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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr.

2/2010



Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Economy Series, Issue 2/2010


91

TEORIA CONSUMATORULUI


Prof. univ. dr. Ilie BBI
Universitatea de Vest Timioara



Rezumat
In viziunea agentului economic consumatorul
prezinta un tip de comportament raional, ce are ca
scop maximizarea satisfaciei obinut prin utilizarea
de mrfuri. Pentru a determina acest comportament
raional, pornim de la premisa c fiecare consumator
are informaii exacte i complete privind: structura de
mrfuri existente pe pia i capacitatea acestora de a
raspunde anumitor dorinte ale acestuia, nivelul
preului de pia i mrimea venitului sau care poate
fi alocat ntr-o perioad dat, pentru a achiziiona
diferite produse. n scopul de a satisface nevoile sale,
consumatorul actioneza raional alegand un co de
bunuri care sa furnizeze cea mai mare satisfacie in
conditiile unui venit realizat si a pretului ce trebuie
achitat pentru un bun economic.


Cuvinte cheie: consum,utilitate,utilitate marginala


1. Definirea Consumatorilor

Consumatorul este un agent
economic, cruia i este caracteristic
achiziionarea i consumul de bunuri, pornind
de la un venit disponibil dat. El ntreine
relaii cu ali ageni economici prin
intermediul unor diverse operaiuni. Astfel,
consumatorul este legat de ntreprinderi prin
munca pe care o presteaz i remuneraiile ce
decurg din aceasta, dar i prin intermediul
cumprrii de produse i al preurilor pe care
el accept s le plteasc n schimbul
acestora.
Dispunnd de un venit limitat,
consumatorul este constrns s decid n
privina utilizrii ct mai raionale a acestuia,
definind judicios structura cheltuielilor sale.
Consumatorul poate fi o persoan
fizic sau o comunitate (de exemplu, o
familie), caz n care avem n vedere veniturile
CONSUMER THEORY


Prof. PhD Ilie BBI
West University of Timisoara


Abstract
The behaviour of the economic agent customer is
a rational type of behaviour in order to maximize
the satisfaction achieved through the use of
commodities.
In order to determine a rational behaviour,
we start from the premise that every costumer has
complete and accurate information on: the
structure of commodities existing on the market
and their ability to comply with certain wishes,
market prices levels and the size of income that
shall be spent in a given period in order to
purchase various commodities.
In order to fulfil its needs, the rational
costumer has to chose from a basket of
commodities the ones that: provide the greatest
satisfaction under the circumstances of income and
price restrictions.

Keywords: consumption, utility, marginal utility


1. Consumer Definition

The consumer is a trader, who is
characteristic acquisition and consumption
of goods, from a given disposable income.
He maintains relationships with other
operators through various operations.
Thus, the consumer is related businesses
that provide labor and remuneration
therefrom, but also through the purchase of
products and prices that he agrees to pay in
exchange.
With a limited income, the consumer is
constrained decide on its rational use as
defining its judicious expenditure pattern.

The consumer can be an individual or
a community (eg a family), in which case
we consider the overall revenue and
expenditure. To simplify the analysis

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i cheltuielile globale. Pentru a simplifica
analiza, n cele ce urmeaz vom raiona avnd
n vedere ntotdeauna o persoan fizic.
Consumatorul i utilizeaz venitul
pentru a cumpra unele bunuri i a obine prin
consumul acestora o anumit satisfacie.
Problema care se ridic privete ns alegerea
cantitilor ce se cumpr din diferitele
bunuri ce se ofer pe pia, n funcie de
gusturi, preferine i bugetul disponibil.
Dintre nevoile pe care le poate avea
un consumator, analiza microeconomic este
interesat doar de nevoile economice, adic
de nevoile care pot fi satisfcute printr-o
operaiune economic. Astfel, a cltori n
timp nu este o nevoie economic, deoarece o
asemenea nevoie nu poate fi satisfcut prin
nici o operaiune economic la ora actual.
Dimpotriv, a bea un suc de mere este o
nevoie economic, deoarece aceast nevoie
poate fi oricnd satisfcut prin cumprarea
de pe pia i consumul acestui suc.
Nevoile economice pot fi satisfcute
prin consumul unor bunuri economice.
Aceste bunuri pot fi definite n dou
modaliti diferite:
1) Un bun este economic, dac poate
fi obiectul unei tranzacii, adic a unei
operaiuni de vnzare-cumprare. Conform
acestei definiii, bunurile economice sunt
mrfuri. Exist ns i bunuri libere,
disponibile n cantiti nelimitate i
achiziionabile la un pre nul, dei satisfacia
pe care consumul lor o poate procura
consumatorului nu este de loc neglijabil (de
exemplu: apa mrii, aerul, nisipul de pe plaj
etc.)
2) Bunurile economice sunt acele
bunuri, care pot face obiectul unei producii
de serie, adic bunurile care pot fi reproduse
oricnd. Dac reinem aceast definiie,
excludem ansamblul bunurilor
nereproductibile, cum ar fi, de exemplu,
operele de art, vinurile vechi, dei satisfacia
pe care o procur posesorilor lor este deosebit
de mare.


below we always argue with regard to an
individual.

Consumers use their income to buy
some supplies and get them by eating a
certain satisfaction. The question concerns
choice but to buy quantities of various
goods that are offered on the market,
depending on tastes, preferences and
budget available.

Among the needs they may have a
consumer is interested only
microeconomic analysis of economic
needs, ie needs can be met by an economic
transaction. Thus, travel time is an
economic need, such as the need may be
satisfied by any economic transaction
today. Conversely, drinking aplle juice is
an economic need, because this need can
always be satisfied by market purchase and
consumption of this juice.

The economic needs can be met by the
consumption of economic goods. These
assets can be defined in two different
ways: 1) A good is economic, it can be a
settlement, ie a sale transaction. Under this
definition, economic goods are goods.
There are also free goods available in
unlimited quantities and purchased at a
price zero, although their consumption
satisfaction a consumer can buy is not at
all negligible (eg sea water, air, beach
sand, etc.).
2) Economic goods are those goods that
may be subject to mass production, ie
those that can be reproduced at any time. If
you remember the definition exclude all
nereproductibile goods, such as, for
example, art works, old wines, although
satisfaction that their proxy holders are
particularly high.

2. Consumer Area

A consumer who must decide what
quantities of each item you consume, you

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2. Suprafaa de consum

Un consumator care trebuie s decid
ce cantiti va consuma din fiecare bun,
trebuie s aleag din ansamblul opiunilor
posibile un anumit co de consum.
Presupunnd c exist pe pia n bunuri de
consum, diferitele couri de consum posibile
vor avea forma :

( )
i
n
i i i
x x x B ,..., ,
2 1
=
unde ( ) n j x
i
j
...., , 2 , 1 = reprezint cantitatea
din bunul j coninut n coul de consum i.
Numrul courilor de consum posibile
este infinit. Ansamblul acestor couri
formeaz suprafaa de consum. Teoria
microeconomic pornete de la ipoteza c
acest ansamblu este nelimitat, cuprinznd
toate courile compuse din cantiti pozitive
sau nule ale celor n bunuri de pe pia
(cantitile negative nu au sens n cadrul
acestei analize). Deoarece ns piaa nu poate
oferi cantiti nelimitate de bunuri, teoretic
trebuie s avem n vedere o limit superioar
a disponibilitilor de bunuri de consum. De
asemenea, este logic s avem n vedere i un
consum minimal, care poate asigura minimul
vital al consumatorului.
A
B
20
25
y
min
= 7
5
2 x
min
= 5 X
Y
y
max
x
max
Fig. 1.1. - Suprafaa de consum

Pentru a simplifica analiza, este util s
reducem diversitatea ansamblului de couri
disponibile i s avem n vedere o economie
n care piaa ofer doar dou bunuri (x i y).
n acest caz, suprafaa de consum se poate
reprezenta ca n Figura 1.1.
must choose from all possible choices a
consumer cart. Assuming that the market is
not consumer goods, different consumption
baskets as possible will be:
( )
i
n
i i i
x x x B ,..., ,
2 1
=

where ( ) n j x
i
j
...., , 2 , 1 = j is the amount of
property contained in the consumer cart i.

Possible number of consumer cart is
infinite. Together, these form the area of
consumer cart.
Microeconomic theory assumes that
this set is infinite, consisting of cart
containing all positive or zero quantity of
the goods in the market (Negative
quantities do not make sense in this
analysis). But because the market can not
provide unlimited quantities of goods,
theoretically we should have an upper limit
to the availability of consumer goods. It is
also logical to consider a minimum
consumption, which can provide vital
minimum consumer.

A
B
20
25
y
min
= 7
5
2 x
min
= 5 X
Y
y
max
x
max
Fig. 1.1. - Suprafaa de consum


To simplify the analysis, it is useful
to reduce the overall diversity of carts
available and to consider the market
economy offers only two goods (X and Y).
In this case, the area consumption can be
as shown in Figure 1.1.
In the case of two goods, consumption
baskets all face is the same as X-Y and

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n cazul a dou bunuri, ansamblul
courilor de consum se confund cu cadranul
x-y, iar suprafaa de consum este zona
haurat. Limita disponibilului din cele dou
bunuri este x
max
, respectiv y
max
, iar minimul
vital este x
min
, respectiv y
min
. Coul A(20x,
25y) aparine suprafeei de consum, dar coul
B(5x, 5y) nu.

3. Relaia de preferin i de indiferen
a consumatorului

Pentru a determina cantitile pe care
le va cumpra, consumatorul trebuie s
ierarhizeze toate courile din suprafaa de
consum n funcie de preferinele sale. Pentru
a traduce formal acest clasament, se definete
relaia de preferin i de indiferen, astfel:
Relaia de preferin strict permite
s se compare dou couri de bunuri i s se
determine coul preferat fa de cellalt: A >
B, adic coul A este strict preferat fa de
coul B.
Relaia de indiferen stabilete c
dou couri de consum aduc exact aceeai
satisfacie consumatorului, deci acesta este
indiferent fa de cele dou couri: A B,
adic coul A este indiferent fa de coul
B.
Relaia de preferin combin cele
dou relaii de mai sus: AB, adic coul A
este preferat sau indiferent fa de coul B
sau coul A este cel puin la fel de preferat
ca i coul B. Aceast relaie permite
consumatorului s clasifice ansamblul
courilor posibile.
Fiecare agent posed o structur a
preferinelor specific numai lui, dar relaia
de preferin trebuie s verifice cteva ipoteze
(axiome) pentru ca un consumator s fie
raional.
a) Axioma de totalitate: consumatorul
trebuie s fie capabil s compare un co cu
toate courile posibile din suprafaa de
consum, adic nu exist couri neclasificabile
n suprafaa de consum. Ca urmare,
consumatorul poate afirma c este verificat
ntotdeauna una din urmtoarele situaii: A
consumption area is shaded area. Limited
availabilities of the two goods is X
max
respectively Y
max
and the minimum is vital
x
min
, y
min
respectively. Cart A (20x, 25y)
belongs to the consumer area, but Mark B
(5X, 5Y) no.


3. Relationship of consumer preference
and indifference

To determine the quantities they buy,
consumers should prioritize all of the area
of consumer baskets based on their
preferences. To translate this formal
classification, defines the relationship of
preference and indifference, as follows:
strict preference relation allows to
compare two cart of goods and to
determine preferred to other cart: A> B, A
cart that is strictly preferred to Mark B
indifference relationship states that
two consumer carts without the exact same
consumer satisfaction, so he is indifferent
to the two spots: A = B, or "cart A is
indifferent to B .
Relationship preferably combine the
two above relations: A B, which means
"cart A is preferred or indifferent to cart
B" or "cart A is at least as preferred as cart
B". This relationship allows consumers to
rank all possible carts.

Each agent has a specific structure but
his preferences, but preferably relationship
must verify some assumptions (axioms) to
the consumer is rational.
a) the axiom of all: the consumer must be
able to compare a basket of all possible
spots in the area of consumption, ie no
surface not covered consumer cart. As a
result, consumers may say that is always
checked one of the following situations: A
B or B A.
b) axiom of reflexivity: each cart is
indifferent to himself, so we can write: A
A (this axiom has only a mathematical
interest).

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B sau B A.
b) Axioma de reflexivitate: fiecare co
este indiferent fa de el nsui, deci se poate
scrie: A A (aceast axiom are doar un
interes matematic).
c) Axioma de tranzitivitate: dac A B
i B C, atunci i A C.
Dac unui consumator i se propun
dou couri de bunuri dintre toate cele
posibile, l va alege pe cel care va corespunde
cel mai bine preferinelor sale. Atunci cnd se
consum un bun, se obine un beneficiu sau o
satisfacie. Economitii numesc acest
beneficiu sau aceast satisfacie utilitate i
consider c atunci cnd consumatorul alege
ntre diverse bunuri, el ncearc s obin cea
mai mare utilitate n raport cu venitul su.

4. Teoria utilitii

Trebuie s deosebim utilitatea total
de cea marginal. Utilitatea total (U) a unui
bun x msoar satisfacia global pe care o
resimte consumatorul n urma consumrii
ntregii cantiti achiziionate din bunul dat.
Nivelul utilitii totale depinde de cantitatea
consumat din bunul x, deci U = U(x).
Utilitatea marginal a bunului x,
(MU
x
) reprezint suplimentul de utilitate
provocat prin consumul unei uniti
adiionale din acest bun (ceteris paribus). Cu
alte cuvinte, utilitatea marginal msoar
variaia utilitii totale (U) determinat de
consumarea unei uniti adiionale din bunul
dat (dac bunul x este imperfect divizibil),
respectiv variaia utilitii totale n raport cu o
variaie infinit de mic (x 0) a cantitii
consumate (dac bunul este perfect divizibil).
Formal, acest lucru se poate scrie astfel:
( ) [ ]
x
y x U y x x U
x
y x U
MU
X

+
=

=
) , ( , ) , (

respectiv:
( )
( ) x U
dx
dU
x
y x U
MU
x
X
'
0
,
lim = =

=

,
adic prima derivat a funciei de utilitate.
Cu ajutorul utilitii marginale putem
determina cum evolueaz nivelul de

c) The axiom of transitivity: if A B and B
C, then A C.

If a consumer is proposing two cart of
goods of all possible, we will choose one
that best fits his preferences. When a good
is consumed, to obtain a benefit or
satisfaction. Economists call this benefit or
that benefit satisfaction and believes that
when consumers choose between different
goods, he seeks the largest utility in
relation to its income.

4. Utility theory

Must distinguish the total marginal
utility. Total utility (U) has a good X
measured overall satisfaction that a
consumer feels after consuming the entire
amount of the asset acquired since. Total
utility level depends on the quantity
consumed of good x, so U = U (x).
Marginal utility of good x (MU
X
) is caused
by eating supplement utility of additional
units of this good (ceteris paribus). In
other words, the marginal utility measured
changes in total utility (U) due to
consumption of additional units of the
given object (if object x is imperfectly
divisible) and total utility changes
compared with an infinitely small change
(Dx 0) quantity consumed (if the
property is perfectly divisible). Formally,
this can be written as:

( ) [ ]
x
y x U y x x U
x
y x U
MU
X

+
=

=
) , ( , ) , (

respectively:
( )
( ) x U
dx
dU
x
y x U
MU
x
X
'
0
,
lim = =

=


ie the first derivative of utility function.

Using marginal utility can determine
how evolving consumer satisfaction when
consuming an increasing amount of good
x. Depend on the need for consumer

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satisfacie al consumatorului cnd consum o
cantitate cresctoare din bunul x. Satisfacia
depinde de intensitatea nevoii
consumatorului: plcerea este proporional
cu lipsa resimit nainte de consumare.
Deoarece intensitatea unei nevoi descrete pe
msur ce cantitatea consumat sporete,
rezult c exist un principiu, o lege a
utilitii marginale descresctoare, conform
creia dac intensitatea nevoii scade odat cu
cantitatea consumat, satisfacia obinut
pentru fiecare unitate suplimentar consumat
este tot mai puin important dect pentru
unitatea consumat anterior.

U
max
5
1 2 3 4 5 0
2
4
6
8
10
U(x)
MU
X
U(x)
X 1 2 3 4 5 0 X
MU
X
4
3
2
1
MU
X
Fig. 1.10. - Evoluia U
X
i MU
X
n raport cu modificarea consumului bunului X

Aceast lege a fost formulat n 1854
de Gossen, care a artat c primul pahar de
ap consumat de un cltor din deert i
procur acestuia o utilitate imens, al doilea
pahar i va aduce un spor de utilitate mai mic
.a.m.d.
Ca urmare, dei mrind cantitatea
consumat utilitatea total continu s
creasc (chiar dac tot mai lent), utilitatea
marginal descrete continuu (Fig. 1.10.).
Cnd utilitatea marginal devine nul,
utilitatea total va fi maxim, deoarece
continund s mrim consumul, utilitatea
total nu mai crete, dimpotriv, poate
descrete, deoarece dincolo de punctul de
saturaie al consumatorului utilitatea
marginal a bunului x devine negativ, n
sensul c satisfacia se transform n
insatisfacie (Fig. 1.11.)
Un consumator raional i sisteaz
consumul dintr-un bun n momentul n care a
satisfaction: the pleasure felt is
proportional to the lack of prior to
consumption. Since the intensity of needs
decrease as quantity consumed increases,
that is a principle a law of decreasing
marginal utility, that if the intensity
decreases with the amount consumed need
satisfaction obtained for each additional
unit consumed is less important than unit
consumed above.


U
max
5
1 2 3 4 5 0
2
4
6
8
10
U(x)
MU
X
U(x)
X 1 2 3 4 5 0 X
MU
X
4
3
2
1
MU
X
Fig. 1.10. - Evoluia U
X
i MU
X
n raport cu modificarea consumului bunului X


This law was formulated in 1854 by
Gossen, which showed that first glass of
water consumed by a passenger in his
desert his attorney a huge utility, the
second cup will bring lower utility gain
etc.
As a result, although increasing the
total amount consumed usefulness
continues to grow (albeit more slowly), the
marginal utility decreases continuously
(Fig. 1.10.).

When marginal utility is zero, total
utility will be maximum, because
continuing to expand consumption, not
increase total utility, by contrast, may
decrease because of saturation point
beyond the consumer's marginal utility of
good x becomes negative, meaning that
satisfaction is turns into dissatisfaction
(Fig. 1.11.)
A rational consumer cease their
consumption of a good when it has reached

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atins limita sa de saturaie, adic atunci cnd
ultima unitate consumat nu i-a mai adus nici
un spor de utilitate. Cu alte cuvinte, cnd
utilitatea marginal a unui bun devine egal cu
zero, utilitatea total a consumatorului este
maxim.
4
4
1
1
U(X)
max
U(X)
U(X)
MU
X
MU
X
= 0
MU
X
Fig. 1.11. - Maximizarea utilitii
totale

Deoarece utilitatea nu poate fi
msurat direct, o msurare indirect se poate
realiza, de exemplu, cu ajutorul dispoziiei
consumatorului de a plti pentru un anumit
bun. Astfel, dac Ion prefer ngheata de
vanilie celei de ciocolat, n mod cert este
dispus s plteasc mai mult pentru un cornet
cu vanilie dect pentru unul cu ciocolat.
Bineneles, preul pe care Ion este
dispus s-l plteasc pentru o ngheat de
vanilie nu este identic cu preul la care va
cumpra cornetul. Acesta din urm depinde
nu de preferinele sale, ci de condiiile de
pia.
Dispoziia de a plti este un instrument
bun pentru msurarea utilitii i ne permite
s tim cum i aloc un individ bugetul de-a
its saturation limit, ie when the last unit
consumed takes not bring any utility gain.
In other words, the marginal utility of an
object is zero, total consumer utility is
maximum.
4
4
1
1
U(X)
max
U(X)
U(X)
MU
X
MU
X
= 0
MU
X
Fig. 1.11. - Maximizarea utilitii
totale

Since utility can not be measured
directly, an indirect measurement can be
achieved, for example, with provision for
the consumer to pay a certain good. Thus,
if John prefers the chocolate and vanilla
ice cream, of course is willing to pay more
for a cornet with vanilla than chocolate
one.
Of course, the price that John is
willing to pay for not vanilla ice cream is
the same price will buy cornet. The latter
depends not on its preferences, but market
conditions.

Available to pay is a good tool for
measuring the utility and allows us to
know how an individual allocates its
budget across its budgetary restraint. If

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lungul restriciei sale bugetare. Dac
msurm utilitatea prin dispoziia de a plti,
este posibil s construim un grafic ca n
figura 1.12.
S urmrim consumul de ciocolat al
unui individ de-a lungul unei zile. Cum
evolueaz disponibilitatea marginal a
consumatorului de a plti pentru cele 5
batoane de ciocolat? Deoarece satisfacia lui
scade pe msur ce crete cantitatea
consumat anterior, el va fi dispus s
plteasc tot mai puin pentru un baton
suplimentar, aa cum se poate vedea n figura
1.12.
Deci, pe msur ce cantitatea
consumat crete, satisfacia crete, dar cu o
rat descresctoare, pn cnd creterea
nceteaz complet (al 5 lea baton are
utilitatea marginal nul).
Pentru primul baton care i aduce cel
mai ridicat nivel de utilitate marginal,
consumatorul este dispus s plteasc 80
u.m., pentru al doilea 60 u.m., pentru al
treilea 40 u.m., pentru al patrulea 20 u.m., i
n fine, pentru al cincilea, care nu i mai
aduce nici un spor de utilitate, nu este dispus
s mai plteasc nimic.
Din exemplul de mai sus rezult c evoluia
dispoziiei marginale a consumatorului de a
plti pentru un bun oarecare X, reflect
evoluia utilitii marginale a bunului X i, n
acelai timp, i evoluia cererii bunului
respectiv (DD
x
). Deoarece utilitatea
marginal este descresctoare, descrete i
dispoziia de a plti a consumatorului, deci
curba cererii sale are panta descresctoare
(negativ). Pn cnd utilitatea marginal
(MU
x
) rmne pozitiv, utilitatea total
crete; cnd MU
x
devine nul, utilitatea total
este maxim
you measure by the utility to pay, it is
possible to build a graph as in Figure 1.12.
To track an individual's
consumption of chocolate throughout the
day.
How changing availability marginal
consumer to pay for the five bars of
chocolate? Since his satisfaction decreases
as you increase the amount previously
consumed, it will be increasingly less
willing to pay for an extra bar, as can be
seen in Figure 1.12.
So, as the quantity consumed
increases, satisfaction increases, but with a
decreasing rate until growth ceases
completely (the 5 - th bar has zero
marginal utility).

For the first bar that brings the
highest level of marginal utility, consumer
is willing to pay 80 mu to 60 mu second
for the third 40 um to 20 um, fourth, and
finally for the fifth, which May it bring
any increase utility is not willing to pay
anything in May. The above example
shows that the evolution of marginal
provision for a consumer to pay some good
X, reflecting the evolution of marginal
utility of good X, while and demand trends
that property (DDx). Since marginal utility
is decreasing, and decreases the consumer
to pay, so his demand curve is downward
slope (negative). Until the marginal utility
(MUX) remains positive, total utility
increases, the MUX is zero, total utility is
maximum.

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99
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 2 3 5 4
Curba dispoziiei
marginale de a plti a
consumatorului
p (u.m.)
Q/zi
Fig. 1.12. - Curba dispoziiei
marginale de a plti a consumatorului
D
D


n concluzie, un consumator i
maximizeaz utilitatea total prin ajustarea
cantitii achiziionate din bunul X, pn
cnd utilitatea marginal a ultimei uniti
achiziionate devine egal cu zero.
O asemenea concluzie este ns
valabil doar n cazul ipotezei de abunden,
cnd nimic nu limiteaz posibilitile de
consum. Consumatorul nu suport nici un
cost, n sensul c nu trebuie s renune la
nimic pentru a-i procura o unitate
suplimentar din bunul X.
n ipoteza raritii ns, individul
trebuie s arbitreze (aleag) ntre diferitele
alternative posibile de consum, atunci cnd
i maximizeaz utilitatea total (U).
Deoarece bunurile se schimb contra
bani, problema consumatorului este de a
repartiza un buget dat ntre diferitele bunuri
de achiziionat. Cum poate el s-i ajusteze
cheltuielile n aa fel nct s-i maximizeze
utilitatea? n acest scop, el trebuie s compare
utilitatea marginal a achiziionrii diferitelor
bunuri i s-i cheltuiasc fiecare unitate
monetar pentru acele bunuri, a cror utilitate
marginal este cea mai mare.
S lum cazul unui consumator care
trebuie s aleag ntre bunurile X i Y, care
au preurile p
x
i p
y
. El i va maximiza
utilitatea total atunci, cnd i va aloca
venitul n aa fel ntre cele dou bunuri, nct
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 2 3 5 4
Curba dispoziiei
marginale de a plti a
consumatorului
p (u.m.)
Q/zi
Fig. 1.12. - Curba dispoziiei
marginale de a plti a consumatorului
D
D







In conclusion, a consumer maximizing
his total utility by adjusting the quantity of
good X purchased until the last unit
purchased marginal utility becomes zero.
A conclusion is however also valid for the
assumption of abundance, if nothing
restricts consumption . The consumer does
not bear any cost, meaning that should not
stop at nothing to procure an additional
unit of good X. But the rarity assumption,
the individual must arbitrate (choose)
between the various possible alternatives
to drinking when his maximizes total
utility (U). As goods are exchanged for
money, consumer problem is to allocate a
given budget between different goods
purchased. How can he adjust its
expenditure so as to maximize its
usefulness? To this end, he must compare
the marginal utility of purchasing various
goods and to spend each monetary unit for
those goods, whose marginal utility is
highest.
Take the case of a consumer who must
choose between goods X and Y, which
have prices p
x
and p
y
. It will maximize the

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utilitatea suplimentar obinut prin consumul
acelei cantiti de X pentru care s-a pltit o
unitate monetar suplimentar devine egal
cu utilitatea suplimentar obinut prin
consumul acelei cantiti de Y pentru care s-a
pltit aceeai unitate monetar adiional. n
aceast situaie, spunem c utilitatea
marginal pe o unitate monetar
corespunztoare bunului X este egal cu
utilitatea marginal pe o unitate monetar
corespunztoare bunului Y. n acest caz,
consumatorul este n situaie de echilibru,
deoarece nu-i mai poate spori utilitatea total
renunnd la cumprarea unui bun n favoarea
celuilalt bun.
Deci, condiia de echilibru a
consumatorului, respectiv de utilitate total
maxim este:
Y
Y
X
X
p
MU
p
MU
=

Ce se ntmpl dac preul bunului X
scade, ceteris paribus? n acest caz, avem:
Y
Y
X
X
p
MU
p
MU
>

ceea ce nseamn c individul i va spori
utilitatea consumnd mai mult X i mai puin
Y. Dar dac se consum mai mult X, scade
MU
x
, deci scade i utilitatea marginal pe
unitatea monetar, pn cnd egalitatea
anterioar va fi restabilit.
n concluzie, reducerea preului unui
bun va determina, ceteris paribus, o cretere
a cererii pentru bunul respectiv, deci curba
cererii este descresctoare de la stnga spre
dreapta.
De exemplu, dac MU
x
= 20, MU
y
=
25, p
x
= 4 i p
y
= 5, atunci:

5
5
25
4
20
5 = = = = =
y
y
x
x
p
MU
p
MU


deci, consumatorul este n echilibru, adic i-
a maximizat utilitatea total.
Dac p
x
scade cu 2 u.m. i consumul
total utility when, will allocate income
between two goods so that additional
utility obtained by consuming quantities of
X has been paid a further monetary unit is
equal to the additional utility obtained
from consumption of that quantity Y that
additional money was paid the same unit.
In this situation, we say that the marginal
utility per unit money good X is equal to
the marginal utility per unit money good
Y. In this case, the consumer is in a state
of equilibrium, because no longer can
increase total utility by giving up the
purchase of property for other property.
So the consumer equilibrium condition,
ie maximum total utility is:
Y
Y
X
X
p
MU
p
MU
=
What if the asset price X decreases, ceteris
paribus? In this case, we have:

Y
Y
X
X
p
MU
p
MU
>

which means that the individual will
enhance the usefulness consume more X
and less Y. But if you consume more X ,
MU
X
decreases, so decreases and the
marginal utility per unit money until
earlier equality will be restored.
Finally, a good price reduction would
lead, ceteris paribus, a demand for the
asset, so demand is decreasing curve from
left to right.

For exemple, if MU
x
= 20, MU
y
=
25, p
x
= 4 i p
y
= 5, then :

5
5
25
4
20
5 = = = = =
y
y
x
x
p
MU
p
MU

so, the consumer is in equilibrium, ie has
maximized total utility.
If px is reduced by 2 u.m. and X
consumption changes, the monetary unit
we have 20 / 2 = 10 units of MU
x
, MU
y
to
only 5 units.

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de X nu se schimb, pe unitate monetar
avem 20/2 = 10 uniti de MU
x
, fa de numai
5 uniti MU
y
.

5
1 1
10 = > =
leu
MU
leu
MU
y
x


n aceste condiii, cheltuind o u.m.
adiional pentru bunul X, consumatorul i
mrete utilitatea cu 10, dar dac aceeai
unitate monetar o cheltuiete pentru bunul
Y, utilitatea sa crete doar cu 5. Ca urmare,
un consumator raional va cumpra bunul X
i nu bunul Y.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. ALBERT, M.,- Capitalism contra
capitalism, Ed. Humanitas, Bucureti,1993;
2. BECKER, G.S.,- Comportamentul
uman. O abordare economic, Ed. ALL,
Bucureti, 1996;
3. BRAN, P. -Economica valorii, Ed.
Economic, Bucureti, 2005;
4. BBI I., SILASI G., DU A.
Macroeconomia Editura Orizonturi
Universitare, Timioara, 2007;
5. CIUCUR D., GAVRIL ILIE,
POPESCU CONSTANTIN, Economie
(manual universitar), ASE, Editura
Economic, Bucureti, 2005;
6. DIDIER, M., - Economie. Regulile
jocului, Ed. Humanitas, Bucureti, 1994;
7. DOBROT, N. (coordonator) -
Economie politic, Ed. Economic,
Bucureti, 1997;
8. GALBRAITH, J. K., - tiina
economic i interesul public, Ed. Politic,
Bucureti, 1982;
9. HEYNE, P., - Modul economic de
gndire, Ed. Didactic i Pedagogic,
Bucureti, 1991;
10. SAMUELSON P., NORDHAUS, W.,
- Economie, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 2000;
5
1 1
10 = > =
leu
MU
leu
MU
y
x


In these circumstances, additional
spending mu for good x increases its
usefulness to the consumer 10, but if one
spends the same currency unit for good y,
its usefulness increases only by 5.
Therefore, a rational consumer will not
buy good x and good y.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. ALBERT, M.,- Capitalism versus
Capitalism , Ed. Humanitas,
Bucureti,1993;
2. BECKER, G.S.,- Human
behavior. An economic approach, Ed.
ALL, Bucureti, 1996;
3. BRAN, P. -Economica valorii,
Ed. Economic, Bucureti, 2005;
4. BBI I., SILASI G., DU A.
Macroeconomia Editura Orizonturi
Universitare, Timioara, 2007;
5. CIUCUR D., GAVRIL ILIE,
POPESCU CONSTANTIN, Economie
(manual universitar), ASE, Editura
Economic, Bucureti, 2005;
6. DIDIER, M., - Economy. Game
Rules , Ed. Humanitas, Bucureti, 1994;
7. DOBROT, N. (coordonator) -
Economie politic, Ed. Economic,
Bucureti, 1997;
8. GALBRAITH, J. K., - Economics
and public interest, Ed. Politic,
Bucureti, 1982;
9. HEYNE, P., - Economic way of
thinking , Ed. Didactic i Pedagogic,
Bucureti, 1991;
10. SAMUELSON P., NORDHAUS,
W., - Economy, Ed. Teora, Bucureti,
2000;

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Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Economy Series, Issue 2/2010


102
11. SILAI G., SRGHI N.,LOBON O.
Microeconomia -n fie- - Editura Mirton,
Timioara,2007;
12. ASE, Catedra de Economie i Politici
Economice Economie - -Ediia a aptea
Editura Economic, Bucureti, 2005;

11. SILAI G., SRGHI N.,LOBON
O. Microeconomia -n fie- - Editura
Mirton, Timioara,2007;
12. ASE, Catedra de Economie i
Politici Economice Economie - -Ediia
a aptea Editura Economic, Bucureti,
2005;


Cantitate (baton
ciocolata) X
Utilitate marginal
(utili) MU
x

Utilitatea total
(utili) U
x

Dispoziia de a plti a
consumatorului
0 - 0 100
1 20 20 80
2 15 35 60
3 10 45 40
4 5 50 20
5 0 50 0