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PLURAL

US
alumnus
alveolus
bacillus
bronchus
calcaneus
calculus
carpus
coccus
embolus
esophagus
focus
fungus
humerus
locus
malleus
malleolus
microvillus
nucleus
oculus
phalangus
radius
ramus
stimulus
streptococcus
sulcus
syllabus
talus
tarsus
thrombus
uterus
vagus
villus

US
corpus
crus
genus
latus
pectus
viscus

I
alumni
alveoli
bacilli
bronchi
calcanei
calculi
carpi
cocci
emboli
esophagi
foci
fungi
humeri
loci
mallei
malleoli
microvilli
nuclei
oculi
phalangi
radii
rami
stimuli
streptococci
sulci
syllabi
tali
tarsi
thrombi
uteri
vagi
villi

ORA/ERA
corpora
crura
genera
latera
pectora
viscera

UM
acetabulum
atrium
bacterium
calcaneum
cecum
cerebrum
cilium
cranium
curriculum
datum
duodenum
endocardium
epithelium
ilium
ischium
medium
mediastinum
myocardium
omentum
ovum
pericardium
periosteum
residuum
sacrum
septum
spectrum
sporangium
sputum
sternum
stratum

ON
criterion
ganglion
phenomenon
protozoon
spermatozoon
mitochondrion

A
acetabula
atria
bacteria
calcanea
ceca
cerebra
cilia
crania
curricula
data
duodena
endocardia
epithelia
ilia
ischia
media
mediastina
myocardia
omenta
ova
pericardia
periostea
residua
sacra
septa
spectra
sporangia
sputa
sterna
strata

A
criteria
ganglia
phenomena
protozoa
spermatozoa
mitochondria

A
alga
alumna
alveola
aorta
axilla
bursa
cannula
coxa
fibula
flora
formula
lacuna
larva
lingua
macula
maxilla
medulla
mucosa
palpebra
patella
pleura
plica
scapula
sequela
tibia
trachea
ulna
vena
vena cava
vertebra
vesica

IS
arthritis
dermatitis
epidermis
epiglottis
iris

AE
algae
alumnae
alveolae
aortae
axillae
bursae
cannulae
coxae
fibulae
florae
formulae
lacunae
larvae
linguae
maculae
maxillae
medullae
mucosae
palpebrae
patellae
pleurae
plicae
scapulae
sequelae
tibiae
tracheae
ulnae
venae
venae cavae
vertebrae
vesicae

IDES
arthritides
dermatides
epidermides
epiglottides
irides/irises

IS
analysis
auris
axis
basis
crisis
diagnosis
dialysis
ecchymosis
ellipsis
epistaxis
hypothesis
metatarsis
neurosis
oasis
paralysis
paranthesis
pelvis
prognosis
prophylaxis
psychosis
pubis
symphysis
synthesis
testis
thesis

EN
foramen
limen
lumen
stamen

ES
analyses
aures
axes
bases
crises
diagnoses
dialyses
ecchymoses
ellipses
epistaxes
hypotheses
metatarses
neuroses
oases
paralyses
parantheses
pelves
prognoses
prophylaxes
psychoses
pubes
symphyses
syntheses
testes
theses

INA
foramina
limina
lumina
stamina

IX/EX/A
X
appendix

ICES
appendic
es

cervix

cervices

cicatrix

cicatrices

matrix

matrices

radix

radices

varix
apex
cortex
index
pollex
thorax

varices
apices
cortices
indices
pollices
thoraces

GES

MA

coccyx coccyges carcinoma


emphyse
larynx larynges ma
menin meninge
x
s
melanoma
phalan phalange
x
s
oedema
pharyn pharyng
x
es
sarcoma
salpinge
salpinx s
schema
syrinx syringes stigma
stoma
trauma

consoana => ges: laryNx -> laryNges


vocala => ces: thorAx -> thorAces

SG = PL
apparatus
ductus
hiatus
meatus
series
species
stapes
stapidies
tractus

SG
caput
cor
dens
femur
furfur
genu
incus
margo
os
os
pancreas
pars
pes
pons
pulmo

PL
capita
corda
dentes
femora
furfures
genua
incudes
margines
orra
ossa
pancreata
parties
pedes
ponties
pulmones

MATA
carcinomata
emphysema
ta
melanomata
oedemata
sarcomata
schemata
stigmata
stomata
traumata

ren
stapes
vas

renes
stapedes
vassa

SYNONYMS
(o)esophagus = gullet
absorb = take in
abundant = plentiful
additive = cumulative
adenohypophysis = anterior pituitary
ailment = disease
airways = air passages
alveolus = air pockets (sacs)
articulation = joint
assay = test, trial, attempt
atrium = auricle
bad breath = halitosis
before = prior to, anterior to
bending = flexion
bind = to link, unite, merge, combine
biotransformation = drug metabolism
bleeding = blood loss, hemorrhage
blood = vascular
blood clot = thrombus
blood group = blood type
blood platelet = thrombocyte
bloodstream = blood flow
bony = osseous
bore = hole
boundary = limit, margin, extremity, edge
breastfeed = lactate
bruise = ecchymosis, hematoma
calcaneum = heel bone
cancellous = spongy, porous
cancerous = malignant
carpals = carpal bones = bones of the wrist
carry out = perform
catching = communicable, transmissible
cavity = socket
childbirth = parturition
clavicle = collarbone
clotting = obstruction
cluster = bundle, group
coccyx = tailbone, rump bone

compulsory = mandatory, obligatory,


required
contagious = infectious
continuous = ongoing, permanent
cough = tussis
covered = coated
covering = protecting
cranium = skull
crave = lust, to long for
cure = heal
cut = laceration
dermis = corium, derma, cutis
diabetus millitus = diabet zaharat
disability = inability
disease = affliction, illness, sickness,
trouble, ailment, malady
dormant = inactive, inert, passive
drowsy = sleepy
duct = tube
dyspnea = shortness of breath
egg = ovum
egg = ovum
emesis = vomiting
endocrine glands = ductless glands = glands
of internal secretion
endurance = resistance, stamina
endure = resist, withstand
enlarge = dilate, expand, widen
episode = attack, seizure
epistaxis = nosebleed
erythrocyte = red blood cell
essay = written report
expectoration = sputum
extension = stretching
fallopian tube = salpinx
fatigue = tiredness
feed = nourish
femur = thigh bone
fibula = splinter bone, calf bone
fit = healthy

fixed = immobile
foramen = opening
frequency = rate, speed
freshman = fresher
frontal = anterior/ventral
fungus = mold
gall = bile
gallbladder = cholecyst
general = systemic
germ = microbe
gigantism = giantism, macrosomia
glossa = tongue
groove = sulcus
gum = gingiva
happen = occur, to take place
heart attack = myocardial infarction
heartburn = pyrosis
hemorrhage = massive/severe bleeding
hemorrhoids = piles
hiatus = perforation
histology = microscopic anatomy
homogenous = compact
humerus = upper arm bone
inactivate = neutralize
inactive = inert, dormant
incus = anvil
ingest = swallow
injury = wound
integument = skin
intestine = bowel, gut
larynx = voice box
lateral = outside
layer = stratum
lethargy = fatigue, exhaustion, tiredness
leukocyte = white blood cell
likelihood = probability
likely to = prone to, susceptible to
lining = padding
lung = pulmon
malleus = hammer/mallet
mandible = lower jaw
matrix = uterus, womb
maxilla = jawbone, upper jaw
medial = inside
minute = tiny, small
moist = humid, damp
mouth = oral cavity, stoma
narrowing = stenosis
nas(o) = rhin(o)
nephro = reno
nerve cell = neurone
neurohypophysis = posterior pituitary

nose = nasal passages


NSAID = AINS
nutritive = nourishing
onset = start, beginning
ossicles = bones of the ear
osteo = ossi forma combinatorie ptr oase
osteoblast = bone forming cell
overall = total, general
pace = rhythm
pain = ache
paramedical personnel = allied personnel
patella = knee cap
peak = top, tip, apex, summit
pertussis = whooping cough
phalanx = bone of the finger/toe
pharynx = throat
phlegm = thick mucus
phylaxis = protection against infection
pineal = epiphysis
pit = fossa/hole
pituitary = hypophysis
platelets = thrombocytes
poisonous = toxic
posterior (view) = rear
prescription = medication order
prophylaxis = prevention
radius = forearm bone
readily = easily
relieve = alleviate, assuage, calm, comfort,
dull, ease, mitigate, palliate, soothe
ren = kidney
resist = withstand
rhinorrhea = runny nose
root of the neck = apertura toracica
superioara
saliva = spit
scapula = shoulder blade
schedule = timetable
sclerosis= hardening
sebaceous = oil glands
secrete = release, emit, produce
serious = severe
shaft = diaphysis
sight = vision
site = place, location
spermatozoon = male sex cell
stapes = stirrup
sternum = breastbone, chestbone
strenuous = exhausting, demanding
striations = stripes
stuffy nose = blocked nose
sudoriferous = sweat glands

supply = deliver, provide, give


swallowing = deglutition
tarsals = tarsal bones
term = semestre
testicles = testes
tetany = intermitent cramp
thin = slim, slender
tibia = shinbone, shankbone
to ascertain = to determine
to break down = to decompose
to breathe in = to inhale, inspire
to breathe out = to exhale, expel
to bring about = to cause, to determine (to
happen), to stir
to chew = to masticate

to constrict = to narrow
to cut down = to reduce
to dispose of = to discard, to get rid of, to
dispense with, to eliminate
to fall into = to fall under
to give off = to emit
to line = to pad
to test/feel/check/measure the pulse
trachea = windpipe
turning = rotation
ulna = cubitus, elbow bone
vertebral column = spinal column, back
bone, spine
waste = residue, debris

Opposites
dis like, satisfaction, infect
anti pyretic, biotic, tussive, inflammatory
(mal) dys trophy, lexia, function
abductor adductor
ability disability, inability
able unable
abundant scarce
activation inactivation
active passive
acute chronic
adequate inadequate
adverse benefic
anterior posterior
appropriate inappropriate
balance imbalance, unbalance
benign malignant
body antibody
breathe-in breathe-out
coagulant anticoagulant
comfortable uncomfortable
compatible incompatible
compose decompose
congestant decongestant
connected disconnected, unconnected
conscious unconscious
contagious noncontagious
continuous discontinuous
contraction relaxation
coordinated uncoordinated
diagnose misdiagnose

directly indirectly
diuretic antidiuretic
donor recipient
dorsal ventral
dry moist
edible inedible
effective ineffective
efficient inefficient
endocrine exocrine
extracellular intracellular
febrile antifebrile
flabby muscle tone
formation malformation
front rear
function dysfunction
harmful harmless
healthy unhealthy, sick, ill
heterogeneous homogeneous
humidified dehumidified
hydration dehydration
hypo hyper
hypoventilation = hyperventilation
indication contraindication
infectious noninfectious
inflammatory noninflammatory, antiinflammatory
inhale exhale

inspiration expiration
internal external
intra extra
intravenous extravenous
mature immature
mild severe
movable immovable
mycotic antimycotic
normal abnormal
organic inorganic
organization disorganization
organized disorganized
outer inner
outer-most inner-most
overexposure underexposure
oxygenate deoxygenated
painful painless
palatable (gustos) unpalatable
permeable impermeable
plentiful scarce
pyretic antipyretic
reactive non-reactive
regular irregular
responsible irresponsible
rhythmic arrhythmic
rigid soft
sensitive non-sensitive, insensitive
sepsis asepsis

septic antiseptic, aseptic


smooth rough
soluble insoluble
specific nonspecific
stable unstable
structure structureless
structured unstructured
superficial deep, profound
systole diastole
to constrict to enlarge, dilate
to continue to discontinue, to interrupt, to
stop, to cease
to cure a disease to heal an injury
to increase to decrease, to reduce
to infect to disinfect
to inhibit to slow, to stop
to pass to fail
to provide to get rid of
to supply to receive
understand misunderstand
used blood cleansed blood
utopia dystopia
vascular avascular
visible invisible
vital non-vital
voluntary involuntary
wide spread localised

10 toes = degete picioare


2 thumbs = deget mare mana
8 fingers = degete maini
cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae neck, trunk, lower back
Enteral - per os: ora, ossa
- suppository
Parenteral: IV, IM, SC, IA
Topical ointment = unguent
- liniment = alifie
- drops = picaturi
triangle => triangular
rectangle => rectangular
square => square
circle => circular
sphere => spherical
cone => conical
pyramid => pyramidal
tube => tubular

dome => dome-shaped


pear => pear-shaped
bean => bean-shaped
nose = pyramidal
gallbladder = pear-shaped
liver = triangular
heart = conical

kidney = bean-shaped
eye => spherical
esophagus => tubular
verb => noun
to cure => cure
to prescribe => prescription
to refer => referral
to contaminate => contamination
to administer => administration

to diagnose => diagnosis


to experience => experiment
to withdraw => withdrawal
to examine => examination

The cure for HIV is complex.


I need something to cure my addiction.
I just got the medical prescription.
After you finish med school you can prescribe medication.
Please refer to me by my first name.
The doctor game me a referral.
You must be careful not to contaminate others.
The contamination extended beyond the city border.
Did you administered the shot?
The administration of the drugs was done 2h ago.
We must rule out a possible diagnosis.
Its hard to diagnose some infections from other
to lay laid laid (a organiza)
to lie lay lain (a sta culcat)
to lie lied lied (a minti)
inpatient = pacient internat
outpatient = ambulatoriu
mild moderate severe
epidermis dermis subcutis
gross = per total
sternutation = the act of sneezing

Education
Levels of education
- Pre-school
-

- kindergarden
- nursery school
Elementary school: 1-8
Primary school: 1-4
Gymnasium: 5-8
Secondary school = Highschool
Junior: 9-10
Senior: 11-12
Higher education = invatamant superior

Formal education = until 10th class


Profil: real = sciences; uman = humanities
academic year = an universitar
to enroll = a se inscrie
enrollment = inscriere
to attend (lectures/seminars) = a frecventa
attendance list = lista de prezenta
to make the roll call = a face prezenta
to expel = a exmatricula
to drop out = a abandona/ renunta
to take a year off = a lua pauza 1 an
to miss a class, to skip a class
headmaster/headmistress
teachers staffs room = cancelaria

baccalaureate diploma
to be on a leave = a fi in concediu
to be on a sick leave = a fi in concediu
medical
timetable/schedule = orar
mark/grade = nota
school report = situatia scolara
to assess = a asculta
assessment = evaluare
average = medie
GPA = grade point average = nota de trecere
overall GPA = media anilor de scoala
to take/sit for a test
to flunk = a pica

to pass = a trece
to pass with flying colors
resit = restanta
to cheat
subject = materie (history, geography, math)
to be good at/ bad at
to be proficient in a language
proficient = expert, competent
the 3 Rs: Reading Writing, Arithmetics
illiterate = analfabet
illiteracy = analfabetism
assignment = tema
spelling = ortografie
midwife = moasa
freshman = student in anul I
sophomore = student in anul II
bachelors degree = diploma de licenta
masters degree = diploma de master
bachelors/masters degree of arts/sciences
undergraduate education = licenta
graduate education = masterat (educatie
universitara)
postgraduate education = educatie
postuniversitara
PhD = doctors degree
MD = ptr cei ce au terminat facultatea de
medicina
grade record = foaie matricola
academic year/ grade record
curriculum = plan de invatamant curricula
syllabus = programa
certificate = adeverinta
private/ state university
vocational school = scoala profesionala
substitute teacher = profesor suplimentar
academic rank:
- asistent universitar = assistant lecturer
- sef de lucrari/lector = lecturer

- conferentiar = associate professor


- profesor universitar = full professor
teaching load = norma didactica
care subjects = materii de
baza/fundamentale
required subjects = materii obligatorii
elective subjects = materii optionale
university = universitate
faculty = facultate
department = departament
chair = catedra
rector vice-rector
dean vice-dean
head of department
head of chair
registrar = secretar de facultate
chief registrar = secretar sef
personal assistant = secretar particular
evening courses = cursuri de seara
distance education
registration fee = taxa de inscriere
tuition fee = taxa de scolarizare
lecture hall = sala de cursuri
term = semestru
lab = laborator
dormitory = dorms = camin
exam session = sesiune de examene
entrance examination = examen de admitere
examiner = examinator
oral exam; practical exam = colocviu
make-up exam = examen de diferenta
score = punctaj
revision = recapitulare
revise for a exam
to defend your doctors dissertation
the public defense of a PhD thesis
thesis = teza, dizertatie