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ACADEMIA DE STUDII ECONOMICE A REPUBLICII MOLDOVA COLEGIUL NAIONAL DE COMER AL ASEM Catedra Economie, T ri!

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Referat:
Cardul

ca intrument de plat n activitatea turistic

A e%a&orat ' A #eri(icat' Di!ci)%ina' *inan+e%e ,ntre)rinderii t ri!tice

C-I.IN/U 0 1234

CUPRINS

1.1 Definirea i tip!l!"ia carduril!r ############## $ 1.% &miterea carduril!r ###################.' 1.$ (vanta)ele carduril!r ##################.. *

Cardul + instrument de plat m!dern


1.1 Definirea i tip!l!"ia carduril!r De(ini+ie 5 Cartea de )%at6 !a card % &ancar re)re7int6 n in!tr ment de decontare, care' a!i8 r6 )o!e!or % i a tori7at ac9i7i+ionarea de & n ri !a !er#icii, (6r6 )re7en+a e(ecti#6 a n merar % i: )ermite %e86t ra (inanciar6 dintre comercian+i "i con! matori ;)rin acce! ,ntr0 n cont &ancar<: Totodat6, card % are caracteri!tici%e n i in!tr ment de )%at6, )ermi+=nd retra8erea de n merar de %a 89i"ee%e a tomate &ancare> 5 Pentr c%a!i(icarea card ri%or !e ti%i7ea76 mai m %t criterii, d )6 c m rmea76' a< d )6 mod % de !tocare a in(orma+ii%or "i caracteri!tici%e de !ec ri7are a card % i: &< d )6 ( nc+ii%e ,nde)%inite: c< d )6 ca%itatea emitent % i: d< d )6 moment % ,n care !e e(ect ea76 tran7ac+ia> a< D )6 mod % de !tocare a in(orma+ii%or, !e di!tin8' 0 card ri c &and6 ma8netic6: 0 card ri c micro)roce!or> Card ri%e c &and6 ma8netic6 con+in toate in(orma+ii%e e!en+ia%e de!)re de+in6tor % de card> ?n %tima )erioad6 ;c ,nce)ere din an % 3@@1< a a)6r t o 8enera+ie de card ri care con+in ,ncor)orate n micro)roce!or "i o com)onent6 de memorie ;c9i)<> Ace!tea !e n me!c c9i) A card ri "i )re7int6 n 8rad de !ec ritate ridicat, (iind )romo#ate )e !car6 %ar86 de !ociet6+i%e emitente' VISA Interna+iona% "i MASTER CARD> &< D )6 ( nc+ii%e ,nde)%inite ;re!)ecti#, mod % de aco)erire a c9e%t ie%i%or< !e di!tin8' 0 de&it card ri: 0 credit card ri> De&it card ri%e !a card ri%e de de&it )re7int6 rm6toare%e caracteri!tici' a!i8 r6 ti%i7ator % i ac9i7i+ia de & n ri "i !er#icii, !a retra8eri de n merar, (6r6 )re7en+a e(ecti#6 a ,n!emne%or monetare:

condi+ia e!en+ia%6 a ace!tor card ri e!te eCi!ten+a nor (ond ri ,ntr0 n cont de card, "i e(ect area de c9e%t ie%i ,n %imita !o%d % i di!)oni&i%: ,n ca7 % de)6"irii !o%d % i, &6nci%e acord6 credite %a do&=n7i ridicate, ceea ce con!tit ie o moda%itate )ro(ita&i%6 a &6nci%or de o(erire a nor )rod !e "i !er#icii c6tre )o) %a+ie: card ri%e de de&it con+in o &and6 ma8netic6 "i nece!it6 introd cerea n i n m6r )er!ona% de identi(icare ;PIN< ,n termina% % e%ectronic ,nainte de acce!area !er#ici % i: ce%e mai m %te card ri de de&it a do 6 ( nc+ii )rinci)a%e' D retra8erea de n merar din di!tri& itoare%e a tomate de n merar !a din 89i"ee%e a tomate

de &anc6, D e(ect area )%6+i%or %a ) ncte%e de #=n7are, !it a+ie ,n care )%ata e!te c no!c t6 ! & den mirea de tran!(er e%ectronic de (ond ri %a ) ncte%e de #=n7are> Credit cardurile sau cardurile de credit )re7int6 ca tr6!6t r6 de(initorie rea%i7area )%6+i%or dintr0o %inie de credit care i0a (o!t

de!c9i!6 )o!e!or % i de card: ace!t ti) de card )ermite de+in6tor % i !6 ac9i7i+ione7e & n ri "i !er#icii "i !6 retra86 n merar ,n %imita n i )%a(on )re!ta&i%it:Moned6 "i credit n card de credit com&in6 do 6 ( nc+ii )rinci)a%e' in!tr ment de )%at6 "i (aci%itate de

credit )e termen !c rt: ,n ( nc+ie de credi&i%itatea &ancar6 a ti%i7ator % i, credit card ri%e ,m&rac6 do 6 (orme'

0 dac6 ti%i7ator % n )re7int6 o & n6 credi&i%itate &ancar6, card % de credit e!te de ti) c9ar8e$, !it a+ie ,n care )o!e!or % e!te o&%i8at, ca ,n dec r! % nei )erioade de maCim o % n6, !6 aco)ere de)6"irea de !o%d ,nre8i!trat6 !a credit % tem)orar acordat ;credit c no!c t ! & den mirea de o#erdra(t<: 0 dac6 ti%i7ator % are n ) nctaE re7ona&i%, at nci &anca ) ne %a di!)o7i+ia ti%i7ator % i n card c ( nc+i ni de)%ine, ca7 ,n care c9e%t ie%i%e ! nt aco)erite dintr0 n )%a(on !a %inie de ,m)r m t ne8ociat6 anterior> Dintre a#antaEe%e ace!t i ti) de card ri !e remarc6' do&=nda %a ace!te credite a!i8 r6 (r cti(icarea re! r!e%or &ancare:

orice c9e%t ia%6 e(ect at6 de ti%i7ator 8enerea76 #enit ri &ancare "i ! r!e de )ro(it )entr comercian+i: ti%i7atorii ,"i )ot !ati!(ace dorin+e%e c9iar dac6 n di!) n de ! me%e nece!are>

Card ri%e de credit ! nt, ,n 8enera%, emi!e de o &anc6 ! & !i8%a nei or8ani7a+ii interna+iona%e, c m ar (i' VISA "i EUROPAG> c< ?n ( nc+ie de ca%itatea emitent % i, !e rea%i7ea76 di!tinc+ia ,ntre' Cardurile emise de ,nci !e ,ncadrea76 ,n domeni % )reoc )6ri%or m %ti)%e a%e &6nci%or de a identi(ica "i de a %an!a )e )ia+6 in!tr mente de )%at6 atracti#e, ti%e, (aci% de o&+in t, !i8 re "i )ro(ita&i%e> Si!tem % &ancar american a re "it %an!area card ri%or)e )ia+a mondia%6 a in!tr mente%or de )%at6 c ,nce)ere din an % 3@H2, c=nd BanI o( America a %an!at n in!tr ment de )%at6, den mit BanI Americard ;,n )re7ent VISA Internationa%<> La ,nce) t, card % a (o!t ti%i7at de (oarte ) +ini con! matori, )entr ca n mai d )6 32 ani !tati!tici%e !6 indice )re% crarea a )e!te 3J2 mi%ioane de &on ri de #=n76ri ;rea%i7ate )e &a7a ace!t i ti) de card<> ?n an % 3@@3 n m6r % card ri%or a aE n! %a 32F mi%ioane> ?n an % 3@HH n 8r ) de 3J &anc9eri din di(erite in!tit +ii (inanciare "i0a creat )ro)ria re+ea )rin care !60"i acce)te reci)roc card ri%e %oca%e> A!t(e%, !0a creat A!ocia+ia Inter&ancar6 de Card ri, care !e oc )a de )roced ri%e de a tori7are, c%earin8 "i decontare> ?n an % 3@J@, ca rmare a de7#o%t6rii )e )%an interna+iona% a ace!tei or8ani7a+ii, n me%e !0a !c9im&at ,n Ma!tercard, care a inre8i!trat o de7#o%tare ra)id6, ca "i #i!a Interna+iona%, eCi!t=nd, ,n 3@@2 )e!te @2 mi%ioane de Ma!tercard ,n circ %a+ie> Cardurile emise de s!ciet-i n!n+,ancare Urm=nd eCem)% % card ri%or &ancare, !ociet6+i%e non0&ancare, %an+ ri%e de ma8a7ine "i c% & ri )ri#ate a %an!at )ro)rii%e card ri> Ace!tea a!i8 ra )o!i&i%itatea e(ect 6rii de c9e%t ie%i ,n tim) rea%, (6r6 a !e mai ) ne )ro&%ema dimen!ion6rii %a n moment dat a di!)oni&i%it6+i%or )ro)rii> ?n acea!t6 cate8orie !e ,ncadrea76 card % de comerciant, emi! de ,n! "i comerciant "i care )oate (i ti%i7at n mai %a ) ncte%e de #=n7are, contro%ate de c6tre emitent % de card ;ma8a7ine, &en7in6rii<> An mite card ri din acea!t6 cate8orie )ot (i ti%i7ate c ( nc+ia de card ri de de&it, at nci c=nd comerciant % H card ri%e emi!e de &6nci' card ri%e emi!e de !ociet6+i ne&ancare>

ini+ia76 n de&it direct c6tre &anca nde de+in6tor % de card are de!c9i! cont %, dar cea mai mare )arte a card ri%or ! nt de credit> Moti# % ace!t i ti) de card ri ,% con!tit ie dorin+a comercian+i%or de a a!i8 ra %oia%itatea c%ien+i%or> A!emenea card ri a %ar86 ti%i7are ,n SUA "i ,n *ran+a> d< D )6 moment % ,n care !e ti%i7ea76 tran7ac+ia, card ri%e !e c%a!i(ic6 ,n' 0 card ri c )%ata ,nainte ;)rea%imentate<: 0 c )%ata ac m ;card ri de de&it<: 0 c )%ata mai t=r7i ;card ri de credit<: 0 card ri de comerciant ;retaiter card<: 0 card ri de c9e%t ie%i ;c9ar8e card<> ?ntr c=t o )arte din ace!te ti) ri de card ri a (o!t de!cri!e, ,n contin are !e )re7int6 caracteri!tici%e card ri%or )rea%imentate "i a card ri%or de c9e%t ie%i> D Card ri%e )rea%imentate ! nt card ri care a o rea%6 ) tere de c m)6rare, ,ntr c=t ti%i7ator % a rea%i7at o )%at6 ,n a#an!> Ce%e mai (rec#ente card ri )rea%imentate ! nt card ri%e te%e(onice> Sco) % ace!tor card ri e!te deca%area imediat6 a tran7ac+ii%or c o #a%oare mai mic6 "i (oarte mic6> D Card ri%e de c9e%t ie%i ! nt c no!c te ! & den mirea de card de c6%6torie "i )etrecere a tim) % i %i&er ;tra#e% card< "i a )entr de+in6tori> D De+in6tor % n i a!t(e% de card are )o!i&i%itatea !6 e(ect e7e c9e%t ie%i "i !6 retra86 n merar din 89i"ee%e a tomate de &anc6 !a din ce%e a%e emitent % i de card> D Ce%e mai c no!c te card ri de c9e%t ie%i ! nt ce%e emi!e de American EC)re! "i Diner! C% &> 5 Indi(erent de ( nc+ii%e ,nde)%inite "i de nat ra emitent % i, card ri%e )re7int6 o !erie de tr6!6t ri com ne, a!t(e%' D ! )ort (i7ic din materia% )%a!tic, c dimen!i ni "i 8ro!imi !tandardi7ate: D )e (a+a card % i e!te in!cri)+ionat )rin ti)6rire, ;em&o!are< !a 8ra#are c %a!er' n me%e emitent % i, n m6r % card % i, )erioada de #a%a&i%itate, n me%e )o!e!or % i: rm6toare%e caracteri!tici' D S nt emi!e de !ociet6+i non0&ancare "i )re! ) n eCi!ten+a nor %inii de credit de!c9i!e

D )e #er!o0 % card % i e!te in!cri)+ionat6 !i8%a emitent % i, 9o%o8rama !tandard de !ec ritate: D )e #er!o0 % card % i e!te, ,ntotdea na, a)%icat6 o &and6 ma8netic6 )entr ,n!crierea e%emente%or de !ec ritate, )rec m "i n !)a+i de!emnat !emn6t rii )o!e!or % i> Ace!te tr6!6t ri com ne a!i8 r6 card ri%or ni(ormitate te9no%o8ic6 "i rec noa"tere ni#er!a%6> 1.% &miterea carduril!r Pentr ca o )er!oan6 (i7ic6 !a E ridic6 !6 de#in6 )o!e!oarea n i card, e!te nece!ar !6 !o%icite ace!t % cr &6ncii !a com)aniei emitente, )rin adre!area nei cereri "i ,nc9eierea n i contract> ?n contract % re!)ecti# !e )reci7ea76 ti) % de card, (aci%it6+i%e de care #a di!) ne de+in6tor % "i o&%i8a+ii%e ace!t ia (a+6 de &anc6> Pentr a o&+ine card % !o%icitat, tit %ar % tre& ie !6 )%6tea!c6 o taC6 de emitere "i o taC6 an a%6 de ti%i7are> ?n moment % )rimirii card % i, &anca ,i com nic6 tit %ar % i )aro%a )er!ona%6> Cod % )er!ona% de identi(icare a(erent n i card a&re#iat PIN ;Per!ona% Identi(ication N m&er<, re)re7int6 cod % atri& it de emitent n i de+in6tor de card> Uti%i7ator % tre& ie !6 re)rod c6 ace!t n m6r, ,n !co) % #eri(ic6rii identit6+ii, at nci c=nd )%ata e!te de!er#it6 de n 89i"e a tomat> Pentr #eri(icarea &onit6+ii c%ient % i c6r ia &anca ,i emite card %, !ociet6+i%e emitente de a!emenea in!tr mente de )%at6, )ot a)e%a %a (irme%e !)ecia%i7ate ,n ace!t !co)> A!t(e%, !e rm6re"te ,n ce m6! r6 c%ient % are ca)acitatea de ram& r!are a credit % i acordat, ,ntr c=t card ri%e re)re7int6, )ractic, o a%t6 moda%itate de creditare> 5 Uti%i7area card % i Po!e!or % card % i ,% )oate ti%i7a ,n n % din rm6toare%e !co) ri ;d )6 c m re7 %t6 din de(ini+ia dat6 card % i<' D )%ata m6r( ri%or "i !er#icii%or: D retra8erea de n merar de %a di!tri& itoare%e a tomate !a de %a 89i"ee%e &6ncii> Uti%i7area card % i )entr )%ata m6r( ri%or "i !er#icii%or nece!it6 eCi!ten+a, %a ni#e% % comerciant % i care acce)t6 ace!t in!tr ment de )%at6, a n i termina% )entr tran!(er % e%ectronic a% (ond ri%or, den mit POS> Ro% % termina% % i e!te ace%a de a )re% a "i a tran!mite in(orma+ii%e a! )ra )%6+ii, de %a

comerciant %a centr % de ana%i7are "i )rimirea a tori76rii )ri#ind )%ata ;,n maCim 42 !ec nde<> Pentr o&+inerea de n merar de %a di!tri& itoare%e a tomate de+in6tor % card % i tre& ie !6 ta!te7e cod % )er!ona% ;PIN< "i ! ma dorit6> Di!tri& itoare%e a tomate de n merar rea%i7ea76 o)era+ii%e direct "i imediat, iar ,n ( nc+ie de !er#icii%e )re!tate !e di!tin8 do 6 ti) ri de di!)o7iti#e' 5 di!tri& itor % a tomat de n merar A den mit &ancomat !a ca!9 di!)en!er, care )ermite ti%i7ator % i retra8erea de n merar din cont % !6 ;! & (orm6 de &ancnote "i monede meta%ice<: 5 89i"e % a tomat de &anc6 A den mit ATM ;A tomated Te%%er Mac9ine!< A re)re7int6, ca "i ti) % )recedent de di!tri& itoare, n di!)o7iti# e%ectroma8netic, care )ermite ti%i7ator % i at=t retra8erea de n merar c=t "i acce! % %a !er#icii de in(ormare c )ri#ire %a !it a+ia din cont ri "i %a tran!(er % de (ond ri> 1.$ (vanta)ele cardului A#antaEe%e ti%i76rii card ri%or D )6 ti) % card % i ;de&it card !a credit card< )ot (i identi(icate a#antaEe%e ti%i76rii ace!tora, care !e re86!e!c %a ni#e% % ti%i7ator % i, a% comerciant % i c=t "i a% &6ncii emitente> a< Pentr )o!e!orii "i ti%i7atorii de card ri, )ot (i e#iden+iate rm6toare%e a#antaEe' D dac6 ti%i7ator % de+ine n credit card, are a#antaE % de a a%e8e moment % c m)6r6rii & n ri%or !a a% !er#icii%or: are )o!i&i%itatea de a ac9ita datoria (a+6 de &anc6, (ie inte8ra% %a )rimirea !it a+iei !o%d % i, (ie ,n rate % nare: com)arati# c )%ata )rin CEC !a n merar, card % )re7int6 n 8rad ridicat de !ec ritate: D dac6 ti%i7ator % de+ine n de&it card, a#antaEe%e )ot (i en merate a!t(e%' !e e%imin6 ri!c ri%e de ( rt a(erente n merar % i: #a%oarea tran7ac+ii%or n e!te %imitat6 ;com)arati# c cec ri%e< "i n !e com)%etea76 nici n doc ment: tran7ac+ia !e rea%i7ea76 imediat> &< Pentr comercian+i D Prin ti%i7area credit card % i comerciant % are 8aran+ia )%6+ii, ,n !en! % c6 !e creditea76 imediat cont % ace!t ia c #a%oarea m6r( ri%or "i !er#icii%or #=nd te )rin card, )e &a7a doc mente%or care ate!t6 #=n76ri%e: ace"ti comercian+i atra8 n n m6r

mai mare de c%ien+i: ! nt e%iminate ri!c ri%e )e care %e antrenea76 ti%i7area n merar % i: D De&it card % cond ce %a decontarea mai ra)id6 dec=t ,n ca7 % cec % i: )rin ne%imitarea ! me%or ce )ot (i c9e%t ite de c6tre c%ien+i, comercian+ii ,"i !)ore!c #o% m % #=n76ri%or> c< Pentr &6nci a#antaEe%e ti%i76rii credit "i de&it card ri%or re7 %t6 din rm6toare%e' D Credit card ri%e 8enerea76 )entr &anc6 do&=n7i a% c6ror ni#e% e!te mai mare dec=t do&=nda %a a%te credite: comi!ioane%e )erce) te de %a comercian+ii care acce)t6 ac9itarea m6r( ri%or "i !er#icii%or c card ri ! nt im)ortante ! r!e de #enit ri: #o% m % o)era+ii%or man a%e, %a ni#e% % &6ncii, !e red ce con!idera&i%: )%6+i%e ! nt 8arantate: D De&it card ri%e cond c %a red cerea c9e%t ie%i%or &ancare %e8ate de acti#itatea de %a 89i"ee: eCi!t6 n 8rad ridicat de contro% a! )ra tran7ac+ii%or c%ient % i ,n ra)ort c di!)oni&i%it6+i%e din cont: co!t ri%e &ancare )entr o)erarea de&it card ri%or ! nt red !e com)arati# c ce%e a(erente ti%i76rii cec ri%or !a n merar % i>

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