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Felicia Bucur

Limba engleză 2
- suport de curs -

EDITURA UNIVERSITĂŢII „NICOLAE TITULESCU”


BUCUREŞTI

2017
Acest material este destinat uzului studenţilor, forma de învăţământ la distanţă.

Conţinutul cursului este proprietatea intelectuală a autorului/autorilor; designul, machetarea şi


transpunerea în format electronic aparţin Departamentului de Învăţământ la Distanţă al
Universităţii „Nicolae Titulescu” din Bucureşti.

Acest curs este destinat uzului individual. Este interzisă multiplicarea, copierea sau
difuzarea conţinutului sub orice formă.

Acest manual a fost analizat si aprobat în ședința Departamentului de Științe Politice și


Administrative din data de 6 februarie 2017.
UNIVERSITATEA „NICOLAE TITULESCU” DIN BUCUREŞTI
DEPARTAMENTUL PENTRU ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTUL LA DISTANŢĂ

Felicia Bucur
Limba engleză 2
Editura Universităţii „Nicolae Titulescu”

Calea Văcăreşti, nr. 185, sector 4, Bucureşti


Tel./fax: 0213309032/0213308606
Email: editura@univnt.ro

ISBN: 978-606-751-388-2
CUPRINS

INTRODUCERE ............................................................................................................................................ 7
CADRUL GENERAL AL CURSULUI ......................................................................................................................... 7
OBIECTIVELE CURSULUI ...................................................................................................................................... 7
COMPETENȚE ...................................................................................................................................................... 7
RESURSE ŞI MIJLOACE DE LUCRU ........................................................................................................................ 8
STRUCTURA CURSULUI........................................................................................................................................ 9
CERINŢE PRELIMINARE PENTRU PARCURGEREA CURSULUI ................................................................................ 10
DURATA MEDIE DE STUDIU INDIVIDUAL ............................................................................................................ 10
EVALUAREA ...................................................................................................................................................... 10
BIBLIOGRAFIE GENERALĂ ................................................................................................................................. 11
UNIT 1: TYPES OF BUSINESS COMPANY STRUCTURE ..................................................................... 12
1.1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 12
1.2. OBJECTIVES............................................................................................................................................ 12
1.3. WARM-UP ................................................................................................................................................ 12
1.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION ..................................................................................................... 13
1.5. SKILLS FOCUS: FOR AND AGAINST ESSAY ................................................................................................ 15
1.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ......................................................................................................... 16
1.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: INDIRECT SPEECH I ................................................................................................ 18
1.8. LET’S REMEMBER... .............................................................................................................................. 22
1.9. SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................. 23
1.10. TEST ....................................................................................................................................................... 24
1.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................... 26
UNIT 2: STARTING A BUSINESS ............................................................................................................. 27
2.1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 27
2.2. OBJECTIVES............................................................................................................................................ 27
2.3. WARM-UP ................................................................................................................................................ 27
2.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION ..................................................................................................... 28
2.5. SKILLS FOCUS: A SHORT REPORT ........................................................................................................... 30
2.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ......................................................................................................... 30
2.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: INDIRECT SPEECH II .............................................................................................. 31
2.8. LET’S REMEMBER... .............................................................................................................................. 36
2.9. SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................. 36
2.10. TEST ....................................................................................................................................................... 37
2.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................... 38
UNIT 3: MANAGEMENT............................................................................................................................ 39
3.1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 39
3.2. OBJECTIVES............................................................................................................................................ 39
3.3. WARM-UP ................................................................................................................................................ 39
3.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION ..................................................................................................... 40
3.5. SKILLS FOCUS: OPINION ESSAY .............................................................................................................. 42
3.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ......................................................................................................... 42
3.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: IF CLAUSES............................................................................................................ 43
3.8. LET’S REMEMBER... .............................................................................................................................. 48
3.9. SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................. 48
3.10. TEST ....................................................................................................................................................... 50
3.11. ASSIGNMENT 1..................................................................................................................................... 51
3.12. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................... 51
UNIT 4: BUSINESS ETHICS....................................................................................................................... 52
4.1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 52

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4.2. OBJECTIVES............................................................................................................................................ 52
4.3. WARM-UP ................................................................................................................................................ 52
4.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION ..................................................................................................... 53
4.5. SKILLS FOCUS: OPINION ESSAY .............................................................................................................. 55
4.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ......................................................................................................... 55
4.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: EXPRESSING WISHES .............................................................................................. 57
4.8. LET’S REMEMBER... .............................................................................................................................. 61
4.9. SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................. 62
4.10. TEST ....................................................................................................................................................... 62
4.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................... 64
UNIT 5: MARKETING ................................................................................................................................ 65
5.1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 65
5.2. OBJECTIVES............................................................................................................................................ 65
5.3. WARM-UP ................................................................................................................................................ 65
5.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION ..................................................................................................... 66
5.5. SKILLS FOCUS: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY .................................................................................................. 68
5.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ......................................................................................................... 68
5.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: MODAL VERBS I: PRESENT AND FUTURE ...................................................... 70
5.8. LET’S REMEMBER... .............................................................................................................................. 76
5.9. SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................. 77
5.10. TEST ....................................................................................................................................................... 78
5.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................... 80
UNIT 6: THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT ................................................................................................. 81
6.1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 81
6.2. OBJECTIVES............................................................................................................................................ 81
6.3. WARM-UP ................................................................................................................................................ 81
6.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION ..................................................................................................... 82
6.5. SKILLS FOCUS: GIVING ARGUMENTS TO SUPPORT YOUR OPINION ............................................................. 85
6.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ......................................................................................................... 85
6.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: MODAL VERBS II: PAST..................................................................................... 87
6.8. LET’S REMEMBER... .............................................................................................................................. 91
6.9. SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................. 92
6.10. TEST ....................................................................................................................................................... 93
6.11. ASSIGNMENT 2..................................................................................................................................... 94
6.12. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................... 94

6
INTRODUCERE

Titular curs: lect.univ.dr. Norica Felicia BUCUR

Cadrul general al cursului

Cursul practic de limba engleză 2 se adresează în principal studenţilor din anul I,


semestrul al II-lea, din cadrul sistemului de Învăţământ la Distanţă (ID) al Universităţii
„Nicolae Titulescu”, Facultatea de Științe Economice, cu un nivel mediu de cunoaştere a
limbii engleze şi doreşte să le ofere acestora posibilitatea de a recapitula cunoştinţele
acumulate şi de a-şi însuşi noi elemente – noţiuni generale din limbajul economic. De
asemenea, cursul îşi propune dezvoltarea unor strategii care să conducă la autonomia
studenţilor în învăţare, prin conştientizarea nevoilor personale, efort individual şi autoevaluare
permanentă.
Cursul este structurat în 6 unităţi de învăţare. Textele sunt însoţite de exerciţii, care au
rolul de a facilita procesul de înţelegere şi de a favoriza acumularea lexicală.

Obiectivele cursului

Obiectivele cursului sunt:


1. să formeze deprinderilor necesare pentru a folosi limba engleză în mod flexibil şi eficient
atât în scopuri sociale cât şi profesionale
2. să îmbogăţească vocabularul studenţilor prin achiziţia de termeni economici în limba
engleză.
3. să crească încrederea studenţilor în capacităţile personale de îndeplinirea sarcinilor
comunicative în limba engleză

Competențe

Competenţele pe care trebuie să le dobândească studenţii se înscriu în precizările


oferite de Cadrul European Comun de Referinţă pentru Limbi: Învăţare, Predare, Evaluare
(2001). Astfel, nivelul pe care îl au studenţii la începutul acestui curs ar trebui să fie B1 sau
B2, şi ne dorim ca nivelul atins la finalizare să fie B2+.

Competenţele de comunicare lingvistică pe care studentul le poate dobândi cuprinde


următoarele componente:
1. Competenţa lingvistică generală: să se exprime clar şi fără a lăsa impresia că
este nevoit să restrângă ceea ce vrea să spună;
a. competenţa lexicală: să stăpânească o gamă bogată de vocabular pentru subiectele
legate de domeniul economic şi subiectele cele mai generale;

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b. competenţa gramaticală: să menţină un control gramatical bun, să nu facă greşeli care
să conducă la neînţelegeri;
c. competenţa fonologică: pronunţie şi intonaţie fireşti;
d. competenţa ortografică: să producă un text scris coerent, clar şi inteligibil ce respectă
regulile curente de dispunere în pagină şi de organizare.
2. Competenţa sociolingvistică: să se exprime cu siguranţă, simplu şi politicos într-
un registru oficial şi neoficial potrivit cu situaţia şi persoanele în cauză.
3. Competenţa pragmatică:
a. competenţa discursivă:
- să poată face o descriere sau alcătui un discurs clar dezvoltând şi argumentând
punctele importante cu ajutorul detaliilor şi al exemplelor semnificative;
- să poată interveni într-o discuţie într-o manieră adecvată;
- să poată utiliza cu eficacitate o varietate de cuvinte de legătură pentru a marca clar
legăturile dintre idei.
b. competenţa funcţională:
- să poată comunica cu spontaneitate, demonstrând adeseori o remarcabilă uşurinţă şi o
facilitate de exprimare chiar şi în enunţurile complexe şi destul de lungi;
- să poată transmite o informaţie amănunţită în mod fiabil.

Resurse şi mijloace de lucru

Propunem utilizarea următoarelor resursele si mijloacele de lucru:


- prezentul curs practic de limba engleză;
- o gramatică a limbii engleze, pentru referinţe (să poată fi consultată la nevoie1);
- un dicţionar general englez-român, român englez;
- un dicţionar economic englez-român / român-englez2

1
Sugerăm următoarele variante posibile:
 Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL Educational
 Vince, Michael (2008) - Macmillan English Grammar In Context Student's Book – Intermediate,
London: Macmillan
 Preda, Ioan; Leviţchi, Leon (2008) – Gramatica limbii engleze, Bucureşti: Gramar
 Docherty, Vincent; Brough, Sonia (2009) – Gramatica standard a limbii engleze, Bucureşti:
Niculescu
2
Sugerăm următoarele variante posibile:
 Oxford Business. Dicţionar englez-român (2007), Bucureşti: ALL
 Dicţionar de afaceri englez-român, (2007), Bucureşti: Niculescu
 Dicţionar economic englez-român (2003), Bucureşti: Editura didactică şi pedagogică
 Dicţionar economic englez-român, român-englez (2006) Bucureşti: Niculescu
 Dicţionar economic englez-român, român-englez (2009) Bucureşti: Teora

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Structura cursului

Cursul pentru semestrul al II-lea este compus din 6 unităţi de învăţare, după cum
urmează:

Unit 1: TYPES OF BUSINESS COMPANY STRUCTURE


Unit 2: STARTING A BUSINESS
Unit 3: MANAGEMENT
Unit 4: PRODUCTION
Unit 5: MARKETING
Unit 6: ACCOUNTING

Fiecare unitate este alcătuită din:

1. INTRODUCERE [INTRODUCTION] = Scurtă descriere a conţinutului unităţii de


învăţare
2. OBIECTIVE [OBJECTIVES] pe care studenţii trebuie să le atingă prin parcurgerea
unităţii respective (aceste obiective sunt stabilite pentru a coordona procesul de
învăţare, pentru a-i motiva pe studenţi să-şi însuşească conţinutul şi de asemenea
pentru a-i ajuta să se autoevalueze).
3. ÎNCĂLZIRE [WARM-UP]: include întrebări, teme pentru reflecţie şi scurte
fragmente de text legate de subiectul unităţii respective pentru a stârni interesul
studenţilor şi pentru a le activa elementele lexicale necesare unităţii respective.
4. LECTURA ȘI ÎNŢELEGERE [READING AND COMPREHENSION]: un text
(500-700 cuvinte), în care se exprimă o opinie cu privire la tema din unitatea
respectivă + exerciţii prin intermediul cărora se oferă posibilitatea de a verifica gradul
de înţelegere a textului
5. DEZVOLTAREA APTITUDINILOR [SKILLS FOCUS]: activităţi menite să
dezvolte competenţele necesare exprimării scrise în domeniul economic.
6. DEZVOLTAREA VOCABULARULUI [VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT]: prin
intermediul exerciţiilor se oferă posibilitatea de fixare a elementelor lexicale deja
întâlnite.
7. RECAPITULARE STRUCTURI GRAMATICALE [LANGUAGE FOCUS]:
revizuirea unor structuri şi funcţii deja studiate, dar care prezintă un interes deosebit în
engleza economică.
8. SĂ NE REAMINTIM [LET’S REMEMBER] punctează principalele elemente de
vocabular furnizate prin material până la momentul curent.
9. REZUMAT [SUMMARY] - reprezintă o sinteză a structurilor gramaticale dezbătute
în cadrul unităţii de învăţare, precum şi legătura cu următoarele Unităţi de învăţare
10. TEST [TEST] – rezolvările vor fi dezbătute în cadrul tutorialelor
11. BIBLIOGRAFIA [BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Cheia exerciţiilor este postată pe platforma e-lis.

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Acest curs conține și 2 TEME DE CONTROL (ASSIGNMENTS)

Rezolvarea celor două teme de control reprezintă 30% din nota finală.
Prima temă de control trebuie rezolvată şi încărcată pe platforma e-lis, o săptămână înainte de
prima întâlnire tutorială prevăzută în orar, iar cea de-a doua temă, cu o săptămână înainte de
cea de-a doua întâlnire tutorială prevăzută în orar.

Tema de control 1 (ASSIGNMENT 1) - secțiunea 3.11 – presupune rezolvarea în scris, la


alegere din unităţile 1, 2 sau 3 a unei activităţi propuse în secţiunea SKILLS FOCUS (vezi
1.5, 2.5 sau 3.5).
Tema de control 2 (ASSIGNEMENT 2) - secțiunea 6.11 – presupune rezolvarea în scris, la
alegere din unităţile 4, 5 sau 6 a unei activităţi propuse în secţiunea SKILLS FOCUS (vezi
4.5, 5.5 sau 6.5)..

Cerinţe preliminare pentru parcurgerea cursului

Este necesar un nivel cel puţin mediu de limba engleză pentru parcurgerea acestui curs
(de exemplu obţinerea cel puţin a calificativului B1 la examenul de bacalaureat sau al unui
calificativ similar).

Durata medie de studiu individual

120 minute pentru fiecare unitate.

Evaluarea

La sfârşitul semestrului studentul va primi o nota care va fi compusă din:

1. 70% evaluarea finală, care va avea loc în sesiunea de examene, sub formă scrisă.
2. 30% evaluarea pe parcurs, prin notarea celor două teme de control obligatorii.

Examenul scris de la sfârşitul semestrului al II-lea va evalua competenţele lingvistice,


sociolingvistice şi pragmatice dobândite prin parcurgerea unităţilor de învăţare 1-6 şi va avea
o durată de 60 de minute.

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Structura examenului scris poate fi următoarea:

1. Un text şi şase întrebări. Trebuie să citiţi textul şi să alegeţi varianta corectă de răspuns
(A, B, C sau D).
2. Un text cu 15 spaţii goale. Fiecare spaţiu gol reprezintă un cuvânt sau o expresie.
Trebuie să citiţi textul şi să alegeţi cuvântul sau expresia potrivită (A, B, C sau D).
3. Descrierea unei situaţii de afaceri. Trebuie să redactaţi un text (40-50 de cuvinte)
folosind informaţia dată (writing a note, message, memo or email: giving instructions,
explaining a development, asking for comments, requesting information, agreeing to
requests, etc.).
4. Traducerea unui text de 60-70 de cuvinte, preluat dintr-o revistă economică în limba
engleză.
5. Retroversiunea a 5 propoziţii/fraze care să conţină structuri gramaticale sau funcţii ale
limbii revizuite în cadrul unităţilor din semestrul al II-lea.

Bibliografie generală

1. Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru


profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polrom
2. Danielescu, Andreea Ileana. Mocanu, Mihaela. Vasiliu, Elena. (2009) Advanced
practice in business English, Bucureşti: Editura Universitară
3. Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational
4. Seidl, Jennifer; Schwarz, Hellmut (2012). English Grammar, Bucureşti: ALL
Educational

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Unit 1: TYPES OF BUSINESS COMPANY STRUCTURE
Contents:

1.1. Introduction
1.2. Objectives
1.3. Warm-up
1.4. Reading and Comprehension
1.5. Skills Focus
1.6. Vocabulary Development
1.7. Language Focus
1.8. Let’s Remember
1.9. Summary
1.10. Test
1.11. Bibliography

1.1. INTRODUCTION

This unit will focus on vocabulary related to types of business company


structure. As for grammar issues, the main rules characterising Indirect Speech
(Reported Speech) in English will be described and exemplified.

1.2. OBJECTIVES

This unit will help you:

- develop your reading comprehension skills (skimming and scanning)


- develop and practise language related to companies
- revise and practice Indirect Speech – reporting statements
- improve your essay writing skills
- develop and practise translation skills

AVERAGE STUDY TIME: 2 hours

1.3. WARM-UP

(I) Try and answer the following questions:

1. Can you define a business company?


2. What do ltd. and plc, following the name of a company, mean?
3. What do you need in order to start a business?
4. If you invest money in a business, you are an ...?

(II) Now read the following text and see if your answers were good:

Businesses can be of several types. They can be owned and run by one
person (a sole proprietor) or by two or more people, called partners. A
partnership can be backed up by investors (also called backers), who invest

12
money in the business. Partners who invest money in a business but do not own
5 it are called sleeping partners. Both sole proprietors and business partners have
unlimited liability for debts to creditors. Sleeping partners can have either
unlimited or limited liability for debts.
Larger companies are owned by shareholders (people who own shares in
a company), who have limited liability for debts. If someone’s shares amount to
10 over 50% of the business, they are called majority shareholders and have a
controlling interest in the company.
A basic requirement for any business to start and expand is to have a
certain amount of capital. One way of raising the money is to borrow it from a
bank. In order to grant a loan or an overdraft, a bank will request some security
15 (also called collateral).
Capital can also be obtained from investments. If the money is
borrowed, it is called loan capital. If it comes from investments, it is called
share or equity capital. A company with a high proportion of loan capital is said
to be highly geared, while a low gearing company has a high proportion of
20 equity capital.

(I) In the text above, the phrase “limited liability” has been used. How many
times? Which line/s? What do you think it means?

(II) Do you know which of the organisations (enterprises) listed below are
privately and which are publicly owned? Can you supply examples for some of
these types of organisation?

 public limited liability company (plc)  multinational company


 (unlimited) partnership  limited partnership
 public corporation  local government departments
 mixed enterprise  sole proprietor
 (limited) private company  central government departments

1.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION

(I) The following text briefly dscribes privately owned business organisations in
Great Britain. Read the text and list information under the following headings.

Day-to-day
Type of Profit-and-loss Public availability management of
Ownership Finance Examples
organisation responsibility of accounts business
responsibility

SOLE
TRADERS

PARTNERSHIP

PRIVATE
LIMITED
COMPANY

PUBLIC
LIMITED
COMPANY

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PRIVATE OWNERSHIP

SOLE TRADERS. These are businesses which are owned by a private


person who uses its own money to run the business. Consequently, the sole
trader is entitled to all the profits, but he must also bear any losses which are
incurred. A sole trader has no legal obligation to make his accounts publicly
5 available; and he is responsible for the day to day management of the business.
Examples of sole traders are: small shopkeepers, jobbing builders, plumbers
and hairdressers.
PARTNERSHIPS. These are unincorporated associations and the legal
10 rules which govern them were established in the Partnership Act of 1890. The
association or partnership does not have a separate existence from its
members, the number of which ranges from two to twenty. The partners
provide the organisation, and the profits and losses will normally be shared in
an agreed proportion depending on the individual’s contribution to the
15 partnership. The partners agree on the day-to-day running of the business, i.e.
some members can be ‘sleeping’ partners, in that they do not take part in the
daily operations. Partners have unlimited liability, i.e. each partner is jointly
liable with the other partners for any debts. Like sole traders, there is no
obligation for the partners to publish their accounts. Well-known examples of
20 partnership occur in the professions such as: solicitors, accountants and estate
agents. But, partnerships can be formed by any group of people carrying on
business with a view of making a profit; consequently, partnerships are found
in all types of trade and business activity.
PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANIES. This type of organisation is a
25 corporation incorporated by the Companies Act 1948-85. The number of
members can range from two to fifty and they provide the financial resources
for the undertaking. Membership of the company is restricted to private
individuals, i.e. members of the general public cannot buy shares in a private
limited company. The profits are distributed to the members as dividends on
30 their shareholding. Losses are borne by the company. The day-to-day
management of the company is carried out by a board of directors. Private
limited companies are often local family businesses and they are common in
the building, retailing and clothing industries.
35 PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANIES. Public limited liability companies,
despite their name, are the best known form of private company. They are
corporations and obtain their share capital from members of the public. They
are similar to private limited companies in that profits are distributed as
dividends to shareholders and liability of members is restricted to their
40 shareholdings. Any losses are borne by the company. Management of the
company is conducted by a board of directors, who are responsible to the
shareholders. Some public limited companies have developed into massive
organisations such that a few private corporations are as large as some
sovereign states.

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(II) Match each type of organisation with the type of economic activity it is
engaged in:

TYPE OF ORGANISATION WHAT THEY ARE ENGAGED IN

1. public limited liability a. personal services, e.g. hairdresser, painter, decorator


company
2. public corporation b. administrative services to the public, nationwide
3. central government c. large-scale organisations, e.g. construction,
departments manufacturing
4. partnership d. services to local community
5. (limited) privatee. key areas of economic activity; profitable for public
company concern
6. multinational company f. personal services, small industrial commercial
concerns
7. local government g. large-scale organisations, variety of ‘interest areas
departments activities
8. sole proprietor h. medium-sized or small organisations, building,
wholesalers, manufacturing, transport

1.5. SKILLS FOCUS: For and Against Essay

Not so long ago (before 1990), in our country there were no private companies. Do
you think it was good or bad? Justify your answer (200-240 words).

REMEMBER to plan and organise your answer. You may also use some of the
expressions in the box.

I believe that … Firstly, … In my opinion



Moreover … The most important point is that …
It could be argued that … Also … Thirdly …
I think … Another point is that …

TIP - A good answer might be organised as follows:

Paragraph 1: INTRODUCTION (not very detailed; perhaps just one or two sentences)
Paragraph 2: FOR
Paragraph 3: AGAINST
Paragraph 4: CONCLUSION (your opinion)

15
1.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

(I) Fill in the blanks with words from the box below:

(a) sole trader/proprietorship (f) holding


(b) private limited company (g) public limited company
(c) partnerships (h) subsidiary
(d) joint venture (i) franchise
(e) multinational

1) A ... (Ltd. Co. / LLC) cannot offer its shares or debentures to the general public.
Nor can shares be transferred between members without the consent of the other
shareholders.
2) A ... or parent company owns more than half the share capital of another company
which is known as a ...
3) A ... is a private individual who runs a one-man business. He/she takes all the
profits but also all the risks.
4) A ... (MNC) is a business organization which owns or controls production or
services outside the country in which it is based.
5) A ... (PLC) must have a minimum nominal share capital of £ 50,000. Shares can be
freely bought and sold by members of the public.
6) There are different kinds of ... but they are all associations of two or more people
sharing the risks and the profits in agreed proportions.
7) A ... is an agreement by which a company gives another company/ person (the
franchisee) the right to sell goods or services using the franchiser's name in return
for a royalty.
8) A ... consists in the pooling of resources of two or more companies in a common
undertaking in which each partner contributes assets and shares risks.

(II) Underline the correct word in italics:

1 My brother is a plumber. He’s autonomous / self-employed.


2 The people who own a private company might include the founder of the company,
some family members, and perhaps a few business associates / companions.
3 In a public company anybody can buy the actions / shares.
4 A public company is listed / posted on a stock exchange.
5 Our railways were recently privatized. I think the service was better before, when
they were a public company / state-owned enterprise.
6 The Purchasing Department is responsible for buying parts and raw materials /
making the final product.
7 If you have a complaint, please contact Consumer Services / Customer Services.
8 All recruitment and selection is done by our Human Relations / Human Resources
Department.
9 Innovation is the key to our success and we have recently expanded the Research
and Design / Research and Development Department.
10 In the Legal Department we have three lawyers / advocates trained in commercial
law.
11 It’s the CEO’s job to control / run the company.
12 Our Business Development Officer is responsible for / the responsible for finding
new business opportunities.

16
13 I can’t take that decision. It will have to be referred to higher people / more senior
people.
14 That decision will have to be taken at a higher level / a more superior level.
15 In the department there are six Sales Representatives and their line director / line
manager.
16 The Sales Department has to liaise / liaison closely with Marketing.
17 She is part of / makes part of a team of designers.
18 I am the Financial Controller, and I relate directly / report directly to the Finance
Director.

(III) The following phrases are from a letter and a memo. They are all mixed up.
Put them in the correct order.

1) I have asked the Secretarial 2) Please ring my secretary to arrange


Supervisor to come and speak to you a time to meet the Sales Manager. A
and she may wish to arrange a later later demonstration can be arranged
demonstration for her staff. for members of your staff to see it.

3) From: Vicenta Enjuanes,


4) Dear Ms Devereux,
Purchasing Manager

5) Subject: Demonstration of word


6) To: Secretarial Supervisor
processor

8) Thank you for your letter of 12


7) We would be pleased to have you
March offering to come to our firm to
with us on the 3 of April as you
demonstrate the AX3000 word
suggest.
processor.

9) The Sales Manager of Smart


Offices Ltd will visit the firm on 3 10) Yours sincerely,
April to demonstrate the AX3000 Vicenta Enjuanes,
word processor which I am sure you Purchasing Manager
will be interested in seeing.

11) I look forward to meeting you. 12) V.E.

memo letter
6

17
1.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Indirect Speech I

A. What is REPORTED SPEECH?

We often tell people what other people have told us. This is called REPORTED
or INDIRECT SPEECH. We usually change tenses and references to people, places
and times, as in the following example:

‘I’ll talk to Mr. Jones tomorrow,’ said Mike. 


Mike said that he would talk to Mr. Jones the following day.

B. REPORTED SPEECH – without tense changes

Statements are often repeated immediately, and the reported verb is in a present
tense. In this case there are no tense changes.

e.g. ‘Jack is on the phone. He says he’s going to the cinema and do we want to go too?’

C. REPORTED SPEECH – tense changes after a past tense reporting verb

Statements are usually reported with a past tense verb and an optional that. All
tenses that follow move back into the past. This is sometimes called backshift.

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH


Present Tense Simple Past Tense Simple
“I need some help.” She said (that) she needed some help.
Present Tense Continuous Past Tense Continuous
“We are having our lunch.” She said (that) they were having their lunch.
Past Tense Simple Past Perfect Simple
“I wrote two letters to her.” He said (that) he had written two letters to her.
Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple
“I have lost my keys.” He said (that) he had lost his keys.
WILL WOULD
“I will be home at 6.00.” She said (that) she would be home at 6.00.
AM/IS/ARE GOING TO WAS/WERE GOING TO
“They are going to come back.” She said (that) they were going to come back.
MUST MUST
“I must finish this before I go.” He said (that) he must finish it before he went.

NOTE that some verbs do not change:

WOULD  WOULD
COULD  COULD
MIGHT  MIGHT
SHOULD  SHOULD
OUGHT TO  OUGHT TO

NOTE that sentences in Direct Speech have speech marks (inverted commas)
around the spoken words. Reported Speech does not use speech marks.

18
NOTE that PAST PERFECT in REPORTED SPEECH can be a report of either
Past Simple or Present Perfect.

‘I have lost my keys!, said Joe. Joe said (that) he HAD LOST his keys.
‘I lost my keys yesterday,’ he said. He said (that) he HAD LOST his keys the day before.

D. REPORTED SPEECH – no changes after a past tense reporting verb

If the report is about something which is always true, it may not be necessary to
backshift. Analyse the example below:

‘I like apples more than I like oranges.’ PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE


She said she likes apples more than she likes oranges. in all these situations –
‘Budapest is the capital of Hungary.’ only the other changes take
He said that Budapest is the capital of Hungary. place (pronoun + inverted
commas)

Note that some speakers prefer to backshift in sentences of this kind.

E. Speakers in REPORTED SPEECH

Speakers can be mentioned at the beginning or at the end of the sentence in


Direct Speech:
e.g. Jack said, ‘We’re going to miss the train.’
‘We’re going to miss the train,’ said Jack.

Speakers are mentioned at the beginning of the sentence in Reported Speech:

Jack said (that) they were going to miss the train.

F. OTHER CHANGES

In Reported Speech, references to people, places and times often changes,


because the point of view changes.

SPEAKER’S WORDS REPORTED STATEMENT


tomorrow the next day/ the following day
yesterday the day before
here there
this/these that/ those
today that day
tonight that night
next the next / the following
last previous/ before
the day after tomorrow in two days’ time
ago before / previously

G. VERBS EASILY CONFUSED: SAY , TELL, SPEAK

 SPEAK describes the act of talking.


Simon spoke to me in the supermarket yesterday.

19
 SAY describes the words used. It is followed by optional that.
‘It’s warm today,’ she said.
She said (that) it was warm.

 TELL describes giving information. It needs an object. It is followed by


optional that.
‘You have won first prize,’ she told me.
She told me (that) I had won first prize.

(I) Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence.

1. Sally told that she had lost her keys.


2. Chris said me that he must leave early.
3. Maria and Tony said they will see us tomorrow.
4. Tom said, I’m coming to your party.
5. Sue said that she had wrote a letter to Lisa.
6. Steve said us that he was arriving at 8.00.
7. ‘I had bought a new bike Pam told us.’
8. ‘What’s the matter? Ellen told.
9. Jim says that he had needed some help.
10. Joe said that he doesn’t feel well yesterday.

(II) Rewrite each sentence in reported speech, ending as shown.

1. Anna told us that she had finished.


‘____________________________,’ Anna told us.
2. George said that he would be back at 6.00.
‘____________________________,’George said.
3. Helen said she was going to go shopping.
‘____________________________,’ said Helen.
4. Paul said he wanted to make a phone call.
‘____________________________,’ said Paul.
5. Tina told the teacher she had forgotten her homework.
‘____________________________,’ Tina told the teacher.
6. David said he had to be back by 3.30.
‘____________________________,’ David said.
7. Jan told me she would let me know.
‘____________________________,’ Jan told me.
8. Bill said he was going to be late.
‘____________________________,’ Bill said.

(III) Complete each sentence, using say, tell or speak in an appropriate form.

1. Jim __________ me that he was playing in the school basketball team.


2. I _______ to Helen and she _______ she would phone you.
3. ‘You’re lucky,’ _______ Steve. ‘I _______ you that you would win!’
4. A translator _______ the President what everyone was _______.
5. ‘Look,’ I _______ her, ‘why don’t you _______ me what you mean?’
6. I_______ my teacher that I _______ Chinese, but she didn’t believe me.

20
7. ‘Please don’t _______ anything during the test,’ our teacher _______ us.
8. I _______ my friends about my party, and they _______ they would come.

(IV) Match each sentence in direct speech with its summarised version in
reported speech.

2. ‘Look, sorry about this, but I’m afraid I’m a. She said she would be back
going to be a bit late.’ soon.
3. ‘Actually, I have no idea at all where I b. She said she had missed the bus.
am!’ c. She said she was going to be
4. ‘The thing is, I know it’s silly but I’ve late.
missed the bus.’ d. She said she had already rung.
5. ‘Anyway I’ll be back in next to no time.’ e. She said she didn’t know where
6. ‘I did ring, you know, earlier in the she was.
evening.’

(V) Rewrite each sentence in reported speech, beginning as shown.

1. ‘I won’t be there because I’m having a party’ said Helen.


Helen told us that she ___________________________________.
2. ‘I’ve lost the map and I don’t know the way,’ said Jack.
Jack told me that he __________________________________________.
3. ‘When I finish the book, I’m going to watch television,’ said Carol.
Carol said that when __________________________________________.
4. ‘I’m doing some homework but I won’t be long,’ said Mike.
Mike said that he ____________________________________________.
5. ‘I like swimming but I don’t go very often,’ said Mary.
Mary told us that she _________________________________________.
6. ‘I got up late and I missed the bus,’ said Richard.
Richard said that he __________________________________________.
7. ‘I’m going to visit friends in Fiji but I’m not sure when,’ said Jill.
Jill told us that she ___________________________________________.
8. ‘I want to buy it, but I haven’t brought any money,’ said Tony.
Tony said that he ____________________________________________.

(VI) Rewrite each sentence as direct speech:

1. Graham told Ian he would see him the following day.


2. Pauline told the children their swimming things were not there.
3. David told me my letter had arrived the day before.
4. Shirley told Larry she would see him that evening.
5. Bill told Steven he hadn’t been at home that morning.
6. Margaret told John to phone her on the following day.
7. Tim told Ron he was leaving that afternoon.
8. Christine told Michael she had lost her lighter the night before.

(VII) Rewrite each sentence as direct speech, beginning as shown:

1. ‘You can’t park here.’


The police officer told Jack ________________________.

21
2. ‘Ill see you in the morning, Helen.’
Peter told Helen ____________________________.
3. ‘I’m taking the 5.30 train tomorrow evening.’
Janet said ____________________________.
4. ‘The trousers have to be ready this afternoon.’
Paul told the dry-cleaners ____________________________.
5. ‘I left my umbrella here two days ago.’
Susan told them ____________________________.
6. ‘The parcel ought to be here by the end of next week.’
Brian said ____________________________.
7. ‘I like this hotel very much.’
Diana told me ____________________________.
8. ‘I think it is going to rain tonight.’
William said____________________________.

(VIII) Pass the following sentences from the Direct to the Reported Speech:

1. Mary said to me, “I’d like to go out”


2. They always say, “These exercises are too difficult for us”
3. Doris is saying, “Behave yourself, Peter!”
4. Dan is always saying, “I have left my notebook at home”
5. The teacher has said to the pupils, “I want to have a look at your homework”
6. John and Tom are saying, “We haven’t done our homework”
7. “I am leaving for the seaside tomorrow”
8. “We watched TV last night”
9. “We have never been here before”
10. “I know what the teacher will say”.

1.8. LET’S REMEMBER...

NOTES

 Be careful with the word business. When we use it uncountably, it means the idea –
to do business. If, however, we use it countably it describes a company like entity –

22
a family business.

 A company is used properly to describe a body that is a legal entity. Many


businesses, particularly smaller businesses, are not legal entities – hence the term
small businesses.

 Corporation is used to describe larger companies and is more American than


British.

 Here is a simplified list of the different types of legal structures for a business:

 Sole trader (BrE)/ Sole proprietor (AmE). This is a one-person business.


The person may describe himself/herself as ‘self-employed’ (e.g. the owner
of a small shop), or as a ‘freelancer’ if he/she a professional who works for
different clients (eg a photographer).
 Partnership. A group of people who work together as equals (e.g. a firm of
lawyers or architects). They share the risks and the profits.
 Private (limited liability) company. The shares of the company are
privately owned, usually by a small number of people. These shareholders
typically include the founder of the company, possibly some close family
members, and perhaps a few business associates who provided money for
the company.
 Public company (BE3)/ Corporation (AE4). These are the large companies
that are listed on stock exchanges like Germany’s DAX, France’s CAC or
the UK’s FTSE. They are called public because anyone can buy their
shares. Note: do not confuse a state-owned enterprise with a public
company

1.9. SUMMARY

 Reported statements are one form of reported speech.

direct statement reported statement


He said, "I am sick." He said that he was sick.

 We usually introduce reported statements with "reporting verbs" such as "say"


or "tell":

He said (that)...
He told me (that)...

 When we report a statement, we can say "He said that..." or simply "He
said...". Both are possible. "He said that..." is more formal.

 When we use our own words to report speech, there are one or two things that
we sometimes change:

3
BE = British English
4
AE = American English

23
 pronouns may need to change to reflect a different perspective
 tense sometimes has to go back one tense (eg, present becomes past) - this
is called backshift

 There are sometimes other things too that we may need to change, such as time
or place.

 We also sometimes need to think about the third person singular "s".

 Typical reporting verbs for statements: say, tell, mention, inform.

As a general rule, the changes in the tense of the reported speech depend upon the
tense of the reporting verb in the direct speech. Thus when the reporting verb is in the
past tense, the tense of the reported verb also changes to past tense.

We will continue the revision of indirect speech in the next unit.

1.10. TEST

(I) Match the words with their definitions:

1. partnership 2. asset 3. net profits or net income


4. appreciation 5. liability business 6. sole proprietorship
7. equity 8. revenue 9. corporation
10. depreciation 11. limited liability company 12. expenses

a) the buying and selling of products or services in order to make a profit


b) a business owned and operated by one person.
c) a business owned by one or more people who have entered into a written
agreement.
d) a business owned by one or more shareholders and managed by a board or
directors
e) a special form of business organization that combines advantages of a
corporation and a partnership.
f) the money you earn
g) the money you spend to be in business
h) total revenue minus total expenses
i) reduction in values over time
j) increase in value over time
k) ownership in a company
l) something you own that has value
m) something that you owe for

(II) Which is the correct ending of the sentence in Indirect Speech?

1. Benjamin: "I often have a big hamburger."


Benjamin says (that) he often ___________ a big hamburger.
(a) has (b) had

24
2. Hannah: "They live in Boston."
Hannah said (that) they __________ in Boston.
(a) live (b) lived

3. Tyler: "Ian doesn't invite girls to his parties."


Tyler told me (that) Ian _______ invite girls to his parties.
(a) doesn’t (b) didn’t

4. Dominic: "She understands Japanese."


Dominic remarks (that) she ___________ Japanese.
(a) understands (b) understood

5. Sophia: "Bella doesn't collect stickers."


Sophia explains (that) Bella _________ collect stickers.
(a) doesn’t (b) didn’t

6. Robert: "Dennis often downloads the latest tunes."


Robert added (that) Dennis often _________ the latest tunes.
(a) downloads (b) downloaded

7. Olivia: "Leroy is out riding his new waveboard."


Olivia explained (that) Leroy ___________ out riding his new waveboard.
(a) is (b) was

8. Luke: "I don't know what to do."


Luke added (that) he _____________ know what to do.
(a) doesn’t (b) didn’t

9. Lily: "Mr Jones is rude to Samantha."


Lily thinks (that) Mr Jones ________ rude to Samantha.
(a) is (b) was

10. James and David: "We have to go now."


James and David tell me (that) they _________.
(a) have to go now (b) had to go then

(II) Use the following words and expressions to fill in the sentences

could going had flown hadn't seen if I was


liked not sitting not to stay to take took
was was wearing what happened would be

1. "Im afraid of flying."He told me he _________ afraid of flying.


2. "I like travelling by plane." She said she _________ travelling by plane.
3. "You can get off the plane." The pilot told us we _________ get off the
plane.
4. "There will be a 45-minute delay." The flight attendant explained that there
_________ a 45-minute delay.
5. "This man flew this very flight before." I could tell that man _________ that
very flight before.

25
6. "Look. The pilot is wearing dark glasses." One of the passengers pointed out
that the pilot _________ dark glasses.
7. "I haven't seen blind people with guide dogs on planes yet." Peter replied that
he _________ blind people with guide dogs on planes yet.
8. "Take the dog out to stretch his legs." He told the pilot _________ the dog
out to stretch his legs.
9. "Don't stay for too long." They told us _________ for too long.
10. "Are you nervous?" The stewardess asked me _________ nervous.
11. "How long does the flight take?" Mary wanted to know how long the flight
_________.
12. "What happened?" They asked me _________.
13. "Let's go out." Tom suggested _________ out.
14. "Let's not sit all the time." I suggested _________ all the time.

(III) Translate the following sentences into English, taking into


consideration the reporting rules described in this unit.

1. Chinezul a spus că va locui un an la Paris.


2. Ziaristul a informat autorităților că nimeni nu a fost rănit în accidentul al cărui
martor fusese.
3. Directorul i-a comunicat secretarei că mașina de serviciu nu mai are benzină.
4. Directorul financiar a spus că rezultatele obținute anul trecut l-au dezamăgit pe
directorul general al companiei.
5. Șoferul i-a marturisit contabilei că își va da demisia săptămâna viitoare.

1.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru


profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational

26
Unit 2: STARTING A BUSINESS
Contents:

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Objectives
2.3. Warm-up
2.4. Reading and Comprehension
2.5. Skills Focus
2.6. Vocabulary Development
2.7. Language Focus
2.8. Let’s Remember
2.9 Summary
2.10. Test
2.11. Bibliography

2.1. INTRODUCTION

This unit will focus on vocabulary related to starting a business. As for grammar
issues, we will deal with reporting commands, requests, yes/no questions, wh-
questions.

2.2. OBJECTIVES

This unit will help you:


- develop your reading comprehension skills (skimming and scanning)
- develop and practise vocabulary related to business
- revise and practise Indirect Speech II
- improve your writing skills for informal letters
- develop and practise translation skills

AVERAGE STUDY TIME: 2 hours

2.3. WARM-UP

1. Thinking of starting a business? First take a clear-headed look at yourself to


see if you have got what it takes. Try and answer the following questions:
 What qualities and skills would you need in a business venture?
 What kind of difficult situations would there be?

2. Read the following Self-Analysis Questionnaire (Parts A and B). Answer the
questionnaire individually. Mark √ (tick), x (cross) or ? (don’t know) to give a
true picture of your entrepreneurial strengths and weaknesses. Compare the
results with the answers given for the questions in exercise 1.

27
A. Personal Characteristics
Yes (√)/ No (x)/ I don’t know (?)

1. Can you lead and motivate people?


2. Do you like to make your own decisions?
3. Do people ask you for help in making decisions?
4. Do you enjoy competition?
5. Do you have willpower and self discipline?
6. Can you plan ahead?
7. Do you like people?
8. Do you get along well with others?
9. Do you enjoy taking risks?
10. Do you strongly believe that your future and success depend on you and
your abilities?

B. Personal Strains

11. Are you willing to work up to 16 hours a day, six or seven days a week?
12. Do you have the physical stamina to handle the workload and schedule?
13. Do you have the emotional strength to withstand the strain?
14. Are you prepared to temporarily lower your living standard until your
business is firmly established?
15. Is your family prepared to go along with the strains they, too, must bear?
16. Are you prepared to lose your savings?

Discuss and compare results in groups, then with the entire class. The more YES-
es ticked, the more successful you’ll be in starting your business.

2.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION

(I) Read the following text and list the steps that one should take when starting a
business:

Nearly every person who makes the decision to start a business is an


entrepreneur because he or she is willing to take a risk. Usually people decide to
start a business to gain profits and to “do something on their own” or to be their
own boss.
5 Then, entrepreneurs gather the factors of production and decide on the
form of business organization that best suits their purposes. Anyone hoping to
become an entrepreneur must also learn as much as possible about the business
he or she plans to start. This process includes learning about the laws,
regulations, and tax codes that will apply to the business. Moreover, when
10 starting a business, you must make potential customers aware that your services
are available for a price. You could have one-page fliers printed to advertise
your business and pass them out. You could also buy advertising space in the
local newspaper.
It is important to remember that every business, regardless of size,
15 involves four elements: expenses, advertising, receipts and record keeping, and
risk. For example, if you own a painting business, you will need to purchase
28
brushes and paint. As your business grows, you might invest in paint sprayers
so that you can complete jobs faster. This new equipment would add to your
income, but will probably take more money capital than you have on hand. In
20 addition to that, you will quickly find out that letting potential customers know
that you are in business is costly. Once you have customers, however,
information about your business will spread by word of mouth.
No matter how small your business is, having a system to track your
expenses and income represents the key to your success; thus, all receipts
25 should be safely filed and saved. And, because every business involves risks,
you must balance the risks against the advantages of being in business for
yourself - including profit versus loss.
Depending on the kinds of jobs you do, you will need equipment and
replacement parts. At first, you might buy parts as you need them for a
30 particular job, but, in time, you will find it easier to have an inventory. An
inventory is a supply of whatever items are used in a business.
Probably one of the first things entrepreneurs do is getting a computer
and some programs that will allow them to keep track of all their expenses and
all their receipts. Many such programs exist and are relatively inexpensive.
35 Programs write checks for you, calculate your monthly profit and loss, tell you
the difference between what you own and what you owe (called net worth), and
so on. As an entrepreneur, you are taking many risks, but the profit you expect
to make is your incentive for taking those risks. For example, if you spend part
of your savings to pay for advertising and equipment, you are taking a risk. You
40 may not get enough business to cover these costs.
Whenever you buy a special part for a job, you are taking a risk.
Suppose you do the work and your customer never pays you. You are even
taking a risk with the time you spend. You are using time to think about what
you will do, to write ads, to set up the bookkeeping, and so on. This time is an
45 opportunity cost. You could have used it to do something else, including work
for someone for a wage. If you work for someone else, you take only the risk of
not being paid, which is usually small. As an entrepreneur your risks are great,
but so are the potential rewards.

(II) Based on the information in the text you have just read, fill in the following
blanks with the missing words or phrases:

People who want to start their own businesses are regarded as (1)
_____________. The first step in starting a new business is to (2) _____________.
Along with the desire to be one's own boss, most people are motivated by the hope of
gaining (3) _____________ from the business. The second step involves gathering the
(4) _____________ and then choosing the most suitable form of (5) _____________.
New business owners must learn all they can about the laws, regulations, and tax codes
that apply to their operation. Every business involves four elements. Through (6)
_____________, owners let others know about the business and the services offered.
Once customers know a business, information spreads by (7) _____________. As the
business grows, there will be more (8) _____________ incurred for supplies, raw
materials, equipment, and so on. In time, an owner will want to have an (9)
_____________ of replacement parts to make the business more efficient. State and
federal tax laws require that an owner keep (10) _____________ for every
expenditure. (11) _____________ will enable an owner to keep track of all

29
transactions related to the business. Together with specialized software, a computer
can help maintain business files. Finally, an entrepreneur needs to be aware of the (12)
_____________ of starting a business and balance them against the potential (13)
_____________.

2.5. SKILLS FOCUS: A Short Report

Think of an entrepreneur you know or research a famous entrepreneur.


Write about his/her life and achievements (200-240 words).

Try to use the vocabulary and idioms you have in this unit.

2.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

(I) Match the words on the left with their definitions on the right. The first match
has been done for you.

1. business a. a person who works for an organisation


2. a business b. an inventory of goods and components
3. employer c. income
4. entrepreneurship d. difference between current assets and current liabilities
5. employee e. property and possessions owned by an individual or
business, which has a money value and can be set against
debts etc.
6. stock f. financial obligation; (pl) debts for which one is liable
7. turnover g. willingness to assume the risks of a business venture
8. revenue h. commercial activity or occupation
9. fixed assets i. person or company that pays people to do work
10. working capital j. a supply of cash needed by a business to meet its regular
expenses; movement of money in and out of a business
11. cash flow k. property owned by a firm and meant to be used over a
long period of time
12. asset l. total value of goods sold over a certain period
13. liability m. a building which is used to produce a good or provide a
service
14. premises n. one-owner business
15. sole o. a firm
proprietorship

(II) Fill in the missing words in the letters below. Choose from the following:

(a) appreciate (b) ask (c) concerning (d) delighted (e) enclose
(f) faithfully (g) grateful (h) hearing (i) please (j) receiving
(k) Regarding (l) regret (m) sincerely (n) sorry (o) writing

Dear Ms. Chan,

Thank you for your letter of 24 April, (1) (c)the exhibition in Berlin in August.
We are (2) __________ to hear that your company will be taking part and that you will
address the opening conference.

30
(3) __________ the conference, we would (4) __________ it if you could send us
details of all the delegates so that we can prepare security passes. We would also (5)
__________ you to let us have details of equipment you need for your presentation.
We look forward to (6) __________ your reply.
Yours (7) __________,
Jan Mayer

Dear Sir/ Madam,

Your company has been recommended to us by a business associate and I am (8)


__________ to enquire about your translation services.
My company has recently entered the export market and we need advertising material
translated into Chinese, Russian and Turkish.
We would be (9) __________ if you could send us your prices and terms of payment.
We look forward to (10) __________ from you.
Yours (11) __________,
Jose Garcia

Dear Mr Dupin,

I was very (12) __________ to hear about your problems with the new super vacuum.
I have investigated the compliant and I (13) __________ to tell you that the problem is
the result of faulty operation. I (14) __________ a copy of the inspector’s report with
this letter.
If you require us to repair the machine, (15) __________ contact me at the number
above.
Yours sincerely,
Tim Brody

2.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Indirect Speech II

A. COMMANDS AND REQUESTS

Commands are reported with tell and the infinitive.

‘Go away!’ He told me to go away.

Requests are reported with ask and the infinitive.

‘Please help me!’ He asked her to help him.

B. YES/NO QUESTIONS

Questions with the answers yes or no are reported with backshift and using if.
‘Does the London train stop here?’ she She asked me if the London train stopped
asked. there.

Note that the question form of the direct speech is not used in reported speech , as
there is no longer a direct question. There is no question mark.

31
WHETHER means if …or not. We use whether when we report questions linked with
or. The question is reported with backshift.
e.g. ‘Are you staying the night or are you going home?’, he asked.
He asked me whether I was staying the night or going home.

C. WH- QUESTIONS

Questions beginning with when, why, where, how, etc. are reported with backshift The
question forms of direct speech are not used, so the subject in bold comes before the
verb. There is no question mark.

‘Where is the bus station?’ she asked. She asked where the bus station was.
‘Where have you come from?’ he asked. He asked where I had come from.

D. INDIRECT QUESTIONS

Indirect or embedded questions are questions which have an introductory question


before them. The indirect question does not have a question form. Note that there is no
change of tenses (backshift).

Introductory questions: Could you tell me…? Do you know …?

YES/NO QUESTIONS INDIRECT YES/NO QUESTIONS


Is this the right street? Do you know if this is the right street?

WH- QUESTIONS INDIRECT WH- QUESTIONS


Where is the post office? Could you tell me where the post office is?
When does the film start? Do you know when the film starts?

E. REPORTING VERBS

Reporting verbs include part of the meaning of the words reported. Here are some of
the most common reporting verbs:

advise ‘I wouldn’t buy that car, James, if I were you’


I advised James not to buy that car.
agree ‘Yes, Jill, I think you are right.’
Mike agreed with Jill.
apologize ‘I’m really sorry for being so late’, said Maria.
Maria apologized for being late.
ask ‘Do you think you could help me, Sue?’
I asked Sue to help me.
congratulate ‘Well done, Tina, you’ve passed the exam!’
I congratulated Tina on passing the exam.
decide ‘I’m going to become a doctor’, said Helen.
Helen decided to become a doctor.
invite ‘Would you like to come to the cinema on Saturday?’
I invited Pam to the cinema on Saturday.

32
offer ‘Shall I carry your case, Dawn?’ said Peter.
Peter offered to carry Dawn’s case.
promise ‘I’ll definitely be home by eight,’ said Ann.
Ann promised to be home by eight.
“I’ll wait for you, Helen,’ said Peter.
Peter promised Helen that he would wait for her.
refuse ‘No, I won’t open the door!’ said Carol.
Carol refused to open the door.
remind ‘Don’t forget to send your mother a birthday card, Joe.’
I reminded Joe to send his mother a birthday card.
suggest ‘How about spending the day at the beach?’ said Carlos.
Carlos suggested spending the day at the beach.

(I) Put one suitable word in each space.

1. Helen asked me _____ I ____ going to school or not.


2. David asked his mother ____ she ____ be coming home.
3. Peter asked us ____ we ____ ever been to Hungary.
4. Costas asked me ____ I ____ many photographs.
5. Maria asked a policeman ____ the museum was.
6. Dora asked her sister ____ she ____ fed the dog.

(II) Complete each question in direct speech ending as shown.

1. Jack asked me whether I was having lunch or going out.


‘____________________________?’ Jack asked me.
2. Carol asked Ann what she had done the day before.
‘____________________________, Ann?’ asked Carol.
3. John asked us if we often went sailing.
‘____________________________?’ John asked us.
4. Kate asked me how many German books I had read.
‘____________________________?’ Kate asked me.
5. George asked Sue if she was going to change schools.
‘____________________________, Sue?’ asked George.
6. Alice asked me who I sat next to in class.
‘____________________________?’ Alice asked me.
7. My teacher asked me if I would be there the next day.
‘____________________________?’ my teacher asked me.
8. Mary asked me where exactly I lived.
‘____________________________ exactly?’ Mary asked me.

(III) Rewrite each sentence in reported speech, beginning as shown.

1. ‘Are you staying here all summer?’ the little girl asked me.
The little girl asked me ________________________.
2. ‘What does ‘procrastinate’ mean?’ I asked my teacher.
I asked my teacher __________________.
3. ‘Have you done your homework, or not? my mother asked me.
My mother asked me __________________.
4. ‘When is your birthday?’ I asked Sue.

33
I asked Sue __________________.
5. ‘Did you remember to lock the door,’ my father asked me.
My father asked me __________________.
6. ‘Why have you turned off the television?’ Ellen asked me.
Ellen asked me __________________.
7. ‘Do you speak Italian?’ the tourist guide asked me.
The tourist guide asked me __________________.
8. ‘How much did you pay for your bike?’ I asked Steve.
I asked Steve __________________.

(IV) Rewrite each question beginning as shown.

1. What’s the time?-> Could you tell me ____________?


2. What does this mean? -> Do you know ________________?
3. How much does this cost? -> Could you tell me ________________?
4. What time does the museum open? -> Do you know ________________?
5. Am I in the right seat? -> Could you tell me ________________?
6. Where’s Asham Street? -> Do you know ________________?
7. Is this Trafalgar Square? -> Could you tell me ________________?
8. When does this bus leave? -> Do you know ________________?

(V) Rewrite each sentence in reported speech, beginning as shown. Use a verb
from the list.

advised apologised congratulated invited


offered promised refused suggested

1. ‘I’ll definitely be at your house before 8.00, Sue,’ said Mike.


Mike _________ Sue that _______________________.
2. ‘Would you like to come to the cinema, Jean?’ asked Chris.
Chris ________________________________.
3. ‘I wouldn’t eat too much if I were you, Dave,’ said Patsy.
Patsy ________________________________.
4. ‘How about going for a walk?’ said George.
George ________________________________.
5. ‘I’m terribly sorry for breaking the window,’ said Carol.
Carol ________________________________.
6. ‘Shall I do the washing up?’ said Bill.
Bill ________________________________.
7. ‘Well done, you’ve passed your driving test,’ said Tina’s mother.
Tina’s mother _______ her ________________.
8. ‘No, I won’t go to the dentist’s!’ said Pat.
Pat ________________________________.

(VI) Choose the best verb underlined in the direct speech sentence:

1. Helen asked me if I liked visiting old buildings.


‘Do you like/ Did you like visiting old buildings?’ asked Helen.
2. Bill asked Mary if she had done anything the previous weekend.
‘Have you done anything/ Did you do anything last weekend?’

34
3. The policeman asked me if the car belonged to me.
‘Does this car belong/ Did this car belong to you?’ asked the policeman.
4. Fiona asked me if I had seen her umbrella anywhere.
‘Did you see/ Have you seen my umbrella anywhere?’ asked Fiona.
5. Joe asked Tina when she would get back.
‘When will you get/ have you got back?’ asked Joe.
6. Ed asked Steve who had been to the cinema with.
‘Who did you go/ had you been to the cinema with?’ asked Ed.
7. My parents asked me what time I had got home the night before.
‘What time did you get/ have you got home last night?’ my parents asked.
8. David asked a passer-by if it was the right road for Hastings.
‘Is this/ Was this the right road for Hastings?’

(VII) Rewrite each sentence as indirect speech, beginning as shown:

1. ‘What time does the film start, Peter?’


I asked ________________________.
2. ‘Do you watch television every evening, Chris?’
The interviewer asked ____________________________.
3. ‘Why did you apply for this job?’ asked the sales manager.
The sales manager asked me _______________________.
4. ‘Are you taking much money with you to France?’
My bank manager wanted to know ________________________.
5. ‘When will I know the results of the examination?’
Maria asked the examiner ____________________________.
6. ‘Are you enjoying your flight?’
The stewardess asked me ____________________________.
7. ‘How does the photocopier work?’
I asked the salesman ____________________________.
8. ‘Have you ever been to Japan, Paul?’
Sue asked Paul ____________________________.

(VIII) Continue reporting each sentence, using only the number of words stated.

1. ‘Do you think you could possibly tell me what the time is?’
David asked me ______________________________________. (5 words)
2. ‘Excuse me, but I wonder if you’d mind opening the window.’
The man sitting next to me asked me _______________________. (4 words)
3. ‘You go down this street, turn left, then take the second turning on the right. The
cinema is just down the street on the left.’
A passer-by told me how to ___________________________________ (5 words).
4. ‘I want to know how much this bike costs. Can you tell me?’
John asked how _____________________________________________ (4 words).
5. ‘Look, don’t worry, I’ll help you if you like.’
Sue said she _______________________________________________ (3 words).
6. ‘Alright, I tell you what, the car’s yours for, let’s say $500.’
The salesman said I could _____________________________________ (5 words).
7. ‘I hope you don’t mind my saying this, but you’re being a bit silly, aren’t you?’
Peter told me I _________________________________________ (5 words).
8. ‘It doesn’t look as if I’ll be arriving until after 8, I’m afraid.’

35
Jane said she probably ________________________________________ (6 words).

2.8. LET’S REMEMBER...

 entrepreneur = someone willing to take the risks involved in starting a business


 objective = a target that is set for a business to achieve
 business plan = a document setting out what the business does at present, plus
what it tends to achieve in the future.
 risk = the possibility of something going wrong
 company = a business that has its own legal identity(i.e. it can own items, owe
money, sue and be sued)
 gap in the market = a business opportunity that is either a new idea or adds
something different to an existing product or service
 market = where the buyer and seller 'come together' to exchange the goods or
services for money (today this may actually mean a face-to-face meeting, but
could be carried out over the internet or other telecommunication methods)
 turnover = the value of sales made during a trading period, also called revenue
 stakeholder = an individual or group with an interest in a business, such as
employees, customers, managers, shareholders, suppliers, competitors and the
local community
 growth = an increase in turnover (sales), market share or profit
 profit = what is left after costs have been reducted from revenue (rofit=revenue
– costs)
 profit margin = profit made as a proportion of sales revenue
 sales = the amount sold or the value sold (e.g. 200 units or £400)
 market share = the proportion of total market sales sold by one business
 customer satisfaction = how happy the customer is with the product or service

2.9. SUMMARY

1. Requests/orders

 “asked me to” is used for requests;


 “told me to” is stronger; it is used for orders/commands;
 the main verb stays in the infinitive:
She asked me to make copies.
He told me to go to the bank.

2. Yes/no questions

 “asked if” and “wanted to know if” are equal.


 the main verb changes according to the rules for reported statements:
“Did you turn off the TV?” (past simple)
She asked if I had turned off the TV (past perfect)
 we don’t use the auxiliary verbs “do/does/did” in the reported question.

3. Other questions

 “asked” and “wanted to know” are equal;


 we don’t use the auxiliary verb “do” or “does” in the reported question:

36
“Where does he work?” She wanted to know where he works/worked.
 in questions with the verb “to be,” the word order changes in the reported
question:
“Where were you born?” (Question word + [to be] + subject) 
He asked where I was born (Question word + subject + [to be])
He asked where was I born

Next unit will focus on If Clauses.

2.10. TEST

(I) Rearrange the letters to make words. Use the definitions in brackets to help
you.
1 enrtrepeenur (someone who starts a company and makes business deals)
2 citapal (money used to start or invest in a business)
3 funoder (someone who starts an organization)
4 prmeeiss (the buildings that a company uses)
5 puchrase (formal buy something)
6 tunvorer (the money a business makes = revenue)
7 seahrs (the equal parts of a company which people can buy and sell)
8 actisiquion (buying another company; = take-over)
9 cotellaral (property or money that you promise to give the bank if you cannot pay
back a debt)
10 damend (the desire or need that customers have for a product)

(II) Choose the best answer A, B or C:

1. "Where does your family usually go on vacation?"


A. He asked if my family usually goes on vacation.
B. He asked where does my family usually go on vacation.
C. He asked where my family usually goes on vacation.

2. "Have you met my sister?"


A. She wanted to know if I'd met her sister.
B. She wanted to know if I will meet her sister.
C. She told me to meet her sister.

3. "Look up these words in the dictionary."


A. The teacher asked us if we'd looked up the words in the dictionary.
B. The teacher told us to look up the words in the dictionary.
C. The teacher wanted to know how to look up the words in the dictionary.

4. "How much does it cost to rent a car?"


A. He told me he wanted to rent a car.
B. He wanted to know how much it costs to rent a car.
C. He asked if it costs money to rent a car.

5. "Will you help me?"


A. She asked if I would help her.
B. She asked if she would help me.

37
C. She asked if you would help her.

6. "Please don't walk on the grass."


A. He asked us not to walk on the grass.
B. He asked us if we'd walked on the grass.
C. He asked if he could walk on the grass.

7. "What time is it?"


A. My friend told me what time it was.
B. My friend wanted to know what time is it.
C. My friend asked me what time it was.

8. "Can you swim?"


A. He asked me if I'd swim.
B. He asked me to swim.
C. He asked if I could swim.

9. "Finish the report by tomorrow, or else you're fired."


A. My boss told me he'd finished the report for the next day, or else I was fired.
B. My boss told me to finish the report by the next day, or else I'd be fired.
C. My boss told me to finish the report by the next day, or else you are fired.

10. "What's her last name?"


A. He asked what her last name was.
B. He asked what was her last name.
C. He asked if she had a last name.

(III) Translate the following sentences into English, paying attention to the
explanations given in this unit:

1. Elevul l-a întrebat pe director când trebuie să se prezinte la cabinetul său.


2. Funcţionarul ne-a sfătuit să citim atent instrucţiunile înainte să deschidem cutia.
3. Secretara întreabă dacă trebuie să bată la maşină toate rapoartele.
4. Mama mi-a atras atenţia să nu uit de întâlnire.
5. Doctorul ne-a spus că nimeni nu are voie să vorbească cu pacientul până a doua zi.
6. Voia să ştie de ce prietenii mei au plecat aşa de devreme.
7. Bătrânul ne-a spus că el nu încuie niciodată uşa din spate.
8. Profesorul i-a întrebat pe elevi dacă au înţeles lecţia sau nu.
9. George s-a scuzat spunând că nu e vina lui.
10. Profesorul voia să ştie cine a participat la olimpiada de matematică.

2.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru


profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational

38
Unit 3: MANAGEMENT
Contents:

3.1. INTRODUCTION
3.2. OBJECTIVES
3.3. WARM-UP
3.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION
3.5. SKILLS FOCUS
3.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
3.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS
3.8. LET’S REMEMBER
3.9 SUMMARY
3.10. TEST
3.11. ASSIGNMENT 1
3.12. BIBLIOGRAPHY

3.1. INTRODUCTION

This unit will focus on vocabulary related to management. As for grammar


issues, the main rules guiding the usage of IF CLAUSES will be described and
exemplified.

3.2. OBJECTIVES

This unit will help you:


- develop your reading comprehension skills (skimming and scanning)
- revise and practice language related to management
- revise and practice IF CLAUSES
- improve the skills you need for writing argumentative essays
- develop and practise translation skills

AVERAGE STUDY TIME: 2 hours

3.3. WARM-UP

A. What is management?
 Is it an art or a science?
 An instinct or a set of skills and techniques that can be taught?

B. What do you think makes a good manager? Which four of the following
qualities do you think are the most important?

a. being decisive: able to make quick decisions


b. being efficient: doing things quickly, not leaving tasks unfinished,
having a tidy desk, and so on
c. being friendly and sociable
d. being able to communicate with people

39
e. being logical, rational and analytical
f. being able to motivate and inspire and lead people
g. being authoritative: able to give orders
h. being competent: knowing one’s job perfectly, as well as the work of
one’s subordinates
i. being persuasive: able to convince people to do things
j. having good ideas

Are there any other qualities that you think should be added to this list?

C. Which of these qualities can be acquired? Which must you be born with?

3.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION

(I) This text summarises some of Peter Drucker5’s views on management. As you
read about his description of the work of a manager, decide whether the five
different functions he mentions require the four qualities you selected in your
discussion, or others you did not choose.

WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?

Peter Drucker, the well-known American business professor and


consultant, suggests that the work of a manager can be divided into planning
(setting objectives), organising, integrating (motivating and communicating),
measuring, and developing people.
5  First of all, managers (especially senior managers such as company chairmen
– and women – and directors) set objectives, and decide how their
organisation can achieve them. This involves developing strategies, plans
and precise tactics, and allocating resources of people and money.
 Secondly, managers organise. They analyse and classify the activities of the
10 organisation and the relations among them. They divide the work into
manageable activities and then into individual jobs. They select people to
manage these units and perform the jobs.
 Thirdly, managers practise the social skills of motivation and
communication. They also have to communicate objectives to the people
15 responsible for attaining them. They have to make the people responsible for
performing individual jobs form teams. They make decisions about pay and
promotion. As well as organising and supervising the work of their
subordinates, they have to work with people in other areas and functions.
 Fourthly, managers have to measure the performance of the staff, to see
20 whether the objectives set for the organisation as a whole and for each
individual member of it are being achieved.
 Lastly, managers develop people – both their subordinates and themselves.
Obviously, objectives occasionally have to be modified or changed. It is
generally the job of a company’s top managers to consider the needs of the
25 future, and to take responsibility for innovation, without which any organisation
5
Peter Drucker (1909 – 2005) was an Austrian-born American management consultant, educator, and author,
whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business corporation.
He was also a leader in the development of management education, he invented the concept known as
management by objectives and self-control, and he has been described as "the founder of modern management"

40
can only expect a limited life. Top managers also have to manage a business’s
relations with its customers, suppliers, distributors, bankers, investors,
neighbouring countries, public authorities, and so on, as well as deal with any
major crises which arise. Top managers are appointed and supervised and
30 advised (and dismissed) by a company’s board of directors.
Although the tasks of a manager can be analysed and classified in this
fashion, management is not entirely scientific. It is a human skill. Business
professors obviously believe that intuition and “instinct” are not enough; there
are management skills that have to be learnt. Drucker, for example, wrote over
35 20 years ago that “altogether this entire book is based on the proposition that
the days of the intuitive manager are numbered,” meaning that they were
coming to an end. But some people are clearly good at management, and others
are not. Some people will be able to put management techniques into practice.
Others will have lots of technique, but few good ideas. Outstanding managers
40 are rather rare.

(II) Complete the following sentences with these words:

achieved board of directors communicate innovations manageable


performance resources setting supervise

1.Managers have to decide how best to allocate the human, physical and capital
_________ available to them.
2.Managers – logically – have to make sure that jobs and tasks given to their
subordinates are ___________.
3.There is no point in ___________ objectives if you don’t ___________them to your
staff.
4.Managers have to ___________ their subordinates, and to measure, and try to
improve, their ___________.
5.Managers have to check whether objectives and targets are being ___________.
6.A top manager whose performance is unsatisfactory can be dismissed by the
company’s ___________.
7.Top managers are responsible for the ___________ that will allow a company to
adapt to a changing world.

(III) The text contains a number of common verb-noun expressions (e.g. achieve
objectives, deal with crises etc.). Match up these verbs and nouns to make common
collocations.

1. allocate a. decisions
2. communicate b. information
3. develop c. jobs
4. make d. objectives
5. measure e. people
6. motivate f. performance
7. perform g. resources
8. set h. strategies
9. supervise i. subordinates

41
3.5. SKILLS FOCUS: Opinion Essay

Reread the last paragraph of the text in the READING COMPREHENSION


section. Do you agree with the opinion that some people are clearly good at
management, and others are not? Justify your answer. (200-240 words)

3.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

(I) Match the halves of each of the following sentences:

1) A merger has been announced a) to merge with suitable business.


2) They built up a 30% stake in the b) so we are looking for foreign
company partners
3) We are planning to launch a bid c) will require new capital
4) We are starting an expansion investment and could be risky.
programme d) and then took it over.
5) We are always looking for e) several businesses have been sold
opportunities off.
6) In order to refocus the group, f) for our main rival.
7) The MD wants to take the g) between two major oil companies.
company public h) to finance an ambitious expansion
8) Diversifying into new sectors programme

(II) Match these verbs and nouns to make common word partnerships:

1) form a) an agreement
2) launch b) an alliance
3) look for c) a bid
4) penetrate d) an objective
5) reach e) a market
6) set f) a partner
7) take g) a stake

(III) Use the word partnerships in exercise (II) to complete the following
sentences:

1) We have found a company we can _____________ with in the Far East.


2) We will never _____________ for the under-35s unless we change our advertising
strategy.
3) By buying a lot of shares quickly, we were able to _____________ in one of our
competitors before taking them over.
4) The CEO thinks we should _____________ in Eastern Europe rather than trying to
set up our own subsidiary here.
5) After a long and difficult negotiation we were able to _____________ .
6) It took all our financial resources to _____________ for such a well-known
company.
7) At the AGM the Board _____________ of increasing turnover by 8% in the next
two years.

42
(IV) Some adjectives typically go with certain nouns. Fit the adjectives in the box
below into the letter:

accurate competitive critical easy future


guaranteed verbal high large mixed
positive right valued

Dear Marcelle,

I am writing to you for another year of fruitful cooperation between our two
companies. You are one of our most (1) _________ customers and we always try to
give you as (2) _________a level of service as possible at an extremely (3) _________
price. We are sure that this is the (4) _________ approach.
This is why we want to be one of the first to know about our plans to improve our (5)
_________ prospects through expansion. We have already invested a (6) _________
sum of money in up-to-date distribution facilities and negotiations for further financing
are now entering a (7) _________ stage. The result of all this will be (8) _________
ordering more (9) _________ figures on the status of your orders, and (10) _________
satisfaction for all.
Of course, there has been a (11) _________ reaction from some of our newer
customers, but I am sure that you will be patient with us during the period of transition.
These changes will make a (12) _________ contribution to our continuing partnership
and I can assure you that we shall continue to operate by (13) _________agreement on
telephoned orders in the future as we have in the past.
Please contact me if you need more information.

With best regards,


Alfredo McKay
Customer Relations Managers

3.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: If Clauses

TYPE IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE VALUE

Present Tense Simple Present Tense Simple


0 - true, real
If you press this button the machine starts.
Dacă apeşi pe buton maşina porneşte.

Present Tense Simple Future


(will + Infinitive)
-possible,
1
achievable
If we walk so slowly, we will be late.
Dacă vom merge aşa de încet vom întârzia.

43
Past Tense Simple Present Conditional
(would + Infinitive)
- imaginary,
2
hypothetical
If I had a helicopter I would fly to school.
Dacă aş avea un helicopter m-aş duce cu el la şcoală.

Past Perfect Simple Past Conditional


(would + have + Past - impossible
Participle) condition,
3 past,
If I had left home earlier I would not have lost the hypothetical
plane.
Dacă aş fi plecat de acasă
mai devreme, nu aş fi pierdut avionul.

A. TYPE 0 describes what always happens. When or if can introduce this sentence:

It’s a tropical country, and so if it rains hard, everyone stays indoors.


When it rains hard, everyone stays indoors.

B. TYPE 1 is sometimes called a real condition. It describes what someone thinks will
happen in a real situation.

Situation: You are at the supermarket with a friend. Your friend has put some eggs in
one bag, and is trying to pick up lots of other bags. You say:
If you carry too many bags, you will drop the eggs.
If you drop the eggs, they will break.

C. TYPE 2 is sometimes called an imaginary condition. It refers to things that might


happen in the future, or things that you can imagine happening. We do not know
whether the action can be accomplished or not, we only know that the first clause
depends on the second.

Situation: You are watching the stars one night with a friend. You start talking about
aliens. You say:
If some aliens landed on earth, I would make friends with them.
If they didn’t speak English, I would use sign language.

We usually use the form WERE for all persons (Past Tense form of verb TO BE) in
CONDITIONAL 2 IF SENTENCES.

If I were an astronaut, I would enjoy being weightless!


If she were a famous actress, she would earn a lot of money.

D. TYPE 3 is sometimes called an impossible condition. It refers to things in the past


and it is impossible to change things that happened in the past. The action would have
been possible at a certain moment in the past, but the subject missed the opportunity,
so it is not possible anymore.

44
Situation: You went for a long walk, but you did not take your umbrella. It rained, and
you got wet. You say:
If I had taken an umbrella, I would not have got wet.
If I had heard the weather forecast, I would not have gone out.

NOTE

 UNLESS means only if not. We use it to say that something will only happen in
certain circumstances:
We will go out for a walk, UNLESS it rains (=only if it doesn’t rain).
I wouldn’t ask you to help me UNLESS you were my best friend.

 Conditional sentences usually begin with IF. However, in everyday speech, we


often use IMAGINE or SUPPOSING:
Imagine you saw a snake, what would you do?
(If you saw a snake, what would you do?)

Supposing you owned a helicopter, what would you use it for?


(If you owned a helicopter, what would you use it for?)

I. Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each pair:

1. If we’re / we would be late for class, our teacher will be / was angry.
2. If we lived / would live on another planet, we’d see / we will see the Earth in
the sky.
3. If we take / will take a taxi, we’ll arrive / we arrived sooner.
4. If we don’t hurry / won’t hurry, we’ll be / we would be late.
5. If we were / are birds, we would be able to / are able to fly.
6. If you don’t wear / wouldn’t wear your pull over, you’ll feel / you felt cold.
7. If I studied /will study harder, I would get / get better marks.
8. If I had / have a motorbike, I’d ride / I rode it to school.
9. If you lend / will lend me your bike, I’ll let / I let you borrow my skateboard.
10. If I had / would have lots of money, I’d give / I gave some to all my friends.

(II) Complete the sentence for each situation using the verbs given:

1. You are standing very close to the edge of a swimming pool. You are wearing all
your clothes, not a swimming costume. A friend says: If you (fall in) _______, your
clothes (get) _______ wet!
2. You are sitting in the classroom on a hot day. You are day-dreaming about going to
the beach. You think: If today (be) _______ a holiday, I (go) _______ to the beach.
3. You can’t answer a question in your English book. You ask a friend to help, but she
doesn’t know the answer. She says: If I (know) _______ the answer, I (tell)
_______ you.
4. You are walking towards the bus-stop with a friend. Suddenly the bus arrives. The
bus-stop is far away, but you think there is a chance of catching the bus. You say: If
we (run) _______, we (catch) _______ it!
5. You are planning to go to the beach tomorrow with some friends. You are not sure

45
about the weather, because it sometimes rains at this time of the year. You arrange
to meet tomorrow afternoon and say: If it (rain) _______, we (go) _______ to the
cinema instead.
6. You are very busy, because you have lots of work to do, and you also play in two
teams. a friend asks you to join a computer club. You say: If I (have) _______
more free time, I (join) _______ the club. But it’s impossible at the moment
because I’m too busy!
7. You are discussing the idea of underwater cities. People are describing the
advantaged and disadvantages of living under the sea. You say: If we (live)
_______ under the sea, we (eat) _______ fish all the time!
8. You are worried about a test next week. You ask your teacher for some advice. She
says: If you (study) _______ for one hour every day, you (pass) _______ the test.

(III) Complete each sentence using if, unless or would:

1. If you had asked me to help you, I _______.


2. John _______ win more races if he trained harder.
3. Come on! _______ we hurry, we’ll miss the plane!
4. _______ you like to see my stamp collection?
5. What _______ you do if you saw a snake?
6. We’ll have lunch outside in the garden, _______ it’s too cold.
7. The manager won’t be long. _______ you take a seat, please.
8. I’m sure that Carol _______ go to the cinema with you, if you asked her.
9. _______ you feel like a chat, phone me tonight.
10. I don’t feel happy _______ I swim every day.

(IV) Complete each sentence a) to j) with an ending from 1) to 10).

a) If you play the music too loud, 1. the alarm would go off.
b) If the North Pole melted, 2. I’ll buy a new bike.
c) If we don’t have enough ice-cream, 3. I’ll be in Paris a t 6.00.
d) If I found someone’s wallet, 4. you wouldn’t see me anymore.
e) If a burglar broke into this house, 5. you would feel better.
f) If my train isn’t late, 6. the water would flood many cities.
g) If you were famous, 7. I’ll buy it for you.
h) If my father lends me the money, 8. you’ll wake up the neighbours.
i) If you took more exercise, 9. we’ll get some more.
j) If you tell me what you want, 10. I’d take it to the police station.

(V) Complete each sentence as either a Conditional 1 or a Conditional 2 sentence


using the verb given:

1. If I (have) _______ arms five metres long, I (be able) _______ to reach the top of
that shelf.
2. Don’t worry, you’ve just got a cold. If you (take) ______ an aspirin, you (feel)
______ much better.
3. Vegetarians believe that if nobody (eat) ______ meat, everyone (live) ______
longer.
4. If I (become) ______ a famous rock star, I (buy) ______ my parents an enormous
house.

46
5. It says ‘No Parking’. If you (leave) ______ the car here, the police (give) ______
you a parking fine.
6. It’s not far. If you (follow) ______ this path, you (come) ______ to the station.
7. If people in cities (use) ______ bikes instead of cars, there (not be) ______ so
much pollution.
8. Actually it’s a very friendly dog. If you (touch) ______ it, it (not bite)______ you.
9. If you (leave) ______ your books on the desk, I (give) ______ them back to you at
the end of the lesson.
10. If you (own) ______ a pet tiger, your friends (not visit) ______ you!

(VI) Rewrite each comment beginning as shown:

1. Supposing you had wings, what would you do?


What _____________________________?
2. Why don’t you leave now? That’s what I’d do.
If _____________________________.
3. Imagine you lived on Mars. How would you feel?
How _____________________________?
4. I think you should buy a bike. That’s what I’d do.
If _____________________________.
5. Imagine you were rich. What would you do?
What _____________________________?
6. Supposing Jim came with us, what would you say?
What _____________________________?
7. Why don’t you take the bus? That’s what I’d do.
If _____________________________.
8. Imagine you owned a robot. What would you do?
What _____________________________?

(VII) Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence:

1. If you phoned / had phoned me yesterday, I had given / would have given you the
news.
2. If you took / would have taken more exercise, you might feel / had felt better.
3. If Tim drove / had driven more carefully, he wouldn’t have crashed / didn’t crash.
4. If you had come / came to see the film, you would have enjoyed / had enjoyed it.
5. If I’d known / I would know it was your birthday, I would send / would have sent
you a card.
6. If people helped / had helped one another more often, the world might be / was a
better place.
7. If your team had scored / scored more goals, it had won / could have won.
8. If you would have worn / wore a coat, you wouldn’t get / didn’t get wet.

(VIII) Complete the sentence for each situation:

1. Helen didn’t leave early, and so she missed the bus. If Helen ______________, she
______________the bus.
2. I didn’t buy more milk, so I didn’t have enough for breakfast. If I
______________, I _______________ enough for breakfast.
3. We forgot to take a map, so we got lost in the mountains. If we _______________,

47
we _______________ in the mountains.
4. I didn’t go to bed early, so I didn’t wake up at 7.00. If I _______________ early, I
_______________ at 7.00.
5. Mike didn’t make a shopping list, and he forgot to buy some coffee. If Mike
_______________, he _______________ some coffee.
6. I didn’t realise you were tired when I asked you to go for a walk. If I ___________,
I _______________ for a walk.
7. The Romans didn’t sail across the Atlantic, so they didn’t reach America. If the
Romans _______________, they _______________ America.
8. I didn’t turn left at the station , and I lost my way. If I _______________, I
_______________ my way.

3.8. LET’S REMEMBER...

 control  the measurement and correction of the performance of subordinates


to ensure that organisational objectives and the plans for attaining them are
being met

 Henri Fayol (1841-1915, widely acknowledged as a founder of modern


management methods)  Fayol established the tasks of managing involving
five categories: Planning; Organising; Motivating; Controlling; Co-ordinating

 Gantt chart  developed by Henry Gantt (1861-1919), an associate of


Frederick Taylor. This is part of the planning process and is an early method of
scheduling

 management  the achievement of objectives by identifying and utilising


material and human resources

 manager  anyone who holds a senior level in a particular organisation

 objectives  Peter Drucker in The Practice of Management cites eight key


areas in which objectives of performance and results should be set: Market
standing; Innovation; Productivity; Physical and financial resources;
Profitability; Manager performance and development; Work performance and
attitude, and; Public responsibility

 scientific management  classical-orientated theories associated with


Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 - 1915)

 S-W-O-T  determining an organisation’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities


and threats.

3.9. SUMMARY

 ZERO CONDITIONAL. This conditional deals with “real” conditions.


 We don’t call it “real” because it has already happened: we call it real
because it always happens this way.
 We use this to describe a condition with an absolutely predictable result—
48
in other words, to state a fact:

If you stick your fingers in the fire, they get burned. (fact—happens every time)

 When the situation is completely likely, use present tense in both clauses.

 FIRST CONDITIONAL. This conditional deals with “unreal, but likely”


situations in the present or future.
 We call it “unreal” because situation we are describing hasn’t happened yet,
and “likely” because we can easily imagine it happening.
 We use the first conditional to describe these situations.
 For example, a 3 year old child is reaching toward the fire. She hasn’t put
her fingers into the fire yet, but we know that small children don’t
understand fire, so we can easily imagine her touching it. We would say:

If you stick your fingers into the fire, you will burn yourself. (Same idea as
above, but rather than stating a general fact, you are talking about a specific
incident.)

 When the situation is unreal, but likely, use present tense in the
conditional clause and will + verb in the main clause.

 SECOND CONDITIONAL. This conditional deals with situations in the present


and future that are both unreal and unlikely.
 The situation we are describing hasn’t happened yet, and we really can’t
imagine it happening very easily, except in a freak accident or a moment of
great stupidity.
 For example, a 25 year old is joking about reaching into the fire. He hasn’t
put his fingers into the fire yet, and we don’t think he’s serious about doing
it, but we want to warn him about the consequences just in case. We would
say:

If you stuck your fingers into the fire, you would need medical attention.

 When the situation is unreal and unlikely, use past tense in the
conditional clause and would + verb in the main clause.

 THIRD CONDITIONAL. This conditional deals with situations in the past that are
unreal—they didn’t happen.
 We can still imagine what the consequences would have been.
 For example, the 25 year old was joking about reaching into the fire, but he
didn’t actually do it. We would say:

If you had stuck your hand into the fire, you would have needed medical
attention.

 When the situation is unreal and in the past, use past perfect (had + -ed)
in the conditional clause and would have + verb in the main clause.

Next unit will focus on expressing wishes.


49
3.10. TEST

(I) Match the words and expressions in the box with their definitions below:

entrepreneurs conceptual skills staffing


middle management technical skills senior (top) management
organizing management planning

1. Skills that help managers understand how different parts of a business relate to
one another and to the business as a whole.
2. People who start and run their own businesses.
3. The level of management responsible for meeting goals that senior
management sets. A Sales manager or Department Head is an example of this
level of management.
4. Determining how many people are needed to work on a given shift is an
example of.
5. The specific abilities that people use to perform their jobs (ex. Computer skills)
6. The level of management that decides goals of the business, how to meet them,
and how to use company resources. Board chairman, Presidents, and Vice
Presidents are all examples of this level of management.
7. Setting goals is an example of this.
8. Setting up a team of employees to restock an isle to make it more efficient for
customers is an example of this.
9. The process of deciding how best to use a business's resources to produce
goods or provide services.

(II) Choose the best answer A, B or C:

1. If it rains, the boys ______ hockey.


A. won’t play B. wouldn’t play C. wouldn’t have played

2. If he ______ his own vegetables, he wouldn't have to buy them.


A. grow B. grew C. had grown

3. Jim ______ whisky distilleries if he travelled to Scotland.


A. will see B. would see C. would have seen

4. Would you go out more often if you ______ so much in the house?
A. don’t have to do B. didn’t have to do C. hadn’t had to do

5. She wouldn't have yawned the whole day if she ______ late last night.
A. doesn’t stay B. didn’t stay C. hadn’t stayed

6. If you ______ a minute, I'll come with you.


A. wait B. waited C. had waited

7. If we arrived at 10, we ______ Tyler's presentation.


A. will miss B. would miss C. would have missed

50
8. We ______ John if we'd known about his problems.
A. help B. helped C. had helped

9. If they ______ new batteries, their camera would have worked correctly.
A. use B. used C. had used

10. If I went anywhere, it ______ New Zealand.


A. will be B. would be C. would have been

(III) Translate the following sentences into English paying attention to the use of
If Clauses:

1. Dacă îţi vei face datoria, vor fi mulţumiţi.


2. Dacă ne-am fi oprit acolo, am fi ajuns înapoi foarte târziu.
3. Nu fura banii dacă firma avea un seif.
4. Dacă îl vei întreba unde locuieşte, îţi va spune ceva ciudat.
5. Dacă ai lua un ziar, ai găsi probabil un număr de cuvinte pe care nu le înţelegi.
6. Dacă din întâmplare nu voi veni la timp, nu mă aştepta.
7. Dacă aş fi în locul tău, aş face orice mi-ar spune.
8. Dacă aş fi fost atât de obosit, mi-aş fi luat câteva zile de concediu.
9. În caz că m-ar fi căutat, sora mea i-ar fi spus că sunt la serviciu.
10. Să fi ştiut ce mă aşteaptă, nu m-aş fi angajat acolo.

3.11. ASSIGNMENT 1

You can choose one of the following assignments:

1. FOR and AGAINST ESSAY, described in Unit 1, Section 1.5. SKILLS FOCUS.

2. A Short Report, described in Unit 2, Section 2.5. SKILLS FOCUS, Exercise V.

3. An Opinion Essay, described in Unit 3, Section 3.5. SKILLS FOCUS.

This assignment should be uploaded on the ELIS platform (under “teme online”)
one week before the 1st tutorial.

Assignment 1 represents 15% of your final grade.

3.12. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru


profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational

51
Unit 4: BUSINESS ETHICS
Contents:

4.1. INTRODUCTION
4.2. OBJECTIVES
4.3. WARM-UP
4.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION
4.5. SKILLS FOCUS
4.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
4.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS
4.8. LET’S REMEMBER
4.9 SUMMARY
4.10. TEST
4.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

4.1. INTRODUCTION

This unit will focus on vocabulary related to business ethics. As for grammar
issues, we will deal with expressing wishes.

4.2. OBJECTIVES

This unit will help you:


- develop your reading comprehension skills (skimming and scanning)
- revise vocabulary and acquire new vocabulary related to business ethics
- revise and practice means of expressing wishes
- improve your writing skills – opinion essay
- develop and practise translation skills

AVERAGE STUDY TIME: 2 hours

4.3. WARM-UP

(I) Try and give answers to the following questions:

A. What is the purpose of a business, in your opinion? Is it just to make money?


B. What do you understand by these phrases?
a) business ethics
b) a code of good practice
c) a mission statement
C. Should mission statements include statements about ethics?
(II) Rank the professions below according to how ethical you think they are:

accountant civil servant lawyer police officer


banker estate agent nurse teacher
car sales executive journalist dentist taxi driver

52
3. Which of the views expressed below do you agree with?

 Business is business.
 Caveat emptor.
 Companies have an obligation to maximise profits because shareholders expect
the maximum return on their investments.
 All you have to do is adhere to conventional standards of morality.
 Your only ethical obligation is to act within the law.
 A company has responsibilities to its suppliers, customers, its employees, the
local community and society in general as well as to its shareholders.

4.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION

(I) Four of the views expressed above are referred to in the following text. Which
are they?

PROFITS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

In the 1920s, many large American corporations began, on a wide scale,


to establish pension funds, employee stock ownership, life insurance schemes,
unemployment compensation funds, limitations on working hours, and high
wages. They built houses, churches, schools and libraries, provided medical and
5 legal services, and gave money to charities. Since this is fairly surprising
behaviour for business corporations, there must be a good explanation.
In ‘The Generous Corporation’, Neil J. Mitchell6 argues that the reason
for many of these actions, most of which clearly did not bring immediate cash
benefits, was that large corporations had a legitimacy problem. The existence of
10 large corporations showed the classical economic theory of perfect competition
to be inadequate. Consequently, large corporations introduced 'welfare
capitalism' as a way of creating favourable public opinion. Rational capitalists,
starting with Henry Ford, also realised that a better educated work force would
be a more efficient one.
15 Of course, pure free market theorists disapprove of welfare capitalism,
and all actions inspired by 'social responsibility' rather than the attempt to
maximise profits. Since the benefits of such initiatives are not confined to those
who bear the costs, Milton Friedman7 has criticised them for being
unbusinesslike, and for threatening the survival of not only the individual
20 corporations but also the general vitality of capitalism. In a newspaper article
titled 'The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits', he argued
that: ‘In a free enterprise, private property system, a corporate executive is an
employee of the owners of the business. He has direct responsibility to his

6
Neil J. Mitchell is Professor of Political Science and former Department Chair at the University of New
Mexico, Albuquerque, USA. Before coming to New Mexico in 1986, he was an Assistant Professor at Iowa
State University and a Visiting Professor at Grinnell College in Iowa, USA. He is the author of Generous
Corporation (Yale University Press, 1989) and Conspicuous Corporation (The University of Michigan Press,
1997), and various scholarly titles.
7
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist, statistician and writer
who taught at the University of Chicago for more than three decades. He received the 1976 Nobel Memorial
Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and the
complexity of stabilization policy.

53
employers. That responsibility is to conduct the business in accordance with
25 their desires, which generally will be to make as much money as possible, while
of course conforming to the basic rules of the society, both those embodied in
law and those embodied in ethical custom.’
Thus, executives should not make expenditures on reducing pollution
beyond the amount that is required by law or that is in the best interest of the
30 firm. Nor should they deliberately hire less-qualified, long-term unemployed
workers, or workers from ethnic minorities suffering from discrimination. To do
so is to be guilty of spending the stockholders' (or the customers' or the
employees') money. Friedman does not consider the possibility that
stockholders might prefer to receive lower dividends but live in a society with
35 less pollution or less unemployment and fewer social problems.
An alternative view to the stockholder model exemplified by Friedman's
article is the stakeholder model, outlined, for example, in John Kenneth
Galbraith8's book, ‘The New Industrial State’. According to this approach,
business managers have responsibilities to all the groups of people with a stake
40 in or an interest in or a claim on the firm. These will include suppliers,
customers, employees and the local community, as well as the stockholders. A
firm which is managed for the benefits of all is its stakeholders, will not for
example, pollute the area around its factories, or close down a factory
employing several hundred people in a small town with no other significant
45 employers, and relocate production elsewhere in order to make small financial
savings. Proponents of the stakeholder approach suggest that suppliers,
customers, employees, and members of the local community should be strongly
represented on a company's board of directors.

(II) Write questions, relating to the text, to which these could be the answers:

1. According to Mitchell, in order to generate favourable public opinion.


2. So that the workers will probably be more loyal to the company, and will have
more money to spend on products made by the firm and others.
3. Because he believes such behaviour to be unbusinesslike, and therefore
dangerous for the company, and for capitalism in general.
4. According to Friedman, generally to receive as big a dividend as possible.
5. According to Friedman, only the country's laws and ethical customs.
6. Less pollution, or lower unemployment, for example.
7. Anyone who has a claim on or an interest in a firm, such as suppliers,
customers and employers.

(III) Find words or expressions in the text which mean the following:
1. institutions or organisations that provide help for people in need
2. acceptability, according to law or public opinion
3. the situation when there are a large number of sellers and buyers, freedom to
enter and leave markets, a complete flow of information, and so on
4. a condition of general well-being (and government spending designed to
achieve this)

8
John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 – April 29, 2006) was a Canadian and, later, American
economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism. His
books on economic topics were bestsellers from the 1950s through the 2000s, during which time Galbraith
fulfilled the role of public intellectual. As an economist, he was a Keynesian and an institutionalist.

54
5. menacing, endangering
6. liveliness, health, energy, strength
7. an economic system in which anyone can attempt to raise capital, form a
business, and offer goods or services
8. complying with or following (rules, etc.)
9. expressed, given a material form
10. supporters, people who argue in favour of something

4.5. SKILLS FOCUS: Opinion Essay

Read this list of unethical activities:


- avoiding paying tax
- claiming extra expenses
- using work facilities for private purposes (e.g. personal phone calls, social
networking)
- accepting praise for someone else’s work
- selling a defective product
- using your influence to get jobs for relatives (nepotism)
- ringing in sick when you are not ill
- taking extended lunch breaks

In your opinion, which is the worst? Write between 200 and 240 words.

4.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

(I) The sets and phrases below are related either to honesty or to dishonesty.
Which word is different from the others in each set? Use a good dictionary to help
you.

1. trustworthy law-abiding crooked


2. a slush fund a sweetener compensation
3. insider trading industrial espionage disclosure
4. a whistleblower a swindler a conman
5. a bribe a bonus a commission
6.fraud deceit integrity

(II) Complete these sentences with words and phrases from the sets above. Choose
from the first set to complete sentence 1, from the second set to complete sentence
2, and so on.

1. Our company does nothing illegal. We are very ________________.


2. We've got __________________ which is used in countries where it is difficult
to do business without offering bribes.
3. Their car looked so much like our new model. We suspect ________________.
4. They fired him because he was __________________. He informed the press
that the company was using under-age workers in the factory.
5. He denied accepting __________________ when he gave the contract to the
most expensive supplier.
6. I admire our chairman. He's a man of his word and is greatly respected for his
__________________.

55
(III) Match the verbs and nouns in the table below to make word partnerships.
Sometimes there is more than one possibility.

companies contracts crimes documents laws products regulations sanctions


boycott
breach
break
commit
falsify
impose

(IV) Match the verb to the correct preposition:

accuse for damages


charge for selling dangerous goods
prosecute somebody of offering bribes
sentence to three years in prison
sue with breaking guidelines

(V) Match the following prefixes to the verbs to describe some unethical business
activities. The number of times that each prefix is used is given in brackets.
book
charge
credit
de- (1) fraud
dis- (1) inform
mis- (5) lead
over- (3) mine
under- (1) price
represent
treat
use

(VI) Now match the words you have made above to the following nouns:

a company competitors confidence consumers customers staff


facts goods information people seats

(VII) Choose the correct definition for the italicised words and phrases in these
dialogues:

1. A: Was the company prosecuted for polluting the environment?


B: Yes, but they were found not guilty because of a loophole in the law.
a) clause
b) gap
c) case

56
2. A: How do the high taxes affect people in your country?
B: Well for one thing there's a growth in the black economy and it's worrying the
government.
a) working underground
b) night work
c) working and not paying tax
3. A: What happened to John?
B: He was found guilty of tax evasion and sent to prison for three years.
a) not paying enough tax
b) paying tax for another person
c) paying the wrong tax
4. A: What do unethical companies do when they get large amounts of money
illegally?
B: Well, money laundering is quite common. It's very hard for the authorities to
prove where the money has come from.
a) investing in property
b) keeping money in cash
c) hiding the origin of the money
5. I want durable products, but let's face it – built-in obsolescence is typical of most
products these days.
a) very short guarantee
b) designed not to last very long
c) difficult to use

4.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: Expressing Wishes

A. WISHES about present states

These wishes use the PAST SIMPLE after the verb WISH. The time referred to is an
imaginary or ‘unreal’ present.

I wish I knew the answer to this question. (In this case, I do not know the
answer.)
I wish I didn’t have so much work to do.

B. WISHES about past events

These wishes use the PAST PERFECT after the verb WISH. The time referred to is
past time.

I wish I had gone to your party last week. (In this case, I did not go.)

C. WISHES about future events: COULD + VERB

Wishes using COULD + VERB refer to ability or to future time.

I wish I could drive. (Ability)


I wish June could meet me next week. (Future time)

57
D. WISHES about future events: WOULD + VERB (annoying habits)

These wishes use WOULD + VERB after the verb WISH. They often take the form of
a complaint about a bad habit.

I wish Peter wouldn’t chew gum all the time.

E. IF ONLY

 If only is used instead of WISH to make emphatic wishes.

If only I knew the answer to this question!


If only I had gone to your party last week!

 In speech, ONLY is often heavily stresses.

F. IT’S TIME

 It’s time followed by a person is followed by an unreal past tense.

Sorry, but it’s time we went home.

This has a similar meaning to a Conditional 2 sentence: If we went home, it would be


better.

 High can be added for extra emphasis.

It’s high time you learned to look after yourself!

 It’s time can also be used with the infinitive + to.

It’s time you started work! (You’re being lazy) ≈ It’s time to start work. (A statement
of fact)

G. I’D RATHER

 I’d rather followed by a person is followed by an unreal past tense.

I’d rather you didn’t tell John about this.

This has a similar meaning to a Conditional 2 sentence:


If you didn’t tell John about this, it would be better.

 I’d sooner can be used in the same way and has the same meaning:

Actually, I’d sooner we left now.

58
(I) Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

1. I am sunburnt. I wish I hadn’t sunbathed / didn’t sunbathe for so long.


2. I don’t feel well. I wish I could stay / stayed at home tomorrow.
3. I’m not a good swimmer, but I wish I could swim / would swim well.
4. I wish I had / have a lot of money!
5. I wish I could see / saw you tomorrow, but it’s impossible.
6. I wish Jim didn’t sit / doesn’t sit next to me. He’s so annoying!
7. If only we had / would have some money we could take the bus.
8. I hope you enjoyed / enjoy yourselves at the dance tomorrow.

(II) Choose the correct continuation for each sentence.

1. I’ve got lots of work to do, and I’m tired, but I can’t stop.
A. I wish I had taken a rest. B. I wish I could take a rest.

2. I wasn’t paying attention in class, and now I can’t do my homework.


A. I wish I listened to my teacher. B. I wish I’d listened to my teacher

3. Sarah painted her room green, but she doesn’t like it.
A. She wishes she’d painted it blue. B. She wishes she painted it blue

4. This is a very puzzling moment!


A. I wish I’d known the answer. B. I wish I knew the answer.

5. It’s really cold and miserable here in the winter.


A. I wish we lived in an warm place. B. I hope we live in a warm place.

6. I can’t repair my bike because I haven’t got any tools.


A. If only I would have a screwdriver. B. If only I had a screwdriver.

7. I’m worried about my basketball team. Perhaps they won’t win!


A. I wish they play well. B. I hope they play well.

8. You promised not to tell anyone my secrets but you did!


A. I wish I hadn’t told you. B. I wish I didn’t tell you.
(III) Complete each sentence with a suitable form of the verb given.

1. I’m soaked to the skin! If only I (bring) ________ an umbrella!


2. This pullover was really cheap. I wish I (buy) __________ two of them!
3. I like your university. I wish I (go) __________ there too.
4. I must get in touch with Sue. If only I (know) __________ her phone number!
5. This bus is really slow! I wish we (take) __________ the train instead!
6. I’m disappointed in this camera. I wish I (not buy) __________ it.
7. I answered three questions well. If only I (finish) __________ the whole test!
8. I can’t understand anything Marie says! I wish I (speak) __________ French.

(IV) Complete each sentence in a suitable way.

1. I’m hungry. If only ___________ in my pocket.

59
2. Enjoy your holiday. I hope __________ time.
3. This is a lovely place. I wish we __________ before.
4. It’s a pity you live so far away. If only you __________ in my street!
5. Ellen is a fantastic dancer. I wish I __________ as well as her.

(V) Choose the most suitable tense.

1. I wish Peter doesn’t live / didn’t live / wouldn’t live so far away from the town
centre. We’ll have to take a taxi.
2. I feel rather cold. I wish I brought / had brought my pullover with me.
3. What a pity. I wish we don’t have to / didn’t have to / wouldn’t have to leave. I’ve
just started to enjoy myself.
4. I wish you tell / told / had told me about the test. I haven’t done any revision.
5. I wish the people next door hadn’t made / wouldn’t make / couldn’t make so much
noise. I can’t hear myself think!
6. Darling I love you so much! I wish we are / had been /would be / could be together
always!
7. I’m sorry I missed your birthday party. I really wish I come / came / had come /
would come.
8. I like my new boss but I wish she gave / would give / could give me some more
responsibility.
9. Having a lovely time in Brighton. I wish you are / were / had been here. Love,
Sheila.
10. This car was a complete waste of money. I wish I didn’t buy it / hadn’t bought it.

(VI) Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense.

1. This train journey seems endless! I wish we (go) ________ by car.


2. I wish I (have) _________ the money to buy some new clothes, but I can’t
afford it at the moment.
3. I wish the government (do) __________ something about the pollution in this
city.
4. I’m getting really soaked! I wish I (not forget) __________ my umbrella.
5. I wish you (not do) __________ that! It’s a really annoying habit.
6. That was a lovely meal, but I wish I (not eat) __________so much.
7. I wish I (study) __________ harder for my exams. I don’t think I’m going to
pass.
8. I wish you (not leave) __________ your dirty shoes in your bedroom.
9. I’m afraid I have no idea where Diana has gone. I wish I (know) __________.
10. I really enjoyed our trip to the theatre. I wish we (go) __________ more often.

(VII) Choose the most suitable tense.

1. A cheque is all right but I’d rather you pay / paid me cash.
2. Imagine you live / lived in New York. How would you feel?
3. If only I have / had / would have a screwdriver with me.
4. If you want to catch the last train, it’s time you leave / left.
5. I’d rather you don’t tell / didn’t tell anyone about this conversation.
6. I’ve got a terrible hangover. If only I didn’t drink / hadn’t drunk that fourth
bottle of wine.

60
7. If you don’t mind, I’d sooner you practised / had practised / would practise your
violin somewhere else.
8. It’s high time you learn / learned to look after yourself.
9. Jean thinks that everyone likes her. If only she knows / knew what people say
behind her back!
10. I’d rather we stay / stayed at home this Christmas for a change.

(IX) Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense.

1. What can we do to get in touch with Robert? If only we (know) ________ his
phone number.
2. Come on children! It’s time you (be) __________ in bed.
3. Actually I’d rather you (not smoke) __________ in here.
4. Suppose you (see) __________ a ghost. What would you do?
5. I’m so annoyed about my car accident. If only I (be) __________ more careful !
6. It’s high time you (start) __________ working more seriously.
7. I’d rather you (not put) __________ your coffee on top of my book.
8. I’ve no idea where we are! If only we (have) __________ a map.
9. Your hair is rather long. Don’t you think it’s time you (have) __________ a
haircut?
10. Visiting museums is interesting I suppose, but I’d sooner we (go) __________
swimming.

4.8. LET’S REMEMBER...

BUSINESS ETHICS = Ethics in a business context; a consensus of what constitutes


right or wrong behavior in the world of business and the application of moral
principles to situations that arise in a business setting.

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY = The concept that corporations can and


should act ethically and be accountable to society for their actions.

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS = A decision-making technique that involves weighing


the costs of a given action against the benefits of the action.

DUTY-BASED ETHICS = An ethical philosophy rooted in the idea that every person
has certain duties to others, including both humans and the planet. Those duties
may be derived from religious principles or from other philosophical reasoning.

ETHICAL REASONING = A reasoning process in which an individual links his or her


moral convictions or ethical standards to the particular situation at hand.

ETHICS = Moral principles and values applied to social behavior.

STAKEHOLDERS = Groups, other than the company's shareholders, that are affected
by corporate decisions. Stakeholders include employees, customers, creditors,
suppliers, and the community in which the corporation operates.

UTILITARIANISM = An approach to ethical reasoning in which ethically correct


behavior is related to an evaluation of the consequences of a given action on

61
those who will be affected by it. In utilitarian reasoning, a "good" decision is
one that results in the greatest good for the greatest number of people affected
by the decision.

4.9. SUMMARY

There are three distinct types of I wish / if only sentences:

 wish, wanting change for the present or future with the simple past.
 regret with the past perfect.
 complaints with would + verb.

Next unit will focus on MODAL VERBS.

4.10. TEST

(I) Choose the best answer:

1. Moral rules or principles of behaviour for deciding what is right and wrong.
A. media
B. ethics
C. access
D. utilize

2. Impossible to change back to a previous condition or state.


A. internal
B. irreversible
C. expose
D. diversity

3. A situation in which you treat someone unfairly by asking them to do things for you,
but give them very little in return.
A. promotion
B. exploitation
C. expose
D. foundation

4. To do something willingly because you want to and are not being paid for it.
A. internal
B. conform
C. foundation
D. voluntarily

5. To use something for a particular purpose.


A. attitude
B. utilize
C. expose
D. ethics

6. All the organizations, such as television, radio, and newspapers, that provide news

62
and information for the public, or the people who do this work.
A. utilize
B. ethics
C. debate
D. media

7. The duty to do what is best for the good of society.


A. business ethics
B. social responsibility
C. sweatshop
D. code of ethics

(II) Put the verbs in brackets in the right tense to express wishes or regrets:

1. Alice didn't get a good grade. She wishes she (work) __________ harder.
2. Tom likes football very much. He wishes he (become) __________ a professional
football player.
3. He was running very fast when he had a heart attack. If only he (not/run)
__________ so fast.
4. She's keen on computers. She wishes she (study) __________ computer science
next school year.
5. I am sorry I don’t know how to use the computer. If only I (know) __________
how to use it.
6. I stayed late at work and missed the last bus. I wish I (stay) __________ at work
late.

(III). Translate the following text into Romanian:

RSC (responsabilitate socială corporatistă) e unul din cele mai stranii concepte
ale capitalismului. Dupa o naştere în anii ’60-’70 în SUA, în piaţa cea mai liberală,
după o adopţie entuziastă în Europa, în anii ’80-’90, RSC se adaugă lejer vocabularului
românesc al afacerilor. După ce ne-am deprins cu subtilităţile distincţiilor reclamă –
advertising, PR – relatii cu publicul, trademark – brand, după ce am schimonosit limba
română încercând să traducem "branding" şi "to brand", vine rândul RSC. Concept
straniu pentru zona liberală din care vine, pentru că pune în discuţie una din premisele
centrale ale capitalismului – ideea conform căreia scopul afacerii este de a aduce profit
pentru proprietar/acţionar. Dar o idee ce serveşte de minune mentalităţii europene, mai
cu seamă sud-est europene care, dupa stat, a găsit un alt „părinte” către care să-şi
proiecteze aşteptările. Idee ce prinde de minune în spatiul unei pieţe libere slabe ce se
căzneşte să vireze printre jaloanele mentalităţilor etatiste. Acum nu doar statul trebuie
să dea, ni se spune, ci şi companiile. Ca „buni cetăţeni”, firmele trebuie să se „implice”
în problemele comunităţii, să fie sensibile la nevoile sociale. Obiectivul firmei se
redefineşte, nemaifiind pur economic, vizând doar profitul individual, ci social, vizând
binele public. Compania nu trebuie doar să facă profit, să producă bunuri şi servicii, să
ofere locuri de muncă, să platească taxe la stat, eventual să investească în cercetare, ci
să faca şi bine social.
(adapted text, http://www.pr-romania.ro/articole/csr/30-responsabilitate-sociala-corporatista-forma-a-
eticii-in-afaceri.html)

63
4.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru


profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational

64
Unit 5: MARKETING
Contents:

5.1. INTRODUCTION
5.2. OBJECTIVES
5.3. WARM-UP
5.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION
5.5. SKILLS FOCUS
5.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
5.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS
5.8. LET’S REMEMBER
5.9 SUMMARY
5.10. TEST
5.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

5.1. INTRODUCTION

This unit will focus on vocabulary related to marketing. As for grammar issues,
the main uses of modal verbs (present and future) will be described and exemplified.

5.2. OBJECTIVES

This unit will help you:


- develop your reading comprehension skills (skimming and scanning)
- develop and practice language related to marketing
- revise and practice modal verbs (present and future)
- develop your writing skills (argumentative essay)
- develop and practise translation skills

AVERAGE STUDY TIME: 2 hours

5.3. WARM-UP

Here is a definition of marketing. Complete it by inserting the following verbs in


the gaps below:

design develop identify influence modify persuade

Marketers have to: (1) _________ or anticipate a consumer need; (2) _________ a
product or service that meets that need better than any competing products or services;
(3) _________ target consumers to try the product or service; and, in the long term, (4)
_________ it to satisfy changes in consumer needs or market conditions. Marketers
can (5) _________ particular features, attractive packaging, and effective advertising,
that will (6) _________ consumers’ wants. Marketing thus combines market research,
new product development, distribution, advertising, promotion, product improvement,
and so on.

65
Here is a second definition of marketing (as opposed to selling):

There will always, one can assume, be a need for some selling. But the aim of
marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and
understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself.
Ideally, marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy.
(Peter Drucker: Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices)

What do you think of this definition? Can selling become superfluous, even if the
customer is ready to buy? Or is there one important aspect of business that this
definition overlooks?

Can you think of any examples of products for which marketers anticipated a
consumer need (i.e. products you had never imagined needing before they were
developed)?

5.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION

(I) Look quickly through the following text and decide which paragraphs are
about these topics:

_________ - company-to-company marketing


_________ - identifying market opportunities
_________ - the marketing mix
_________ - the selling and marketing concepts
_________ - the importance of market research

THE CENTRALITY OF MARKETING

(1) Most management and marketing writers now distinguish between selling
and marketing. The ‘selling concept’ assumes that resisting consumers have to
be persuaded by vigorous hard-selling techniques to buy non-essential goods or
services. Products are sold rather than bought. The ‘marketing concept’, on the
5 contrary, assumes that the producer’s task is to find wants and fill them. In
other words, you don’t sell what you make, you make what will be bought. As
well as satisfying existing needs, marketers can also anticipate and create new
ones. The markets for the Walkman, video games, personal computers, and
genetic engineering, to choose some recent examples, were largely created than
10 identified.
(2) Marketers are consequently always looking for market opportunities –
profitable possibilities of filling unsatisfied needs or creating new ones in areas
in which the company is likely to enjoy a differential advantage, due to its
distinctive competencies (the things it does particularly well). Market
15 opportunities are generally isolated by market segmentation. Once a target
market has been identified, a company has to decide what goods or services to
offer. This means that much of the work of marketing has been done before the
final product or service come into existence. It also means that the marketing
concept has to be understood throughout the company, e.g. in the production
20 department of a manufacturing company as much as in the marketing

66
department itself. The company must also take account of the existence of
competitors, who always have to be identified, monitored and defeated in the
search for loyal customers.
(3) Rather than risk launching a product or service solely on the basis of
25 intuition or guesswork, most companies undertake market research (GB) or
marketing research (US). They collect and analyse information about the size
of a potential market, about consumers’ reactions to particular product or
service features, and so on. Sales representatives, who also talk to consumers,
are another important source of information.
30 (4) Once the basic offer, e.g. a product concept, has been established, the
company has to think about the marketing mix, i.e. all the various elements of
a marketing programme, their integration, and the amount of effort that a
company can expend on them in order to influence the target market. The best
known classification of these elements is the ‘4 Ps’: product, place, promotion
35 and price. Aspects to be considering in marketing products include quality,
features (standard and optional), style, brand name, size, packaging, services
and guarantee. Place in a marketing mix includes such factors as distribution
channels, locations of points of sale, transport, inventory size, etc. Promotion
groups together advertising, publicity, sales promotion, and personal selling,
40 while price includes the basic list price, discounts, the length of the payment
period, possible credit terms, and so on. It is the job of a product manager to
increase sales by changing the marketing mix.
(5) It must be remembered that quite apart from consumer markets (in which
people buy products for direct consumption) there exists an enormous
45 producer or industrial or business market, consisting of all the individuals and
organizations that acquire goods and services that are used in the production of
other goods, or in the supply of services to others. Few consumers realise that
the producer market is actually larger than the consumer market, since it
contains all the raw materials, manufactured parts and components that go into
50 consumer goods, plus capital equipment such as buildings and machines,
supplies such as energy and pens and paper, and services ranging from
cleaning to management consulting, all of which have to be marketed. There is
consequently more industrial than consumer marketing, even though ordinary
consumers are seldom exposed to it.

(II) Which of the following three paragraphs most accurately summarizes the text
and why?

First summary:
Marketing means that you don’t have to worry about selling your product, because you
know it satisfies a need. Companies have to identify market opportunities by market
segmentation: doing market research, finding a target market, and producing the right
product. Once a product concept has been established, marketers regularly have to
change the market mix – the product features, its distribution, the way it is promoted,
and its price – in order to increase sales. Industrial goods – components and equipment
for producers of other goods – have to be marketed as well as consumer goods.

Second summary:
The marketing concept has now completely replaced the old-fashioned selling concept.
Companies have to identify and satisfy the needs of particular market segments. A

67
product’s features are often changed, as are its price, the places in which it is sold, and
the way in which it is promoted. More important than the marketing of consumer
goods is the marketing of industrial or producer goods.

Third summary
The marketing concept is that a company’s choice of what goods and services to offer
should be based on the goal of satisfying consumers’ needs. Many companies limit
themselves to attempting to satisfy the needs of particular market segments. Their
choice of action is often the result of market research. A product’s features, the
methods of distributing and promoting it, and its price can all be changed during the
course of its life, if necessary. Quite apart from the marketing of consumer products,
with which everybody is familiar, there is a great deal of marketing of industrial goods.

5.5. SKILLS FOCUS: Argumentative Essay

Advertising is all around us, it is an unavoidable part of everyone’s life. Some people
say that advertising is a positive part of our lives while others say it is a negative one.

Discuss both views and include your own opinion. Give reasons for your answer
and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. You
should write at least 250 words.

5.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

(I) Fill in the missing words in the sentences below. Choose from the following.
One word is used twice.

customers developing distribute needs place price producing


product profit promote service time want

Marketing is concerned with getting the right (1) _______ to the right (2) _______ at
the right (3) _______. Marketing is about meeting consumer (4) _______ at a (5)
______. Marketing makes it easier for (6) _______ to do business with you.
Marketing aims to find out what people (7) ______; then (8) ______ and (9) ______ a
(10) ______ or (11) ______ that will satisfy those wants; and then determining the best
way to (12) _______, (13) _______and (14) ________ the product or service.

(II) Match up the words or expressions on the left with the definitions on the
right.

1. distribution channel A. all the companies or individuals involved in moving a particula


good or service from the producer to the consumer
2. to launch a product B. an idea for a new product which is tested with target consumer
before the actual product is developed
3. market opportunities C. attributes or characteristics of a product: quality, price, reliabil
etc.
4. market research D. dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who have diffe
requirements or buying habits
5. market segmentation E. places where goods are sold to the public – shops, stores, kiosk

68
6. packaging market stalls, etc.
F. possibilities of filling unsatisfied needs in sectors in which a
7. points of sale company can profitably produce goods or services
G. someone who contacts existing and potential customers, and tr
8. product concept persuade them to buy goods or services
H. collecting, analysing and reporting data relevant to a specific
9. product features marketing situation (such as a proposed new product)
10. sales representative I. to introduce a new product onto the market
J. wrappers and containers in which products are sold
(III) Fill in the missing words in the table.

VERB NOUN (PERSON) NOUN (CONCEPT)


1. marketer
2. distribute
3. competition
4. advertising
5. supplier
6. sponsor
7. consume
8. produce
9. analyst
10. researcher
11. import

(IV) Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the passage
below:

hoardings classified advertisements publicize commercials


posters advertising agencies persuade eye-catching

Advertisements are everywhere, from columns of small (1) _______ for houses, jobs,
cars etc. in newspapers to big (2) _______ on walls and enormous advertisements on
(3) _______ by the side of the road. The job of the (4) _______ is to (5) _______ the
products of the firms who employ them. They design (6) _______ advertisements and
make television (7) _______ to (8) _______ us to buy, buy, buy.

(V) Using the clues, find the names of the people involved in the movement of
goods from the producer to the consumer.

1. This person sells products on behalf 1. _ G _ _ _


of one or more producers.
2. Responsibility for moving goods from 2. D _ _ _ _ I _ _ _ _ _
producer to retailer is this person’s
job.
3. This person travels around persuading 3. _ _ L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S _ _ _ _ _ _ V _
retailers to stock products.
4. When you want to buy a product, you 4. _ _ T _ _ _ _ _
go to this person.
5. Another word for this person’s job is 5. _N _ _ _ M _ _ I _ _ Y
middleman.

69
5.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: MODAL VERBS I: PRESENT AND FUTURE

PROBLEMS WITH FORM AND MEANING

 Can, could, may, might, must, will, shall, would, should, and ought to are all modal
verbs. They are sometimes called modal auxiliaries, because they are always
followed by another verb in its base form. They do not form tenses.
I can speak English fluently.

FORM: Positive is formed by putting the modal verb between the subject and the main
verb.
We should stay.

 Negative is formed by adding not (or n’t) after the modal verb.
We should not / shouldn’t stay.

 Questions are formed by changing the position of the modal and the subject:
Should we stay?
Shouldn’t we stay?

MEANING: The meaning of modal auxiliaries depends on the context. One modal
can have several meanings depending on their function, or purpose.

(1) ABILITY

 CAN, CAN’T, CANNOT generally expresses being able or not being able to do
something in the PRESENT.
I can swim. Can you swim?

 CANNOT is generally used in writing and more formal speech.

 When used with a future time word, CAN also expresses FUTURE.
I can see you tomorrow.

 BE ABLE TO forms tenses and is used to express:


FUTURE: I will be able to walk again soon.
PRESENT PERFECT: I have never been able to understand your husband.
GERUND: Being able to drive has changed my life completely.
INFINITIVE: I’d love to be able to help, but I can’t. Sorry.

(2) PERMISSION

 ASKING FOR PERMISSION


Informal Formal  Distant

Can I open the window? Do you mind if I open the window?


Could I open the window? May I open the window?
Would you mind if I opened the window?
Are we allowed to use a dictionary?

70
 GIVING PERMISSION generally depends on the type of structure used to ask for
permission. The expressions used below represent answers to the questions above:

Informal Formal  Distant

Yes, you can. / Yes, of course. No, I don’t. / No, not at all.
Yes, you could. Yes, you may.
No, I wouldn’t.
Yes, you are.

You can go home now.


You may use a dictionary for the test if you want.

 REFUSING PERMISSION
You can’t smoke here. It’s not allowed.
You are not allowed to drive a car without insurance. (FORMAL)

(3) OFFER AND INVITATION

 WILL can be used to express willingness to help (you offer to do something). In


spoken English it is always contracted to ‘ll
A: It’s 10.00 and I haven’t finished my homework yet.
B: I’ll help you with your homework.

 SHALL can be used to express an offer. It is almost always used only in the 1st
person, singular or plural.
Shall I get you something to drink?

 SHALL can also express an invitation or a suggestion:


What shall we do tonight? Shall we go out or stay at home?

(4) POSSIBILITY OR UNCERTAINTY

 We use MAY and MIGHT when we think something is possible, or we are


uncertain.
President Jones might win the next election. (It is possible.)
I may / might have some news for you next week. (Perhaps I will.)

Some speakers feel that MAY is more formal.

 Note that MAY NOT and MIGHT NOT describe uncertainty, not impossibility.
I may not have time to finish tonight. (I don’t know.)

 We use COULD when we are uncertain, especially with be.


He could be stuck in traffic. (Perhaps he is.)

71
(5) DEDUCTION

 When we give good reasons for thinking something is true or untrue, we use
MUST and CAN’T as opposites.
He goes to Scotland every year for his holidays. He must like it. (I’m sure he does.)
John can’t possibly be seventy! He doesn’t look a day over fifty. (I’m sure it isn’t true.)

(6) OBLIGATION

 We can use MUST and HAVE TO to explain that something is necessary.


I must finish my homework before 8.00.
I have to phone Jan at 9.00.

 There is a difference in some contexts. We use HAVE TO to describe official rules:


e.g. rules about school or jobs, or any other organized activity.
At our school, we have to wear a uniform.
Every player in a football team has to take part in the training programme
every day.

 Some speakers use HAVE TO to describe any rule which comes from an external
authority (a rule made by somebody else).
When the traffic lights are red, you have to stop.

 We use MUST to express the authority of the speaker.


You must be here by 8.00, or the bus will leave without you.
You must take your shoes off in here.

(7) LACK OF OBLIGATION / NECESSITY

 We use the negative form of HAVE TO to express lack of obligation / necessity in


the:
PRESENT: I don’t have to work if I don’t want to.
He doesn’t have to work on Saturdays
FUTURE: I will not have to get up early tomorrow.

(8) PROHIBITION

 We use MUST NOT / MUSTN’T to express prohibition:


You must not / mustn’t steal other people’s property.

(9) ADVICE AND SUGGESTION

 SHOULD and SHOULDN’T give or ask for the speaker’s opinion of what is a good
or bad action. As this is an opinion it is often used for giving advice or suggestion.
I think you should talk to your teacher about that.
You shouldn’t go there. It’s too dangerous.
Should I wear the blue dress or the red dress?

72
 OUGHT TO and OUGHT NOT TO can be used in the same way as SHOULD and
SHOULDN’T
I think you ought to talk to your teacher about that.

 Note that SHOULD is more frequently used than OUGHT TO.

 HAD BETTER has a similar meaning to SHOULD and OUGHT TO. HAD is
usually contracted.
I think you’d better talk to your teacher about that.
We’d better not forget to turn off the computer!

(I) Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence:


a) Look at those clouds. I think it can / might / must rain.
b) This is impossible! It can’t be / mustn’t be / may not be the answer.
c) Well done! You may be / must be / might be very pleased.
d) I’ve no idea where Jane is. She could be / must be anywhere!
e) I suppose it’s possible. I might / can / must come to your party.
f) I’m not sure. I must not / may not be able to get there in time.
g) That can’t be/ mustn’t be / may not be David. He hasn’t got a bike.
h) Lisa isn’t here yet. She can be / must be on her way.
i) There’s someone at the door. It can be/ could be the postman.
j) Sorry, I can’t / may not come out. I have to do my homework.

(II) Rewrite each sentence using can, can’t, might or must, and beginning and
ending as shown.
a. Helen is really good at swimming.
Helen __________________ well.
b. It’s possible that our team will win.
Our team _______________ win.
c. I’m sure this is not the right road.
This _______________ the right road.
d. I’m sure you work very hard.
You _______________ very hard.
e. Carol isn’t allowed to come to our party.
Carol _______________ to our party.
f. It’s possible that I’ll see you tomorrow, but I’m not sure.
I _______________, but I’m not sure.
g. I’m afraid that your teacher is unable to come today.
I’m afraid that _______________ today.
h. I’m sure it’s very hot here in summer.
It _______________ here in summer.
i. Excuse me, is it alright if I open the window?
Excuse me, _______________ the window?
j. I suppose you are Mrs Perry. How do you do?
You _______________ Mrs Perry. How do you do?

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(III) Decide whether each pair of sentences have a similar mining, or whether
they are different. Write S for similar or D for different.

a) You’d better go. You should go. ___


b) You don’t have to press this button. You mustn’t press this button. ___
c) You should have a rest. You ought to have a rest. ___
d) You must be crazy! You should be crazy! ___
e) You must be here before 8.30. You have to be here before 8.30. ___
f) You mustn’t do that. You don’t have to do that. ___
g) You shouldn’t eat so much. You ought not to eat so much. ___
h) We have to work harder. We must work harder. ___
i) I’d better write my letters. I must write my letters. ___
j) I ought to leave now. I have to leave now. ___

(IV) Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word
given.

a) It would be a good idea for you to see a dentist. OUGHT


_________________________________________________
b) It’s not necessary for us to go to school tomorrow. HAVE
_________________________________________________
c) I’m sure that isn’t John, because he’s in Paris. BE
_________________________________________________
d) Perhaps Ann is at home. BE
_________________________________________________
e) You ought to wear a warm coat today. HAD
_________________________________________________
f) It’s possible that I’ll be late. MAY
_________________________________________________
g) I wouldn’t go skiing if I were you. THINK
_________________________________________________
h) It is forbidden to leave your bike here. CAN’T
_________________________________________________
i) Perhaps I’ll see you on Thursday evening. MIGHT
_________________________________________________
j) It is the rule to write this test in pencil. HAVE
_________________________________________________

(V) Put one suitable modal auxiliary in each space.

a) Soldiers _______ to obey orders.


b) I think you _______ take your umbrella.
c) Sorry, I _______ go now. I don’t want to be late.
d) I’m not sure, but I _______ be able to help you.
e) Helen isn’t at home, so she _______ be on her way here.
f) We _______ better not leave any windows open.
g) It _______ be a star, it’s too bright. Perhaps it’s an alien spaceship!
h) I don’t _______ to go to work today. It’s a holiday.
i) Sorry, but I wasn’t _______ to finish all the work you gave me.
j) I think you _______ to ask your teacher for some advice.

74
(VI) Rewrite each sentence so that it does not contain the phrase underlined.

a) If I were you, I’d take more exercise.


_________________________________
b) I expect the plane will land soon.
_________________________________
c) You are not allowed to use a dictionary.
_________________________________
d) It’s impossible for that to be Sue. She’s abroad.
_________________________________
e) It’s possible that I’ll come to your party.
_________________________________
f) It’s against the law to drop litter in the street.
_________________________________
g) It’s not necessary for you to wait.
_________________________________
h) You’d better stay in bed today.
_________________________________

(VII) Match the comments in column A with the comments in column B:

1. I’m afraid I’m tied up all this week. A. OK, I’ve got them here. Shall I fax
them to you?
2. Can you turn the heating off? B. That’s OK. Shall I pick you up
from the airport?
3. Is the next interviewee here yet? C. That’s OK. Shall I ring back this
afternoon?
4. Is that the new screen I ordered? D. Yes. Where shall I put it?
5. I’m sorry, but I’m in a meeting at E. I’m not sure yet. Shall I send you a
the moment. quote in a few days?
6. How much is this going to cost? F. No, but shall I open the window for
7. I don’t know London very well. you?
G. That’s OK. Shall we arrange a
8. I need to see the plans. Today if meeting for next week?
possible. H. Yes, she is. Shall I send her in?

(VIII) In each of the following pairs of sentences, put a tick () next to the one
that is more polite.

1. A. Give me a beer.
B. Could I have a beer?
2. A. Caller, I’m afraid the line’s busy. Will you hold?
B. Caller, I’m afraid the line’s busy. Hold, please.
3. A. What do you want?
B. What can I do for you?
4. A. What’s your name?
B. May I ask who is calling?
5. A. Could I borrow your pen?
B. Let me have your pen.
6. A. I’m sorry, Mr Browning’s busy. Can you come back later?

75
B. I’m sorry, Mr Browning’s rather busy. Can you come back later?
7. A. What did you say?
B. Could you repeat that?
8. A. May I see some identification?
B. Who are you?

5.8. LET’S REMEMBER...

 target market = a group of people identified as those most likely to become


customers that have similar wants and needs

 advertising = paid, non personal presentation of ideas, goods, or services direct at a


mass audience by an identified sponsor. For example print, billboard, radio, TV or
pop-up commercial

 brand = the name, symbol, slogan message or design used to identify a products
reputation and image

 brand loyalty = the tendency to buy a particular brand of a product

 commission = a fee paid to salesperson based on a percentage of the amount they


sold (for example, real estate agents earn a commission of 3% of the value of the
property they sold)

 image = the impression people have of a company; it's personality or reputation

 market = a group of people or companies who have a demand for a product or


service and are willing and able to buy it

 market research = the collection and analysis of information aimed at


understanding the behavior of consumers in a certain market

 marketing mix = the 4 strategies used to reach a target market: product, place, price
and promotion

 marketing plan = a researched plan used by a business to shape its product, place,
price and promotion to reach it's target market

 niche = a small, specialized segment of the market based on the unique needs of a
few customers

 personal selling = when a salesperson communicates directly with a client to make


an individual sale

 Public Relations = any activity designed to create a favorable image of a business,


its products, or its policies

 publicity = bringing news or newsworthy information about an organization to the


public's attention – it is free

76
5.9. SUMMARY

Modals (also called modal verbs, modal auxiliary verbs, modal auxiliaries) are
special verbs which behave irregularly in English. They are different from normal
verbs like "work, play, visit..." They give additional information about the function of
the main verb that follows it. They have a great variety of communicative functions.
Here are some characteristics of modal verbs:
 They never change their form. You can't add "s", "ed", "ing"...
 They are always followed by an infinitive without "to" (e.i. the bare infinitive.)
 They are used to indicate modality allow speakers to express certainty,
possibility, willingness, obligation, necessity, ability
As for present or future, remember that they can be used to express the following
values:

 CAN
- possibility: I think I can go to the party with you.
- ability in the present: I can speak four languages.
- ask a favor: Can you help me with this exercise?
- ask permission: Can I close the door?
- certainty: This can’t be the right place!

 COULD
- possibility or uncertainty: That could be the man we are looking for.
- to make suggestions: We could go to that new restaurant tonight.
- ability in the past: When I was 15, I could play volleyball very well.
- ask a favor (formal): Could you explain the exercise again please?
- ask permission (formal): Could I leave early today?

 SHOULD
- expectation: This film should be really good.
- recommendation: I think you should stop smoking.
- criticism of an action: You shouldn’t eat so much at night!
- uncertainty: Should I call you tonight or tomorrow morning?

 MAY
- possibility or uncertainty: She may come to our party.
- ask permission (favor): May I use your phone?

 MIGHT
- possibility or uncertainty: They might arrive late today.

 MUST
- obligation: You must wear your seat belt when driving.
- certainty: This must be our stop.

 MUSTN’T
- prohibition: You mustn’t leave before the end of the class.

Next unit will focus on MODAL VERBS (past).

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5.10. TEST

(I) Choose the word or phrase with the same meaning as the definition.

1. Providing money to cultural or sporting activities in exchange for advertising


rights.
a. promotion b. grant aid c. sponsorship

2. A business which specializes in giving advice and support to companies about


marketing and markets.
a. marketing consultancy b. counselling service c. company analysis

3. An economy which allows open and reasonably free exchange between private
companies.
a. command economy b. conservative economy c. free market economy

4. A market in which there are too many suppliers producing goods that a lot of
people want to buy.
a. saturated market b. buyers’ market c. heavy market

5. A market in which there are few suppliers producing goods that a lot of people
want to buy.
a. weak market b. sellers’ market c. light market

6. A company which sells more of a particular type of product than its competitors.
a. trend setter b. multinational c. market leader

7. A person with specialist knowledge of a specific market who often predicts what
will happen and tries to explain what has happened.
a. a market analyst b. forecast c. market broker

8. A specific promotional activity over a limited period of time.


a. a campaign b. season c. trend

9. The activity of moving goods from the producer to the consumer.


a. shipment b. distribution c. orientation

10. The activity of selling goods to other countries.


a. multinational distribution b. exporting c. exchange

11. The proportion of the total market which one company controls.
a. dominion b. market place c. market share

(II) Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense. All sentences refer to future
time.

1. There are plenty of tomatoes in the fridge. You _______ buy any.
A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. may not D. shouldn’t

78
2. It's a hospital. You _______ smoke.
A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. may not D. don’t have to

3. He had been working for more than 11 hours. He _______ be tired after such hard
work.
A. must B. need C. had better D. mustn’t

4. I speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Morocco. But after we
moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost
everything I knew as a child. Now, I _______ just say a few things in the language.
A. may B. can C. must D. need

5. The teacher said we read this book for our own pleasure as it is optional. But we
_______ read it if we don't want to.
A. can B. needn’t C. must D. should

6. If you want to learn to speak English fluently, you _______ to work hard.
A. could B. need C. needn’t D. mustn’t

7. Take an umbrella. It _______ rain later.


A. need B. should C. mustn’t D. might

8. You shouldn’t leave small objects lying around . Such objects _______ be
swallowed by children.
A. must B. need C. may D. musn’t

9. People _______ walk on grass.


A. couldn’t B. needn’t C. mustn’t D. may not

10. Drivers _______ stop when the traffic lights are red.
A. could B. must C. may D. can

11. _______ I ask a question? Yes, of course.


A. May B. Must C. Should D. Will

12. You _______ take your umbrella. It is not raining.


A. couldn’t B. needn’t C. mustn’t D. may not

(III) Translate the following text into Romanian.

Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and
services, and attempts to persuade them to buy them. The best form of advertising is
probably word-of-mouth advertising, which occurs when people tell their friends about
the benefits of products or services that they have purchased. Yet, virtually, no
providers of goods or services rely on this alone, but use paid advertising instead.
Indeed, many organizations also use institutional or prestige advertising, which is
designed to build up their reputation rather than to sell particular products.

79
5.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru


profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational

80
Unit 6: THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT
Contents:

6.1. INTRODUCTION
6.2. OBJECTIVES
6.3. WARM-UP
6.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION
6.5. SKILLS FOCUS
6.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
6.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS
6.8. LET’S REMEMBER
6.9 SUMMARY
6.10. TEST
6.11. ASSIGNMENT 1
6.12. BIBLIOGRAPHY

6.1. INTRODUCTION

This unit will focus on vocabulary related to government. As for grammar issues,
the values of modal verbs (past) will be described and exemplified.

6.2. OBJECTIVES

This unit will help you:


- develop your reading comprehension skills (scanning)
- develop and practise language related to government
- revise and practise modal verbs (past)
- develop the skills you need for giving your opinion on various topics
- develop and practise translation skills

AVERAGE STUDY TIME: 2 hours

6.3. WARM-UP

 Some people argue that government have too much power, that they interfere
with ‘market forces’ and that too much regulation is bad for business.

 Do you believe that there is too much or too little government in your country,
that there are unnecessary laws, or not enough laws? For example, do you
think that any of the following tasks should not be undertaken or regulated by
the government, but should be left to the private sector and the market
system?
 education
 healthcare
 housing
 working conditions (working hours, child labour, minimum wages and so on)
 social security (unemployment and sickness benefits, old age pensions)
 defence (the armed services – army, navy, airforce)

81
 the police, the justice system, prisons and so on
 public transport (trains, buses and so on)
 traffic regulations (the driving test, speed limits, seat belts, the alcohol limit,
parking restrictions, the size and weight of lorries and trucks, the safety of cars
and so on)
 health, safety and cleanliness regulations (concerning factories, shops,
restaurants, food, medicines, disposal of chemical and nuclear waste and so on)
 the sale of alcohol, drugs, guns and so on;
 the press, broadcasting, the arts, entertainment and the freedom of expression
(concerning sex, violence, blasphemy, politics and so on)

Now classify the tasks you consider to be governmental responsibilities in order of


importance, adding any further areas which are not listed here.

6.4. READING AND COMPREHENSION

Here are the opinions of two well-known North American economists about the
role of government of the state.

(I) The first is an extract from a talk by J.K. Galbraith9. Read the text and answer
this question:

What areas does Galbraith describe as responsibilities of the state that were not in the
list discussed in the LEAD IN section?

THE GOOD LIFE BECKONS

The good society accepts the basic market system and its managers, but
there are some things that market system does not do either well or badly. In the
good society, these are the responsibilities of the state.
Some areas of state action are evident. In no country does the market
5 system provide low-cost housing. This is a matter of prime importance and
must everywhere be a public responsibility. Few things are more visibly at odds
with the good society than badly housed or homeless people.
Healthcare is also a public responsibility in all civilised lands. No one
can be assigned to illness or death because of poverty. Here Britain can proudly
10 point to its leadership.
The state has many other essential functions. It must also be borne in
mind that many of these – parks and recreational facilities – are more needed by
the underclass than by the affluent. Those who attack the services of the state
are usually those who can afford to provide similar services for themselves.
15 In the good society, there must also be attention to a range of activities
that are beyond the time horizons of the market economy. This is true in the
science, not excluding medical research. The market system invests for
relatively short-run return. To support science is pre-eminently the

9
John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 – April 29, 2006) was a Canadian and, later, American
economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism. His
books on economic topics were bestsellers from the 1950s through the 2000s, during which time Galbraith
fulfilled the role of public intellectual. As an economist, he was a Keynesian and an institutionalist.

82
responsibility of the state.
20 Some of the truly important industrial achievements of recent
generations – the great improvements in agricultural productivity, modern air
transport, advanced electronics – have depended heavily on such public
investment. Necessary also – a matter we are beginning reluctantly to recognise
– is investment and regulation in the longer-run interest of the environment. The
25 good society protects and improves life in its planetary dimension.

(II) Reread the text and answer the following questions:

1. What does Galbraith say about people who criticise government services?
2. Why, according to Gailbraith, is the market system not sufficient to guarantee
scientific research?
3. According to what you have read here, how would you characterise Galbraith’s
politics?

(III). Find words or expressions in the text you have just read which mean the
following:

1. obvious 6. poor or unemployed people


2. inexpensive 7. rich or wealthy people
3. inconsistent or contrary to 8. successes
4. bad health 9. unwillingly
5. remembered (or not forgotten) 10. global or worldwide

(IV) Here is an extract from Milton10 and Rose11 Friedman’s book Free to Choose.
Read the text and answer this question:

What is Friedmans’ opinion of the activities of the US government?

Though the United States has not adopted central economic planning,
we have gone very far in the past 50 years in expanding the role of government
in the economy. That intervention has been costly in economic terms. The
limitations imposed on our economic freedom threaten to bring two centuries of
5 economic progress to an end. Intervention has also been costly in political
terms. It has greatly limited our human freedom. [...]
An essential part of economic freedom is freedom to choose how to use
our income: hoe much to spend on ourselves and on what items; how much to
save and in what form; how much to give away and to whom. Currently, more
10 tyhan 40% of our income is disposed of on our behalf by government at federal,
state and local levls combined. [...]
As consumers, we are even free to choose how to spend that part of our
income that is left after taxes. We are not free to buy cyclamates or laetriles,

10
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist, statistician and writer
who taught at the University of Chicago for more than three decades. He received the 1976 Nobel Memorial
Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and the
complexity of stabilization policy.
11
With her husband, Rose Friedman (December, 1910 – 18 August 2009) co-wrote two books on economics
and public policy, Free to Choose and Tyranny of the Status Quo, and their memoirs Milton and Rose D.
Friedman, Two Lucky People, which appeared in 1998.

83
and soon perhaps saccharin. Our physician is not free to prescribe many drugs
15 for us that he may regard as the most effective for our ailments, even though the
drugs may be widely available abroad. We are not free to buy an automobile
without seat belts. [...]
Another essential part of economic freedom is freedom to use our
resources we possess in accordance with our own values – freedom to enter any
20 occupation, engage in any business enterprise, buy from or sell to anyone else,
so long as we do so on a strictly voluntary basis and we do not resort to force in
order to coerce others.
Today you are not free to offer your services as a lawyer, a physician, a
dentist, a plumber, a barber, a mortician, or engage in a host of other
25 occupations, without first getting a permit or licence from a government
official. You are not free to work overtime at terms mutually agreeable to you
and your employer, unless the terms conform to rules and regulations laid down
by a government official.
You are not free to set up a bank, go into the taxicab business, or the
30 business of selling electricity or a telephone service, or running a railroad,
busline, or airline, without first receiving permission from a government
official. [...]
Freedom cannot be absolute. We do live in an interdependent society.
Some restrictions on our freedom are necessary to avoid other, still worse,
35 restrictions. However, we have gone far beyond that point. The urgent need
today is to eliminate restrictions. not add to them.

(V) Reread the text and answer the following questions:

1. In which sentence do the Friedmans criticise taxation?


2. What do they say about road safety regulations?
3. What is the only restriction they believe to be necessary regarding professional
occupations, business and trade?
4. What do they say about the law regarding, for example, doctors and dentists?
5. What is their objection to the law regarding labour contracts?
6. According to what you have read here, how would you characterise the Friedmans’
politics?

(VI) Match up the words on the left with their definitions on the right.

1. costly a) a large number of


2. disposed of b) a medical doctor
3. on our behalf c) expensive
4. a physician d) done for us
5. ailments e) (non-serious) illness
6. to resort to force f) someone who arranges funerals
7. to coerce g) someone who fixes water pipes
8. a mortician h) spent, used or consumed
9. a plumber i) to use violence
10. a host of j) to compel people to do something against their will

84
6.5. SKILLS FOCUS: Giving arguments to support your opinion

If you possess a large amount of money, what are the advantages and
disadvantages of the following?
 putting it under the mattress
 buying a lottery ticket
 taking all your money to Las Vegas
 putting it in a bank
 buying gold
 buying a valuable painting
 investing in property or real estate

Give arguments / examples to support your opinion for all the situations.

6.6. VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

(I) Match the verbs with appropriate nouns in the table below. Sometimes there is
more than one possibility.
designs ideas problems research solutions tests
analyse
brainstorm
carry out
come up with
conduct
develop
do
find
patent
solve
tackle

(II) Circle the odd one out in each of these groups of business words and phrases.

1) check b. survey c. control d. monitor


2) sack b. dismiss c. demote d. fire
3) predict b. forecast c. anticipate d. analyse
4) lay off b. employ c. take on d. recruit
5) rewrite b. redraft c. reword d. restore
6) timetable b. plan c. strategy d. policy
7) banned b. prohibited c. postponed d. forbidden
8) cancel b. put off c. put back d. postpone
9) busy b. engaged c. tied up d. unavailable
10) you’re welcome b. Not at all c. It was a pleasure d. Excuse me
11) a. nearly six b. about six c. sixish d. around six

(III) Read the text and then read the clues and complete the crossword. All the
words can be found in the text, and one has been done for you. The numbers in
brackets show how many letters there are in a word.

Each department in a division of a company relies on budgeting to make the

85
company's affairs profitable. A profit target is set, and the unit price of the goods
(which depends on how much they cost to make and for how much they can be sold) is
determined by this; the managers report how well this target has been met; the price of
the goods leaving the factory (or ex works) is adjusted. Only after this has been done
can the various departments in the company execute the orders.
Many businesses fail because they fall into the trap of ignoring their cash-flow,
often because they allow too generous credit terms. The accounts department should
make sure that a stop is put on the credit granted to bad payers. The smooth running of
the company depends on a good relationship between the boss and the people who
work on the shop-floor.
Senior managers, of course, must pass some of their tasks over to other people
-they simply cannot do it all. This delegation of some jobs is essential, and the ability
to do it well is one of the measures of good management.
1
2
3

4A F F A I R S
6 5
7

8 9
10 11

12

13

ACROSS
1 This depends on production costs, profit margins, and market sensitivity (5)
3 The cost of each item (4)
4 Word used for everything a company does (7)
5 The price of the goods depends on the ................... (4) of their production
8 A good manager is good at this; he does not try to do everything himself (10)
10 Price of goods ....................factory (2)
12 To withdraw credit (4)
13 Something which is aimed at (6)

DOWN
1 Not only must a company make money, it must be ................... (10)
2 Each ................... (8) will usually have a senior manager and be organised in its own
way
6 Smaller than 2 down (10)
7 Each 2 and 6 down does its own................... (9) and, if senior management agrees,
controls its own financial affairs.
9 The workers in a company must................... (7) customers' orders, or they may lose
their jobs because the company may fail.
11 Workers do this to managers (6)

86
6.7. LANGUAGE FOCUS: MODAL VERBS II: PAST

A. ABILITY

 COULD and WAS / WERE ABLE TO express ability in the past.


Jane could / was able to swim when she was ten.

 COULD and WAS / WERE ABLE TO are often interchangeable. However, when we
are speaking not only of ability in the past, but also about successful performance,
we must use WAS / WERE ABLE TO:
The man was drowning, but she was able to save him.
When David fell in the river, they were able to rescue him.

B. POSSIBILITY

 MIGHT / MAY / COULD + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE are used to express


possibility.
Jean might have missed the train.
He may not have received the letter.
You could have broken the window.

C. DEDUCTION

 When we give good reasons for thinking something was true or untrue, we use
MUST (positive deduction) / CAN’T (negative deduction) + HAVE + PAST
PARTICIPLE.
I can’t find my passport anywhere. I must have left it on the plane. (I’m sure
I did it.)
Lina can’t have written this. She has a different handwriting. (I’m sure she
didn’t.)

D. OBLIGATION

 HAD TO (the past tense form of HAVE TO) is exclusively used to express an
obligation in the past.
When I was at school, we had to wear a uniform.
Last night I had to stay at the office late to finish my work.

 To express lack of obligation / necessity in the past we can use DIDN’T HAVE TO
or DIDN’T NEED TO.
She didn’t have to get up early yesterday because it was Sunday.
I didn’t need to buy more sugar, because we had enough.

 NEEDN’T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE describes an action which happened, but


was unnecessary.
I needn’t have told him the truth. Now he knows it and he is unhappy.
(I made a mistake. I did something that was not necessary.)

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E. ADVICE / CRITICISM

 SHOULD / OUGHT TO + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE express the speaker’s


feeling / opinion that a mistake was made (criticism of an action).
I think you should have worked harder. (I think you were wrong to stop then.)
You ought to have listened to me! (You didn’t listen to me and you are in
trouble now.)

(I) Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word
given.

a) I’m sure you dropped your wallet at the bus stop. MUST
_________________________________________.
b) Maybe Joanna missed the last bus. MIGHT
_________________________________________
c) Peter knew how to skate when he was twelve. ABLE
_________________________________________
d) Emma was wrong not to tell you the answer. SHOULD
_________________________________________
e) It wasn’t necessary for me to pay to get in. DIDN’T
_________________________________________
f) It wasn’t necessary for me to buy any food yesterday. NEED
_________________________________________
g) I’m sure that Diana didn’t take your books. CAN’T
_________________________________________
h) Perhaps David didn’t notice you. MIGHT
_________________________________________
i) Terry arrived early, but it wasn’t necessary. NEEDN’T
_________________________________________
j) It was a bad idea for us to be rude to that policeman! SHOULDN’T
_________________________________________

(II) Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown.

1. You were wrong to study so late! You shouldn’t _____________________.


2. Did you manage to stop him? Were _____________________________.
3. It wasn’t necessary to work hard. I didn’t _________________________.
4. Perhaps Tim has lost his way. Tim might _________________________.
5. It was possible for you to hurt yourself. You could __________________.
6. It would have been a good idea to tell me. You should _______________.
7. I’m sure the class enjoyed it. The class must _______________________.
8. I helped her but it wasn’t necessary. I needn’t ______________________.
9. It was a mistake to leave. You ought ______________________________.
10. I’m sure the butler didn’t do it. The butler can’t ______________________.

(III) Complete each sentence so that it contains the words given.

1. I’m completely soaked! We are silly! We _______________________.


should / an umbrella

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2. I’ve lost my bag. I think I ___________________________.
must / bus
3. I tried to phone Sam, but I ___________________________.
couldn’t / get through
4. I forgot Kate’s birthday. I ___________________________.
should / present
5. The cat doesn’t like fruit. It ___________________________.
can’t / orange
6. Jo hasn’t turned up yet. I suppose she ___________________________.
might / address
7. I did badly in the test. I ___________________________.
ought / harder
8. It’s a shame we didn’t go on holiday. we ___________________________.
could / good time

(IV) Put one of the words or phrases from the list in each space.

must might have don’t have to mustn’t have to


could didn’t have to should had to must have

1. If you want to, we ________ go swimming this afternoon.


2. Sorry I am late, but I _________ take my dog to the vet’s.
3. Tim usually wears clothes like that, so I think it _________ been him.
4. I think you _________ go to bed earlier, and stop drinking coffee.
5. Luckily, I _________do any homework last night so I went to the cinema.
6. We _________ wear a uniform at my school. We can wear whatever we
like.
7. You _________ play with matches! It’s very dangerous.
8. I am not sure, but I think I _________ left my wallet in the bank.
9. I’m getting up early because I _________ go running before school.
10. Sorry, I can’t stay any longer, But I really _________ go home.

(V) Choose the most suitable response to each comment or question:

a) A: What did I do wrong?


B: 1) You shouldn’t have connected these two wires.
2) You didn’t have to connect these two wires.
b) A: Why is the dog barking?
B: 1) It should have heard something.
2) It must have heard something.
c) A: Why are you home so early?
B: 1) I needn’t have worked this afternoon.
2) I didn’t have to work this afternoon.
d) A: Why did you worry about me? I didn’t take any risks.
B: 1) You must have been injured.
2) You could have been injured.
e) A: You forgot my birthday again!
B: 1) Sorry, I should have looked in my diary.
2) Sorry, I had to look in my diary.
f) A: We had a terrible crossing on the boat in a storm.

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B: 1) That didn’t have to be very pleasant!
2) That can’t have been very pleasant!
g) A: Where were you yesterday?
B: 1) I had to go to London.
2) I must have gone to London.
h) A: What do you think about the election?
B: 1) The Freedom Party had to win.
2) The Freedom Party should have won.
i) A: There’s a lot of food left over from the party, isn’t there?
B: 1) Yes, you couldn’t have made so many sandwiches.
2) Yes, you needn’t have made so many sandwiches.
j) A: What do you think has happened to Tony?
B: 1) I don’t know, he should have got lost.
2) I don’t know, he might have got lost.

(VI) Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first
sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use
between two and five words.

a) It wasn’t necessary for me to go out after all. HAVE


I _____________________________ after all.
b) There was a plan for Jack to become manager, but he left. COULD
Jack __________________________ manager, but he left.
c) It was a mistake for you to buy that car. BOUGHT
You __________________________ that car.
d) I don’t think that Sally enjoyed her holiday. HAVE
Sally __________________________ enjoyed her holiday.
e) It’s possible that Billy saw me. MAY
Bill __________________________ me.
f) I’m sure that Karen was a beautiful baby. BEEN
Karen __________________________ a beautiful baby.
g) Perhaps Alan didn’t mean what he said. MEANT
Alan __________________________ what he said.
h) It’s possible that I left my wallet at home. COULD
I __________________________my wallet at home.
i) I think you were wrong to sell your bike. SHOULDN’T
You __________________________ bike.
j) The only thing I could do was run away! ABLE
I __________________________ run away.

(VII) Choose the most suitable phrase underlined.

a) We should have turned left. We’ve missed the turning / We followed the
instructions.
b) We didn’t have to wear a uniform at school. But I never did / That’s why I liked
it.
c) The butler must have stolen the jewels. He was ordered to / There is no other
explanation.
d) You could have phoned from the station. I’m sure you did / Why didn’t you?
e) You needn’t have bought any dog food. There isn’t any / There is plenty.

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f) Ann might not have understood the message. I suppose it’s possible / She wasn’t
supposed to.
g) You can’t have spent all the money already! You weren’t able to / I’m sure you
haven’t!
h) I shouldn’t have used this kind of paint. It’s the right kind / It’s the wrong kind.

(VIII) Rewrite each sentence so that it contains CAN’T, MIGHT, MUST,


SHOULD or NEEDN’T.

1. I’m sure that David took your books by mistake.


____________________________________.
2. It was a mistake to park outside the police station.
______________________________________.
3. It was unnecessary for you to clean the floor.
______________________________________
4. I’m sure that Liz hasn’t met Harry before.
______________________________________
5. Ann possibly hasn’t left yet.
______________________________________
6. I’m sure they haven’t eaten all the food. It’s not possible.
______________________________________
7. Jack is supposed to have arrived half an hour ago.
______________________________________
8. Perhaps Pam and Tim decided not to come.
______________________________________
9. I think it was the cat that took the fish from the table!
______________________________________
10. It was a waste of time worrying, after all!
______________________________________
6.8. LET’S REMEMBER...

LAISSEZ-FAIRE = The French phrase that means "leave us alone," it refers to the
belief that the government should not get involved in economic matters

PUBLIC POLICY = The process of government decision making the addresses


problems affecting many people

FISCAL POLICY = The government's use of spending and taxes to achieve a strong,
stable economy

INCOME TAX = A tax people pay on money earned

CORPORATE INCOME TAX = The amount of money a corporation pays the


government on money it earns each year

CUSTOMS TAX = A tax placed on goods imported from another country

PROPERTY TAX = A tax that people who own buildings, land, and other property
must pay

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6.9. SUMMARY

 WOULD
 events in the past that did not happen:
I would have accepted this job, but I didn’t want to move house.

 unreal past situation:


I would have been happy to see him, but I didn’t have time.
My grandmother wouldn’t have approved all that.

 SHOULD
 expectation (90% certainty); something was supposed to happen:
The letter I sent you should have arrived by now.
She studied really hard, so she should have done well on her exams.

 criticism of an action/regret:
You shouldn’t have eaten so much last night.
I’m exhausted. I shouldn’t have watched that movie on TV. I should have
gone to bed after the news.

 COULD
 impossibility:
Where’s my umbrella? I didn’t take it to work today, so I couldn’t have left
it there.

 uncertainty:
Where could Joe be? Do you think he could have forgotten all about the
date?
Who sent the flowers? ~ I’m not sure. It could have been your mother.

 past possibility; something was possible, but did not happen:


David could have won the race if he had tried.
You could have drowned!
She could have gone to the party with her friends. (but she didn’t)

 MAY/ MIGHT
 uncertainty:
I suppose I may (might) have been very critical.
They may (might) not have received our letter yet.

 It is possible that something happened or was true in the past:


Polly’s is late. ~ She may (might) have missed the train.

 MIGHT
 past possibility which did not happen:
You might have drowned!
You were stupid to try climbing up there. You might have killed yourself.

 MUST
 certainty about the past:
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It’s cold in here. Someone must have forgotten to close the window.
We went to Rome last month. ~ That must have been nice!

6.10. TEST

(I) Use the words in the box to fill in the gaps in the text:

administrative exclude fees guidelines


incompatible instance invest
parameters principal principally purchase
regulate status subsidies

Many institutions (as well as some smaller NGOs) may receive government (1)
_________ to help pay for their services to the community or nation. Donors who
believe in an organization’s cause may give large sums of money, and volunteers (2)
_________ their time. Organizations may also hold fund-raisers or charge membership
(3) _________ to generate additional income to (4) _________ buildings or supplies,
pay expenses and (5) _________ salaries (unless the entire staff is volunteers), or to
support their cause.

Most organizations have a governing document like a charter or constitution that gives
guidelines for their operation and states the (6) _________purpose for which they
exist. The charter also sets (7) _________ that define and limit the activities they will
pursue, avoiding apparent or actual (8) _________ purposes.

Governments may also (9) _________ non-profits. In the US, this is done (10)
_________ using the tax code. If organizations violate government (11) _________
they may lose their tax-free non-profit (12) _________. One set of these guidelines
forbids discrimination on the basis of sex, race, or several other factors. For (13)
_________, American organizations may not arbitrarily (14) _________ all men or all
women simply because of their sex, nor may they deny membership to people based on
sexual orientation, race, or national origin.

(II) Choose one of the following to complete the sentences:

must have might have should have can't have

1. John _________ gone on holiday. I saw him this morning downtown.


2. Nobody answered the phone at the clinic. It _________ closed early.
3. I _________ revised more for my exams. I think I'll fail!
4. Sarah looks really pleased with herself. She _________ passed her driving test this
morning.
5. I didn't know you were going to Phil's party yesterday. You _________ told me!
6. I can't believe Jim hasn't arrived yet. He _________ caught the wrong train.
7. I can't believe Jim hasn't arrived yet. He _________ caught the correct train.
8. Don't lie to me that you were ill yesterday. You _________ been ill – Don said you
were at the ice hockey match last night.
9. I don't know where they went on holiday but they bought Euros before they left so
they _________ gone to France or Germany.
10. His number was busy all night - he _________ been on the phone continuously for

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hours.
11. It _________ been Mickey I saw at the party. He didn't recognise me at all.

(III) Translate the following text into Romanian:

There are many different kinds of government, but they all do essentially the same
thing: "govern" or oversee the rules, regulations, and interactions of the people who
live under them. For the most part, a government is concerned with public life, though
many of the laws that a government like ours establishes and enforces can regulate
what happens in private life, too. If you work for the government, you're in public life.
If you work for a company, you're in the private sector.

6.11. ASSIGNMENT 2

You can choose one of the following assignments:

1. Opinion essay, described in Unit 4, Section 4.5. SKILLS FOCUS.

2. Argumentative essay, described in Unit 5, Section 5.5. SKILLS FOCUS.

3. Arguments/examples supporting your opinion, described in Unit 6, Section 6.5.


SKILLS FOCUS.

This assignment should be uploaded on the ELIS platform (under “teme online”)
one week before the 2nd tutorial.

Assignment 2 represents 15% of your final grade.

6.12. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dracsineanu, Cătălin; Haraga, Radu (2012). Manual de limba engleză pentru


profesionişti. Iaşi: Editura Polirom
Fleischhack, Eric; Schwarz, Hellmut (2009) – English Grammar. Practice Book,
Bucureşti: ALL Educational

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