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ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

VALORIFICAREA POTENIALULUI TURISTIC AL SATULUI MOLDOVENESC


Drd. UASM, prof., magistru n economie Angela BOTEZATU, Colegiul Financiar-Bancar
Valorificarea patrimoniului turistic al unei ri, regiuni sau zone geografice etc. implic n prealabil asigurarea unor condiii minime pentru deplasarea, sejurul i petrecerea agreabil a timpului de ctre turiti. n esen, mbinarea acestor elemente minime are ca rezultat polarizarea fluxurilor turistice spre acele destinaii care ofer vizitatorilor cea mai mare satisfacie ntr-o cltorie de vacan. Acest articol trateaz att particularitile satelor moldoveneti ca atracii turistice, ct i valorificarea ofertei turistice n cadrul turismului rural. Pe vale, pe culme/Stau satele mele Aproape de codru, /Aproape de stele... (Grigore Vieru, Satele Moldovei) Turismul n mediul rural este, n ultimul timp, unul dintre genurile de activitate foarte profitabil. Afacerile turistice rurale pot fi extinse i pe exemplul satului moldovenesc, pentru c: - majoritatea resurselor turistice se gsesc pe teritoriile satelor sau n apropiere (de exemplu, Complexul Orheiul Vechi, Petera Rposailor, Grotele de la Ofatini, rezervaia peisagistic Trebujeni etc.); - satul este locul unde s-au conservat tradiiile populare; - comunitatea steasc este foarte ospitalier. ns, n acelai context, putem meniona c nu orice localitate (sat) poate fi i turistic, ea trebuie s fie reprezentativ i s ndeplineasc anumite criterii minime, necesare pentru a fi introdus n circuitul turistic i declarat obiect turistic: 1. S dein un potenial turistic deosebit. 2. S existe acces rutier pe tot parcursul anului, bine ntreinut. 3. S fie asigurat cu energie electric, ap, canalizare. 4. Spaii de cazare clasificate n corespundere cu normele metodologice de clasificare a structurilor de primire turistic din Republica Moldova (hotel, motel, vil, camping, bungalou, sat de vacan, pensiune turistic, apartament i camer de nchiriat n locuinele familiale sau n cldiri cu alt destinaie etc.). 5. Unitate de pot i telecomunicaii. 6. Asisten medical sub forma unui post de prim ajutor. 7. Panouri cu trasee turistice marcate de interes local, pentru facilitarea drumeiilor.

TOURISM POTENTIAL OF MOLDOVAN VILLAGE


PhD candidate SAUM, ME Angela BOTEZATU, Financial-Banking College
Tourism heritage of a country, geographical region or area, previously involved assurance of minimum requirements for travel, stay and spend enjoyable time for tourists. In essence, the combination of these elements results in polarization over the tourist flows to those destinations offering visitors the most satisfaction in a holiday trip. This article discusses the features of Moldovan villages as tourist attractions, as well as tourism recovery in the tourist areas. Tourism in rural areas is one of the most profitable types of activity. Rural tourism businesses can be extended on a Moldovan village example, because: - most of the touristic resources are in the villages or nearby (ex. the Orheiul Vechi Complex, Karst Cave, Ofatini Grottoes, Landscape Reserve Trebujeni etc.). - the village is the place where folk traditions have been preserved; - the village community is very hospitable; However, in the same context, it must be emphasized that not any village is a touristic village; it must be representative and must meet certain minimum criteria needed to be introduced in the tourism and declared touristic village: 1. To have a great tourism potential. 2. Access road to be well-maintained throughout the year. 3. Electricity and water supply, sewerage. 4. Classified accommodation structures, in accordance with norms of classification of tourist accommodation structures in the Republic of Moldova (hotel, motel, villa, camping, bungalow, holiday village, boarding house, apartment and room for rent in family homes or other buildings destination etc.). 5. Telecommunications and post office. 6. Medical care in the form of a first-aid station. 7. Notice board indicating the tourist routes of local interest, to facilitate hiking. 8. The possibility of organizing leisure activities on an individual or collective basis: fishing, hunting, horse rides, etc. 9. Commercial spaces for food, vegetables, fruits, objects of sport-tourism. etc. Tourism development in rural areas has several advantages that may be mentioned, as follows: - Tourist attractions are found occurring 41

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Posibilitatea organizrii unor forme de agrement i petrecere individual sau colectiv a timpului liber: pescuit, vntoare, plimbri ecvestre etc. 9. Spaii comerciale pentru produse alimentare, legume, fructe, obiecte de sport-turism etc. Dezvoltarea turismului n mediul rural are mai multe avantaje care pot fi menionate, dup cum urmeaz: Sunt identificate drept obiecte de interes turistic de provenien natural sau cultural-istoric, atractive pentru vizite, care stimuleaz sosirea persoanelor din alte regiuni ale rii sau de peste hotarele ei. Dintre acestea menionm: Rezervaia peisagistic Suta de Movile, care este localizat n apropierea vrsrii Ciuhurului n Prut i se ntinde de lng satul Branite, Rcani, pn alturi de localitatea Cobani, Glodeni; Rezervaia peisagistic Saharna, de lng satul cu acelai nume; Rpele de la Vleni, din preajma satului Vleni, raionul Cahul, care dein cele mai vechi depuneri continentale ce in de Pliocenul mediu (circa 3-5 milioane de ani n urm); Mnstirile Cpriana, Hrjuca, Japca i alte obiective turistice de o importan major. Prin turism este valorificat tezaurul cultural tradiional: folclorul, obiceiurile, ritualurile locale, evenimentele semnificative n viaa comunitii. Srbtorile de iarn ca Hitul i Colindatul, Capra; Drgaica (un ritual de origine agrar, practicat la 24 iunie n unele regiuni rurale); Hramul satului (o srbtoare foarte veche pe care muli steni o venereaz); Sfintele srbtori de Pati; Srbtoarea vinului, festivalurile folclorice sau Mriorul, care sunt adevrate evenimente de atracie turistic rural. Sunt puse n aplicare proiecte de conservare, restaurare, restabilire a monumentelor i anumitor teritorii locale i de amenajare a acestora cu dotri specifice turistice pentru recreaie, agrement, practicarea sporturilor, curelor terapeutice. Drept exemplu poate servi satul de vacan Satul Moldovenesc situat la 30 km de Chiinu, aflat n una din vile satului Hrtopul Mare, raionul Criuleni. Sunt formate anumite caliti omeneti frumoase: ospitalitatea, bunvoina, prietenia, stima reciproc, respectul fa de valorile sacre, care creeaz un climat psihologic benefic n comunitatea respectiv i determin o atitudine corect ntre oameni. Sunt create noi locuri de munc prin comercializarea spaiilor de locuit din curtea rneasc, produselor preparate din materie prim natural, ecologic pur; prestarea serviciilor de transport i de nsoire, producerea obiectelor de artizanat i a altor bunuri necesare persoanelor care cltoresc. Prin dezvoltarea turismului rural prin prisma satului moldovenesc poate fi promovat imaginea 42

8.

naturally or cultural-historical appealing to visitors, boosting the arrival of people from other parts of the country or abroad. Among them: Landscape Reserve "One hundred Mounds, which is located near the spills of Ciuhur in Prut and lies near the village Braniste, Ricani until village Coban, Glodeni; Reserve Landscape "Saharna" near the village with the same name; Gullies around the village Valeni, Cahul, holding the oldest continental deposits related to environmental Pliocene (about 3-5 million years ago), Monasteries Capriana, Hirjauca, Japca and other important sights. - Through tourism is valued the traditional cultural heritage: folklore, customs, local rituals, significant events of the community. Winter Holidays like Haitul and Colinda, Capra; Dragaica (agrarian ritual, practiced in some rural areas, in June 24) Day of the village (a very old holiday that many villagers worship), the Ester Holiday, the Festival of Wine, folk festivals or Martisorul are true events of rural tourist attraction. - There are implemented preserving projects, restoration, restoration of monuments and certain local areas and improvement of their specific tourist facilities for recreation, entertainment, sports, therapeutic courses. An example is the holiday village "Satul Moldovenesc" located at 30 km from Chisinau, situated in a village in the valleys Hirtopul Mare, Criuleni. - Here are formed some beautiful human qualities: hospitality, kindness, friendship, mutual esteem and respect for sacred values, which creates a good psychological climate that benefits for community and leads to a correct attitude among people. - New jobs are created by selling farm residential premises, products made from natural raw material, ecologically pure, transport and accompanying services, production of handicrafts and other goods required for persons traveling. - The development of rural tourism through the Moldovan village can be promoted Moldova's image abroad. Among the main tourist destinations linked to the natural resources of the village are: forms of relief, having as support a complex geological structure, stepped in elevation to enrich the landscape of rural tourism and create opportunities for rest and recreation;

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Republicii Moldova peste hotarele rii. Printre principalele resurse turistice legate de cadrul natural al satului sunt: formele de relief, avnd drept suport o structur geologic complex, dispus n trepte de altitudine, mbogesc aspectul peisagistic al unor localiti rurale i creeaz oportuniti pentru turismul de odihn i recreere; traseele principalelor cursuri de ape (ruri i rulee), nsoite de cele mai multe ori de drumuri forestiere, deosebit de pitoreti, sunt locuri de petrecere a weekend-ului la iarb; fondul forestier bogat, reprezentat prin pduri, creeaz un mediu ambiant atractiv, curat, recomandat pentru vacane active; exist multiple posibiliti de valorificare economic i, implicit, turistic a acestei resurse naturale; flora pajitilor i a fneelor, de o diversitate impresionant, n funcie de altitudine, mbogesc peisajul cadrului natural cu specii floristice multicolore; elementele climatice ale multor zone ale republicii, fr valori extreme, sunt favorabile practicrii turismului n tot timpul anului, pentru repunere n form a organismului dup stres; fondul de vntoare i de pescuit sportiv, arii protejate de ctre stat i parcuri (rezervaia Prutul de Jos, Pdurea Domneasc, parcul Cuhureti, parcul din satul Ivancea, parcul aul); n funcie de specificul localitii rurale, de produsul turistic oferit, satele turistice pot fi clasificate n: sate turistice etnografico-folclorice, sate turistice de creaie artistic i artizanal; sate turistice climaterice i peisagistice, sate turistice viti-pomicole. Satul moldovenesc este o parte integrant a potenialului turistic rural autohton, iar acesta din urm se dezvolt rapid n ultimii ani, n fiecare an apar noi i noi gospodrii agroturistice (conform datelor Ageniei Turismului din Republica Moldova). Complexele turistice rurale sunt, n principiu, gospodrii organizate pe baza unor case steti obinuite. Casa poate fi veche, ns musafirilor li se ofer toate comoditile: du, grup sanitar, nclzire, mobil confortabil. Toate eforturile gazdelor sunt ndreptate spre a familiariza oaspeii cu viaa poporului moldovean, astfel nct acetia s triasc la sat, i n acelai timp, s nu simt disconfort. Dintre pensiunile agroturistice dezvoltate n mediul rural n ultimii ani putem meniona: Casa din Lunc, care este pensiunea familiei Benzin i care se afl n satul Trebujeni, raionul Orhei; Hanul lui Hanganu, pensiunea familiei Hanganu din satul Lalova, amplasat n preajma complexelor rupestre pova i Saharna; Casa Printeasc, gospodria Tatianei Popa, situat n localitatea Palanca, raionul Clrai, ntr-un mediu sacru, n preajma a patru mnstiri, amplasate n spaiu sub forma unei cruci i care recent (13 ianuarie 2011) a organizat pentru turiti Srbtoarea Malanca de la Palanca cu un program de tradiii populare de iarn; Pensiunea La Popas, situat n satul Butuceni, pe teritoriul complexului

the main routes of water courses (rivers and


rivulets), often accompanied by forest roads, very scenic, are places to spend the weekend at the grass; rich forest, background represented by forests, creates an attractive, clean, environment, suitable for active holidays, there are many opportunities for economic recovery of the tourist natural resources; meadow and grassland flora, with an impressive diversity, according to altitude, rich the natural landscape with colorful flora species; climate elements of many regions of the republic, without extreme values, there are favorable to practice tourism throughout the year in order to overpass stress; fishing and hunting background; state protected areas and parks (reservation "Bottom Prut River", "Manor Forest", Cuhuresti Park, Ivancea Park, Taul Park); Depending on the specific of rural locality, according to the tourism product offered, tourist villages can be classified into: ethno-folk tourist villages, artistic and craft tourist villages, climatic and landscape tourist villages, fruit and wine-growing tourist villages. Moldovan village is an integral part of the tourism potential of local areas, and the latter is growing rapidly in recent years, every year there are more and more households according to the Tourism Agency. Rural tourism complexes are mainly represented by households run on the basis of ordinary peasant houses. The house may be old, but guests are sure to enjoy all the necessary conveniences: shower, sanitary appliances, heating, comfortable furniture. All efforts are directed towards the hosts to familiarize guests with the Moldovan people's lives, so they live in villages and at the same time not feel discomfort. Among the agrotouristic boarding houses developed in rural areas in recent years, we can mention: Casa din Lunc which is the Benzens` farm, in the village Trebujeni Orhei; Hanul lui Hanganu, the Hanganu`s guesthouse, situated near to the cliff monasteries of Tipova and Saharna: Parents House, Tatiana Popa`s parents` household, is situated in the village of Palanca, Calarasi, in sacral place of 4 cloisters forming a cross and recently (in January 13, 2011) organized for tourists the Holiday "Malanca de la Palanca", with a popular winter tradition program; the boarding house "La Popas" located in the village Butuceni, on the territory of Orheiul Vechi Cultural Complex, "Pension Viisoara" located in the village with the same name, Glodeni and other pensions that can offer 43

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cultural-istoric Orheiul Vechi; Pensiunea Viioara, situat n comuna cu acelai nume din raionul Glodeni, precum i alte pensiuni care pot oferi turitilor vacane de neuitat ntr-un mediu rural pitoresc. Evaluarea mediului de afaceri, n contextul dezvoltrii turismului rural autohton, cu valorificarea potenialului satului moldovenesc poate fi tratat prin prisma matricii SWOT.

tourists unforgettable holidays in a picturesque countryside. To assess the business environment in the development of indigenous potential of rural tourism of Moldovan village should be developed by SWOT matrix.

Tabelul 1/ Table 1 Analiza SWOT privind evaluarea mediului de afaceri al turismului rural/SWOT analysis on the evaluation of rural tourism businesses Puncte forte/Strengths Puncte slabe/Weaknesses 1. Crearea Ageniei Turismului./Establishing the 1. Infrastructur slab dezvoltat./Underdeveloped Tourism Agency. infrastructure. 2. Elaborarea Strategiei de dezvoltare durabil a 2. Spaiile, utilajele, comunicaiile n multe pensiuni turismului n Republica Moldova n anii 2003-2015 agroturistice, baze de odihn nu ntotdeauna i a programului Satul moldovenesc (2005-2015)./ corespund cerinelor internaionale Development of Strategy of sustainable tourism exigente./Premises, equipment, communications in development in the Republic of Moldova in the years many rural locations, boarding houses not always 2003-2015 and the Program "Moldovan Village" meet the requirements of international standards. (2005-2015). 3. Atragerea turitilor prin facilitarea modului de 3. Cile de acces spre unele zone turistice sunt perfectare a vizei (anularea chiar) pentru cetenii din impracticabile n zilele cu condiii meteo mai multe ri europene i nu numai./Attracting nefavorabile./Access roads are impassable to some tourists by way of issuing visa facilitation (even tourism areas in the days of bad weather. cancellation) for citizens of several European countries and beyond. 4. Predominarea agriculturii ca sector primar al 4. Preurile pentru unele produse/servicii din mediul economiei, care permite dezvoltarea turismului rural, rural sunt uneori exagerate./Prices for some agricol i a ecoturismului./The predominance of products/services in rural areas are sometimes agriculture as a primary sector of economy that exaggerated. allows the development of rural tourism, agriculture and ecotourism. 5. Oferirea n alimentaia turitilor a produselor 5. Calitatea deservirii las de dorit./Serving quality is recoltate sau preparate n gospodriile poor. rneti./Providing to the feeding of tourists, products harvested or prepared in the farmhouse. 6. Crearea primelor gospodrii turistice./Creating the 6. Calificarea insuficient a persoanelor ce activeaz n first tourist households. domeniu (bariere de comunicare ntr-o limb de circulaie internaional)./Lack of knowledge of the locals in tourism field (barriers in communication in a foreign language). 7. Antrenarea turitilor n diverse activiti (pescuit, 7. Insuficiena de ghizi calificai./The shortage of vntoare, culesul fructelor)./Involving tourists in qualified guides. various activities (fishing, hunting, gathering of fruits). 8. Ospitalitatea i generozitatea oamenilor de la sate./ 8. 8. Produsul turistic naional necompetitiv sub aspectul The hospitality and generosity of people from calitate-pre./Uncompetitive national tourist product villages. in terms quality-price. 9. Imperfeciunea sistemului informaional privind potenialul de dezvoltare a turismului rural./Imperfect information system for rural tourism development potential. Riscuri/Threats 1. Instabilitatea politic i economic, care afecteaz i industria turismului./Political and economic

Oportuniti/Opportunities 1. Promovarea imaginii rii n exterior./Promoting the country's image abroad. 44

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2. Atragerea investiiilor financiare importante n dezvoltarea industriei turismului./Attracting significant financial investment in developing tourism industry.

3. Participarea la organizarea diverselor expoziii de turism internaional./Participation in organizing various international tourism exhibitions. 4. Promovarea unor meteuguri, tradiii, experiene n 4. Tendina turitilor interni de a-i petrece vacanele, arta covoarelor, n cea viti-vinicol./Sharing of crafts, concediile peste hotarele rii, n contextul traditions, experiences, the art of carpets, the wineliberalizrii regimului de vize./The trend of domestic growing art. tourists to spend holidays, vacation abroad, in the context of liberalization of visa regime. 5. Crearea de noi itinerare turistice atractive pentru 5. Devalorizarea treptat a mediului antropic i turiti./The creation of new attractive tourist cultural./ Gradual devaluation of the anthropic and itineraries for tourists. cultural environment. 6. Perfecionarea cadrelor din industria 6. Distrugerea mediului natural./Destruction of the turismului./Improving the tourism industry staff. natural environment. 7. Perioada de recuperare a investiiilor n aceast sfer este mic./Recovery period of investment in this area is short. 8. Ameliorarea disponibilitilor privind baza tehnicomaterial pentru prestaie./Improving availability of material and technical basis for benefit. 9. Antrenarea persoanelor de la sate n activiti generatoare de venit./Involving people from villages in activities income generating. 10. Promovarea turismului durabil ca direcie de eradicare a srciei./Promoting sustainable tourism as the direction of the eradication of poverty. Sursa: elaborat de ctre autor/ Source: elaborated by the author Aceast analiz ne permite s contientizm riscurile, dar i oportunitile de valorificare a potenialului turistic rural n vederea optimizrii cadrului su de dezvoltare. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

instability which affects inclusively tourism industry. 2. Calamitile naturale (inundaii, secete, alunecri de teren), care pot tirbi din farmecul rezervaiilor peisagistice, precum i distruge potenialul turistic rural antropic./Natural disasters (floods, droughts, landslides) that may break the charm of landscape reserves, as well as destruction of rural tourism potential man-made. 3. Reducerea numrului de turiti la nivel mondial./Reducing the number of tourists worldwide.

This analysis will allow us to realize the risks and potential opportunities for improvement of rural tourism in order to optimize its development framework.

Bibliografie/Bibliography Strategia de dezvoltare durabil a turismului n Republica Moldova n anii 2003-2015. Bolocan D., Geografia turismului. Chiinu: Editura Universul, 2010. Dinu M., Geografia turismului. Bucureti: Editura Didactic i pedagogic, 2002. Miron V., Turismul rural n Moldova, ndrumar pentru autoritile publice locale. Chiinu: Editura tiina, 2002. Lazr S., Turismul rural o ans pentru revitalizarea satului i a rii, Revista FinConsultant, nr.5, 2007

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