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Analele Universit ii Constantin Brncu i din Trgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr.

4/2010

MIXUL DE MARKETING I PACHETUL COMPLEX DE PRODUSE I SERVICII

THE MARKETING MIX AND THE COMPLEX PACKAGES OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

Prof. univ. dr. Adina Claudia NEAMU Universitatea Constantin Brncui din Trgu-Jiu Conf. univ. dr. Liviu NEAMTU Universitatea Constantin Brncui din Trgu-Jiu

Prof. PhD. Adina Claudia NEAMU Constantin Brncui University of Trgu-Jiu Assoc. Prof. PhD Liviu NEAMTU Constantin Brncui University of Trgu-Jiu

REZUMAT: De la apariia sa i pn n prezent, marketingul a fost abordat sub diferite aspecte, de la teorii de pia la elemente constitutive, toate s-au axat pe cele patru elemente ale mixului de marketing: produs, pre, plasament i promovare, n jurul lor dezvoltndu-se politicile specifice, corelaiile dintre acestea, metodele si tehnicile de investigare, textele experimentale, studiile de motivaii. Dezvoltarea unor produse cu un specific aparte, mult specializate, dar i concurena tot mai mare dintre productori i vnztori, opiunile din ce n ce mai diversificate i mai elaborate ale clienilor, dornici s-i satisfac nevoi superioare, de recunoatere, statut social i stim, siguran, apreciere, duc la apariia i comercializarea pachetelor complexe de produse i servicii.47 Acestea nu pot fi analizate i reflectate n literatura de specialitate doar cu elementele mixului clasic de marketing. Acestora li se adaug prestaia, personalul, strns legat de prestarea serviciului i perimetrul de prestaie, locul n care personalul interacioneaz cu clientul. CUVINTE CHEIE: mix de marketing, pachet complex de produse i servicii, produs, pre, plasament, promovare, prestaie, personal, perimetru.

Resume: From its appearance until now, marketing has been approached under diverse aspects, from market theories to constituent elements, all being based on the four elements of the marketing mix: product, price, placement and promotion, developing around them specific policies, the inner correlations, investigation methods and techniques, experimental texts and motivation studies. The development of products with special characteristics, highly specialized, but also the ever growing competition between producers and sellers, the more diversified and elaborate options of customers, wanting to satisfy superior needs, like recognition, social status and esteem, safety, appreciation, all lead to the apparition and commercialization of complex product and service packages.48 These cannot be analyzed and reflected in the scientific literature with just the classic elements of the marketing mix. To these, we can add the process, people, tightly linked to the process and the physical evidence, or place where the personnel interacts with the customers. Keywords: marketing mix, complex package of products and services, product, price, placement, promotion, process, people, physical place.

Corpul lucrrii Este arhicunoscut n marketing componena mixului clasic de marketing, identificat i dezvoltat n sfera bunurilor de larg consum, respectiv produs, pre, plasament i promovare. Aceste cuvinte, denumite generic cei 4p ( toate ncep cu

Introduction In marketing, it is well known the composition of the classic marketing mix, identified and developed in the area of large consumptions goods, respectively product, price, placement and promotion.

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aceast iniial ), au devenit elementele centrale, definitorii, ale tiinei marketingului, n jurul lor concentrndu-se cercetrile de marketing i politicile de pia ale organizaiei. Analiza proceselor de aprovizionare, producie i desfacere, la nivelul organizaiei i la nivelul relaiilor dintre aceasta i piaa pe care acioneaz se bazeaz pe cele patru elemente, a cror importan a fost neleas nc de la nceputurile apariiei marketingului, atunci cnd era definitorie orientarea de producie, bazat pe realizarea de produse din resursele de care firma putea dispune relativ uor, ele aflndu-se la dispoziia sa ori n imediata apropiere. Preul pentru aceste produse trebuia s acopere costurile de producie i s aduc un profit organizaiei. Recuperarea cheltuielilor din cifra de afaceri realizat prin vnzarea produselor, inea, bineneles, de plasarea acestora pe pia, ctre publicul int cumprtor, prin diverse canale de distribuie. Cumprtorii erau informai despre existena produselor i despre caracteristicile acestora prin diversele forme de promovare: publicitate, relaii publice, vnzri personale i promovarea vnzrilor. Este o abordare simpl dar exact a mixului de marketing, n termeni tradiionali, pe care actualmente i-am putea numi chiar clasici, dac ne raportm la schimbrile i evoluiile pieei i ale comportamentului de cumprare. n ziua de azi ns, consumatorii au devenit din ce n ce mai pretenioi, mai selectivi, mai ateni la ce cumpr i mai ales cum cumpr, la facilitile care li se ofer pentru achiziionarea unui bun, la condiiile n care cumpr, la modul n care sunt tratai n calitatea de clieni pe care o au atunci cnd achiziioneaz bunul material, pe de o parte clieni ai firmei comerciale, care le vinde efectiv produsele i le ofer odat cu acestea i o serie de servicii comerciale, pe de alt parte clieni ai firmei productoare, implicate direct n calitatea produselor i n gradul de satisfacie n consum pe care acestea l aduc. Cu alte cuvinte, cumprtorul actual nu achiziioneaz n procesul actual de cumprare

These words, known generically as the 4P (all start with the same initial), have become the key elements of the marketing science, concentrating around them all marketing researches and market policies of an organization. The supply, production and commerce process analysis, at an organizational level and at the level of the relations between these and its acting market is based on the four elements, whose importance has been understood right from the beginnings of marketing as a science, when it was essential the production orientation, based on the realization of products from the resources that the firm could obtain relatively easy, being at their disposal or in the immediate proximity. The price for these products had to cover the production expenses and bring a profit to the organization. The recovery of expenses from the total turnover through their selling, depended, of course, on their placement on the market, to the target consumers, through various channels of distribution.49 The buyers were informed about the existence of these products and their characteristics through several forms of promotion: publicity, public relation, direct sales and sales promotions. It is a rather simple but exact approach of the marketing mix, in traditional terms, which we could actually call classic today, if we report to the changes and evolutions of the market and the consumer behavior. But today, consumers have become more exigent, more selective, more careful on what they buy, and especially how they buy, to the facilities they are being offered when they buy something, the conditions on which they buy, the manner in which they are treated as customers when they buy something physical, on one hand as customers of commercial firms, that effectively sell products and related services at the same time and on the other hand, as customers of a productive organization, directly responsible for the quality of the products and degree of

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doar un bun material i cel puin serviciul comercial care i se ofer odat cu acesta. Amabilitatea vnztorului, care e nsoit de informaiile necesare pentru utilizarea bunului, pe care clientul modern le cere i le primete odat cu bunul cumprat, este continuat de activitile post-vnzare, termenele de garanie acordate, service-ul asigurat, urmrirea n consum a bunului, evaluarea gradului de satisfacie, dobndirea statutului de client fidel sau stabil, recunoaterea sub o form sau alta a respectului de care se bucur clientul n procesele comerciale moderne din partea productorilor i vnztorilor. Bunurile actuale se comercializeaz la pachet cu serviciile care-l nsoesc; nu mai exist dect foarte puine bunuri ca atare, crescnd tot mai mult numrul bunurilor care fac parte dintr-un pachet de bunuri i servicii ce se comercializeaz mpreun tocmai pentru a atrage, a mulumi i a fideliza clienii, ntr-o lume n care diferena n vnzri se face tot mai greu doar prin calitatea produselor, n cretere continu dealtfel, ci se realizeaz mai mult o difereniere prin serviciile oferite odat cu produsul, care au rolul de a impresiona clientul, de a-l face s revin, de a-l mulumi i al atrage pe termen mediu i lung de partea clienilor satisfcui prin modul n care au fost servii i respectai de ctre firma vnztoare, prin reprezentanii acesteia. ns dincolo de aceste servicii comerciale care se ofer odat cu produsele n procesul de vnzare, n nici un domeniu de activitate nu mai ntlnim produse solitare, fr ca acestea s fie nsoite de servicii auxiliare sau complementare: cumperi o main i te bucuri de toate serviciile care o nsoesc, ncepnd cu cele comerciale i terminnd cu asigurarea service-ului; i achiziionezi o locuin i beneficiezi de consultana firmei de tranzacii imobiliare; urmezi un curs de perfecionare i primeti un obiect palpabil, cartea, cursul sau formatul electronic al acestuia mpreun cu prelegerea, explicaiile i expunerile profesorului;

satisfaction they bring when used. With different word, the actual consumer does not buy in the present buying process just a physical good and at least the commercial service that comes with this good. The politeness of the seller, which is accompanied by the necessary information to use the good, which modern customers ask and receive when they buy something, is continued by the post selling activities, the granted warranties, the service, surveying the good when consumed, evaluating the degree of satisfaction, obtaining a stable client, recognizing under one form or another the respect that the client if getting in modern commercial processes from the producers or sellers.
Work content Todays goods are commercialized together with accompanying services; there are just a few simple goods, the number of goods that are part of a products and services package that are sold together is always increasing, exactly with the purpose of attracting, satisfying and keeping client, in a world where the difference in sales is not mostly done through the quality of the products, which are also increasing, but is done more through the services offered together with the product, their purpose being to impress the customers, make them come back, satisfy them and attract them on a medium and long term on the side of satisfied customers through the manner in which they were served and respected by the selling organization through their selling force. But beyond these commercial services that are offered with the products in the selling process, we cannot encounter solitary products with no additional or complementary services in no other domain: When buying a car and enjoying the services that come with it, starting with the commercial and finishing with service assurance;

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cumperi un medicament conform unei prescripii medicale, n baza unei reete date de medic dar de cele mai multe ori primeti i informaii detaliate despre medicamentul recomandat i instruciunile de administrare de la farmacist; pleci ntr-o vacan cu autocarul, ai un loc al tu dar beneficiezi i de serviciul de transport; stai ntr-un hotel, ai o camer care-i ofer tot confortul, eventual piscin, saun, dar ai i asisten de specialitate, camerist, room-service, SPA, siguran pentru obiectele personale de valoare, vizitezi un loc frumos, pe care l-ai ales ca destinaie turistic, admiri peisaje, monumente, obiecte de art dar asculi fascinat i explicaiile pe care i le ofer ghidul turistic; mergi n spital pentru rezolvarea problemelor medicale, eti internat ntrun salon, ai patul tu, confortul de care ai nevoie dar i se fac i investigaiile necesare i i se d tratamentul de care ai nevoie, de la medicamentaie, recuperare fizic i psiho-motorie pn la intervenii chirurgicale; faci o asigurare de via sau pentru locuin, primeti o poli de asigurare dar pleci i cu ncrederea c vei fi protejat, tu sau cei la care i, mpotriva evenimentelor neplcute ce ar putea s apar; faci un mprumut la banc, primeti banii cerui n baza unui contract de creditare, eti consiliat i ajutat s alegi linia de rambursare cea mai avantajoas pentru tine, att ca ntindere pe o perioad de timp, care s nu-i blocheze resursele financiare, ct i ca facilitate de plat; chiar dac lucrezi efectiv ntr-o secie de cercetare sau producie, te bucuri de existena unui vestiar, a unui cadru adecvat dotat cu cldura i luminozitatea de care ai nevoie, cu utilitile necesare, ai pauza pentru recreere, ambiana de lucru necesar ca s poi s depui un maxim de efort n actul de creaie al

Buying a house assures the consultancy of the consultancy firm; Following a class and getting a physical object, like a book, course or electronic format together with the actual lectures, explications and instructions of the professor; Buying a medicine based on a medical prescription usually also gets you detailed information about that medicine and use indications from the pharmacist; Leaving in a vacation with a bus, you have your own place, but also get the transport service; Staying in a hotel, you have a room that offers all comfort, eventually a pool, sauna, but also get professional assistance, room service, SPA, safety deposit services; Visiting a beautiful place, chose as a tourist destination, you admire landscapes, monuments, art pieces, but also listen fascinated the explications offered by the tour guide; Going to a hospital to take care of medical problems, you get your own bed in a salon and the necessary comfort, but you also get the necessary investigations, the needed treatment from medication, physical and psychological rehabilitation to surgical interventions; Doing a life and home insurance, you also get the trust that you and your family will be protected against unplanned negative events; Contracting a bank loan, you receive the money based on a credit contract, you are counseled and helped to choose the best type of loan for you regarding the amount of time, so that you will be able to return it without financial problems; Even if you effectively work in a research or production department, you have you own locker-room, an adequate environment with heat, luminosity, tools and recreation break, all in order

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produsului; problemele administrative care in de viaa cotidian, de la declaraii fiscale pn la plata facturilor, se pot rezolva de acas, online, apelnd la serviciile internetului sau prin deplasarea la ghieele diverselor instituii, unde conteaz foarte mult ambiana, climatul n care eti primit i servit, de la amabilitatea funcionarului pn la canapeaua, fotoliul pe care te aezi pn i vine rndul, ziarul pe care-l poi citi pentru destindere i informare n perioada cnd atepi i care are pn la urm rolul s te fac s crezi c ateptare nu e chiar pierdere de timp; Te bucuri de servicii diverse, plcute i de nelipsit pentru omul modern, servicii care nsoesc bunurile materiale i fr de care aceste bunuri nu mai sunt percepute la fel. n societatea modern, preteniile cumprtorilor cresc aproape exponenial, ei sunt mult mai pretenioi, mai selectivi, mai ateni la ceea ce cumpr i mai critici cu privire la satisfacia pe care o primesc, tocmai pentru c au mult mai muli termeni de comparaie, sunt mai educai, tiu ce vor i tiu c exist diverse variante de cumprare, unele mai bune dect altele, care intr n concuren direct, concuren ce duce tocmai la mbuntirea continu i permanent a produselor i serviciilor pe care cumprtorii le achiziioneaz. Omul modern este, sau ar trebui d fie, unul educat, cu un anumit nivel de trai, de cultur, de civilizaie, cu o viziune ampl, cuprinztoare asupra vieii, tolerant mai puin cu el i mai mult cu ceilali, cu cerine din ce n ce mai mari i mai diversificate pentru toate necesitile sale, care nu mai sunt demult doar materiale, elementare pentru existena sa ci au evoluat pe scala nevoilor de la cele fiziologice, de hran, mbrcminte, locuin, la cele psihologice, de integrare social, de statut social i stim, de economisire, de siguran, de recunoatere, de autorealizare i evoluie continu. Toate aceste nevoi sunt unele superioare i sunt satisfcute mai ales cu ajutorul

to give the maximum efficiency when creating a product; Financial issues that are related to daily life, from financial statements to bill payment, can be resolved from home, online, using the internet or by going to various institutions, where it is very important the ambiance and the way you are received and served, from the politeness of the employees to the couch or chair you sit on, the newspaper you can read while you wait that has the purpose to ensure that you do not lose any time waiting to be served. You enjoy diverse and pleasant services, vital for the modern people, services that come together with physical goods and without which, these goods would not be perceived in the same way. In modern society, the buyers claims increase almost exponentially, they are always more exclusive, more selective, more careful about what they buy and more critical about the satisfaction they receive, especially because they have more terms of comparison, they are more educated, know what they want and know there are various possibilities to buy, some better than others, that go into direct competition, which leads to the continual development of products and services that are bought by customers. The modern man is, or he should be, an educated man, with a certain level of welfare, a wide vision over life in general, less tolerant with himself and more with the others, with ever growing needs that are diversified for all its necessities, which are no longer just material, elementary for his existence, but have evolved on the need scale from physiological, of food, clothing, home, to the psychological, of social integration, social status and esteem, economy, safety, recognition, accomplishment and continual evolution. All these needs are superior ones and are satisfied especially by services. Between them, we can also find tangible goods, that make the perception of

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serviciilor. n cadrul acestora ns se regsesc i bunuri tangibile, care fac percepia satisfaciei unei nevoi mult mai palpabil, fizic, material. Dac nevoile fiziologice elementare sunt satisfcute mai ales prin bunurile comercializate n scopul acoperirii acestora, nsoite de serviciile asociate direct proceselor de producie i de vnzare, nevoile superioare in tocmai de prestarea serviciilor specializate, de calitatea acestor servicii, de modalitatea i locul n care au fost oferite, de resursa uman care le-a prestat, dublate, bineneles, de obiectele tangibile, de bunurile care nsoesc aceste servicii i care uneori sunt asociate n mod direct cu serviciul prestat sau fac parte integrant din acesta. Aadar nu mai putem vorbi de servicii i bunuri ci de acestea dou la un loc, oferite cumprtorilor ntr-un pachet de produse i de servicii care nsoesc aceste produse sau ntrun pachet de servicii i bunuri care nsoesc aceste servicii, de fapt vorbim de pachetul complex de produse i servicii care se ofer clientului actual, ale crui ateptri de la acest pachet pe care-l achiziioneaz sunt mult mai mari, mai elaborate i mai sofisticate ca altdat. n acest context i marketingul clasic, dezvoltat mai mult pe suportul bunurilor de larg consum, n procese de schimb care se concentrau cu precdere la nivelul pieelor de producie i desfacere, ar trebui, n opinia mea, s aib o alt deschidere, o alt abordare pentru cumprtorul modern, ca purttor de cerere pentru tot ceea ce se produce i se comercializeaz. Din pcate, existena i mrimea cererii pentru aceste pachete complexe de bunuri i servicii se afl n legtur direct cu nivelul veniturilor beneficiarilor poteniali, ceea ce reduce substanial aria de lucru a compartimentelor de marketing. Nu poi oferi produse i servicii de calitate, cu taxe ridicate, unor oameni care nui pot permite s le achite, fie chiar i pe credit, aa cum nu poi oferi n secolul XXI, produse i servicii mediocre sau submediocre, doar pentru c ele necesit costuri reduse.

satisfaction much more real, more physical or material. If the elementary physiological needs are satisfied especially through good commercialized with the purpose of covering them, together with services directly associated with the production and selling processes, superior needs are tied exactly to the carrying of specialized services, to the quality of these services, the manner and place they were offered, the human resources that carried them, doubled, of course, by tangible objects, by goods that accompany these services and that sometimes are associated directly to the carried service or are an integrated part of it. Thus, we can no longer speak about services and goods, but about them together, offered to customers as a package of products and services that accompany these products or in a package of services and products that accompany these services. We are actually talking about the complex package of products and services that is being offered to the actual customer, whose expectations from this package are much greater, more elaborate and more sophisticated than in the past. In this context, even the classic marketing,50 developed more on the support of large consummation goods, in exchange processes that were focused mainly on production and selling markets, should have another opening in my opinion, another approach regarding the modern customer, as a demand carrier for everything that is being produced and commercialized. Unfortunately, the demands size and existence for these complex packages of goods and services, is in direct connection with the level of income for potential beneficiaries, which substantially reduces the work areas for marketing departments. One cannot offer quality goods and services, with high taxes, to some people that cannot afford them, even with loans, just like one cannot offer, in the XXI century, mediocre and sub-mediocre goods

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ntr-un fel sau altul, societatea trebuie s evolueze, dincolo de costurile, uneori enorme, pe care le implic aceast evoluie. Clientul actual este unul sensibil la modul n cine este servit, la amabilitatea i profesionalismul celui care-i vinde produsul sau i presteaz serviciul, la ambiana n care i se ofer acestea, la amenajarea locului n care primete o anumit satisfacie, loc ce las o amprent n mintea sa, ca un prim nivel al satisfaciei totale primite, la calitatea ntregului, care nu mai poate fi descris, n toat complexitatea sa, apelnd doar la cu elementele arhicunoscute ale mixului de marketing, produs, pre, plasament i promovare. Cred c e nevoie, n lumea marketingului, de depirea pragului care limiteaz structura mixului de marketing la cele patru elemente, ce restrng oarecum analiza importanei pe care o au, n procesele de vnzare, resursa uman, locul n care este servit clientul i percepia general asupra ofertei de care se bucur clientul, dat nu doar de calitile produsului ca atare ci i de calitatea serviciului de care acesta este nsoit. n marketingul serviciilor, cele patru elemente care compun structura clasic a mixului de marketing, respectiv produsul, preul, plasamentul i promovarea (cei 4p) i adaug valene noi, prin nc trei elemente vitale n derularea unui serviciu: prestaia sau aciunea propriu-zis de prestare a serviciului, personalul firmei care presteaz serviciul dar i persoanele care beneficiaz de acest serviciu i care sunt de fapt clienii firmei i perimetrul, de fapt aria de desfurare, de prestare a serviciului, locul unde are loc aciunea privit ca reper geografic (nc 3p). Altfel spus, mixul de marketing n domeniul serviciilor este mai complex dect cel clasic, ntlnit n domeniul bunurilor de larg consum, are apte elemente, pentru toate pstrnd aceeai liter, deja celebr n marketing: p ( de la 4p ncerc s fac trecerea la 7p) i const n: -prestaie, ca element central, fr substan material efectiv; -produs, ca element nsoitor al prestaiei,

and services just because they have low expenses. One way or another, the society should evolve, beyond the expenses, sometimes immense, that this evolution requests. The actual customer is more sensitive to the manner he is being served, the politeness and professionalism of the ones who sell the good or carry the service, the ambiance in which all these are done, the place where he gets a certain satisfaction, place that leaves an imprint in his mind, as a first sign for the total satisfaction, the quality of the whole, which cannot be described in all its complexity by using just the well known elements of the marketing mix, product, price, placement and promotion. I think that the marketing world needs to surpass the view that limits the structure of the marketing mix to just four elements, which tighten somehow the importance that other elements such as the human resources, the place where the customer is being served and the general perception over the offer have in the selling processes. In the service marketing, the four elements that compose the classic structure of the marketing mix, that is product, price, placement and promotion (the 4P) have new features, by adding three new vital elements for the existence of a service: the process or the actual activity of carrying the service, the people that carry the service, but also the ones that are the beneficiaries and the place, or carry area, the place where the activity is taking place, seen as a geographical coordinate (other 3P). In other words, the marketing mix in the services domain is more complex than the classic one, usually found in the domain of large consuming goods, has seven elements, keeping the same letter for all of them, already famous in marketing: p (from the 4p to the 7p) and consists of: Process, as a central element, without an effective material substance; Product, as a complementary element

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care o ajut pe aceasta s devin ct de ct tangibil; -pre complet al prestaiei i produsului oferit ca un pachet unitar clientului, nlocuit de cele mai multe ori cu noiunea de tarif; -plasament, distribuie a serviciului, realizat prin contactul direct al celui ce presteaz serviciul cu beneficiarul serviciului respectiv, ea apropiindu-se spaial de sursa de prestaie, intermedierea fcndu-se n momentul prestrii efective i n perimetrul de derulare a serviciului oferit clientului; -personalul care presteaz serviciul i care are un impact direct asupra calitii acestuia: personal propriu, respectiv angajaii organizaiei, resursa uman a acesteia (personalul trebuie s fie unul activ, suficient de mare ca numr pentru a face fa cerinelor, operativ, motivat, serios n aciuni i dedicat intereselor firmei) i asupra modului n care este perceput de cei care primesc serviciul, de ctre clienii organizaiei (personalulpia, personal vizat a face parte din segmentul de pia cruia i este adresat oferta); -perimetrul, locaia, aria n care se deruleaz prestaia i care localizeaz n spaiu un serviciu, perceperea sa aflnduse n legtur direct cu ambiana care se creeaz n acest spaiu, n acest cadru de rulare a unui serviciu; trebuie mult atenie i la echipamentul utilizat i la materialul informativ care se regsete la locul prestaiei; -promovarea, ca o comunicare permanent a prestatorului cu beneficiarul prestaiei, cruia i se ofer o promisiune, o speran, o satisfacie viitoare, prin intermediul ncrederii pe care o are n firma prestatoare i pe care i-a format-o prin prisma mesajelor primite din partea acesteia; simbolurile legate de imaginea firmei prestatoare au o deosebit importan, numele i sigla firmei avnd un impact major n perceperea serviciului de ctre client .

of the process that helps it become slightly tangible; Price total for the process and product offered as a whole package to the customer, replaced most of times with the notion of fare or tariff; Placement, distribution of the service, realized through direct contact of the one who carries the service with the beneficiary, coming closer to the source of the service, the exchange being made in the moment of the actual carrying and in the perimeter of the service offered to the customer; People that carry the service and having a direct impact on its quality: own people, meaning the personnel of the organization, its human resources (the personnel has to be active, sufficient to respond all requests, operative, motivated, clear in actions and dedicated to the interests of the organization) and over the manner in which it is perceived by those that receive the service, the customers of the organization (market-people, people intended to be part of the market segment that the offer is addressed to); Place, location, area in which the service is being carried and that localizes in space a service, its perception being in direct connection with the ambiance that is created in this place; much attention is needed to the utilized equipment and informative materials that are found on site; Promotion, as a permanent communication of the seller with the beneficiary, to which a promise is being offered, a hope, a future satisfaction, through the trust he has in the selling organization, trust formed by messages received from it; the symbols linked to the image of the firm have a special importance, the name and image of the firm having a major impact on the clients

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Componentele mixului de marketing n perception of the service. servicii, asimilate pachetului complex de The marketing mix components in produse i servicii care formeaz oferta services, assimilated to the complex actual, sunt schiate n figura urmtoare: package of products and services which form the actual offer, are presented in the next illustration:
promovare prestaie perimetru pre plasament

produs

personal

fig. nr. 1. Componentele mixului de marketing n cadrul pachetelor complexe de bunuri i servicii

promotion process

place price

placement product

people

fill. nr. 1. The components of the marketing mix

Conform componenei mixului de marketing n servicii, cu toate c n sectorul serviciilor prestaia este, prin definiie, lipsit de substan material, n practica actual se constat o convieuire simultan, existena unei sinergii benefice pentru eficiena activitilor desfurate de firme i pentru satisfacia primit de clieni ntre serviciile prestate i produsele pe care le includ acestea sau ntre bunurile oferite i serviciile care le nsoesc; deci e greu s delimitm n practic bunurile ca atare de serviciile pure, avnd de

According to the composition of the marketing mix in services, even if in the service sector, the process is by definition, without material substance, in the actual practice, there is a simultaneous companionship, existing a benefic synergy for the efficiency of the activities deployed by companies and for the satisfaction received by customers between the carried services and the products they include or between the offered goods and the services that accompany them; so it is difficult to

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fapt de-a face cu pachete complexe de bunuri i servicii care sunt oferite clienilor simultan i de care acetia beneficiaz fr ca s contientizeze neaprat c dispun de categorii de utiliti diferite. Ofertele astfel descrise pot fi alctuite din: un bun care prin excelen este tangibil dar e singur, nefiind nsoit dect cel mult de serviciul de vnzare, oferit odat cu achiziionarea sa efectiv; este cazul bunurilor de larg consum, achiziionate n mod curent pe piee i pentru a cror vnzare, pentru c are repetabilitate ridicat, nu se fac eforturi prea mari de atragere a cumprtorilor prin oferirea de servicii care s le sporeasc atractivitatea; ele se vnd mai ales pentru utilitatea lor ridicat i pentru satisfaciile elementare pe care le aduc consumatorilor (de exemplu: vnzarea de pine, lapte, legume, carne, deodorante, ampoane, caiete, cri, etc.). un serviciu ca atare, fr elemente de bunuri tangibile ci doar cu valoare de promisiune, oferit ca valoare de satisfacie intrinsec, fr mijloace materiale de intermediere, asimilat formei clasice de manifestare a serviciilor (de exemplu: servicii oferite de firme de consultan, cabinete de avocatur, psihoterapie, masaje, servicii de impresariat artistic, etc.). un bun ca valoare de baz nsoit de bunuri care-l completeaz, de valoare mai mic i de servicii care-l pun n eviden i-i sporesc valoarea, care-l fac atractiv; este vorba de bunuri de obicei cu valoare ridicat, care nu se cumpr n mod curent, pentru achiziionarea crora potenialul client are nevoie de un timp de gndire i de studiere a ofertelor existente; organizarea saloanelor de prezentare este des ntlnit n lumea vnzrilor produselor considerate de lux, ncepnd cu automobilele, continund cu tehnica de calcul i cu aparatura electrocasnic i terminnd cu bijuteriile, blnurile naturale, moda, obiectele de art i decoraiunile

delimitate in practice the actual goods from the pure services, actually having to do with complex packages of goods and services that are offered to customers simultaneously and by which they beneficiate without necessarily knowing that they dispose of different categories of utilities. The described offers can be composed of: - A good that by excellence is tangible but is alone, not being accompanied by anything else than the selling service, offered with its effective acquisition; this is the case of large consuming goods, bought directly from the markets and for whose sale, because it has a high repeatability, there arent too many efforts to attract buyers by offering services that will increase their attraction; these are sold especially for their high utility and for the elementary satisfaction they bring to consumers (for example: selling bread, milk, vegetables, meat, deodorants, shampoo, books etc.). - A service as such, without elements of tangible goods, with just a promised value, offered as a value of intrinsic satisfaction, without material means of intermediation, assimilated to the classic form of service manifestation (for example: services offered by consultancy firms, lawyer bureaus, psychotherapy, massage, artistic managing etc.). - A good as a base value, accompanied by goods that complete it, of smaller value and services that accentuate it and increase its value, making it more attractive; this is the case of high value goods, that are not bought frequently, for their acquisition, the actual customer needs time to think and study the existing offers; organizing presentation salons is often encountered in selling luxury products, starting with automobiles, continuing with IT and home appliances and finishing with jewelry, natural fur, fashion, art objects and interior decorations; all these need the existence of a true industry of services along with the actual products and all of them have developed services of selling, presenting,

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interioare; toate necesit i existena unei adevrate industrii a serviciilor pe lng produsele ca atare i toate au dezvoltat servicii de comercializare, prezentare, livrare, garanie, service, faciliti, reduceri, bonusuri, ntreinere, reparaii, etc., servicii care s-au putut dezvolta mai apoi i pe cont propriu, avnd o pia fidel deja format printre cei care la un moment dat au ales s cumpere un produs scump, de calitate, de firm, care va avea o durat de utilizare ndelungat i n consecin va avea nevoie de serviciile ce nsoesc aceste produse i le asigur perenitatea imaginii de vedet pe pia. un serviciu recunoscut ca atare, de notorietate, nsoit de servicii auxiliare i de o serie de bunuri care-l fac atractiv, i sporesc valoarea i recunoaterea ca serviciu n sine; de fapt, de la dezvoltarea acestui tip de ofert s-a trecut mai apoi spre recunoaterea relaiilor permanente care ar trebui s existe ntre servicii i bunurile care le nsoesc n cadrul prestaiei propriu-zise i care le sporesc valoarea i perceperea ca satisfacie primit n rndurile clienilor. Un astfel de serviciu ar fi cel de turism, care exist ca atare n form pur, oamenii avnd nevoie de recreere, de destindere n timpul liber, pentru aceasta achiziionnd, de exemplu, o excursie, ca serviciu de baz pentru o perioad programat de timp, n cadrul creia se va realiza un serviciu auxiliar de transport prin intermediul unui mijloc de transport, un autocar sau un microbuz, se va servi masa n localuri, se vor culege amintiri de pe traseu, etc. Toate acestea se constituie ntr-un pachet complex de produse i servicii turistice, serviciul suport fiind cel de turism, respectiv prestarea serviciului achiziionat ca o promisiune de realizare a unei excursii frumoase, interesante, distractive i relaxante; tot ceea ce nseamn aceast excursie, toate utilitile i avantajele oferite, vin de fapt s sporeasc valoarea perceput, satisfacia primit de cel care beneficiaz de excursia n sine.

delivering, warranty, service, facilities, discounts, maintenance, repair etc., services that were able to develop afterwards on their own, having a faithful market already formed among those that chose to buy an expensive, quality product, that had a long lasting utility and that will need the services that accompany these products and assure the exclusive image on the market. - A service recognized as such, of notoriety, accompanied by auxiliary services and a series of goods that make it attractive, increase its value and recognition as a service; actually, from the development of this type of offer, we have passed to the recognition of the permanent relationship that should exist between services and the goods that accompany them in the actual process and that increase their value and the satisfaction that customers get. Such a service would be the tourism one, that exists in pure form, people needing recreation and recuperation in their free time and for that they buy, for example, an excursion as a base service for a programmed period of time, during which they will need an auxiliary service of transportation through a transportation means, a bus or shuttle, will have dinner in restaurants and memories on the trip, etc. All this form a complex package of tourism products and services, the support service being the tourism one, respectively the carrying of the acquisitioned service as a future promise of a beautiful trip, interesting, entertaining and relaxing; all that this trip means, all the utilities and advantages offered, actually come to increase the perceived value, the satisfaction received by the ones that consume the actual excursion. - There are situations where the percentage of the product and of the service in the offer package is hard to differentiate in what concerns the element that dominates, their importance being almost equal; there are equilibrium situations of carrying a service and selling a good, seen as an offer hybrid, the distinction between the importance of one or the other being hard to

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exist i situaii n care ponderea produsului i a serviciului n pachetul de ofert este greu de difereniat n privina elementului care domin, importana lor fiind aproape egal; sunt situaii echilibrate de realizare a unei prestaii i de comercializare a unui bun, privite ca un hibrid de ofert, distincia ntre importana unuia sau altuia dintre elemente fiind destul de greu de fcut: o amenajare interioar este perceput prin calitatea manoperei dar i prin calitatea materialelor folosite; petrecerea unei seri deosebite ntrun restaurant depinde de meniul servit dar i de modul n care acesta este servit, cltoria cu un mijloc de transport depinde i de confortul pe care acesta i-l ofer prin utilitile de care dispune, etc. serviciile se pot diferenia nu numai dup componena lor mai mult sau mai puin tangibil ci i dup cei care le presteaz, dup personalul implicat, care presteaz serviciul i care poate face acest lucru dispunnd sau nu de o anumit calificare; de asemenea putem diferenia prestrile n funcie de echipamentele utilizate, unele au nevoie de existena acestora (serviciile medicale stomatologice), altele nu (cabinetele de avocatur); dac ne raportm la timpul prestaiei pentru beneficiar, unele servicii se consum efectiv n interesul persoanei client care trebuie s fie de fa (tratarea unei carii dentare), altele vor putea fi apreciate n timp, ca i utilitate final, nefiind nevoie de fiecare dat de prezena persoanei beneficiare ( avocatul poate s reprezinte interesele unei persoane chiar dac aceasta nu e de fa). Serviciile reprezint acele aciuni ntreprinse de firme prin intermediul subiecilor care le reprezint, ce au un scop bine determinat dar care nu poate fi asimilat unui transfer de proprietate asupra unui bun i nici nu poate fi comensurat n exprimri cantitative. Ele pot nsoi ns bunuri materiale formnd mpreun cu acestea pachete complexe de bunuri i servicii, valoarea

distinguish: an interior design job is perceived through the quality of the work done, but also through the quality of the used materials; spending a special evening in a restaurant depends on the served menu, but also on the manner it is being served; the voyage with a transportation means also depends on the comfort that its utilities offer, etc. - Services can be differentiated not only after their composition, more or less tangible, but also after the people that carry them, the personnel that carry that service and that can do this having a certain qualification; also we can differentiate services by the used equipments, some needing their existence (medical services), others not (lawyer bureau); if we rapport to the time of the process for the beneficiary, some services are consumed effectively in the interest of the people customer that has to be present (medical service), others will be appreciated in time and as a final utility, without needing the presence of the customer every time (lawyers can represent the interest of a person even if not present). Services represent those actions done by firms in the interest of subjects that represent them, having a precise purpose that cannot be assimilated to a property transfer over a good and cannot be measured in quantitative forms. They can also accompany material goods, forming with them complex packages of goods and services, the value of the goods and their structure offering the quality of the service and this quality also increases the perceived value of the tangible good. To better understand the notion of service, that in marketing has the role of actual process, accompanying the product and making it more attractive, we can start from its general characteristics, already known, generally true for all services: Services are intangible, 1. cannot be touched, smelled, tasted, felt or seen, cannot be presented to customers so they cannot be perceived as a real material

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bunurilor i structura acestora oferind calitate serviciului iar calitatea serviciului sporind valoarea perceput a bunului tangibil. Pentru nelegerea noiunii de serviciu, care mbrac n marketing rolul de prestaie propriu-zis, nsoind produsul i fcndu-l mult mai atrgtor, putem porni de la caracteristicile generale, cunoscute deja, valabile n general pentru toate serviciile: 1. Serviciile sunt intangibile, nu pot fi atinse, pipite, mirosite, gustate, simite sau vzute, nu pot fi expuse ntr-o vitrin sau pe un raft i deci nu pot fi percepute ca un bun material real; perceperea lor nici mcar nu ine de o imagine palpabil ci doar de una creat prin senzaii. n consecin, cnd ne hotrm s achiziionm un serviciu ne bazm mai mult pe ce tim, pe ce am auzit despre serviciul respectiv, pe informaiile care ne parvin dinspre acesta; intenia noastr de cumprare este mai mult o promisiune pentru utilitatea i satisfacia pe care ne ateptm s-o primim odat ce am apelat la un anumit serviciu. Riscurile i incertitudinile devin mai mari atunci cnd se achiziioneaz un serviciu pentru c nu e ceva ce poate fi evaluat direct; de aceea exist mai mult scepticism n achiziionarea de servicii n comparaie cu cea de bunuri i conteaz foarte mult n formarea convingerilor de cumprare impactul cu imaginea firmei la care apelezi pentru a-i presta un serviciu, ncrederea pe care i-o inspir personalul acesteia, ambiana n care are loc prestarea serviciului, materialele promoionale care te pot informa, alte mijloace de comunicare prin intermediul crora poi avea o prim tangen cu serviciul pe care te atepi s-l primeti. Cei care presteaz servicii ncearc ntotdeauna s le materializeze ct mai mult, oferind materiale concrete, tangibile, tocmai pentru a convinge clienii c acele servicii exist i pot fi consumate; tot mai mult se suprapun serviciile peste bunurile tangibile pentru c acestea ofer suportul material vizibil de care oamenii au nevoie ca s capete ncredere ntr-o promisiune de satisfacie viitoare pe care i-o ofer serviciul n sine.

good; their perception is not even tied to a palpable image, but with one created through sensations. As such, when we decide to buy a service, we are based more on what we know, what we have heard about that service, on the information that come from this service; our acquisition intention is more a promise for the utility and satisfaction we expect to get once we make use of a certain service. Risks and uncertainties increase when acquiring a service because is not something that can be measured directly, so there is more skepticism in the purchase of services in comparison with that of goods and is very important in shaping purchase beliefs the impact with the company image that you call to in order to get a service, the trust inspired by its staff, the atmosphere in which the service has been performed, the promotional materials that can inform you and other means of communication through which you can get a first tangency with the service you expect to receive. Those that carry out services, always try to materialize them as much as possible, providing actual materials, tangible, in order to convince customers that those services exist and can be consumed, more and more, services overlap over tangible goods because these provide visible support material, that people need in order to gain confidence in a promise of future satisfaction awarded by the service itself. Purchasing a service, conviction of a person to choose a certain service that he actually wants but does not want to have hes expectations deceived, is based on: - Information we receive on the quality of the service that we shall call; most times this is received from other consumers who have used these services and that can transmit a good image or not, they are actually the primary messengers of the service firms. If in the case of goods, rumors can be validated or not by the existing product, in the case of services, there is no possibility of confrontation,

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Achiziionarea unui serviciu, convingerea unei persoane s apeleze la o anumit prestare pe care n fond i-o dorete dar nu ar vrea s-i fie nelate ateptrile se bazeaz pe: Informaiile pe care le primete cu privire la calitatea serviciului la care va apela; de cele mai multe ori acestea i parvin de la ali consumatori care au apelat la aceste servicii i care pot transmite o imagine favorabil sau nu, ei fiind de fapt principalii mesageri ai firmei prestatoare de servicii. Dac n cazul bunurilor zvonurile pot fi validate sau nu de produsul existent, n cazul serviciilor nu exist posibilitatea de confruntare, clientul lund ca atare ce i se aduce la cunotin. Personalul care presteaz serviciul, amabilitatea acestuia, profesionalismul de care d dovad, modul n care tie s se fac plcut de ctre client i s-l atrag pe acesta trezindu-i sentimente de ncredere i siguran, prima impresie pe care o las clientului. Ambiana n care are loc prestarea serviciului, gradul de atracie al locului, senzaia de lux i curenie, de spaiu primitor i armonios, echipamentul tehnic de actualitate i pe msura ncrederii pe care o are clientul n firm, material informativ la vedere care s sugereze eficiena, calitatea, rapiditatea i confortul prestrii serviciului. Preul perceput pentru serviciile prestate n raport cu concurena dar i raportul dintre acesta i calitatea oferit; mai mult ca n domeniul comerului cu bunuri oamenii pun accent, cnd li se presteaz servicii, pe satisfacia pe care o primesc, fiind de acord s plteasc mai mult dac i primesc mai mult atenie, mai mult respect i n final mai mult satisfacie dar vor fi i mai dezamgii, n comparaie cu utilizarea unui bun, dac vor plti pentru servicii care nu se ridic la preteniile lor. Imaginea de ansamblu a firmei, numele ei de marc, simbolurile care o caracterizeaz, sigla care o reprezint, un

the client is taking everything as he receives. - The people providing the service, their kindness, the professionalism they demonstrate, how they know to make themselves liked by customers and lure them by inspiring feelings of trust and safety, first impression left on the customer. - The environment in which the service is being carried, the attractiveness of the place, the sensation of luxury and cleanliness, of welcoming and harmonious space, the technical equipment and the measure of confidence that the customer has in the company, information material in sight to suggest efficiency, quality, speed and convenience of service provision. - The price charged for services in relation to the competition but also the relationship between it and the quality offered, more than in trading goods, people emphasize, when services are provided, the satisfaction they receive by agreeing to pay more if they receive more attention, more respect and ultimately, more satisfaction but will also be more disappointed, compared to using a good, if they pay for services that are not up to their claims. - The whole image of the company, its brand name, symbols that characterize it, the logo that represents it, a certain publicity slogan with impact on the public, the notoriety it enjoys, the prestige and tradition that it has, the confidence and the attraction that it brings. All these features of services, that cannot be treated as an asset of a tangible, material good, is the argument for the introduction of the process (p) as an element in the marketing mix. 2. Services are inseparable in relation to those providing them, whether we are dealing with services provided by people or by machinery and other technical equipments; if the goods are first produced

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anumit slogan publicitar cu impact asupra publicului, notorietatea de care se bucur, prestigiul, tradiia pe care o are, ncrederea i atracia pe care o insufl. Toate aceste trsturi ale serviciilor, ce nu pot fi asimilate unui bun tangibil, material, constituie argumentul pentru introducerea prestaiei (p) ca element n cadrul mixului de marketing. 2. Serviciile sunt inseparabile n raport cu cei care le presteaz, fie c avem de-a face cu servicii prestate de oameni, fie c sunt servicii prestate de maini, utilaje, alte echipamente tehnice; dac bunurile pot fi iniial produse, apoi stocate, vndute i abia n urma vnzrii se pot consuma, serviciile nti se vnd i abia apoi se produc i se consum, operaia de stocare nemaigsindu-i locul cnd analizm serviciile. n comparaie cu realizarea produselor, vnzarea i consumul n servicii au loc prin intermediul contactului nemijlocit, direct i bilateral dintre cel ce presteaz serviciul i cel care l consum; prestatorul i consumatorul au un contact direct, bazat pe comunicarea prin intermediul serviciului prestat de unul i utilizat, consumat, de cellalt. Medicul are nevoie de pacientul su ca s-l trateze sau s-l opereze, profesorul de student ca s-i transmit cunotinele sale i s deruleze actul educaional, chelnerul are nevoie de client ca s-i poat servi comanda, artistul are nevoie n sal de public pentru a-i etala numrul, transportatorul de cltori, agentul de asigurri de persoana care va beneficia de polia de asigurare, personalul de la ghieele bncilor de contactul direct cu clienii, etc. De cele mai multe ori serviciile conin i un obiect material care se consum, n general, odat cu serviciul: reete sau medicamente, cri sau alte materiale didactice, diverse meniuri, bilete i programe pentru spectacole, tichete de cltorie, contracte de asigurare, documente de plat, etc. n consecin, se poate spune c exist un contact permanent, direct, nemijlocit, o interaciune prestatorclient, n cadrul marketingului serviciilor, care trebuie avut n vedere atunci cnd analizm

and then stored, sold and only after the sale can be consumed, services are first sold and then are produced and consumed, the storage operation can no longer find its purpose if we are talking about services. Compared with the manufacturing of products, sale and consumption in services take place through direct contact, directly and bilaterally between the one who provides the service and the one that consumes it, the provider and the consumer have a direct contact based on communication through the service carried by one and consumed by the other. The doctor needs its patient in order to treat or operate him, the teacher needs the student to convey his knowledge and conduct the education act, the waiter needs the customer to able to serve as his order, the artist needs public in the hall to perform his number, carrier needs passengers, insurance agent needs the person who will benefit from the insurance policy, the staff at bank counters needs direct contact with the customers, etc. Most of times, service also contain a material object that is consumed, in general, the same time as the service: recipes or medicines, books or other materials, menus, tickets and programs for shows, trip tickets, insurance contracts, payment documents, etc. As such, we can say that there is a permanent and direct contact, an interaction provider-customer, inside the services marketing, that has to be taken into account when analyzing the complex domain of services. This analysis cannot oversee the complete analyzing of the human resource that is involved in the carrying of the service because, more than anywhere else in the economy, the final satisfaction that the customer feels depends on the quality of the human resource, its knowledge and the manner it provides the service. The capacity to provide services cannot be stored and used some other time, a certain continuity is needed in providing services, which most of times cannot be controlled

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domeniul complex al serviciilor. Analiza nu poate face abstracie de analiza complet a resursei umane care este implicat n prestarea serviciului pentru c mai mult ca oriunde altundeva n domeniile economice, de calitatea resursei umane, de cunotinele acesteia i de modul n care presteaz serviciul depinde satisfacia pe care o resimte utilizatorul acestuia. Capacitatea de prestaie a serviciilor nu poate fi stocat i folosit altdat, este nevoie de o anumit continuitate n prestarea serviciilor, care de cele mai multe ori nu poate fi controlat pentru c ea depinde de starea psihic a persoanei implicate, de conjunctur, de ambian, de o serie de ali factori destul de greu de controlat i influenat; pe de alt parte prestarea serviciilor este limitat i cantitativ, ceea ce nseamn c dac va crete cererea pentru un anumit serviciu va fi foarte greu ca ea s poat fi satisfcut pe termen scurt. De cele mai multe ori se apeleaz la o cretere a tarifelor percepute n detrimentul ctigrii unui numr mare de clieni pe termen scurt, care oricum n-ar putea fi satisfcui utiliznd acelai numr de personal i aceleai capaciti de prestare pe termen scurt. Cu alte cuvinte este greu s pregteti ntr-un interval scurt de timp prestarea unor servicii la nivelul cererii dac nu ai prevzut creterea acesteia pentru c e greu s modelezi oameni i comportamente pe termen scurt iar pe de alt parte nici nu-i poi permite s-i strici imaginea creat de cele mai multe ori cu eforturi susinute n timp pentru a ctiga pe termen scurt din punct de vedere financiar dar pierznd ncrederea clienilor pe termen lung; calitatea total, n ceea ce ntreprinzi pe planul serviciilor este punctul central al oricrei strategii de marketing n acest domeniu. 3. Serviciile sunt variabile n timp deoarece depind n mod categoric de participarea unor persoane la prestarea i consumul lor, persoane care nu sunt identice, care se comport diferit n situaii similare i care pot s nu reacioneze la fel ntr-un timp i un spaiu diferit, chiar dac sunt supui acelorai stimuli de prestaie; n fond calitatea

because it depends on the psychological estate of the person involved, the conjuncture, the ambiance and a series of other factors pretty hard to control and influence; on the other side, providing services is limited quantitatively, which means that if the request for a specific service will increase, it will be pretty difficult to satisfy it on a short term.52 Most of times, an increase of perceived tariffs is used instead of winning more customers on a short term, that anyway would not be satisfied by using the same number of staff members and the same capacities on a short term. With other words, it is difficult to prepare in a short time the providing of some services to the level of the request if this was not forecast because its difficult to shape people and behaviors on a short term. On the other hand, one cannot afford to ruin the image created often with efforts, in order to win on the short-term in financial terms, but by losing long-term customer trust; total quality in services, is the focus of any marketing strategy in this area. 3. Services are variable in time, because they categorically depend on the participation of people in their supply and consumption, people that are not identical, they behave differently in similar situations and who may not react the same in a different time and space, even if they are subject to same providing stimuli; in fact the quality of services depend on who, where, when and how they provide and by what means. The level of performance in services is extremely variable from one person to another and from one day to another. These issues determine the appliance of permanent training strategies inside service companies, strategies that focus on the perpetual improvement of personnel, its motivation at a level that will increase their loyalty to the firm and its objectives, to integrate it as a lifestyle in the firms aspiration ensemble, in its organizational culture, to make it become servable, careful and polite in any moment, beyond its own

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serviciilor depinde cine, unde, cnd i cum le furnizeaz i prin ce mijloace. Nivelul de performan n servicii este extrem de variabil de la o persoan la alta i de la o zi la alta. Aceste aspecte determin aplicarea strategiilor de trening permanent n cadrul firmelor prestatoare de servicii, strategii care pun accentul pe continua perfecionare a personalului, pe motivarea acestuia la un nivel care s-l fidelizeze fa firm i obiectivele acesteia, s-l integreze ca i stil de via n ansamblul aspiraiilor firmei, n cultura organizaional a acesteia, s-l fac s devin serviabil, atent i amabil n orice moment, dincolo de problemele personale sau de starea de moment a fiecruia. Se poate apela la studii de motivaii, la studii de pia periodice care s arate n ce mod a evoluat perceperea imaginii firmei i a serviciilor prestate de personalul acesteia n rndurile clienilor; dei este foarte greu de nlocuit resursa uman n servicii, acolo unde este posibil e de preferat introducerea unor echipamente speciale a cror prestaie nu e influenat de factori externi perturbatori: tonomate pentru carduri sau pentru vnzarea unor produse, cluburi de internet, pompe de benzin cu autoservire, telefonie prin cartele telefonice, etc. Pentru c este extrem de greu de evaluat calitatea unui serviciu se folosete n mod curent o anumit standardizare pentru sarcinile de lucru i pentru echipamentul din dotarea fiecrei persoane: halate, ecusoane, aspect comun al pachetelor complete de produse i servicii, cadouri personalizate, teme comune, ambian identic, spaii asemntoare, culori i sunete n acelai ton, (exemplu: magazinele Metro, Carrefour, Mall, McDonald`s, VoxMaris, etc.). Aici se include i posibilitatea clienilor de a discuta direct cu cei care realizeaz pachetele de produse i presteaz serviciile care le nsoesc pe acestea, astfel nct nemulumirile i observaiile s poat fi exprimate nemijlocite i orice reclamaie s se rezolve pe loc, chiar de ctre cel care a produs eventualul prejudiciu. Aceste trsturi valabile pentru prestaii nu pot fi rupte de cei care intr n

problems or state of spirit. One can make use of motivations studies, periodic market studies that show how the company image and the services provided by the its personnel have evolved among customers; although it is very difficult to replace the human resource in services, where possible, it is preferable to introduce special equipments that are not influenced by external disturbing factors: machines for credit cards or selling products, internet clubs, self-service gas pumps, telephone calling cards, etc. Because it is extremely difficult to assess the quality of a certain service, there is a certain standardization used currently for the work duties and for the equipment of every person: badges, robes, same aspect for complex packages of products and services, personalized gifts, identical ambiance, common themes, similar spaces, colors and sounds in the same tone (Metro, Carrefour, Mall, McDonalds, VoxMaris, etc.). This also includes the possibility of customers to discuss directly with those that realize the packages of products and carry out the services that accompany them, so that their complaints and observations can be expressed directly and any reclamation is solved instantly, by the same person that produced the eventual mishap. These characteristics valid for services, cannot be broken by those that come directly into contact with customers, presenting and exemplifying the offer; they represent the interface of the organization, the selling force with an impact purpose, whether we are talking about, sellers, secretaries, doormen or doctors, professors, counselors, architects, clerks, etc, that means everything that forms the human resource, the people (p) of the organization, taken into consideration as a self sustaining element of the marketing mix. Services are perishable, they 4. cannot be stored to be commercialized afterwards and are consumed effectively when produced and provided; this implies that their analysis will be made on the spot

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contact direct cu clienii, prezentndu-le i exemplificndu-le oferta; ei reprezint interfaa organizaiei, fora de vnzare cu rol de impact, fie c e vorba de vnztori, secretare, portari sau de medici, profesori, consilieri, arhiteci, consultani, funcionari, etc., adic tot ceea ce se constituie n resursa uman, personalul (p) organizaiei, luat n considerare tot ca element de sine stttor al mixului de marketing. 4. Serviciile sunt perisabile, ele nu pot fi stocate pentru a fi comercializate ulterior ci se consum efectiv n momentul prestrii; asta presupune c analiza lor se va face la locul i n momentul prestrii dar i c volumul serviciilor, nefiind constant, trebuie s existe posibilitatea de prestare n funcie de cererea variabil n timp i spaiu; de cele mai multe ori firmele prestatoare de serviciu au ca impediment general faptul c dimensionarea capacitilor de prestare ar trebui s corespund cererii n punctul ei maxim i ar rmne neutilizat n perioadele de scdere a cererii (de exemplu sezonalitatea n turism face ca o mare parte din utiliti s nu fie utilizate n extrasezon, transportul de cltori poate varia pe timpul zilei n funcie de traficul cltorilor, la serviciile medicale se apeleaz aleatoriu, n funcie de problemele de sntate variabile de la o persoan la alta, etc.). n aceste condiii este normal s se perceap tarife diferite n funcie de volumul cererii: mai mari cnd cererea crete, pentru a o descuraja i mai mici n perioadele de stagnare i de scdere a cererii pentru a o stimula; de asemenea se apeleaz la servicii de rezervare pentru a nu se aglomera foarte mult anumite perioade de prestare n detrimentul altora (de exemplu programarea la consultaii medicale, la restaurant, la hotel, etc.). Pentru ca personalul firmelor prestatoare s nu stea fr activitate n perioadele de scdere a cererii sau suportul tehnic s nu fie utilizat se poate apela la angajri pe perioade determinate de timp, sezoniere, la contracte de colaborare, la nchirieri de utilaje, la programe de utilizare reduse, la asocieri n procesul de prestare a serviciilor, etc.

and during their production but also that the volume of services, not being constant, there has to be the possibility to carry them out in relation to the demand that is variable in time and space; most of times, companies providing services have the general impediment that dimensioning the providing capacities should correspond to the demand in its maximum point and will remain unused in periods where the demand decreases (for instance the seasonality of tourism determines that a great part of the utilities remain unused outside the season, the passenger transport can vary during the day based on passenger traffic, health services are used randomly, depending on health problems different from one person to another, etc.). In these conditions, it is normal to ask for different tariffs depending on the volume of the demand: greater when the demand increases, to discourage it, and smaller when it is stagnating or decreasing to stimulate it; firms can also make use of the reservation services to avoid crowding some periods compared to others (programming medical visits, restaurants or hotels, etc.). To assure that the personnel of the service companies do not stay without activity during periods of declining demand or so the technical support does not remain unused, one can make use of hiring staff for determined periods of time, seasonal, collaboration contracts, renting equipments, low utilization programs and associations in carrying services, etc. In what concerns the demand, it is recommended to be stimulated during periods of decline so that the efficiency of the process is not affected by awarding facilities to the customers, bonuses, reductions, gratuities, complementary services offered with the base service, various attractions that make the customer change its current habits if the economies that can be made in this period are simulative. The most profitable service companies are those that give their customers the

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n ceea ce privete cererea se recomand ca aceasta s fie stimulat n perioadele de scdere pentru a nu fi afectat eficiena prestrii prin acordarea de faciliti clienilor, bonusuri, reduceri, gratuiti, servicii complementare oferite odat cu serviciul de baz, diverse atracii care s-l fac pe client si schimbe obiceiurile curente dac economiile pe care le poate face n aceste perioade sunt stimulative. Cele mai rentabile firme prestatoare de servicii sunt cele care pun n centrul ateniei satisfacia clienilor lor, ajungnd chiar s fie obsedate de ctre acetia; numai aa poi fideliza pe termen lung clienii i-i poi crea segmente noi de cerere; trebuie bineneles s te raportezi permanent la concuren, la ceea ce ofer cei din jurul tu, s supraveghezi pe de o parte calitatea propriilor prestri i pe de alt parte s sesizezi ce fac ceilali i cum i poi devansa fr s uii c dincolo de satisfacia clienilor trebuie s-i satisfaci i angajaii, s-i faci s depun eforturi maxime, de natur fizic sau intelectual n avantajul firmei i n detrimentul concurenei. 5. Serviciile se caracterizeaz i prin lipsa proprietii tocmai pentru faptul c nu sunt dublate de bunuri tangibile, care pot fi n folosina cuiva o perioad i apoi51 pot fi transmise mai departe altei persoane, cednduse n acelai timp i un drept de proprietate. La servicii se apeleaz de obicei o perioad limitat de timp i nu se rmne cu nimic palpabil dup ce le-ai utilizat o perioad; ele rmn cel mult o amintire, o impresie asupra unui privilegiu de care te-ai bucurat o perioad i de care se va bucura altcineva dup tine fr s existe un drept de proprietate ferm n acest sens. Tot mai mult prestatorii de servicii ofer n cadrul serviciilor i diverse bunuri tangibile, suveniruri, aparent fr o valoare financiar ridicat dar care pot oferi senzaia de proprietate, pe termen lung, consumatorilor de servicii: pliante cu locurile unde ai cltorit sau cu facilitile pe care i le ofer o banc dac apelezi la serviciile sale, obiecte mrunte de decor, tradiionale, din zonele vizitate, reduceri de tarife pentru clienii fideli,

spotlight, reaching a state of even being obsessed with them; this is the only way to build a long term loyalty among customers and one can create new demand segments; one has to relate of course to the competition, to what the others are offering, to supervise on one side the quality of own services and on another side, to see what others are doing and how one can surpass them without forgetting that beyond the satisfaction of the customers, one has to think about the satisfaction of the employees, to make them give maximum efforts, of physical and intellectual nature, in the advantage of the company and in the detriment of the competition. 5. Services are also characterized by the lack of property, especially because they are not doubled by tangible goods, that can be used by somebody for a period and then53 can be transmitted again to another person, also giving away the property right. Services are usually used for a limited period of time and one does not remain with anything palpable after that period; they remain as a memory at most, an impression over a privilege that one has enjoyed for a period and of which others will enjoy after without existing a property right in this respect. More and more service providers offer inside services various tangible goods, souvenirs, apparently without a high financial value, but that can offer the sensation of property to the consumers on the long term: brochures with places where one has traveled or with the facilities that a bank offers if one makes us of its services, small traditional objects from the visited areas, tariff discounts for loyal customers, the possibility to be part of a group, an association and clubs based on a member card for beneficiaries of certain groups of services, discount cards for certain products limited to certain percents established based on contractual clauses between firms that provide quality services and that want to invest in their brand image and firms that sell tangible goods for their customers, etc.

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posibilitatea de a face parte, pe baza unei legitimaii, dintre membrii unor grupri, asociaii, cluburi unde se ntlnesc beneficiarii anumitor categorii de servicii, carduri cu reduceri de preuri la anumite produse n limita unor procente stabilite pe baz de clauze contractuale ntre firmele care presteaz servicii de calitate i care vor s investeasc n imaginea lor de marc i firmele care comercializeaz bunuri tangibile pentru clienii acestora, etc. Aceste aspecte leag produsele i serviciile de locul n care ele sunt oferite, de climatul i ambiana n care este primit i convins potenialul cumprtor s se transforme n client efectiv, adic de perimetrul (p) de ofert, luat i el n considerare ca element de sine stttor, care impresioneaz i atrage clientul, n cadrul mixului de marketing. n general, marketingul actual face trecerea de la orientarea firmei spre posibilitile sale proprii atunci cnd desfoar o activitate economic, spre exteriorul su, spre studiul pieei; firma nu mai este privit ca o entitate de sine stttoare ci este integrat n mediul su extern, la care se raporteaz permanent. Se poate vorbi deci despre existena unui marketing interactiv n cadrul firmei, care face ca relaia ce se stabilete ntre client i vnztor s fie n centrul ateniei aciunilor desfurate la nivelul firmei; acest tip de marketing vine s confere amplitudine i deschidere spre pia marketingului intern al firmei; mai mult dect n vnzarea bunurilor, n cadrul marketingului aplicat n servicii, se pune accentul pe aceast relaie ntre calitatea prestaiei i satisfacia primit de client, rolul resursei umane fiind reflectat n marketingul intern al firmei n timp ce relaia stabilit ntre firm i client se reflect n marketingul interactiv. Marketingul interactiv nu trebuie confundat ns cu marketingul exterior, care realizeaz comunicarea dintre firm i mediul su prin perceperea tarifelor i a preurilor, prin distribuie i promovare de orice tip, prin legturile stabilite cu piaa.

These aspects tie together products and services to the place where they are offered, the climate and ambiance in which the potential buyer is welcomed and convinced to transform in an effective customer, that is the place (p) of the offer, taken in consideration as self existing element, that amazes and attracts the customer, inside the marketing mix. Conclusions Generally, the present marketing makes the transition from the orientation of the firm towards its own possibilities when it does an economic activity, to an orientation towards its exterior, towards the study of the market, the company is not seen as a self sustaining entity, but is integrated in its external environment, to which it permanently reports itself. One can speak so about the existence of an interactive marketing inside a company, that makes the relation between customer and provider to be the center of attention of the actions done by the firm; this type of marketing confers amplitude and openness towards the market to the firms internal marketing; more so than in selling goods, in case of the marketing applied in services, the accent is posed on this relationship between the quality of the process and the satisfaction received by the customer, the role of the human resource being reflected in the internal marketing of the company, while the relationship established between the company and the customer is reflected in the interactive marketing. The interactive marketing must not be confused with the exterior marketing, that realizes the communication between the company and its environment by perceiving tariffs and prices, by distribution and promotion of any type, by the connections established with the market. In services, there are taken into account the abilities of the human resource as the main factor of the process; one is not solely interested in the taste of the food in a restaurant, but also on the manner of the

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Concluzii n servicii se ine cont de abilitile resursei umane ca principal factor de prestaie; nu ne intereseaz numai gustul mncrii ntrun restaurant ci i modul n care am fost servii, acordndu-ni-se importan i atenie, interaciunea dintre cei ce profit de servicii i cei care le presteaz fiind deosebit de puternic. Optica tradiional de marketing, care integreaz ntr-un anumit compartiment al firmei i la un anumit nivel activitile de marketing, mbrac astfel forme complexe, manifestate pe trei coordonate: marketing intern, extins la nivelul ntregului personal, care i va nsui politicile firmei, cultura organizaiei din care fac parte, indiferent pe ce nivel ierarhic s-ar afla, fcnd tot ceea ce este posibil pentru ca eforturile de ordin fizic sau intelectual fcute s se ridice la nivelul ateptrilor clienilor; motivarea personalului capt un rol important, ea fiind cea care i poate face pe angajaii firmei s-i aduc maximum de aport, s depun eforturi susinute, s fie fideli firmei i aspiraiilor acesteia; optica de marketing a firmei va fi una nsuit de toi angajaii acesteia, constitui n resurs uman a firmei, parte a personalului, considerat n aceast optic element al mixului de marketing. marketing extern, sau clasic, ce orienteaz eforturile firmei ctre exteriorul acesteia, ajutnd-o s produc n conformitate cu cererea, s perceap tarife, preuri sau comisioane pentru pachetele de servicii i produse oferite, s realizeze distribuia acestora pe piee i s le promoveze; tot marketingul extern deine controlul asupra cercetrilor de pia efectuate prin diverse metode calitative, cantitative sau experimentale n scopul determinrii stimulilor la care aceasta va reaciona va reaciona. Imaginea unei organizaii, felul n care este ea perceput de public ine de locul n care se face cunoscut,

serving, by getting attention and importance, the interaction between those that benefit from services and those that provide them is extremely strong. The traditional optics of the marketing, that integrates the marketing activities at a certain department of the firm and a certain level, takes as a result complex forms, manifested on three coordinates: - Internal marketing, extended on the level of the entire personnel, that will have to learn the politics of the company, the culture of the organization they are part of, no matter of the level they are on, doing everything possible so that their physical and intellectual efforts rise to the expectations of the customers; the motivation of the personnel takes a very important role, being the one that could make the employees to give maximum efforts, to be loyal to the company and its aspirations; the marketing optics of the company will have to acquired by all its employees, constituted by the human resources, part of the personnel, considered in this optics as an element of the marketing mix. - External or classic marketing, that orientates the efforts of the company towards its exterior, helping it to produce in relation to the demand, to ask for certain tariffs, prices of commissions for the offered packages of products and services, to realize their distribution on markets and to promote them; all the external marketing has control over the market researches done through various qualitative, quantitative or experimental market studies, with the purpose of determining the stimuli to which it will react. The image of an organization, the manner in which it is perceived by the public is linked to the place where it is known, the space chosen for the interaction with the customers, the covered market area, the impact of the general environment created around its offer, that is all we can encompass in the place of the company, as a self existing

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de spaiul ales pentru interaciunea cu clienii, de aria de pia acoperit, de impactul cadrului general creat n jurul ofertei sale, adic de tot ceea ce putem cuprinde n perimetrul firmei, ca element de sine stttor n cadrul mixului de marketing. marketing interactiv, care pune n centrul preocuprilor sale capacitatea personalului firmei de a presta servicii ctre cumprtori, att n ceea ce privete calitatea de ordin tehnic a acestora, care include aportul produsului oferit n cadrul pachetului de servicii la satisfacia primit de consumator dar i rezultatul final al consumrii serviciului n sine: a fost sau nu o reuit, a avut efectul scontat, s-a realizat scopul propus, etc., ct i senzaia pe care o primete consumatorul odat cu serviciul: i s-a acordat atenie, personalul s-a artat interesat de dorinele sale, a inspirat ncredere, credibilitate, s-a realizat n final fidelizarea clientului? n fond personalul de contact este cel care d imaginea firmei, de calitatea prestaiei sale la prima vedere cu clientul i pe parcursul prestrii serviciului depinznd imaginea general perceput de client. Marketingul interactiv realizeaz, deci, legtura ntre marketingul intern, reprezentat prin angajaii firmei i marketingul extern, reprezentat prin cumprtori. Fr ca bunurile oferite de firm n acest proces interactiv, din etapa de creaie pn n cea de producie i cumprare, s nu fie nsoite de servicii de calitate, care au menirea de a motiva proprii angajai i a satisface pn la nivelul fidelizrii clienii, impactul acestui demers nu ar putea fi atins i marketingul ar putea rmne unul nchistat n propriile reguli i principii, care nu ntotdeauna pot oglindi cu claritate evoluiile proceselor moderne de vnzare-cumprare. De aceea prestaia, serviciul ca atare, capt locul su, binemeritat, ntre elementele mixului de marketing, lrgind sfera de aciune i de aplicabilitate a acestei tiine, care n esen

element inside the marketing mix. Interactive marketing, that puts in the focus of its activity, the ability of the staff to provide services for the buyers, both in terms of their technical quality, which includes the contribution of the product offered in the package of services to the satisfaction received by the consumer, but also the final result of consuming the service itself: it was successful or not, it had the desired effect, the final purpose was achieved, etc., but also the sensation the consumer gets with that service: did he get attention, the personnel was interested by its wishes, did they inspire trust, credibility, the customer has been made loyal or not? Finally, the contact personnel is the one that gives the image of the company, the quality of its activity on the first interaction with the customer fives the general image perceived by the customer. So, the interactive marketing makes the connection between the internal marketing, represented by the employees of the company and the external marketing, represented by the customers. If the goods provided by the company in this interactive process, from creation to production and selling, are not accompanied by quality services, with the purpose to motivate its own employees and satisfy them until they are loyal, the impact of this process would not be accomplished and marketing would remain closed in its own rules and principles, that are not always clear about the evolution of modern selling-buying processes. For this reason, the process, the service as such, takes its place, well deserved, among the elements of the marketing mix, broadening the area of action and applicability of this science, that in essence remains an art, an ensemble of practical activities and study domain.

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rmne o art, un ansamblu de activiti practice i o disciplin de studiu. Bibliografie: [I] Balaure Virgil, Marketing, Editura Uranus, Bucureti, 2002 [II] Duboais Pierre-Louis Marketing, theory and practice, Economica, 49, rue Hericart, 75015 Paris [III] Lendrevie J, Lindon D, Laufer R, Theorie et pratique du marketing, Paris, Dalloz [IV] Kotler Philip (coordonator) Principles of Marketing, Editura Teora, Bucuretit, 1998 [V] Olteanu Valeric, Marketingul Serviciilor, Eitura House, Bucharest, 1997

Bibliography [I] Balaure Virgil, Marketing, Publishing Uranus, Bucharest, 2002 [II] Duboais Pierre-Louis Marketing, theory and practice, Economica, 49, rue Hericart, 75015 Paris [III] Lendrevie J, Lindon D, Laufer R, Theorie et pratique du marketing, Paris, Dalloz [IV] Kotler Philip (coordonator) Principles of Marketing, Ed Teora, Bucharest, 1998 [V] Olteanu Valeric, Marketing Services, Publishing House, Bucharest, 1997

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