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Camelia Neagu

LIMBA ENGLEZĂ 2
- suport de curs -

EDITURA UNIVERSITĂŢII „NICOLAE TITULESCU”


BUCUREŞTI

2018
Acest material este destinat uzului studenţilor, forma de învăţământ la distanţă.

Conţinutul cursului este proprietatea intelectuală a autorului/autorilor; designul, machetarea şi


transpunerea în format electronic aparţin Departamentului de Învăţământ la Distanţă al
Universităţii „Nicolae Titulescu” din Bucureşti.

Acest curs este destinat uzului individual. Este interzisă multiplicarea, copierea sau
difuzarea conţinutului sub orice formă.
UNIVERSITATEA „NICOLAE TITULESCU” DIN BUCUREŞTI
DEPARTAMENTUL PENTRU ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTUL LA DISTANŢĂ

Camelia Neagu

Limba engleză 2
Editura Universităţii „Nicolae Titulescu”

Calea Văcăreşti, nr. 185, sector 4, Bucureşti


Tel./fax: 0213309032/0213308606
Email: editura@univnt.ro

ISBN: 978-606-751-505-3
CUPRINS
INTRODUCERE ................................................................................................................................................ 7
OBIECTIVELE CURSULUI ............................................................................................................................. 7
COMPETENȚE ................................................................................................................................................. 7
RESURSE ŞI MIJLOACE DE LUCRU ............................................................................................................. 8
STRUCTURA CURSULUI ............................................................................................................................... 9
TEME DE CONTROL ....................................................................................................................................... 9
CERINŢE PRELIMINARE PENTRU PARCURGEREA CURSULUI ........................................................... 10
DURATA MEDIE DE STUDIU INDIVIDUAL .............................................................................................. 10
EVALUAREA ................................................................................................................................................. 10
BIBLIOGRAFIE: ............................................................................................................................................. 11
UNIT 1: THE PAST TENSES ...................................................................................................................... 12
1.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 12
1.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 12
1.3. CONŢINUT............................................................................................................................................... 12
1.4. DEZVOLTARE APTITUDINILOR ......................................................................................................... 15
1.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM... ............................................................................................................................. 16
1.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 16
1.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 16
1.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 17
UNIT 2: COURTS OF LAW IN THE UNITED KINGDOM ...................................................................... 18
2.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 18
2.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 18
2.3. CONŢINUT............................................................................................................................................... 18
2.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR....................................................................................................... 20
2.5. SĂ NE REAMINITIM... ............................................................................................................................ 21
2.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 21
2.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 22
2.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 23
UNIT 3: PRESENT PERFECT .................................................................................................................... 24
3.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 24
3.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 24
3.3. CONŢINUT............................................................................................................................................... 24
3.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR....................................................................................................... 29
3.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM... ............................................................................................................................. 29
3.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 30
3.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 30
3.8. TEMA DE CONTROL 1 ........................................................................................................................... 32
3.9. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 32
UNIT 4: THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM ................................................................................................. 33
4.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 33
4.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 33
4.3. CONȚINUT............................................................................................................................................... 33
4.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR....................................................................................................... 35
4.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM... ............................................................................................................................. 35
4.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 36
4.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 36
4.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 37
UNIT 5: PAST PERFECT ............................................................................................................................ 38
5.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 38
5.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 38

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5.3. CONȚINUT............................................................................................................................................... 38
5.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR....................................................................................................... 40
5.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM... ............................................................................................................................. 41
5.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 41
5.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 41
5.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 42
UNIT 6: THE EUROPEAN UNION ............................................................................................................ 43
6.1. INTRODUCERE ....................................................................................................................................... 43
6.2. OBIECTIVE .............................................................................................................................................. 43
6.3. CONȚINUT............................................................................................................................................... 43
6.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR....................................................................................................... 45
6.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM... ............................................................................................................................. 46
6.6. REZUMAT ................................................................................................................................................ 46
6.7. TEST ......................................................................................................................................................... 46
6.8. TEMA DE CONTROL 2 ........................................................................................................................... 47
6.9. BIBLIOGRAFIE ....................................................................................................................................... 47
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS .................................................................................................................. 48

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LIMBA ENGLEZĂ 2

Coordonator curs: lect.univ.dr. Camelia NEAGU

INTRODUCERE

Limba engleză 2 se adresează în principal studenţilor din anul I, semestrul al II-lea,


din cadrul sistemului de Învăţământ la Distanţă (ID) al Universităţii „Nicolae Titulescu”,
Facultatea de Drept, cu un nivel mediu de cunoaştere a limbii engleze. Acest curs îşi propune
să le ofere studenţilor posibilitatea de a continua recapitularea cunoştinţelor accumulate,
precum şi însuşirea unor elemente noi (noţiuni generale din limbajul juridic). De asemenea,
cursul îşi propune dezvoltarea unor strategii care să conducă la autonomia studenţilor în
învăţare, prin conştientizarea nevoilor personale, efort individual şi autoevaluare permanentă.
Cursul este structurat în 6 unităţi de învăţare. Textele sunt însoţite de exerciţii, care au
rolul de a facilita procesul de înţelegere şi de a favoriza acumularea lexicală.

OBIECTIVELE CURSULUI

Obiectivele cursului sunt:

1. să formeze deprinderilor necesare pentru a folosi limba engleză în mod flexibil şi eficient
atât în scopuri sociale cât şi profesionale
2. să îmbogăţească vocabularul studenţilor prin achiziţia de termeni juridici în limba engleză.
3. să crească încrederea studenţilor în capacităţile personale de îndeplinirea sarcinilor
comunicative în limba engleză

COMPETENȚE

Competenţele pe care trebuie să le dobândească studenţii se înscriu în precizările


oferite de Cadrul European Comun de Referinţă pentru Limbi: Învăţare, Predare, Evaluare
(2001). Astfel, nivelul pe care îl au studenţii la începutul acestui curs ar trebui să fie B1 sau
B2, şi ne dorim ca nivelul atins la finalizare (sfârşitul anului al II-lea = patru semestre de
studiu) să fie B2+ sau chiar C1.

Competenţele de comunicare lingvistică pe care studentul le poate dobândi cuprinde


următoarele componente:

1. Competenţa lingvistică generală: să se exprime clar şi fără a lăsa impresia că


este nevoit să restrângă ceea ce vrea să spună;
a. competenţa lexicală: să stăpânească o gamă bogată de vocabular pentru subiectele
legate de domeniul juridic şi subiectele cele mai generale;
b. competenţa gramaticală: să menţină un control gramatical bun, să nu facă greşeli care
să conducă la neînţelegeri;

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c. competenţa fonologică: pronunţie şi intonaţie fireşti;
d. competenţa ortografică: să producă un text scris coerent, clar şi inteligibil ce respectă
regulile curente de dispunere în pagină şi de organizare.

2. Competenţa sociolingvistică: să se exprime cu siguranţă, simplu şi politicos într-


un registru oficial şi neoficial potrivit cu situaţia şi persoanele în cauză.

3. Competenţa pragmatică:

a. competenţa discursivă:
- să poată face o descriere sau alcătui un discurs clar dezvoltând şi argumentând
punctele importante cu ajutorul detaliilor şi al exemplelor semnificative;
- să poată interveni într-o discuţie într-o manieră adecvată;
- să poată utiliza cu eficacitate o varietate de cuvinte de legătură pentru a marca clar
legăturile dintre idei.

b. competenţa funcţională:
- să poată comunica cu spontaneitate, demonstrând adeseori o remarcabilă uşurinţă şi o
facilitate de exprimare chiar şi în enunţurile complexe şi destul de lungi;
- să poată transmite o informaţie amănunţită în mod fiabil.

RESURSE ŞI MIJLOACE DE LUCRU

Propunem utilizarea următoarelor resursele si mijloacele de lucru:


• prezentul curs practic de limba engleză;
• o gramatică a limbii engleze, pentru referinţe (să poată fi consultată la nevoie 1);
• un dicţionar general englez-român, român englez;
• un dicţionar juridic englez-român / român-englez 2

De asemenea, sugerăm şi folosirea resurselor digitale online (e.g.


www.wikipedia.com, www.britannica.com pentru clarificarea unor termeni şi concepte
specific limbajului juridic; www.esl-lounge.com student pentru explicaţii privind regulile
specific limbii engleze; www.linguee.com pentru traduceri).

Sugerăm următoarele variante posibile:


1

• Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL Educational
• Vince, Michael (2008) - Macmillan English Grammar In Context Student's Book – Intermediate,
London: Macmillan
• Preda, Ioan; Leviţchi, Leon (2008) – Gramatica limbii engleze, Bucureşti: Gramar
• Docherty, Vincent; Brough, Sonia (2009) – Gramatica standard a limbii engleze, Bucureşti:
Niculescu
Sugerăm următoarele variante posibile:
2

• Dicţionar dicţionar juridic englez-român / român-englez, (2008), Bucureşti: C.H.Beck


• Dicţionar dicţionar juridic englez-român / român-englez, (2009), Bucureşti: Lumina Lex

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STRUCTURA CURSULUI

Cursul pentru semestrul al II-lea este compus din 6 unităţi de învăţare, după cum
urmează:
1. Unitatea de învăţare 1 – EXPRIMAREA TRECUTULUI ÎN LIMBA ENGLEZĂ (THE
PAST TENSES)
2. Unitatea de învăţare 2 – TIPURI DE INSTANŢE ÎN REGATUL UNIT (COURTS OF
LAW IN THE UNITED KINGDOM)
3. Unitatea de învăţare 3 – PREZENTUL PERFECT (PRESENT PERFECT)
4. Unitatea de învăţare 4 – SISTEMUL JURIDIC BRITANIC (THE BRITISH LEGAL
SYSTEM)
5. Unitatea de învăţare 5 – MAI MULT CA PERFECTUL (PAST PERFECT)
6. Unitatea de învăţare 6 – UNIUNEA EUROPEANĂ (THE EUROPEAN UNION)

Fiecare unitate este alcătuită din:

1. INTRODUCERE – se oferă o scurtă descriere a conţinutului unităţii de învăţare.


2. OBIECTIVE – reprezintă ceea ce studenţii trebuie să atingă prin parcurgerea unităţii
respective (aceste obiective sunt stabilite pentru a coordona procesul de învăţare,
pentru a-i motiva pe studenţi să-şi însuşească conţinutul şi de asemenea pentru a-i
ajuta să se autoevalueze).
3. CONȚINUT – această secțiune include fie explicații cu privire la regulile specific
limbii engleze, fie un text care conține informaţii despre Regatul Unit
4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR – include activităţi menite să dezvolte
competenţele lexicale și de traducere, necesare exprimării corecte în domeniul juridic.
5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM – punctează principalele aspecte furnizate în unitate până la
momentul respectiv.
6. REZUMAT – în această secțiune se oferă o sinteză a principalelor puncte dezbătute în
cadrul unităţii de învăţare, făcându-se legătura cu următoarele unităţi de învăţare.
7. TEST – rezolvările vor fi dezbătute în cadrul tutorialelor
8. BIBLIOGRAFIA

Cheia exerciţiilor este postată pe platforma eLis.

TEME DE CONTROL

Acest curs conține și 2 TEME DE CONTROL:

TEMA DE CONTROL 1

Comparaţi structura instanţelor din România cu cea a instanţelor din Regatul


Unit, evidenţiind asemănările şi deosebirile.

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TEMA DE CONTROL 2

Realizați o scurtă prezentare scrisă în limba engleză a principalelor prevederi incluse în


Tratatul de la Lisabona.

Rezolvarea celor două teme de control reprezintă 30% din nota finală.
Prima temă de control trebuie rezolvată şi încărcată pe platforma e-lis, o săptămână înainte de
prima întâlnire tutorială prevăzută în orar, iar cea de-a doua temă, cu o săptămână înainte de
cea de-a doua întâlnire tutorială prevăzută în orar.

CERINŢE PRELIMINARE PENTRU PARCURGEREA CURSULUI

Este necesar un nivel cel puţin mediu de limba engleză pentru parcurgerea acestui curs (de
exemplu obţinerea cel puţin a calificativului B1 la examenul de bacalaureat sau al unui
calificativ similar).

DURATA MEDIE DE STUDIU INDIVIDUAL

90 minute pentru fiecare unitate.

EVALUAREA

La sfârşitul semestrului, studentul va primi o notă care va fi compusă din:

1. 70% evaluarea finală, care va avea loc în sesiunea de examene, sub formă scrisă.
2. 30% evaluarea pe parcurs, prin notarea celor două teme de control obligatorii.

Examenul scris de la sfârşitul semestrului al II-lea va evalua competenţele lingvistice,


sociolingvistice şi pragmatice dobândite prin parcurgerea unităţilor de învăţare 1-6 şi va avea
o durată de 60 de minute.

Structura examenului scris poate fi următoarea:

1. Un text şi şase întrebări. Trebuie să citiţi textul şi să alegeţi varianta corectă de răspuns
(A, B, C sau D).
2. Un text cu 15 spaţii goale. Fiecare spaţiu gol reprezintă un cuvânt sau o expresie.
Trebuie să citiţi textul şi să alegeţi cuvântul sau expresia potrivită (A, B, C sau D).
3. Opinia cu privire la o afirmaţie dată. Trebuie să redactaţi un text (200-240 de cuvinte)
cu argumente susţinând sau combatând ideea prezentată.
4. Traducerea unui text de 60-70 de cuvinte, preluat dintr-o text asemănător ca tematică
celor incluse în acest manual.

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5. Retroversiunea a 5 propoziţii/fraze care să conţină structuri gramaticale sau funcţii ale
limbii revizuite în cadrul unităţilor din semestrul al II-lea.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti: Editura
Universitară
2. Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru
profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
3. Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational
4. Seidl, Jennifer; Schwarz, Hellmut (2012). English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL
Educational
5. Walenn, Jeremy (2009). English for law in higher education studies. London: Garnet
Publishing.

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Unit 1: THE PAST TENSES

Conţinut:

1.1. Introducere
1.2. Obiective
1.3. Conţinut
1.4. Dezvoltare lexicală
1.5. Să ne reaminitim
1.6. Rezumat
1.7. Test
1.8. Bibliografie

1.1. INTRODUCERE

În această unitate de învăţare, veţi recapitula trecutul simplu şi trecutul continuu,


două dintre cele cele mai importante timpuri ale limbii engleze.

1.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


• să folosească în mod corect trecutul simplu şi continuu
• să evite confuziile care apar în momentul folosirii celor două timpuri, confuzii
frecvente în cazul vorbitorilor de română.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 de minute.

1.3. CONŢINUT

A.THE SIMPLE PAST

The Simple Past Tense in regular verbs is formed by adding ed to the infinitive.
Infinitive: to look Simple past: looked

Verbs ending in e add d only:


Infinitive: to love Simple past: loved

Irregular verbs vary in their simple past form:


Infinitive: to see, to speak, to leave, to eat
Past tense: saw spoke left ate

The simple past form of each irregular verb therefore must be learnt.

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1. The same form is used for all persons in affirmative even if we have a regular or
irregular verb.
I worked We worked I spoke We spoke
You worked You worked You spoke You spoke
He/she worked They worked He/she spoke They spoke

2. The negative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with:


did + not (didn’t) + the infinitive

I did not work We did not work I did not speak We did not spe
You did not work You did not work You did not speak You did not sp
He/she/it did not work They did not work He/she/it did not speak They did not sp

3. The interrogative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with:


did + subject + infinitive

Did I work? Did we work? Did I speak? Did we speak?


Did you work? Did you work? Did you speak? Did you speak?
Did he/she/it work? Did they work? Did he/she/it speak? Did they speak

4. Negative interrogative is formed with:


didn’t + subject + infinitive

Didn’t I work? Didn’t we work? Didn’t I speak? Didn’t we spea


Didn’t you work? Didn’t you work? Didn’t you speak? Didn’t you spe
Didn’t he/she/it work? Didn’t they work? Didn’t he/she/it speak? Didn’t they spe

Past Tense is used for the relation of past events:


 It is used for actions completed in the past at a definite time:
e.g. I met him yesterday.
When did you meet him last?
I bought this car in London (here the action took place at a
definite time though this time is not mentioned).
 It is also used for an action whose time is not given but which occupied a
period of time now terminated:
e.g. He worked in that bank for four years (but he doesn’t work there
now).
Did you ever hear Maria Callas sing?
 The simple past is also used for a past habit:
e.g. He always carried an umbrella.
She never drank wine.
 The simple past is used in conditional sentences for the use of the unreal past:
e.g. If I lived near my office I’d be in time for work (but I don’t live
near my office).
If I were you I’d go to see a doctor (but I am not you).

B. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

This tense is formed by:


The past tense of the verb to be (was, were) + the present participle (ing)

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Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I was speaking I was not speaking Was I speaking?
You were speaking You were not speaking Were you speaking?
He/she/it was speaking He/she/it was not speaking Was he/she/it speaking
We were speaking We were not speaking Were we speaking?
You were speaking You were not speaking Were you speaking?
They were speaking They were not speaking Were they speaking?

Some of the verbs cannot be used in the continuous tenses:


 Verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe, look, taste, as link verbs.
 Verbs expressing feelings and emotions: admire, adore, appreciate, desire,
dislike, fear, hate, like, love, want, wish.
 Verbs of mental activity: agree, believe, assume, expect, forget, know, mean,
recognise, suppose, think, trust.
 Verbs of possession: belong, owe, own, possess.

Main uses of the past continuous tense:


 The past continuous is used for past actions which continued for some time but
whose limits are not known;
 Used without a time expression it can indicate a gradual development;
 Used with a point in time, it expresses an action which began before that time
and probably continued after:
e.g. At eight he was having breakfast.
 Used in descriptions:
e.g. A wood fire was burning, a cat was sleeping in front of it. A girl
was playing the piano.
 It can be also used as a past equivalent of the present continuous:
Direct speech: He said: “I am living in London”.
Indirect speech: He said he was living in London.
 We may also use past continuous for apparently parallel actions:
e.g. Between one and two I was doing the shopping and walking the
dog.
o This tense is normally used in this way with a time expression such as
today, last night, in the afternoon, which could either be regarded as
points in time or as periods.
o In questions about how a period was spent, the continuous often appears
more polite than the simple past:
e.g. What were you doing before you came here? Sounds more polite
than: What did you do before you came here?

I. Correct the mistakes in the sentences below:

1. When we arrived at court, the witness testified so we could listen to his testimony.
………………………………………………….
2. The muggers hid in the old building when the police officers approached the scene
of the crime.
……………………………………………

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II. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or past continuous tense:

1. ”I (take) my friend to a murder trial the other day.”


”Who (be) tried?”
”A man called Tom Brown.”
”Was he acquitted?”
”I don’t know. They still (listen) to the evidence when we (leave).”
2. As we (come) here, a policeman (stop) us. He (say) that he (look) for some stolen
property and (ask) if he could search the car.
3. While he (make) his speech, the minister suddenly (feel) faint. But someone (bring)
him a glass of water and after a few minutes he (be able) to continue.
4. The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). He
(wear) blue overalls and black shoes.
5. I just (write) a cheque when I (remember) that I (have) nothing in the bank.
6. At 3 a.m. Mrs. Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) she (think) that someone (try) to
get into the house.
7. When I last (see) her she (hurry) along the road to the station. I (ask) her where she
(go) and she (say), “London”, but I don’t think she (speak) the truth, because there
(not be) any train for London at that time.
8. The teacher (come) into the classroom unusually early and one of the boys, who
(smoke) a cigarette, (have) no time to put it out. So he (throw) it into the desk and
(hope) for the best.
9. A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk.
“You (smoke) when I (come) in?” he (ask).
10. I (be) sorry that I (have to) leave the party early, because I (enjoy) myself.

1.4. DEZVOLTARE APTITUDINILOR

I. Put the verbs in the following sentences into: a) the negative; b) the
interrogative:

1. They broadcast an appeal for money.


2. The police caught the thief.
3. We heard a terrible noise.
4. His son wrote a novel.
5. I read a chapter of that novel last night.
6. His wife came at 8.00 p.m.
7. The action of the play took place in Italy.
8. She found her watch.
9. I sent it to the laundry.
10. They lent you enough money.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. Which optional course did you choose for this semester?


2. Did you lend the English course book to anyone last week?
3. How much did the coursebooks for the 1st year of study cost you?
4. When did this academic year begin?
5. How many options did you have when you decided to become a student at this

15
university?
6. When did you meet your best friend/colleague?
7. Who did you consult with when you decided to take up studying law?
8. Why did you enrol in our law faculty?

1.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM...

Spre deosebire de limba română, verbul englezesc are patru aspecte: simplu,
continuu, perfect şi perfect continuu.
Aspectul continuu al verbului indică faptul că o acţiune este în curs de
desfăşurare la un moment dat, în timp ce aspectul simplu face referire la acţiuni care se
petrec în mod obişnuit şi nu la un moment dat.

1.6. REZUMAT

Trecutul simplu este folosit pentru a exprima:


• acţiuni încheiate într-o perioadă de timp trecută;
• acţiuni obişnuite, repetate din trecut (cu adverbe de frecvenţă);
• acţiuni care s-au desfăşurat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp încheiate (cu
prepoziţia for);
• o condiţie ireală (în Condiţionalele de tipul II).

Trecutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima:


• o acţiune care se afla în continuă desfăşurare la un moment dat în trecut;
• o acţiune aflată în desfăşurare în trecut şi întreruptă de o altă acţiune;
• acţiuni care s-au aflat în desfăşurare în trecut, în acelaşi timp;
• descrierea unor secvenţe din trecut.

În unitățile următoare vom recapitula şi alte reguli specifice limbii engleze.

1.7. TEST

I. Choose the right answer:

1. What did you do when your husband called?


(a) I put the book down.
(b) I was reading a book.
2. What was Tom doing while Bill was fishing?
(a) He sat on the bank and waited.
(b) He was swimming in the river.
3. The door bell (a) rang / (b) was ringing at about eight o’clock. It was Tom.
4. When he (a) was calling / (b) called, I (c) read / (d) was reading a book, but I (e)
put down / (f) was putting down my book, and (g) was going / (h) went to make a
cup of coffee for him.
5. Alice (a) visited / (b) was visiting her mother at that time, and I never know where
(a) she puts anything / (b) does she put anything.
6. First, I (a) wasn’t finding / (b) couldn’t find the coffee and I spent ten minutes

16
looking (c) at / (d) for it. Then (e) I’ve found / (f) I’d found it / (g) I couldn’t find /
(h) wasn’t finding the coffee-pot.
7. When I (a) went back / (b) was going back into the lounge, it was half past eight.
8. Tom looked (a) at / (b) for the clock. “What (c) did you do / (d) were you doing in
the kitchen all that time?” he asked me. “I (e) made / (f) was making coffee for
you”, I (g) told / (h) said him.

II. Choose the right answer (sometimes two answers are correct; explain):

1. The judge was hearing/heard the testimony when we entered the court room.
2. What was the suspect doing/what did the suspect do when the alarm went on?
3. The jurors were not able to/could not understand the author’s behavior.
4. Fortunately, the barrister has not /had not recorded a lost single case until last week.
5. Since the evidence has been /had been collected, the prosecutors could formulate
their accusation.

1.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice
Book, Bucureşti: ALL Educational
3. Seidl, Jennifer; Schwarz, Hellmut (2012). English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL
Educational

17
Unit 2: COURTS OF LAW IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

Cuprins:

2.1. Introducere
2.2. Obiective
2.3. Conţinut
2.4. Dezvoltare abilităţilor de traducere
2.5. Să ne reaminitim
2.6. Rezumat
2.7. Test
2.8. Bibliografie

2.1. INTRODUCERE

În această unitate de învăţare, vom analiza instanţele de judecată din Regatul


Unit.

2.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


• să dobândească informaţii generale cu privire la ierarhizarea instanţelor de
judecată din Regatul Unit;
• să compare modul de ierarhizare a instanţelor de judecată din ţara noastră cu
cele din Regatul Unit.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

2.3. CONŢINUT

COURTS OF LAW IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

In the English System three different types of institutions have been set up to resolve
legal problems. These institutions are: Criminal Courts, Civil Courts and Appelate
Courts.

1. CRIMINAL COURTS are concerned with wrongs against community. In England


and Wales they include:

a. Magistrates Courts try less serious offences. They consist of two to seven unpaid or
“lay” magistrates known as Justices of the peace. The Jury is made up of twelve
ordinary people aged between 18 and 65. When they have heard the evidence and the
judge’s summing-up, they retire to a special room to decide whether to return a verdict

18
of guilty or no guilty. If they all agree, they have reached a unanimous verdict. If the
accused is found guilty, he or she has the right to appeal and ask for the case to be
heard by a higher court.

b. Courts of Quarter Session try most of the serious offences. These Courts are
presided over by a bench of justices under a chairman. The Courts of Quarter Session
sit at least four times a year in the counties and boroughs.

c. Courts of Assize generally try the gravest offences. These Courts are branches of
High Court. They are presided over by High Court judges. There are such Courts of
Assize in London, at the Old Bailey, Central Criminal Court, at Liverpool and
Manchester.
All trials at quarter session and assizes are held with a jury.

2. CIVIL COURTS are concerned with rights, duties and obligations of individual
members of the community between themselves. The courts concerned with civil
jurisdiction in England and Wales are:

a. Magistrates Courts are mainly related to domestic proceedings. They have limited
civil jurisdiction.

b. County Courts where the most ordinary civil actions are heard and tried.

c. The High Court is divided into: the Chancery Division, the Probate Division, the
Divorce Division, Admiralty Division and the Queen’s Bench Division.
The High Court forms part of the Supreme Court of Judicature.

In Scotland, civil cases of first instance are heard at the Sheriff Courts (they
correspond to the County Courts in England and Wales) and the Outer House of the
Court of Session (this one is the supreme court in Scotland).

3. APPEALS

They may be heard in the High Court, the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal (the
most important appeals) and a few appeals are heard before the House of Lords, this
one being the ultimate court of appeal in civil cases.

There is also another classification of these institutions:

Courts of First Instance in which cases are heard for the first time.

Appelate Courts in which people appeal for reconsideration of the decisions of the
Courts of First Instance.

As to the latest legal journals there are many English Courts which exercise purely
civil or criminal cases and some others hear both criminal and civil cases, as for
instance: the House of Lords and the Court of Appeal.

19
I. Correct the mistakes in the sentences below:

a. In Courts of First Instance cases are heard again for a better judgment
thereof.
……………………………………………………………………………….
b. Magistrates Courts try very serious offences.
………………………………………………………………………………..

2.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR

I.Answer the following questions:

1. What are the main criminal courts in England and Wales and what do they try?
2. What are the courts of civil jurisdiction in England, Wales and Scotland?
3. Where may appeals be heard?

II. Fill in the blanks with the missing words:

try branches quarter held thegravest over


AssizeCourt Supreme part heard offences

1. Courts of Assize try ……. offences.


2. Magistrates’ Courts ………… the less serious ………….. .
3. These Courts are ………. of the High Court presided ……… by High Court judges.
4. The High Court forms ……. of the …….. Court of Judicature.
5. The Central Criminal Court in London at the Old Bailey is an ………. .
6. All trials at ……….. sessions and assizes are ……….. with a jury.
7. Appeals may be ………. in the High Court.

III. One way of classifying and understanding the law is by subject matter.
Lawyers often divide the law and the legal system into two: criminal law and civil
law. Classify the following terms into the appropriate column below. Two terms
can appear in both columns:

compensation / contract/ crime / damages / family law /


intellectual property / plaintiff / police / private individual / prosecution /
the accused/ the defendant / theft / to bring a case /
to bring an action / to fine/ to charge someone with something

Criminal Civil
to charge someone with something plaintiff

20
IV. Translate into Romanian:

ARTICLE 126
(1) Justice shall be administered by the High Court of Cassation and Justice, and the
other courts of law set up by the law.
(2) The jurisdiction of the courts of law and the judging procedure shall only be
stipulated by law.
(3) The High Court of Cassation and Justice shall provide a unitary interpretation and
implementation of the law by the other courts of law, according to its competence.
(4) The composition of the High Court of Cassation and Justice, and the regulation for
its functioning shall be set up in an organic law.
(5) It is prohibited to establish extraordinary courts of law. By means of an organic
law, courts of law specialized in certain matters may be set up, allowing the
participation, as the case may be, of persons outside the magistracy.
(6) The judicial control of administrative acts of the public authorities, by way of the
contentious business falling within the competence of administrative courts, is
guaranteed, except for those regarding relations with the Parliament, as well as the
military command acts. The administrative courts, judging contentious business have
jurisdiction to solve the applications filed by persons aggrieved by statutory orders or,
as the case may be, by provisions in statutory orders declared unconstitutional.
(The Romanian Constitution)

V. Translate into English:

ARTICLE 129
Împotriva hotărârilor judecătoreşti, părţile interesate şi Ministerul Public pot exercita
căile de atac, în condiţiile legii.
(Constituţia României)

2.5. SĂ NE REAMINITIM...

- Modul de ierarhizare a instanţelor de judecată din Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii


este diferit de cel din ţara noastră.

- În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, cauzele civile se judecă în următoarele instanţe:


Magistrates Courts, County Courts, Courts of Assize, iar cele penale, în:
Magistrates Courts, Courts of Quarter Session, Courts of Assize.

2.6. REZUMAT

În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, cauzele penale se judecă în următoarele


instanţe:
• Magistrates Courts (pentru infracţiuni minore), în cadrul cărora lucrează
Judecătorii de pace (Justices of the Peace);
• Courts of Quarter Session (pentru majoritatea infracţiunilor grave)
• Courts of Assize (infracţiunile deosebit de grave).

21
Cauzele civile se judecă în următoarele instanţe:
• Magistrates Courts (conflicte familiale)
• County Courts (majoritatea litigiilor civile)
• The High Court.

Apelurile şi recursurile se judecă în: The High Court, the Civil Division of the
Court of Appeal şi The House of Lords.

În România, Justiţia se realizează prin următoarele instanţe judecătoreşti:


a) Înalta Curte de Casaţie şi Justiţie;
b) curţi de apel;
c) tribunale;
d) tribunale specializate;
e) instanţe militare;
f) judecătorii. (v. Legea 304/2004)

Vom continua să aflăm informaţii despre Regatul Unit şi în următoarele unităţi


ale acestui manual.

2.7. TEST

I. Complete the following text contrasting criminal and civil law by choosing the
words/phrases below.

compensation to charge crime


damages family law intellectual property
plaintiff police private individual
prosecution accused to bring an action

Criminal Law vs. Civil Law

One category is the criminal law – the law dealing with crime.
A case is called a _________(1). The case is instituted by the prosecutor, who takes
over the case from the __________ (2) who have already decided _______ (3) the
defendant (or ________) (4) with specified crimes. The civil law is much more wide-
ranging. The civil law includes the law of _______ (5) and ______ (6).
In a civil case, the __________ (7), normally a _________ (8) or company, ________
(9) in order to win ______ (10). If the case is proven (on the balance of probabilities,
meaning that one is more sure than not), the defendant normally pays the plaintiff
__________ (money) (11).

II. Every jurisdiction organises the administration of justice in different ways. In


England, the basic division between criminal and civil law is reflected in the court
system. Choose from the following to complete the description that refers to each
Court:

Court of Justice of the European Communities


House of Lords
Court of Appeal
Magistrates Court

22
Crown Court
High Court, Criminal Division
High Court, Civil Division
County Court

1. Claims of lesser value will start in a County Court. There are 250 of these around
the country. They can also deal with divorce and bankruptcy matters.
2. Matters of important legal dispute arising in the Crown Court may be appealed to
the __________.
3. From the Court of Appeal, there can be an appeal to the ________ on fact or law,
but usually appeal is only allowed on matters of legal importance.
4. If the case involves a serious crime, it is heard in the ______.
5. In less serious criminal cases (which comprise over 90% of criminal cases), the case
is sent for trial in one of over 400 _______ .
6. More substantial civil claims (over around £ 25,000) are heard in the ________.
7. The __________ was set up under the Treaty of Rome 1957, by which the European
Community was established. The court can overrule all other courts on matters of
Community law.
8. Under the system of appeals in civil cases, it is possible to appeal from a County
Court or the High Court to the ______.

2.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru
profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
3. Walenn, Jeremy (2009). English for law in higher education studies. London:
Garnet Publishing.

23
Unit 3: PRESENT PERFECT

Cuprins:

3.1. Introducere
3.2. Obiective
3.3. Conţinut
3.4. Dezvoltare lexicală
3.5. Să ne reaminitim
3.6. Rezumat
3.7. Test
3.8. Temă de control 1
3.9. Bibliografie

3.1. INTRODUCERE

În această unitate de învăţare, se recapitulează unul dintre cele mai uzuale timpuri ale
limbii engleze (presentul perfect) și cele două aspecte ale sale (simplu și continuu).

3.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


• să folosească în mod corect prezentul perfect simplu și prezentul perfect
continuu, sesizând particularităţile de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la
timpurile din limba română
• să identifice situaţiile de folosire a prezentului perfect în vorbirea curentă, în
limba engleză.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

3.3. CONŢINUT

PRESENT PERFECT

A. Present Perfect Simple is formed with the present tense form of HAVE + the past
participle of the verb to be conjugated

• For the regular verbs the past participle has exactly the same form as the simple
past.

• In irregular verbs, the past participle varies.

• The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary.

24
• The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary and the subject.

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


I have looked I have not looked Have I looked?
You have looked You have not looked Have you looked?
He/she/it has looked He/she/it has not looked Has he/she/it looked?
We have looked We have not looked Have we looked?
You have looked You have not looked Have you looked?
They have looked They have not looked Have they looked?

• Negative interrogative: has he/she it not looked? etc.

This tense may be said to be a sort of mixture of present and past. It implies a strong
connection with the present and is mainly used in conversations, letters, newspapers
and television and radio reports.

The Use of Present Perfect Simple

a) it is used with just for a recently completed action:


He has just gone out.
Just must be placed between the auxiliary and the main verb.

b) it is used for past actions whose time is not definite:


I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them.
Have you had breakfast? – No, I haven’t had it yet.

c) recent actions in the present perfect often have results in the present:
The lift has broken down (we have to use the stairs).

• actions expressed by the present perfect + yet usually have results in the
present.
He hasn’t come yet (so we are still waiting for him).

d) it can also be used for actions which occur in the past, provided the connection
with the present is still maintained, that is that the action could be repeated in
the present:
Ann Cox has written a number of short stories (that is she is still alive and can
write more).

e) it is used for actions occurring in an incomplete period:


• the incomplete period may be indicated by today or this morning / afternoon /
evening / week / month / year / century, etc.
Have you seen him today? – Yes, I have.
Has the postman come this morning?

Note: Present Perfect Simple can be used with this morning, this afternoon only up to
about one o’clock or five o’clock, because after that this morning or this afternoon
becomes a completed period, and actions occurring in it must be put into the simple
past.
• lately, recently used with the present perfect also indicate an incomplete period

25
of time:
He has recently bought this house.
He has had a lot of luck lately.

• it can be used similarly with ever, never, always, occasionally, often, several
times:
I have never been to London.
He has always answered my letters.
This is the worst book I have ever read.

f) it is used for an action which lasts throughout an incomplete period:


• time expressions include for, since, all day/night/week/all the time.
He has been in the army for two years (He is still in the army).
I have smoked since I left school (I still smoke).

o the action usually begins in the past and continues past the time of
speaking in the present;

o sometimes, the action finishes at the time of speaking:


I haven’t seen you for ages (but I see you now).
It has been very cold lately but it’s just beginning to get warmer.

o for used with the simple past denotes a terminated period of time.
We lived here for ten years (but we don’t live there now).

o for used with the present perfect denotes a period of time extending into
the present:
We have lived in London for ten years (and we still live there).

g) it is also used with the verbs to be, to see, to know, to believe:


I have been here for a quarter of an hour.
I have often thought that I should have emigrated.

h) a conversation about a past action often begins with a question and answer in
the present perfect:
Where have you been? ~ I’ve been to the pictures.

i) it is also used in letters:


I am so sorry I haven’t written to you but I’ve been very busy lately as my
husband has been away.

B. Present Perfect Continuous is formed with the present perfect form of the verb to
be + the present participle

Affirmative: I have been working We have been working


You have been working You have been working
He/she/it has been working They have been working

Negative: I have not been working We have not been working

26
You have not been working You have not been working
He/she/it has not been working They have not been working

Negative interrogative:
Have I not been working?/ Haven’t I been working, etc.

The Use of Present Perfect Continuous

This tense is used for an action, which began in the past and is still continuing or has
only just finished. The beginning of the action in the past is pointed out by since and
the duration is represented by for.

Note that the present perfect continuous expresses an action, which is apparently
uninterrupted; we do not use it when we mention the number of time a thing has been
done.
There is, however, a difference between a single action in the simple present perfect
and an action in the present perfect continuous:
a) I’ve polished the car. → it means that the job has been completed.
b) I’ve been polishing the car. → it means: “this is how I’ve spent the last hour”,
it does not mean that the job is completed.

Verbs not normally used in continuous tenses are:


• verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe, listen, look, stare;
• verbs expressing emotion: admire, adore, appreciate, dislike, fear, hate, love,
respect;
• verbs of mental activity: agree, assume, believe, expect, forget, know, realize,
recognize.

Where have you been? ~ I’ve been downtown.


Have you known him for a long time?
I haven’t seen her for ages.

I. Correct the mistakes in the sentences below:

1. Did you win any important case recently?


2. Since 2009 she studies EU law at our university.
3. I never imagined that working in a law firm can be so tiring.
4. Have you been knowing your manager for a long time?
5. Your eyes look red, did you cry?
6. Look at the level of water in the bottle, it is clear that someone is drinking from it
for some time. The level is lower and lower day by day.

II. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect simple or past tense simple:

e.g. You (see) Mary on Monday? ~ Yes, I______


Did you see Mary on Monday? Yes, I did.

1. ‘Where is Tom?’ ‘I (not see) him today, but he (tell) Mary that he’d be in for
dinner.’

27
2. He (serve) in the Second World War.

3.’When the First World War (begin)?’ ‘It (begin) in 1914 and (last) for four years.’

4.”You (see) today’s paper?”


”No, anything interesting (happen)?”
”Yes, two convicted murderers (escape) from the prison down the road.”

5.”How long you (know) your new assistant?”


”I (know) him for two years.”
”What he (do) before he (come) here?”
”I think he (be) in prison.”

6.”Who you (vote) for at the last election?”


”I (vote) for Mr. Pitt.”
”He (not be) elected, (be) he?”
”No, he (lose) elections.”

7.”That house (be) empty for a year.”


”But they just (take) down the “For sale” sign, so I suppose someone (buy) it.”

8. What are all those people looking at?


There (be) an accident.
You (see) what (happen)?
Yes, a motor cycle (run) into a lorry.

9. I (phone) you twice yesterday and (get) no answer.

10. ”I just (be) to the film War and Peace. You (see) it?”
”No, I_______. Is it like the book?”
”I (not read) the book.”
”I (read) it when I (be) at school.”
”When Tolstoy (write) it?”
”He (write) it in 1868.”
”He (write) anything else?”

11. She (say) that she’d phone me this morning, but it is now 12.30 and she (not
phone) yet.

III. Insert the Past Simple or the Present Perfect Simple:

A.
John: ______ you_____ (write) a letter to your friend at last?
Mike: Yes, I_______.
John: When ______you _____ it?
Mike: I ______it last night.
John: And why _______ you not _____(send) it yet?
Mike: I ______ (leave) it at home in the morning and I ______ (be) busy since I
________ (return) home.

28
B.
Father: ________Jane______(come) home?
Mother: Not yet.
Father: I am very anxious about her. When _____she_____ (leave)?
Mother: She ______ (leave) home at 6 o’clock and she _____(go) straight to the
dentist. Don’t worry. I’m sure the doctor _____ (detain) her.
Father: But it’s 9 o’clock now, so she ______ (be) away from home for three.

IV. Complete the sentences with the Simple or Continuous form of the Present
Perfect Tense of the verbs in brackets. The underlined adverbs should be put in
their correct position:

1. I already (to write) the letter, so perhaps you would post it for me.
2. A: How long (to know) you the truth?
B: I only just (to find out) but I (to find out) a lot of other things just recently.
3. You look very upset. What (to happen)?
4. A: What you (to do) for the last half hour?
B: I (to sit) here working at this problem.
5. I wonder if Tom (to forget) my number. I (expect) him to call for the past two hours.
6. I’m sorry we’re late. You (to wait) long?
7. How you (to keep)? Well, I hope.
8. We always (to live) in a flat, so it will seem strange we move into a house with a
garden round it.
9. You (not to finish) that book yet? You (to read) it for more than a week.
10. We (to argue) about this for two hours now. Don’t you think we should stop?

3.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR

Translate into English, using the Present Perfect Tense, Simple and Continuous:

1. Eu n-am mai citit o povestire aşa de interesantă. Ar trebui s-o publici !


2. Încerc să iau legătura cu el de mai bine de o săptămână.
3. El a stat în închisoare timp de un an, nu-i aşa?
4. Sora ta s-a schimbat mult în ultima vreme.
5. Prietenul meu traduce legislaţia UE de peste 5 ani deja.
6. Am studiat dreptul timp de patru ani iar în prezent mă pregătesc pentru a obţine o
diplomă de masterat.
7. Nu l-am mai văzut de când a terminat facultatea.
8. În ultima vreme am fost atât de ocupat că am şi uitat ce m-ai rugat.
9. Unde ai mai fost de când ai sosit în Bucureşti?
10. Au plecat la facultate acum trei ore şi încă nu s-au întors.

3.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM...

Prezentul perfect simplu este o combinaţie între trecut şi prezent, aşa cum arată
şi numele lui. Spre deosebire de timpul trecut, prezentul perfect simplu nu va indica
niciodată cu precizie momentul în care loc o acţiune. Din contră, prezentul perfect

29
simplu foloseşte, de regulă, adverbe de timp de genul: recently, so far, ever, never,
always, today, this week, this month, this year, lately/of late etc.
Prezentul perfect continuu se foloseşte pentru a măsura de cât timp se petrece o
acţiune care a început în trecut şi care continuă în momentul de faţă.

3.6. REZUMAT

• Acţiunea exprimată prin prezentul simplu poate indica faptul că producerea


acesteia generează un efect prezent.

e.g. He has prepared his speech. (=> he is ready to speak)


The prisoner has fallen ill. (=> he cannot appear in court)

• !!! prezentul perfect nu se foloseşte niciodată pe lângă un adverb de timp


trecut:

Wrong: He has met him yesterday.


Right: He met him yesterday
OR
Right: He has met him (=> they have talked etc.) – no information is given as
to when this happened, but only to the result of the action, i.e. the fact that they saw
each other.

• Prezentul perfect simplu indică, adesea, faptul că o situaţie/stare de fapt


durează de un anumit timp:

We have been students for a few weeks.


They have had this business since 2008.

• Prezentul perfect simplu indică situaţii/stări care durează de ceva vreme în viaţa
cuiva, iar prezentul perfect continuu indică acţiuni propriu-zise care durează de
ceva vreme (ele continuând inclusive în momentul vorbirii).

Comparaţi:

She has been a prosecutor for 2 years. (the verb to be is a verb of state) – El este
procuror de 2 ani – pres.perf.simple

They have been working hard for drawing up the report for 2 days – De 2 zile, ei
lucrează intens la redactarea raportului (the verb to work indicates an action and not a
state) – pres. perf. cont.

Vom continua recapitularea unor reguli importante ale limbii engleze în unităţile
următoare.

3.7. TEST

I. Choose the right answer:

30
1. When ________________ the firm?
a) have you joined b) did you joined c) did you join

2. ___________________ in Paris?
a) Did you ever worked b) Have you ever worked c) worked you

3. That's the best pleading ______________


a) I've ever heardb) I didn't hear c) I used to hear

4. This is the most difficult case _____________________


a) I ever had b) I have ever had c) I've ever had to do.

5. ___________________ to him last week.


a) I talked b) I've talked c) I didn't talked

6. ______________ a binding contract last year and it is still valid.


a) We have concluded b) We concluded c) We haven't concluded

7. The reason she looks so sad is that she _______________ proved guilty in court.
a) has been b) was c) had been

8. The number of customers ________ in 2009 but then _____in 2010.


a) rised falled b) rose fell c) have risen have fallen

9. You ____________ to a question ____________, of course I am angry with you!


a) listened, I haven't asked
b) didn't listen, I asked
c) haven't listened, I've asked.

10. It's obvious that ________________ this report.


a) you haven't written b) you didn't write c) you don't write.

II. Choose the right answer:

1. She has worked/works in our company since 2014. She is very content with her job.
2. The lawyer had been/has been disbarred. He is unemployed at present.
3. Our law boutique dealt/has been dealing with insolvency cases for 3 years.
4. The solicitor is working/has been working for this file for a week now.
5. The Parliament adopted/has adopted a new fiscal code, which will hopefully be
beneficial for our economy.

III. Fill in the gaps with the right tense (past tense simple, present perfect simple)

Jane: Look! I ________just_____ (receive) a letter from mother.


Angela: _______anything______ (happen)?
Jane: Brother _______(fall) ill.
Angela: Ill again! He________(be) ill last month.
Jane: Yes. At first doctors ________(say) it was the flu. But then he ______ (feel)
worse, and they ______(take) him to the hospital. Mother writes he ______(be) ill for
more than a week already, but the doctors told her he would soon be well again.

31
IV. Fill in the gaps with the right tense of the verbs given in brackets:

1. The law … (to be repealed) in 2000.


2. The Parliamentary Chambers … (to debate) the new Fiscal Code for the last 6
months.
3. What … (to determine) you to take this decision? Do you regret it?
4. The victim can’t walk because she … (to break) her legs.
5. In 2014 we … (to be employed) in this law firm for 7 years.

3.8. TEMA DE CONTROL 1

Comparaţi structura instanţelor din România cu cea a instanţelor din


Regatul Unit, evidenţiind asemănările şi deosebirile.

Această temă de control trebuie încăcată în contul dumneavoastră, pe platforma


eLis, la rubrica TEME ONLINE, cu o săptămână înainte de primul tutorial.

Tema de control 1 reprezintă 15% din nota dumneavoastră finală.

3.9. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice
Book, Bucureşti: ALL Educational
3. Seidl, Jennifer; Schwarz, Hellmut (2012). English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL
Educational

32
Unit 4: THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM

Cuprins:

4.1. Introducere
4.2. Obiective
4.3. Conţinut
4.4. Dezvoltare lexicală
4.5. Să ne reaminitim
4.6. Rezumat
4.7. Test
4.8. Bibliografie

4.1. INTRODUCERE

În această unitate de învăţare, vom studia atribuţiile profesionale care îi revin


unui avocat în Regatul Unit.

4.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


• să precizeze atribuţiile profesionale care îi revin unui avocat membru al
baroului (barrister) şi unui avocat consultant (solicitor)
• să îşi însuşească în mod corect terminologia juridică necesară pentru a descrie
atribuţiile care îi revin fiecăreia din aceste profesii.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

4.3. CONȚINUT

THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM

The Victorian prestige of the law is expressed in the Royal Courts of Justice, built in
1880. The Law and the Church are powerfully interlocked with the History of Britain.
Both have been conservative and resistant to change as their votes in the House of
Lords showed.

The conservatism of English lawyers is reinforced by their strict division into solicitors
and barristers. Solicitors are allowed to deal directly with the public. They perform all
routine cases, but when they have to take a case to the central courts, they must employ
a barrister to plead.

33
A barrister is required to have reached an accepted educational standard and to have
passed the legal examinations conducted by the Council of Legal Education. Finally,
he must become a member of the Inns of Court. Half of the barristers in Britain work
in one of the four Inns of Court – Gray’s Inn, Lincoln’s Inn, the Middle Temple and
the Inner Temple.
The oldest one is the Inner Temple, which has produced the largest number of judges.

Lincoln’s Inn is entirely frequented by chancery lawyers, and Gray’s Inn, the newest of
them, is known for its number of provincial barristers.
A barrister who has a substantial junior practice may apply to the Lord Chancellor for
a patent appointing him Queen’s Counsel.

Most higher judicial appointments are made from common barristers who have
become Queen’s Counsels, a proceeding known as “taking the silk”. Their professional
conduct is subject to the scrutiny of the General Council of the Bar, but disciplinary
powers are vested exclusively in the Senate of the Inns of Court.

A prospective solicitor is considered suitable by the appropriate committee of the Law


Society, which is a professional organisation of solicitors. He/she must enter into
“articles of clerkship” with a practising solicitor of not less than five years standing
before he can begin his/her professional career. The articles last for three or five years
and this depends upon the educational qualifications of the student.

An articled clerk must pass the necessary examinations held by the Law Society and
unless he has been a barrister or is a law graduate of a university, he is required to
attend a course of studies at a recognised law school. Once a solicitor is qualified, he
may become a member of the Law Society.

I. Corect the mistakes in the sentences below:

1. A solicitor is a member of the Bar.


…………………………………………………………
2. A barrister usually assists a solicitor in court.
…………………………………………………………

3. A Queen’s Counsel is a lawyer with little practice in court.


…………………………………………………………

II. Answer the following questions:

1. How are the English lawyers divided?


2. What educational standard is a barrister required to reach?
3. Who conducts legal examinations?
4. Who may apply to the Lord Chancellor for a patent appointing him/her Queen’s
Counsel?
5. By whom must a prospective solicitor be considered suitable?
6. How many years standing must the practising solicitor have when entering into
the articles of clerkship?
7. What is an articled clerk required to attend?

34
8. What does a solicitor become, once he/she is qualified?
9. Where do half of the barristers in Britain work?
10. Which institution has produced the largest number of judges in Great Britain?

4.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR

I. Choose one of the words or expressions in the following list to fill in the blanks
in the text:

a) advocacy b) articled clerks c) barristers’ chambers


d) called to the Bar e) gown f) graduated in law
g) practising solicitor h) professional training i) pupillage
j) Queen’s Counsel k) standing l) taking the silk
m) wig and pen folk n) wigs

After having (1)______________, a trainee lawyer usually serves a period of


(2)______________. Two basic patterns emerge. The majority of lawyers work as
(3)____________ before becoming (4)________________. Anyone wishing to
specialize in (5)_____________ in order to become a barrister must first undergo a
period of (6)______________ in (7)____________ after being (8)_________. If a
junior barrister has several years’ (9)_________, he or she may become a senior
barrister, known (10) as ____________. This promotion is called (11)_________,
because of the silk (12)___________ they wear in court as well as their (13)________.
The traditional dress of barristers and judges has earned members of the legal
profession the generic term (14)__________.

II. Make-up sentences with the following words and phrases:

1. to deal with
2. prospective solicitor
3. standing
4. to enter into articles of clerkship
5. taking the silk
6. to depend upon
7. society
8. to conduct an examination
9. to apply to
10. to attend a course at a law school

III. Translate into English:


Articolul 71 (Monitorul Oficial, Hotărârea nr. 13/2015 a Congresului Avocaţilor):
(1.1) Nu pot face parte din consiliul baroului avocaţii care au datorii scadente privind
taxele şi contribuţiile stabilite pentru formarea bugetului U.N.B.R. şi al baroului,
precum şi a fondurilor Casei de Asigurări a Avocaţilor şi ale filialelor.

4.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM...

În Marea Britanie, există trei categorii de avocaţi:

35
• solicitor
• barrister
• Queen’s Counsel

4.6. REZUMAT

Cele trei categorii de avocaţi existente În Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii


presupun parcurgerea unor etape profesionale de instruire şi stagiatură diferite.

Avocaţii consultanţi (solicitors) nu susţin examenul de intrare în Barou, spre


deosebire de avocaţii pledanţi (barristers).

Avocaţii consultanţi redactează contracte/testamente pentru clienţi sau rezolvă


sarcinile de rutină dintr-o firmă de avocatură. De asemenea, ei pot oferi sugestii
avocaţilor pledanţi în ceea ce priveşte soluţionarea anumitor litigii. Avocaţii
consultanţi pot, totodată, soluţiona în instanţă litigii minore.

Un avocat pledant (barrister) reprezintă clienţii în instanţele de judecată. Acesta


poate ţine cont de sugestiile avocaţilor consultanţi, dacă apreciază că ele sunt, într-
adevăr, utile şi pertinente.

Avocaţii emeriţi (Queen’s Counsels) reprezintă treapta profesională cea mai


înaltă la care poate ajunge un avocat în Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. Procesul prin
care un avocat pledant devine avocat emerit poartă numele de taking the silk.

Vom continua să aflăm informaţii despre Regatul Unit şi în următoarele unităţi


ale acestui manual.

4.7. TEST

I. Complete the terms (1-7) with the words or expression (A-G). Then match each
profession to its definition (I-VII).

1. Attorney A. to the justices


2. Justice B. of the Peace
3. legal C. Counsel
4. Crown D. prosecutor
5. clerk E. General
6. duty F. solicitor
7. Queen’s G. adviser

a) A senior barrister appointed by the Crown.


b) Someone employed by a firm to help settle legal matters.
c) A lawyer with at least five years’ standing appointed to assist magistrates in
court.
d) Those responsible for prosecuting in the lower courts (Magistrates Courts).
e) A lawyer who appears in lower courts to assist defendants who should
otherwise be unrepresented.
f) Someone whose principal function is to sit as a magistrate in the magistrates’
court.

36
g) In Great Britain, the principal law officer of the Crown. In the USA, the
Minister of Justice.

II. Using the translations of the following Romanian words, make-up sentences in
Present Perfect (simple or continuous).

1. judecători de pace
2. a pronunţa o sentinţă
3. asistenţă juridică
4. drept constituţional
5. competenţa unui tribunal

4.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru
profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
3. Walenn, Jeremy (2009). English for law in higher education studies. London:
Garnet Publishing.

37
Unit 5: PAST PERFECT

Cuprins:

5.1. Introducere
5.2. Obiective
5.3. Conţinut
5.4. Dezvoltare lexicală și traducere
5.5. Să ne reaminitim
5.6. Rezumat
5.7. Test
5.8. Bibliografie

5.1. INTRODUCERE

În această unitate de învăţare, vom studia două timpuri: trecutul perfect simplu
(past perfect simple) şi trecutul perfect continuu (past perfect continuous).

5.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil:


• să folosească în mod corect trecutul perfect simplu sesizând particularităţile de
folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul simplu;
• să identifice situaţiile de folosire a trecutului perfect simplu în vorbirea curentă;
• să folosească în mod corect trecutul perfect continuu sesizând particularităţile
de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul perfect simplu;
• să identifice situaţiile de folosire a trecutului perfect continuu în vorbirea
curentă.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 de minute.

5.3. CONȚINUT

PAST PERFECT

A. Past Perfect Simple is formed with had + the Past Participle:

Affirmative: I had looked We had looked


You had looked You had looked
He/she/it had looked They had looked
Negative: I had not looked/ hadn’t looked We had not looked

38
You had not looked You had not looked
He/she/it had not looked They had not looked
Interrogative: Had I looked? Had we looked?
Had you looked? Had you looked?
Had he/she/it looked? Had they looked?
Negative-
Had I not looked? / Hadn’t I looked? Etc.
interrogative:

• Past Perfect Simple is used to show that one action was completed before
another action in the past.
Let us take two examples:
Pedro learned English. – and – He came to England.

Both these actions took place in the past, so we use the Simple Past learned and came.
But suppose we want to show that one of these actions took place before the other one.
Suppose we want to say that Pedro learned English before he came to England. Then
we use the Past Perfect Tense for the action that took place first, and we use the Simple
Past Tense for the other action.

Pedro had learned English before he came to England.


Mrs. Thompson came to tell us she had made the coffee.
After she had chatted for a little time, Mrs. Beck went to see about the dinner.

• Past Perfect Simple can be used with till, until and before to emphasize the
completion of an action.
He did not wait TILL we had finished our meal.
It was a very expensive town. BEFORE we had been here a week we had spent
all our money.
He had stayed in his father’s firm TILL his father died. Then he had started his
own business and was now a very successful man.

B. Past Perfect Continuous is formed with had been + the Present Participle
(V+ING). The form is the same for all persons:

Affirmative: I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they had been working.

Negative: I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they had not/ hadn’t been working

Interrogative: Had I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they been working?

Negative–interrogative: Had I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they not/hadn’t been working?

• It is not used with verbs, which are not used in the continuous forms, except
with want and sometimes wish.
The boy was delighted with his new bike.
He had been wanting one for a long time.

The Use of Past Perfect Continuous Tense

• When the action began before the time of speaking in the past, and continued

39
up to that time, or stopped just before it, we can often use either form:
It was now six and he was tired because he had worked since dawn.
It is now six and he was tired because he had been working since dawn.

• A repeated action in the past can sometimes be expressed as a continuous


action by the past perfect continuous:
He had been trying to get her on the phone.

• But there is a difference between a single action in the simple past perfect and
an action in the past perfect continuous:
By six o’clock he had repaired the engine (this job had been completed).
He had been repairing the engine. (it tells us how he had spent the previous
hour/half hour, etc. It does not tell us whether or not the job was completed).

Correct the mistakes in the sentences below:

1. When we arrived, the jury already returned the verdict. (we arrived too late)
………………………………………………………………………
2. The trial started at 9 a.m. At 11 a.m. the judge was hearing the witnesses’
testimonies for 2 hours.
………………………………………………………………………

5.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR

I. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Noi am locuit la Cluj timp de doi ani înainte de a ne muta la Bucureşti.


2. Ne plimbam prin parc de o jumătate de oră, când i-am întâlnit pe prietenii noştri.
3. Ieri pe vremea aceasta călătoream cu maşina de o oră.
4. Când am ajuns acasă, mi-a arătat traducerea pe care o făcea de la ora 5.
5. A predat franceza timp de un an înainte de a începe să predea engleza.
6. Mi-a spus că tocmai s-a întors de la birou unde a avut o zi obositoare.

II. Read and retell:

“A woman is in a hurry and takes a taxi. The taxi goes at great speed and narrowly
misses some lamp posts, trams and policemen. The woman is frightened and says to
the taxi driver: “Please, be careful! This is the first time I’ve been in a taxi. “That’s all
right, ma’am” answers the taxi driver”. “This is the first time I have driven one”.

III. Change the following sentences, as to the pattern given below:

Model:
This time yesterday he was translating an article.
This time yesterday he had been translating an article for half an hour.

1. This time yesterday my grandfather was working in the garden.


2. This time yesterday she was practising in the language laboratory.

40
3. This time yesterday they were drawing up a report for that case.
4. This time yesterday we were getting about the city.
5. This time yesterday they were travelling by motor coach.
6. This time yesterday she was translating an article from Romanian into English.
7. This time yesterday they were visiting the National Gallery of Art.
8. This time yesterday Mary was doing her morning exercises.
9. This time yesterday the secretary was typing the last page of the report.
10. This time yesterday they were making the arrangements for accommodation.

5.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM...

Trecutul perfect simplu se foloseşte mai ales pentru a exprima anterioritatea


unei acțiuni din trecut faţă de un moment trecut/altă acţiune din trecut.
Trecutul perfect continuu se foloseşte mai ales pentru a preciza de cât timp se
petrecea o acţiune la un moment dat în trecut.

Anul universitar următor vom recapitula şi alte reguli specifice limbii engleze.

5.6. REZUMAT

• Trecutul perfect simplu exprimă o acţiune care s-a petrecut înainte de altă
acţiune din trecut.
• Trecutul perfect simplu măsoară de când dura/a durat o situaţie/o stare care a
început în trecut şi care a continuat până la un moment dat în trecut.
• Trecutul perfect continuu măsoară de cât timp dura o acţiune propriu-zisă (nu o
stare/situaţie) care a început în trecut şi care a continuat până la un moment dat
în trecut.

5.7. TEST

I. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Perfect Simple or Continuous:

1. He told me that he never (to meet) you.


2. The lights hardly (to go out) when a strange noise was heard.
3. They (to be married) for five years when they finally had a child.
4. As we (not to eat) yet, we all felt very hungry.
5. The policeman wanted to know why she (to come) to that bank.
6. When he got to the airport, the plane already (to arrive).
7. She answered my question after I (to repeat) it four times.
8. At last my secretary handed me the letters she (to type).
9. She told me that they (to see) that film by Friday.
10. Although they (not to see) each other for a long time, Mary bought tickets for the
theatre that evening.

II. Rewrite the sentences, using the Past Simple or Past Perfect form of the verbs
in brackets, as appropriate:

1. We (get down) to business as soon as we (introduce – passive) to each other.

41
2. Nothing (move-passive) in the room until after the police (take) photographs.
3. None of his teachers (understand) how he (manage) to fail the examination.
4. The results last year (be) better than anyone (expect).
5. I (write) to the suppliers asking why the goods (not to arrive) yet. They (reply)
to say that they already (send – passive).
6. The motorist (discover) to his relief that he (not to take) the wrong road after
all.
7. I (call) at the manager’s office, but (discover) I just (miss) him. He (go) on
holidays.
8. The scientist suddenly (see) the answer to the problem that (occupy) his mind
for the last two months.
9. Once they (settle) the agenda, the committee (circulate) it to all members of the
company.
10. When Queen Victoria (die) in 1901, she (reign) for over 60 years.

5.8. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice
Book, Bucureşti: ALL Educational
3. Seidl, Jennifer; Schwarz, Hellmut (2012). English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL
Educational

42
Unit 6: THE EUROPEAN UNION

Cuprins:

6.1. Introducere
6.2. Obiective
6.3. Conţinut
6.4. Dezvoltare lexicală și traducere
6.5. Să ne reaminitim
6.6. Rezumat
6.7. Test
6.8. Temă de control 2
6.9. Bibliografie

6.1. INTRODUCERE

În această unitate de învăţare, vom studia un scurt istoric privind formarea Uniunii
Europene şi rolul principalelor instituţii din cadrul UE.

6.2. OBIECTIVE

După studierea acestei unităţi, studentul trebuie să fie capabil să furnizeze informaţii
cu privire la istoricul UE şi al principalelor instituţii din cadrul Uniunii Europene.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei unităţi de învăţare este de 90 minute.

6.3. CONȚINUT

THE EUROPEAN UNION

The Treaty of Rome in 1957 established the European Economic Community


(now referred to as the European Union). It arose from the success of the European
Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which sought to promote co-operation between
Coal and Steel companies in Europe. This programme succeeded in reducing tariffs
and quotas in the coal and steel markets between the participating countries.
Following the Treaty of Rome, the EU became a reality on January 1, 1958.
The founder members of the EU were France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux
Countries (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg). It remained in this form until
Britain, Ireland and Denmark joined in 1972. The Union was extended further by
admission of Greece in 1981 and then Spain, Portugal and Austria.

43
The objectives of the EU have changed over the years. Initially, the aims were
to abolish all internal quotas and tariffs and to impose a common external tariff on
countries outside the Union. These measures meant that as far as imports and exports
went, the Union acted as one country.
Components of the European Union
The parallel of the Union acting as a single nation now extends beyond
preliminary objectives. It has its own executive, legislative, secretariat and judiciary.
The Executive of the EU is made up of the Council of Ministers. This is
composed of elected politicians from each of the member countries. When the Council
of Ministers is considering finance matters, it will be made up of all the Finance
Ministers (in the UK, this is the Chancellor of Exchequer). The Heads of State meet as
the Council of Ministers when particularly important items are under consideration.
The Presidency of the Council rotates between the 28 members of the Union every six
months. Under this system, the head of state of the country, which holds the
presidency, also assumes the title President of the Council of Ministers of the European
Union. When the UK held presidency in the first six months of 1993, Prime Minister
Major also held the office of President of the Council of Ministers of the European
Union. The Council of Ministers is the highest authority in the EU. It must endorse and
authorise EU policy and any applications for membership or significant change.
The Secretariat or Administration is based in Brussels and is called the
European Commission. Unlike the Council of Ministers, the employees of the
Commission are not elected – they are the European equivalent of civil servants. The
Commission is also responsible for drafting and proposing legislation for the Council
of Ministers to vote and approve, amend or reject. The Commission is controlled by a
President and a number of Commissioners. The larger countries send two
Commissioners to Brussels and the smaller ones, just one.
The legislative is in Strasbourg, France and is called the European Parliament.
This is composed of over 500 elected Members of the European Parliament (MEPs).
Like in the UK, MEPs sit in the Parliament according to their political leanings
rather than nationality. Because the EU is not a state as such, the Parliament does not
assume the same degree of power that a national Parliament does. The number of
MEPs from each member country depends upon its size. The UK, Germany, France
and Italy each send over 80 MEPs to Strasbourg, whereas Luxembourg sends just 6.
Because the Parliament has little authority over the affairs of the EU (it does not
control the finance budget or key political areas), its role has been criticised. The
longer term plans for EU include closer links between the member countries and this
will involve a more prominent role for Strasbourg.
The European judiciary is the European Court of Justice. It is presided over by
27 judges (at least one from each country) and an overall President, elected from
among the judges.

I. Correct the mistakes in the sentences below:

1. Following the Treaty of Rome, the EU became a reality on January 1, 1955.


............................................................................................................
2. The founder members of the EU were France, Germany, Italy, the UK, the
Netherlands and Spain.
............................................................................................................
3. The European Commission is the highest authority in the EU.

44
.............................................................................................................

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false:

a. One of the first goals of the EU was to impose a common external tariff on
countries, which do not belong to the Union.
b. Ireland and Britain were among the founder members of the EU.
c. The head of State of the country holding the presidency automatically becomes
President of the Council of Ministers of the EU.
d. Each country sends one Commissioner to Brussels, where the Administration is
based.
e. Criticism regarding the European Parliament has focussed on the way it handles
problems of finance and key policy areas.

6.4. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR

I. Translate the following text into English:

Parlamentul European este format din peste 500 de parlamentari aleşi în funcţie de
orientările lor politice. Deoarece Uniunea Europeană nu are un statut propriu-zis de
stat, Parlamentul nu-şi asumă acelaşi grad de autoritate ca un parlament intern.
Numărul de parlamentari din fiecare ţară depinde de mărimea ţării respective: astfel
ţări ca Franţa, Germania, Italia, pot trimite chiar peste 80 de parlamentari, în timp ce
Luxemburgul are doar 6. Parlamentul îşi va mari rolul pe viitor, pe măsură ce se vor
dezvolta legături mai apropiate între ţările membre.

II. Translate the following text into Romanian:


“In December 2000, the UN General Assembly decided to establish a special
committee open to all States for drawing up an effective international legal instrument
against corruption (Resolution 55/61). The committee negotiated the Convention
between January 2002 and October 2003. The Commission represented the European
Community’s interests.
The Commission considers that the objectives set by the Council in its negotiating
directives have been attained. The Convention provides for a high standard of
preventive and technical assistance measures in matters within the Community’s
powers, in particular with regard to the internal market. This includes measures to
prevent and to combat money laundering, as well as standards on accounting in the
private sector and on transparency and equal access of all candidates for public works
supply and service contracts.
As the Member States stated that they would sign the Convention as soon as it
was opened for signing in Merida, Mexico (Spain alone of the EU15 not having done
so), the Commission asserts that the European Community should also do so. To that
end, the Commission proposed that the Presidency of the Council designate the
persons empowered to sign the Convention on behalf of the European Community.
The Council adopted the Commission proposal without debate.”
(http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-
content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=URISERV:l33300&rid=1)

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6.5. SĂ NE REAMINTIM...

Prin Tratatul de la Roma (1957) a luat fiinţă Comunitatea Economică


Europeană (European Economic Community). Comunitatea Europeană a
Cărbunelui şi Oţelului (1951) a fost instituită prin Tratatul de la Paris, pe care l-au
semnat următoarele ţări: Franţa, Germania de Vest, Italia, Belgia, Luxemburg şi
Olanda. Rolul CECO era acela de a partaja resursele de oţel şi cărbune ale statelor
membre, în vederea prevenirii unui nou război în zona europeană.

6.6. REZUMAT

Uniunea Europeană nu este federaţie (cum este cazul SUA).


Ţările membre UE sunt naţiuni independente şi suverane. Ele îşi exercită o
parte din suveranitate în comun cu scopul de a deveni, pe plan internaţional, o putere
economic şi politică.
În UE, există trei instituţii principale:
• Parlamentul European care reprezintă cetăţenii UE şi este ales direct de către
aceştia;
• Consiliul Uniunii Europene care reprezintă statele membre
• Comisia Europeană care susţine interesele Uniunii, în ansamblu.
Un rol esenţial îl joacă atât Curtea de Justiţie cât şi Curtea de Conturi. Cea
dintâi veghează la respectarea dreptului european, iar cea de a doua verifică modul în
care se efectuează finanţarea activităţilor Uniunii.

6.7. TEST

I. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place below. The text
will help you:

rotates authorise elected


Authority abolish as far as
domestic assume

Initially, the aims of the EU were to (a)………. all internal quotas and tariffs.
These measures meant that (b) ………… imports and exports went, the Union acted as
one country.
The Council of Ministers is composed of (c)…………. politicians from each of
the member countries. The Presidency of the Council (d) …………… between the
fifteen members of the Union every six months.
As in the case of the (e)………….. executive, the Council of Ministers is the
highest (f)…………….. in the EU. It must endorse and (g)……………. EU policy and
any applications for membership.
Because the EU is not a state as such, the Parliament does not (h)…………….
the same degree of power that a national Parliament does.

II. Use the following words and phrases in sentences of your own:

- to abolish

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- to hold the presidency
- to hold office of
- to endorse the policy
- domestic executive
- to draft legislation
- to amend
- Civil servants
- political leanings
- internal quotas and tariffs.

6.8. TEMA DE CONTROL 2

Realizați o scurtă prezentare scrisă în limba engleză a principalelor prevederi


incluse în Tratatul de la Lisabona.

Această temă de control trebuie încăcată în contul dumneavoastră, pe platforma


eLis, la rubrica TEME ONLINE, cu o săptămână înainte de cel de-al doilea tutorial.

Tema de control 2 reprezintă 15% din nota dumneavoastră finală.

6.9. BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Caraiman, Carmen Daniela (2013). Limba engleza pentru juristi. Bucureşti:


Editura Universitară
2. Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru
profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
3. Walenn, Jeremy (2009). English for law in higher education studies. London:
Garnet Publishing.

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LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS

TRANSLATION
INFINITIVE PAST TENSE PAST PARTICIPLE
INTO ROMANIAN
to arise arose arisen a se ridica
to awake awoke/awaked awaked a se trezi
to be was/were been a fi
to bear bore borne a purta
born a naşte
to beat beat beaten a bate
to become became become a deveni
to begin began begun a începe
to bend bent bent a îndoi
to bid bid bid a ruga
to bind bound bound a lega
to bite bit bitten a muşca
to bleed bled bled a sângera
to blow blew blown a sufla
to break broke broken a sparge
to breed bred bred a creşte
a educa
to bring brought brought a aduce
to build built built a clădi
to burn burnt burnt a arde
to burst burst burst a crăpa
to buy bought bought a cumpăra
to cast cast cast a arunca
to catch caught caught a prinde
to choose chose chosen a alege
to come came come a veni
to cost cost cost a costa
to creep crept crept a se târî
to cut cut cut a tăia
to know knew known a şti
to lay laid laid a pune
to lead led led a conduce
to leave left left a lăsa
to lend lent lent a împrumuta
to let let let a lăsa
to lie lay lain a zăcea
to lose lost lost a pierde
to make made made a face
to mean meant meant a însemna
to meet met met a întâlni
to pay paid paid a plăti
to put put put a pune
to read read read a citi
to ride rode ridden a călări

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to ring rang rung a suna
to rise rose risen a răsări
to run ran run a alerga
to say said said a spune
to see saw seen a vedea
to seek sought sought a căuta
to sell sold sold a vinde
to send sent sent a trimite
to set set set a pune
to shake shook shaken a scutura
to shoot shot shot a împuşca
to show showed shown a arăta
to shrink shrank shrunk a se strânge
to shut shut shut a închide
to sing sang sung a cânta
to sink sank sunk a se scufunda
to sit sat sat a şedea
to sleep slept slept a dormi
to speak spoke spoken a vorbi
to spend spent spent a cheltui
to spring sprang sprung a izvorî
to stand stood stood a sta
to steal stole stolen a fura
to stick stuck stuck a lipi
to strike struck struck a lovi
to swear swore sworn a jura
to sweep swept swept a mătura
to swim swam swum a înota
to take took taken a lua
to teach taught taught a învăţa
to tear tore torn a rupe
to tell told told a spune
to think thought thought a se gândi
to throw threw thrown a arunca
to understand understood understood a înţelege
to wake woke woken a se trezi
to wear wore worn a purta
to weep wept wept a plânge
to win won won a câştiga
to wind wound wound a răsuci
to write wrote written a scrie

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