficacy serves understanding the motivational process involved in linking openness to
experience to job search behavior.

Keywords
openness to experience, job search self-efficacy, job search behavior, employment

Rezumat
Studiul actual i-a propus extinderea rezultatelor n ceea ce privete rolul personalitii asupra comportamentelor de
cutare a unui loc de munc prin testarea efectului indirect al deschiderii spre experien asupra intensitii i efortului
de cutare a unui loc de munc, cu autoeficacitatea n cutarea unui loc de munc n calitate de mediator. O sut trei
persoane fr loc de munc au furnizat date pentru actualul studiu transversal. Rezultatele obinute nu ofer suport
relaiilor parial mediate, ns contrar ipotezelor, evideniaz relaii mediate complet. Descoperirile sugereaz faptul c
deschiderea spre experien are un efect important n procesul de cutare a unui loc de munc, mai ales prin asigurarea
capacitii de adaptare la contextul instabil i schimbtor de cutare a unui loc de munc. n plus, autoeficacitatea n
cutarea unui loc de munc servete nelegerii procesului motivaional care face legtura dintre deschiderea spre
experien i comportamentul de cutare a unui loc de munc.

Cuvinte cheie
deschidere spre experien, autoeficacitate n cutarea unui loc de munc, comportament de cutare a unui loc de
munc, angajare.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Andrei Rusu, West University of Timisoara,
Department of Psychology, 4 Vasile Parvan Blvd., 300223 Timisoara, Romania, andrei.rusu@e-uvt.ro.
Authors Note: This work was supported by a grant from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research,
CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2011-3-0230.

15

16

Andrei Rusu, Florin Alin Sava, Ticu Constantin

Rsum
Cette tude cible lapprofondissement des dcouvertes pour le rle que la personnalit joue sur le comportement de
recherche demploi. Elle teste leffet indirect de louverture lexprience sur lintensit de la recherche dun job et
leffort, par la mdiation de lauto efficacit dans la recherche dun job. Cent trois personnes sans emploi ont fourni les
donnes pour cette analyse transversale. Les rsultats nappuient les relations de mdiation partielle, mais,
contrairement aux hypothses, elles ont relev des mdiations compltes. Les rsultats montrent que louverture
lexprience joue un rle important dans le processus de recherche dun job, surtout par assurer ladaptabilit
ncessaire lirrgulier et constamment changeable environnement de la recherche dembauche. En plus, lauto
efficacit dans la recherche dun job peut aider la comprhension du processus motivationnel impliqu dans le lien
entre louverture lexprience et le comportement de recherche demploi.

Mots-cls
ouverture lexprience, lauto efficacit dans la recherche dun job, comportement de recherche demploi, emploi.

A phenomenon with deep economic


repercussions, unemployment poses a threat
including to the mental health of the
individuals (Paul & Moser, 2009). The
negative consequences are more concerning
since the unemployment rate has reached
alarmingly unprecedented levels (Eurostat,
2014). The issue has been increasingly
tackled over the last decades, especially in
terms of identifying and attempting to
understand the individual and contextual
factors underpinning successful employment
(Wanberg, 2012). Even so, the first attempts
to systematically investigate and integrate the
antecedent variables of job search and
reemployment are relatively recent (e.g.,
Kanfer, Wanberg, & Kantrowitz, 2001; Saks,
2005). In this context, Kanfer and colleagues
(2001)
meta-analysis
revealed
that
personality represents an important class of
job search antecedents. More precisely,
extraversion and conscientiousness are the
strongest job search behaviors correlates
(i.e., medium-sized true score correlations)
being followed by openness to experience,
agreeableness and neuroticism, in the exact
order (Kanfer et al., 2001). While the linking
mechanisms (e.g., job search self-efficacy)
between conscientiousness (Brown, Cober,
Kane, Levy, & Shalhoop, 2006), or
extraversion and neuroticism (Zimmerman,
Boswell, Shipp, Dunford, & Boudreau,
2012), and job search effort have been
previously studied, the remaining dimensions
benefited of less attention and with rather
inconclusive results (Tay, Ang & Van Dyne,
2006).
Since the job search process, especially
high quality one (Van Hooft, Wanberg, &
van Hoye, 2013), is based on complex

activities that are most often conducted in


unforeseeable
environments,
achieving
performance in such rapidly changing
contexts is facilitated through high
adaptability and flexibility (Fugate, Kinicki,
& Ashforth, 2004). From this perspective, job
seekers that are dispositionally adaptable and
driven by curiosity could perceive the job
search activities as challenging, and thus
could also perceive themselves as being
efficacious in performing them. Hence, in the
present study we will test the role that
openness to experience plays as a job search
precursor and try to partially explain its effect
through the mediating role of job search selfefficacy.
Openness to experience and selfefficacy beliefs
As Burns and Christiansen (2011) stated,
there is likely to be a relationship between
personality traits and domain-specific
expectancies when the activities within the
efficacy domain demand competency on core
behaviors captured in the construct domain of
the personality trait (p. 430). Job search selfefficacy is a domain specific beliefs-set
referring to a persons confidence in his / her
own ability to carry out tasks and activities
characteristic to the job-search process
(Bandura, 1997; Kanfer & Hulin, 1985).
Judge and Ilies (2002) meta-analysis
revealed that the relationship between
openness to experience and performance
motivation is weaker and less consistent as
compared to other Five Factor dimensions
(i.e.,
extraversion,
neuroticism,
and
conscientiousness); however, in relation to
self-efficacy beliefs, it displays a positive

Openness to experience and job search behavior: a study on the mediating effect of job search self-efficacy

association ( = .20). Taking into account that


the nowadays job search process requires
high adaptability and receptiveness to the
rapidly changing job market and that
openness is a central factor for personal
adaptability (Fugate et al., 2004), we aspect
that the association between openness and job
search self-efficacy to be stronger as
compared to other, more stable, performance
domains. Convergent to this view, openness
to experience displays positive and stronger
links, compared to the other Five Factor
dimensions, with other irregular and high in
novelty areas of efficacy, such as computer
self-efficacy (Saleem, Beadry, & Croteau,
2011) or negotiation efficacy beliefs (Burns
& Christiansen, 2011). Therefore, we first
hypothesize that:
H1: Openness to experience is positively
related to job search self-efficacy.
Job search self-efficacy as a
determinant of job search
behavior
Job-search behavior is a fundamental
antecedent of the employment success
(Kanfer et al., 2001; Moynihan, Roehling,
LePine, & Boswell, 2003; Saks, 2005).
Kanfer and colleagues (2001) meta-analysis
supports this view for both job search effort
(the overall dedication for seeking a job) and
behavioral intensity (the specific activities
frequency). Therefore, the current job search
models posit individual difference variables
as job search behavior precursors which in
turn influence the success of the employment
process (i.e., Kanfer et al., 2001; Saks, 2005).
Except for a small number of recent studies,
based on repeated measures designs (Sun,
Song, & Lim, 2013; Wanberg, Zhu, & Van
Hooft, 2010), the prevalent view places job
search self-efficacy as one of the key
predictors of job search behavior (i.e. Saks,
2005). Therefore, we expect that:
H2: Job search self-efficacy is positively
related to job search intensity.
H3: Job search self-efficacy is positively
related to subjective job search effort.

17

Job search self-efficacy as


mediator between openness to
experience and job search
behavior
Even though with a
Kanfer and colleagues
findings revealed a
between openness to
search behavior (rc =
expect that:

modest magnitude,
(2001) meta-analytic
positive association
experience and job
.27). Thus, we also

H4: Openness to experience is positively


related to job search intensity.
H5: Openness to experience is positively
related to job search effort.
The
process
of
understanding
the
relationships between personality and
performance brought into attention the need
to identify their linking mechanisms (Burns
& Christiansen, 2011; Judge & Ilie, 2002).
One of the underlying factors explored in this
context is perceived self-efficacy (Locke,
2001). There is already consistent research
that tested the mediating role of efficacy
beliefs between distal traits and task
performance (e.g., Burns & Christiansen,
2011). Based on this perspective, proactive
personality is proved to act an indirect effect
on job search behaviors and outcomes
through job search self-efficacy (Brown et
al., 2006), extraversion and conscientiousness
are linked to interview success through
interviewing self-efficacy (Tay et al., 2006),
and job search self-efficacy is mediating the
relationships of extraversion and neuroticism
with job search behavior, in the case of
employed job seekers (Zimmerman et al.,
2012).
Not only that job-seeking involves little
routine but it also requires high adaptability
to the rapidly evolving job search means,
such as the case of social media (Eslamian,
2012). In this context, we assert that
imaginative and curious persons, as are those
high in openness to experience, can exert an
increased adaptability to the job search
environment, translated in a less restrained
search effort. Moreover, an opened to
experience seeker would perceive the
uncertainty of the job search process as

Andrei Rusu, Florin Alin Sava, Ticu Constantin

18

challenging and, thus, stimulating his


perceived capacity to face it (i.e., job search
self-efficacy). Since the relation between
openness to experience and self-efficacy is
less intense than for other personality factors
(Judge & Ilie, 2002) and the relationships
between openness and job-seeking behaviors
could also be mediated by other performance
drivers such as personal adaptability (Fugate
et al., 2004) or, more specific, career
adaptability (Savickas & Profeli, 2012), we
propose a partially mediated model. Hence,
we consider that:
H6: Job search self-efficacy partially
mediates the relation between openness to
experience and job search intensity.
H7: Job search self-efficacy partially
mediates the relation between openness to
experience and job search effort.

The present study


The aforementioned hypotheses (H1-H7) are
integrated in the theoretical model depicted in
Figure 1. Even though the presumed direct
effects (H1-H5) benefited of some support
from previous findings, to our knowledge, the
proposed mediated paths (H6-H7) were not
explored. Moreover, in order to test whether
openness plays an incremental role in
understanding the job search process and its
effect is not ruled-out by other personality
dispositions, we considered important to
control for the remaining Five-Factor
dimensions effect. Thus, based on structural
equation modeling framework with the partial
correlation
matrix
(controlling
for
extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism
and agreeableness) as input data, in the
present study we test the hypothesized
partially mediated model. Besides the
presumed model, we also tested an equivalent
path model (Kline, 2011) specifying fully
mediated relationships for both job search
behavior indicators.

Figure 1. Hypothesized Model

Method
Participants and procedure
Undergraduate students in Psychology from a
Romanian University received partial course
credits for inviting unemployed individuals to
take part in the study. A total of 121 persons
agreed to participate and were contacted by a
research assistant in order to check for
eligibility; all participants had to be
unemployed, not enrolled in a study program
and actively searching for a job in the past six

months. One hundred and eleven individuals


completed a questionnaire that included a set
of scales among which there were those
relevant for the present study. Of these, eight
(7%) were removed because of providing
random and / or outlier responses.
The final sample included 103
unemployed individuals with a median work
experience of 14 months (Min = 0, Max =
398). Their age ranged between 20 and 55
years (M = 30.54, SD = 10.59), and 63%
were females. Slightly more than half had

Openness to experience and job search behavior: a study on the mediating effect of job search self-efficacy

vocational studies or graduated high school


(57%), while 43% had higher education.
Measures
Personality was measured with the IPIP-50
questionnaire (Goldberg, 1992; Romanian
version by Rusu, Maricuoiu, Macsinga,
Vrg, & Sava, 2012). Participants had to
report their agreement with each descriptive
statement on a 5-point scale (1 - Very
inaccurate; 5 - Very accurate). On the
present sample the scales had acceptable
reliabilities (Cronbachs : Openness to
experience / Intellect - Imagination = .76;
Extraversion = .65; Agreeableness = .79;
Conscientiousness = .65; Emotional Stability
= .79), similar with the coefficients obtained
in the adaptation study for the local
population.
Job search self-efficacy was measured
with the single-factor instrument by Saks and
Ashforth (1999). The scale consists in 10
items describing job-seeking activities (e.g.,
Prepare resumes that will get you job
interviews.). Participants had to evaluate
their confidence in performing each activity
on a 10-point scale (1 - Not at all confident;
10 - Totally confident). The scale was highly
reliable ( = .90).
The job search behavior intensity was
measured with a tailored version of Blaus
(1993, 1994) inventory. It consisted in a list
of 10 examples of job-seeking behaviors
(e.g., Sent out resumes to potential
employers.). One item from the authors
version was removed because it was
inadequate for unemployed individuals
(Used current within company resources to
generate potential leads.) and another one
representing a current practice was
introduced (Used online professional social
media networks in order to search for job
openings.). Participants task was to recall
the frequency with which they performed
each activity, on a 5-point scale (1 - 0 times;
2 - 1 or 2 times; 3 - 3 to 5 times; 4 - 6 to 9
times; 5 - at least 10 times). Reliability was
satisfactory ( = .80).
Subjective job search effort was measured
with two items from Blaus (1993, 1994)
inventory (i.e., Focused my time and energy
on job search activities. and Gave best

19

effort to find a job.). Participants reported


their agreement with each assertion on a 5point scale (1 - Strongly disagree, to 5 Strongly agree). The Spearman-Brown
estimate, which is considered a more
appropriate statistic for two-item measures
(Eisinga, Te Grotenhuis, & Pelzer, 2012),
revealed optimal reliability (.85).
Data analysis
In order to test the hypothesized model we
applied a two-step approach (Anderson &
Gerbing, 1988). First we tested the fit of the
measurement model, but also for common
method bias (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, &
Podsakoff,
2003)
since
the
entire
measurement procedure was based on selfreport. In order to reduce the sample size to
parameter ratio we computed item parcels
(Little, Cunningham, & Shahar, 2002) for
both psychological constructs and also for job
search intensity, while, for job search effort
we kept the two items as separate indicators.
After ensuring that the measurement model
optimally fitted the data, we tested the
hypothesized path model based on manifest
variables and with the partial correlation
matrix as input for the analysis.
For testing model fit, we used maximumlikelihood estimation and the following
indices: the root-mean-square error of
approximation (RMSEA; Steiger, 1990), the
standardized
root-mean-square
residual
(SRMR; Bentler, 1990), the goodness-of-fit
index (GFI), the comparative fit index (CFI;
Bentler, 1990), and the normed fit index
(NFI; Bentler & Bonett, 1980). Good modeldata fit is indicated when: RMSEA .06;
SRMR .08; GFI, CFI and NFI .95.
Moreover, for testing the hypothesized
indirect effects we applied the Sobel Test
(1982).
Results
As can be seen in Table 1, all the variables of
interest are interrelated. Especially, taking
into account that the remaining Five Factor
dimensions are controlled, openness to
experience (OE) possesses significant
associations with job-search self-efficacy
(JSSE), and also with job search behavior

Andrei Rusu, Florin Alin Sava, Ticu Constantin

20

intensity (JSI) and subjective effort (JSE).


These findings are in line with our

assumptions that OE represents a relevant


factor for the job search process.

Table 1. Means, standard deviations and partial correlations among study variables
Variable
M
SD
1
2
3
4
5
6
1. OE
3.51
0.58
2. JSSE
7.18
1.42
.26**
3. JSI
3.06
0.76
.21* .34**
4. JSE
3.31
1.04
.20*
.20* .71**
5. Gender (1 = male; 2 = female)
-.13
.17
.03
-.08
6. Work experience (months)
69.93 103.28 -.17
-.09
.06
.14 -.09 Note. N = 103. OE = openness to experience; JSSE = job search self-efficacy; JSI = job search
intensity; JSE = job search effort; higher scores are indicating higher levels for each of the
measured constructs. Controlled variables: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism and
agreeableness.
* p < .05, ** p < .01 (two-tailed)
Table 2. Fit statistics for the measurement model
Measurement
2
df
2
df
model

RMSEA
[90% CI]
0.06 [0.00,
Four-factor
53.28
38
0.97 0.92 0.92
0.04
0.10]
0.25 [0.23,
One-factor
332.04** 44 278.76**
6
0.52 0.61 0.49
0.18
0.28]
Note. N = 103. CFI = comparative fit index; GFI = goodness-of-fit index; NFI = normed fit
index; SRMR = standardized root mean square residual; RMSEA = root-mean-square error of
approximation.
** p < .01.
The fit estimates for the hypothesized
measurement model (four correlated factor
solution: OE, JSSE, JSI and JSE) as also for a
one-factor model (common method bias) are
reported in Table 2. The four factor model
fitted the data best, being also significantly
superior to the one factor solution (2 (6) =
278.76, p < .001). Moreover, the standardized
factor loadings ranged between .616
(corresponding to one of the indicators for
openness to experience) and .912 (for a JSSE
indicator).
The hypothesized partially meditated
model failed to receive support since the
direct paths between OE and both JSI and
JSE are not statistically significant. Thus, we
continued by testing the alternative fully
mediated model. As can be seen in Table 3,
except for RMSEA confidence intervals

CFI

GFI

NFI

SRMR

upper limit value (0.21), all indexes indicate


good model-data fit. The model together with
the standardized path coefficients is depicted
in Figure 2.
As can be seen from Figure 2 and Table 4,
OE relates significantly with JSSE (H1), JSI
(H4) and JSE (H5). JSSE is significantly
associated with both JSI (H2) and JSE (H3).
In sum, H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5 received full
support. The direct effect of openness on JSI
and JSE were not statistically supported;
hence, the partially mediation hypotheses of
JSSE between these variables (H6, H7) fail to
be sustained. Moreover, as specified in the
alternative model, the path between OE and
JSI is significantly fully mediated by JSSE,
while the full mediation to JSE receives
partial support (p = .10).

Openness to experience and job search behavior: a study on the mediating effect of job search self-efficacy

21

Table 3. Fit statistic for the full mediation model


2
df
p
CFI
GFI
NFI
SRMR
RMSEA [90% CI]
2.80
2
.246
0.99
0.99
0.97
0.06
0.06 [0.00, 0.21]
Note. N = 103. CFI = comparative fit index; GFI = goodness-of-fit index; NFI = normed fit
index; SRMR = standardized root mean square residual; RMSEA = root-mean-square error of
approximation. The partial correlations matrix with extraversion, conscientiousness,
neuroticism and agreeableness as controls was used as input for the path analysis.
Table 4. Standardized total, direct effects and indirect effects
Total effects
Direct effects
Indirect effects
Predictor
JSI
JSE
JSI
JSE
JSI
JSE
OE
.21*
.20*
.13
.16
.09*
0.05
JSSE
.34**
.20*
.30**
.17
Note. OE = openness to experience; JSSE = job search self-efficacy; JSI = job search intensity;
JSE = job search effort. The indirect effects significance test is based on Sobel Test statistics.
p = .10, *p < .05, **p < .01.

Figure 2. Standardized path coefficients for the tested model

Discussion
Previous research neglected the role of
openness to experience in the context of the
job search process and focused more on other
personality traits such as conscientiousness
(e.g., Brown et al., 2006), or extraversion and
neuroticism (e.g., Zimmerman et al., 2012).
One of the reasons for this approach could be
based on the findings that the aforementioned
traits are the strongest Five Factor correlates
of the job search behavior (Kanfer et al.,
2001) and also have the strongest
associations with performance motivation
(Judge & Ilie, 2002). Moreover, as Judge &
Ilie (2002) stated, the literature linking
openness to experience to performance
motivation is majorly sparse, and only recent
records are dedicated to this subject (e.g.,
Burns & Christiansen, 2011). Hence, the
purpose of the present study was to partially
fill this gap by testing the role that openness

to experience plays in the job search process.


First, we aimed to offer support for the
positive association between openness to
experience and job search behavior and,
furthermore, to shade some light on the
nature of this relationship by testing the
mediating role of job search self-efficacy
(JSSE).
The results confirmed that openness to
experience can be a significant distal
precursor to job search behavior (Kanfer et
al., 2001), and extended the previous findings
by demonstrating that JSSE mediates these
relationships. Contrary to our hypothesis, the
path between openness and both types of job
search behaviors were fully mediated by
JSSE. Thus, even if we hypothesized that the
inconsistent findings from the literature could
be due to a wider set of mechanisms through
which openness influences performance, in
our study JSSE manifested an exhaustive

22

role. Moreover, the revealed effects provide


an incremental explanation in understanding
job search behaviors precursors since were
obtained while controlling for the other FiveFactor dimensions effects. Hence, these
findings suggest that a high in openness job
seeker is more prone to explore new
environments and use all genres of means
suitable for the search process, thus,
enhancing his mastery over the job search
process which will in turn enable his job
search behavior.
Our findings also offer practical
implications.
Tailoring
job
search
interventions based on job seekers
personality could boost their overall effect on
employability. Presenting new and exciting
job-seeking activities could work best for
individuals scoring high on openness, while
for those scoring low on this trait could be
more appropriate to propose predictable and
structured practices.
From limitations point of view, first of
all, our research relied on a cross-sectional
design. Thus, limiting our conclusions to, at
most, suggesting possible causal links.
However, the results converge with previous
findings that revealed the role of self-efficacy
as a coherent motivation mechanism in
linking
dispositional
tendencies
to
performance (e.g., Brown et al., 2006; Tay et
al., 2006; Zimmerman et al., 2012).
Furthermore, the reduced sample represents
another concern that constrained us to use
item parcels in order to reduce the sample
size to parameter ratio for the statistical
analyses. Also, the sample size could be a
cause for the partially significant indirect
effect between openness to experience and
job search effort (Type II error threat;
Preacher & Hayes, 2004). The major
limitation that needs to be acknowledged is
that our presumed theoretical model failed to
be supported while the alternative model
benefited of full support. More precisely,
both hypothesized partially mediated paths
proved to be fully mediated based on our
data. In this context, since previous findings
and theoretical developments on this matter
are sparse and, thus, making our approach
more exploratory in nature, a proper settle
would be provided by replicating the study
and testing the model on an alternative

Andrei Rusu, Florin Alin Sava, Ticu Constantin

sample (Kline, 2010).


Finally, future
research should focus on the integration of all
five personality dimensions and extend the
study of possible mediators to other relevant
proximal variables.
Conclusion
Our paper tested the understudied role of
openness to experience as job search
antecedent and advanced previous findings
on linking personality to the job search
behavior. The data revealed a fully mediated
relationship by job search self-efficacy
between openness to experience and both job
search intensity and job search effort. These
findings suggest that since the job search
process is most often conducted in rapidly
changing environments, highly adaptable
individuals can more easily enable the
motivational resources needed for an actively
sustained job search.
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Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 24 - 33


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

STUDIES AND RESEARCHES

Implicit and explicit personality assessment in


the context of personnel selection
SILVIA MGUREAN
West University of Timioara, Romania

DELIA VRG
West University of Timioara, Romania

FLORIN ALIN SAVA


West University of Timioara, Romania

Abstract
In this paper, we examine the role of Conscientiousness and Extraversion at implicit and explicit level, in the context
of personnel selection. Personality was assessed using the NEO-FFI, for the explicit level (Costa & McCrae, 1992),
and the Semantic Misattribution Procedure (Sava et al. 2012), for the implicit level, as part of the selection process in a
multinational corporation. Twenty eight candidates were hired, and their in-role job performance was assessed by their
supervisors six months later, based on a performance assessment scale (Williams & Anderson, 1991). Results suggest
that explicit personality traits did not predict in-role job performance, whereas implicit Extraversion showed a positive
association with the job performance assessed by the supervisor. The absence of correlations between implicit/explicit
Conscientiousness and job performance could be explained by the subjective nature of the instrument used to measure
in-role performance. Future research on the predictive role of implicit and explicit personality measures for job
performance should consider objective indicators of job performance, as well as evaluations from peers and
supervisors.

Keywords
job performance, personnel selection, implicit measures, explicit measures, conscientiousness, extraversion

Rezumat
n aceast lucrare, examinm rolul Contiinciozitii i al Extraversiunii la nivel implicit i explicit, n contextul
seleciei de personal. Personalitatea a fost evaluat cu NEO-FFI, la nivel explicit (Costa & McCrae, 1992) i, la nivel
implicit, prin Procedura Atribuirii Semantice (Sava et al. 2012), ca parte a procedurii de selecie ntr-o companie
multinational. Douzeci i opt de candidai dintre cei testai au fost angajai iar peformana lor n munc a fost
evaluat ase luni mai trziu de ctre eful direct, pe baza unei scale de evaluare a performanelor (Williams &
Anderson 1991). Rezultatele au relevat c trsturile de personalitate explicite nu au prezis performana n sarcin, n
timp ce Extraversiunea implicit s-a asociat pozitiv cu performana n sarcina evaluat de supervizor. Absena
corelaiei dintre Contiinciozitate explicit/implicit i performana n sarcin poate fi atribuit subiectivitii
instrumentului utilizat n evaluarea performanei n sarcin. Cercetrile viitoare asupra valorii predictive a msurilor
implicite i explicite ale personalitii n raport cu performana n sarcin ar trebui s ia n considerare indicatori
obiectivi ai performanei n munc, alturi de evaluari ale colegilor i efilor.

Cuvinte cheie
performana n munc, selecia de personal, msuri implicite, msuri explicite, contiinciozitate, extraversiune

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Silvia Mgurean,


E-mail: silvia.magurean@gmail.com
Authors Note: This work was supported by a grant from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research,
CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2011-3-0230.

24

Implicit and explicit personality assessment in the context of personnel selection

25

Rsum
Dans cet article, on examine le rle de la diligence et de l'extraversion au niveau implicite et explicite, dans le contexte
du processus de slection du personnel. La personnalit a t value en utilisant l'instrument NEO- FFI, pour le niveau
explicite (Costa & McCrae, 1992), et la procdure Semantic Misattribution (Sava et al. 2012), pour le niveau implicite,
dans le cadre du processus de slection au sein d'une multinationale. Vingt-huit candidats ont t embauchs, et leur
rendement au travail a t valu six mois plus tard par leurs superviseurs, sur la base d'une chelle d'valuation du
rendement (Williams et Anderson, 1991). Les rsultats suggrent que les traits de personnalit explicites n'ont pas
prdit le rendement au travail, alors que l'extraversion implicite a montr une association positive avec le rendement au
travail valu par le superviseur. L'absence de corrlations entre la diligence implicite/ explicite et le rendement au
travail peut s'expliquer par la nature subjective de l'instrument utilis pour mesurer le rendement au travail. Les
recherches futures sur le rle prdictif des mesures de personnalit implicites et explicites du rendement au travail
devraient envisager des indicateurs objectifs du rendement au travail, ainsi que des valuations faites par des collgues
et des superviseurs.

Mots-cls
rendement au travail, slection du personnel, mesures implicites, mesures explicites, diligence, extraversion

Introduction
Personality traits are known to be good
predictors of job performance (Salgado,
1997), therefore personality tests become a
standard practice in the personnel selection
process.
Although
most
personality
questionnaires used in personnel selection
were self-report measures, they provided
validity for observable personality traits
(Funder, 1999).
However, as previous
research suggests, there are considerable
arguments to revise the use of classic
personality inventories in personnel selection,
so that future research should analyze
alternatives to self-report instruments for
personality assessment (Morgeson et al.,
2007). The first argument is related to the
social desirability bias in responses to
personality self-ratings. Initially, researchers
had difficulties distinguishing self-deception
tendencies from impression management
tendencies. Although significant progress has
been made in this direction (Paulhus, 1998),
most work in the field is limited to being able
to discriminate successfully between valid
and invalid personality protocols, without
identifying the real personality profile of
individuals who alter their presentation for
impression management purposes. The
second argument for finding other forms of
personality evaluation is based on the recent
developments in social cognition. Researches
in this area showed that information about the
self is processed in two different ways: an
explicit manner (specifically, controlled and
conscious) and an implicit manner (namely,
automatic and intuitive) (Greenwald &

Farnham, 2000; Asendorpf, Banse, & Mucke,


2002). The relationship between implicit and
explicit measures of the same construct is
neither redundant, nor straightforward.
Perugini, Richetin, and Zogmaister (2010)
describe several possible patterns of
relationship between implicit and explicit
measures of the same construct, which often
brings an incremental validity when behavior
is used as criterion. The bottom line is that
supplementing
explicit
measures
of
personality traits that are predictive for job
performance, with implicit measures of the
same traits, might be a valuable tool in
personnel selection, due to their incremental
validity in predicting behavior (job
performance). This is particularly important
since impression management is a core issue
in the selection process and implicit measures
are more resistant to attempts of deception as
compared to explicit measures (Cvencek,
Greenwald, Brown, Gray, & Snowden,
2010).
Implicit and explicit personality
assessment
When talking about the distinction between
implicit and explicit, one can refer either to
the processes involved, or to the instruments
used to measure the concept. Implicit and
explicit processes are explained by the dual
process models, such as the AssociativePropositional Model (APE Model) developed
by Gawronski and Bodenhausen (2006). This
model encompasses two different systems of
information processing and representation:

26

the associative and the propositional


processes. Associative (implicit) processes
are based on automatic affective reactions
resulting from associations which are
activated whenever a particular stimulus is
encountered. A very important characteristic
of associative processes is that they can be
activated regardless of whether the individual
considers them to be true or false.
Propositional (explicit) processes are
evaluations based on syllogistic inferences
which assess the validity of the propositions.
Hence, an important feature that distinguishes
propositional processes from associative ones
is their dependency on the truth value
(Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006).
Considering the perspective of the APE
Model, personality self-concept can be
expressed in both associative (implicit) and
propositional
(explicit)
representations.
Associative or implicit representations of the
personality self-concept would reflect an
automatic or spontaneous tendency to
associate the self with particular traits or
behaviors.
Propositional
or
explicit
representations of the personality selfconcept reflect propositions which emerge
from a deliberative process, and are
considered to be true by the individual. For
example, an explicit representation of the
self-concept of high conscientiousness would
be: I believe I am very organized.
The two types of processes are considered
to be sources of evaluative tendencies
(Gawronski
&
Bodenhausen,
2006).
Therefore, specific characteristics of the
instruments used for assessment are
responsible for capturing either propositional
/ explicit, or associative / implicit aspects of
the psychological concept. The typical
personality inventories are designed to assess
the propositional representations of the selfconcept, and are considered explicit or direct
measures. Nevertheless, measuring the
associative processes is somewhat more
difficult, because the instruments should
require fast, automatic answers, in an indirect
way. Several implicit or indirect measures
were developed and validated in the past
decade (Greenwald et al. 1998, Payne et al.,
2005). These infer information about
associative processes from specific decision

Silvia Mgurean, Delia Vrg, Florin Alin Sava

tasks, instead of directly asking participants


what they believe is characteristic for them.
Indirect measures of personality selfconcept, based on the Implicit Association
Test (Greenwald et al., 1998), have been
developed for traits like shyness (Asendorpf,
Banse, & Mucke, 2002), anxiety (Schnabel,
Banse, & Asendorpf, 2006), and the Big Five
dimensions (Schmukle, Back, & Egloff,
2008; Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2009).
Recent studies adapted the Semantic
Misattribution Procedure - SMP (Sava et al.,
2012) to measure the implicit level of
conscientiousness,
extraversion
and
neuroticism. The SMP is derived from the
Affective Misattribution Procedure (Payne et
al., 2005), an implicit measure of attitudes
which relies on the mechanism of the
misattribution of prime characteristics to a
neutral symbol (Payne et al. 2005). In a SMP
task, participants are shortly exposed to an
adjective (prime), which is representative
either for the low, or for the high level of the
personality trait measured, followed by an
abstract
Chinese
character
(target).
Participants have to decide whether or not
they would like the abstract character to be
printed on a personalized t-shirt (if the
character fits them or not). Because the
participants are only briefly exposed to the
prime and the target, the semantic meaning of
the prime is misattributed to the target, even
if participants are warned not to let
themselves affected by the meaning of the
adjective. Across three studies, Sava et al.
(2012) provided initial evidence for the
convergent and criterion validity for the
SMP, as it consistently correlated with
explicit measures, and predicted behavior in
the expected direction. Therefore, the SMP
showed similar psychometric properties to
the IAT (Back et al., 2009) and even better
test-retest stability compared to the average
value of the IAT reported in the metaanalysis of Hofmann et al. (2005). By reason
of the psychometric properties of the SMP,
we consider it to be a suitable instrument to
capture implicit aspects of personality selfconcept beyond the laboratory setting, in a
natural context, such as the personnel
selection process.
Thus far, explicit measures of personality
have been widely used in the personnel

Implicit and explicit personality assessment in the context of personnel selection

selection
processes,
since
different
personality traits, like conscientiousness,
have proven to be good predictors of job
performance (Salgado, 1997). Nevertheless
there are reasons to reconsider the use of the
classic personality inventories in contexts like
personnel selection, where participants are
highly motivated to present themselves in a
positive way (Morgeson et al., 2007). Several
studies proved that personality inventories
can be easily faked, according to a review
presented by Morgeson et al. (2007). The
same authors, highlight that future research
should focus on finding alternatives to selfreport personality measures. Taking this into
consideration, implicit measures like the
Semantic Misattribution Procedure (Sava et
al., 2012) could be useful in personnel
selection. In regard to faking the results, the
SMP showed weak associations to social
desirability levels in previous studies (Sava et
al., 2012), still the possibility of intentionally
faking the SMP has not been experimentally
tested yet. The specific mechanism
underlying the SMP is not as intuitive as in
the case of personality inventories, which
strengthens the assumption that in a selection
process, the SMP would be more difficult to
fake than the explicit inventories.
Even though at this point implicit
measures are not ready to be used as a
standard for important selection decisions,
they could offer valuable insight about how
people present themselves in the context of
selection. Moreover, analyzing implicit and
explicit personality self-concept in a natural
high-stake environment might provide useful
information for optimizing the existent
implicit instruments.
The present study
We aim to explore the explicit and implicit
level of personality in the context of
personnel selection in a multinational
corporation in Romania. In this study, we
focus on the role of conscientiousness and
extraversion.
Several
meta-analyses
acknowledge the role of conscientiousness in
the prediction of job performance, with high
conscientious employees having better in-role
job performance (Barrick & Mount, 1991;
Salgado, 1997). With regard to Extraversion,

27

studies showed that it is a reliable predictor


of job performance for specific occupations
involving social interactions (Barrick &
Mount, 1991). Previous research on
extraversion (Barrick & Mount, 1993) also
showed that, when supervisor ratings of job
performance are employed, extraversion and
conscientiousness are significantly associated
to
performance.
Accordingly,
conscientiousness and extraversion are often
assessed in personnel selection processes, and
seem to be relevant traits to be explored at
implicit level during a process of employee
selection. Moreover, both extraversion and
conscientiousness have been successfully
measured by the Semantic Misattribution
Procedure by Sava et al. (2012).
In addition, since several possible
behavioral predictive patterns are often found
between explicit and implicit measures of the
same construct (see Perugini et al., 2010 for a
complete description), we will test two
concurrent models that may validate the
added value of including implicit measures of
personality along with explicit ones in the
personnel selection context. Namely, we will
focus on the additive model and the
interactive model. The former considers that
implicit measures have a behavioral
predictive value over and above what has
already been explained by the explicit
measures of the same construct. In statistical
terms, this means that implicit measures
predict behavior even if we control for the
predictive effect of an explicit measure on
behavior, in this case, the job performance
behavior. The interactive model suggest that
the congruence (i.e. a person with high scores
both on explicit and on implicit
conscientiousness) facilitates the expected
behavior (i.e. an increased job performance),
while the discrepancy between measures of
the same construct (i.e. a high level of
explicit conscientiousness, and a low level of
implicit conscientiousness) might cancel each
other, thus reducing or eliminating the
predictive power of personality traits on
relevant behaviors. In statistical terms, the
interactive model proposes that the
relationship between explicit measures and
relevant behaviors is moderated by the scores
on implicit measures.

Silvia Mgurean, Delia Vrg, Florin Alin Sava

28

The additive and the interactive patterns


are not mutually exclusive. Thus, if any or
both patterns are supported by the data, it
would suggest that implicit measures of
personality can be a valuable tool in the
context of personnel selection by enhancing
the association (predictive value) between
personality and job performance.
Method
Participants
The participants were 28 candidates in the
selection process for several jobs in a
multinational corporation in the IT&C
industry, who voluntarily participated in the
study. All of them were employed following
the selection process. The mean age of the
participants was 21, ranging from 19 to 27
years, and 52% of the candidates were male.
Instruments

Misattribution Procedure (SMP), identical to


the one presented in Study 3 by Sava et al.
(2012). The task consisted in 32 trials,
divided evenly, in order to get 16 trials for
each trait (e.g., eight descriptors for high
level of conscientiousness and another eight
descriptors
for
the
low
end
of
conscientiousness). Every adjective was
briefly presented in the center of the screen
(200 ms), followed by a blank screen (125
ms) and the abstract Chinese character (200
ms), as shown in Figure 1. After the
presentation of the stimuli, a mask was
presented and remained on the screen until
the participant answered. Participants were
instructed to use two keys (C or N) to judge
whether they would like each Japanese
character to be printed on a personalized Tshirt by responding Fits me or Does not fit
me. The scoring procedure suggested by
Sava et al. (2012) was used, with higher
scores
showing
high
levels
of
Conscientiousness and Extraversion.

Implicit Conscientiousness and Extraversion


were assessed using the Semantic

Figure 1. Sample of a SMP trial for Conscientiousness, using the adjective organized
Explicit Conscientiousness and Extraversion
were assessed using NEO-FFI (Costa &
McCrae, 1992). Each of the two dimensions
was assessed with 12 items. Participants
expressed their level of agreement with the
items by rating them on a five-point Likert
scale. In the present study, we used the NEO-

FFI version which was adapted on Romanian


population by Iliescu, Minulescu, Ispas, and
Nedelcea (2009), and showed good internal
consistency ( =.75 for Extraversion, and
=.82 for Conscientiousness). A sample item
is: "I keep my belongings neat and clean".

Implicit and explicit personality assessment in the context of personnel selection

Social desirability was measured by the


Marlowe-Crowne scale (Crowne & Marlowe,
1960). This inventory consists of 33
dichotomous items (true / false). A sample
item is: "It is sometimes hard for me to go on
with my work if I am not encouraged". The
scales internal reliability was = 81.
In-role job performance was assessed by
a 7-item scale developed by Williams and
Anderson (1991). Each item is evaluated on a
five-point Likert scale, according to the level
of agreement with the content of the item.
Two of the items are reversed, and a high
score on the scale is an indicator of a better
job performance. The direct supervisors filled
in the scale for each participant under their
supervision (for each of the 28 candidates
which were employed). A sample item is:
"This employee fulfills all the responsibilities
specified in his/her job description". In our
sample, the scale showed good internal
consistency = .71.
Procedure
Job candidates for two departments in a
multinational corporation from Timisoara
were tested in the selection process, using
implicit and explicit measures of personality
traits. The formal procedure of the company
includes psychological assessment, which
consists of assessment of cognitive abilities
and personality traits, as a standard operation
in the selection process. For the purpose of the
present research, in this step of the selection
process we included the SMP for the
assessment of implicit conscientiousness and
extraversion, and NEO-FFI for the assessment
of explicit conscientiousness and extraversion.
Additionally, candidates also filled in the
Marlowe-Crowne scale, in order to identify the
candidates` level of social desirability. The
entire evaluation was performed individually
for each candidate. We tested all candidates in
last but one step of selection process, before
interview with direct supervisor. We tested 45
candidates to reach 28 new employees. It
means the selection rate was 1.60 for this step
of selection.

29

Six months after the participants were


hired we contacted the direct supervisors of
each employee included in the initial
assessment of the selection process. The
direct supervisors filled in a performance
evaluation scale for each employee included
in our study.
Results
Our exploratory objective was to analyze the
role of implicit and explicit personality selfconcept in the context of personnel selection.
Table 1 shows the correlation matrix between
in-role job performance, social desirability
and personality dimensions, at both implicit
and explicit level.
Contrary to our expectations, job
performance was not significantly associated
to either explicit or implicit conscientiousness.
Explicit extraversion was also not correlated
with job performance, but implicit
extraversion showed significant positive
association to job performance r (26) = .43, p
< .05. Candidates who had higher levels of
extraversion also received more positive
evaluation of job performance from the direct
supervisor, 6 months after employment.
Considering the context of the present
research, a real personnel selection process,
participants might be interested in presenting
themselves in a more positive light, in order
to increase their chances of being employed.
Both
explicit
conscientiousness
and
extraversion showed significant positive
associations to social desirability. On the
other hand, neither implicit extraversion, nor
implicit
conscientiousness
presented
associations to social desirability. This
suggests that even in the context of personnel
selection, social desirability levels will not be
associated with the implicit assessment of
personality.
The associations between the implicit and
explicit levels of personality are positive for
both conscientiousness r (26) = .33, p =.04
(one-tailed test), and extraversion r (26) =
.56, p = .001 (one-tailed test), showing good
implicit-explicit consistency.

30

Silvia Mgurean, Delia Vrg, Florin Alin Sava

Table 1. Correlation matrix between performance, social desirability and personality


Variables
1
2
3
4
5
1. Performance
-2. Social desirability
.17
-3. Explicit Conscientiousness
.07
.52**
-4. Explicit Extraversion
.19
.35*
.53**
-5. Implicit Conscientiousness
.15
.22
.33
.42*
-6. Implicit Extraversion
.43*
.16
.25
.56**
.70**
M
31.65
23.76
39.15
31.91
25.13
SD
2.39
5.18
4.20
4.47
5.13
Note. *significant at p <.05, two-tailed; **significant at p<.01, two-tailed

Implicit and explicit personality


as predictors of in-role job
performance
To examine the validity of the two patterns of
prediction, we estimated the parameters of

-25.00
4.88

regression
analyses
predicting
job
performance from the explicit measures,
implicit measures and their interaction, for
conscientiousness (Table 2) and extraversion
(Table 3).

Table 2. Implicit and explicit conscientiousness as predictors of in-role job performance


Job performance
Variables
Step 1
Step 2
Step3
Explicit Conscientiousness
.01
-.04
-.02
Implicit Conscientiousness
.16
.18
Interaction
.05
R2
.00
.02
.03
F
.01
.31
.22
R2
.00
.02
.01
F
.01
.63
.06
Note. * p <.05; ** p<.01

Table 3. Implicit and explicit extraversion as predictors of in-role job performance


Job performance
Variables
Step 1
Step 2
Step3
Explicit Extraversion
.21
-.04
.04
Implicit Extraversion
.45*
.42
Interaction
.21
R2
.05
.18
.22
F
1.28
2.88
2.36
R2
.05
.14
.04
F
1.28
4.31*
1.27
Note. * p <.05; ** p<.01

The additive pattern of behavioral prediction


is not supported for conscientiousness, since
neither the explicit, nor the implicit measure
predicted job performance after 6 months of
activity. Furthermore, the interaction between

implicit and explicit conscientiousness does


not improve the prediction of job
performance, hence the interactive pattern of
behavioral prediction is also not supported.

Implicit and explicit personality assessment in the context of personnel selection

Concerning extraversion (Table 3), the


data shows some support for the additive
pattern of behavioral prediction. The implicit
measure of extraversion predicted job
performance over and above the explicit
measure, with high levels of implicit
extraversion leading to better in-role job
performance after 6 months of activity at a
new job. The interactive pattern of behavioral
prediction was not supported, as the
interaction between implicit and explicit
extraversion was not significant in predicting
job performance.
Discussion
The exploratory objective of our study was to
provide preliminary insight into the role of
implicit, as well as explicit conscientiousness
and extraversion in the context of personnel
selection in a multi-national corporation.
While both the additive and the
interactive models were tested, neither
received the proper support from data.
Apparently, the additive pattern of behavioral
prediction has received some support in case
of extraversion, where implicit measures
added a significant predictive value for selfreported job performance. However, contrary
to our expectation, the explicit extraversion
did not predict the job performance, as
initially was assumed. This violates the main
idea for a classical additive pattern which
implies that each predictor adds some value
in predicting the criterion. However, result
was not replicated when testing the additive
pattern for the case of conscientiousness.
Likewise, the interactive pattern of
behavioral prediction did not receive any
support, since the interaction between
implicit and explicit personality traits did not
predict job performance over and above their
individual
contributions.
Hence,
the
congruence (incongruence) between implicit
and explicit measures of personality does not
seem to be relevant for the prediction of inrole job performance.
At
explicit
level,
neither
conscientiousness, nor extraversion was
associated with job performance. As for the
implicit
level
of
personality,
only
extraversion, and not conscientiousness, was
positively associated with in-role job

31

performance. These results are inconsistent


with other well-know studies, which show
that, out of all personality dimensions,
conscientiousness is the best predictor of job
performance (Barrick & Mount, 1991;
Dudley, Orvis, Lebiecki, & Cortina, 2006).
In this situation, one possible explanation
may come from the instrument used to
measure job performance in our study. We
used a standardized scale of job performance
(Williams & Anderson, 1991), adapted to be
filled out by supervisors, and the instrument
was not adapted to the specific jobs of the
organization. Even though there is
considerable
evidence
showing
that
subjective measures of performance are
reliable (Hoffman, Nathan, & Holden, 1991;
Wall et al., 2004), objective measures might
highlight
different
aspects
of
job
performance. This argument is supported by
the results of Barrick and Mount (1991), who
showed that both conscientiousness and
extraversion (at explicit level) were more
strongly associated to subjective, than
objective measures of job performance.
Another possible explanation for the lack of
association between conscientiousness and
job performance relies on the range
restrictions in the case of conscientiousness
(only candidates with a mean or high level of
conscientiousness were employed). In this
case, it possible that the differences between
moderate and high conscientious employees
would not be reflected in their in-role job
performance, as assessed by the supervisor. A
third possible explanation for the lack of
association between the explicit measures and
job performance might consists in the high
level of bias present when measuring the two
explicit personality traits, since both variables
correlates moderately to intensely with social
desirability score, given the context of the
assessment.
Regarding
the
implicit-explicit
correlations, in our sample, both Extraversion
and Conscientiousness showed consistency.
The results are similar to those reported by
Sava et al. (2012) in the validation studies of
the Semantic Misattribution Procedure. While
explicit and implicit measures of the same
trait correlate with each other in the expected
direction, they also possess discriminative
features, since implicit measures, unlike the

32

explicit ones, do not correlate with social


desirability. Likewise, at least in case of
extraversion, the implicit measure is
associated with job performance while the
explicit measure of the same trait is not a
significant predictor.
These results are consistent with the dualsystems
perspective
of
information
processing, which suggests that implicit traits
can predict behavior above and beyond the
explicit ones (Perugini, et al., 2010). Also,
Nosek & Smyth (2007) conclude that implicit
and explicit measures assess related, but
different constructs. This could explain why,
even though the implicit and explicit
evaluations are consistent, only the implicit
level of Extraversion predicts in-role job
performance.
Personality assessment in the context of
personnel selection might be affected by
participants` intention to present themselves
in a favorable light (Morgeson et al., 2007).
In our study, social desirability was
associated with both personality traits
assessed at the explicit level, confirming the
vulnerability of explicit measures when it
comes to social desirability bias. This reflects
a tendency of participants with high social
desirability to present themselves as more
extraverted and more conscientious, when
assessed by a classic personality inventory, as
compared to participants with low social
desirability. Furthermore, the implicit
measures
of
conscientiousness
and
extraversion were not associated with social
desirability. This suggests that even in the
context of personnel selection, social
desirability levels are not associated with the
implicit assessment of personality. Although
the current research did not directly address
the possibility of faking the SMP, these
results support the resistance of implicit
measures to social desirability bias, as shown
in previous research (Cvencek et al., 2010).
The results of our study are somewhat
unexpected, since explicit personality did not
predict job performance. Yet, these
preliminary findings open the door for the
study of implicit measures of personality
traits in the selection processes, in different
organizational contexts.

Silvia Mgurean, Delia Vrg, Florin Alin Sava

Limitation and future research


directions
One limitation of this study regards the
limited number of the candidates who were
employed at the end of the selection process,
and therefore the low number of participants
assessed by their supervisor, which resulted
in reduced statistical power for detecting
potential effects. Moreover, the candidates
applied and were employed in several
different positions in the multination
corporation. The heterogeneity of the job
positions might also affect the supervisor
evaluations because of (a) differences in the
length of the adjustment time needed for a
new job, (b) different job specifications
which might engage different levels of
extraversion. Therefore, future studies could
benefit from enlarging the sample of
employees, controlling for different types of
job positions, and following the employees
over a longer period of time. In addition,
more information about how implicit
personality measured in the context of the
selection process is related to job
performance could be obtained by using
objective indicators of performance.
The preliminary results of this study
provide insight into the dynamic of implicit
and explicit personality in the context of
personnel selection. Using implicit measures
in research projects in selection processes
might lead to a better understanding of how
people present themselves (at a reflective and
impulsive level) in high stake situations. This
can lead to improvements of personnel
selection processes and instruments, and thus
contribute to avoiding common decision
biases.
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Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

TUDES ET RECHERCHES

Des competences collectives en pratique: le cas


du travail darticulation
MARIA IANEVA
AOS Studley R&D

RALUCA CIOBANU
GREPS, Universit Lumire Lyon 2

Rsum
Dans le contexte actuel de changements organisationnels et technologiques frquents, savoir identifier, transmettre et
capitaliser les comptences et les savoirs individuels et collectifs est un vritable enjeu pour les entreprises. Dans le
cadre de cet article, nous nous focalisons sur le travail darticulation opr par diffrents professionnels au quotidien.
Nous cherchons dfinir les comptences spcifiques qui lui sont associes. Notre approche est inspire par les thories
de lactivit et informe par les courants de laction et de la cognition situes. Nous montrons quune approche par
lactivit apporte un clairage diffrent sur les liens entre comptences individuelles et collectives. Pour cela nous nous
appuyons sur les rsultats de deux tudes ethnographiques prolonges au sein de diffrentes entreprises, un fabriquant
de matriel sportif et un centre de contact spcialis. Nos rsultats mettent en vidence quatre grands types de
comptences associes au travail darticulation. Ces comptences identifies dans leur caractre gnral offrent un
support pour la dfinition de rfrentiels de comptences propres une organisation afin de thmatiser un travail
darticulation trop souvent nglig.

Mots-cls
comptences, travail darticulation, activit, collectif

Abstract
In the current context of rapid technological and organizational changes, identifying and managing individual and
collective competencies is of a crucial importance for organizations. This article aims at understanding the
competencies involved in a specific kind of work, referred to as articulation work. Grounded on activity theory as
well as situated action and cognition, our approach highlights the relations between individual and collective
competencies. Our results build upon two ethnographic studies within a health call center and a sports equipment
manufacturing company. Thus, we identify four core competencies, which could be used to support the design of
competencies framework taking into account the too often neglected articulation work.

Keywords
competencies, articulation work, activity, collectives

Rezumat
n contextul curent, caracterizat prin schimbri rapide din punct de vedere tehnologic i organizaional, identificarea i
gestionarea competenelor individuale i colective are o importan crucial n cadrul organizaiilor. Acest articol are ca
scop nelegerea competenelor implicate ntr-un anumit tip de activitate, proces denumit articularea activitii.
Construit pe baza teoriei activitii i pe aciunea i cogniia ierarhizate, abordarea noastr scoate n eviden relaiile
dintre competenele individuale i colective. Rezultatele au la baz dou studii etnografice realizate n cadrul unui call
center din domeniul medical i n cadrul unei fabrici de echipament sportiv. Astfel, am identificat patru competene
principale care pot fi utilizate n explicarea modelului, innd cont de articularea activitii, adesea neglijat.

Cuvinte cheie
competene, articularea activitii, activitate, colectiv
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Maria Ianeva, E-mail: m.ianeva@aos-studley.com
or Raluca Ciobanu, E-mail: raluca.ciobanu@univ-lyon2.fr

34

Des competences collectives en pratique: le cas du travail darticulation

Introduction
Dans un contexte de mondialisation de
lconomie, savoir identifier, transmettre,
capitaliser ou encore valoriser les comptences
et les savoirs individuels et collectifs constitue
un vritable enjeu pour les entreprises.
Lmergence du modle de la comptence est
troitement lie aux volutions du travail et de
son organisation (Zarifian, 1999 ; Wittorski,
1997 ; Kouabenan & Dubois, 2000). En effet,
les nouveaux modes dorganisation des
activits productives, favoriss par lessor des
technologies collaboratives, cherchent
cultiver la flexibilit des entreprises, celle
des individus et des collectifs face aux alas
dun environnement complexe et incertain.
Dsormais de nouvelles exigences psent sur
les salaris, des exigences en matire de
coordination, de coopration, darticulation
des activits. Autant de comptences qui
relvent du collectif de travail et engagent
ainsi la responsabilit dune entit
mouvante, htrogne et par dfinition difficile
saisir (Grosjean & Lacoste, 1999).
Les volutions des manires de produire
sont bien sr celles des modes de travailler
ensemble, des valeurs et des normes associes
aux mtiers mais aussi, comme le montrent les
travaux issus de la clinique de lactivit (Clot,
1999 ; Caroly & Clot, 2004), celles de
lexprience individuelle au travail. Aussi, le
collectif
professionnel
contribue
au
dveloppement des individus et lmergence
de comptences collectives spcifiques (Ianeva
& Ciobanu, 2011). Le travail collectif cest-dire la coopration et la coordination dacteurs,
travaillant de manire temporellement et
spatialement distribue, ncessitent non
seulement des comptences individuelles mais
aussi un travail supplmentaire, que Strauss
(1992) appelle le travail darticulation pour
que les efforts de lquipe soient finalement
plus que lassemblage chaotique de fragments
pars de travail (Strauss, 1992, p.191). Il
sagit dune mise en cohrence , continue et
prospective,
dinterventions
autrement
fragmentaires ou chaotiques qui contribue au
dveloppement et la mise en uvre de ce que
diffrents auteurs en psychologie et en
ergonomie (Leplat, 2000 ; Wittorski, 1997 ;
Kouabenan & Dubois, 2000 ; Le Boterf,

35

1997 ; 2000) dsignent par la notion de


comptence collective.
En pratique, ce travail darticulation
implique des tches dordres diffrents (Bracet
& al., 2002), telles que coordonner des
ressources, des personnes et des actions autour
dun mme objet (le malade) ou encore
articuler des tches situes sur divers plans
(sentiments, confort, scurit) et portes par
des professionnels diffrents ayant des valeurs,
des objectifs et des intrts parfois conflictuels
(ibid.., p.42). Il est, comme le montrent
notamment Grosjean et Lacoste (1999)
complexe et essentiel au fonctionnement
effectif et comptent des collectifs
professionnels. Mais il est aussi difficile
rationaliser, souvent peu formalis et reconnu
par les organisations (Star & Strauss, 1999).
Or dans le contexte actuel de changements
organisationnels et technologiques frquents,
tenir compte du travail darticulation des
niveaux diffrents est susceptible de fournir
des ressources aussi bien aux promoteurs du
changement, quaux praticiens pour la gestion
de la transformation de lorganisation et le
dveloppement de lactivit collective.
En nous appuyant sur les rsultats de deux
tudes ethnographiques, nous nous focalisons
dans le cadre de cet article sur le travail
darticulation
opr
par
diffrents
professionnels (superviseurs, manager de
rgion) au quotidien. Nous cherchons dfinir
les comptences spcifiques qui lui sont
associes. Notre approche est inspire des
thories de lactivit (Vygotski, 1997 ; Clot,
1999 ; Engestrm, 1987) et informe par les
courants de laction et de la cognition situes
(Suchman, 1987 ; Lave, 1988). Aussi nos
analyses portent sur les pratiques de ces
professionnels en situation ainsi que sur
larrire-plan de lactivit de travail, qui
organise et structure ces pratiques.
La premire partie de cet article se focalise
sur diffrentes approches de la comptence et
sur la notion dactivit. Au travers de lanalyse
de la littrature portant plus spcifiquement sur
la comptence, nous souhaitons montrer
quune approche par lactivit est susceptible
dapporter un clairage diffrent sur les liens
entre comptences individuelles et collectives.
Nous prcisons ensuite notre problmatique de
recherche ainsi que la mthodologie que nous

36

avons mise en uvre dans le but dy rpondre.


Nous interrogeons le travail darticulation en
pratique et les comptences qui lui sont
associes. Pour cela nous mobilisons une
mthodologie qualitative et prenons le cas
comme unit danalyse afin de faire sens des
donnes collectes. Dans un troisime temps,
nous exposons nos principaux rsultats et
discutons de leurs implications concrtes en
matire de dveloppement et de transfert des
comptences.
Comptences collectives et
activit
Dans ce qui suit, nous prsentons une revue
de littrature autour de la notion de
comptence qui insiste sur deux dimensions
inhrentes cette notion. Il sagit dune part
de lide de flexibilit. Etre comptent
signifie aujourdhui savoir sadapter et agir
en situation plus quexcuter des procdures
formellement dfinies. Dautre part, laction
au travail intgre les exigences propres un
milieu professionnel donn. En dautres
termes, pour comprendre la comptence
dfinie comme un savoir agir en situation,
il faut tenir compte du collectif et de
lorganisation au sein desquelles se dploie
laction comptente. Les thories de
lactivit, comme nous le prcisons dans la
troisime sous-partie de cette section,
permettent de conceptualiser la comptence
comme un processus dynamique et collectif.
Elles constituent ainsi une alternative aux
approches cognitivo-centres des activits
collectives et ouvrent la voie une rflexion
fconde sur la notion de comptence
collective, notion que nous avons choisi
daborder au travers de lexemple du travail
darticulation.
Un savoir-faire en situation : la
flexibilit au cur de la notion de
comptence
La notion de comptence a pris aujourdhui
beaucoup dimportance dans les discours des
chercheurs et des praticiens. Il suffit de
consulter les offres demploi et cela quel que
soit le domaine dactivit de lentreprise pour
y dcouvrir une prsentation des comptences

Maria Ianeva, Raluca Ciobanu

requises ct des missions assurer et le


profil souhait (niveau dtudes, prsence ou
absence dexprience professionnelle similaire
etc.). Celles-ci se prsentent demble comme
finalises cest--dire comme applicables
une classes de tches dfinies, recouvrant ainsi
une multiplicit de situations de travail. En
dautres termes que ce soit dans le champ de
lvaluation des personnes ou de lanalyse de
lactivit (Leplat, 2000), la notion de
comptence renvoie une exigence
dadaptabilit (Wittorski, 1997) inhrente aux
environnements de travail actuels. Etre
comptent aujourdhui signifie moins
appliquer ou excuter des procdures que
savoir agir (Pastr, 2005) cest--dire faire face
de manire intelligente et stratgique aux
contingences des situations de travail.
Le glissement de la notion de qualification
celle de comptence traduit ainsi les
mutations profondes des activits productives,
celles des tches, des systmes de production,
des mtiers. Dans un contexte de crise de la
prescription (Pastr, 2005) o le travail,
autrefois pens comme une suite doprations
programmes et reproductibles, devient une
suite dvnements, de situations singulires
(Zarifian, 1999), les salaris doivent non
seulement savoir faire mais aussi savoir
combiner des connaissances et des ressources
en fonction des alas. Ce basculement
conceptuel traduit de nouvelles manires
dvaluer le travail et soulve la question de a
visibilit, de la reconnaissance et de
lvaluation des comptences in situ
(Licoppe, 2008). Il fait par ailleurs cho
lvolution des sciences sociales et en
particulier le dveloppement de travaux de
recherche

vise
explicitement
ethnographique se focalisant sur le contenu du
travail (actes, actions, activits, oprations)
plutt que sur son contour et ses consquences
(contexte, condition, organisation) (Borzeix,
2003).
Si en effet la notion de comptence est une
notion en voie de fabrication (Le Boterf,
1994), dont la dfinition nest pas aise, de
nombreux
auteurs
(Zarifian,
2001)
reconnaissent le caractre situe des
comportements et dcrivent les comptences
comme un savoir-faire en situation. Ainsi,
aussi bien la gense, que la dfinition ou
encore lvaluation des comptences sont

Des competences collectives en pratique: le cas du travail darticulation

mettre en relation avec un contexte daction


prcis.
Comptences et organisation : la
comptence comme ressource
pour laction organise
Au-del de lintelligence de la tche
(Montmollin, 1986), la comptence revt une
dimension normative et sociale. Elle renvoie
certes linitiative dun acteur aux prises avec
une situation potentiellement problmatique,
mais constitue galement une ressource pour
laction organise finalit productive.
Dfinie et affirme par un tiers (Wittorski,
1998), la comptence fournit une base pour
lallocation des ressources, la rpartition des
tches, bref elle est un appui pour larticulation
structurante (Grosjean & Lacoste, 1999) de
lactivit. En cela, elle relve dune ralit
complexe lorganisation qui dpasse
lindividu et la situation. Une ralit qui a son
histoire, est porteuse dexpriences, de
manires de travailler, mais qui est galement
le fruit dajustements, darbitrages et de
ngociations au quotidien entre des acteurs
ayant des perspectives et des intrts
divergents.
Aussi, tre comptent se rapporte un
savoir partager des enjeux (Zarifian, 2004)
et revient inscrire son action dans celle dun
agencement organisationnel (Girin, 2001)
mandat collectivement dfini. Autrement dit, il
sagit autant dune performance individuelle
que dune construction sociale. La dynamique
du dveloppement et du transfert des
comptences doit tre pens en rfrence un
jeu de relations interpersonnelles o des
ressources
sont
alloues,
changes,
mobilises selon des rgles prcises et en vue
de latteinte dun objectif commun.
Lintelligence pratique de lacteur en situation
staye sur le travail collectif (Caroly & Clot,
2004), cest--dire sur la coopration et la
coordination des professionnels en situation,
mais aussi sur un environnement matriel et
social qui intgre un systme de valeurs de
rfrence au mtier exerc, des manires dtre
et dagir au travail.
Ainsi il apparat pertinent de distinguer la
comptence en tant que ressource pour
lorganisation et tre comptent, cest--dire

37

tre reconnu comme tant un professionnel


comptent par le collectif au regard des
valeurs portes par ce dernier. La
comptence telle que institutionnellement
et collectivement dfinie figurerait parmi les
moyens que mobilisent les acteurs dune
organisation pour rendre intelligibles leurs
actions en situation. En cela elle participe la
structuration de laction cooprative in situ. La
distinction entre comptence et tre
comptent suppose de tenir compte du
collectif de travail, en diffrenciant les
obligations et les valeurs labores par les
professionnels de celles prescrites par
lorganisation sous formes de rgles, de
procdures respecter, dobjectifs atteindre.
Par exemple, un oprateur peut tre considre
comme tant performant sur une tche au
regard des objectifs fixs par la direction. Sa
performance et les comptences quelle
mobilise sinscrivent dans un dispositif
managrial complexe et constituent entre
autres une ressource pour lencadrement de
proximit (rpartition des tches selon la
charge du travail). Aussi un oprateur jug
comptent sur cette tche serait un choix
judicieux pour lassurer en dbut de semaine
lorsque la charge du travail est de manire
gnrale plus importante. Ce mme oprateur
est comptent du point de vue du collectif dans
la mesure o son travail intgre les impratifs
propres au collectif professionnel, qui ne
concident pas ncessairement avec ceux
privilgis par lorganisation.
Nous nous focalisons dans le cadre de cet
article sur le travail darticulation en pratique
cest--dire sur tre comptent. Toutefois
notre propos vise souligner lintrt
dexplicitement reconnatre ce travail comme
composante essentielle au fonctionnement des
collectifs en le constituant ainsi comme
ressource pour lorganisation et lactivit
collective. Dans ce sens, il est aussi question
des comptences associes au travail
darticulation.
Lactivit au cur du
dveloppement des comptences
individuelles et collectives
Les thories de lactivit permettent de
conceptualiser les comptences comme un

38

processus dynamique et collectif. Elles


fournissent, notre sens, les ressources
conceptuelles
pour
comprendre
leur
dveloppement des niveaux diffrents. Les
principes de base de ces thories ont t
formuls par un groupe de chercheurs russes
au dbut du 20me sicle, dont les auteurs les
plus connus sont Vygotski, Lontiev et Luria.
Depuis les annes 80 leurs travaux font
lobjet dun intrt croissant de la part de
nombreux chercheurs issus de disciplines
diffrentes (ducation, psychologie, gestion).
Par souci de concision, nous prsentons ici
certaines ides cl de ces thories, tout en
reconnaissant que des divergences existent
entre les courants de recherche qui sen
inspirent. Il sagit notamment de la notion
dactivit, de celle de mdiation et de la
gense sociale de la conscience.
Dans cette perspective, lunit danalyse
est lactivit par dfinition collective et
oriente vers un objet (Lontiev, 1984). Il
sagit dun processus organisateur de laction
des sujets en situation. Le systme dactivit
tel que conceptualis par Engestrm (1987)
dans la continuit des travaux de Lontiev,
intgre la finalit du travail, les diffrents
artefacts mobiliss par les acteurs, les rgles
et les normes en vigueur propres la
communaut de professionnels, ainsi que la
rpartition des tches. Larticulation des
actions individuelles en rfrence cette
exigence partage, quest lobjet de lactivit
collective, tient aux instruments que les sujets
mobilisent en situation. La notion
dinstrument
renvoie
aux
ressources
matrielles mais aussi symboliques dont
disposent les professionnels pour transformer
lobjet de leur travail (Kuutti, 1996) et
matriser leur comportement. Ainsi, cest au
travers des interactions avec lenvironnement
matriel et social et lintriorisation
progressive des instruments de coopration
sociale que se dveloppe la pense consciente
qui rgule les autres fonctions psychiques
suprieures, telle la mmoire et lattention
volontaires ou encore la pense verbale.
Dans le contexte de lactivit productive,
cela revient dune part accorder une place
centrale au travail collectif (coopration,
entraide, coordination) et ses appuis
(artefacts, rgles) dans la monte en
comptence des professionnels. Dautre part,

Maria Ianeva, Raluca Ciobanu

les actions des sujets en situation ne prennent


sens quen rfrence au systme dactivit
dans son ensemble. Ainsi, les tches ralises
de manire individuelle relvent dun travail
en collectif, cest--dire le travail tel
quorganis
par
une
infrastructure
sociotechnique complexe (division du travail,
rgles, procdures) mais aussi rgul de
manire informelle par les acteurs. De ce fait,
les comptences constituent certes la
performance dune personne mais sont
galement luvre du collectif. Par
consquent, valuer et dvelopper des
comptences suppose de tenir compte, audel des sujets individuels et des situations de
travail, de lactivit en tant que systme.
Problmatique : des
comptences collectives la
dimension collective de la
comptence
Les diffrentes approches de la comptence
suggrent une dfinition de la comptence en
relation avec un contexte local et
organisationnel prcis. La majorit des
auteurs (Leplat, 2000 ; Wittorski, 1997 ;
Kouabenan & Dubois, 2000) saccordent sur
le fait que la comptence collective nest pas
laddition ni la combinaison des comptences
individuelles. En dautres termes une quipe
dexperts nest pas forcment une quipe
experte (Cannon-Bowers et al., 1998). Les
capacits dauto-organisation du groupe face
des vnements imprvus, ainsi que les
connaissances partages par les membres du
collectif des responsabilits et des tches
respectives de chacun (Leplat, 2000) sont
considres tant de lordre de la comptence
collective. Ce sont des comptences
collectives de coordination et darticulation
des activits.
Les recherches sur les comptences
suggrent quune approche centre sur
lindividu est insuffisante pour rendre compte
de lintelligence pratique des acteurs en
situation, puisque ces acteurs agissent dans
des environnements professionnels qui font
peser dautres exigences sur leur travail. La
nature mme des comptences ncessaires
laction sen trouve transforme. Une
approche centre sur le groupe ou lquipe

Des competences collectives en pratique: le cas du travail darticulation

permet la mise en vidence de comptences


collectives, telles des comptences de
coordination et darticulation des activits,
mais offre peu de prises pour dvelopper ou
transmettre ces comptences. Les thories de
lactivit permettent de saisir diffrentes
dimensions de la comptence, savoir sa
dimension situe, dveloppementale et
organisationnelle.
Ces thories oprent un glissement au
niveau de lunit danalyse tudie. En effet,
lactivit ne correspond pas une entit
circonscrite dans un espace-temps dfini, ni
un groupe de personnes. Il sagit dun
processus dynamique qui engage autant le
sujet que le collectif professionnel. Les
comptences
collectives
dans
cette
perspective renvoient lintelligence dun
collectif en mouvement, celle de sujets aux
prises avec les contingences dune situation
de travail, mais surtout des sujets engags
dans une activit qui tout en se redfinissant
continuellement dans un contexte daction
local, constitue, linstance organisatrice des
conduites individuelles et collectives et la
source de nouvelles comptences.
Dans le cadre de cet article nous nous
proposons de montrer lintrt dune
approche des comptences par lactivit tout
en interrogeant les implications dune telle
approche en matire de dveloppement et de
transmission des comptences. A ce titre le
cas du travail darticulation nous semble
particulirement rvlateur pour illustrer de
lintrt dune approche par lactivit de la
notion de comptence.
Matriel et mthodes
Les deux tudes prsentes dans le cadre de
cet article sappuient sur des enqutes
ethnographiques prolonges au sein de
diffrentes entreprises, savoir un fabriquant
de matriel sportif et un centre de contact
spcialis. Le dispositif mthodologique
construit dans les deux cas visait
documenter les pratiques des acteurs en
situation ainsi que larrire-plan de lactivit
(division du travail, rgles de mtier,
modalits de rgulation informelles). Pour
cela, nous avons mobilis diffrentes
techniques : lobservation participante sous

39

forme de suivi dacteurs, les entretiens semidirectifs, les auto-confrontations partir de


photographies
et
denregistrements
audiovisuels.
Ainsi, nous avons pu recueillir un corpus
de donnes htrognes (verbatim, notes
ethnographiques, enregistrements audio et
vido, photographies, documents internes tels
des fiches de postes ou encore des supports
de formation). En vue didentifier des
comptences lies au travail darticulation,
nous avons slectionn et analys une srie
de situations de coordination ou de gestion
(Girin, 1990) o sont discuts les normes, les
valeurs et les enjeux associs lactivit.
Comme prcis dans la partie thorique du
prsent article, nous considrons les
comptences comme ancres dans un
contexte, celui de laction situe et de
lactivit collective. Les entretiens semidirectifs raliss avaient ainsi un rle
dorientation pour les observations in situ des
pratiques.
Celles-ci
ont
t
volontairement
dployes sous forme de suivis cest--dire
sur une temporalit longue, nous permettant
dapprhender la logique de laction au-del
des situations singulires auxquelles font face
les acteurs. Identifier des comptences
darticulation suppose, notre sens, lanalyse
de lenchanement dactions et de leurs
appuis. Une attention particulire a t porte
la manire dont les productions des uns se
constituent en ressources pour les actions des
autres.
Enfin,
les
photographies
et
les
enregistrements audiovisuels ont t mobiliss
comme supports pour susciter la parole des
acteurs suivis, loccasion pour nous de mettre
en discussion nos interprtations, ainsi que de
mieux comprendre lactivit et ses enjeux tels
que vus par diffrentes catgories de
professionnels.
Lanalyse
des
autoconfrontations sest focalise sur les objets
et controverses mtier (Clot, 1999). Elle nous a
permis de clarifier, au-del des aspects
organisationnels, les perspectives des diffrents
acteurs sur la finalit de leur travail et
linfrastructure symbolique inhrente
lactivit. Dfinir des comptences associes au
travail darticulation suppose de rendre compte

Maria Ianeva, Raluca Ciobanu

40

des aspects lis au collectif du travail comme


du travail en collectif (Grosjean, 2004).
Dans ce qui suit nous prsentons
successivement le contexte de chacune des
tudes et dtaillons les mthodes employes,
ainsi que les modalits de production des
donnes ayant servies pour illustrer notre
propos dans le cadre de cet article.
Sant Info: un centre de contact
spcialis
Fond par trois mutuelles, Sant Info est un
centre de contact spcialis dans le domaine
mdico-social.
Cette
plate-forme
tlphonique a pour mission dinformer et
dorienter les adhrents des organismes
complmentaires fondateurs. Parmi les
prestations proposes, lanalyse de devis
dentaires par tlphone ou suite lenvoi
dun courrier reprsente une part importante
du travail de Sant Info. Au moment de
notre tude, ce centre de contact employait
une cinquantaine de salaris, dont une
quipe de dix-sept tl-oprateurs (TC), une
dizaine doprateurs de saisie (ODS), ainsi
quune quipe de professionnels de sant
(dentistes, mdecins, opticien, assistante
sociale). Les TC et les ODS taient pour la
majorit des femmes entre 20 et 30 ans. Le
turn-over tant relativement important
parmi les tlconseillers, leur anciennet
tait trs variable, la moyenne se situant
environ un an demie.
Afin
de
documenter
le
travail
darticulation opr par diffrents acteurs de
lorganisation, nous avons dans un premier
temps ralis une vingtaine dentretiens semidirectifs
avec
dune
part
lquipe
administrative et dirigeante, dautre part les
professionnels de sant, les tlconseillers et
les oprateurs de saisie. La dure moyenne de
ces entretiens tait de quarante minutes. Dans
la mesure o nous considrons lactivit
comme troitement lie un contexte
matriel et social, une confrontation avec
lenvironnement dans lequel le travail des
diffrents professionnels interviews prenait
sens, tait pour nous un pr requis ncessaire
la conduite de ces entretiens et la validit
des donnes obtenues. Les entretiens ont t
ainsi conduits dans le contexte de
droulement habituel des activits des

interrogs cest--dire leur poste de travail.


Nous souhaitions que les salaris puissent
avoir accs aussi bien aux artefacts quils
utilisaient quotidiennement quaux traces de
leurs propres activits (historisations dans la
base de donnes adhrent par exemple).
Solliciter la parole des acteurs sur leurs
postes de travail nous a permis a) de
comprendre le rle de chacun dans la
production coordonne de la prestation de
service,
ainsi
que
les
rapports
dinterdpendance quils entretenaient avec
les autres, b) de recueillir des lments sur la
manire dont chacun de ces professionnels
donne sens son mtier.
Dans un deuxime temps, nous avons
ralis une srie de suivis centrs
respectivement sur des acteurs (superviseurs,
tlconseillers,
oprateurs
de
saisie,
professionnels de sant), des affaires cest-dire des demandes traites de manire
collaborative par diffrents professionnels de
lorganisation et des situations de
communication collective (briefs, runions
dquipe). Pour la plupart, ces suivis ont t
enregistrs par le moyen dune camra, dun
dictaphone et lorsque cela tait possible et
ncessaire par un logiciel de capture dcran.
Les enregistrements audiovisuels nous ont
permis dobserver le dtail du travail en
situation, ainsi que de constituer des supports
pour la conduite dautoconfrontations a
posteriori avec certains professionnels
volontaires.
Dans la partie rsultats de cet article, nous
prsentons des donnes issues des suivis
raliss auprs des superviseurs du plateau,
ainsi que de plusieurs tl-oprateurs et cela
dans le cadre des tches douverture des
courriers entrants et de leur enregistrement
dans la base de donnes adhrent.
Herms Sport
Cette tude porte sur une entreprise de taille
importante spcialise dans la fabrication
darticles de sport et de loisir que nous allons
appeler pour des raisons de confidentialit
Herms Sport. Herms Sport France a choisi
de transfrer la majorit de sa production vers
lEurope de lEst et lAsie, notamment la
Roumanie et la Chine. Ainsi, depuis les
annes 90, la Roumanie accueille une des

Des competences collectives en pratique: le cas du travail darticulation

filiales de cette entreprise franaise ainsi que


plusieurs usines sous-traitantes.
Le rle de cette filiale est dassurer la
coordination des usines sous-traitantes de
lentreprise mre et de ses fournisseurs
locaux ou internationaux et le contrle et le
suivi de la qualit des produits. Soixantequinze salaris travaillent pour mieux
rpondre aux besoins des clients et pour
accompagner les sous-traitants dans leurs
diffrentes dmarches (achat des matires
premires, logistique, etc.). Nous avons pass
un mois au sein de la filiale dHerms Sport
en Roumanie durant lequel nous avons
cherch comprendre comment le processus
de transfert des comptences est mis en place
concrtement, le chemin parcouru par ces
comptences entre la France, la filiale et les
usines sous-traitantes. Au-del de ltude du
processus de transfert, il sagissait aussi de
comprendre les rgulations du processus de
travail mises en uvre dans un cadre
multiculturel.
Nous supposons que le transfert dactivit
et des comptences ne peut pas se raliser en
dehors de lactivit des personnes, lactivit
et les comptences tant directement lies.
Travailler dans un cadre multiculturel, dans
un secteur dynamique comme la fabrication
des quipements sportifs, suppose de la part
des acteurs un apprentissage continu de
nouvelles pratiques de travail.
Des entretiens individuels ont t conduits
avec 24 personnes, salaries de la filiale qui
se sont portes volontaires pour participer
cette recherche. Parmi ces personnes : le
directeur de la filiale dHerms en Roumanie,
des techniciens (achat, logistique, ressources
humaines, etc.), des managers, des salaris
dHerms travaillant directement dans les
usines sous-traitantes, etc. Les donnes ont
t recueillies par une prise de note manuelle.
Nous avons cherch rendre compte de la
faon dont les salaris sapproprient les
rgles et les pratiques de travail de
lentreprise mre dans le contexte dactivit
roumain. Ces entretiens ont rvl le rle trs
important du manager de rgion comme
relais dans le transfert des comptences et des
pratiques entre lentreprise mre en France et
les sous-traitants en Roumanie.

41

Aprs une priode de familiarisation, nous


avons ralis des observations systmatiques
de lactivit du manageur de rgion dHerms
Sport Roumanie. Le suivi de cet acteur nous a
conduit visiter plusieurs des usines soustraitantes de la filiale roumaine. Une grille
dobservation a t labore et mobilise tout
au long des suivis. Celle-ci comprend des
indicateurs tels les types dinteractions, les
interactions non verbales ou encore le contenu
de ces changes. Ainsi, nous avons pris des
notes selon un mode de description narratif
afin de rendre compte des diffrents processus
et modes daction montrant lactivit et les
appuis des diffrentes procdures et artefacts.
Pour complter nos notes, nous avons sollicit
le manager de rgion pour raliser des
verbalisations conscutives sur la base des
photos que nous avons prises lors de nos
diffrentes visites de terrain.
Lanalyse de lactivit du manager de
rgion nous a permis de rendre visible le
processus de transfert des comptences et les
mcanismes
qui
le
soutiennent
:
lappropriation des nouvelles pratiques de
travail et larticulation dactivits dun grand
nombre dacteur par des activits de contrle
et de supervision de la qualit des produits
Herms Sport. Les donnes, ayant appuy les
analyses prsentes dans la partie rsultats de
cet article, ont t recueillies par des
observations systmatiques du travail ainsi
que des entretiens individuels.
Rsultats
Au travers des modalits pratiques de
ralisation dune srie de tches concrtes
chez Sant Info, savoir louverture, le
premier tri et le prtraitement des courriers,
nous montrons (5.1) dans un premier temps
qutre comptent en situation est autant une
performance individuelle que luvre dun
collectif. Nous prcisons en quoi chacune de
ces tches sinscrit dans un chainage de
pratiques dont lenjeu global est la qualit du
service fourni aux adhrents et de manire
gnrale la crdibilit de Sant Info vis--vis
de ses actionnaires et clients les mutuelles.
Au travers de cet exemple il est question des
comptences darticulation dont fait preuve le
collectif de Sant Info.

42

Lexemple du manager de rgion


dHerms Sport que nous prsentons dans la
section suivante (5.2) souligne le fait que
cette rinterprtation des rgles, leur mise
en contexte par le collectif nest pas
automatique mais est le rsultat dun travail
complexe peu reconnu par lorganisation et
par les acteurs eux-mmes.
Le cas de Sant Info
Ressources et enjeux de laction
comptente
Construire des ressources pour laction
dautrui: lexemple de louverture et du tri
des courriers entrants
Comme prcis prcdemment, Sant Info a
pour vocation dinformer et dorienter les
adhrents de trois mutuelles de sant dans le
domaine mdico-social. Lanalyse des devis
fait partie des services dinformation offerts
aux utilisateurs. Pour bnficier de ce service,
ladhrent doit, dans la plupart des cas,
envoyer le(s) devis concerns Sant Info
(par courrier, par fax ou par mail). Ainsi, la
plate-forme reoit quotidiennement ces
documents, qui font lobjet dun tri
prliminaire dans le cadre dune srie de
tches
(ouverture
des
enveloppes,
enregistrement dans la base de donnes)
habituellement ralises par des oprateurs
diffrents. Louverture des courriers est
souvent assure par un des superviseurs du
plateau
tlphonique,
alors que le
prtraitement incombe de manire gnrale
aux tl-oprateurs (TC), plus rarement aux
oprateurs de saisie (ODS).
Lors de louverture des enveloppes, le
superviseur ou le TC opre un classement des
enveloppes reues selon lexpditeur du
courrier (mutuelle 1, 2, 3, adhrent). Certaines
demandes, comme celles relatives la pose
dimplants sont cartes des lots et transmises
directement un oprateur de saisie spcialis.
Chacune des enveloppes est ouverte et vide.
Leur contenu est assembl sous forme de
dossiers agrafs et dispers de manire
constituer des tas distincts. Au cours de cette
tche, le superviseur examine rapidement les
courriers et cherche reprer des indices tels

Maria Ianeva, Raluca Ciobanu

la texture de lenveloppe, ladresse de


lexpditeur, les destinataires ou encore le
numro dadhrent figurant sur les crits
accompagnant
les
devis.
Certaines
informations se rvlent lui comme saillantes
(comme par exemple le logo de la mutuelle),
dautres font lobjet dun reprage volontaire
(adresse, numro de tlphone, numro
dadhrent). Pour raliser ces oprations le
superviseur mobilise sa connaissance du
fonctionnement de Sant Info, qui prvoit, par
exemple, un circuit de traitement spcifique
pour les devis dimplants. Il fait preuve de sa
capacit de reconnatre des indices tels que le
numro dadhrent ou encore de celle de grer
de
multiples
engagements
parallles
(supervision du plateau et ouverture et tri des
courriers).
Or le suivi des diffrents acteurs nous ont
permis de constater que lors de louverture et
du premier tri des courriers, la pertinence des
indices reprs (par exemple adresse figurant
sur lenveloppe) se construit en rfrence non
pas au contexte local de la situation, cest-dire celui de la tche dans laquelle loprateur
est directement impliqu, mais au contexte
global de lactivit, en particulier celle de son
collgue charg denregistrer les devis dans
la base de donnes.
En dautres termes les informations qui
attirent son attention sont celles susceptibles
de faciliter le travail de son collgue en
prtraitement. Elles sont apprcies en
fonction des actions que le traceur aura
raliser, des problmes quil aura rsoudre
pour mener bien son travail de manire
efficace. Dans cette situation le professionnel
en charge de louverture du courrier met en
uvre une capacit anticiper et construire les
conditions du travail de son collge en
prtraitement cest--dire dorganiser son
travail en construisant des ressources
configurantes pour son action. Dvelopper
ce type de comptences suppose de tenir
compte du systme dactivit dans son
ensemble plutt que se focaliser sur lindividu,
ses caractristiques ou son poste de travail.
Savoir partager des enjeux: prtraitement des
courriers et qualit du service
Comme nous venons de lexpliquer, les
devis adresss Sant Info par les adhrents et

Des competences collectives en pratique: le cas du travail darticulation

les mutuelles font lobjet dun premier tri par


le superviseur du plateau tlphonique et cela
ds louverture des enveloppes. Une fois les
courriers ouverts et les documents classs par
expditeur (adhrent ou mutuelle), ils sont
transmis au TC charg du prtraitement. Le
prtraitement des courriers entrants consiste
trier les devis envoys par les adhrents. Le
tl-oprateur classe les devis reus selon les
actes quils contiennent (une ou plusieurs
prothses
dentaires,
des
soins
de
parodontologie etc.) et les enregistre dans la
base de donnes des adhrents. Les documents
ainsi classs sont ensuite transmis au ple
devis cest--dire lquipe dODS pour
analyse. Les TC peuvent galement tre
amens assurer une partie du traitement des
devis simples en parallle de la prise dappels
tlphoniques.
Lenjeu de ce travail de traage des
courriers entrants au vu du systme dactivit
est double. Dune part, il sagit de crer une
trace des devis reus, de faon ce que leur
trajectoire au sein de lorganisation soit
visible par tous les intervenants. Ainsi, si
ladhrent reprend contact avec Sant Info,
toute personne ayant accs son dossier est en
mesure de linformer sur ltat de sa demande.
Dautre part, le traage vise faciliter le travail
des ODS, qui eux, reprennent les devis
enregistrs pour effectuer leur analyse laide
dun logiciel spcifique. En effet, comme
lenregistrement des documents implique
didentifier ladhrent concern de manire
fiable et de crer un nouvel vnement dans
son dossier, il suffit pour loprateur de saisie
de reprendre le numro dadhrent et
daccder lvnement associ pour procder
lanalyse sans perdre du temps. Il convient
de prciser que lanalyse des devis comme
dailleurs la prise dappels tlphoniques sont
soumis des objectifs quantitatifs en termes
respectivement de temps de traitement (J+3) et
de taux dappels dcrochs (TAD).
Le traitement des devis obit une logique
chronologique, les demandes les plus
anciennes tant traites prioritairement sur les
plus rcentes. La date de rception des
courriers organise le travail des oprateurs de
saisie et constitue un repre permettant
dvaluer la performance du collectif. Les
retards en matire de traitement des devis

43

dentaires se rpercutent sur le travail des TC,


qui lon demande danalyser davantage de
devis simples entre les appels. De plus, en cas
de retard du ple devis, lactivit du plateau
sintensifie, puisquaux demandes diverses et
varies des appelants se rajoutent les appels de
ceux qui ont envoy des courriers, mais nont
pas encore reu de rponse. Ainsi, le traage
des devis sinscrit dans un chainage dautres
tches (ouverture des courriers, analyse de
devis, prise et mission dappels). Si le
prtraitement est habituellement ralis de
manire individuelle par un des tl-oprateurs
du plateau, selon la charge de travail (flux
dappels important, retard pris par les
oprateurs de saisie, quantit de devis reus)
cette tche est susceptible dtre redistribue
sur un ou plusieurs autres professionnels, TC
ou ODS et cela afin que les documents reus
soient enregistrs le jour mme de leur
rception.
Ce
travail
darticulation
oprationnelle (Grosjean & Lacoste, 1999)
permet de maintenir la qualit du service
fourni aux adhrents et sappuie sur un
ventail de stratgies de mobilisation
collectives, qui elles reposent sur la solidarit
du collectif professionnel et sa capacit faire
face aux imprvus. En pratique, la comptence
darticulation, dont font preuve les salaris de
Sant Info au quotidien, est le rsultat dun
travail collectif o le sens de laction se
ngocie en situation cest--dire au travers des
interactions avec les autres et lenvironnement
matriel. Mais cette comptence relve
galement dun systme de valeurs et de
connaissances partages par les acteurs et rend
compte de la manire dont le collectif
professionnel sapproprie et rinterprte les
rgles prescrites.
Le cas dHerms Sport - Du
transfert de production au
transfert de comptences
La dlocalisation de lentreprise Herms
Sport
Lindustrie textile est un secteur dactivit
fortement touch par le phnomne de
dlocalisation. En effet, ces dernires annes
un grand nombre dentreprises occidentales

44

ont choisi de redployer une partie ou


lensemble de leur activit productive
ltranger. Lobjectif de ces redploiements
est le gain en matire de comptitivit au
travers des rductions des cots (main
duvre qualifi et peu coteuse, fiscalit
avantageuse, infrastructures existantes).
La majeure partie (80 %) des quipements
sportifs dHerms Sport destins au march
europen est ainsi produite en partenariat
avec les usines roumaines. Ces organisations
assurent leur fabrication de manire
autonome. Chaque usine est directement
responsable de la gestion oprationnelle du
site (main duvre, locaux, nergie), tout en
tant soumise des exigences trs strictes en
matire de production. Aussi lensemble des
sous-traitants accueille dans leurs locaux
(amnags selon les exigences dHerms
Sport) les machines et les matires premires
fournies par Herms Sport pour fabriquer les
produits selon une procdure spcifique.
Le plan de transfert de production
dHerms Sport prvoyait dabord a) la
prsence sur place de personnel qualifi en
vue de former les salaris roumains (des
expatris franais envoys en Roumanie pour
la formation des salaris roumains et des
sous-traitants, lactivit du manager de
rgion, etc.). La mise en place dun b)
transfert des machines et c) des documents
ncessaires la production des usines soustraitantes avait t galement prvue. Les
comptences, telles quenvisages par
lentreprise, sont assimiles la capacit des
salaris dappliquer les procdures et les
gammes opratoires conues par les
ingnieurs du service dindustrialisation
dHerms Sport. Elles apparaissent ainsi
comme intimement lies la productivit des
agents dfinie selon des indicateurs
quantitatifs. Plus loprateur est comptent,
plus il fabrique de produits.
Lexemple que nous prsentons dans ce qui
suit porte sur lactivit du manager de rgion
qui appartient la filiale roumaine dHerms
Sport. Le rle de cette filiale est dassurer la
coordination des usines partenaires et des
fournisseurs nationaux et internationaux. Nous
nous proposons de montrer au travers de cet
exemple en quoi et comment lactivit du
manager de rgion participe lmergence et
la consolidation de modes de collaboration et

Maria Ianeva, Raluca Ciobanu

de coordination nouveaux entre les diffrents


sites de production. Ceux-ci relvent notre
sens de la comptence collective telle que
dfinie dans la littrature (Leplat, 2000;
Wittorski, 1997). Seul le dispositif de transfert
(formation, machines, procdures) prvu par
Herms France ne suffit pas pour assurer cette
appropriation. Un travail darticulation
supplmentaire est ncessaire. Ce travail
darticulation demeure, comme nous allons le
voir, peu reconnu par lorganisation. Notons
que Herms France a rcemment pris la
dcision de supprimer le poste de manager de
rgion afin dautonomiser les usines soustraitantes.
Le manager de rgion:
contextes et des personnes

articuler

des

Le manager de rgion est responsable de la


transmission, de lappropriation et de
lapplication des mthodes de travail de la
marque Herms Sport en Roumanie. Ce poste
a t cr pour assurer linterface entre les
usines sous-traitantes, la filiale et le service
dindustrialisation en France et cela en vue de
mieux grer lensemble de la production
assure par les partenaires roumains (les
usines, mais aussi les fournisseurs etc.).
Comme nous le verrons par la suite, son
travail est essentiel la coopration entre les
usines sous-traitantes et lmergence de
stratgies opratoires communes permettant
de rpondre aux objectifs de quantit et de
qualit exiges par lentreprise mre.
Nous avons pu suivre cet acteur dans le
cadre dune des visites dusine quil ralise de
manire hebdomadaire (3 4 fois par semaine).
Ces visites permettent de vrifier que les
articles produits sont fabriqus selon les
procdures envoyes par Herms France, mais
aussi de mettre jour les informations
oprationnelles et dassurer la communication
entre les diffrents services (industrialisation,
fabrication, logistique, autres rgions etc.). En
effet le manager de rgion na pas de poste
fixe : son activit consiste naviguer entre la
filiale et les usines sous-traitantes et
contribuer la circulation de linformation et la
coordination de laction.
Il opre ainsi un travail darticulation
diffrents niveaux et ngocie la mise en
contexte cest--dire linterprtation des

Des competences collectives en pratique: le cas du travail darticulation

procdures et des gammes opratoires


fournies par lentreprise mre, en assurant la
fonction dinterface entre les sous-traitants, la
filiale et le service dindustrialisation en
France. Tout problme rencontr par les
usines doit tre signal au manager de rgion
afin danticiper les difficults ventuelles
(dlais de livraison, panne des machines,
etc.).
De manire moins visible son travail
conduit lmergence de pratiques de
coopration nouvelles et non formalises
au sein mme des usines partenaires comme
celle de cultiver le dveloppement des
comptences des oprateurs. Le travail
collectif (coopration, coordination, entraide)
dans et entre les usines se trouve ainsi enrichi
et participe une forme de prise de
conscience collective des difficults pratiques
inhrentes lapplication des rgles en
contexte de travail.
La solidatit inter-usines et ses appuis:
interprter et traduire des procedures
Le travail du manager de rgion contribue
linterprtation
et
lapplication
des
procdures par les collectifs professionnels
des usines, ainsi qu lmergence dune
solidarit inter-usine dont il assure la
coordination.
En effet, la production des diffrentes
gammes de produits dHerms Sport est
distribue sur lensemble des sites soustraitants roumains si bien que plusieurs usines
sont susceptibles de fabriquer le mme
modle selon les mmes procdures et avec
les mmes procds. Tel est le cas des trois
usines que nous avons visites. Au fur et
mesure de notre travail de terrain, nous avons
observ que les usines partenaires
travaillaient en troite collaboration afin de
faire face aux commandes et aux imprvus
(difficults techniques et organisationnelles).
Ainsi lorsque la quantit demande dun
modle est importante, les diffrents sites se
partagent la fabrication du produit en
privilgiant toutes de manire synchrone la
production de ce produit en particulier. De
mme, en cas de difficult technique, une
usine est susceptible de solliciter lassistance
dun autre partenaire fabriquant le mme

45

modle et donc disposant des mmes


ressources techniques. Ainsi, une des usines
que nous avons visites a eu des problmes
avec des couteaux ncessaires pour la
fabrication des chaussures de ski. Pour faire
face ce problme dordre technique et
assurer tout de mme la fabrication des
produits en respectant les quantits prvues,
cette usine a fait appel une autre usine qui
fabriquait le mme modle. Celle-ci avait en
stock ces couteaux et les a envoys
rapidement lusine en difficult. Cette
solidarit entre usines est facilite par
lentreprise mre qui elle-mme a mis en
place des procdures pour palier ce genre de
difficults et assurer le respect des dlais de
livraison. Aussi, dans le cas prcit, le cot
du transport des couteaux a t pris en charge
par Herms Sport.
Lexemple que nous venons dexposer de
manire synthtique souligne le fait que la
russite du plan de transfert de production
prvu par Herms Sport dpend moins de
laptitude des agents dappliquer des modes
opratoires mais des capacits des salaris et
des collectifs professionnels les interprter
et se les approprier. La fonction du manager
de rgion, telle que nous lavons observe,
pourrait tre assimile une fonction
dinterprtation, un travail sur le travail qui
assure lassimilation des rgles par le
collectif du travail et le dveloppement de
comptences individuelles et collectives.
Discussion: travail darticulation
et comptences
Nous nous sommes focalis dans le cadre de
cet article sur le travail darticulation opr
par diffrents professionnels au quotidien et
cela dans le but de dfinir les comptences
spcifiques qui lui sont associes. Dans le
contexte
actuel
de
changements
organisationnels frquents, valoriser ce type
de comptences relve, nos yeux, dune
importance stratgique pour les entreprises.
Pour cela nous avons mobilis une approche
inspire par les thories de lactivit et
informe par les courants de laction et de la
cognition situes. Nous souhaitions montrer
quune approche par lactivit est susceptible
dapporter un clairage diffrent sur les liens

46

entre comptences individuelles et collectives


ainsi que plus largement sur les questions du
dveloppement et de la transmission de ces
comptences. Celles-ci sont acquises par des
sujets mais values (tre comptent) et
dveloppes en rfrence au collectif de
travail et ses enjeux.
Lexemple du manager de rgion
dHerms
Sport
apparat
comme
particulirement rvlateur de limportance
stratgique des comptences associes au
travail darticulation. En effet, malgr le
dispositif important mis en place par
lentreprise (achat des machines, transfert de
personnel qualifi et de documents) lefficacit
de la production dlocalise tient en grande
partie au manager de rgion et sa capacit
articuler des contextes et des personnes. Cet
acteur fait preuve dune comprhension fine
des mtiers, de leurs enjeux et de leur
spcificit en pratique. Il est ainsi capable non
seulement de sajuster ces diffrents
interlocuteurs, quil sagisse des responsables
dusine, des techniciens qualit ou encore des
chefs de travaux et des oprateurs, mais aussi
dassurer une fonction dinterprtation ou de
mise en contexte des procdures labores
par lentreprise mre.
Cette appropriation du prescrit, cest--dire
sa mise lpreuve de la ralit des pratiques
et des exigences de lactivit collective est
notre sens essentielle pour que les productions
des uns puissent tre des ressources pour les
autres. Lanalyse des pratiques douverture et
de tri prliminaire des courriers entrants au
sein de Sant Info nous a permis de mettre en
vidence une autre forme du travail
darticulation qui relve de la responsabilit de
tout professionnel et que lon retrouve dans les
actions
les
plus
lmentaires
des
professionnels, telles relever ou percevoir un
indice informationnel (adresse, lieu de
rsidence de lexpditeur dun courrier etc.).
Cette responsabilit partage ou cette capacit
partager des enjeux (assurer la qualit du
service fourni aux adhrents ou celle de la
production darticles de sport) permet un
ensemble dexperts de devenir une quipe
experte et renvoie la robustesse du collectif
et sa capacit sadapter aux volutions
organisationnelles et technologiques, celles
des procdures et des outils.

Maria Ianeva, Raluca Ciobanu

En nous appuyant sur les rsultats de ces


deux tudes ethnographiques, nous pouvons
voquer quatre grands types de comptences
associs aux diffrentes formes de travail
darticulation dcrites. Il sagit tout dabord
de la capacit des acteurs i) articuler des
contextes et des personnes et ii) interprter
et traduire les demandes de lorganisation.
Ensuite, nous avons mis en vidence la
comptence des professionnels iii)
construire des ressources pour le travail des
autres, en anticipant les conditions, les effets
de leurs actions, ainsi que leurs difficults
ventuelles. Enfin, nos rsultats montrent
limportance de la capacit des individus et
du collectif iv) partager des enjeux cest-dire inscrire leurs interventions singulires
et localises dans le contexte de lactivit
collective.
Les comptences identifies dans leur
caractre gnral offrent un support pour la
dfinition de rfrentiels de comptences
propres une organisation afin de thmatiser
un travail darticulation trop souvent nglig.
Nos rsultats suggrent par ailleurs que leur
dveloppement ncessite une approche
centre sur lactivit et le collectif plutt que
sur lindividu.
A titre dexemple, dans le cadre de
louverture et le premier tri des courriers
entrants, le superviseur mobilise sa
connaissance du fonctionnement de Sant
Info. Il fait preuve de sa capacit
reconnatre des indices ou encore de celle de
grer de multiples engagements parallles.
Acqurir des connaissances est a priori un
acte individuel comme lest par ailleurs
reconnatre des indices ou encore savoir
rorienter son attention dune tche une
autre. Certaines de ces connaissances sont
acquises dans le cadre de formations mtier.
Dautres comptences comme valuer le
contenu de lenveloppe partir de sa taille et
texture (contenant ou pas une radiographie et
donc relevant de limplantologie) rsultent
dun apprentissage par la pratique. Les unes
comme les autres pourraient faire lobjet
dune formalisation en vue damliorer
lefficacit des professionnels dans la
ralisation de cette tche et cela dans le cadre
dactions dvaluation et de formation.
Lenjeu est notre sens de reconnatre et
cultiver la part du collectif professionnel et

Des competences collectives en pratique: le cas du travail darticulation

de
lactivit
comme
facteur
de
dveloppement des comptences des sujets.
La prise en compte de la spcificit des
activits des tlconseillers et celle des
oprateurs dusine gagnerait tre prcise
dans le cadre dtudes ultrieures. Celle-ci
permettrait daffiner la dfinition des
comptences lies au travail darticulation au
regard des exigences spcifiques chaque
activit.
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Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 48 - 58


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

STUDII I CERCETRI

Investigarea impactului emoiilor negative asupra


reglrii emoionale n organizaii
EUGEN DUMBRAV
Universitatea Babe-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Abstract
The present study evaluates the impact of negative emotions on emotional regulation in four organizations with
different levels of competition. Based on literature, we assume that organizations differ regarding competition and
have diferent levels of negative affects associated. The levels of negative affects have a relationship with the subjects
capacity of self-control as well. Another exploratory objective was the examination of the way in which organization
type and the capacity of self-control could predict negative affect. The results confirmed these two assumptions,
considering also the fact that organization performance could be an indicator of competition, and the negative affects
yielded significant correlations with self-control capacity as well. The results show also the fact that we can predict
negative affect from self-control scores. We conclude with a hypothetical explanation model which could be tested in
future studies.

Keywords
negative emotions, control, emotional regulation, work environment

Rezumat
Acest studiu investigheaz impactul emoiilor negative asupra reglrii emoionale n patru medii organizaionale cu
nivele diferite de competititate. Presupunem, pe baza literaturii de specialitate, c organizaiile difer n ceea ce
privete competitivitatea i au asociate intensiti diferite de afectivitate negativ. De asemenea, nivelul acestei
afectiviti negative este relaionat i cu capacitatea de autocontrol a anagajailor. Un alt obiectiv de tip exploratoriu a
fost examinarea modului n care capacitatea de autocontrol poate fi un predictor al afectului negativ. Rezultatele
confirm aceste dou ipoteze, considernd faptul c performana este un indicator al competitivitii i, de asemenea,
c afectivitatea negativ prezint corelaii semnificative cu capacitatea de autocontrol. Rezultatele arat i faptul c
putem face o predicie a afectului negativ pe baza variabilei autocontrol. Concluzionm cu un model explicativ ipotetic
care ar putea fi testat n studii viitoare.

Cuvinte cheie
emoii negative, control, reglare emoional, mediu de lucru

Rsum
Cette tude examine l'impact des motions ngatives sur la rgulation emotionale dans quatre environnements
organisationnels avec des niveaux diffrentes de comptitivit. A partir de la littrature de spcialit on va souponner
que les organisations diffrent en termes de comptitivit et qu'elles gnrent des intensits de l'affectivit ngative
correspondant a cette comptitivit. Le niveau de cet affect ngatif est li aussi la capacit d'autocontrle des sujets.
Les rsultats confirment ces deux hypothses et estiment que la performance est un indicateur de la comptitivit et en
mme temps que l'affect ngatif prsente des associations avec de la capacit d'autocontrle pas alatoire. Suivant des
rsultats ngatifs concernant la prdiction de l'affectivit ngative et d'autocontrle par chaque type d'organisation
analyse, des prdicteurs considrs totalement distinct et diffrent offrent un modle explicatif hypothtique qui
pourrait tre test dans des prochaines tudes.

Mots-cls
motions ngatives, contrle, rglage motionnel, l'environnement de travail
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Eugen Dumbrav, E-mail: eugen.dumbrava@habar.ro

48

Emoiile n organizaii

Introducere
Emoiile sunt experiene zilnice ale vieii, att
n mediul intim, ct i la serviciu. Ele
reprezint att rspunsul nostru la evenimente
i situaii pe care le ntlnim i, n acelai
timp, pot determina, la rndul lor, alte reacii
emoionale. Rolul emoiei n context
organizaional a fost puin neles nainte de
anii 90. Pekrun i Frese (1992) notau c
exist foarte puine cercetri n domeniul
emoiilor la locul de munc, att n literatura
de specialitate din Marea Britanie, ct i n
Germania. Ulterior, au aprut n cercetarea
din domeniul conceptele de munc
emoional sau efortul emoional (Zapf,
Vogt, Seifert, Mertini, & Isic, 1999), care
presupun faptul c, n organizaii, angajatului
i se cere s manifeste la serviciu numai
anumite emoii acceptate i aceasta poate
avea implicaii asupra tonusului emoional
general al angajatului.
Pe de alt parte, teoria evenimentelor
afective (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) susine
c
mediul
organizaional
creeaz
evenimentele afective, astfel nct termenii
neplceri i ncurajri au fost asociai i
folosii mai trziu pentru a reprezenta
evenimente afective pozitive i negative la
locul de munc (Kanner, Coyne, Schaefer, &
Lazarus, 1981). Neplcerile i ncurajrile au
ca rezultat reacii emoionale care, la rndul
lor, au consecine comportamentale i
atitudinale pentru angajai, dar i pentru
organizaie.
n ceea ce privete reglarea emoional,
aceasta a beneficiat de atenia literaturii din
domeniile psihologiei i sociologiei ncepnd
cu anii 1980, fiind foarte de actualitate n
sectorul de servicii i axndu-se pe calitatea
relaiei dintre angajat i client. Zapf i colab.
(1999) au dezvoltat o structur conceptual
pentru multiplele faete ale acestei zone de
investigaie, fiind preocupai preponderent de
efectele
reglrii
emoionale
asupra
confortului psihic al angajatului.
Reaciile
emoionale
n
cadru
organizaional pot fi un rezultat al
convieuirii la locul de munc, iar intensitatea
emoiilor poate perturba mersul obinuit al
lucrurilor (Jones & George, 2009). Deci,
emoiile sunt parte a procesului prin care

49

oamenii
reacioneaz
la
mediul
organizaional i nu trebuie neglijate n
studierea performanei n munc sau a
comportamentului angajatului.
Abordarea relaiei dintre emoiile
negative i reglarea emoional
Organizaiile sunt, prin definiie, mbinarea
ordonat a unor elemente sociale multiple i
un important generator de triri afective.
Conceptul n sine de organizaie, aduce cu el
o form de management: ncercarea de a
controla. i dac scopul este controlul,
emoia reprezint o problem greu de
stpnit. Ea i mic pe oameni n moduri
uneori neateptate. Tocmai, de aceea anumite
manifestri emoionale au fost interzise i
reglementate n organizaii, n ncercarea
managerilor de a le controla, ca pe nite fore
de nestpnit, potenial distrugtoare, n viaa
organizaional (Mastenbroek, 2000; Taylor,
1911). Realitatea organizaional este, n mod
inerent, emoional. Potrivit lui Fineman i
Sturdy (1999), controlul i reaciile la aceasta
reprezint n mod substanial procese
emoionale. Mai mult, organizaiile cuprind o
bogie de emoii experimentate, ns
nerecunoscute ca atare.
Interaciunile sociale de la locul de munc
sunt importante pentru nelegerea emoiilor,
a amnuntelor vieii zilnice i a normelor
dup care se conduc acestea. Afiarea n
public a emoiilor, ceea ce Goffman (1959)
ar descrie ca prezentarea unei fee, arat ct
de mult este ntreptruns activitatea uman
i aspectele psihice individuale, cu viaa
social.
Analiza procesului muncii ne permite s
nelegem c emoia la locul de munc poate
fi dur i productiv, dar poate fi
considerat i ceva banal. Acest tip de analiz
vizeaz tendina managementului de a
controla munca, fizic sau n alt mod, i poate
s arate cum sunt uneori constrni actorii
organizaionali s satisfac prescripiile
manageriale, printr-o forma de control
adecvat. O ipotez interesant este c
angajatorii i doresc mai mult dect o simpl
compliana de la angajaii lor, doresc un
angajament emoional fa de scopurile
organizaiei eradicnd astfel posibilitatea

50

apariiei unui conflict. De exemplu, unele


studii sugereaz c tendinele pentru un
control normativ i introducerea tehnicilor de
supraveghere au reuit s induc un control
asupra emoiilor n mediile respective (Hopfl,
2002; Sewel & Wilkinson, 1992; Willmott,
1993).
Unele cercetri (Dasborough, 2006) arat
c principala surs a reaciilor emoionale
pozitive sau negative ale angajailor este
comportamentul liderilor; de exemplu, n
studiul calitativ citat, angajaii i-au amintit n
mod predominant incidentele negative,
oferind mai multe detalii i cu mai mult
intensitate doar n sfera aspectelor negative.
Premisa tacit conform creia moderarea
emoiilor angajailor rmne o prerogativ a
managerilor, se insinueaz n spatele mulimii
de mecanisme i practici organizaionale
menite s determine manifestarea emoiilor
dorite. Astfel, discursul despre stresul la locul
de munc poate fi neles n concordan cu
interesele managerilor (Newton, Handy, &
Fineman, 1995).
Una dintre cele mai influente i prolifice
abordri n studiul emoiilor i al reglrii
emoionale, modelul procesual al emoiilor
propus de Grandey (2000) se concentreaz pe
modul n care angajaii folosesc procesele de
gestionare a emoiilor i de realizare a
efortului emoional, centrat mai degrab pe
angajat dect pe munca n sine (Brotheridge
& Grandey, 2002). Astfel, modelul propus de
Grandey (2000), sugereaz ca exist doua
tipuri principale de inere sub control a
emoiilor implicate n efortul emoional:
controlul bazat pe antecedente i cel bazat pe
rezultat. El dezvolt mai departe conceptual
n context organizaional cele dou forme de
manifestare a emoiilor conceptualizate de
Hochschild (1983): manifestarea emoiilor
de profunzime i manifestarea emoiilor de
suprafa. Astfel, comportamentele de
reglare emoional ale angajailor implic
ambele tendine de manifestare a unor emoii
cerute, dar au la baz motive i intenii
diferite. Mai specific, manifestarea de
profunzime i determin pe angajai s i
controleze emoiile astfel nct acestea s
par autentice, n vreme ce manifestarea de
suprafa i determin pe acetia s i
controleze emoiile cu scopul de a-i realiza
obiectivele
postului.
Dasborough
&

Eugen Dumbrav

Ashkanasy (2003) susin c angajaii i vd pe


lideri ca surs a neplcerilor, cnd sunt
invocate
emoiile
negative
i
a
ncurajrilor, cnd sunt invocate emoiile
pozitive. Am ales, prin urmare, ca principal
obiectiv al acestui studiu, analiza ctorva
medii de lucru competitive i observarea
gradului n care emoiile negative prezente n
aceste organizaii pot fi inute sub control, ca
parte a reglrii emoionale, precum i msura
n care aceste medii organizaionale
favorizeaz anumite emoii negative. Din
acestea, putem presupune faptul c, pe de o
parte capacitatea sporit de gestionare sau
altfel spus autocontrolul individual este un
factor individual care poate permite
individului s manifeste sau nu afectivitate
negativ la locul de munc. Capacitatea de
autoreglare emoional a fost pus n discuie
i n context organizaional, fiind n ultimii
ani des cercetat i fiind inclus n cadrul
conceptului mai larg de inteligen
emoional (de exemplu, Grandey, 2000;
Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Utilitatea acestei
competene n gestionarea emoiilor fiind
pus n eviden i de anumite studii (de
exemplu, Wong & Law, 2002) n domeniul
organizaional competitiv/managerial. Pe de
alt parte, anumite medii organizaionale
competitive moderne tind s favorizeze
apariia afectivitii negative (Andrie, 2009;
Andrie, 2011).
Bazndu-ne pe analiza literaturii de
specialitate i pe rezultatele unei metaanalize
recente (Dumbrav, 2012), am formulat
urmtoarele ipoteze:
Ipoteza 1. Angajaii cu emoionalitate
negativ mai mare vor avea nivele sczute de
control al emoiilor, att ca stare, ct i ca
trstur de personalitate.
Ne-am propus s studiem aceast relaie i pe
fondul
concluziilor
desprinse
dintr-o
metaanaliza recent (Dumbrav, 2012) care a
confirmat c reglarea emoional coreleaz
pozitiv factorii individuali pozitivi (de
exemplu: mulumire, senintate, recunotin,
ncurajare, expresivitate pozitiv) i negativi
(ruine, mnie, cinism etc.) i respectiv
coreleaz pozitiv cu evenimentele activatoare
din mediu (de exemplu: agresivitatea
clienilor, ambiguitatea ateptrilor clienilor)

Emoiile n organizaii

i negativ cu factorii organizaionali (de


exemplu:
suportul
colegilor,
control,
participare la decizii) ct i cu activismul
emoional al individului de exemplu:
agreabilitare, evitare emoional, rezilien,
epuizare emoional), asocierea cu reglarea
emoional fiind insuficient explicat prin
abordrile curente. Este poate de presupus
faptul c reglarea emoional este un
mecanism de rspuns la anumite solicitri din
mediul
organizaional.
Deci,
apariia
emoiilor negative este att o caracteristic de
mediu, ct i o caracteristic individual, n
care trsturile individuale de personalitate,
respectiv msura n care persoana este
capabil
de
autocontrol
emoional,
(inteligena emoional), sunt de o importan
major (Jones & George, 2009). Afectivitatea
negativ este deci inerent activitii
organizaionale, fiind cauzat i de lideri i,
cu ct exist o capacitate mai mare de
autocontrol, cu att aceasta vor fi la un nivel
mai redus. Tot ca o susinere a abordrii
propuse st i o alt metaanaliz recent
(Hlsheger i Schewe, 2011) n care s-a
reconfirmat faptul c ntre reglarea emoiilor
de suprafa i performana angajailor exist
o relaie semnificativ, rezultatele sugernd
c disonana emoiilor de suprafa este
duntoare att pentru bunstarea, ct i
pentru performana angajatului.
Dac ipoteza se confirm, atunci
managementul trebuie s aib n vedere
efectele unor niveluri crescute ale emoiilor
negative, pe fondul unor niveluri sczute ale
controlului
emoiilor
n
contextul
organizaiilor studiate i, posibil, i n general
n organizaii. Cu toate c nu putem trage
concluzii privind cauzalitatea dintr-un studiu
corelaional, dac studiile viitoare vor
confirma
existena
relaiilor
cauzale,
emoionalitatea negativ fiind deseori
contraproductiv, este important selecia de
personal cu o capacitate sporit de
autocontrol,
n
special
n
mediile
organizaionale solicitante, cum este cazul n
organizaiile competitive.
Ipoteza 2. Angajaii care provin din medii
organizaionale diferite sunt predispui la
niveluri diferite ale emoiilor negative i
niveluluri diferite de performan n munc.

51

Identificarea unei relaii ntre perfomana


asociat unui mediu competitiv i emoiile
negative tinde s confirme abordrile
anterioare, potrivit crora performana n
munc poate fi influenat de reaciile
emoionale la feedback-ul acordat angajailor.
Astfel, Gaddis, Connelly, & Mumford (2004)
au examinat recent feedback-ul negativ
furnizat de ctre lideri i au descoperit c
acesta este un eveniment afectiv la locul de
munc. Au descoperit c atitudinile i
performana
subordonailor
au
fost
influenate de natura feedbackului i de
reacia emoional a subordonailor la
feedback. Astfel, n termenii teoriei
evenimentelor afective, comportamentul
liderilor poate fi vzut ca un eveniment
afectiv la locul de munc, care produce
emoii constante, pozitive i negative pentru
angajai. Acest aspect are implicaii practice
deosebite asupra demersurilor de diagnoz i
dezvoltare organizaional prin identificarea
unor predictori ai performanei n munc,
cum sunt emoiile negative i, apoi, prin
crearea condiiilor optime pentru schimbarea
necesar.
Astfel, n acest studiu corelaional, am
urmrit s identificm existena unei asocieri
ntre emoiile negative i controlul exercitat
de individ n ce privete reglarea emoional,
ca o ncercare de verificare cross-cultural a
unor relaii cercetate doar anumite zone ale
lumii, cum ar fi Statele Unite ale Americii
sau Marea Britanie. Astfel vom putea
desprinde i aspecte culturale specific
autohtone privind manifestarea emoiilor
negative i efectele exercitrii controlului
emoiilor la locul de munc.
Un alt obiectiv de tip exploratoriu, care
ine cont de prima ipotez, este examinarea
msurii n care variana variabilei afectivitate
negativ poate fi explicat de variabila
capacitatea de autocontrol.
Metod
Participani
La acest studiu au participat 94 de angajai,
majoritatea
aflai
n
poziii
cheie,
manageriale, n patru companii din piaa
autohton, companii caracterizate ca activnd
ntr-un mediu extrem de competitiv, fiind

52

lideri de pia n domeniul lor de activitate.


Cele patru domenii de activitate au fost:
construcii (40 angajai), servicii medicale
(11 angajai), servicii turistice (21 angajai) i
servicii de consultan financiar (22
angajai).
Vrsta angajaiilor a variat ntre 24-57 ani
(M = 34.3 ani; AS = 6.7). Media vechimii n
organizaie n momentul testrii a fost de 5.8
ani (AS = 2.84), iar media vechimii totale n
munc a fost de 12.5 ani (AS =5.87). Din cei
94 de angajai, 39 au fost brbai i 55 au fost
femei, 88 au avut studii superioare i 6 au
avut studii medii, iar din perspectiva poziiei
ocupate, 14 ocupau funcii de top, 76 poziii
de management de linie i 4 poziii de nivel
de baz.
Instrumente
Chestionarul PANAS-X (Positive and
Negative Affect Schedule - Expanded
Version) (Inventar al emoiilor pozitive i
negative - versiunea extins) a fost realizat de
Watson i Clark (1994) pe baza unor lucrri
anterioare ale lui Watson, Clark i Tellegen
(1988), respectiv a chestionarului PANAS, i
reprezint unul din cele mai folosite
instrumente de evaluare a afectivitii. Au
fost folosii 60 de itemi. Angajaiilor li s-a
cerut s evalueze pe o scal Likert de la 1 la 5
(1 = foarte puin; 5 = foarte mult), msura n
care au perceput emoia respectiv aferent
strii generale (cum v simiti de obicei).
Chestionarul de msurare a emoiilor pozitive
i negative a fost, mai nti, tradus n limba
romn i apoi distribuit spre completare.
Studiile au artat c PANAS are proprieti
psihometrice excelente (Watson & Clark,
1994). Pentru cele 13 subscale ale PANAS-X
coeficientul de consisten intern Alpha
Cronbach are urmtoarele valori: afectivitatea
negativ, conine 10 itemi ( = .63),
afectivitatea pozitiv conine 10 itemi ( =
.64).
Chestionarul
Multidimensional
de
Personalitate
MPQ
(Multidimensional
Personality Questionnaire) (Patrick, Curtin,
Tellegen, 2002) permite realizarea unei
analize cuprinztoare a personalitii att la
nivel de trsatur, ct i la niveluri
structurale. Chestionarul are 18 scale: 3 de
validitate, 4 care msoar trsturi generale,

Eugen Dumbrav

precum i 11 care msoar trsturi specifice.


Au fost folosite doar scalele de afectivitate
negativ i impulsivitate, necesare realizrii
scopului acestui studiu. Chestionarul
Multidimensional de Personalitate MPQ a
fost, mai nti tradus n limba romn i apoi
au fost distribuite spre completare cele dou
scale. Chestionarul msoar frecvena
surselor de afectivitate negativ i
impulsivitate prin intermediul a cte ase
itemi. Exemplu de itemi pentru scala de
afectivitate negativ: Deseori m simt
iritat() de mici neplceri. Exemplu de itemi
pentru scala de impulsivitate: Deseori mi
place sa fac primul lucru care mi trece prin
minte. Angajaiilor li s-a cerut s evalueze
pe o scal Likert de la 1 la 5 (1 = Dezacord
total; 5 = Acord total), msura n care au
perceput
emoia
respectiv,
aferent
situaiilor care constituie ntotdeauna surse de
impulsivitate si afectivitate negativ. i
pentru acest instrument exist dovezi
empirice privind proprietile psihometrice
adecvate (Patrick, Curtin, Tellegen, 2002).
Valoarea coeficientului de consisten intern
Alpha Cronbach obinut de noi pentru MPQ
este de .83 la scala de afectivitate negativ si
de .67 la la scala de impulsivitate.
Inventarul de evaluare a motivaiei
performanei
(Achievement
Motivation
Inventory ; Schuler, Thornton, Frintrup i
Mueller-Hanso, 2004) permite investigarea
motivaiei, considerat a fi a doua trstur
relevant
n
predicia
performanei
superioare, dupa abilitile cognitive. Pentru
studiul de fa, au fost folosite doar scalele de
autocontrol (SK - pentru a surprinde modul n
care subiectul este controlat, concentrat,
disciplinat, felul n care amna satisfacerea
dorinelor, precum i modul n care se
organizeaz n acest sens) i efort
compensator (KA - pentru a surprinde
modalitile subiectului de: a evita teama n
mod constructiv, a reaciona la stres, a fi
stimulat, a se strdui i compensa teama).
Pentru Inventarul de evaluare a motivaiei
performanei
(AMI)
coeficientul
de
consisten intern Cronbach Alpha obinut n
acest studiu este de .68 pentru scala de efort
compensator i de .72 pentru scala de
autocontrol.
Inventarul
Psihologic
California
(California Psychological Inventory) (Gough,

Emoiile n organizaii

1987) este considerat unul dintre cele mai


bune inventare de personalitate. Am folosit
doar scala de evaluare a autocontrolului (SC),
pentru a rspunde scopului acestui studiu,
anume de a surprinde modalitile de control
ale angajailor prin: abilitatea de se gndi
nainte de a aciona, prin ncearcarea de
controlare a emoiilor i furiei, prin faptul c
se mndrete cu abilitatea de autodiscilpinare, precum i prin faptul c e
precaut i nu se poart nechibzuit. Valoarea
coeficientului
de
consisten
intern
Cronbach Alpha pentru Inventarul Psihologic
California este de .78 la scala de autocontrol.
Criterii obiective ale performanei. Datele
culese privind performana sunt aferente
anului 2012. Evaluarea a fost realizat de
catre managementul de vrf mpreun cu
departamentul de resurse umane al fiecrei
organizaii. Scorurile de performan utilizate
n studiul de fa au fost furnizate de ctre
departamentul de resurse umane, conform
fielor anuale de evaluare a performanei,
constnd n scale de evaluare a performanei
cu ancore comportamentale, proiectate n
funcie de criteriile i procedurile interne ale
fiecrei companii incluse n studiu. Acestea
au fost cotate de fiecare manager de vrf
pentru fiecare angajat n parte pe o scal
Likert de la 1 la 5 astfel: 1 = Sub ateptri; 2
= Evolueaz spre ateptri; 3 = ndeplinete
ateptrile - pentru aceast nota i ia salariul;
4 = Uneori peste asteptri; 5 = ntotdeauna
peste ateptri.
Procedura
Investigarea s-a derulat simultan la nivelul
fiecrei
organizaii,
prin
folosirea
chestionarelor n varianta electronic.
Selecia a fost nealeatoare pe baz de
disponibilitate. Angajaii au fost informai
asupra inteniei de cercetare, a instructajului
legat de aplicarea instrumentelor, precum i a
finalitii
aciunii
i
asigurrii
confidenialitii rspunsurilor furnizate. Toi
angajaii au fost informai despre natura
studiului si au fost de acord s participe, dup
ce conducerea companiei i-a dat anterior
acordul asupra acestui demers.
Procedura a fost aceeai pentru toate cele
4 companii: angajaii au primit un e-mail de
informare
din
partea
directorului

53

general/CEO/directorului la nivel naional ,


dup caz, n care se preciza scopul i
beneficiile participrii la testare, paii,
denumirea testelor, forma n care vor fi
primite pe e-mail i completate, politicile de
confidenialitate si apoi termenul limit
stabilit la maximum o sptmn din
momentul primirii testelor.
Rezultate
Statistici descriptive i
corelaionale
Tabelul 1 conine statisticile descriptive
pentru scorurile obinute la proba PANAS-X
precum i matricea corelaional a
principalelor variabile de interes.
Datele statistice evideniaz existena
unor corelaii negative, moderate (n
intervalul .30 - .49) i sczute (n intervalul
.10 - .29), ntre variabilele autocontrolului i
emoiile negative.
Constatm o asociere moderat, negativ,
ntre variabila autocontrol (AMI)
care
descrie acel comportament controlat,
concentrat, disciplinat, dispus a amna
satisfacerea
dorinelor,
organizat
i
afectivitatea negativ (MPQ) cu (r[92] = -.47,
p < .001 i cu impulsivitatea (MPQ) cu (r[92]
= -.36, p < .001). Autocontrolul (AMI) are
asocieri moderat spre substaniale i cu
afectivitatea negativ (PANAS) cu un (r[92]
= -.47, p < .001), cu afectivitatea pozitiv
(r[92] = .35, p < .001), cu frica (r[92] = -.47,
p < .001), cu ostilitatea (r[92] = -.40, p <
.001), cu vinovaia (r[92] = -.32, p < .001),
cu tristeea (r[92] = -.45, p < .001), cu
timiditatea (r[92] = -.33, p < .001), cu
oboseala (r[92] = -.48, p < .001). S-a obinut,
de asemenea, o asociere sczut, negativ,
ntre autocontrol (CPI) - considerat a fi acea
abilitate a unei persoane de a se gndi nainte
de a aciona, de a ncearca s-i controleze
emoiile i furia, de a fi mndru/mndra c se
auto-discilpineaz, de a fi precaut/ - i
afectivitatea negativ (MPQ), (r[92] = -.29, p
< .001) i respectiv impulsivitate (MPQ),
(r[92] = -.28, p < 0.001). A rezultat, de
asemenea, o asociere slab ntre aceiai
variabil autocontrol (CPI) i afectivitatea
negativ (PANAS), (r[92] = -.23, p > .05),
fric, (r[92] = -.25, p > .05) i respectiv
ostilitate (r[92] = -.21, p > .05).

Eugen Dumbrav

54

Tabelul 1. Statisticile descriptive ale variabilelor studiului


Corelaii

Statistici
descriptive
M
1. Gen
2. Varsta

AS
-

1
-

34.29 6.67

-.17

3. Afectivitate negativa
(MPQ)

2.53 .837

.00

-0.02

4. Impulsivitate (MPQ)

2.15

.56

.09

0.11

.44**

5. Afectivitatea negativa
(PANAS)

1.44

.47

-.05

-0.05

6. Afectivitatea pozitiva
(PANAS)

3.62

.58

.19

0.17

-.28**

12

13

14 15

16 17 18

19

-.05

-.27**

.30**

.93**

-.26**

7. Frica (PANAS)

1.47

.50

-.09

-0.08

8. Ostiltatea (PANAS)

1.38

.51

-.09

-0.09

.57** .30** .79** -.20* .71**

9. Vinovatia (PANAS)

1.27

.48

-.04

-0.05

.34**

.09 .67**

10. Tristetea (PANAS)

1.40

.55

-.07

-0.08

.46**

.09 .70** -.27** .62** .60** .79**

11. Jovialitatea (PANAS)

3.66

.64

.05

0.06

-.35**

12. Siguranta de sine


(PANAS)

3.41

.69

.22*

.21*

-.23*

13. Atentia (PANAS)

3.82

.55

.17

-.34**

14. Timiditatea (PANAS)

1.46

.53

.04

.33**

15. Oboseala (PANAS)

1.56

.56

-.16

.46**

16. Seninatatea (PANAS)

3.88

.57

-.04

-.32**

17. Surpriza (PANAS)

2.15

.72

-.00

.08

18. Autocontrol (AMI)

51.3 6.72

.19

-.47**

19. Efort compensator


(AMI)

49.22 7.54

.04

.09

.093

-.03

17.33 4.14

.04

-.29**

-.28**

3.19 .954

.21*

-.11

-.05

21. Performanta

11

.60** .30**

.59**

20. Autocontrol (CPI)

10

-.18 .60** .50**

-.01 -.30** .87** -.27** -.26* -.20* -.31**

-.14 -.33** .84** -.32**

-.18 -.28** -.29** .72**

-.20* -.31** .79** -.33** -.25*

-.14 -.21* .62** .65**

.05 .52** -.23* .48**

.22* .56** .55** -.22* -.29** -.20*

.22* .69** -.29** .63** .63** .42** .52** -.36** -.29** -.27** .36**

-.26* -.45** .49** -.43** -.36** -.34** -.32** .43** .48** .48** -.22* -.30**
.16

.22*

.25*

.24*

.11

.16

.23*

-.11

.11 .076

.10

-.36** -.47** .35** -.47** -.40** -.32** -.45** .34** .40** .37** -.33** -.48** .32**
.08

.14

.23*

.09 .10

.10

.11

.09

-.03

-.01

.13

-.23*

-.04

-.25*

-.21*

-.08

-.13

-.07

-.07

.08

-.01

.10

-.01

-.16

.03

-.02

.15

.12

.07

.00

.04 -.00

-.10 .12

-.04

-.18 .03

-.13 .42**

-.12

-.03

-.10 -.07

.04 .15 .07

.03

Nota: * corelaie semnificativ la p<.05, ** corelaie semnificativ la p<.001, N=94

Efortul compensator (AMI) - constnd n


capacitatea individului de a evita teama n
mod constructiv, de a reaciona la stres, de a
fi stimulat i de a se strdui s compenseze
teama - prezint doar asocieri neglijabile i
nesemnificative (n intervalul .01 - .10),
pozitive i negative cu emoiile evaluate n
studiul nostru.
Datele suin astfel prima ipoteza a
studiului nostru, anume, c angajaii cu valori
crescute ale emoiilor negative vor avea, de
asemenea, nivele sczute de control al
emoiilor. Interesant este, de asemenea,
relaia dintre vrst i Autocontrol (AMI)
(r[92] = -.47, p > .01) i respectiv
Autocontrol(CPI) (r[92] = -.27, p > .01).
Ambele corelaii moderate sunt negative,
indicnd faptul c, pentru o parte dintre
angajai, cu ct crete vrsta, cu att scade
autocontrolul. La rularea unei corelaii
pariale n care vrsta a fost o variabil
controlat nu am obinut rezultate
semnificativ diferite, astfel c putem
concluziona c aceast variabil nu intervine

n relaia anterior stabilit dintre autocontrol


i afectivitate negativ.
Implicarea n munc prezint, de
asemenea, corelaii negative i pozitive, dar
nesemnificative, cu performana.
Am realizat de asemenea prin procedeul
ANOVA simpl, o comparaie ntre grupurile
ce definesc cele patru tipuri de companii din
care provin angajai (construcii, financiar,
turism, medical), cu scopul de a vedea dac
exista diferene semnificative n privina
structurrii emoiilor, autocontrolului, precum
i a implicrii n munc, prin raportarea la
performana obinut.
Analizele bazate pe procedura ANOVA
simpl, arat un efect semnificativ al
variabilei independente tipul de companie
asupra variabilei dependente afectivitate
negativ (PANASX), pentru cele trei condiii
(F[3, 90] = 5.49, p < 0.01).
Comparaiile post hoc folosind testul
Tukey HAS au indicat faptul c scorul mediu
al afectivitii negative (PANASX) pentru
firma din domeniul turismului (M = 1.77,

Emoiile n organizaii

AS = 0.55) a fost semnificativ diferit de firma


din domeniul construciilor (M = 1.39, AS =
0.42). Cu toate acestea, condiia firmei din
domeniul medical (M = 1.21, AS = 0.34) nu
difer semnificativ fa de condiia firmei din
domeniul financiar (M = 1.33, AS = 0.39).
n urma aplicrii procedurii de analiz
one-way ANOVA, s-a constatat de asemenea,
un
efect semnificativ
al
variabilei
independente tipul de companie asupra
variabilei dependente ostilitate, la un nivelul
p < .05, pentru cele trei condiii (F[3, 90] =
6.34, p < 0.001).
Comparaiile post hoc folosind testul
Tukey HAS au indicat faptul c scorul mediu
al ostilitii pentru firma din domeniul
turismului (M = 1.77, AS = 0.62) a fost
semnificativ diferit de firma din domeniul
medical (M = 1.20, AS = 0.42), de firma din
domeniul financiar (M = 1.20, AS = 0.42),
ct i de firma din domeniul construciilor (M
= 1.18, AS = .39).
S-a observat de asemenea, n urma
aplicrii procedurii de analiz ANOVA
simpl, un efect semnificativ al variabilei
independente tipul de companie asupra
variabilei dependente performan, la un
nivelul p < .05, pentru cele trei condiii (F[3,
90] = 5.56, p < 0.01).
Comparaiile post hoc folosind testul
Tukey HAS au indicat faptul c scorul mediu
al performanei pentru firma din domeniul
financiar (M = 3.68, AS = 1.46) a fost
semnificativ diferit de cel al firmei din
domeniul medical (M = 2.64, AS = 0.67), ct
i fa de cel din domeniul construciilor (M =
2.93, AS = 0.62). Cu toate acestea,
performana n firma din domeniul financiar
(M = 3.68, AS = 1.46) nu difer semnificativ
de performana n firma din domeniul
turismului (M = 3.48, AS = .60). Deoarece nu
exist date despre cultura organizaional din
respectivele organizaii care ar putea da
indicii despre nivelul competitivitii, practic
aceast ipotez are un caracter exploratoriu,
fiind bazat pe presupunerea c diferitele
organizaii cu obiect al activitii diferit, vor
diferi i n ceea ce privete variabilele
dependente din studiul nostru (de exemplu,
afectivitate negativ), ca urmare a acestei
competitiviti diferite. Mai mult, un indiciu
clar al acestor diferene n competitivitate
neoperaionalizat i nemsurat direct, poate

55

fi un nivel diferit al performanei angajaiilor


cuprini n studiul nostru. Deci, aceste
organizaii difer n ceea ce privete
performana angajailor, lucru care ne
conduce la presupunerea indirect c i
competitivitatea din cadrul lor poate fi
semnificativ diferit. Reiese, deci, din
analizele anterioare c perfomana din
domeniul
financiar
este
semnificativ
superioar celei din domeniul medical i,
astfel, avem un indiciu indirect al faptului c
n cadrul celor dou firme competitivitatea
poate fi i ea semnificativ diferit.
innd cont de aceste rezultate, i cea dea doua ipoteza a studiului este susinut
empiric.
Pe baza rezultatelor primei ipoteze am
dorit s vedem n ce msura variabila
autocontrol (AMI) se poate constitui ca
predictor al afectivitii negative n
organizaii. Astfel dup ce am verificat felul
n care condiiile regresiei sunt satisfcute
(numr de angajai adecvat, liniaritate,
normalitate etc.), s-a rulat o regresie liniar
simpl, avnd ca predictor autocontrolul
(AMI) i ca variabil dependent afectivitatea
negativ (PANAS-X), care s-a dovedit
semnificativ, variabila autocontrol explicnd
o proporie moderat din variana variabilei
afectivitate negativ (23%), AdjR2 = .22, F(1,
92) = 27.00, p < .001.
Discuii
Obiectivul principal al acestui studiu a fost
examinarea relaiei dintre emoiile negative i
mediul organizaional competitiv i de a
observa n ce msur emoiile negative
prezente n aceste organizaii pot fi inute sub
control, ca parte a reglrii emoionale,
precum i msura n care mediile
organizaionale
investigate
favorizeaz
anumite emoii negative. Rezultatele studiului
au artat c emoiile negative coreleaz
negativ ntr-o msur relativ substanial cu
autocontrolul angajailor. De asemenea,
mediile de lucru competitive se pot constitui
n surse favorizante ale emoiilor negative n
organizaii. Nu n ultimul rnd, variabila
performana are intensiti diferite n funcie
de industria n care activeaz compania
investigat ceea ce d un indiciu n plus,

56

indirect, despre gradul de competitivitate a


organizaiei.
n studiul nostru, organizaiile cu valori
mari ale performanei au fost cele din
domeniul financiar i cel al turismului,
celelalte dou domenii, construcii i medical
avnd indici mai sczui ai performanei n
munc. Datele statistice obinute sunt n
acord cu o parte din literatura de specialitate
pe care s-a ntemeiat studiul de fa.
Rezultatele pot fi, de asemenea interpretate
prin raportare la teoria evenimentelor afective
(Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) i modelul
procesual al emoiilor propus de Grandey
(2000). Cu toate c nu am avut date despre
cultura organizaional, care ar fi putut
arunca mai mult lumin asupra proceselor
de control i influen a emoiilor existente n
interiorul organizaiilor, putem presupune c
aceste variabile nemsurate de noi pot fi
responsabile de ponderea mai mare a
afectivitii negative n anumite tipuri de
organizaii.
Investigaia efectuat n acest studiu
subliniaz faptul c autocontrolul contribuie
i la procesul de gestionare a emoiilor n
organizaie. Emoiile negative coreleaz
negativ,
semnificativ,
cu
acele
comportamente de tip controlat, concentrat,
disciplinat, dispuse a amna satisfacerea
dorinelor, organizate. Iar autocontrolul se
poate constitui ca predictor al afectivitii
negative.
n literatura specific acestui domeniu,
prerile sunt destul de nuanate i trimit ctre
modalitile diferite de structurare ale
emoiilor negative n organizaii i ctre
efectele acestora n relaia cu performana i
starea de bine a angajailor (Andrie, 2009,
2011).
Astfel, unele cercetri gsesc c ceea ce
simt angajaii este produsul anumitor
caracteristici
organizaionale.
Cerinele
extreme la slujb l sectuiesc pe angajat de
energie emoional, iar volumul excesiv de
munc, termenele limit scurte, echipele mici
sau ameninarea cu disponibilizarea duc la
epuizare emoional (Cordes & Dougherty,
1993). De asemenea, n ceea ce privete
consecinele efortului emoional, exist probe
c, dei gestionarea emoiilor i ajuta pe
oameni s aiba un comportament flexibil,
acestea implic efort i pot avea costuri

Eugen Dumbrav

psihologice i cognitive (de exemplu, Gross,


1998; Muraven & Baumeister, 2000;
Richards & Gross, 2000). Conceptualizarea
gestionrii emoiilor la locul de munc ar
putea explica, n consecin, facilitarea
performanei sociale la serviciu, dar poate
avea un impact opus asupra sntii
emoionale i fizice n alte circumstane.
Alte studii au artat c exprimarea unor
emoii pozitive este legat de performana
profesional, incluznd primirea de baciuri
i evalurile calitii muncii prestate
(Parkinson, 1991; Pugh, 2001). ntr-adevr,
atunci cnd angajailor li se cere s afieze un
anumit comportament emoional pentru a
influena clienii, exprimarea acestor emoii
poate fi privit ca parte a performaei lor
profesionale. Totui, Grandey (2000) a
sugerat c factorii individuali care subinclud
i modalitile de gestionare a emoiilor
negative, pot modera impactul efortului
emoional asupra performanei. De exemplu,
exist dovada c autonomia, ca factor
individual, modereaz impactul extenurii
emoionale (Wharton, 1993). Asociem, de
asemenea, n acest context i perspectiva
sociologic propus de Bolton (2005), care
pune subiectul ntr-o analiz organizaional,
admind viaa emoional a organizaiei i
natura ei multifactorial. El a propus
recunoaterea a patru tipuri diferite de forme
de gestionare a emoiei la locul de munc,
menite s ajute la dezmembrarea complexului
emoiilor n organizaii. Astfel c, pentru a
influena diverse performane ale actorilor
organizaionali, trebuie conturate diferite
seturi de reguli ale sentimentelor, grupate n
patru categorii: comerciale, profesionale,
organizaionale i sociale.
Din rezultatele studiului nostru, inclusiv
din analiza de regresie, se poate avansa
ipoteza c anumite tipuri de organizaii
competitive, prin politicile lor, pot nate
emoionalitate negativ dar, aceasta depinde
i de capacitatea de autocontrol a individului
(relaionat cu ceea ce n literatura de
specialitate este consider o component a
inteligenei emoionale, Goleman, 2001).
Aaceasta capacitate de autocontrol ar putea fi
o variabil moderator ntre cultura
organizaional
competitiv
i
emoionalitatea negativ. Studii viitoare cu
un design i numr de subieci adecvat ar

Emoiile n organizaii

putea verifica acest model cu impact clar


asupra strii de bine a angajailor, precum i
atingerea optim a obiectivelor organizaiei.
Limite i concluzii
Studiul nostru are ca limitri designul
comparativ i corelaional care nu ne permite
concluzionarea unor relaii de tip cauz efect,
iar relaiile observate ar putea avea cu totul
alt direcie cauzal dect cea presupus de
noi. De asemenea, numrul de participani
ne-a mpiedicat s testm un model mai
comprehensiv privind predicia multipl a
afectivitii
negative.
Componena
eantionului prezint i ea o anumit
disproporie ntre nivelul de management
(96% dintre angajai) i cel de execuie (4%
dintre angajai). Ar fi de dorit completarea i
cu acest segment de populaie neexplorat n
studiul nostru, iar orice generalizare care s-ar
putea face pe baza studiului nostru trebuie s
in cont de componena preponderent a
nivelului de management inclus n eantionul
studiului nostru.
Cercetarea de fa prezint i anumite
limite referitoare la instrumentele utilizate, la
eantionare i la perspectiva investigat, ce se
plaseaz doar n sfera analizei factorilor
individuali de personalitate. O alt limit este
cea legat de chestionarele PANAS X i
MPQ care nu au o beneficiat de o adaptare la
nivelul populaiei autohtone.
Un alt punct cu un impact potenial
negativ a fost culegerea datelor despre
performan cu 6 luni dup prima msur.
Totui, caracteristiciele psihice puse n relaie
cu performana se constituie ca trsturi de
personalitate stabile care au avut n opinia
noastr puine anse s se schimbe ntr-un
interval aa scurt.
Considerm c viitoarele cercetri ar
trebui s in cont de aceste limite n
proiectarea unor cercetri viitoare care ar
putea s le depeasc. n pofida limitelor
studiului, rezultatele raportate constituie un
demers relevant ce poate sta la baza unor
cercetri mai aprofundate n viitor, pe
populaia romneasc, pentru a analiza cu
mai mare precizie modalitile de gestionare
ale emoiilor n mediile organizaionale
autohtone. Cercetarea de fa surprinde sub
forma unei radiografii, diverse modaliti de

57

gestionare a emoiilor negative, mai ales n


condiiile unui control de sine slab, precum i
a un mediu nalt competitiv, predispozant
emoiilor negative.
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Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 59 - 68


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

STUDIES AND RESEARCHES

Correlates and predictors of bullying in Romanian


workplaces
TEODORA CHIRIL
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iai, Romania

TICU CONSTANTIN
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iai, Romania

Abstract
The aim of the present study is to identify those organizational factors associated with workplace bullying. 253
Romanian employees participated at the present study by completing a series of questionnaires in an electronic format.
The results showed significant correlations between organisational factors and workplace bullying. Moreover, the
predictive model having as predictors the aspects of organizational climate predicted 25% of the workplace bullying
variance. These results are important for the organizational field because it shows the triggering effect of some
organizational factors and some job characteristics in the appearance of workplace bullying.

Keywords
organizational factors, workplace bullying correlates, job characteristics, workplace bullying predictors, workplace
bullying

Rezumat
Studiul de fa a dorit s identifice factorii asociai apariiei fenomenului de bullying la locul de munc. La studiu au
participat 253 angajai din partea de nord-est a Romniei. Participanii au primit un set de chestionare pe care le-au
completat electronic. Rezultatele studiului au relevat corelaii semnificative ntre bullying i variabilele
organizaionalele precum climatul social, managerial i al comunicrii. Modelul predictiv al bullying-ului avnd ca
predictori aspecte ale climatului organizational a explicat 25% din variana bullying-ului. Acest rezultat are implicaii
organizaionale importante prin faptul c evideniaz c prezena fenomenului de bullying la locul de munc se
datoreaz unor factori organizaionali, precum climatul organizaional i caracteristici ale postului.

Cuvinte cheie
factori organizaionali, corelate organizationale, caracteristicile postului de munc, bullying-ul la locul de munc,
predictori ai bullying-ului

Rsum
Le but de cette tude est didentifier les facteurs organisationnels qui sont associs avec le harcelemnt au travail. 253
employs roumains ont remplis les questionnaires dune forme electronique. Les rsultats ont montrs des correlations
significatives entre les variables organisationnelles et le harclement psyschologique. Le model predictif ayant les
aspects du climat organisationnel comme predicteurs a expliqu 25% de la variance du harclement. Ces rsultats ont
des importantes implications organisationnelle car elles montrent le fait que la presence du harclement psychologique
dans le milieu du travail est une consequence des certains facteurs organisationnels tels que le climat organisationnel et
les characteristiques du poste.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Teodora Chiril, E-mail: chirila.teodora@yahoo.com
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This paper has benefited from financial support from the strategic grant
POSDRU/88/1.5/S/47646 co-financed by the European Social Fund, within the Sectorial Operational Program Human
Resources Development 2007-2013.

59

60

Teodora Chiril, Ticu Constantin

Mots-cls
les facteurs organisationnels, les antecedents organisationnels, les characteristiques du poste, les predicteurs du
harcelemnt psychologique et le harcelemnt psychologique en milieu du travail

Introduction
European Union (Paoli & Merllie, 2001) and
International Labour Organization (1998)
have recognized workplace bullying as being
a real problem of the European workplaces
and showed a high interest in studying the
effects of this phenomenon on employees
subjective well-being and physical health.
The workplace bullying research started
in Germany when Leymann (1992)
conducted the first interviews with the
victims of this phenomenon and started to
develop a first questionnaire able to measure
it.
Over the time, workplace bullying or
mobbing received several definitions but the
most comprehensive is the one offered by
Einarsen, Zapf, Hoel and Cooper (2003). The
above authors described bullying through the
acts of harassment, social exclusion of a
person, acts meant to affect someones work
tasks. It is a bullying situation the case where
these acts are repetitively displayed, during a
period of at least six months, and with a
frequency of at least once a week (Leymann,
1992). These acts have a negative impact not
only on the person itself but also on the entire
organization (Chiril & Constantin, 2013).
Bullying was defined through its negative
consequences on employees health. The
immediate consequences are high levels of
anxiety, depression, physical complaints,
mental and physical strain (Einarsen, Raknes
& Matthiesen, 1994; Bond, Carlin, Thomas,
Rubin & Patton, 2001; Hyung-Park &
DeFrank, 2010).
The
environmental
perspective
emphasizes the role of organizational factors
in triggering workplace bullying acts.
According to this view, the bullying
phenomenon is seen as a symptom of
organizational dysfunction.
Empirical studies have shown that
bullying is related to certain job
characteristics and to different business
sectors (Leymann, 1992). Until now, bullying
literature have shown that the most associated

variables with workplace bullying are those


related to job characteristics such as role
conflicts, low levels of personal control on
the job, work-tasks overload, global
organizational problems, higher levels of
stress, organizational restructuring, changes
in management, disatisfaction with leadership
practices, disatisfaction related to the present
organizational climate, impossible deadlines,
disatisfaction related to the quality of
interpersonal relations at work, the
organizational conflicts and the difficulty
encountered in solving the conflicts or
problems existing in the department or the
entire organization (Baron & Neuman, 1996;
Bjrkqvist, 1992; Einarsen & Raknes, 1991;
Einarsen et al., 1994; Hoel & Cooper, 2000;
Kearns, McCarthy & Sheehan, 1997; Sutela
& Lehto, 1998; Zapf, 1999).
Managerial, social, and
communication climate as
triggers of workplace bullying
Leymann (1992) proposes a first hypothesis
of bullying appearance. The author considers
that a poor psychological climate triggers
workplace bullying behaviours.
Those organizations which can not solve
the problems appeared in a fair and firm
manner are at greater risk of workplace
bullying manifestations. Later, Agervold, and
Mikkelsen (2004) associated different stress
factors with the manifestation of workplace
bullying behaviours. The authors stated that
the presence of stressors in organization
increases the stress felt by the employee who,
under the pressure of this tension, will engage
in different forms of interpersonal conflicts.
If these conflicts escalate might turn into
different forms of bullying situations.
Tedeschi and Felson (1994), on the hand,
and Neuman and Baron (2003), on the other
hand, explained the workplace bullying
situation through the social-interactions
theory. According to this theory, stressful
work
climates
indirectly
influences
employees aggression through the effects

Correlates and predictors of bullying in Romanian workplaces

observed in the targeted employees


behaviour. The stressed employee will relieve
his tension by aggressing one of his
colleagues, and if the aggressed person
actively responds to aggression, she will even
more annoy the aggressor who, in his turn,
will continue to display harassment acts over
a longer period of time. From this
perspective, the affective and behaviourally
responses of the targeted employee are
responsible for the maintenance of workplace
bullying acts. Neuman and Baron (2003)
consider these acts as being acts of regaining
social control. Neuman and Barons (2003)
explanation can be based on the frustrationaggression theory (Berkowitz, 1989; Fox &
Spector, 1999) which explains the appearance
of workplace bullying acts as a consequence
of the frustration produced by the
environmental stressors experienced at work.
The frustrated and stressed employees will
engage more frequently in interpersonal
conflicts at work (Aquino, Blouin, & Stout,
1999; Coyne, Seigne, & Randal, 2000;
Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2005) and
will have a tendency of maintaining the
conflict situation over a longer period of
time.
Zapf, Knorz, and Kulla (1996) and later,
Aquino and Thau (2009) offered another
explanation of workplace bullying acts.
According to these authors, in those
environments which require higher levels of
cooperation between employees or, in those
sectors which require frequent employeeclient interactions, bullying behaviours are
seen as a punishment technique of
uncooperative employees.
Role ambiguity, work-tasks
overload, anticipated changes,
and work-tasks control as
triggers of workplace bullying
Empirical studies have shown that the
targeted employees reported also higher
levels of role conflict and role ambiguity
(Bowling & Beehr, 2006; Einarsen et al.,
1994; Jennifer, Cowie, & Ananiadou, 2003;
Notelaers, De Witte, & Einarsen, 2009),
lower levels of work-tasks control (Vartia,
1996; Major, Turner, & Fletcher, 2006;

61

Vartia & Hyyti, 2002; Zapf et al., 1996),


higher levels in requests of cooperation (Zapf
et al., 1996), higher levels of work-tasks
overload (Einarsen et al., 1994; Hoel &
Cooper, 2000; Salin, 2003), a poor social
climate (Einarsen et al., 1994; Vartia, 1996;
Varia, 2003), lower levels of social support
(Hansen, Hogh, Persson, Karlson, Garde, &
Orbaek, 2006), and poor management styles
(Einarsen et al., 1994; Skogstad, Einarsen,
Torsheim, Aasland, & Hetland, 2007; Vartia,
1996). Moreover, Baillien and DeWitte
(2009) showed a mediation role of job
insecurity and role conflict on the
relationship between organizational changes
and workplace bullying. The above authors
also evidence that there is a positive
association between workplace bullying and
job insecurity, work-task overload, conflict
role, and role ambiguity. Furthermore, the
authors showed that organizational changes
directly triggered workplace bullying
behaviours (Heath, Knez, & Camerer, 1993;
Tversky & Kohneman, 1992, De Vries &
Balazs, 1997; Baron & Neuman, 1996;
Vartia, 2003) so that, OMoore, Seigne,
McGuire, and Smith (1998) showed that the
promotion of the aggressors or the arrival of a
new manager triggered workplace bullying
acts.
Later, Hoel, and Salin (2003) showed that
there is also an indirect relationship between
organizational changes and bullying. There
were tested the mediation roles of job
restructuring, retrogradation as a consequence
of eliminations of some managerial positions,
managerial practices used in case of
organizational changes, and competition. All
these organizational variables mediated the
relationship between organizational changes
and workplace bullying (Sheehan, 1996;
Greenglass & Burke, 2000). Another
explanation was offered by Salin (2003). The
author said that, after a period of
organizational
changes,
often
the
organizational chart changes and usually
becomes flatter and will increase the
competition between employees who will
make an appeal to unorthodox methods to
advance. Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper (2002)
concluded that even though an organizational
change is made in order to increase

Teodora Chiril, Ticu Constantin

62

productivity, in reality it leads to a worsening


of interpersonal relations in work contexts.
In Romanian work contexts, until now,
there are no international studies published
on the topic of workplace bullying and its
organizational correlates.

The general aim of the present study is to


fulfil this gap by exploring the organizational
factors can acts as triggers for workplace
bullying appearance.

Theoretical Framework:

Organizational factors and


job characteristics
Social Climate
Managerial Climate
Communication Climate
Role ambiguity
Excessive monitoring
Work-tasks control
Work-tasks overload

Workplace
Bullying

Figure 1. Correlates and predictors of workplace bullying

Method

Participants and procedure

Study aim
Study aim was to identify the organizational
factors that may predict workplace bullying.
Hypotheses:
H.1. Jobs characteristics such as role
ambiguity, excessive monitoring and worktasks overload positively correlates with
workplace bullying and work-tasks control
negatively correlates with workplace
bullying.
H.2. Organizational factors such as
managerial climate, social climate and
communication climate negatively correlates
with workplace bullying.
H.3. Organizational factors
characteristics can predict
bullying.

and job
workplace

A number of 253 Romanian employees from


the Nord-East of the country participated at
the present study. Their ages were between
19 and 64 years (M=33.11; SD=9.93). 156
worked in private Romanian firms, and 97
worked in public institutions. 199 were
female employees and 54 were male
employees with a work-experience between 6
and 480 months (i.e. 6 months and 40 years).
24 of employees had a high-school degree;
127 had a bachelor degree and 102 had a
master degree.
The
employees
completed
the
questionnaires in an electronic format via a
google docs link.
The study was presented as being one
interested in the interpersonal relationships
dynamics at work and words which may lead
to bullying acts were not presented in the
instruction.
Inclusion criteria: All employees had to
have at least six months experience at their
work at the moment they had to complete

Correlates and predictors of bullying in Romanian workplaces

questionnaires. For this employee was


considered a bullying victim if he
encountered at least one of the 22 bullying
behaviours with a frequency of at least once a
week during the last six months. According
to these criteria, only 33 (13.04%) employees
were considered a bullying victim and the
other 220 (86.96%) were considered as being
observers of bullying victims (i.e. the
participant had to specify if they had
witnessed to bullying acts at their workplace
during the last six months). Furthermore, for
the present study the response of both groups
(victims and observers) were taken into
consideration when calculated for workplace
bullying correlates and predictors.

63

and 5 meant total agreement. In general, at


work I have a big volume of work-tasks.
Work-tasks control
Work-tasks control was measured by using
one single item with a response scale in five
points were 1 meant total disagreement and 5
meant total agreement. At my work, I have
the possibility to organize my work-tasks in
my own way.
Excessive monitoring

Variables measurement:

Excessive monitoring was measured with one


single item with a scale response in five
points were 1 meant total disagreement and 5
meant total agreement. During my working
hours I am excessively monitored.

Organizational factors measured


with a single-item

Communication climate

Job characteristics factors included variables


such as role ambiguity, work-tasks overload,
work-tasks control, anticipated organizational
changes, excessive monitoring. These
variables were measured using one single
item specially constructed for the present
research except for role ambiguity.
Organizational factors included variables
such as communication climate, social
climate and managerial climate. These
variables were measured with a number of
five items (for communicational and social
climate) and a number of three items (for
managerial climate), specially developed for
the present study.
Role ambiguity
Role ambiguity was measured by using one
single item from the Occupational Stress
Questionnaire (OSQ developed by Elo,
Leppanen, Lindstrom, & Ropponen, 1992).
The response scale was a Likert scale in five
points: 1 meant total disagreement and 5
meant total agreement.
Work-tasks overload
Work-tasks overload was measured using one
single item with a Likert response scale in
five points were 1 meant total disagreement

Communication climate was measured with 5


items with a response scale in five points
were 1-total disagreement and 5-total
agreement. Alpha Cronbachs coefficient for
these five items is .897. As an example of
items: In my department, any problem
appeared is listened with full consideration.
Social climate
The social climate was also measured with 5
items with a response scale in five points
were 1 meant total disagreement and 5 meant
total agreement. All these five items have
obtained an Alpha Cronbachs coefficient of
.874. As an example of the item: In my
department, the differences in opinions
appeared are openly discussed with all
employees.
Managerial climate
The managerial climate was measured with
three items having a response scale in five
points in which 1 meant total disagreement
and 5 meant total agreement. Alpha
Cronbachs coefficient for the three items is
.759. An example of the item used: In my
organization exists a high level of trust
between the management department and
employees.

Teodora Chiril, Ticu Constantin

64

Workplace bullying
The
well-known
workplace
bullying
questionnaire revised form (Negative Acts
Questionnaire Revised, NAQ-R, Einarsen,
Hoel & Notelaers, 2009) was used to measure
workplace bullying acts. The questionnaire
was translated into Romanian and factor
structure, and psychometric properties were
tested. The Exploratory Factor Analysis
(EFA) used the Varimax method with 125
rotations. EFA results revealed a factorial
structure formed from three factors
(Determinant = .001; KMO = .862, p< .05;
Bartlett test = 1802.625, p< .05, nonredundant standardized residuals = 47%; total
variance explained = 51.75%). All 22 items
were loaded in three main factors (with
eigenvalue >1 and factors loading greater
than .60). The Romanian NAQ-R model as
revealed by EFA was also tested with the aid
of confirmatory factor analysis and the results
showed good absolute and relative indicators
(2 (209)=78.01, p=.001; RMSEA =90%
CI=113[.105; .122]; NFI=.598; IFI=.668;
CFI=.588; PCFI=.545).
The response scale was in five points
were 1 meant never and 5 meant daily. The
exploratory factor analysis revealed three
factors: (1) intimidation (items 2, 4, 6, 7, 9,
11, 13, 22-example of the item: Intimidating
behaviour such as finger-pointing, invasion
of personal space, shoving, blocking/barring

the way) with an Alpha Cronbach of .844;


(2) work-related bullying (items 1, 3, 14, 16,
18, 19, 21, example of the item used:
Someone is hiding from you important
information which can affect your work
performance) with an Alpha Cronbach of
.784 and (3) person-related bullying (items 5,
8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 20, example of the itemSomeone is spreading rumours about your
personal life) with an Alpha Cronbach of
.826. The entire questionnaire has a total of
22 items with an Alpha Cronbach of .922.
Results
The aim was to identify the organizational
factors that may predict workplace bullying
Testing the first two hypotheses:
H.1. Jobs characteristics such as role
ambiguity, excessive monitoring and worktasks overload positively correlates with
workplace bullying and work-tasks control
negatively correlates with workplace
bullying.
H.2. Organizational factors such as
managerial climate, social climate and
communication climate negatively correlates
with workplace bullying.

Table 1.1. Means, standard deviations, correlations between workplace bullying, organizational
factors and job characteristics 1
M
SD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1.RA
2.14 1.04
1
2.WTO 3.39 1.02
.06
1
3.WTC 3.68 1.01 .17** .02
1
4.EM
2.39 1.12 .26** .21** .36** 1
5.MC
3.22
.89 -.30** -.11* -.22** -.29**
1
6.SC
3.27
.85 -.36** -.07
-.33** -.31** .67** 1
7.CC
3.21
.86 -.38** -.05 -.42** -.39** .65** .84** 1
8.OC
9.71 2.35 -.38** -.09 -.36** -.36** .86** .92** .92**
1
9.B
1.57
.50 .37** .22** -.22** .41** -.41** -.46** -.49** -.50** 1
N=253, *, p<.01, **, p<.05

Role ambiguity (RA), work-tasks overload (VTO), work-tasks control (WTC), anticipated changes
(AC), excessively monitoring (EM), managerial climate (MC), social climate (SC), communication
climate (CC), organisational climate (OC), and bullying (B).

Correlates and predictors of bullying in Romanian workplaces

In the above table, workplace bullying


significantly
best
correlates
(strong
correlations) with the organizational climate
(r = -.50, p <.05), with managerial climate (r
= -.41, p <.05), with social climate (r = -.46, p
<.05), with communication climate (r = -.49,
p< .05). Moreover, there are medium and
significant correlations of bullying with role
ambiguity (r = .37, p <.05), and small
correlations with work-tasks control (r = -.22,
p <.05), and with work-tasks overload (r =
.22, p <.05).
Workplace bullying positively correlates
with role ambiguity, work-tasks overload and
excessive monitoring which means the more
the employees has a role ambiguity, worktasks load and is being excessively
monitoring the more he will be at risk of
experiencing workplace bullying behaviours.
The first hypothesis (H1) is assumed.
Furthermore, work-tasks control is negatively
associated with workplace bullying. When
employee has control of his work-tasks he is
at small risk of being bullied at work. Once
again, hypothesis one is being confirmed.
Workplace bullying negatively correlates
with work-tasks managerial, social and
communication climate which means that if
these three dimensions are efficient at work
the employee is protected from workplace

65

bullying. This is also the case for


organizational
climate.
The
second
hypothesis is assumed (H2).
Predictors of workplace bullying
H.3. Organizational factors
characteristics can predict
bullying.

Because not all of the variables respected


the necessary condition to apply regression
analysis (i.e. all the independent variables
have to be normal distributed, variables such
as role ambiguity, work-tasks control, worktasks overload, and excessive monitoring was
not included in the prediction model).
In the prediction model were included
only three independent variables referring to
organizational
climate
such
as
communicational climate, social climate and
managerial climate. Because the correlations
among these three variables were greater than
.50, there were understood as being one
simple
independent
variable
named
organizational climate. The table below
represents the coefficients of the regression
analysis.

Table 1.2. Regression predicting workplace bullying


Variable
B

R2
Constant
Organizational climate

and job
workplace

2.64
-.10

-.50

.25***

106.74***

The predicted variable: workplace bullying


***, p<.001

The adjusted regression coefficient of


organizational climate predicted 25% of the
workplace bullying variance.
Unstandardized equation Workplace
bullying = 2.64 - 10x organizational climate
Standardized
regression
equation
Workplace bullying = - .50x organizational
climate
Organizational factors predict 25% from
workplace bullying variance.

Discussion
The results of the present research showed
that there are significant correlations between
organizational variables and workplace
bullying, thus confirming the results already
existing in the literature (Vartia, 2003; Salin,
2003; Einarsen et al., 1994; Hoel & Cooper,
2000). The results of the present research
showed significant positive correlations
between workplace bullying and job
characteristics such as role ambiguity, work-

Teodora Chiril, Ticu Constantin

66

tasks overload, and excessive monitoring.


This means that the more employee has a
high role ambiguity, high levels of worktasks control and high levels of excessive
monitoring his has a high risk of experiencing
workplace bullying behaviours.
Moreover, the results showed negative
correlations among workplace bullying and
one job characteristic (i.e. work-tasks control)
which means that if the employee has little
control of his own work tasks he is at greatest
risk of being exposed of bullying acts in his
work context.
Furthermore, there were negative
correlations among workplace bullying and
social, managerial and communication
climate which means that if these three
dimensions of organizational climate are not
efficient at work this fact will bring to
workplace bullying acts.
The regression analysis revealed that the
organizational climate predicts bullying with
25% of the variance explained. This result is
congruent to that obtained by Vartia (2003).
In his study, the author showed that a poor
organizational climate predicted bullying
with 24% of the variance explained.
Vartia (2003) evidenced that there are a
unique perspective of the victims and the
observers on the causes of workplace
bullying appearance. Both groups of persons
have said that one of the causes of workplace
bullying appearance is some difficulties
appeared among organizational factors such
as a poor social climate, an inefficient
managerial climate or past violent behaviours
which werent punished by the organization.
Furthermore, the author showed that
observers
said
that
a
competitive
organizational climate can be a predictor of
workplace bullying. The results of the present
study confirmed the information existing in
the literature about the potential risk factors
of workplace bullying.
So far, this is the first Romanian study
interested in workplace bullying antecedents
and conducted in Romanian workplaces so
that it represents a good start point for the
development of this topic not only in
Romanian workplaces but also in EastEuropean workplaces eventhough this study
has its limits and represents only a
replication of the studies conducted in the

latest twenty years in West-European


countries. Furthermore, the results of the
present study revealed no significant
differences in workplace bullying antecedents
revealed by West-European countries. It
seems there arent differences between WestEuropean countries and the Eastern ones in
bullyings antecedents at work although
further
investigations
are
highly
recommended.
The results of the present research have
important practical implications for HR
practitioners because it brings important
information about the link between
organizational factors, job characteristics and
the appearance of workplace bullying.
Study limits
A first limit of the present study is the
transversal character of the data. The results
were obtained having a sample of employees
who completed the questionnaires one single
time. The causal links discussed in the
present research were obtained with the aid of
advanced
statistical
techniques
(i.e.
regression models). These techniques cannot
clearly identify the cause and the effect of a
phenomenon.
Longitudinal designs are
preferred and recommended in order to
clarify
the
relationship
between
organizational climate and workplace
bullying.
A second limit refers also to the way in
which
organizational
variables
were
measured so that role ambiguity, excessive
monitoring, work-tasks overload and worktasks control were measured using a single
item. Future research should measure more
complex these organizational variables by
using standardized instruments existing in the
literature.
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Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 69 - 70


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

RECENZII

Jan J.F. ter Laak


Evaluarea psihologic a ntrebrilor clientului ghid practic pentru studeni i practicieni, 2013,
Editura Sinapsis Publishing Projects, 524 p.
CTLINA MIHAELA NICULCIOIU

Menit s ndrume paii att studenilor, ct


i specialitilor din domeniul tiinelor
sociale, fiind - aa cum reiese i din titlu un
ghid practic, cartea olandezului Jan J.F. ter
Laak integreaz o multitudine de informaii
referitoare la teoriile, metodologiile i
instrumentele ce stau la baza evalurii
psihologice.
Abordarea analitic i explicativ a
autorului privind evaluarea psihologic
pleac de la premisa existenei a trei surse de
teorii i constructe comportamentale (nonspecialiti, teoriile din manuale i
paradigmele principale), ce sunt clasificate
dup criteriul urmtoarelor orientri: cea a
diferenelor individuale, cea a dezvoltrii i
cea a contextului social.
Toate aceste teorii, metode i modele ale
evalurii psihologice sunt descrise de-a
lungul a 25 de capitole, structurate n patru
pri. Prima dintre ele deschide subiectul
evalurii psihologice printr-o descriere
exhaustiv a acesteia (ce reprezint evaluarea
psihologic, de ce facem apelul la aceasta,
care sunt instrumentele utilizate etc.), fiind
cuprinse, deopotriv, informaii cu privire la
teoria testului i la istoria evalurii.
Predicia clinic versus predicia
statistic; procesul de evaluare; fidelitatea,
validitatea i calitatea evalurii constituie
cea de-a doua parte a crii, ce vine n
completarea celei dinti, atenia ndreptnduse de la imaginea de ansamblu asupra

evalurii psihologice ctre reprezentarea


procesului n sine a acesteia. Se pune
accentul pe calitatea evalurii, cu referire att
la proces, ct i la instrumentele folosite n
evaluare. n acest sens, de exemplu, pe
parcursul ntregului capitol 6 se contureaz
ideea de calitate, n termenii binecunoscui de
fidelitate i validitate a metodelor de
evaluare.
Partea a treia aduce n discuie
diferenierile i divizarea domeniului
psihologiei, din punctul de vedere al studierii,
predrii i profesrii acesteia (psihologia
clinic i a sntii, psihologia muncii i
organizaional, psihologia dezvoltrii i
educaional
i
neuropsihologia)
i
marcheaz evaluarea psihologic ca fiind
unul dintre punctele comune importante ale
practicienilor din toate aceste arii.
Cea de-a doua jumtate a acestui ghid este
reprezentat de Partea a 4-a, care trateaz, dea lungul a 17 capitole, trei teme majore n
evaluarea
psihologic:
personalitatea
individului (clientului), inteligena i
aptitudinile acestuia i mediul din care acesta
face parte. Se ncearc oferirea unor
rspunsuri ct mai elaborate i complexe la
ntrebri precum: Cum este descris
persoana n limbaj obinuit?, Cum sunt
explicate diferenele individuale, dezvoltarea
i efectele contextului social de ctre oamenii
obinuii (nespecialiti) i de ctre
teoreticieni?, Care sunt orientrile n
69

70

psihologia personalitii i care dintre aceste


abordri sunt utile pentru practicieni?, Cum
sunt organizate i msurate diferenele
individuale, dezvoltarea i contextele
sociale? etc.
ntruct aceast carte reprezint un ghid
practic i nu doar un manual stufos ce
integreaz numeroasele teorii referitoare la
evaluarea psihologic, la sfritul fiecrui

Ctlina Mihaela Niculcioiu

capitol exist seciunea de Observaii i


Evaluare, n care se rezum informaiile pe
care construcia teoriilor, operaionalizarea,
msurarea i instrumentele le furnizeaz
evaluatorului. Observaiile reflect opiniile i
ideile autorului, fapt pentru care cititorul este
ncurajat s i stabileasc propriul mod n
care valorizeaz i apreciaz argumentele.

Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 71 - 73


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

RECENZII

Machteld van den Heuvel


Adaptation to Organizational Change The Role
of Meaning-Making and Other Psychological
Resources, 2013, Ipskamp Drukkers, Olanda,
237 p.
ANDA IORGULESCU

cercetare i mut un angajat de acolo n


departamentul
de
vnzri.
Angajatul
reflecteaz asupra acestei schimbri i i d
seama c aceast nou poziie i va da
posibilitatea de a-i crea o reea mai mare de
conexiuni i eventual prieteni, lucru pe care
i-l dorea de mult. Astfel, d semnificaie
schimbrii organizaionale. n ceea ce
privete modalitile prin care poate fi crescut
nivelul acestei resurse personale, n lucrarea
de fa sunt doar enumerate cteva (coaching,
mentoring), o cercetare viitoare putndu-le,
eventual, analiza mai amnunit. Primul
capitol prezint scopul lucrrii, urmtorul
conine definiri ale termenilor la care se face
referire, urmnd cercetrile i un rezumat al
ntrebrilor puse iniial i al rspunsurilor
gsite de autoare. Este analizat diferenierea
dintre procesul de cutare a semnificaiei i
alte
resurse
personale
(optimism,
autoeficacitate perceput etc.), apoi adaptarea
pe termen scurt i lung la anumite schimbri
mpreun cu rolul resurselor personale n
cadrul acestei adaptri (n special al
procesului de cutare a semnificaiei).
Dac
de
obicei,
schimbarea
organizaional este tratat ca proces global,
Machteld van den Heuvel propune microanaliza schimbrii, concentrarea asupra
efectelor ei la nivel de individ.

Lucrarea doamnei Machteld van den Heuvel,


Adaptation to Organizational Change The
Role of Meaning-Making and Other
Psychological Resources conine informaii
i instrumente deosebit de utile n special
pentru cei care implementeaz o schimbare
de un anumit tip ntr-o organizaie (directori
generali, efi de disciplin, departamente de
resurse umane etc.). Sunt incluse aici date
teoretice cu privire la elementele care
faciliteaz adaptarea angajailor la schimbare,
cu minim de pierderi. Proiectate ntr-un
mediu practic, concluziile autoarei se pot
transforma n surs de ctig pentru
organizaie (att la nivel material reducerea
numrului de demisii, ct i la nivel
psihologic stare de bine, lipsa conflictelor).
Elementul care aduce un plus de valoare
crii este includerea unor abordri i definiri
noi pentru procesul prin care o anumit
restructurare din cadrul companiei n care
lucreaz, capt sens pentru un individ (engl.
meaning-making at work), ct i a unui
instrument de msur pentru acest concept
(unicul instrument existent pn la scrierea
acestei lucrri). Abordarea lui este nou i
inedit: angajatul care are aceast resurs
ncearc s integreze experiena nou ntr-un
sistem cu semnificaie, legnd-o de valorile i
scopurile sale. De exemplu, o companie de
farmaceutice desfiineaz departamentul de
71

72

Victor Frankl, psihiatru austriac, a


supravieuit experienelor din lagr, avnd
anse estimate la 1/28. A concluzionat c cel
mai mult i-a fost de ajutor s gseasc un
sens pentru existena lui, chiar i n acele
momente (de multe ori, sensul a fost
refacerea manuscrisului ce coninea opera sa
i care a fost confiscat de germani). S-a
ncadrat
ulterior
n
curentul
existenialismului, care ar putea fi rezumat la
urmtoarea fraz a lui Nietzsche:Cei care
are au un de ce s triasc, pot suporta
aproape orice cum i a fondat logoterapia,
terapie prin care clienii sunt ajutai s
gseasc sensul vieii, chiar i atunci cnd se
afl n situaii extrem de triste. Autoarea
prezentei lucrri ncearc s aplice
logoterapia n context organizaional. Dei
experienele din lagr nu pot fi comparate cu
schimbrile organizaionale, consecinele pot
fi destabilizante n ambele cazuri. Ipoteza
principal a crii este c atunci cnd ceva se
schimb la locul de munc, angajatul ar
trebui s neleag de ce, pentru a nu i
pierde resurse utile din cauza anxietii sau
stresului.
Aici, aceast nelegere are un caracter
voluntar. Cartea nu se refer doar la
nelegerea schimbrii: autoarea propune un
ntreg profil de personalitate potrivit pentru
adaptarea la schimbare, apoi testeaz acest
profil n diferite contexte. Angajatul care ar
face cel mai bine fa schimbrii ar avea un
set de resurse personale, la baza crora ar sta
cutarea semnificaiei, la care s-ar aduga alte
cteva,
cum
ar
fi:
optimismul,
autoeficacitatea perceput, stima de sine
organizaional (stima de sine a individului
ca urmare a interaciunilor din cadrul
organizaiei), sau elasticitatea. Compania ar
putea crea profiluri de personalitate
adaptabile, dat fiind c resursele personale
sunt modelabile.
Cercetrile incluse n volum testeaz
legtura dintre existena resurselor personale
i adaptabilitate. Un punct forte al lucrrii
este includerea unor cercetri longitudinale
dar i perspectivele multiple din care sunt
msurate anumite concepte (autoevaluare,
evaluri
ale
superiorilor
ierarhici).
Participanii la cercetri trec prin tot felul de
schimbri, de la cele mai rspndite
(contopirea unor departamente, relocare),

Anda Iorgulescu

pn la unele mai puin frecvente (cum ar fi


introducerea unor spaii de lucru flexibile:
fiecare angajat se aeaz n fiecare zi la alt
birou, unde dorete, stimulndu-se astfel
interaciunea cu colegii).
Astfel, cartea ne ofer cteva concluzii
utile
activitilor
de
schimbare
organizaional.
n primul rnd, este important s
introducem o etap de pregtire pentru
schimbare a angajailor, cu mult timp nainte
de implementarea acesteia. Datele furnizate
de cercetrile prezentate n aceast carte arat
c atitudinile care apar imediat dup
transformrile organizaionale tind s se
stabilizeze i s influeneze apariia
comportamentelor adaptative. De asemenea,
trebuie furnizate ct mai multe informaii cu
privire la modificrile ce urmeaz a fi
introduse, acest factor fiind n strns
legtur i cu atitudinile salariailor fa de
restructurrile pe care vom dori s le
introducem n viitor.
n al doilea rnd, ar trebui s gsim nite
metode adecvate prin care am putea s
stimulm cutarea semnificaiei schimbrii de
ctre angajai. La unii dintre ei, nivelul
acestei resurse este mai ridicat, dar la alii
poate fi nevoie ca ea s fie construit,
folosind edine de coaching sau alte metode.
Aceste eforturi s-ar putea baza pe
urmtoarele concluzii privind cutarea
sensului din volumul prezentat: duce la
acceptarea schimbrii de ctre angajai,
menine performanele lor la niveluri
comparabile cu cele anterioare ei; mpreun
cu autoeficacitatea perceput i suportul din
partea colegilor, susine angajamentul
organizaional, care, la rndul su, determin
o adaptare la schimbare; are o legtur
strns cu adaptabilitatea i, atunci cnd
apare nainte de introducerea schimbrii,
determin un ataament afectiv fa de
companie care care se menine n ciuda
reorganizrilor.
Un alt aspect asupra cruia ar trebui s ne
concentrm atenia ar fi interaciunea
angajatului cu colegii n general (una din
concluziile cercetrilor autoarei este c
suportul din partea colegilor este n legtur
direct cu adaptarea pe termen lung), dar n
special cu superiorul ierarhic. Organizaia,
dei nu este o persoan, are o relaie cu

Recenzii - Machteld van den Heuvel

angajatul, numai c ea comunic prin diveri


reprezentani cu acesta (cum ar fi directori
generali, efi de departament etc.). Dac
relaia este bun, apare ataamentul afectiv:
adic angajatul are nite sentimente pozitive
legate de organizaie, similare celor pentru un
prieten, i asta duce la creterea eforturilor
sale
pentru
a
ndeplini
scopurile
organizaionale, pe care le consider ca fiind
i ale lui. Acest ataament afectiv poate duce
la acceptarea mai uoar a unei modificri
propuse din partea angajatorului. Autoarea
acestei cri demonstreaz c sunt cel puin
dou lucruri care pe care organizaia le poate
construi pentru a determina adaptarea
salariatului la schimbare i ataamentul lui
afectiv fa de organizaie: o relaie bun cu
managerul direct (respect reciproc, ncredere)
i stima de sine bazat pe organizaie (stima
de sine pe care angajatul i-o formeaz n
organizaie, nivelul de competen la care
consider c a ajuns, bazndu-se pe
interaciunile cu colegii).
Cartea autoarei Machteld van den Heuvel
aduce informaii valoroase cu privire la

73

managerierea schimbrii organizaionale,


tratnd n special importana nelegerii
schimbrii de ctre angajai. Concluziile
cercetrilor sunt extrem de valoroase i ar
merita ntrite prin eforturi viitoare de
includere a unor eantioane cu un grad mai
mare de reprezentativitate. Informaiile noi cu
care vine lucrarea ar putea fi folosite i n alte
momente n cadrul unei firme, nu numai
atunci cnd apare o schimbare (cum ar fi
evaluarea nivelului la care se afl anumite
resurse personale ar putea fi urmrit n mod
constant, prin msurtori periodice, i
construit un mediu pregtit oricnd pentru
schimbare, lucru necesar n contextul
economiei moderne; n funcie de frecvena
apariiei schimbrilor ntr-un anumit mediu
organizaional, aceste resurse ar putea fi
evaluate chiar i la interviurile de angajare).
Parcurgerea acestei cri ar putea fi
extrem de util att pentru manageri, ct i
pentru cercettori n domeniul schimbrii
organizaionale, acetia gsind utilitatea
perspectivei experienialiste a lui Frankl
aplicat la restructurrile organizaionale.

Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 74 - 75


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

EVENIMENTE

Conferina Profiles International "10 YEARS OF


EXCELLENCE IN HUMAN RESOURCES
DEVELOPMENT, 02-03 Octombrie 2013,
Bucureti
FLORIN ZAMFIRACHE
MARIUS BARBU

Conferina
"10
YEARS
OF
EXCELLENCE IN HUMAN RESOURCES
DEVELOPMENT,ce a avut loc n data de
02 i 03 octombrie 2013, n cadrul JW
Marriott Grand Hotel Bucureti, a celebrat 10
ani de prezen a companiei Profiles
International pe piaa din Romnia.
Aflat la cea de-a X-a ediie, conferina a
reprezentat unul dintre cele mai importante
evenimente al anului 2013 n domeniul
resurselor umane i a reunit peste 300 de
participani, printre care manageri i
specialiti n resurse umane din toate
industriile, psihologi, reprezentani ai
autoritilor centrale i locale, tineri
antreprenori, oameni de afaceri, reprezentani
ai marilor companii de consultan, lideri ai
asociaiilor din diverse sectoare economice,
precum i speakeri de renume internaional.
n deschiderea conferinei, dl. Doru Dima,
CEO i Director Naional al Profiles
International Romnia, a vorbit despre
importana HR-ului n Romnia i a acordat
diplome de excelen HR Managerilor care
au avut continuitate n dezvoltarea i
mangementul Resurselor Umane performant,
n ultimii 10 ani.
Creterea vnzrilor prin dezvoltarea
abilitilor
oamenilor
de
vnzri,
eficientizarea utilizrii forei de munc,
creterea productivitii angajailor prin
dezvoltarea
echipelor
din
companii,

dezvoltarea culturii de "AUR" ntr-o


companie
multinaional,
alturi
de
remodelarea conceptului de dezvoltare a
resurselor umane sunt doar cteva dintre
temele care au fost abordate n cadrul
conferinei.
Invitatul special al evenimentul a fost Dr.
Marcial Losada (Losada Line Consulting),
doctor
n
Psihologie
Sociala
i
Organizaional
la
Universitatea
din
Michigan, expert n dezvoltarea Indicatorilor
Cheie de Performan (KPI) i autor a 5
volume i peste 50 articole publicate n
reviste de specialitate, lucrrile sale fiind
citate de 1556 de ori n jurnale tiinifice
internaionale, ntr-o varietate de domenii:
psihologie, management, educaie, sntate,
finane, marketing etc.
Evenimentul s-a bucurat de asemenea i
de participarea invitailor de onoare: Bud
Haney (CEO Profiles International), Enrico
Banchi (CEO, Palo Alto Milano), Catalin
Cintar (HR Manager OTP Bank), Deiric
McCann
(Vice
President,
Profiles
International), Csaba Gergely (HR Manager,
Provident Financial), David Parmenter - "The
King of KPI's", All Rinaldi (Vice President,
Profiles International), Oussama Mansour
(President, Qaitas International), Camelia
Crangus (CEO, Smart Agency).
Sumariznd cele 2 zile pline ale
conferinei n cteva cuvinte, am aflat cum
74

Evenimente

putem integra n business noi modele i


ndrumri de bune practici, ne-am
familiarizat cu jogo bonito, conectivitatea
i linia lui Losada, ne-am ntrebat daca Deiric
McCann citete gnduri n scurtele lui
demonstraii de NLP, iar Enrico Banchi ne-a

75

cucerit cu pozitivismul su i cu cele 20 de


mii de jocuri din calculator.
Partenerii principali ai evenimentului au
fost Dima Consulting Group i Profiles
Reserach Center.

Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 76 - 79


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

STANDARDE DE REDACTARE

Psihologia resurselor umane ghid pentru autori


EDITORII

Acest document reprezint Ghidul pentru


Autori. Cuprinde instruciuni privind
formatul i limbajul care trebuie utilizat
pentru manuscrisele trimise la revista
Psihologia Resurselor Umane. De asemenea,
acest document poate fi gsit i pe site-ul
Asociaiei de Psihologie Industrial i
Organizaional (www.apio.ro).
Acest Ghid Pentru Autori este alctuit
dup Manual de Publicat APA, Ediia a-VI-a.

dumneavoastr de contact sau absenele


ndelungate.
Pagina copert
Prima pagin a manuscrisului trebuie s
includ urmtoarele informaii:
1. Titlu
Un titlu trebuie s fie o precizare concis a
temei principale a lucrrii i s permit
identificarea aspectelor teoretice sau a
variabilelor examinate i a relaiei dintre ele.
Titlul trebuie s fie redactat cu litere mari i
mici (sentence case), s fie centrat n raport
cu marginile paginii i poziionat n partea
superioar a acesteia.

Trimiterea i formatul
manuscrisului
Toate manuscrisele pentru revista Psihologia
Resurselor Umane trebuie trimise la
urmtoarea
adres
de
e-mail:
revista@apio.ro.
Pentru redactarea manuscrisului v rugm
s utilizai fontul Times New Roman 12,
spaierea de 1.5 i setrile paginii A4. Fiecare
pagin va fi numerotat n colul drept de sus.
Marginea de sus i de pe lateral trebuie s
aib cel puin 2.5.cm sau 1 inch. Un exemplu
complet de manuscris poate fi gsit n
Manual de Publicat APA, Ediia a-VI-a.

2. Numele autorului i afilierea


(afilierile) instituionale
Numele autorului va fi prezentat n
urmtoarea form: Primul prenume, iniialele
altor prenume i numele de familie.
Afilierea instituional trebuie s reflecte
instituia/locaia cu care a fost asociat autorul
n momentul derulrii cercetrii. Dac un
autor nu are afiliere instituional, trebuie
specificate oraul i ara de reziden sub
numele autorului. Afilierea instituional ar
trebui centrat sub numele autorului, n
rndul urmtor.

Publicaii
Lucrrile acceptare sunt re-editate. Autorii
trebuie s revizuiasc i s fac corecturi n
noua lucrare editat. Editorul revistei
Psihologia Resurselor Umane va contacta
autorul corespondent, dup ce n prealabil
lucrarea a fost acceptat pentru a fi inclus
ntr-un numr al revistei.
Dac lucrarea dumneavoastr a fost
acceptat, v rugm s anunai editorul n
ceea ce privete schimbrile datelor

3. Nota despre autor


Aceast seciune include urmtoarele:
Primul paragraf trebuie s includ
afilierea
departamental
la
76

Psihologia resurselor umane ghid pentru autori (romn)

momentul cercetrii pentru toi


autorii, dup urmtorul model:
numele autorului, exact cum apare la
seciunea anterioar, virgul, numele
departamentului, virgul, numele
universitii, punct i virgul,
numele urmtorului autor .a.m.d.
iar la sfrit se adaug un punct.
Al doilea paragraf trebuie s includ
schimbrile
privind
afilierea
autorului, survenite dup realizarea
cercetrii, dup urmtorul model:
[numele autorului] este acum la
[afilierea].
Al treilea paragraf trebuie s includ
mulumiri (numai pentru sprijinul
financiar din granturi sau de alt tip,
orice alte nelegeri speciale privind
drepturile de autor, mulumiri pentru
sprijin personal) i circumstane
speciale (care trebuie prezentate
naintea mulumirilor).
Al patrulea paragraf trebuie s
includ informaii despre autorul de
contact: adresa potal i o adres de
e-mail.
Nota despre autor va fi plasat n pagina
de titlu, dup titlu, autori i afiliere. Sintagma
Nota despre autor va fi poziionat centrat.
Fiecare paragraf va fi scris separat. Nota
despre autor nu este numerotat sau citat n
text.
Pagina de rezumat
Rezumatul (abstract) i titlul lucrrii sunt
plasate pe pagina 2. Rezumatul nu trebuie s
depeasc 150 de cuvinte. Eticheta Rezumat
trebuie s apar cu litere mari i mici, centrat,
n partea de sus a paginii. Rezumatul trebuie
s aib un singur paragraf, adic s fie
redactat fr alineate. Autorul va propune i
un titlu scurt.
Rezumatul va fi scris n limba Englez,
Francez i Romn. Este necesar s fie
incluse 3-5 cuvinte cheie dup fiecare
rezumat, n cele trei limbi.
Paginile textului principal
n pregtirea manuscrisului, autorul va ncepe
cu o introducere care va fi plasat pe pagina
3. Titlul manuscrisului va fi scris cu litere

77

mari i litere mici, centrat n partea de sus a


paginii i urmat de coninutul textului
lucrrii.
Seciunile urmtoare ale lucrrii vor fi
prezentate fr spaii libere. Cnd ncepe o
nou seciune, aceasta nu trebuie poziionat
pe o pagin nou.
Aceast parte a lucrrii trebuie s includ:
Prezentarea problemei. Aceast
seciune prezint problema specific
care va fi investigat i descrie
strategia de cercetare. Aceast
seciune nu trebuie etichetat ca
Introducere.
Explorarea importanei problemei.
Aceast seciune prezint motivul
pentru care problema necesit o
nou cercetare. Autorul va prezenta
aceast problem n funcie de tipul
de cercetare (studiu empiric, review
sistematic i meta-analiz, lucrare
metodologic sau studiu de caz).
Descrierea literaturii relevante i
evidenierea continuitii logice ntre
cercetrile anterioare i cercetarea
propus.
Precizarea fiecrei ipoteze formulate
i oferirea unui argument teoretic
privind modul n care a fost
desprins din teorie sau conectat
logic cu studiile anterioare.
Metod
Aceast seciune descrie detaliat cum a fost
realizat studiul, incluznd i definiiile
conceptuale i operaionale ale variabilelor
utilizate n studiu. Autorul ar trebui s
includ:
Descrierea
eantionului,
prin
descrierea caracteristicilor majore
ale
acestuia,
n
special
a
caracteristicilor care pot conta n
interpretarea rezultatelor.
Procedura de eantionare, prin
descrierea modalitii de selecie a
participanilor:
metoda
de
eantionare, procentul celor care au
fost contactai i au participant la
cercetare, numrul participanilor
care s-au oferit s participe la
cercetare etc.

Standarde de redactare

78

Mrimea eantionului, putere i


precizie.
Msurtorile
prin
descrierea
metodelor utilizate pentru a colecta
datele i a mbogi calitatea
msurtorilor.
Designul de cercetare.
Manipulri
experimentale
sau
proceduri.
Descrierea sarcinilor.

Rezultate
Aceast seciune sumarizeaz datele colectate
i analiza datelor realizat pentru a testa
ipotezele propuse. Autorul trebuie s
raporteze analiza datelor ct mai detaliat,
astfel nct s permit justificarea
concluziilor. Pentru mai multe informaii,
autorul va consulta Manualul APA, Ediia aVI-a.
Discuii
Aceast seciune evalueaz i interpreteaz
implicaiile rezultatelor, autorii fcnd
referire la ipotezele propuse. Autorul va
examina, interpreta, cataloga rezultatele i va
face inferene pe baza lor. Autorul va insista
pe consecinele teoretice sau practice ale
rezultatelor obinute. De asemenea, trebuie
prezentate limitele studiului i ale direciilor
viitoare de cercetare.
Bibliografie
Referinele sunt citrile n ordinea alfabetic
de la sfritul lucrrii. Aceast list trebuie s
includ toate lucrrile citate n cadrul
manuscrisului. Referinele trebuie scrise dup
urmtorul model:
1. Reviste (exemple selective)
Autor, A.A, Autor, B. B., & Autor, C.C. (an). Titlul
articolului. Titlul Jurnalului, xx, pp-pp. doi:
xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Autor, A.A., Autor, B.B., Autor, C.C., Autor, D.D.,
Autor, E.E., Autor, F.F., Autor, Y.Y. (an). Titlul
articolului. Titlul Jurnalului, xx, pp-pp. doi:
xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Autor, A.A, Autor, B. B., & Autor, C.C. (an). Titlul
articolului. Titlul Jurnalului, xx, pp-pp.
Autor, A.A., & Autor, B.B. (in press). Titlul articolului.
Titlul
Jurnalului.
Retrieved
from
http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf

2. Cri
Autor, A.A. (an). Titlul lucrrii. Locaie: Editur.
Autor, A.A. (an). Titlul lucrrii. Retrieved from
http://www.xxxxxxx
Autor, A.A. (an). Titlul lucrrii. doi: xxxxx
Editor, A.A. (Ed.) (an). Titlul lucrrii. Locaie: Editur.

3. Capitole din cri (exemple


selective)
Autor, A.A., & Autor, B.B. (an). Titlul capitolului. In A.
Editorul, B. Editorul, & C. Editorul (Eds.), Titlul
crii (pp. xxx-xxx). Locaie: Editur.
Autor, A.A, & Autor, B.B. (an). Titlul capitolului. In A.
Editorul, B. Editorul, & C. Editorul (Eds.), Titlul
crii
(pp.
xxx-xxx).
Retrieved
from
http://www.xxxxxxx
Autor, A.A., & Autor, B.B. (an). Titlul capitolului. In A.
Editorul, B. Editorul, & C. Editorul (Eds.), Titlul
crii (pp. xxx-xxx). Locaie: Editur. doi:
xxxxxxxx.

4. Conferine i simpozioane
(exemple selective)
Contributor, A.A., Contributor, B.B., Contributor, C.C.,
& Contributor, D.D. (an, lun). Titlul lucrrii. In
E.E. Chairperson (Chair), Titlul simpozionului.
Symposium conducted at the meeting of [Numele
Organizaiei], Locaia.
Presenter, A.A. (an, lun). Titlul lucrrii sau posterului.
Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of
[Numele Organizaiei], Locaie.

4. Lucrri nepublicate (exemple


selective)
Author, A.A. (an). Titlul manuscrisului. Unpublished
manuscript [or "Manuscript submitted for
publication," or "Manuscript in preparation"].

Pentru o descriere detaliat a procedurii


privind citarea altor tipuri de lucrri dect
cele listate anterior, autorii vor consulta
Manualul APA, Ediia a-VI-a.
Note de subsol
Notele de subsol sunt utilizate pentru a oferi
informaii suplimentare sau pentru a confirma
statutul drepturilor de autor.
Anexe
Anexele manuscrisului (etichetate ANEXA 1,
ANEXA 2 etc.) conin materiale suplimentare

Psihologia resurselor umane ghid pentru autori (romn)

79

fa de coninutul lucrrii, cum ar fi


informaii legate de proceduri metodologice
lungi, calcule etc.

numele primului autor urmat de sintagma et


al. (fr Italic i cu un punct dup al.) i anul
apariiei lucrrii.

Tabele i figuri

3. Dou sau mai multe lucrri


citate

Autorul trebuie s numeroteze toate tabelele


i figurile cu cifre arabe, n ordinea n care au
fost menionate pentru prima dat n textul
manuscrisului, indiferent dac o discuie mai
detaliat a tabelului sau figurii este prezent
ulterior n text. Autorul ar trebui s le
eticheteze Tabelul 1, Tabelul 2 .a.m.d. sau
Figura 1, Figura 2 .a.m.d.. Prezentai prima
dat toate tabelele, ulterior figurile. Plasai
tabelele i figurile dup anexele de la sfritul
manuscrisului
i
indicai
poziia
fiecruia/fiecreia n text astfel:
-----------------------------------Inserai Tabelul 1 aici
-----------------------------------Fiecare tabel sau figur trebuie s aib o
propoziie de introducere n text. Formatul
acceptat este cel standard (canonic). Fiecare
tabel trebuie s raporteze un singur tip de
analiz (care trebuie s fie identificat din
denumirea tabelului) i fiecare coloan i
rnd trebuie s conin sun singur tip de date.
Citri
Este important ca autorul s menioneze
fiecare lucrare citat n manuscris n
seciunea Bibliografie. Autorii pot cita n text
astfel:
1. Un singur autor
Numele i anul: S-a artat c X este asociat
cu Y (Autor, an)
Numai anul: Autorul (an) a artat c ..

Autorul trebuie s ordoneze citrile n ordine


alfabetic. Dou sau mai multe lucrri ale
aceluiai autor (sau ale aceluiai grup de
autori) publicate n acelai an vor fi marcate
prin adugarea unui a, b .a.m.d. dup
anul publicrii.
4. Lucrri fr autor identificat
sau Autor anonim
Cnd o lucrare nu are un autor identificat,
autorul trebuie s citeze n text titlul lucrrii
i anul. Se va poziiona ntre ghilimele titlul
articolului, capitolului sau a paginii web i se
va marca cu Italic numele revistei, crii,
brourii sau a raportului:
privind angajamentul organizaional
(Study Report, 2011)
cartea Corelate motivaionale (2011)
5. Numrul paginilor n citri
Pentru a cita o parte specific dintr-o anumit
surs, autorul trebuie s indice pagina,
capitolul, figura, tabelul sau formula.
ntotdeauna va fi menionat numrul paginii:
(Johnny, 2011, p. 13)
6. Sursele secundare
Cnd sursele originale nu sunt disponibile n
format fizic, autorul trebuie s menioneze a
doua surs in lista bibliografic iar n text s
menioneze lucrarea original i s citeze
sursa secundar:
raportul elaborat de Minnie (citat n
Smith, 2011).

2. Doi autori sau mai muli autori


Cnd o lucrare are doi autori, autorul trebuie
s citeze numele ambilor autori ori de cte ori
apare referina n text.
Cnd o lucrare are trei, patru sau cinci
autori, autorul trebuie s citeze toi autorii
prima dat. n citrile ulterioare va fi inclus

V mulumim pentru atenia acordat


instruciunilor specificate n acest ghid
va uura munca celor implicai n
publicarea acestei reviste.

Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 80 - 83


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

STANDARDS OF PUBLISHING

Human Resources Psychology guide for authors


THE EDITORS

This document represents the Guide for


Authors. It covers the format and language
to be used for manuscripts submitted to
Human Resources Psychology. Also, this
document can be found on the webpage of
the Romanian Association of Industrial and
Organizational Psychology (www.apio.ro).
This Guide for Authors follows the 6
APA Publication Manual.

Front Page
The first page of the manuscript should
include the following information:
1. Title
The title should be a concise statement of the
main topic and should identify the variables
or theoretical issues under investigation and
the relationship between them. It should be
typed in sentence case, centered between left
and right margins, and positioned in the
upper half of the page.

th

Manuscript Submission and


Format
All manuscripts for the journal Human
Resources Psychology should be submitted to
the
following
e-mail
address:
revista@apio.ro.
To edit the manuscript please use Times
New Roman 12-point type, 1.5 line spacing
and the A4 page setting. Each page will be
numbered in the upper right corner. The top
and side margins should be left of at least one
inch or 2.54 cm. A full example of a
manuscript can be found in the 6th APA
Publication Manual.

2. Author name(s) and


institutional affiliation(s)
Author name(s) will be presented in the
following form: first name, middle initial(s),
and last name.
Institutional affiliation should reflect the
institution/location where the author(s) were
when the research was conducted. When an
author has no institutional affiliation, the city
and state of residence below the authors
name should be specified. The institutional
affiliation should be centered under the
author's name, on the next line.

Publications
Accepted papers are copy-edited and retyped.
Authors have to review edits and proofread
their work. The editor of Human Resources
Psychology will contact the corresponding
author after the editor assigns your work to
an issue.
If your work is accepted, please keep the
editor informed of changes in your contact
information and of long absences.

3. Authors note
This section should include the following:
First paragraph should include the
departmental affiliations at the time
of the study for all authors as
follows: name of the author as it
appears in the byline, comma,
department
name,
comma,
university name, semicolon, next
80

Human Resources Psychology guide for authors

author name, and so on, and end


with a period.
Second paragraph should include
any changes in author affiliation
subsequent to the time of the study
as follows: [authors name] is now
at [affiliation].
Third paragraph should include
acknowledgments (only for grants or
other financial support, any special
agreements concerning authorship,
thanks for personal assistance) and
special circumstances (disclose them
before the acknowledgements in this
paragraph).
Fourth paragraph should include
information about the person to
contact in terms of mailing address
and e-mail.
Place the author note on the title page,
below the title, byline, and affiliation. Center
the label Author Note. Start each paragraph of
the note with an indent, and type separate
paragraphs for the authors' names and current
affiliations,
changes
in
affiliations,
acknowledgments, and special circumstances,
if any, along with the person to contact. The
author note is not numbered or cited in the
text.
Abstract Page
The abstract as well as the title of the work
go on page 2. The abstract should be no
longer than 150 words. The label Abstract
should appear in sentence case, centered, at
the top of the page. Type the abstract itself as
a single paragraph without paragraph
indentation. Place a running head (short title).
The abstract will be written in English,
France and Romanian. It is necessary to
include 3-5 key words after each abstract, in
all these three languages.
Main body text pages
In preparing your manuscript, begin the
introduction on page 3. Type the title of the
manuscript in sentence case centered at the
top of the page, and then type the text. The
remaining sections of the article follow each
other without a break; do not start a new page
when a new heading occurs.

81

This section should include the following:


Introduction of the problem. This
section will present the specific
problem under the study and
describe the research strategy. There
is no need to label this section as
Introduction.
Explore importance of the problem.
This section states why the problem
deserves new research. State
explicitly this problem according to
the type of the study (empirical
study, literature review and metaanalysis, methodological paper and
case study).
Describe relevant scholarship by
discussing the relevant related
literature and demonstrating the
logical continuity between previous
and present work.
State each tested hypothesis clearly
and provide a theoretical argument
for how it was derived from theory
or is logically connected to previous
data and argumentation.
Method
This section describes in detail how the study
was conducted, including conceptual and
operational definitions of the variables used
in the study. Authors should include the
following:
Sample description, by describing
the main characteristics with
particular
emphasis
on
characteristics that may have
bearing on the interpretation of
results.
Sampling procedure by describing
the procedures for selecting
participants in terms of sampling
method, the percentage of the
sample approached that participated,
the number of participants who
selected themselves into the sample.
Sample size, power and precision.
Measures and covariates by
describing the methods used to
collect data and to enhance the
quality of the measurements.
Research design.

Standards of Publishing

82

Experimental manipulations
procedures.
Task description.

or

Results
This section summarizes the collected data
and the analysis performed on the data to test
the proposed hypotheses. Report the data
analysis in sufficient detail to justify your
conclusions. For more information please
consult the 6th APA Publication Manual.
Discussion
This section evaluates and interprets the
implications of the results, especially with
respect to original hypotheses. Examine,
interpret, and qualify the results and draw
inferences and conclusions from them.
Emphasize any theoretical or practical
consequences of the results.
Also, the limits of the study and possible
future studies can be considered in this
section.
References
References are your entries in the
alphabetical list at the end of your article or
research note. This list should include all the
works you have cited throughout the
manuscript. The references should be
formatted as follows:
1. Periodicals (selective
examples)
Author, A.A, Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title
of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:
xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D.
D., Author, E. E., Author, F.F., Author, Y.Y.
(year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp.
doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Author, A.A, Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title
of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp.
Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (in press). Title of article.
Title
of
Periodical.
Retrieved
from
http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf

2. Books
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from
http://www.xxxxxxx
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. doi: xxxxx

Editor, A. A. (Ed.) (year). Title of work. Location:


Publisher.

3. For chapters in a book or entry


in a reference book (selective
example)
Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (year). Title of chapter or
entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.),
Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.
Author, A.A, &Author, B.B. (year). Title of chapter or
entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book
(pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx
Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (year). Title of chapter or
entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.),
Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher. doi:
xxxxxxxx

4. Meeting and symposia


(selective examples)
Contributor, A.A., Contributor, B.B., Contributor, C.C.,
& Contributor, D.D. (Year, Month). Title of
contribution. In E.E. Chairperson (Chair), Title of
symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of
Organization Name, Location.
Presenter, A.A. (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster.
Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of
Organization Name, Location.

5. Unpublished works (selective


examples)
Author, A.A. (Year). Title of manuscript. Unpublished
manuscript [or "Manuscript submitted for
publication," or "Manuscript in preparation"].

For a detailed description of the procedure


related to the citation of other types of work
than those listed above, consult the 6th APA
Publication Manual.
Footnotes
Footnotes are used to provide additional
content or to acknowledge copyright
permission status.
Appendices
The appendices of the manuscript (labeled
APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B etc.) contain
materials that supplements article content
such as lengthy methodological procedures,
calculations of measures, scales etc.

Human Resources Psychology guide for authors

Tables and Figures


The author should number all tables and
figures with Arabic numerals in the order in
which they are first mentioned in the text,
regardless of whether a more detailed
discussion of the table or figure occurs later
in the paper. The author should label them as
Table 1, Table 2, and so on or Figure 1,
Figure 2, and so on. List all tables first
followed by figures. Place tables and figures
after appendices at the end of the manuscript,
and indicate the position of each in the text as
follows:
-----------------------------------Insert Table 1 about here
-----------------------------------Each table or figure needs an introductory
sentence in your text. The format agreed is
the standard (canonical) one. Each table
should report one type of analysis (which is
identified in the title), and each vertical
column and horizontal row should contain
only one type of data.
Citation
It is important to put in the Reference section
every work you have cited throughout the
manuscript. The author can cite in-text as
follows:

83

(not Italicized and with a period after al.) and


the year.
3. Two or more cited works
The
author
should
order
citations
alphabetically. Designate two or more works
by one author (or by an identical group of
authors) published in the same year by adding
a, b, and so forth, after the year.
4. Works with no identified
author or with an Anonymus
author
When a work has no identified author, the
author should cite in text the first few words
of the reference list entry (usually the title)
and the year. Use double quotation marks
around the title of an article, a chapter, or a
web page and italicize the title of a
periodical, a book, a brochure, or a report:
on
organizational
commitment
(Study Report, 2011)
the book Motivational Outcomes
(2011)
5. Page numbers in citations

1. One author

To cite a specific part of a source, the author


should indicate the page, chapter, figure,
table, or equation at the appropriate point in
text. Always give page numbers for
quotations.
(Johnny, 2011, p. 13)

Name and year: It has been found that X is


associated with Y (Author, year)

6. Secondary sources

Year only: Author (year) has found


that
2. Two authors
When a work has two authors, the author
should cite both names every time the
reference occurs in the text.
When a work has three, four, or five
authors, you should cite all authors the first
time the reference occurs but in the
subsequent citations, include only the
surname of the first author followed by et al.,

When the original work is out of print,


unavailable through usual sources, the author
should give the secondary source in the
reference list and in the text you should name
the original work and give a citation for the
secondary source
Minnies report (as cited in Smith, 2011).
Thank you for paying attention to the
conventions outlined in this guide it will
help the work of everyone involved in the
publication of this journal.

Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 12 (2014), 84 - 88


Copyright Asociaia de Psihologie Industrial i Organizaional (APIO).

STANDARDES DE RDACTION

Psychologie des ressources humaines guide


pour les auteurs
LES DITEURS

Ce document reprsente le Guide pour les


auteurs. Il couvre le format et la langue
utiliser pour les manuscrits soumis la
Psychologie des Ressources Humaines.
Ce Guide pour les auteurs suit le
Manuel de Publication APA, 6me dition.

Premire page
La premire page du manuscrit
comporter les informations suivantes:

doit

1. Titre
Un titre doit tre un nonc concis du sujet
principal et doit identifier les variables ou les
questions thoriques de lenqute et la
relation entre eux. Il doit tre dactylographi
en lettres majuscules et minuscules, centr
entre les marges de la page et positionn dans
la moiti suprieure de la page.

Soumission de manuscrit et
Format
Tous les manuscrits pour la revue de
Psychologie des Ressources Humaines
doivent tre soumis la suivante adresse demail: revista@apio.ro.
Pour diter le manuscrit sil vous plat
utiliser Times New Roman de 12 points,
interligne 1,5 et la mise en page A4. Chaque
page sera numrote dans le coin suprieur
droit. Les marges suprieures et latrales
doivent tre laisses au moins 1inch ou 2.54
cm. Un exemple complet dun manuscrit peut
tre trouv dans le Manuel de Publication
APA, 6me dition.

2. Nom de lauteur(s) et
affiliation(s) institutionnelle(s)
Nom de lauteur(s) sera prsent sous la
forme suivante: prnom, initiale(s) des autres
prnoms et le nome.
Laffiliation institutionnelle doit reflter
linstitution / lemplacement o lauteur(s) a
t quand la recherche a t mene. Quand un
auteur na aucune affiliation institutionnelle,
la ville et ltat de rsidence dessous le nom
de lauteur doit tre indiqu. Laffiliation
institutionnelle doit tre centre sous le nom
de lauteur, sur la ligne suivante.

Publications
Les articles accepts sont copis-dits et
retaps. Les auteurs ont examiner les
modifications et relire leurs travaux.
Lditeur de la revue Psychologie des
Ressources Humaines va contacter lauteur
correspondant aprs lditeur assigne son
travail un numro de la revue. Si votre
travail est accept, sil vous plat garder
lditeur inform des changements dans votre
information de contact et les longues
absences.

3. Note de lauteur
Cette section doit inclure les lments
suivants:
- Premier paragraphe doit inclure
laffiliation(s) au dpartement au
moment de ltude pour tous les auteurs
comme suit: nom de lauteur tel quil
84

Psychologie des ressources humaines guide pour les auteurs

apparat dans la ligne, une virgule, nom


du dpartement, une virgule, le nom de
luniversit, point-virgule, nom de
lauteur suivant, et ainsi de suite, et se
termine par un point.
- Deuxime paragraphe doit inclure tous
les changements dans les affiliations de
lauteur la suite de lpoque de ltude
comme suit: [nom de lauteur] est
maintenant [affiliation].
- Le troisime paragraphe doit inclure des
remerciements (uniquement pour les
subventions ou autres aides financires,
des accords spciaux concernant les
droites dauteur, merci pour laide
personnel)
et
des
circonstances
particulires (les divulguer avant que les
remerciements dans ce paragraphe).
- Le quatrime paragraphe doit inclure
des informations sur la personne
contacter en prcisant ladresse postale
et de-mail.
Placez la note de lauteur sur la page de
titre, en dessous du titre, nome de lauteur et
laffiliation, et centrez ltiquette Note de
lauteur . Commencez chaque paragraphe de
la note avec un retrait et ditez des
paragraphes distincts pour les noms des
auteurs et les affiliations actuelles, les
changements dans les affiliations, les
remerciements,
et
des
circonstances
particulires (sil y a unes), avec la personne
contacter. La note de lauteur nest pas
numrote ou cite dans le texte.
Page du rsum
Le rsum ainsi que le titre vont sur la page
2.
Le rsum ne doit pas dpasser 150 mots.
Ltiquette Rsumdoit apparatre en lettres
majuscules et minuscules, centre, en haut de
la page. Editez le rsum lui-mme comme
un seul paragraphe, sans retrait de
paragraphe. Placez un titre courant (titre
abrg).
Le rsum sera crit en Anglais, France et
Roumaine. Il est ncessaire dinclure 3-5
mots cls aprs chaque rsum, dans ces
langues.

85

Pages principales du texte


Dans la prparation de votre manuscrit,
commencez lintroduction la page 3. Editez
le titre du manuscrit en lettres majuscules et
minuscules, centrez-le en haut de la page,
puis tapez le texte. Les autres sections de
larticle se succdent sans interruption, ne
commencez pas une nouvelle page lorsque
survient une nouvelle rubrique.
Cette section doit inclure les lments
suivants:
- Introduction du problme. Cette section
prsente le problme spcifique sous
linvestigation et dcrie la stratgie de
recherche. Il nest pas ncessaire
dtiqueter cette section Introduction.
- Explorez limportance du problme.
Cette section stipule pourquoi le
problme
mrite
de
nouvelles
recherches. Explicitez ce problme en
fonction du type de ltude (tude
empirique, revue de la littrature et une
mta-analyse, tude mthodologique et
tude de cas).
- Dcrivez la thorie pertinente en
discutant de la littrature pertinente lie
et en dmontrant la continuit logique
entre les travaux antrieurs et prsents
- Etat chaque hypothse teste clairement
et fournissez un argument thorique
pour la faon dont elle est drive de la
thorie ou est logiquement lie des
donnes antrieures et argumentation.
Mthode
Cette section dcrit en dtail comment ltude
a t mene en prcisant les dfinitions
conceptuelles et oprationnelles des variables
utilises dans ltude. Les auteurs doivent
inclure les lments suivants:
- Caractristiques de lchantillon en
dcrivant ses caractristiques majeures
avec un accent particulier sur les
caractristiques qui peuvent avoir une
incidence sur linterprtation des rsultats
- La procdure dchantillonnage en
dcrivant les procdures de slection des
participants en termes de mthode
dchantillonnage, le pourcentage de
lchantillon approch qui a particip, le

Standardes de Rdaction

86

nombre de participants qui sa lui-mme


slectionn dans lchantillon
La taille de lchantillon, la puissance et
la prcision
Les mesures et covariables en dcrivant
les mthodes utilises pour recueillir des
donnes et amliorer la qualit des
mesures
La conception de la recherche
Les manipulations exprimentales ou les
procdures
La description des tches

Rsultats
Cette section rsume les donnes recueillies
et lanalyse effectue sur les donnes pour
tester les hypothses proposes. Signaler
lanalyse des donnes de faon suffisamment
dtaille pour justifier vos conclusions. Pour
plus dinformations sil vous plat consulter
le Manuel de Publication APA, 6me dition.
Discussion
Cette section value et interprte les
implications des rsultats, surtout en ce qui
concerne
les
hypothses
originales.
Examinez, interprtez, qualifiez les rsultats
et tirez des infrences et des conclusions.
Insistez sur les consquences thoriques ou
pratiques de ces rsultats. En outre, les
limites de ltude et les tudes futures doivent
tre considres dans cette section.
Rfrences
Les rfrences sont les entres dans la liste
alphabtique la fin de larticle ou note de
recherche. Cette liste doit inclure tous les
travaux qui ont t cits tout au long du
manuscrit. Les rfrences doivent tre
formates comme suit:
1. Priodiques (exemples
slectives)
Auteur, A.A., Auteur, B.B., & Auteur, C.C. (anne).
Titre de larticle. Titre du priodique, xx, pp-pp. doi:
xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Auteur, A.A., Auteur, B.B., Auteur, C.C., Auteur, D.D.,
Auteur, E.E., Auteur, F.F., Auteur, Y.Y. (anne).
Titre de larticle. Titre du priodique, xx, pp-pp. doi:
xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Auteur, A.A, Auteur, B.B., & Auteur, C.C. (anne). Titre


de larticle. Titre du priodique, xx, pp-pp.
Auteur, A.A., & Auteur, B.B. (in press). Titre de
larticle. Titre du priodique. Retrieved from
http://cogprints.org/5780/1/ECSRAP.F07.pdf

2. Livres
Auteur, A.A. (anne). Titre de luvre. Lieu: Editeur.
Auteur, A.A. (anne). Titre de luvre. Retrieved from
http://www.xxxxxxx
Auteur, A.A. (anne). Titre de luvre. doi: xxxxx
Editeur, A.A. (d.) (anne). Titre de luvre. Lieu:
Editeur.

3. Pour les chapitres dun livre ou


une inscription dans un livre de
rfrence (exemples slectives)
Auteur, A.A., & Auteur, B.B. (anne). Titre du chapitre
ou de lentre. In A. diteur, B. Editor, & C. Editeur
(Eds.), Titre du livre (pp. xxx-xxx). Lieu: Editeur.
Auteur, A.A., & Auteur, B.B. (anne). Titre du chapitre
ou de lentre. In A. diteur, B. Editor, & C. Editeur
(Eds.), Titre du livre (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from
http://www.xxxxxxx
Auteur, A.A., & Auteur, B.B. (anne). Titre du chapitre
ou de lentre. In A. diteur, B. Editor, & C. Editeur
(Eds.), Titre du livre (pp. xxx-xxx). Lieu: Editeur.
doi: xxxxxxxx

4. Runion et de symposium
(exemples slectives)
Contributeur, A.A., Contributeur, B.B., Contributeur,
C.C., & Contributeur, D.D. (anne, mois). Titre de la
contribution. In E.E. Chairmen (Chair), Titre du
symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of
[nome de lorganization], Lieu.
Prsentateur, A.A. (anne, mois). Titre de la
communication ou un poster. Paper or poster session
presented at the meeting of [nome de
lorganization], Lieu.

5. Les uvres non publies


(exemples slectives)
Auteur, A.A. (anne). Titre du manuscrit. Unpublished
manuscript [or "Manuscript submitted for
publication," or "Manuscript in preparation"].

Pour une description dtaille de la procdure


lie la citation des autres types de travaux
que ceux numrs ci-dessus, consulter le
Manuel de Publication APA, 6me dition.

Psychologie des ressources humaines guide pour les auteurs

87

Notes

2. Deux auteurs

Les notes sont utilises pour fournir un


contenu supplmentaire ou pour reconnatre
le statut dautorisation de droits dauteur.

Quand un travail a deux auteurs, lauteur doit


citer deux noms chaque fois que se trouve
le renvoi dans le texte.
Quand une uvre a trois, quatre ou cinq
auteurs, vous devriez citer tous les auteurs la
premire fois le renvoi, mais dans les
citations suivantes, ne devriez pas inclure que
le nom du premier auteur suivi de et al. (pas
en italique et avec un point aprs al.) et
lanne.

Annexes
Les annexes du manuscrit (tiquetes
ANNEXE A, ANNEXE B, etc.) contiennent
des matriaux qui compltent le contenu de
larticle tels que les longues procdures
mthodologiques, les calculs de mesures, les
chelles etc.
Tableaux et figures
Lauteur doit numroter tous les tables et les
figures en chiffres arabes dans lordre dans
laquelle elles sont cites dans le texte,
indpendamment si une discussion plus
dtaille du tableau ou de la figure se produit
plus tard dans le document. Lauteur doit les
tiqueter comme le Tableau 1, Tableau 2, et
ainsi de suite ou de la Figure 1, Figure 2, et
ainsi de suite. Liste toutes les tables en
premier, suivi par des figures. Liez les
tableaux et les figures aprs annexes la fin
du manuscrit, et indiquez la position de
chacun dans le texte comme suit:
-----------------------------------Insert Table 1 about here
-----------------------------------Chaque tableau ou figure a besoin dune
phrase dintroduction dans votre texte. Le
format accept est le standard (canonique).
Chaque tableau doit dclarer un type
danalyse (qui est identifie dans le titre) et
chaque colonne verticale et range
horizontale doit contenir quun seul type de
donnes.
Citation
Il est important de mettre dans la section
Rfrences tous les travaux qui ont t cits
tout au long du manuscrit. Lauteur peut citer
dans le texte comme suit:
1. Un auteur
Nom dauteur et anne: Il a t constat que
X est associ Y (Auteur, anne)
Anne seulement: Auteur (anne) a
constat que .

3. Deux ou plusieurs travaux


cits
Lauteur doit ordonner citations par ordre
alphabtique. Lauteur doit dsigner deux ou
plusieurs uvres dun auteur (ou par un
groupe identique dauteurs) publies dans la
mme anne en ajoutant une lettre a , b
et ainsi de suite, aprs lanne de publication.
4. Travail avec aucun auteur
identifi ou avec un auteur
Anonymus
Quand une uvre na pas un auteur identifi,
lauteur doit citer dans le texte les premiers
mots de lentre de la liste de rfrence
(gnralement le titre) et lanne.Utilisez des
guillemets doubles autour du titre dun
article, un chapitre ou une page web et en
italique le titre dun priodique, un livre, une
brochure ou un rapport:

sur
lengagement
organisationnel
(Rapport dtude , 2011)
le livre Les rsultats de motivation (2011)
5. Les numros de page dans les
citations
Pour citer une partie spcifique dune source,
lauteur doit indiquer la page, le chapitre, la
figure, le tableau ou lquation lendroit
appropri dans le texte. Toujours donnez les
numros de pages pour les citations.
(Johnny, 2011, p. 13)
6. Les sources secondaires
Lorsque luvre originale est puise,
indisponible par des sources habituelles,

88

lauteur doit donner la source secondaire dans


la liste de rfrences et, dans le texte, il doit
donner le nom de luvre originale et la
citation de la source secondaire :
le rapport de Minnie (as cited in Smith,
2011).

Standardes de Rdaction

Merci pour lattention porte aux


conventions dcrites dans ce guide - il
aidera le travail de toutes les personnes
impliques dans la publication de ce
journal.