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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine Juridice, Nr.

4/2010

DREPTURILE PERSONALITII N PERSONALITY RIGHTS WITHIN A


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CONTEXT BIOETIC BIOETHICAL CONTEXT 56

Prof. univ. dr. Clina JUGASTRU Professor PhD. Clina JUGASTRU


Universitatea Lucian Blaga, Sibiu University Lucian Blagaof Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept Faculty of Law

Abstract: Drepturile personalitii sunt drepturi Abstract: The personality rights are strongly
inerente calitii de persoan uman, drepturi care aparin linked to the quality of human being; they are rights that
oricrui individ prin nsui faptul c este om. Ele se refer, belong to every individual due to the very fact that he is a
n principal, la ocrotirea caracteristicilor fizice i morale person. They refer mainly to the protection of the
ale fiinei umane, la individualitatea sau personalitatea physical and psychical characteristics of the human
acesteia. n epoca actual, drepturile personalitii sunt being, to his individuality or personality. In the current
serios ameninate de achiziiile tiinifice ale biologiei i times, the personality rights are seriously threatened by
medicinei. Se ridic totodat interogaii de natur etic i the scientific developments of biology and medicine. At
moral. La confluena dintre toate acestea vorbim de the same time, questions of ethical and moral nature may
bioetic. Noul Cod civil este, momentan i n perspectiva arise. At the confluence of all these, we talk about
apropiat a aplicrii sale, reglementarea care bioethics. The New Civil code represents, for the moment
sistematizeaz majoritatea problemelor bioetice. and in the near perspective of its enforcement, the
Nu toate drepturile personalitii sufer n regulation that systemizes the majority of the bioethical
mod egal atunci cnd achiziiile tiinei ncep s opereze n problems.
realitatea imediat. n ealonul prim, aflat n relaie Not all the personality rights suffer equally
direct cu efectele biomedicinei, se gsesc drepturile care when the scientific developments become effective in the
privesc integritatea persoanei; urmeaz drepturile immediate reality. The first place, directly connected with
subiective strns legate de integritatea moral i de the effects of biomedicine, is occupied by the rights that
relaionarea social a individului. regard the integrity of the person, and then the subjective
Dreptul la via, dreptul la sntate, dreptul la rights closely connected to the moral integrity and social
integritate fizic i psihic, dreptul de a dispune de sine interaction of the individual follow.
nsui, sunt enunate n noul Cod civil i sunt primele The right to life, the right to health, the right to
vizate de cercetarea pe subieci umani. n context bioetic, physical and psychical integrity, the right to dispose of
aceste drepturi sunt puse n eviden ndeosebi n cazul oneself, are regulated by the New Civil code and are the
interveniilor asupra caracterelor genetice, examenului first ones regarded within the research on human beings.
caracterelor genetice i interveniilor medicale asupra The right to a private life, regulated by the
omului. Romanian Constitution and the New Civil code
Dreptul la via privat, reglementat n represents another personality right that may suffer
Constituia romn i n noul Cod civil este un alt drept al prejudicial violations by means of biomedical activities.
personalitii care poate suferi atingeri prejudiciabile prin We particularly have in mind the medical secrecy and the
activiti biomedicale. Avem n vedere n mod special protection of personal data. The right to ones own image
secretul medical i protecia datelor cu caracter personal. and the right to dignity also bring the condition of
Dreptul la imagine i dreptul la demnitate pun, la rndul consest, so that, under no circumstances will the streets
lor, condiia consimmntului, aa nct, n nicio situaie, ahead biomedical technologies interfere with the human
tehnologiile biomedicale moderne s nu intre n conflict cu rights.
drepturile omului. The bioethical concerns must not transform the
Preocuprile bioetice nu trebuie s transforme human being into an object; science must not develop
omul ntr-un obiect; tiina nu trebuie s se dezvolte uncontrollably, following profit criteria. The solution is
necontrolat, urmrind criterii de profit. Soluia este the provision of an optimum equilibrium between the
asigurarea unui echilibru optim ntre achiziiile tiinifice scientific developments and the rights that express the
i drepturile care exprim chintesena fiinei umane. quintessence of the human being.

Cuvinte cheie: drepturile personalitii, bioetic, Keywords: personality rights, bioethics, right to
dreptul la via, dreptul la sntate, dreptul la integritate life, right to health, right to physical integrity, right to

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fizic, dreptul la integritate psihic, dreptul de a dispune psychical integrity, right to dispose of oneself, right to
de sine nsui, dreptul la demnitate, dreptul la via dignity, right to a private life, right to ones own image,
privat, dreptul la imagine, interferene normative, normative interferences, substance interferences
interferene de fond

Preliminarii Preliminaries

Drepturile personalitii i bioetica. Personality rights and bioethics. Both


Ambele au ca pies central fiina uman. have as a central piece the human being. Both
Ambele i propun s asigure protecie optim are aimed at assuring the best protection of the
valorilor de cpti viaa, sntatea, values of paramount importance life, health,
integritatea, demnitatea, onoarea, intimitatea. integrity, dignity, honor, intimacy. For any
Pentru orice legiuitor al lumii este o provocare legislator in the world the thorough and
important s reglementeze cuprinztor i opportune regulation of the two notions with a
oportun dou noiuni cu un areal modern, modern, dynamic areal personality rights and
dinamic drepturile personalitii i bioetica. bioethics, represents a significant challenge. In
De fapt, este o provocare acut resimit n fact, this is a challenge strongly felt within the
societatea contemporan, dar care exist de contemporaneous society, but that has existed for
timp ndelungat. a long time.

Repere privind drepturile Reference points regarding personality


personalitii rights

Sub denumirea consacrat drepturile Under the term of personality right (term
personalitii (denumire de origine germanic) of German origin), generally, there are regarded
sunt calificate, n general, drepturile inerente the rights strongly linked to the quality of human
calitii de persoan uman, drepturi care aparin being, rights that belong to every individual due to
oricrui individ prin nsui faptul c este om2. Ele the very fact that he is a person57. They refer
se refer, n principal, la ocrotirea mainly to the protection of the physical and
caracteristicilor fizice i morale ale fiinei umane, psychical characteristics of the human being, to his
la individualitatea sau personalitatea acesteia3. individuality or personality 58. Representing non
Prerogative nepatrimoniale4 intim ataate patrimonial prerogatives59 attached to the person,
persoanei, drepturile personalitii exprim the personality rights express the quintessence of
chintesena fiinei umane, fiind intrinseci acesteia. the human being, being inherent to her. The
Drepturile personalitii5 nu se integreaz personality rights60 are not integrated in the
patrimoniului, tiut fiind c acesta desemneaz patrimony, being known that this represents the
totalitatea sau universalitatea drepturilor totality or universality of the patrimonial rights and
patrimoniale i obligaiilor patrimoniale care obligations that belong to a person61. Since the
aparin unei persoane6. ntruct drepturile personality rights outline the moral values of first
personalitii contureaz sfera valorilor morale de importance to the human beings, one may state, in
prim rang ale fiinei umane, s-ar putea afirma, a conventional manner, that they belong to the
ntr-o exprimare convenional, c ele aparin moral patrimony and represent a prolongation of
patrimoniului moral i constituie prelungirea the individuals personality.
personalitii individului.
Elements of bioethics
Elemente de bioetic
Terminology, notion
Terminologie, noiune Despite the fact that the birth
Chiar dac actul de natere al bioeticii
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este datat ntre anii 1960-19707, cea dinti certificate of bioethics dates back in 1960-
expresie a preocuprilor bioetice este 197062, the first expression of the bioethical
considerat a fi Codul de la Nremberg (1947), concerns is considered to be the Nremberg
care a condamnat terifiantele experimente Code (1947), which condemned the terrifying
naziste din lagrele de concentrare. Ulterior, Nazi experiments from the concentration camps.
Asociaia Medical Mondial a reluat n mai Later, the World Medical Association restated in
multe documente principiul potrivit cruia omul several documents the principal according to
nu poate fi privi ca obiect al cercetrilor which the man cannot be regarded as an object
tiinifice (Helsinki, 1960 i 1964; Tokyo, 1975; of the scientific research (Helsinki, 1960 and
Manila, 1980). Sub auspiciile Consiliului 1964; Tokyo, 1975; Manila, 1980). Under the
Europei a fost adoptat Convenia de bioetic aegis of the Council of Europe there was adopted
(1993), cu referire special la consimmntul the Convention on bioethics (1993), with special
subiectului experimentelor, la interveniile pe regard to the persons consent to the
genomul uman i la statutul embrionului. experiments, to the intervention on human
Proveniena termenului bioetic este genome and to the status of the embryo.
american i se datoreaz unor savani care, n The origin of the notion of bioethics is
lucrri i n dezbateri de specialitate, au utilizat American and is due to certain science men that
acest cuvnt. Primul dintre acetia, V.R. Potter have used this notion in papers and debates on
(cancerolog la Universitatea din Wiscosin), a the matter. The first of them, V.R. Potter
publicat studiul Bioethics. The science of (biochemist at the University of Wisconsin), has
Survival, nelegnd prin bioetic tiina despre published the study Bioethics. The science of
modul utilizrii tiinei pentru binele social, pe Survival, and regarded bioethics as the science
baza cunoaterii realiste a naturii biologice a on the manner of using science in the social
omului i a lumii biologice. Convingerea lui era interest, using the realist knowledge of the
c bioetica semnific ajutorarea umanitii s biological nature of man and of biological world.
participe la procesul evoluiei biologice i His belief was that bioethics symbolized the help
culturale8. Cel de al doilea om de tiin, R.S. given to humanity in order to participate to the
Shriver, a folosit termenul bioetic n contextul process of biological and cultural evolution63.
unei dezbateri tiinifice avnd ca obiect The second science man, R.S. Shriver, used the
ntemeierea unui institut de etic a tiinei noi, term of bioethics within the context of a
cu accent pe etica biologiei9. Rapid rspndit scientific debate having as an object the
n media american, noua terminologie s-a settlement of an institution of new science ethics,
regsit, la foarte scurt timp, n cuprinsul unei with accent on the ethics of biology64. Rapidly
enciclopedii, ca studiu al dimensiunii etice a spread in the American media, the new
tiinelor biologice i medicale10. terminology was soon introduced in the contents
n expresie tehnic, bioetica este o of an encyclopedia, as a study of the ethical
cercetare multidisciplinar (n care intervin dimension of biological and medical sciences65.
filosofi, medici, avocai etc.) asupra posibilelor In a technical expression, the bioethics
ameninri la adresa vieii umane (demnitii) represents a multidisciplinary research (in
pe care le prezint aplicaiile tiinelor which philosophers, physicians, advocates etc.
biomedicale (mai exact, putem meniona toate intervene) over the possible threats to human life
aspectele bioetice corelate cu reproducerea (dignity) that the applications of the biomedical
asistat, clonarea uman, transplantul de organe sciences may bring (more precisely, we can
etc.)11. Bioetica apare ca o legtur de filiaie mention all the bioethical aspects related to the
ntre tiin i drepturile omului i include dou assisted reproduction, human clonation, organ
aspecte: al respectului omului ca ntreg transplantation etc.)66. Bioethics appears as a
(fragmentat azi n gamei, embrioni, organe filiation link between science and the human
pentru transplant etc.) i al evitrii oricror rights and includes two aspects: of the respect of

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abuzuri asupra libertii de exprimare a man as a whole (fragmented today into gametes,
omului12. Aa cum s-a afirmat, tiina embryos, organs for transplantation etc.) and of
reprezint soclul bioeticii, deoarece libertatea i avoiding any abuses on the freedom of
autonomia cercetrii nu sunt de conceput n expression of man67. As it was said, science
afara respectului absolut al libertilor umane. represents the basement of bioethics, because the
Cert este c bioetica se dorete a fi un freedom and autonomy of research cannot be
rspuns la provocrile pe care le aduce tiina. conceived outside the absolute respect of human
Nu de puine ori, aceste provocri se situeaz n freedoms.
afara prescripiilor morale i a celor normative. It is a fact that bioethics aims at being a
Pentru a nu intra n conflict cu drepturile response to the challenges brought by science.
omului, tehnologiile biomedicale moderne nu Not on few occasions, these challenges are
vor transforma omul ntr-un obiect, nu vor situated outside the moral and normative
estompa dreptul la via privat; tiina nu se va prescriptions. In order not to start a conflict with
dezvolta necontrolat, urmrind criterii de profit. the human rights, the modern biomedical
Nu tiina trebuie respins, ci aplicarea sa technologies will not transform man into an
incorect; tiina s fie eficace, fr a fi object, will not shade the right to a private life;
opresiv13. science will not develop uncontrollably,
following profit criteria. Not science has to be
Interferena dintre drepturile rejected, but its incorrect application; science
personalitii i bioetic must be effective, without being oppressive68.

Interferene normative Interferences between personality


right and bioethics
n plan internaional. ngemnarea
dintre prerogativele intim ataate omului i Normative interferences
tiin are deja un istoric normativ, din care
menionm cteva momente importante. At international level. The resemblance
Demersul de fixare a relaiei complexe between the prerogatives closely connected to
i delicate dintre drepturile omului i humans and science already has a normative
biomedicin s-a concretizat n adoptarea history, out of which we mention few of the
Conveniei de la Oviedo (1997), amendat most important moments.
ulterior. n denumire integral Convenia pentru The approach of establishing the
protecia drepturilor omului i a demnitii complex and delicate relationship between
fiinei umane cu privire la aplicaiile biologiei i human rights and biomedicine was embodied in
ale medicinei, acest act este primul care pune the adoption of the Oviedo Convention (1997),
problema elaborrii unor norme universale care subsequently altered. In the complete title, the
s conin principiile respectrii demnitii i Convention for the protection of human rights
drepturilor omului confruntate cu progresele and dignity of the human being in relation to the
medicinei i biologiei. Convenia include applications of biology and medicine, this act
dispoziii de detaliu privind principiile was the first to bring the question of the
cercetrii biomedicale, protecia persoanelor elaboration of certain universal norms that would
obiect al cercetrii, prelevarea de organe i consist of the principals of respect for dignity
esuturi de la donatori n via n scopul and human rights confronted with the progresses
transplantului. of medicine and biology. The Convention
Chiar dac este un instrument normativ includes detailed provisions regarding the
fr caracter obligatoriu14 (neavnd autoritatea principals of biomedical research, the protection
unui tratat), Declaraia Universal asupra of persons object of the research, the
Bioeticii i Drepturilor Omului (UNESCO, procurement of organs and tissues from living

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2005) proclam necesitatea de a reflecta asupra donors for the purpose of transplantation.
cercetrilor i inovaiilor apte s amelioreze Despite the fact that it represents a
condiia uman i, n acelai timp, traseaz ferm normative instrument having no compulsory
principiile responsabilitii individuale, binding force69 (not having the authority of a
consimmntului, respectrii vulnerabilitii i treaty), the Universal Declaration on Bioethics
integritii persoanei, vieii private, and Human Rights (UNESCO, 2005) states the
confidenialitii, egalitii, echitii, necessity of reflecting on the researches and
nediscriminrii, non-stigmatizrii, respectrii innovations suitable for ameliorating the human
diversitii culturale i pluralismului, proteciei condition and, at the same time, it firmly draws
generaiilor viitoare i proteciei mediului, the principles of individual responsibility, of
biosferei i biodiversitii. consent, of the respect for the persons
Recomadrile pe plan internaional n vulnerability and integrity, of private life,
sensul garantrii drepturilor omului n raport cu confidentiality, equality, equity,
achiziiile tiinifice au fost traduse, n unele nondiscrimination, non-stigmatization, of the
state, prin crearea cadrului legislativ adecvat. respect for cultural diversity and pluralism, of
Frana, de exemplu, este o ar cu tradiie, care the protection of future generation and the
a elaborat iniial un mnunchi de legi cunoscute environmental, biosphere and biodiversity
sub denumirea de legile bioetice. Este vorba de protection.
Legea nr.94-548 din 1994 cu privire la tratarea The recommendations at international
datelor nominative avnd ca scop cercetarea n level in the sense of granting human rights in
domeniul sntii; Legea nr. 94-653 din 1994 regard to the scientific developments were
cu privire la respectul datorat corpului uman i translated, in certain states, by means of creating
Legea nr. 94-654 din 1994 cu privire la donarea the adequate normative framework. France, for
de elemente i produse ale corpului uman, example, represents a country with traditions,
asistena medical la procreere i diagnosticul which initially elaborated a set of laws known as
prenatal15. the bioethics laws. We are referring to Law No.
Practic, bioetica a nceput s se dezvolte 94-548 of 1994 on the processing of nominative
n rile Europei de Centrale i de Est ncepnd data with the purpose of research in the field of
cu 1990. Nu se poate spune c anterior acestui health; Law No. 94-653 of 1994 on the respect
an nu se puneau probleme de etic medical, owed to the human body and Law No. 94-654 of
dar curentele dominante erau Paternalismul 1994 on the donation of elements and products
(medicul este singurul n msur s aprecieze ce of the human body, medical assistance at
este bine pentru pacient) i Scientismul (potrivit procreation and prenatal diagnostic70.
cruia fericirea oamenilor depindea exclusiv de Basically, bioethics started to develop in
politici bazate pe tiin)16. Avntul bioeticii s-a the Eastern and Central European countries from
concretizat n adoptarea legislaiei aferente i 1990. One cannot say that before this date there
nfiinarea unor instituii autonome were no problems of medical ethics, but the
17
specializate . prevalent currents were the Paternalism (the
Instituionalizarea bioeticii n Romnia. physician is the only one capable of choosing the
Prin H.G. nr. 984/199918 a fost nfiinat right thing for the patient) and the Scientism
Institutul Naional de Cercetare Victor Babe, (according to which the happiness of people
n coordonarea Ministerului Sntii. Institutul depends exclusively on politics based on
este persoan juridic romn i a fost nfiinat science) 71. The burst of bioethics was embodied
n scopul dezvoltrii medicinei romneti. in the adoption of the legislation on the matter
Obiectul principal de activitate const n and the settlement of autonomous specialized
efectuarea de cercetri fundamentale i institutions72.
aplicative n domeniul patologiei umane, The institutionalization of bioethics in
geneticii medicale i imunologiei, biologiei Romania. The G.O. No. 948/199973 established

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celulare i moleculare. n prezent, n cadrul the National Institute of Research Victor


Colegiului Medicilor din Romnia funcioneaz Babe, under the coordination of the Ministry
Comisia de Bioetic, alctuit din 6 membri19. of Health. The Institute is a Romanian legal
Codul deontologic medical consacr person and was established with the purpose of
principiul consimmntului i regulile developing the Romanian medicine. The main
experimentelor pe om. Titlul VI din Legea nr. object of activity consists of performing
95/2006 enun condiiile prelevrii de esuturi fundamental and applicative researches in the
i organe de la persoane n via i de la field of human pathology, medical genetics and
donatori decedai. immunology, cellular and molecular biology.
O.G. nr. 57/200220 creeaz cadrul Now, within the Romanian College of
general actual pentru desfurarea activitilor Physicians there functions the Commission of
de cercetare tiinific i dezvoltare tehnologic, bioethics, composed of 6 members74.
considerate drept componente principale ale Romanian law. The medical
progresului economic i social. innd seama deontological code sets forth the principle of
c prin caracterul su de pionierat cercetarea consent and the rules of the experiments
biomedical poate fi sursa unor accidente performed on humans. Title VI of Law
majore, cu consecine semnificative, pe termen No.95/2006 states the general conditions for the
lung i pe termen scurt, este de ateptat s se procurement of tissues and organs from living or
regseasc, pe viitor, ntr-un cadru legislativ deceased donors.
cuprinztor. The G.O. No.57/200275 creates the
Noul Cod civil aduce nouti, current general frame for the performance of the
reglementnd, dup modelul francez, probleme activities of scientific research and technological
de actualitate privind selecia genetic; development, considered as main components of
examenul caracterelor genetice; identificarea pe the social and economic progress. Taking into
baza amprentei genetice; clonarea uman; consideration that through its pioneer character
prelevarea i transplantul de esuturi, celule i the biomedical research can be the source of
organe; reproducerea uman asistat medical some major accidents, with significant
(ultimele dou doar rezumativ, cu trimitere la consequences, in the long run and in the near
legile speciale). future, we can expect to find it in a
comprehensive legislative framework.
Corelaii de fond The New Civil code brings novelties,
regulating, after the French model, actual
1. Drepturile personalitii n noul Cod problems regarding the genetic selection; the
civil. Pentru ntia dat un act normativ examination of the genetic characters; the
consacr expres, n dreptul romn, drepturile identification based on genetic prints; human
personalitii. Enuniativ, Codul menioneaz clonation; the procurement and transplantation of
unele dintre prerogativele fr coninut pecuniar tissues, cells and organs; the medically assisted
strns legate de persoana uman. human reproduction (the last two only
Noul Cod civil este, momentan i n compendious, with reference to special laws).
perspectiva apropiat a aplicrii sale,
reglementarea care sistematizeaz majoritatea Substance correlations
problemelor bioetice sau care sunt tangente
bioeticii. Nu toate drepturile personalitii 1. Personality rights within the New Civil
sufer n mod egal atunci cnd achiziiile code. For the first time in the Romanian law a
tiinei ncep s opereze n realitatea imediat. normative act expressly regulates the personality
n ealonul prim, aflat n relaie direct rights. The Code enunciates some of the
cu efectele biomedicinei, se gsesc, fr prerogatives without pecuniary character that are
discuie, drepturile care privesc integritatea linked to the human being.

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persoanei; urmeaz prerogativele strns legate The New Civil code is for the time being
de integritatea moral i de relaionarea social and in the near perspective of its enforcements,
a individului. the regulation that systemizes the majority of the
bioethical problems that are connected with
2. Drepturile personalitii i bioetica bioethics. Not all the personality rights suffer
equally when the scientific developments
Dreptul la via, dreptul la sntate, become effective in the immediate reality.
dreptul la integritate fizic i psihic. Cele trei The first place, directly connected with
prerogative extrapatrimoniale sunt enunate n the effects of biomedicine, is occupied by the
art. 58 din noul Cod civil, fiind, practic, primele rights that regard the integrity of the person, and
vizate de orice activitate circumscris cercetrii then the subjective rights closely connected to
pe subieci umani. n context bioetic, cele trei the moral integrity and social interaction of the
drepturi subiective menionate se afl n strns individual follow.
relaie cu dreptul de a dispune de sine nsui
(art. 60 din noul Cod). Netransmisibile, 2. Personality rights and bioethics
garantate i ocrotite n mod egal de lege, aceste The right to life, right to health, right to
drepturi inerente omului promoveaz valori physical and psychical integrity. The three extra-
inestimabile, nu numai la nivelul simplului patrimonial prerogatives are stated in Article 58
individ, dar i la dimensiunile speciei umane. of the New Civil code, being basically, the first
Interesul i binele fiinei umane trebuie s ones regarded by any activity connected to the
prevaleze fa de interesul unic al societii sau research on human subjects. Within a bioethical
al tiinei. context, the three subjective rights mentioned are
Corelativ drepturilor menionate sunt strongly related to the right to dispose of oneself
reglementate aspectele eseniale ale bioeticii: (Article 60 of the New Civil code). Unalienable,
interveniile asupra caracterelor genetice, granted and protected equally by law, these
examenul caracterelor genetice i interveniile rights promote inestimable values, not only at
medicale asupra omului. the level of a simple individual, but also at the
a. Interveniile asupra caracterelor dimensions of the human species. The interest
genetice. Sub acest generic, sunt incluse n noul and well being of the human being must prevail
Cod civil, dispoziiile referitoare la interveniile over the sole interest of society or science.
asupra caracterelor genetice. Sunt reglementate, In relation to the mentioned rights there
de fapt, dou tipuri de activiti biomedicale: are regulated the aspects essential to bioethics:
cele care privesc patrimoniul genetic individual the interventions on genetic characters, the
i cele care vizeaz patrimoniul genetic al examination of genetic characters and the
umanitii. medical interventions on men.
Individul este protejat prin interdicia de a. Interventions on genetic characters.
a se interveni asupra caracterelor genetice ale The New Civil code introduces under this title
unei persoane, de manier a-i modifica the provisions regarding the interventions on
descendena. Unica excepie este admis atunci genetic characters. In fact there are regulated two
cnd scopul modificrilor este prevenirea sau types of biomedical activities: those that regard
tratarea maladiilor genetice21. Patrimoniul the individual genetic patrimony and those that
genetic individual se transmite din generaie n concern the genetic patrimony of humanity.
generaie22. El semnific genomul uman sau, The individual is protected by the
altfel spus, ansamblul caracteristicilor proprii interdiction of interfering with the genetic
unui anume individ, coninute n A.D.N.-ul characters of a person, in such a manner as to
su23. alter his origin. The sole exception is admitted
Materialul genetic al speciei umane for the purpose of preventing or treating genetic
alctuiete patrimoniul genetic al umanitii i maladies76. The individual genetic patrimony is

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necesit reglementri pe msur. Unele transmitted from generation to generation77. It


legislaii s-au adaptat deja, cum este cazul represents the human genome or, other said, the
Codului civil francez, revizuit constant, n assembly of characteristics peculiar to a certain
funcie de imperativele practice majore. Potrivit individual, contained in his D.N.A78.
art. 16-4 alin. 1 i 2 din Codul civil francez24, The genetic material of the human
Nimeni nu poate aduce atingere speciei species forms the genetic patrimony of humanity
umane. Orice practic eugenic prin care se and requires special regulations. Certain
tinde la organizarea seleciei persoanelor este legislations have already adapted, such as the
interzis. Aa cum s-a afirmat, aceast norm French Civil code, constantly reviewed,
juridic arboreaz cele mai importante valori, la according to the major practical imperatives.
scara ntregii umaniti, ntr-o viziune care According to Article 16-4 paragraph 1 and 2 of
prelungete un impuls naional ntr-un acord the French Civil code79, Nobody can bring
universal25. Necesitatea unei schimbri exista i touches to the human species. Any eugenic
n dreptul nostru, iar noul Cod civil aduce practice intended to the organization of the
precizarea legitim, mult ateptat, n sensul c selection of persons is forbidden. As it was
nu se poate aduce atingere speciei umane. stated, this legal norm approaches the most
Urmeaz prevederea care interzice practicile important values at the scale of the entire
prin care se organizeaz selecia persoanelor humanity, in a vision that extends a national
(eugenia). impulse to a universal approval80. The necessity
Nici tehnicile de reproducere uman of a change had already existed in our law too,
asistat nu pot fi utilizate pentru alegerea and the New Civil code brings the legitimate
sexului viitorului copil, ntruct aceasta este o provision, long waited, that no touch may be
form de eugenie. Se excepteaz situaia n care brought to the human species. Then follow the
procedura ar fi util n evitarea unei maladii provisions that forbid the practices that organize
ereditare grave care are legtur cu sexul human selection (Eugenics). The provisions of
copilului. the Romania fundamental law must be updated
b. Examenul caracterelor genetice. to the times we live in and to the modern
Marginal, Codul consemneaz Examenul provisions of the European states. Alone, Article
caracterelor genetice. n fapt, sunt 22 of the Romanian Constitution, which states
reglementate dou chestiuni distincte: studiul that the rights to life and to physical and
genetic al caracteristicilor persoanei n scop psychical integrity of the persons are guaranteed,
medical sau tiinific i respectiv identificarea is insufficient.
persoanei pe baza amprentei genetice, n cadrul Neither the techniques of medically
procedurilor judiciare. Aria de aplicabilitate a assisted human reproduction can be used in order
metodelor genetice este semnificativ, ntruct to choose the sex of the future child, as this
acidul nucleic se gsete n fiecare celul a represents a form of Eugenics. The exception is
corpului26. given by the situation in which the procedure
Studiul medical sau tiinific al would be useful in avoiding serious hereditary
caracterelor genetice individuale este limitat la maladies which are connected to the childs sex.
scopul medical i la finalitatea tiinific, b. Examination of genetic characters.
menit mbogirii bagajului informaional de The code uses Examination of genetic
specialitate. Aceste texte sunt preluate din characters. In fact there are regulated two
Codul civil francez (art. 16-10 alin. 1). Din distinct issues: the genetic study of the persons
pcate nu se prevede care este condiia-premis characteristics for medical and scientific
a studiului genetic (aa cum dispune i Codul purposes and the persons identification using
francez) consimmntul celui vizat. Este de the genetic print, within the judicial procedures.
neconceput examinarea caracterelor individuale The application area of the genetic methods is
n absena consimmntului prealabil, expres, significant due to the fact that the nucleic acid is

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oricnd revocabil i dat n form scris. found in every cell of the body81.
Amprentarea genetic este posibil n The medical or scientific study of the
cadrul procesului penal, procesului civil ori, individual genetic characters is limited to the
atunci cnd legea permite, n scop medical ori medical purpose and to the scientific outcome,
de cercetare tiinific. aimed at enriching the knowledge on the matter.
Se deduce c, n cursul procesului penal, These texts are taken from the French Civil code
msura identificrii pe baza amprentei genetice (Article 16-10 paragraph 1). Unfortunately there
poate fi dispus de organul de urmrire penal is no provision on which is the main-condition of
sau de ctre instana de judecat. Suntem, de the genetic study (unlike the French Code) the
fapt, n prezena uneia dintre cele mai consent of the subject. The examination of the
spectaculoase tehnici de identificare, care se individual characters in the absence of the
profileaz ca un instrument indispensabil, mai previous, express, revocable at any time and
ales pentru domeniul criminalistic. Literatura de written consent is unconceivable.
specialitate a operat analogia ntre amprenta The genetic print is possible within the
digital i amprenta genetic. S-a pus n criminal and civil lawsuits or in other situations
eviden faptul c cele dou sintagme au n when the law allows it for medical or scientific
comun doar capacitatea de a reflecta una dintre purposes.
trsturile fundamentale ale organismelor vii: Hence it appears that, during the criminal
unicitatea biologic. Cuvntul amprent lawsuit, the measure of identification based on
nseamn, stricto sensu, urma lsat de un the genetic print may be ordered by the
obiect pe o suprafa plastic. Astfel, termenul prosecution body or by the court. We are
amprent genetic apare ca fiind impropriu; witnessing one of the most spectacular
tendina doctrinei este de a utiliza, ca expresie identification techniques, which appears as an
sinonim, profilul A.D.N.27 indispensable instrument, especially for the
Denumirile sub care este cunoscut criminal field. The literature on the matter rested
metoda de investigare n cauz (tiparea A.D.N., upon the analogy between the digital print and
proba profilului A.D.N., analiza A.D.N., sau the genetic one. Thus, it was outlined that the
amprenta genetic DNA fingerprinting sunt two notions have in common only the capacity to
preluate din limbajul altor sisteme de drept, care reflect one of the fundamental features of living
au validat-o jurisprudenial i, unele dintre ele, organisms: the biological uniqueness. The word
chiar prin lege. Iat cteva definiii doctrinare print means, strict sensu, the trace left by an
ale amprentei genetice: metod genetic object on a plastic surface. Thus, the term
utilizat pentru a determina dimensiunea genetic print appears as being improper, and for
fragmentelor discontinue de A.D.N., hiper- this reason the tendency in the literature is to use
variabile, care conin secvene-int, n scopul as synonymous expression, the DNA profile82.
identificrii persoanelor de la care provin28; The names under which this method of
totalitatea caracteristicilor structurale ale investigation is known, the evidence of the DNA
materialului genetic, care permit recunoaterea profile, the DNA analysis, or the genetic print
individului29. Genotiparea A.D.N. este, n DNA fingerprinting are taken from the
esen, un mijloc de identificare ce const ntr-o language of other law systems that have
suit de analize bazate pe tehnici de resortul validated it by means of the jurisprudence, or
biologiei moleculare, menite s conduc la some even by means of the law. Here are some
identificarea cu precizie a unui individ. definitions given in the doctrine to the genetic
Cu referire la procesul civil, noile print: genetic method used in order to determine
prevederi ale Codului par incomplete, ntruct the dimension of the discontinuous fragments
opernd principiul disponibilitii, msura of DNA, hyper variable, that contain target
cercetrii caracterelor genetice nu se preteaz sequences, for the purpose of identifying the
oricror litigii. n general, cauzele care au ca persons they belong to83; the totality of the

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obiect stabilirea legturii de filiaie implic structural characteristics of the genetic material,
analiza genetic. Codul civil francez conine that lead to the identification of the individual84.
dispoziii exprese n acest sens i impune The DNA genotyping represents in fact, the
condiia consimmntului expres al persoanei means of identification that consists of a
n via. Nu este permis amprentarea genetic sequence of analysis based on techniques that
dup deces. belong to the molecular biology, capable of
c. Interveniile medicale asupra identifying an individual with precision.
omului. Noul Cod civil se refer, in terminis, la In what the civil lawsuit is concerned, the
reproducerea uman asistat medical, prelevare new provisions of the code seem incomplete,
i transplant i la experiene, teste, alte since the principle of availability operates in this
intervenii n scop terapeutic ori de cercetare field, the measure of examining the genetic
tiinific. characters are not suitable for all litigations. In
Procreerea artificial. Pentru prima general, the cases that have as an object the
dat, un Cod civil romn gzduiete probleme establishing of the filiation connection involve
care sunt de domeniul procreaiei artificiale, the genetic analysis. The French Civil code
ntr-o seciune distinct30. Este ateptat embodies express provisions in this respect and
adoptarea, n form definitiv, a legii la care lays down the condition of the express consent
face trimitere codul, aa nct tabloul legislativ of the living person. The genetic printing after
s fie complet. Deocamdat, avem la dispoziie the persons decease is forbidden.
proiectul Legii privind reproducerea uman c. Medical interventions on men. The
asistat medical, adoptat de Senat la 9 New Civil code refers, in terminis, to the
decembrie 2009. medically assisted human reproduction, the
Noul Cod civil reglementeaz numai procurement and transplantation and to
segmentar procreaia artificial, din dou puncte experiments, tests, other interventions for
de vedere. nti, pentru c este abordat numai therapeutic or scientific purposes.
una dintre tehnicile de reproducere medical Artificial procreation. For the first time a
asistat cea cu ter donator. n al doilea rnd, Romanian Civil code embodies problems
reproducerea asistat este abordat doar din connected to the field of the artificial procreation
perspectiva filiaiei, fiind plasat n titlul in a distinct section85. For the picture to be
referitor la rudenie, ntr-o seciune a capitolului complete, we are waiting for the adoption of the
intitulat Filiaia. Explicit, noul Cod civil law to which the code refers. For the time being,
statueaz c regimul juridic al reproducerii we have the bill of the Law on the medically
umane asistate cu ter donator i asigurarea assisted human reproduction, adopted by the
datelor care in de aceasta, se stabilesc prin lege Senate on December, 9th 2009.
special. The New Civil code regulates only in
Reproducerea uman asistat medical segments the artificial procreation, from two
este un act medical-cadru ce include un points of view. Firstly, because only one of the
complex de tratamente i proceduri. Se techniques of medically assisted reproduction is
folosesc, actualmente, mai multe metode, approached that involving a third donator.
fiecare incluznd mai multe proceduri. Noul Secondly, the assisted reproduction is
cod menioneaz inseminarea artificial (cu approached only from the perspective of
celula sexual a partenerului31 i inseminarea cu filiation, being placed within the title that refers
celula unui donator) i fertilizarea in vitro to kinship, in a section of the chapter entitled
(tehnic ce const n fecundarea unui gamet Filiation. Explicitly, the New Civil Code states
feminin i a unui gamet masculin, n condiii de that the legal regime of the assisted human
laborator, urmnd ca embrionul rezultat s fie reproduction involving a third donator and the
transferat n uter, n scopul implantrii i ensuring of the data that refer to it, are
dezvoltrii ulterioare n ft. established by means of a special law.

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Actualmente, se preconizeaz utilizarea The medically assisted human


mai multor proceduri care se subsumeaz reproduction represents an important medical act
fertilizrii in vitro. Le enumerm, aa cum apar that involves a complex of treatments and
n proiectul legii: fertilizarea in vitro cu gamei procedures. Nowadays, there are used several
prelevai de la cuplul beneficiar (embrionul este methods, each including other procedures. The
creat n laborator i reimplantat femeii din New code mentions the artificial insemination
cuplul benefiar se recurge la aceast metod (with the partners sex cell86 and the
atunci cnd embrionul nu se poate obine pe insemination with the cell of a donor) and the in
cale natural, dei ambii parteneri sunt fertili); vitro fertilization (technique that consists of the
fertilizarea cu gamei provenii de la parteneri fecundation of a feminine gamete and of a
strini cuplului benefiar i implantarea n uterul masculine one in conditions of laboratory, while
femeii beneficiare; fertilizarea cu ovul provenit the resulted embryo is transferred into the uterus
de la o femeie donator, strin de cuplu. with the purpose of further implanting and
Prelevarea i transplantul. n prezent developing of the fetus).
aceste dou activiti au o importan At the present time, it is envisaged that
primordial n salvarea de viei. De la un usage of several procedures that fall into the in
procedeu experimental la un procedeu vitro fertilization. We enunciate them as they
terapeutic, transplantul a devenit un dar al vieii appear in the bill of law: the in vitro fertilization
(gift of life)32, un gest de maxim generozitate, with gametes from the beneficiary couple (the
de maxim altruism. embryo is created in the laboratory and
Prelevarea i transplantul se pot efectua implanted then this method is used when the
exclusiv n scop terapeutic, de la donator n embryo cannot be obtained through a natural
via sau de la donator decedat. Ansamblul process, despite the fact that both the parents are
condiiilor pe care legea le impune este dominat fertile); the fertilization with gametes from third
de principiul consimmntului informat, scris, partners and the implantation in the uterus of the
liber, prealabil i expres al pacientului. female; the fertilization with the egg cell of
mprtim opinia c suntem n prezena unui another donor female.
consimmnt special33, medicul specialist Procurement and transplantation. At
neputnd eluda informarea, cu argumentul c present, these two activities have a major
actul prelevrii prezint riscuri obinuite importance in saving lives. From an
minime. Pentru a-l preveni pe donator de experimental procedure to a therapeutic one,
gravitatea actului prelevrii, specialistul este transplantation has become a gift of life87, a
inut s l informeze asupra eventualelor riscuri gesture of maximum generosity, of maximum
i consecine pe plan fizic, psihic, familial i altruism.
profesional34. Acordul pacientului se The procurement and transplantation can
concretizeaz n scris, ntr-o declaraie be performed only for therapeutic purposes, from
conform modelului din anexa legii. Una dintre a living donor or a deceased one. The conditions
lacunele Legii nr. 95/2006 este c nu required by the law are governed by the principle
personalizeaz consimmntul. Informarea of the informed, written, free, previous and
datorat de cadrul medical (sau de ctre alte express consent of the patient. We agree with the
persoane artate de lege) este personalizat, n opinion that we are in the presence of a special
scop de protecie a celui care recurge la aceste consent88, the physician cannot skip the
tehnici. S-ar fi impus i un acord exprimat n informing with the argument that the act of
raport cu starea de sntate a persoanei vizate, procurement presents common minimal risks. In
de caliti sau mprejurri personale, dup caz. order to warn the donor of the gravity of the act
Mai mult, se menioneaz n doctrin c textul of procurement, the specialist is compelled to
legii mpinge sarcina informrii tot mai jos pe inform him of the possible risks and
scara competenei, echivalnd informarea consequences on a physical, psychical, family

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fcut de asistentul social sau alt persoan cu and professional level89. The patients consent
pregtire de specialitate (ce specialitate nu se must be given in writing, by means of a
precizeaz) cu informarea fcut de medic35. declaration according to that attached to the law.
n principiu, donatorii trebuie s fi One of the faults of Law No.95/2006 is that it
mplinit vrsta de 18 ani la momentul prelevrii. does not personalize the consent. The informing
Pentru donatorii minori n via este posibil owed by the physician (or other persons settled
numai prelevarea de celule stem36 by law) is personalized for the purpose of
hematopoietice, doar dac minorul a mplinit 14 protecting the persons that resort to these
ani i exist acordul scris la prelevare al techniques. An approval expressed in relation to
printelui, respectiv al tutorelui sau curatorului. the state of health of the person involved, or to
Ancheta prealabil efectuat de reprezentanii the qualities or personal circumstances, would
autoritii tutelare este obligatorie. Refuzul scris have been beneficial. Furthermore, in the
ori verbal al minorului este un obstacol n calea literature the authors mention that the text of the
prelevrii. law pushes the duty to inform lower and lower
Alte intervenii n scop terapeutic ori de on the scale of competences, assimilating the
cercetare tiinific. Unele prevederi relative la informing made by the social assistant or other
activiti asociate cercetrii biomedicale37 se person with medical preparation (the
regsesc n Codul deontologic38, document specialization required is not mentioned) with
adoptat de Colegiul Medicilor din Romnia. that made by the physician90.
Codul enun valorile a cror respectare Usually, donors have to have reached the
este impus n cercetarea medical pe subieci age of 18 at the moment of procurement. In what
umani viaa, sntatea, intimitatea i the living underage are concerned, the
demnitatea. Interesul individului prevaleaz fa procurement is possible only in the case of the
de interesul societii i al tiinei. De altfel, se hematopoietic stem cells91, only if the underage
menioneaz c cercetarea destinat progresului is 14 and there is the written consent of the
medical (cercetarea fr scop terapeutic) se parent, tutor or legal representative. The previous
poate face doar n ultim instan avnd omul investigation performed by the representatives of
ca subiect. Iar singura justificare permis ar the tutelary authority is compulsory. The oral or
consta n mbuntirea metodelor profilactice, written refusal of the underage represents an
diagnostice i de tratament, nelegerea obstacle for the procurement.
etiologiei i a patogenezei unor afeciuni. Other intervention for therapeutic or
Riscurile la care se poate expune persoana nu scientific purposes. Certain provisions regarding
sunt disproporionate n comparaie cu the activities associated with the biomedical
beneficiile poteniale ale cercetrii. research92 are found in the Deontological code93,
Participarea subiecilor umani la aceste document adopted by the Romanian College of
cercetri respect regula consimmntului39, Physicians.
dup o informare riguroas cu privire la The code sets forth the values that must
scopurile, metodele cercetrii, riscurile i be respected within the medical research on
beneficiile anticipate. Retragerea din cercetare human subjects life, health, intimacy and
este permis n orice moment, ceea ce dignity. The individuals interest prevails over
echivaleaz cu revocarea consimmntului la the interest of society or of science. Moreover, it
experimentul clinic. n cazul minorilor, acordul is mentioned that the research destined to the
va fi obinut de la aparintori sau de la medical progress (the research without
reprezentantul legal, fiind necesar i acceptul therapeutic purpose) can be performed on human
minorului de a participa n cercetare. Este only exceptionally. The only justification
necesar un maximum de pruden n a utiliza allowed would consist of the improvement of the
minorii n experimente medicale i numai dac prophylactic, diagnostic and treatment methods,
riscurile sunt minime. the understanding of the etiology or pathology of

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Cercetrile cu scop terapeutic constituie a malady. The risks to which a person may be
aplicarea pentru prima dat la om a unor exposed are not disproportional in comparison to
procedee medicale sau chirurgicale i se vor the potential benefits of the research.
face exclusiv n scop curativ. n asemenea The participation of the human subjects
cercetri trebuie s existe o proporionalitate to these researches respects the rule of the
just, n favoarea bolnavului, ntre riscurile consent94, after a rigorous informing with regard
procedeului nou i gravitatea cazului; pericolele to the purposes, methods of research, risks and
posibile ale procedeului nou s nu ntreac n anticipated benefits. At any time the person may
gravitate evoluia probabil a bolii de baz sau a revoke her consent to the clinical experiment and
tratamentelor cunoscute i aplicate pn n leave the research. In what underage are
prezent. Este interzis provocarea artificial a concerned, the consent will be given by the
mbolnvirii unor oameni sntoi, numai family or legal representative, also being
pentru raiuni experimentale. necessary the approval of the underage to
De lege ferenda, se impune participate in the research. It is necessary a
reglementarea detaliat a protocolului maximum of prudence in using underage in
experimental, n raport de tipul de experiment medical experiments and this can be possible
(cercetare cu scop terapeutic, cercetare fr only when the risks are minimal.
scop terapeutic) i de particularitile The researches performed for therapeutic
coninutului operaiunii respective. Momentan purposes represent the application for the first
se prevede doar, la modul general, c o comisie time on a human of certain medical or surgical
de etic format din persoane independente fa procedures and will exclusively be performed for
de cercettori sau sponsori evalueaz protocolul curative purposes. In such researches there has to
cercetrii. Comisia de etic ce efectueaz be a just proportionality, in favor of the sick one,
evaluarea proiectului trebuie s fie informat cu between the risks of the new procedure and the
privire la desfurarea cercetrii i are dreptul gravity of the case; the possible dangers of the
de a monitoriza cercetrile n derulare40. Ori, n new procedure should not be more severe than
mod normal, protocolul trebuie s cuprind n the probable evolution of the basic disease or of
detaliu toate riscurile i avantajele previzibile, the know and used treatments. The artificial
considerentele etice implicate n cercetare, inducing of a disease on healthy individuals for
rspunderea cadrelor medicale pentru eventuale experimental reasons is forbidden.
nereuite, inclusiv sub aspectul indemnizrii De lege ferenda, the detailed regulation
victimelor. De asemenea, este preferabil of the experimental protocol would be necessary,
crearea unui organism special, alctuit din in relation to the type of experiment (research for
experi, care s aib prerogative n domeniul therapeutic purposes, research without
cercetrii medicale pe subieci umani. Ar putea therapeutic purposes) and to the particularities of
fi urmat, n anumite privine, modelul francez al the content of that operation. Momentarily it is
Comitetului consultativ naional de etic pentru only regulated on a general level, that an ethical
tiinele vieii i ale sntii, instituit prin commission formed by persons that are
Legea nr. 800 din august 2004 referitoare la independent from the researches and sponsors
bioetic41. evaluates the protocol of the research. The
Dreptul la via privat. Legea ethical commission that performs the evaluation
fundamental romn acord ocrotire vieii of the project must be informed with regard to
intime, familiale i private. Noul Cod civil the evolution of the research and has the right to
conine dispoziia potrivit creia orice persoan monitor the researches95. Normally, the protocol
are dreptul la respectarea vieii sale private i has to embody in detail all the predictable risks
enumer, exemplificativ, faptele care pot and advantages, the ethical aspects involved in
constitui atingeri ale vieii private. the research, the responsibility of the medical
Esena vieii private se suprapune unui staff for the possible failures, including in the

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sector personal n care nimeni nu poate form of victims compensation. In addition to


ptrunde fr acordul celui n cauz, o sfer ce this it would be preferable to create a special
reunete, n principal, relaiile de familie, viaa organism, formed by experts that would have the
sentimental, starea de sntate, intimitatea prerogatives in the field of the medical research
cminului etc. n perimetrul privat, subiectul are on human subjects. In certain respects we may
controlul deplin al informaiilor, deciziilor i take after the French model of the National Ethic
aciunilor care l privesc; ntr-o anumit msur, Consultative Committee for the sciences of life
viaa privat include i dreptul individului de a and health, established by means of Law No. 800
stabili i dezvolta relaii cu semenii si42. of August 2004 on bioethics96.
Unele dintre faetele vieii private sunt The right to private life. The Romanian
evidente n context bioetic, iar atingerile aduse fundamental law protects the intimate, family
acestora au consecine prejudiciabile majore. and private life. The New Civil code embodies
Ne vom referi la secretul medical i protecia the provision according to which every person
datelor cu caracter personal. has the right to the respect for her private life and
a. Secretul medical este una dintre enumerates, in examples, the facts that can
formele n care se nfieaz secretul represent violations of the private life.
profesional i se fundamenteaz pe dou The essence of the private life overlaps a
aspecte: interesul public (general) n asigurarea personal sector in which nobody can get without
ncrederii impuse de exerciiul profesiei de the consent of the person, mainly covering, the
medic i interesul individului de a i se garanta family relationships, sentimental life, state of
securitatea unor informaii confideniale privind health, intimicy of the house etc. In the private
starea sa de sntate. Profesionistul devine, area, the subject has the absolute control of the
astfel, un confident necesar al pacientului su. information, decisions and actions that regard
Prezena medicului lng bolnav are ca unic him; in a certain manner the private life also
menirea tratarea celui n cauz, fr deosebire includes the individuals right to establish and
de funcie, origine sau stare material. develop relationships with his siblings97.
Dezvluirea mprejurrilor de care cadrul Some of the private lifes sides are
medical ia cunotin n exerciiul profesiei obvious within the bioethic context, and the
semnific nu numai ignorarea secretului violations brought to it have major prejudicial
medical, dar i nclcarea intimitii vieii consequences. We will refer to the medical
private a pacientului43. secrecy and the protection of personal data.
Legea nr. 95/2006 privind reforma n a. Medical secrecy is one of the forms of
domeniul sntii statueaz, n art. 642 alin. 3 the professional secrecy and is grounded on two
c personalul medical rspunde civil pentru aspects: the public interest (general) in assuring
prejudiciile ce decurg din nclcarea the trust imposed by the profession of physician
prevederilor privind confidenialitatea. Legea and the individuals interest of being granted
amintit include jurmntul lui Hipocrat, n with the security of certain confidential
formularea modern, adoptat de Asociaia information regarding his state of health. Thus,
medical Mondial n cadrul Declaraiei de la the professional becomes a necessary confident
Geneva din 1975: Odat admis printre of his patient. The presence of the physician next
membrii profesiunii de medic [...], voi pstra to the sick has as a sole destination the treatment
secretele ncredinate de pacieni, chiar i dup of the latter, no matter the function, origin or
decesul acestora [...]. material condition. Spreading the circumstances
Unitile medicale, publice sau private of which the medical staff takes knowledge
sunt inute s rspund alturi de personalul during the exercise of his profession means
medical pentru nclcarea secretului ignoring the medical secrecy but also violating
profesional. Conin dispoziii, n acest sens, att the intimacy of the patients private life98.
Legea 95/2006, ct i Ordinul Ministrului Article 642 paragraph 3 of Law No.

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Sntii nr. 386/2004. Acest din urm act 95/2006 on healthcare reform states that the
normativ precizeaz c, n situaiile n care se member of the medical personnel is responsible
solicit informaii cu caracter confidenial, for the prejudices brought by the violation of the
unitile au obligaia s asigure respectarea provisions regarding confidentiality. The above
cadrului legal privind furnizarea acestora. mentioned law includes the Hippocratic oath, in
Legea nr. 46/200344 rezerv un capitol the modern formulation, adopted by the World
dreptului la confidenialitate i la via privat Medical Association within the Declaration of
al pacientului. Intr sub incidena secretului Geneva of 1975. Once admitted among the
medical totalitatea informaiilor privind starea members of the profession of physician [] I
pacientului, rezultatele investigaiilor, will keep the secrets I was entrusted by my
diagnosticul, prognosticul, tratamentul, datele patients even after their decease [].
personale. Toate acestea rmn secrete chiar i The medical private or public units are
dup decesul celui n cauz. held responsible together with the medical
b. Protecia datelor personale. Orice tip personnel for the breaching of the professional
de activitate bioetic pune n discuie acest secrecy. Both the Law No. 95/2006 and the
aspect al vieii private, atta timp ct se Order of the Ministry of Health No. 386/2004
procedeaz la prelucrarea datelor cu caracter consist of provisions in this respect. The latter
personal. Noul Cod civil trimite la legea normative act sets forth that, in the events when
special, fie Legea nr. 677/200145, fie Legea nr. confidential information are solicited, the units
506/200446. have the obligation to ensure the respect of the
Legea nr. 677/2001 are ca scop legal frame on the matter.
garantarea i protejarea drepturilor i libertilor Law no. 46/200399 dedicates an entire
fundamentale ale persoanelor fizice, n special a chapter to the right to confidentiality and to
dreptului la via intim, familial i privat, cu private life of the patient. The medical secrecy
privire la prelucrarea datelor cu caracter refers to the totality of the information regarding
personal. Este prima lege romn care the patients state of health, the results of the
reglementeaz problema vieii private n investigations, the diagnostic, prognostic,
societatea informaional. Ameninarea real pe treatment, and personal data. All these remain
care o reprezint tehnicile informatice la adresa secret even after the decease of the person.
drepturilor personalitii, adoptarea de ctre b. Protection of personal data. Any type
Consiliul Europei a Conveniei nr. 108/1981 of bioethical activity brings into discussion this
pentru protejarea persoanelor fa de aspect of the private life, as long as it proceeds to
prelucrarea automatizat a datelor cu caracter the handling of personal data. The New Civil
personal47, existena Directivelor comunitare n code refers to the special law, either Law
materie i cerinele alinierii rii noastre la No.677/2001100 or Law No. 506/2004101. Law
standardele Uniunii Europene au determinat No. 677/2001 has as a purpose the protection of
iniiativa legiuitorului romn. Ocrotirea vieii the fundamental rights and freedoms of the
private n sectorul comunicaiilor electronice se natural persons, especially of the right to
bucur de o reglementare distinct Legea nr. intimate, family and private life, with regard to
506/2004 fa de care Legea nr. 677/2001 the processing of personal data. This is the first
constituie dreptul comun. Romanian law that regulates the issue of private
Datele personale care pot face obiectul life within the information society. The real
prelucrrii sunt informaiile referitoare la o threat that the informatics techniques represent
persoan fizic identificat sau identificabil. n for the personality rights, the adoption by the
principiu, informaiile referitoare la starea de Council of Europe of the Convention No.
sntate a unei persoane nu fac obiectul 108/1981 for the Protection of Individuals with
prelucrrii, dect n situaiile de excepie expres regard to Automatic Processing of Personal
menionate. Aceste date pot fi colectate numai Data102, the existence of the community

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de la persoana vizat. Altfel, colectarea din alte directives on the matter and the requests of
surse are caracter excepional, atunci cnd cel n aligning our country at the European Unions
cauz refuz s le furnizeze ori nu este n standards have determined the initiative of the
msur s o fac, iar lipsa datelor ar Romanian legislator. The protection of the
compromite scopurile prelucrrii. Operaiunea private life within the sector of the electronic
prelucrrii se realizeaz sub supravegherea unui communications enjoys a distinct regulation
cadru medical, cu respectarea secretului Law No. 506/2004 Law No. 677/2001
professional i cu consimmntul actual i scris representing the common law.
al persoanei vizate. The personal data that can be processed
Dreptul la imagine. Legea privind are information referring to an identified or
drepturile pacientului prevede necesitatea identifiable natural person. Usually, the
obinerii acordului pacientului pentru information regarding the individuals state of
fotografiere sau filmare, atunci cnd imaginile health cannot be processed, unless in the event of
sunt indispensabile stabilirii diagnosticului sau the expressly mentioned exceptional situations.
tratamentului ori pentru evitarea oricrei These data can be collected only from the person
suspiciuni de culp medical; dispoziiile sunt in question. Thus, the collection using other
preluate din Legea privind drepturile sources has an exceptional character, when the
pacientului. person refuses to supply them or is incapable of
Condiia consimmntului impus de doing so, and the absence of the data would
lege este fireasc. Dreptul persoanei la propria endanger the purposes of the processing. The
imagine este unul dintre acele drepturile operation of processing is performed under the
personalitii ce ridic serioase dificulti n supervision of a member of the medical staff,
raport cu exigena consimmntului. Ca i respecting the professional secrecy and with the
numele, imaginea persoanei i gsete protecia actual and written consent of the person in
cu titlu de element identificator al persoanei. Ea question.
fiind o reprezentare a trsturilor fizice ale The right to image. The law regarding
persoanei, atunci cnd este luat fr the patients rights stipulates the necessity of
consimmntul persoanei constituie o violare a getting the patients consent for any photo or
dreptului la imagine48. Practic, orice film shooting, when the images are indispensable
operaiune de utilizare a imaginii persoanei, de for the assessment of the diagnostic or treatment
divulgare a unor aspecte care in de intimitatea or for avoiding any suspicions of medical guilt;
celui vizat i, n general, tot ceea ce presupune the provisions are taken from the Law on the
aducerea la cunotina terilor a valorilor din patients rights.
sfera drepturilor personalitii impune, n mod The condition of the consent set forth by
necesar, acordul celui n cauz. Legislaia the law is natural. The persons right to her own
medical s-a adaptat n acest sens. image is one of the personality rights that brings
Dreptul la demnitate. Honeste vivere. about serious difficulties in relation to the
Legile nescrise i legile scrise ale omenirii condition of the consent. Just as the name, the
aaz demnitatea la cptiul valorilor care dau persons image is protected as an element of
individului calitatea de om. A tri n identification of the person. Being a
demnitate este un principiu natural, care representation of the physical characteristics of
guverneaz universul (macrocosmosul) i un the person, when it is taken without the persons
principiu constituional, care confer protecie consent it constitutes a violation of the right to
fiecrei fiine umane (microcosmosul). image103. Basically, any operation of using the
Demnitatea nu poate fi precis definit, pot fi persons image, of spreading aspects that are
surprinse doar nelesuri care, toate, alctuiesc linked to the intimacy of the person in question
una dintre cele mai complexe valori ale laturii and, in general, everything that involves the
morale a personalitii. Trgndu-i seva din notification of thirds in respect to the values

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unicitatea fiinei umane, demnitatea este belonging to the sphere of the personality rights
inerent acesteia, este un atribut nnscut care imposes with necessity the consent of the person
presupune cinste, bun-credin i o reputaie in question. The medical legislation has adopted
netirbit49. Este, fr tgad, un bun fr in this respect.
existen material, care nu poate fi preuit n The right to dignity. Honeste vivere. The
bani. Conceptul acoper un dat este nnscut, unwritten laws as well as the written ones place
aparine omului, independent c acesta este dignity on top of the values that give the
contient ori nu de acest lucru i nsuiri de individual the quality of human. To live in
ordin etic, ce se dobndesc n timpul vieii, dignity represents a natural principal that
alctuind, mpreun, reputaia unei persoane50. governs the universe (the macrocosm) but also a
Din perspectiv bioetic, conceptul de constitutional one that grants protection to every
demnitate uman, n sens medical, care vizeaz human being (the microcosm). Dignity cannot be
nu doar vindecarea ci i eradicarea unor aspecte precisely defined; one can only catch meanings
patologice ale naturii umane, se intersecteaz cu that, reunited, form one of the most complex
dimensiunea juridic ce urmrete s impun values of the moral side of the personality.
respectul integritii corpului uman (i al Representing the uniqueness of the human being,
speciei), acceptnd aleatoriul n destinul dignity is inherent to it; it is an innate attribute
biologic al fiinelor51. that involves honesty, good-faith and a clean
Respectul demnitii este n strns reputation104. It is beyond any doubt a good
relaie cu toate activitile biomedicale. Poate n without material existence, one that cannot be
mod deosebit ar trebui notate prelevarea i measured in money. The concept covers a gift
transplantul, clonarea fiinei umane, crearea de it is innate, it belongs to man no matter whether
embrioni umani n scop de cercetare, he is or not conscious of this fact and features
interveniile chirurgicale de schimbare a sexului of ethical character that are acquired in the
i identificarea persoanei pe baza amprentei course of life, making together, the reputation of
genetice. a person105.
Una dintre problemele care evoc From a bioethical perspective, the
dreptul la demnitate este eutanasia. Din pcate, concept of human dignity, within the medical
n formularea actual, nici noul Cod civil, nici meaning, that regards not only the healing but
alte prevederi legale, nu abordeaz eutanasia, n also the eradication of certain pathological
nici una dinte formele sale. aspects of the human nature, is intercrossed with
n ceea ce privete dreptul la demnitate, the legal dimension that aims at enforcing the
s-a propus, de dat relativ recent, respect for the integrity of the human body (and
suplimentarea categoriilor cunoscute de drepturi for the species), accepting the hazard within the
ale omului cu nc o grup, care ar include beings biological destiny106.
drepturile privind protecia persoanei umane The respect for dignity is closely
npotriva abuzurilor tiinei52. Aceast categorie connected to all biomedical activities. Perhaps
ar include toate prerogativele ce implic we should mention in particular the procurement
demnitatea omului, ca o msur de protecie n and transplantation, the human clonation, the
plus fa de progresul tiinei i de beia creations of human embryos for research
cunoaterii53. Ne alturm ideii c o nou purposes, the sex change surgical interventions
categorie nu este necesar. Problema efectiv i and the identification of the person through the
major este protecia drepturilor omului, iar genetic print.
suplimentarea panopliei cunoscute a drepturilor One of the problems that evoke dignity is
nu ar conduce dect la o modificare numeric, euthanasia. Unfortunately, within the current
fr s mbunteasc modalitile de ocrotire. regulation, neither the New Civil code nor the
Dac consacrarea i acceptarea de ctre state a rest of the legal provision, approach euthanasia
drepturilor omului ncepnd cu Declaraia in either of its forms.

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Universal a nsemnat naterea unei noi religii In what concerns the right to dignity,
universale, o permanent prelungire, o recently it was proposed the supplementation of
adugare de noi i noi drepturi ar putea atrage the known categories of human rights with
contrariul, o desacralizare a conceptului, o another group, which would include the right
diluare a interesului prin imposibilitatea regarding the persons protection against the
asigurrii unei protecii effective54. abuses of science107. This category would
include all the prerogatives that involve the
n loc de concluzii human dignity, a further measure of protection
against the progress of science and the
Trebuie s privim n fa realitatea. drunkenness of knowledge 108. We agree with
Omul a devenit un superom. Dar superomul, cu the opinion that the new category is not
superumana sa putere, n-a ajuns i la un nivel necessary. The real and major problem is the
de superuman nelepciune. Cu ct puterea sa protection of human rights, and the
crete, cu att mai srac devine omul. supplementation of the known panoply would
Contiinele noastre nu pot s nu fie zguduite de only lead to a numerical change, without an
constatarea c, cu ct cretem i devenim improvement of the modalities of protection. If
superoameni, cu att suntem mai inumani55. the regulation and acceptance by the states of the
human rights starting with the Universal
Bibliografie Declaration meant the birth of a new universal
religion, an everlasting extension, an addition of
Bauzon, S. Dezvoltarea bioeticii n Europa new and new rights could attract the contrary, a
Central i de Est din 1989 i pn n prezent, profanation of the concept, a dilution of the
n Revista Romn de Bioetic, vol. 7, nr. 3, interest through the impossibility of assuring an
iulie-septembrie 2009 effective protection 109.
Ciuc, A., Conceptul de demnitate a fiinei
umane n bioetic i drept, n Revista Romn Instead of conclusions
de Bioetic, vol. 7, nr. 2, aprilie-iunie 2009
Ciuc, A., Conceptul de demnitate a fiinei We must look reality in the face. Man
umane n bioetic i biodrept (II), n Revista has become a superman. However, the superman
Romn de Bioetic, vol. 8, nr. 3, iulie- with his superhuman power did not also reach a
septembrie 2010 superhuman wisdom. The greater his power gets,
Cocora, L., Ioan, B., Astrstoae, V., Bioetica the poorer the man becomes. Our knowledge
strilor terminale, Editura Universitii Lucian cannot rest unshaken when finding that, the more
Blaga din Sibiu, 2004 we grow and become supermen, the less human
Corhan, A., Repararea prejudiciului prin we get110.
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1
Aceast lucrare a fost finanat din contractul POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, proiect strategic ID 61968 (2009),
cofinanat din Fondul Social European, prin Programul Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane
2007 2013.
2
O. Ungureanu, Persoana fizic, n O. Ungureanu, C. Jugastru, Drept civil. Persoanele, Editura Hamangiu,
Bucureti, 2007, p. 39.
3
P. M. Cosmovici, Drept civil. Introducere n dreptul civil, ediia a III-a, Editura All Beck, Bucureti, 1996, p.
69.
4
Cu privire la definirea drepturilor nepatrimoniale, a se vedea E. Lupan, I. Sabu-Pop, Tratat de drept civil
romn, vol. I, Partea general, Editura C.H. Beck, Bucureti, 2006, p. 65. Pentru un tablou al raporturilor
nepatrimoniale de drept civil, a se vedea I. Reghini, . Diaconescu, Introducere n dreptul civil, vol.1, Editura
Sfera Juridic, Cluj-Napoca, 2004, p. 111. Evocndu-se mprejurarea c sunt n discuie drepturi intim ataate de
persoana titularului, literatura juridic uzeaz i de sintagma drepturi personale nepatrimoniale (M. N. Costin,
M. C. Costin, Dicionar de drept civil, D-K, vol. II, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti, p. 222).
5
Uneori, demersurile fixrii noiunii drepturile personalitii au plecat de la definirea drepturilor subiective i
delimitarea acestora din urm de libertile civile (pentru detalii, a se vedea P. Kayser, Les droits de la
personnalit. Aspects thoriques et pratiques, n Revue trimestrielle de droit civil, vol. XXIX, 1971, p. 448454;
Gh. Mihai, G. Popescu, Introducere n teoria drepturilor personalitii, Editura Academiei Romne, Bucureti,
1992, p. 5564.
6
L. Pop, L.-M. Harosa, Drept civil. Drepturile reale principale, Editura Universul Juridic, Bucureti, 2006, p.
13.
7
A se vedea, pentru o expunere a opiniilor exprimate cu privire la momentul naterii bioeticii, I. Turcu, Dreptul
sntii. Frontul comun al medicului i al juristului, Editura Wolters Kluver, Bucureti, 2010, p. 368-369.
8
I. Turcu, Dreptul sntii. Frontul comun al medicului i al juristului, p. 369.
9
Ibidem.
10
Loc. cit.
11
S. Bauzon, Dezvoltarea bioeticii n Europa Central i de Est din 1989 i pn n prezent, n Revista Romn
de Bioetic, vol. 7, nr. 3, iulie-septembrie 2009, p. 6-7.
12
Gh. Scripcaru, A. Ciuc, V. Astrstoae, C. Scripcaru, Bioetica, tiinele vieii i drepturile omului, Editura
Polirom, Iai, 1998, p. 19.
13
Ibidem, p. 18.

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14
A. Ciuc, Conceptul de demnitate a fiinei umane n bioetic i drept, n Revista Romn de Bioetic, vol.
7, nr. 2, aprilie-iunie 2009, p. 7.
15
Aceste legi au fost inserate n Codul civil francez, care conine capitol distinct intitulat Respectul corpului
uman (Capitolul II, Titlul I) i Despre examenul caracteristicilor genetice ale unei persoane i despre
identificarea unei persoane pe baza amprentei genetice (Capitolul III, Titlul I). A se vedea Code civil, dition
2011, Dalloz, Paris, 2010.
16
A se vedea S. Bauzon, Dezvoltarea bioeticii n Europa Central i de Est din 1989 i pn n prezent..., p. 7.
17
Cteva exemple: Lituania Comisia de Bioetic, 1995; Cehoslovacia Comisia Central de Bioetic, 1990
(dup separare, Republica Ceh i Slovacia au nfiinat, fiecare, propria comisie); Estonia Comisia de Bioetic,
2001 (pentru aceste date, a se vedea S. Bauzon, op. cit., p. 7-8).
18
Hotrrea a fost publicat n M. Of. nr. 588/2.12.1999.
19
http://www.cmr.ro/content/view/48/43/ (pagin web consultat la 3 decembrie 2010).
20
Textul iniial al Ordonanei a fost publicat n M. Of. nr. 643/30.08.2002 i a fost succesiv modificat.
21
Art. 63 alin. 1 din noul Cod civil romn reproduce art. 16-4 alin. 3 din Codul civil francez.
22
Cu privire la patrimoniul genetic individual, a se vedea G. Cornu, Droit civil. Introduction. Les personnes. Les
biens, 8e dition, Montchrestien, Paris, 1997, p. 180.
23
http://www.mon-genome.com/patrimoine_genetique.php (site consultat la 5 decembrie 2010).
24
Code civil, dition 2011, Dalloz, Paris, 2010, p. 131-132. Autopsia efectuat conform legii nu poate fi
privit ca atingere adus integritii cadavrului sau integritii speciei umane (Tribunalul administrativ Nantes,
hotrrea din 6 ianuarie 2000, n Recueil Dalloz, 2000, Informations rapides, 101; Semaine Juridique, dition
Gnrale, 2000, II, 10396, not S. Prieur).
25
G. Cornu, Droit civil. Introduction. Les personnes. Les biens..., p. 180-181.
26
S-a menionat n doctrin c singurele celule ale corpului uman care nu conin A.D.N. (neavnd nucleu) sunt
globulele roii sau hematiile. Sngele apare ns ca un ansamblu alctuit nu numai din hematii, ci i din alte
elemente care pot fi disociate n condiii de laborator, aa nct este exclus ca cei care cerceteaz locul faptei s
nu gseasc celule purttoare de A.D.N. (a se vedea E. Stancu, Tratat de criminalistic, Editura Actami,
Bucureti, 2001, p. 183).
27
D.T. tefnescu, L. Brbrii, Un mijloc de prob revoluionar amprenta genetic, n Dreptul, nr. 9/2001, p.
99.
28
N. Vduva, Controverse privind valoarea probant a expertizei amprentelor genetice, n Dreptul, nr. 2/2005,
p. 155.
29
D.T. tefnescu, L. Brbrii, op. cit., p. 99.
30
Pentru prezentarea textelor consacrate reproducerii umane asistate n noul Cod civil romn, I. Turcu, Dreptul
sntii. Frontul comun al medicului i al juristului..., p. 430-431.
31
n expresia proiectului Legii reproducerii asistate, partenerul este membrul cuplului care beneficiaz de
operaiunile de reproducere medical asistat i care a contribuit parial sau total ori, n unele cazuri, nu a
contribuit deloc cu material genetic.
32
Sociologul francez Marcel Mauss a caracterizat darurile vieii prin libertate, obligaie, generozitate i interes
propriu. Transplantul de organe este definit printr-un set de obligaii simetrice (a oferi, primi, a cuta,
recompensa), care, afirma Mauss, guverneaz toate darurile vieii, indiferent ct de spontane i expresive par a fi
acestea (a se vedea L. Cocora, B. Ioan, V. Astrstoae, Bioetica strilor terminale, Editura Universitii Lucian
Blaga din Sibiu, 2004, p. 218).
33
A se vedea O. Ungureanu, Reflecii asupra proteciei corpului uman. Prelevarea i transplantul de esuturi i
organe umane, n Acta Universitatis Lucian Blaga, nr. 1/2001, p. 24. Sub imperiul vechii reglementri (Legea
nr. 2/1998 privind prelevarea i transplantul de esuturi i organe umane), funciona aceeai cerin referitoare la
consimmntul donatorului n via.
34
Ibidem.
35
I. Turcu, op. cit., p. 505.
36
Celulele stem au calitatea de a se converti n orice alt celul din organismul uman. Se gsesc n numr mare
n corpul persoanelor nou-nscute; pot fi recoltate din cordonul ombilical i pot fi folosite ulterior, dac acelai
copil se mbolnvete de una dintre bolile care pot fi astfel tratate. Pn la ora actual ar fi vorba de leucemie,
diabet zaharat etc. (I. Turcu, op. cit., p. 504, nota 1).
37
Cu privire la tipurile de cercetare biomedical, a se vedea J. Penneau, Le cas particulier de la recherche
mdicale, n D. Truchet (sous la coord. de) Lindemnisation de lala thrapeutique, Sirey, Paris, 1995, p. 45.

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38
Codul a fost adoptat n Adunarea General Naional a Medicilor din iunie 1997 i a fost revizuit n cadrul
Adunrii Naionale din noiembrie 2007. Poate fi consultat n Legislaie medical, vol. II, Info Medica, 1999, p.
149-172.
39
Consimmntul celui vizat este condiia elementar a cercetrilor biomedicale i n dreptul francez. Pentru o
sintez a condiiilor de testare a noilor tratamente asupra omului, a se vedea G. Cornu, op. cit., p. 175.
40
Art. 95 din Codul deontologic medical romn.
41
http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000441469 (text consultat la 20
decembrie 2010).
42
n acest sens, E. Tanislav, Ocrotirea penal a dreptului la intimitate, n Revista de drept penal, nr. 3/1998, p.
48.
43
Pentru rspunderea civil a medicului, A Corhan, Repararea prejudiciului prin echivalent bnesc, Editura
Lumina Lex, Bucureti, 1999, p. 118-134.
44
Legea nr. 46/2003 privind drepturile pacientului a fost publicat n M. Of. al Romniei nr. 70/3.02.2003.
45
Legea nr. 677/2001 pentru protecia persoanelor, prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal i libera circulaie a
acestor date a fost publicat n M.Of. al Romniei nr. 790/12.12.2001.
46
Legea nr. 506/2004 a fost publicat n M.Of. al Romniei nr. 1101/25.11.2004.
47
Convenia a fost publicat n M.Of. al Romniei nr. 830/21.12.2001.
48
O. Ungureanu, Persoana fizic, n O. Ungureanu, C. Jugastru, Drept civil. Persoanele, p. 44.
49
n acest sens, O. Ungureanu, Dreptul la onoare i dreptul la demnitate, n Acta Universitatis Lucian Blaga,
Seria Iurisprudentia, Supliment, 2005, p. 10.
50
V. Dongoroz .a., Explicaii teoretice ale Codului penal romn, vol. III, Editura Academiei, Bucureti, 1971,
p. 403.
51
A. Ciuc, Conceptul de demnitate a fiinei umane n bioetic i drept..., p. 6-7.
52
Pentru o dezbatere detaliat a acestei propuneri, A. Ciuc, Conceptul de demnitate a fiinei umane n
bioetic i biodrept (II), n Revista Romn de Bioetic, vol. 8, nr. 3, iulie-septembrie 2010, p. 25-28.
53
A se vedea S.M. Helmons, La quatrime gnration des droits de lhomme, n Les droits de lhomme au seuil
du troisime millnaire, melanges en hommage Pierre Lambert, Bruylant, Bruxelles, 2000, p.552, citat dup
A. Ciuc, Conceptul de demnitate a fiinei umane n bioetic i biodrept (II)..., p. 26.
54
A. Ciuc, op. cit., p. 28.
55
Albert Schweitzer, laureat al premiului Nobel pentru pace pentru lucrarea Reverence for Life (1952).
56
This paper was financed through the contract POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, strategic project ID 61968 (2009),
co-financed from the European Social Fund, by means of the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources
Development 2007 2013.
57
O. Ungureanu, Persoana fizic [The natural person], in O. Ungureanu, C. Jugastru, Drept civil.
Persoanele,[Civil law, the Persons] Editura Hamangiu, Bucharest, 2007, p. 39.
58
P. M. Cosmovici, Drept civil. Introducere n dreptul civil [Civil Law, Introduction to Civil Law], 3rd edition,
Editura All Beck, Bucharest, 1996, p. 69.
59
In respect to the definition of the non patrimonial rights, see E. Lupan, I. Sabu-Pop, Tratat de drept civil
roman [Treatise of Romanian Civil Law], vol. I, Partea general [General Part], Editura C.H. Beck, Bucharest,
2006, p. 65. For a complete picture of the civil law non patrimonial relationships, see I. Reghini, . Diaconescu,
Introducere n dreptul civil [Introduction to Civil Law], vol.1, Editura Sfera Juridic, Cluj-Napoca, 2004, p. 111.
Underlying the fact that these are rights closely connected to the person, the literature on the matter also uses the
phrase personal non patrimonial rights (M. N. Costin, M. C. Costin, Dicionar de drept civil [Dictionary of
Civil Law], D-K, vol. II, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucharest, p. 222).
60
Sometimes, the approaches of settling the notion of personality rights have started from the definition of the
subjective rights and their delimitation form the civil liberties (for details P. Kayser, Les droits de la
personnalit. Aspects thoriques et pratiques, in Revue trimestrielle de droit civil, vol. XXIX, 1971, p. 448454;
Gh. Mihai, G. Popescu, Introducere n teoria drepturilor personalitii [Introduction to the theory of personality
rights], Editura Academiei Romne, Bucharest, 1992, p. 5564.
61
L. Pop, L.-M. Harosa, Drept civil. Drepturile reale principale [Civil Law. Principal Real Rights], Editura
Universul Juridic, Bucharest, 2006, p. 13.
62
For a presentation of the oppinions on the moment of bioethics birth, see, I. Turcu, Dreptul sntii. Frontul
comun al medicului i al juristului [Health Law. The common front of the physician and jurist], Editura Wolters
Kluver, Bucharest, 2010, p. 368-369.
63
I. Turcu, Dreptul sntii. Frontul comun al medicului i al juristului [Health Law. The common front of
the physician and jurist], p. 369.

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64
Ibidem.
65
Loc. cit.
66
S. Bauzon, Dezvoltarea bioeticii n Europa Central i de Est din 1989 i pn n present [The development
of bioethics within Central and Eastern Europe from 1989 until nowadays], in Revista Romn de Bioetic, vol.
7, no. 3, July- September 2009, p. 6-7.
67
Gh. Scripcaru, A. Ciuc, V. Astrstoae, C. Scripcaru, Bioetica, tiinele vieii i drepturile omului [Bioethics,
life sciences and human rights], Editura Polirom, Iai, 1998, p. 19.
68
Ibidem, p. 18.
69
A. Ciuc, Conceptul de demnitate a fiinei umane n bioetic i drept [The concept of dignity of the
human being within bioethics and law], in Revista Romn de Bioetic, vol. 7, no. 2, April-June 2009, p. 7.
70
These laws were embodied within the French Civil code, which consists of a distinct chapter, entitled: The
respect for human body. (Chapter II, Title I) and About the examination of the genetic characteristics of a
person and about the identification of a person based on the genetic print (Chapter !!, Title I). See Code civil
[Civil code], dition 2011, Dalloz, Paris, 2010.
71
See S. Bauzon, Dezvoltarea bioeticii n Europa Central i de Est din 1989 i pn n prezent.. [The
development of bioethics within Central and Eastern Europe from 1989 until nowadays...], p. 7.
72
A few examples: Lithuania Commission of Bioethics, 1995; Czechoslovakia Central Commission of
Bioethics, 1990 (after separation, the Czech Republic and Slovakia established separate commissions), Estonia
Commission of Bioethics, 2001 (for these data see S. Bauzon, op. cit., p. 7-8).
73
The decision was published in the Of. M. No. 588/2.12.1999.
74
http://www.cmr.ro/content/view/48/43/ (web page surfed on December 3rd 2010).
75
The initial text of the Ordinance was published in the Of. M. No. 643/30.08.2002 and was subsequently
altered.
76
Article 63 paragraph 1 of the Romanian New Civil code reproduces Article 16-4 paragraph 3 of the French
Civil code.
77
Regarding the individual genetic patrimony, see G. Cornu, Droit civil. Introduction. Les personnes. Les biens,
8e dition, Montchrestien, Paris, 1997, p. 180.
78
http://www.mon-genome.com/patrimoine_genetique.php (site surfed on December, 5th 2010).
79
Code civil, dition 2011, Dalloz, Paris, 2010, p. 131-132. The autopsy performed in accordance with the law
cannot be regarded as violating the integrity of the body or of the human species (Administrative Tribunale
Nantes, decision of January, 6th 2000, in Recueil Dalloz, 2000, Informations rapides, 101; Semaine Juridique,
dition Gnrale, 2000, II, 10396, note S. Prieur).
80
G. Cornu, Droit civil. Introduction. Les personnes. Les biens..., p. 180-181.
81
It was mentioned in the literature on the matter that the sole cells of the human body that do not contain DNA
(not having a nucleus) are the red globules or the red blood cells. The blood, however, appears as an assembly
made not only of red globules, but also of other elements that can be dissociated in laboratory conditions, so that
it cannot happen for those that investigate the crime scene to find no cells that carry DNA. (see E. Stancu, Tratat
de criminalistic [Treatise of criminalistics], Editura Actami, Bucharest, 2001, p. 183).
82
D.T. tefnescu, L. Brbrii, Un mijloc de prob revoluionar amprenta genetic [A revolutionary means of
probation the genetic print], in Dreptul, no. 9/2001, p. 99.
83
N. Vduva, Controverse privind valoarea probant a expertizei amprentelor genetice [Controversies
regarding the probatory value of the genetic print expertise], in Dreptul, no. 2/2005, p. 155.
84
D.T. tefnescu, L. Brbrii, op. cit., p. 99.
85
For the presentation of the texts regarding the assisted human reproduction within the Romanian Civil code, I.
Turcu, Dreptul sntii. Frontul comun al medicului i al juristului... [Health law. The common front of the
physician and jurist], p. 430-431.
86
In the expression of the bill of law on the assisted reproduction, the partner is the member of the couple that
benefits from the medically assisted reproduction and that partly or completely contributed or, in certain cases
din not contribute with genetic material.
87
The French sociologist Marcel Mauss characterized the gifts of life by freedom, duty, generosity and personal
interest. The organ transplantation is defined by a set of symmetric duties (to offer, receive, search, reward), that,
he states, govern of the gifts of life no matter how spontaneous and expressive may seem (see L. Cocora, B.
Ioan, V. Astrstoae, Bioetica strilor terminale [The bioethics of terminal stages], Editura Universitii Lucian
Blaga of Sibiu, 2004, p. 218).
88
See O. Ungureanu, Reflecii asupra proteciei corpului uman. Prelevarea i transplantul de esuturi i organe
umane [Reflections on the protection of the human body. The procurement and transplantation of human tissues

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and organs], in Acta Universitatis Lucian Blaga, no. 1/2001, p. 24. According to the former law (Law no. 2/1998
on the procurement and transplantation of human tissues and organs) the same condition regarding the consent of
the living donor was required.
89
Ibidem.
90
I. Turcu, op. cit., p. 505.
91
The stem cells have the quality of converting in any other cell of the human body. They are numerous in the
body of new born; they can be procured from the umbilical cord and may be further used if the same child gets
sick of one of the diseases that can be treated. So far, these diseases are leukemia, diabetes etc. (I. Turcu, op. cit.,
p. 504, note 1).
92
With regard to the types of biomedical research, see J. Penneau, Le cas particulier de la recherche mdicale,
in D. Truchet (sous la coord. de) Lindemnisation de lala thrapeutique, Sirey, Paris, 1995, p. 45.
93 The Code was adopted by the General Assembly of the Physicians from June 1997 and it was revised by the

National Assembly in November 2007. Can be found in Medical Legislation, vol. II, Info Medica, 1999, p. 149-
172.
94
The consent of the person represents the elementary condition of the biomedical researches also within the
French law. For a synthesis of the testing conditions of the new treatments on men, see G. Cornu, op. cit., p. 175.
95
Article 95 of the Romanian deontological code.
96
http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000441469 (text consulted on
December, 20th 2010).
97 In this respect, E., Tanislav Criminal Protection of the right to privacy in Revista de drept penal, no. 3/1998

O. Ungureanu, Ocrotirea penala a dreptului la intimitate in Revista de drept penal, no. 3/1998, p. 48.
98
For the civil responsibility of the physician see, A Corhan, Repararea prejudiciului prin echivalent bnesc
[Prejudice repair by pecuniary equivalent], Editura Lumina Lex, Bucharest, 1999, p. 118-134.
99
Law No. 46/2003 on the patients rights was published in the Of. M. of Romania No. 70/3.02.2003.
100
Law No. 677/2001 on the protection of personal data, the processing of personal data and the free circulation
of these data was published in the Of. M. of Romania No. 790/12.12.2001.
101
Law No. 506/2004 was published in the Of. M. of Romania No. 1101/25.11.2004.
102
The convention was published in the Of. M. of Romania No. 830/21.12.2001.
103
O. Ungureanu, Persoana fizic [The natural person], in O. Ungureanu, C. Jugastru, Drept civil.
Persoanele[Civil law. The persons], p. 44.
104
In this respect, O. Ungureanu, Dreptul la onoare i dreptul la demnitate [The right to honor and the right to
dignity], in Acta Universitatis Lucian Blaga, Seria Iurisprudentia, p. 10.
105
V. Dongoroz .a., Explicaii teoretice ale Codului penal roman [Theoretical explanations of the Romanian
Criminal code] , vol. III, Editura Academiei, Bucharest, 1971, p. 403.
106
A. Ciuc, Conceptul de demnitate a fiinei umane n bioetic i drept[The concept of dignity of the
human being within bioethics and law], p. 6-7.
107
For a detailed debate of this proposal, A. Ciuc, Conceptul de demnitate a fiinei umane n bioetic i
biodrept (II) [The concept of dignity of the human being within bioethics and biolaw II], in Revista Romn de
Bioetic, vol. 8, no. 3, July-September 2010, p. 25-28.
108
See S.M. Helmons, La quatrime gnration des droits de lhomme, n Les droits de lhomme au seuil du
troisime millnaire, melanges en hommage Pierre Lambert, Bruylant, Bruxelles, 2000, p.552, quoted after A.
Ciuc, Conceptul de demnitate a fiinei umane n bioetic i biodrept (II)[The concept of dignity of the
human being within bioethics and biolaw II...], p. 26.
109
A. Ciuc, op. cit., p. 28.
110
Albert Schweitzer, laureate of the Nobel prize for peace for the paper Reverence for Life (1952).

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