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Ambalaje din spuma speciale pentru sticle

Spuma speciala pentru protectia sticlelor

Importanta parcului de maşini au facut cunoscut Grupul Cellutec în intreaga lume in domeniile
Parfumurilor, Cosmeticii, Vinurilor si Bauturilor alcoolice.

Sticla si proprietatile sticlei:

Totul despre sticla

Material nobil prin excelenta, sticla are o bogata istorie, care debuteaza cu peste 4.000 de ani i.C.
Impune atat prin functiile naturale pe care le indeplineste, cat si prin frumusetea sa, fiind prezenta in
lumea arhitecturii precum si in lumea artei. In constructiile din toate timpurile, sticla a fost utilizata
pentru transparenta sa, care permite trecerea luminii si comunicarea cu mediul exterior, atat de
necesare locuintelor.

Incepand cu sec.al XIX-lea, sticla a devenit un semn al modernitatii arhitecturale, fiind un material de
inalta tehnologie, functional si rafinat, beneficiind de calitatile sale de transparenta.

Datorita eforturilor de cercetare din ultimele decenii, sticla a contribuit foarte mult la ameliorarea
confortului incaperilor. Diversitatea tipurilor de sticla si a functiilor lor, ofera astazi proiectantului o mare
libertate de a construi o veritabila arhitectura de lumina, care satisface din plin exigentele confortului
modern.

Compozitie

Sticla silicato-sodo-calcica utilizata in constructii contine mai multe componente:

- corp vitrifiant - siliciu, introdus sub forma de nisip (intre 70-72%),

- fondant - sodiu, sub forma de carbonat si sulfat (in jur de 14%),

- stabilizator la cald - calcar (in jur de 10%),

- oxizi metalici - aluminiu, magneziu.


Incorporarea oxizilor metalici amelioreaza proprietatile fizice ale sticlei, in special rezistenta la actiunea
agentilor atmosferici. Pentru anumite tipuri de sticla acestia permit colorarea in masa.

Fabricatie

1 – Compozitia sticlei

In amestecul de materii prime enumerate mai sus, se adauga sticla sparta pentru a diminua
temperaturile de fuziune. Transportul, presarea, amestecarea si arderea, sunt realizate automat. Aceste
amestec este umezit pentru a se evita segregarea diferitelor materii si degajarea de praf.

2 – Cuptorul de fuzionare

Elaborarea sticlei cuprinde trei faze esentiale:

- fuzionarea - materiile prime sunt topite la o temperatura de peste 1550oC,

- afanarea - sticla topita este omogenizata si sunt eliminate bulele de gaz,

- conditionarea termica - sticla putin vascoasa este racita pana ce viscozitatea sa corespunde exigentelor
procedeului de turnare.

3 – Baia de cositor

Sticla lichida este deversata pe un "pat" de cositor topit la 1000o C. Sticla, fiind mai putin densa decat
cositorul, pluteste pe acesta si formeaza o "panglica" avand o grosime naturala de la 6 – 7 mm. Fetele
sticlei sunt lustruite de suprafata cositorului pe de-o parte, iar pe cealalta parte de foc. Dispozitive
speciale, permit accelerarea sau diminuarea curgerii sticlei, realizand astfel controlul grosimii.

4 – Cuptorul de detensionare

La iesirea din baia de cositor panglica de sticla devine rigida, prin trecerea acesteia printr-un tunel de
racire. Temperatura sticlei scade de la 620o C la 250o C. Are loc apoi, o racire lenta in aer liber, ceea ce
permite degajarea sticlei de toate tensiunile interne care ar putea provoca spargerea sa la taiere.

5 – Taierea
Panglica de sticla solidificata prin racire, fiind pana in acest moment continua, este in final taiata automat
in foi de 6.000 x 3.210 mm.

Sticla transparenta clara de la Saint Gobain se numeste SGG PLANILUX.

Propietati mecanice

a. Densitatea sticlei este de 2,5 - ceea ce inseamna o masa de 2,5 kg / mp si mm de grosime pentru sticla
plana;

b. Rezistenta la compresie a sticlei este foarte ridicata, respectiv 1 000 N/mm2 (1 000 MPa) - ceea ce
inseamna ca, pentru a sparge un cub de sticla de 1 cm, este necesara o incarcatura de 10 tone.

c. Rezistenta la indoire - O suprafata de sticla supusa flexarii are o fata de compresie si una de extensie.
Rezistenta la rupere la indoire este de ordinul a: 40 MPa pentru o sticla polizata si, 120-200 MPa pentru
o sticla intarita. Aceasta depinde de grosime, finisarea marginilor si tipul de taiere. (Valoarea crescuta a
rezistentei sticlei intarite tratate SGG SECURIT, se datoreaza faptului ca tratamentul preseaza fetele
sticlei una peste alta foarte puternic.)

d. Elasticitatea - Sticla este un material perfect elastic (nu prezinta niciodata deformari permanente); ea
este in acelasi timp fragila (supusa unei indoiri incrucisate, se sparge fara a prezenta fisuri prealabile);

e. Modulul de elasticitate Young "E" - Exprima forta de tractiune care ar trebui teoretic aplicata unei
bucati de sticla pentru a-i transmite o alungire egala cu lungimea sa initiala. Se exprima in unitate de
forta pe unitate de suprafata. Pentru sticla, conform normelor europene :

E = 7.1010Pa = 70 GPa.

f. Coeficientul lui Poisson "m" - Coeficientul de contractie laterala. Cand o bucata dintr-un material
sufera o alungire sub influenta unei actiuni mecanice, se constata o subtiere a sectiunii sale. Coeficientul
Poisson (m) este raportul intre subtierea unitara pe directia perpendiculara directiei efortului si alungirea
unitara in directia efortului. Pentru sticla de constructii : m = 0,22.
Comportamentul termic

a. Dilatatia liniara Este exprimata printr-un coeficient, masurand alungirea pe o unitate de lungime
pentru o variatie de 1o C. Acest coeficient este in general dat pentru un domeniu de temperaturi intre
20o si 300o C. Coeficientul de dilatatie liniara al sticlei este de : 9.10-6.

b. Tensiuni de natura termica Datorita slabei conductivitati termice a sticlei, incalzirea si racirea partiala
a unei sticle, antreneaza tensiuni ce pot provoca spargeri denumite termice (soc termic). Cand conditiile
de utilizare risca antrenarea intr-o sticla a diferentelor de temperaturi importante, va fi necesara luarea
precautiilor suplimentare de montaj si de finisaj. Un tratament termic complementar permite sticlei sa
suporte diferente de temperatura de la 150oC la 200o C.

Sursa: http://www.stgobain.ro

Banner exchange

Parteneri

Harta site

Bine ati venit!

3/3
Fie o cutie simpla sau una eleganta, orice sticla de vin va cuceri aprecierea si respectul celui ce primeste
acest cadou, indiferent de ocazie.

Oferita in cutia potrivita, o sticla de vin isi dezvaluie intreaga sa valoare.

Dorinta noastra este punerea in valoare a oricarui vin de calitate prin legatura creata intre cutie si sticla
de vin, astfel ‘Totul’ devine un cadou select pentru persoana iubita, pentru prieteni, pentru partenerii
dumneavoastra de afaceri.

Va oferim o gama diversa de cutii pentru una sau doua sticle de vin, cutii simple si functionale, cutii de
lux cu acccesorii pentru servirea vinului.

Fie si doar din ratiuni de rafinament al prezentarii cadoului,

Fiecare vin isi merita cutia sa! http://www.cutiivin.ro/

Ambalajele noastre marcheaza grija pe care o acordati "extragerii din comun". Cutii de lemn, din piele -
ce pot fi inscriptionate cu mesajul Dvs. (sau cu logo-ul firmei), cosuri de rachita, cosulete de prezentare si
turnare (pentru "vinoteca" mai ales), saculeti de panza sau organtza - la care putem atasa etichete
suplimentare.

Packaging and labeling


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Packaging)

Jump to: navigation, search

"Packaging" redirects here. For the semiconductor device fabrication term, see integrated circuit
packaging.
A sealed pack of diced pork from Tesco. It shows the cooking time, number of servings, 'display until'
date, 'use by' date, weight in kg, price, price to weight ratio in both £/kg and £/lb, freezing and storage
instructions. It says 'Less than 3% Fat' and 'No Carbs per serving' and includes a barcode. The Union Flag,
British Farm Standard tractor logo, and British Meat Quality Standard logo are also present.

Tablets in a blister pack, which was itself packaged in a folding carton made of paperboard.

Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution,
storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production
of packages. Package labelling (BrE) or labeling (AmE) is any written, electronic, or graphic
communications on the packaging or on a separate but associated label.

Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport,


warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports,
informs, and sells.[1] It is fully integrated into government, business, institutional, industry, and
personal use.
Contents
[hide]

 1 The purposes of packaging and package labels


 2 Packaging types
 3 Symbols used on packages and labels
o 3.1 Shipping container labeling
 4 Package development considerations
 5 Packaging machines
 6 History
 7 See also
 8 References
 9 Bibliography

[edit] The purposes of packaging and package labels


Packaging and package labeling have several objectives[2]

 Physical protection - The objects enclosed in the package may require protection from, among
other things, shock, vibration, compression, temperature[3], etc.
 Barrier protection - A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc., is often required. Permeation
is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain desiccants or Oxygen absorbers to help
extend shelf life. Modified atmospheres [4] or controlled atmospheres are also maintained in
some food packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, sterile[5] and safe for the intended shelf
life is a primary function.
 Containment or agglomeration - Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for
reasons of efficiency. For example, a single box of 1000 pencils requires less physical handling
than 1000 single pencils. Liquids, powders, and granular materials need containment.
 Information transmission - Packages and labels communicate how to use, transport, recycle, or
dispose of the package or product. With pharmaceuticals, food, medical, and chemical products,
some types of information are required by governments.
 Marketing - The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to
purchase the product. Package design has been an important and constantly evolving
phenomenon for several decades. Marketing communications and graphic design are applied to
the surface of the package and (in many cases) the point of sale display.
 Security - Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of shipment.
Packages can be made with improved tamper resistance to deter tampering and also can have
tamper-evident[6] features to help indicate tampering. Packages can be engineered to help
reduce the risks of package pilferage: Some package constructions are more resistant to
pilferage and some have pilfer indicating seals. Packages may include authentication seals and
use security printing to help indicate that the package and contents are not counterfeit.
Packages also can include anti-theft devices, such as dye-packs, RFID tags, or electronic article
surveillance[7]. tags, that can be activated or detected by devices at exit points and require
specialized tools to deactivate. Using packaging in this way is a means of loss prevention.
 Convenience - Packages can have features which add convenience in distribution, handling,
stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use, and reuse.
 Portion control - Single serving or single dosage packaging has a precise amount of contents to
control usage. Bulk commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a more
suitable size for individual households. It is also aids the control of inventory: selling sealed one-
liter-bottles of milk, rather than having people bring their own bottles to fill themselves.

[edit] Packaging types

Various household packaging types for foods

Packaging may be looked at as several different types. For example a transport package or
distribution package is the package form used to ship, store, and handle the product or inner
packages. Some identify a consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or
household.

Packaging may discussed in relation to the type of product being packaged: medical device
packaging, bulk chemical packaging, over-the-counter drug packaging, retail food packaging,
military materiel packaging, pharmaceutical packaging, etc.

Pull open aluminum can


It is sometimes convenient to categorize packages by layer or function: "primary", "secondary",
etc.

 Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. This usually is the
smallest unit of distribution or use and is the package which is in direct contact with the
contents.
 Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging – perhaps used to group primary packages
together.
 Tertiary packaging is used for bulk handling, warehouse storage and transport shipping. The
most common form is a palletized unit load that packs tightly into containers.

These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary. For example, depending on the use, a shrink
wrap can be primary packaging when applied directly to the product, secondary packaging when
combining smaller packages, and tertiary packaging on some distribution packs.

[edit] Symbols used on packages and labels


Many types of symbols for package labeling are nationally and internationally standardized. For
consumer packaging, symbols exist for product certifications, trademarks, proof of purchase, etc.
Some requirements and symbols exist to communicate aspects of consumer use and safety.
Recycling directions, Resin identification code (below), and package environmental claims have
special codes and symbols.

Bar codes (below), Universal Product Codes, and RFID labels are common to allow automated
information management.

"Wikipedia" encoded in Code 128

[edit] Shipping container labeling

"Print & Apply" corner wrap UCC (GS1-128) label application to a pallet load

Technologies related to shipping containers are identification codes, bar codes, and electronic
data interchange (EDI). These three core technologies serve to enable the business functions in
the process of shipping containers throughout the distribution channel. Each has an essential
function: identification codes either relate product information or serve as keys to other data, bar
codes allow for the automated input of identification codes and other data, and EDI moves data
between trading partners within the distribution channel.

Elements of these core technologies include UPC and EAN item identification codes, the SCC-14
(UPC shipping container code), the SSCC-18 (Serial Shipping Container Codes), Interleaved 2-
of-5 and UCC/EAN-128 (newly designated GS1-128) bar code symbologies, and ANSI ASC
X12 and UN/EDIFACT EDI standards.

Small parcel carriers often have their own formats. For example, United Parcel Service has a
MaxiCode 2-D code for parcel tracking.

RFID labels for shipping containers are also increasing in usage. A Wal-Mart division, Sam's
Club, has also moved in this direction and is putting pressure on on its suppliers for compliance.
[8]

Shipments of hazardous materials or dangerous goods have special information and symbols
(labels, plackards, etc) as required by UN, country, and specific carrier requirements. Two
examples are below:

With transport packages, standardised symbols are also used to aid in handling. Some common
ones are shown below while others are listed in ASTM D5445 "Standard Practice for Pictorial
Markings for Handling of Goods" and ISO 780 "Pictorial marking for handling of goods".

Fragile Do not use hand hooksThis way up Keep away from sunlight
Keep away from waterCentre of gravity Clamp as indicatedDo not clamp as indicated

[edit] Package development considerations


Package design and development are often thought of as an integral part of the new product
development process. Alternatively, development of a package (or component) can be a separate
process, but must be linked closely with the product to be packaged. Package design starts with
the identification of all the requirements: structural design, marketing, shelf life, quality
assurance, logistics, legal, regulatory, graphic design, end-use, environmental, etc. The design
criteria, time targets, resources, and cost constraints need to be established and agreed upon.

Transport packaging needs to be matched to its logistics system. Packages designed for controlled
shipments of uniform pallet loads may not be suited to mixed shipments with expresscarriers.
An example of how package design is affected by other factors is the relationship to logistics.
When the distribution system includes individual shipments by a small parcel carrier, the
sortation, handling, and mixed stacking make severe demands on the strength and protective
ability of the transport package. If the logistics system consists of uniform palletized unit loads,
the structural design of the package can be designed to those specific needs: vertical stacking,
perhaps for a longer time frame. A package designed for one mode of shipment may not be suited
for another.

Sometimes the objectives of package development seem contradictory. For example, regulations
for an over-the-counter drug might require the package to be tamper-evident and child
resistant[9] :These intentionally make the package difficult to open.[10]. The intended consumer,
however, might be handicapped or elderly and be unable to readily open the package. Meeting all
goals is a challenge.

Package design may take place within a company or with various degrees of external packaging
engineering: contract engineers, consultants, vendor evaluations, independent laboratories,
contract packagers, total outsourcing, etc. Some sort of formal Project planning and Project
management methodology is required for all but the simplest package design and development
programs. An effective quality management system and Verification and Validation protocols are
mandatory for some types of packaging and recommended for all.

Package development involves considerations for sustainability, environmental responsibility,


and applicable environmental and recycling regulations. It may involve a life cycle assessment[11]
[12]
which considers the material and energy inputs and outputs to the package, the packaged
product (contents), the packaging process, the logistics system[13], waste management, etc. It is
necessary to know the relevant regulatory requirements for point of manufacture, sale, and use.

The traditional “three R’s” of reduce, reuse, and recycle are part of a waste hierarchy which may
be considered in product and package development.

The waste hierarchy

 Prevention – Waste prevention is a primary goal. Packaging should be used only where needed.
Proper packaging can also help prevent waste. Packaging plays an important part in preventing
loss or damage to the packaged-product (contents). Usually, the energy content and material
usage of the product being packaged are much greater than that of the package. A vital function
of the package is to protect the product for its intended use: if the product is damaged or
degraded, its entire energy and material content may be lost.[14] [15]
 Minimization –(also "source reduction") The mass and volume of packaging (per unit of
contents) can be measured and used as one of the criteria to minimize during the package
design process. Usually “reduced” packaging also helps minimize costs. Packaging engineers
continue to work toward reduced packging.[16]
 Reuse – The reuse of a package or component for other purposes is encouraged. Returnable
packaging has long been useful (and economically viable) for closed loop logistics systems.
Inspection, cleaning, repair and recouperage are often needed.
 Recycling – Recycling is the reprocessing of materials (pre- and post-consumer) into new
products. Emphasis is focused on recycling the largest primary components of a package: steel,
aluminum, papers, plastics, etc. Small components can be chosen which are not difficult to
separate and do not contaminate recycling operations.
 Energy recovery – Waste-to-energy and Refuse-derived fuel in approved facilities are able to
make use of the heat available from the packaging components.
 Disposal – Incineration, and placement in a sanitary landfill are needed for some materials.
Certain states within the US regulate packages for toxic contents, which have the potential to
contaminate emissions and ash from incineration and leachate from landfill.[17] Packages should
not be littered.

Development of sustainable packaging is an area of considerable interest by standards


organizations, government, consumers, packagers, and retailers.

[edit] Packaging machines

Bottling lines for beer plant

A choice of packaging machinery includes, technical capabilities, labor requirements, worker


safety, maintainability, serviceability, reliability, ability to integrate into the packaging line,
capital cost, floorspace, flexibility (change-over, materials, etc.), energy usage, quality of
outgoing packages, qualifications (for food, pharmaceuticals, etc.), throughput, efficiency,
productivity, ergonomics, etc.

Packaging machines may be of the following general types:

 Blister packs, skin packs and Vacuum Packaging Machines


 Bottle caps equipment, Over-Capping, Lidding, Closing, Seaming and Sealing Machines
 Box, Case and Tray Forming, Packing, Unpacking, Closing and Sealing Machines
 Cartoning Machines
 Cleaning, Sterilizing, Cooling and Drying Machines
 Converting Machines
 Conveyor belts, Accumulating and Related Machines
 Feeding, Orienting, Placing and Related Machines
 Filling Machines: handling liquid and powdered products
 Inspecting, Detecting and Check weigher Machines
 Label dispensers Help peel and apply labels more efficiently
 Package Filling and Closing Machines
 Palletizing, Depalletizing, Unit load assembly
 Product Identification: labeling, marking, etc.
 Shrink wrap Machines
 Form, Fill and Seal Machines
 Other speciality machinery: slitters, perforating, laser cutters, parts attachment, etc.

Bakery goods High speed conveyor Label printer applicator


shrinkwrapped by shrink with bar code scanner applying a label to Robotics used to
film, heat sealer and heat for sorting transport adjacent panels of a palletize bread
tunnel on roller conveyer packages corrugated box.

[edit] History

Amphorae on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey

The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: Baskets of reeds, wineskins
(Bota bags), wooden boxes, pottery vases, ceramic amphorae, wooden barrels, woven bags, etc.
Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed: for example, early glass
and bronze vessels. The study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology.

Iron and tin plated steel were used to make cans in the early 19th century. Paperboard cartons and
corrugated fiberboard boxes were first introduced in the late 19th century.
Packaging advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closures on bottles,
transparent cellophane overwraps and panels on cartons, increased processing efficiency and
improved food safety. As additional materials such as aluminium and several types of plastic
were developed, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality.

[edit] See also


Hundreds of links are in the Category sections at the end of the article. In addition, links related
to the product being packaged are very useful, with further links. For example, foods,
pharmaceuticals, dangerous goods, etc.

 Hazard
Analysis
and
Critical
Control
Points
 Child-
 Heat  Plastic
resistant
sealer  Plastic
 Adhesive packaging
 Injection recycling
 Aluminium  Containerizati
molding  Polyester
foil on
 Label  Polyethylen  Municipal
 Authenticati  Corrugated
dispenser e solid waste
on fiberboard
 Mandator  Polypropyle  Stretch wrap
 Bag-In-Box  Cushioning
y labelling ne  Sustainable
 Blow  Distribution
 Metallise  Polystyrene packaging
molding  Flexography
d film (or  Popcorn  Tin can
 Bottle  Food labeling
metallize bag  Thermoplast
 Box regulations
d film)  Resonance ics
 Bubble  Food safety
 Moisture  Radio-  Unit load
Wrap  Glass
vapor frequency  Vacuum
 Calendering  Glass
transmissi identificatio forming
 Cargo recycling
on rate n  Vibration
 Carton  Good
 Molded  Rotogravur
 Check manufacturin
pulp e
weigher g practice
 Packaging  Shock
 Graphic
engineeri  Shrink wrap
Design
ng
 Paper
 Paper
recycling
 Paperboa
rd

[edit] References
1. ^ Soroka: "Fundamentals of Packaging Technology", Institute of Packaging Professionals, 2002,
ISBN 1-930268-25-4
2. ^ Bix, L; Rafon, Lockhart, Fuente (2003). "The Packaging Matrix" (PDF)., IDS Packaging. Retrieved
on 2008-12-11.
3. ^ Choi, Seung-Jin; Burgess (November 2007). "Practical mathematical model to predict the
performance of insulating packages". Packaging Technology and Science 20 (6): 369-380. DOI:
10.1002/pts.747.
4. ^ Lee, Ki-Eun; Kim, An, Lyu, Lee (November 1998). "Effectiveness of modified atmosphere
packaging in preserving a prepared ready-to-eat food". Packaging Technology and Science 21 (7).
DOI: 10.1002/pts.821.
5. ^ Severin, J (July 2007). "New Methodology for Whole-Package Microbial Callenge Testing for
Medical Device Trays". J. Testing and Evaluation 35 (4).
6. ^ Johnston, R.G. (July 1997). "Effective Vulnerability Assessment of Tamper-Indicating Seals". J.
Testing and Evaluation 25 (4).
7. ^ HowStuffWorks.com, “How Anti-shoplifting Devices Work”,
<http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/anti-shoplifting-device.htm>
8. ^ Bacheldor, Beth (2008-01-11). "Sam's Club Tells Suppliers to Tag or Pay".
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/3845/1/1/. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
9. ^ Rodgers, G. B. (June 1996), "The safety effects of child-resistant packaging for oral prescription
drugs. Two decades of experience", JAMA 275 (21): 1661-5
10. ^ Yoxall; Jason, Bradbury, Langley, Wearn, Hayes (July 2006). "Openability: producing design
limits for consumer packaging". Packaging Technology and Science 16 (4): 183-243. DOI:
10.1002/pts.725.
11. ^ Zabaniotou, A; Kassidi (August 2003). "Life cycle assessment applied to egg packaging made
from polystyrene and recycled paper". Journal of Cleaner Production 11 (5): 549-559.
doi:10.1016/S0959-6526(02)00076-8.
12. ^ Franklin (April 2004) (PDF), Life Cycle Inventory of Packaging Options for Shipment of Retail
Mail-Order Soft Goods,
http://www.deq.state.or.us/lq/pubs/docs/sw/packaging/LifeCycleInventory.pdf, retrieved on
Decamber 13, 2008
13. ^ "SmartWay Transport Partnerships" (PDF). US Environmental Protection Agency.
http://www.epa.gov/smartway/transport/documents/faqs/partnership_overview.pdf. Retrieved
on 2008-12-22.
14. ^ anon: "Packaging Matters", page 5 - 8. Institute of Packaging Professionals, 1993
15. ^ ""Packaging Factsheet"" (PDF). INCPEN. http://www.incpen.org/pages/data/PackagingFS.pdf.
Retrieved on 2009-02-04.
16. ^ DeRusha, Jason (July 16, 2007). "The Incredible Shrinking Package". WCCO.
http://wcco.com/topstories/local_story_197233456.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
17. ^ "Toxics in Packaging". http://www.toxicsinpackaging.org. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.

[edit] Bibliography
 Brody, A. L., and Marsh, K, S., "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 1997,
ISBN 0-471-06397-5
 Calver, G., What Is Packaging Design, Rotovision. 2004, ISBN 2-88046-618-0.
 Dean, D.A., 'Pharmaceutical Packaging Technology", 2000, ISBN 0748404406
 Fiedler, R, M, "Distribution Packaging Technology", IoPP, 1995
 Holkham, T., "Label Writing and Planning - A guide to good customer communication", 1995,
ISBN 0 7514 0361 X
 Jankowski, J. Shelf Space: Modern Package Design, 1945-1965, Chronicle Books. 1988 ISBN 0-
8118-1784-9.
 Leonard, E. A. (1996). Packaging, Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-9755-8.
 Lockhart, H., and Paine, F.A., "Packaging of Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Products", 2006,
Blackie, ISBN 0751401676
 McKinlay, A. H., "Transport Packaging",IoPP, 2004
 Opie, R., Packaging Source Book, 1991, ISBN-10: 1555215114, ISBN-13 978-1555215118
 Pilchik, R., "Validating Medical Packaging" 2002, ISBN 1566768071
 Robertson, G. L., "Food Packaging", 2005, ISBN 0849337755
 Selke, S, "Packaging and the Environment", 1994, ISBN 1566761042
 Selke, S,. "Plastics Packaging", 2004, ISBN 1569903727
 Soroka, W, "Fundamentals of Packaging Technology", IoPP, 2002, ISBN 1-930268-25-4
 Stillwell, E. J, "Packaging for the Environment", A. D. Little, 1991, ISBN 0814450741

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Packaging_and_labeling"


Categories: Commercial item transport and distribution | Retailing | Industrial design | Packaging |
Plastics applications | Recyclable materials | Unit operations

Wine bottle
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A bottle showing the translucent green of many wine bottles


A wine bottle is a bottle used for holding wine, generally made of glass. Some wines are
fermented in the bottle, others are bottled only after fermentation. They come in a large variety of
sizes, several named for Biblical kings and other figures. The standard bottle contains 75 cL,
although this is a relatively recent development. Wine bottles are usually sealed with cork, but
screw-top caps are becoming popular, and there are several other methods used to seal a
bottle.[1][2][3]

Contents
[hide]

 1 Sizes
 2 Shapes
 3 Colours
 4 Capsules
 5 Punts
 6 Environmental impact
 7 Notes and references
 8 See also
 9 External links

[edit] Sizes

Side-by-side comparison of champagne bottles. (L to R) On ladder: magnum, full, half, quarter. On floor:
Balthazar, Salmanazar, Methuselah, Jeroboam

The chart below[4] expresses the sizes of various wine bottles in multiples relating to a standard
bottle of wine, which is 0.75 litres (0.1981 U.S. gal; 0.1650 imp gal) .

Champagne Bordeaux Burgundy


Volume
Bottle Name Name's Origin
in Litres
Equivalent standard bottles
Piccoloa "Small" in Italian ¼ n/a n/a 0.1875

Chopine Traditional French unit of volume n/a ⅓ n/a 0.250

Demib "Half" in French ½ ½ ½ 0.375

Jenniec "White Spirit" in Welsh n/a n/a n/a 0.5

Clavelind n/a n/a n/a 0.620

Imperial 1 1 1 0.750

Fifthe One-fifth of a U.S. gallon n/a n/a n/a 0.757

Magnum 2 2 2 1.5

Marie Jeannef n/a 3 n/a 2.25

Double Magnum 4 4 n/a 3.0

Jeroboamg Biblical, First king of Northern Kingdom 4 6 4 3.0/4.5

Franzia The Wine Group n/a n/a n/a 5.0

Rehoboam Biblical, First king of separate Judea 6 n/a 6 4.5

Imperial n/a 8 n/a 6.0


Methuselah Biblical, Oldest Man 8 n/a 8 6.0

Salmanazar Biblical, Assyrian King 12 n/a 12 9.0

Early Christian folklore, one of the Wise


Balthazar 16 16 16 12.0
Men

Nebuchadnezzar Biblical, King of Babylon 20 20 20 15.0

Early Christian folklore, one of the Wise


Melchior 24 24 24 18.0
Men

Solomon Biblical, King of Israel, Son of David 26⅔ n/a n/a 20.0

Sovereign 33⅓ n/a n/a 25.0

Primat 36 n/a n/a 27.0

Melchizedek Biblical and other middle-east religions 40 n/a n/a 30.0

a
Also known as a quarter bottle, pony, snipe or split.
b
Also known as a half bottle.
c
Also known as a 50 cl bottle. Used for Tokaj, Sauternes, Jerez, as well as several other types of
sweet wines.
d
Primarily used for vin jaune.
e
For many years, the U.S. standard (non-metric) wine and liquor bottle was the "fifth", meaning
one-fifth of a U.S. gallon, or 25.6 U.S. fluid ounces (757.1 ml; 26.65 imp fl oz) . Some beverages
also came in half-gallon and one-gallon sizes. disp=or In 1979, the U.S. adopted the metric
system for wine bottles, with the basic bottle becoming 75 cl, as in Europe.
f
Also known as a Tregnum or Tappit Hen in the port wine trade.
g
Jeroboam has different meanings for different regions in France[5].
[edit] Shapes

Bocksbeutel shaped Wine Bottle

Burgundy bottles

Wine producers in Portugal, Italy, Spain, France and Germany follow the tradition of their local
areas in choosing the shape of bottle most appropriate for their wine.

 Port, sherry, and Bordeaux varieties: straight-sided and high-shouldered with a pronounced
punt. Port and sherry bottles may have a bulbous neck to collect any residue.
 Burgundies and Rhône varieties: tall bottles with sloping shoulders and a smaller punt.
 Rhine (also known as hock or hoch), Mosel, and Alsace varieties: narrow and tall with little or no
punt.
 Champagne and other sparkling wines: thick-walled and wide with a pronounced punt and
sloping shoulders.
 German wines from Franconia: the Bocksbeutel bottle.
 The Chianti and some other Italian wines: the fiasco, a round-bottomed flask encased in a straw
basket.

Many North and South American, South African, and Australasian wine producers select the
bottle shape they wish to associate their wines with. For instance, a producer who believes his
wine is similar to Burgundy may choose to bottle his wine in Burgundy-style bottles.

Other producers (both in and out of Europe) have chosen idiosyncratic bottle styles for marketing
purposes. Pere-Anselme markets its Châteauneuf-du-Pape in bottles that appear half-melted. The
Moselland company of Germany has a riesling with a bottle in the shape of a house cat.

The home wine maker may use any bottle, as the shape of the bottle does not affect the taste of
the finished product. The sole exception is in producing sparkling wine, where thicker-walled
bottles should be used to handle the excess pressure.

[edit] Colours

Wine Bottle

The traditional colours used for wine bottles are:

 Bordeaux: dark green for reds, light green for dry whites, clear for sweet whites.
 Burgundy and the Rhone: dark green.
 Mosel and Alsace: dark to medium green, although some producers have traditionally used
amber.
 Rhine: amber, although some producers have traditionally used green.

Clear bottles have recently become popular with white wine producers in many countries,
including Greece, Canada and New Zealand. Most red wine worldwide is still bottled in green
glass.
[edit] Capsules
Most wine bottles finished with a cork (as opposed to a screwcap) have a protective sleeve called
a capsule (commonly referred to as a "foil") covering the top of the bottle. Capsules were
historically made of lead, and protected the cork from being gnawed away by rodents or infested
with cork weevil. Because of research showing that trace amounts of toxic lead could remain on
the lip of the bottle and mix with the poured wine[1], lead capsules (lead foil bottleneck
wrappings) were slowly phased out, and by the 1990s[2], most capsules were made of tin, heat-
shrink plastic (polyethylene or PVC), or aluminium. Sealing wax is sometimes used, or the
capsule can be omitted entirely, since it is not needed with some modern stoppers[3]. In the US,
the FDA finally officially banned lead foil capsules on domestic and imported wine bottles as of
1996[4].

[edit] Punts
A punt, also known as a kick-up, refers to the dimple at the bottom of a wine bottle. There is no
consensus explanation for its purpose. The more commonly cited explanations include:[1]

 it is a symbol -- the larger the punt the better the wine


 it is a historical remnant of old-fashioned glass-blowing techniques; by raising the point where
the glass-blowers tube is attached, the small imperfection would not scratch the table
 it had the function of making the bottle less likely to topple over -- a bottle designed with a flat
bottom only needs a small imperfection to make it unstable -- the dimple historically allowed for
a larger margin of error
 it consolidates sediment deposits in a thick ring at the bottom of the bottle, preventing it from
being poured into the glass;[6]
 it allows a bottle of sparkling wine to be turned upside-down and then stacked (depending on its
shape)
 it increases the strength of the bottle, allowing it to hold the high pressure of sparkling
wine/champagne
 it holds the bottles in place on pegs of a conveyor belt as they go through the filling process in
manufacturing plants
 it accommodates the pourer's thumb for stability and ease of pouring
 According to legend the punt was used by servants. They often knew more than their master
about what was happening in town, and with a thumb up the punt they could show their master
whether a guest was reliable or not. (Vinavisen 19 may 2008 - danish)
 it provides a grip for riddling a bottle of sparkling wine manually in the traditional champagne
production process.
 it simply takes up some of the volume of the bottle, giving the impression that you're getting
more wine for your money than is actually the case
 Taverns had a steel pin set vertically in the bar. The empty bottle would be thrust bottom-end
down onto this pin, puncturing a hole in the top of the punt, guaranteeing the bottle could not
be refilled [folklore].

[edit] Environmental impact


See also: Glass container industry

Glass retains its colour on recycling, and the United Kingdom has a large surplus of green glass
because it imports a large quantity of wine but produces very little. 1.4m tonnes are sent to
landfill annually.[7]

Glass is a relatively heavy packing material and wine bottles use quite thick glass, so the tare
weight of a full wine bottle is a relatively high proportion of its gross weight. This has led to
suggestions that wine should be exported in bulk from producer regions and bottled close to the
market. This would reduce the cost of transportation and its carbon footprint, and provide a local
market for recycled green glass.[8][9] Less radically, box wine is sold in large-size light cardboard
and foil containers; though its use is restricted to cheaper products.

[edit] Notes and references


1. ^ a b Johnson, Hugh (2004). The Story of Wine. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 1840009721.
2. ^ Jackson, Ron (1997). Conserve Water, Drink Wine: Recollections of a Vinous Voyage of
Discovery. Haworth Press. ISBN 1560228644.
3. ^ MacNeil, Karen (2001). The Wine Bible. Workman. ISBN 1563054345.
4. ^ Wine 101 :: AWinestore.com
5. ^ "Jeroboam Wine Facts". http://www.jeroboam.com/jeroboam_wine_facts.html. Retrieved on
2008-12-26.
6. ^ This may be more historical than a functional attribute, since most modern wines contain little
or no sediment (MacNeil 2001)
7. ^ Hickman, Leo (2006-05-09). "Is it OK ... to drink wine?". The Guardian.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2006/may/09/ethicalmoney.foodanddrink. Retrieved on
2007-11-22.
8. ^ Lamb, Garth. "Carbon copy". Waste Management & Environment.
http://www.wme.com.au/categories/waste_managemt/aug4_06.php. Retrieved on 2007-11-22.
"If wine was imported in bulk vats and then bottled locally, the market for the most beneficial
recycling option would increase."
9. ^ British Glass (15 September 2006). New Wine Bottle Project. Press release.
http://britglass.org.uk/NewsEvents/BGNewsCurrent/NewWineBottleProject.html. Retrieved on
2007-11-22.

[edit] See also


 Alternative wine closures
 Beer bottle
 Glass Container Industry
 Tunc

[edit] External links


Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Wine bottles

 Wine Bottle Shapes, from CellarNotes


 Different Wine Bottle Shapes
 Wine Bottle Shapes, from The Wine Doctor
 Jeroboam used as early as 1725, from maisons-champagne.com

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wine_bottle"


Categories: Wine packaging and storage | Glass bottles | Recyclable materials

Glass Wine Bottles: Standard Shapes and Colors

Wine Bottles come in various different shapes and colors. This index is designed to help you familiarize the different types of Wine Bottles that exist
the industry.

Bordeaux Style Wine Bottles:

Burgundy Style Wine Bottles:


Champagne Style Wine Bottles:

Standard Wine Bottle Colors:

Flint Half-Green Antique Green Amber

Emerald Green Champagne Green Dead-Leaf Green Cobalt Blue


Wine Bottles

The shape of wine bottles can communicate a great deal about the taste of the wine inside. In
Europe, many wine producing areas developed unique wine bottle shapes that became the traditional
bottle for wines of that region. As winemaking spread around the world, new wineries often adopted
those traditional European bottle shapes in order to communicate with their consumers.

The high shouldered 'Bordeaux Bottle' is used by most wineries for Cabernet Sauvignon ,
Merlot, Malbec and most Meritage or Bordeaux blends. This is because those are the key
grape varieties that are allowed for use in red wines from the Bordeaux region.

The Bordeaux bottle is also generally used for Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon.
These are the primary grape varieties allowed in the production of white wines in
Bordeaux.

The slope shouldered 'Burgundy Bottle' is generally used for Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
around the world. These are the two key grape varieties used in the Burgundy region of
France for white and red wine production.

This shape is also used for many Loire Valley wines.

The tall 'Hoch Bottle' is used in Germany (green in the Mosel and brown in the Rhine) and
also in Alsace (northeastern France).
It is used by wineries in many parts of the world for several grape varieties including
Riesling, Gewurztraminer and Muller-Thurgau.

The indentation found in the bottom of most 'better' wine bottles is called a punt. Click Here for more
information about punts.
Punt

A punt is the concave bottom of a


'better' wine wine bottles . The earliest
origins of the punt are lost in history but
there is much conjecture. Punts likely
existed either for strength of the bottom
of the bottle (especially with sparkling
wine) or in order to form a stable (non-
rocking) bottom in the hand-blown
bottles. Today a punt is unnecessary
and exists only because many
consumers equate the presence of a
punt as an indication of quality. Modern
glass technology allows bottles to be
made that do not require a punt for
strength or stability for either sparkling
or still wines.