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MASINI ELECTRICE ROTATIVE DE CURENT ALTERNATIV-MASINA ASINCRONA

1. Generalitati privind masina asincrona


2. Elemente constructive de baza ale masinii asincrone
3. Functionarea masinii asincrone
4. Actionari cu motoare asincrone
1. Generalitati privind masina asincrona
1.1 Defnitie
Se numeste masina asincrona acea masina de curent alternativ care, la frecventa data a retelei,
functioneaza cu o turatie variabila cu sarcina
Masinile electrice asincrone sunt caracterizate prin faptul ca au viteza de rotatie putin diferita de viteza
campului inductor, de unde si numele de asincrone.
Ele pot functiona in reim de motor, in reim de enerator sau in reim de frana. !n practica, cea mai
lara utilizare o au ca motoare electrice.
"upa modul de realizare a infasurarii indusului, e#ista doua tipuri principale de masini asincrone$
%masini asincrone cu rotorul bobinat si cu inele colectoare &pe scurt masini asincrone cu inele'.
%masini asincrone cu rotorul in scurtcircuit &sau cu rotorul in colivie'.
1.2 Semne conventionale
!n (ura de mai )os sunt reprezentate o parte din semnele conventionale pentru masinile asincrone.
a)- motorul asincron trifazat cu rotorul in scurtcircuit
b)- motorul cu rotorul bobinat
c)- motor asincron monofazat
d)- motor asincron monofazat cu faza auxiliara
!n cazul masinilor cu inele, capetele infasurarii statorului sunt leate la o placa de borne * aceasta
infasurare &trifazata', poate ( leata in stea sau in triun+i.
1.3 Domenii de utilizare ale masinii asincrone
Motoarele asincrone trifazate formeaza cea mai mare cateorie de consumatori de enerie electrica
din sistemul eneretic, (ind utilizate in toate domeniile de activitate$ masini,unelte &strunuri, raboteze,
freze, polizoare, masini de aurit, ferastraie mecanice etc.', poduri rulante, macarale, pompe, ventilatoare
etc.
-ana de curand, motoarele asincrone erau utilizate ca motoare de antrenare in actionarile cu turatie
constanta* prin dezvoltarea electronicii de putere, actionarile relabile cu motoare asincrone au capatat o
e#tindere remarcabila, datorita (abilitatii lor net superioare, in compartie cu motoarele de curent continuu.
Fle#F./M , -roram de formare profesionala 0e#ibila pe platforme ME1A2/.3!1E -.S"/456751.358498:.
/ealizat prof. ;ana -opa, 1oleiul 2e+nic "orin -avel, Alba !ulia, )ud. Alba
http://www.cursuri.flexform.ro/courses/L2/document/Cluj-
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2. Elemente constructive de baza ale masinii asincrone
2.1 Sectiune longitudinala printr-o masina asincrona
<a masinile asincrone, statorul este inductor si rotorul este indus. Elementele componente ale acestora
se pot observa in sectiunea lonitudinala din (ura alaturata
1. miezul magnetic statoric
2. miezul magnetic rotoric
3. infasurare statorica
4. infasurare rotorica
5. arbore
6. rulmenti
7. carcasa
8. ventilator
2.2 Statorul
Statorul masinii asincrone )oaca rolul de inductor. !n stator se obtine un camp manetic invartitor, pe
cale electrica, cu a)utorul unei infasurari trifazate parcurse de curenti alternativi trifazati, infasurare asezata
in crestaturi.
"in punct de vedere constructiv, statorul are forma unui cilindru ol realizat din tole de otel.
1restaturile pot ( semiinc+ise &a, b'sau desc+ise &c'. 1restaturile semiinc+ise se utilizeaza la masini de
puteri mici, in timp ce crestaturile desc+ise &care permit realizarea infasurarii afara, pe, sablon' sunt utilizate
la masini de puteri mari.
Statorul sau inductorul, cuprinde$ carcasa, pac+etul de tole &miezul' statoric cu infasurarile si scuturile
&palierele laterale'
Miezul statoric,reprezentat in imainea alaturata, este realizat din tole de otel electrote+nic de 9,= mm
rosime, izolate cu lac sau o#izi
1arcasa si scuturile port laar , se realizeaza prin turnare din fonta, din otel sau din alia)e ale
aluminiului &pentru puteri mici'.
2.3 Rotorul
/otorul cuprinde$ miezul magnetic rotoric &pac+etul de tole' , infasurarile, arborele &a#ul', inelele
de contact &daca rotorul este bobinat' si ventilatorul
.
!"#$% &'(")!* R+)+R!*
iezul rotoric este realizat din tole de otel electrote+nic de 9,= mm rosime, izolate sau neizolate,
tole obtinute prin stantare. <a periferia miezului sunt distribuite crestaturile rotorice in care sunt plasate
conductoarele infasurarii induse.
!(,&S$R&R"& R+)+R!*&
"aca masina asincrona este cu rotorul bobinat, atunci infasurarea rotorica este de tipul infasurarilor de
c.a. trifazate, cu pas diametral, intr,un strat sau in doua straturi.
1restaturile in acest caz sunt semiinc+ise avand de obicei forma de para.
"aca masina este cu rotorul in scurtcircuit, atunci infasurarea rotorica este de tipul colivie realizata
prin turnare din bare de 1u sau Al scurtcircuitate la capete de doua inele din acelasi material. 2urnarea
coliviei se face prin in)ectie direct in crestaturile rotorice &inc+ise sau semiinc+ise'.
-"()!%&)+R$%
>entilatia infasurarii statorice se realizeaza, de obicei la puteri mici si medii, cu a)utorul ventilatorului
a#ial montat pe a#ul masinii iar ventilatia infasurarii rotorice se realizeaza cu a)utorul aripioarelor de pe
inelele de scurtcircuitare care se toarna odata cu colivia.
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3. Functionarea masinii asincrone
3.1 .rincipiul de functionare al masinii asincrone
Statorul are amplasate trei infasurari identice in crestaturile sale. Aceste infasurari sunt decalate, intre
ele, cu 129?. -rin bobine va circula curentii i 1 , i 2 si i 3 . Acesti curenti formeaza un sistem trifazat simetric
&curenti eali'.
2recerea curentului prin bobine, conform legii inductiei electromagnetice, duce la producerea unui
camp manetic alternativ cu repartitie sinusoidala.
!n consecinta, infasurarea statorica parcursa de curentul alternativ trifazat da nastere unui camp
manetic invartitor care se roteste in sensul succesiunii fazelor cu turatia de sincronism n 1
unde$
n 1 = turatia campului magnetic invartitor statoric (turatie sincrona);
f = frecventa curentilor din stator (50 Hz);
p = numarul de perechi de poli.
"aca rotorul este in repaus, acest camp va induce in fazele infasurarii rotorice, conform leii inductiei
electromanetice, tensiuni electromotoare. !n cazul in care infasurarea rotorica este scurtcircuitata sau se
racordeaza pe o impedanta trifazata simetrica, aceste tensiuni electromotoare vor determina aparitia unor
curenti indusi. -rin interactiunea campului manetic statoric cu acesti curenti indusi, vor lua nastere forte
electromanetice @FA care se vor e#ercita asupra (ecarui conductor rotoric. Acestor forte le corespunde un
cuplu M, obtinut prin insumarea tuturor cuplurilor determinate de fortele ce actioneaza asupra
conductoarelor rotorice, care determina punerea in miscare a rotorului, cu turatia n, in sensul campului
invartitor statoric.
!n miscare, rotorul induce, in infasurarea rotorica, curenti de frecventa f 2 , curenti care produc un camp
invartitor de turatie n 2 $
4nda invartitoare a campului manetic rotoric este sincrona cu cea statorica deoarece rotorul se
roteste cu turatia n, si n 2 / n 0 n 1 .
"aca rotorul se va roti din e#terior cu turatia n 0 n 1 , in infasurarea rotorica nu se vor mai induce
curenti, in masina nu va mai aparea cuplu electromanetic.
"aca rotorul va ( lasat liber, datorita fortelor de frecare si a cuplului rezistent de la a#, turatia rotorului
va descreste. /otorul BalunecaC fata de campul statoric ramanand in urma.
Alunecarea, marimea caracteristica motoarelor asincrone, se de(neste astfel$
3.2 ,unctionarea in regim de motor asincron
!n reim de motor masina absoarbe putere electrica din retea, pe la bornele infasurarii statorice, si
furnizeaza, la arbore, putere mecanica.
Acesta este cel mai utilizat reim de functionare al masinii asincrone. Dilantul de puteri este redat in
(ura alaturata.
4nde$
- 1 , puterea electrica absorbita pe la bornele infasurarii statorice*
- M , puterea electromanetica &transferata in rotor prin intermediul campului electromanetic'*
- mec , puterea mecanica*
-2 , puterea utila la arbore*
p ;1 , pierderile prin efect ;oule, din infasurarea statorului*
p Fe , pierderile in miezul feromanetic*
p ;2 , pierderile prin efect ;oule, din infasurarea rotorului*
p mecv , pierderile mecanice si de ventilatie.
>iteza rotorului, in acest caz, este mai mica decat viteza de sincronism &9E n E n 1 , 9 E s E 1'.
3.3 ,unctionarea in regim de generator asincron
"aca masina este antrenata, cu a)utorul unui motor au#iliar, in sensul de miscare, cu o viteza n F n 1 &s
E 9', se sc+imba sensul de deplasare al rotorului fata de campul inductor statoric. -rin urmare se va
sc+imba si sensul tensiunii electromotoare induse, respectiv al curentului indus, si, implicit, al cuplului.
!n aceasta situatie masina primeste putere mecanica pe la arbore &de la motorul au#iliar' si cedeaza
putere electrica pe la bornele infasurarii statorice. Se spune ca masina functioneaza in reim de enerator.
Dilantul de puteri este redat in (ura.
3.1 ,unctionarea in regim de frana
!n cazul reimului de frana electromagnetica, masina este antrenata, din e#terior, in sens contrar
campului statoric &G E 9, s F 1'.
Ea primeste astfel putere mecanica pe la arbore, putere electrica pe la bornele infasurarii statorice,
intreaa putere rezultata, dupa acoperirea pierderilor, (ind disipata pe infasurari.
Fle#F./M , -roram de formare profesionala 0e#ibila pe platforme ME1A2/.3!1E -.S"/456751.358498:.
/ealizat prof. ;ana -opa, 1oleiul 2e+nic "orin -avel, Alba !ulia, )ud. Alba
4. Actionari cu motoare asincrone
&. .ornirea motoarelor asincrone
-entru pornirea motoarelor asincrone trebuiesc asiurate urmatoarele conditii$ cuplul de pornire sa (e
su(cient*curentul de pornire sa nu depasasca valoarea admisibila pentru reteaua de alimentare a motorului*
durata procesului sa (e cat mai scurta.
Motoarele asincrone cu rotorul in scurtcircuit pot ( pornite utilizand urmatoarele metode$
a' pornirea prin cuplare directa la retea*
b' pornirea stea,triun+i*
c' pornirea cu bobine de reactanta*
d' pornirea cu autotransformator.
2. Reglarea vitezei la motoarele asincrone
Modi(carea turatiei motoarelor asincrone, in timpul functionarii, se poate realiza, prin modi(carea
parametrilor de care depinde caracteristica mecanica si anume$
, modi(carea, in sensul cresterii, a rezistentei circuituluirotoric prin introducerea unei rezistente interne
relabile, in circuitul rotoric&metoda utilizata la motoarele asincrone cu rotorul bobinat',metoda de reula
neeconomica*
, sc+imbarea numarului de perec+i de poli ai infasurarii statorice obtinandu,se o turatie variabila in
trepte*
, modi(carea frecventei tensiunii de alimentare*
, modi(carea tensiunii de alimentare si a frecventei in acelasi timp astfel incat raportul 45fHconstant,
metoda cea mai utilizata in prezent.
*.Sc3imbarea sensului de rotatie
-entru sc+imbarea sensului de rotatie al motoarelor asincrone trifazate este su(cient a se sc+imba
doua faze intre ele la alimentare. 1omanda poate ( facuta manual sau automat.
)3e otor 4 'enerators
Dot+ motor5enerators in t+e -rius are verI similar in desin. 2+eI are sInc+ronous, A1, permanent manet
motors, J+ic+ are verI 0e#ible and eKcient. 2+eI do reLuire complicated control electronics. 2+e rotor &t+e part
t+at spins Jit+ t+e s+aft' contains poJerful permanent manets. !f Iou put t+ese manets on Iour refrierator,
IouMd need tools to et t+em oN aainO 2+ere are no coils of Jire in t+e rotor and no electrical connections to it.
2+is increases reliabilitI over "1 motors J+ic+ +ave Jindins in t+e rotors. All Jindins are in t+e stator &t+e
part of t+e motor5enerator t+at staIs still and is (#ed to t+e frame of t+e car'. 2+e control electronics passes an
alternatin current t+rou+ t+ese Jindins to turn t+e rotor. 2+is current must be PsInc+ronousP Jit+ t+e rotorMs
movement. 2+is means t+at t+e current must pass (rst in one direction and t+en in t+e ot+er at t+e precise time
t+at eac+ manet embedded in t+e rotor passes t+e Jindin. A position sensor on t+e s+aft tells t+e control
electronics J+ere t+e rotor is and +oJ fast it is spinnin.
Operation of a Syncronous !otor
2+e animation at ri+t s+oJs a +Ipot+etical sInc+ronous, A1, permanent manet motor. ! used to t+inQ t+at t+e
-rius motor5enerators Jere liQe t+is, but someone +as beun taQin a JrecQed drive train apart and it is noJ
clear t+eI are someJ+at diNerent. Still, t+is animation tooQ me a J+ile to create and !Mm not about to delete itO
!t does illustrate t+e eneral principle Jell enou+.
!t maI taQe a little studI to (ure t+is animation out, so let me direct Iour attention to several t+ins in
seLuence. First stare at t+e pole of t+e top,most &orane' Jindin. .bserve t+at it pulses alternatelI red and
blue, indicatin t+at t+e current in t+e Jindin enerates alternatelI a nort+ and sout+ manetic pole +ere. 2+is
is, of course, due to t+e current in t+e Jindin passin (rst in one direction and t+en t+e ot+er. 3oJ looQ at all
t+e ot+er orane Jindins. 2+eir poles pulse in t+e same pattern as t+e top one and at t+e same time. 2+e
orane Jindin are all connected toet+er and carrI t+e same current. 3e#t, looQ at t+e reen Jindins. 2+eir
poles pulse in t+e same JaI, but not at t+e same time. 2+is is also true of t+e maenta Jindins. 2o see +oJ
t+e diNerent Jindins enerate manetic poles movin in a circular manner, Jait for a red &or blue, if Iou prefer'
pulse at one pole and t+en move Iour eIes to t+e ne#t counter clocQJise Jindin and Jait for Iour color t+ere.
!t s+ould taQe about a second. Git+ a little practice, Iou Jill be able to folloJ a pulse around t+e stator. 3oJ for
t+e reallI tricQI part. As Iou folloJ a red pulse around t+e stator poles, lance at t+e rotor and note t+e
positions of t+e manetic poles t+ere. Rou Jill see a red rotor pole bein Ppus+edP around in front of t+e red
pulse IouMre folloJin bI manetic repulsion. Rou Jill also see a blue rotor pole bein PpulledP bI manetic
attraction be+ind t+e red pulse IouMre folloJin. 2+atMs it. 2+atMs +oJ it JorQs. 2+e control electronics senses
t+e rotor position and Qeeps t+e stator poles manetized so as to bot+ pus+ and pull t+e rotor around.
!f Iou Jatc+ a rotor pole pass bI a stator pole, Iou Jill see t+at t+is is t+e time at J+ic+ t+e Jindin current
c+anes direction and t+e stator pole brie0I +as no manetization. !t c+anes from +avin opposite
manetization to t+e approac+in pole, pullin it closer, to +avin t+e same manetization, t+us pus+in it aJaI.
!f Iou Jatc+ for t+e time at J+ic+ a Jindin reac+es peaQ current and t+e stator pole reac+es its most intense
manetization, Iou Jill see t+at a rotor PmanetP is t+en e#actlI ad)acent to it. 2+e liQe pole of t+is manet is
toJard t+e counter clocQJise direction, and is pus+ed aJaI. 2+e unliQe pole is toJard t+e clocQJise direction,
and is pulled onJard. 2+is is J+I t+e motor, as ! +ave draJn it, runs counter,clocQJise. 2o run t+e same motor
clocQJise, it Jould onlI be necessarI to c+ane t+e timin of t+e current pulses so t+at at t+e peaQs of stator
manetization t+e liQe pole of t+e ad)acent stator manet is in t+e clocQJise direction and t+e unliQe pole is in
t+e counter clocQJise direction.
!t is mI belief t+at t+e timin of current in t+e Jindins relative to t+e rotor position Jill alJaIs be as ! +ave
s+oJn for operation as a motor. 2+at is, current Jill peaQ in a Jindin J+en e#actlI betJeen rotor poles. !f t+is
did not +appen, t+e motor Jould operate less eKcientlI. !f t+e computers reLuire less torLue from t+e motor,
t+eI tell t+e control electronics to pass less current t+ou+ t+e Jindins. 2+e rotor poles are never alloJed to
Pcatc+ upP to t+e rotatin manetic (eld J+en motor operation is reLuired.
"e #rius !otor$Generators
Gatc+ t+is spaceO So far, Je QnoJ t+at t+e stator of MG2 +as 46 Pteet+P, t+at is 46 metal protrusions toJards
t+e stator. Eac+ Jindin passes around several teet+, in t+e PslotsP betJeen t+em. 2+e Jindins for eac+ of t+e
t+ree p+ases are overlapped. 2+eI probablI produce 6 manetic poles J+ic+ rotate more smoot+lI t+an in mI
animation &J+ic+ onlI +as si#'. 2+e rotor probablI +as ei+t poles too, Jit+ ei+t permanent manets
embedded in it.
!otor $ Generator %ontrol Electronics
otor 4 'enerators from e*5cle6 !ncorporated
Alt+ou+ motor5enerators t+eI maQe are not Luite t+e same as t+e -rius ones, e1Icle, !ncorporated are more
fort+comin t+an 2oIota in t+eir tec+nical information. 2+e information t+eI publis+ about t+e motor 5
enerator used in t+eir +Ibrid motorcIcle is Jort+ a looQ. !t is a sInc+ronous, A1, permanent manet motor,
liQe t+e -rius, and e1Icle add Pbrus+lessP to t+e description. !t is also described as P12,poleP. 2+e implication is
t+at t+e stator and rotor bot+ +ave 12 poles. 2+e rotor is described as +avin P12 neodImium iron boron
&3dFeD' manets mounted on its circumferenceP. 2+e stator appears &from t+e p+otorrap+' to +ave 12
overlappin Jindins on 38 armature poles. 2+is is J+ere ! t+inQ it diNers from t+e -rius MGs. ! +ave s+oJn t+e
-rius MGs Jit+ nine stator armature poles and non,overlappin Jindins. Even so, in mI animation Iou can see
t+at t+e currents in t+e Jindins cause onlI si# manetic poles to rotate around t+e stator. 2+e number of
eNective manetic poles can be diNerent from t+e number of p+Isical poles around J+ic+ t+e Jire is Jound.
.ne,stae vs 2Jo,stae poJer conversion$ e#planation
E#ample of motor 5 enerator and control electronics sIstem eKciencI .
)or7ue curve
"or&ue curve of an electric motor
&e functionalit$ of t&e electric motors described at t&e 'revious c&a'ters is based on t&e interaction of magnetic fields. &e generated forces are acting on t&e rotor
as %ell as on t&e stator of t&e motor. (ecisive is t&e force com'onent 'ointing tangential to t&e rotor)
*orce com'onents inside of an electric motor)
+ttracting forces are acting bet%een t&e magnetic 'oles of t&e 'ermanent magnets of t&e stator
and t&e electromagnets of t&e rotor. &e resulting force is 'ointing into t&e direction of t&e orange
vector. &is force can be s'lit into t%o com'onents) ,ne of t&em 'oints tangential to t&e arc of t&e
rotor movement -blue arro%. t&e second 'oints 'er'endicular to t&e first one -magenta colored
arro%.. /ecause of t&e fact t&at t&e motor construction is s$mmetricall$0 t&e forces acting along
t&e a1is of t&e rotor coil -magenta colored arro%s. &ave t&e same value but 'oint in o''osite
directions. &e sum of t&ose forces gives zero. &e remaining forces 'ointing tangentiall$ to t&e
rotor tr$ to rotate t&e armature anticloc2%ise.
"i2e e1'lained at t&e c&a'ter tor3ue0 %e need to 2no% t&e lengt& of t&e lever and t&e absolute
value of t&e force acting 'er'endicular to t&e lever to calculate it4s value. &e lengt& of t&e lever
-l5. is given b$ t&e radius of t&e rotor and t&e tangential force acting on t&e rotor is given b$ -*5..
6o %e get) ! 7 2 8 *5 8 l5
+ccording to 9action and reaction9 a tor3ue %it& t&e same value but contrar$ direction -cloc2%ise.
is acting on t&e stator. &ere is)! 7 2 8 *6 8 l6 7 2 8 *5 8 l5
&e distance bet%een t&e center of rotation and t&e stator -l5. is greater t&an t&e radius of t&e
armature0 &ence t&e absolute value of t&e force acting on t&e stator is lo%er t&an t&ose acting on
t&e armature.
/ecause of t&e fact t&at t&e tor3ue acting on t&e stator e3uals t&ose acting on t&e rotor -e1ce't t&e direction of rotation.0 t&e function of rotor and stator can be
s%a''ed. +t a so called outrunner t&e stator coils form t&e center of t&e motor -7rotor at t&e dra%ing above. %&ile t&e 'ermanent magnets s'in %it&in an
over&anging rotor %&ic& surrounds t&e core -7stator at t&e dra%ing above.. !otors li2e t&at -sometimes called external-rotor configuration. are not commutated
mec&anicall$ but use electric controllers -7brus&less.. :onventional configured motors are called inrunners.
"or&ue and an'le of rotation
"et4s &ave a loo2 at t&e tor3ue in relation to t&e angle of rotation at a conventionall$ constructed inrunner. o sim'lif$
t&e mat&ematics %e consider t&e magnetic field of t&e 'ermanent magnets to be &omogeneous. *or t&is reason t&e
absolute value of force acting on t&e rotor is constant ; sim'l$ it4s direction is c&anging. *urt&ermore t&ere is no
commutation of t&e rotor coils and <ust one of t&e electromagnets is connected to t&e in'ut voltage. &ere%it& %e
get t%o s'ecial 'ositions of t&e rotor)
+t t&e u''er dra%ing t&e acting forces 'oint into t&e a1is of t&e enabled electromagnet0 conse3uentl$ t&e resulting
tor3ue is zero.
+t t&e lo%er dra%ing t&e rotor is arranged 'er'endicular to t&e lines of
t&e magnetic field generated b$ t&e 'ermanent magnets b$ %&at t&e
resulting forces 'oint tangential to t&e rotor and t&e 'oint of ma1imal
tor3ue is reac&ed.
&e rotation angle = of t&e rotor e3uals t&e angle bet%een t&e force *
and it4s tangential com'onent *.
>it& t&e correlation)
%e get)
*or t&e correlation bet%een t&e angle of rotation and t&e tor3ue %e get)
[4.4]
>&ere is)
! ; or3ue0 * ; force acting on t&e magnetic 'oles of t&e enabled electromagnet0 55 ; radius of t&e rotor0 = ; angle of rotation
/ecause of t&e fact t&at * and 55 are constant values %e get a cosine function)
or3ue in correlation to t&e angle of rotation)
&e blue 'lot demonstrates t&e tor3ue of t&e -not commutated. rotor. +t = 7 ?@ t&e ma1imum tor3ue is
given0 decreasing to zero at an angle of A?@. +t t&e angle of 18?@ t&e &ig&est negative value is reac&ed.
Bn realit$ it means t&at t&e rotor is 'ulled contraril$ to it4s original direction of rotation b$ no%. o ma2e
t&e motor %or20 t&e 'olarit$ of t&e electromagnet is s%a''ed b$ t&e commutator b$ %&at t&e original
rotating direction is acting. &e green 'lot s&o%s t&e tor3ue of t&e second electromagnet and is lagging
for A?@. &e commutator is enabling C
disabling t&e electromagnets eac& A?
degrees and it is s%a''ing t&e 'olarit$
eac& 18? degrees. o ma2e t&e
ma1imum tor3ue act on t&e rotor0 t&e
s%itc&ing 'oints s&ould be c&osen in a
%a$ t&at t&e ma1imum tor3ue is inside
of t&ose A? degrees. &erefrom t&e first
s%itc&ing 'oint is reac&ed at 45
degrees.
or3ue curve of a commutated rotor)
&e dra%ing besides s&o%s t&e tor3ue
curve of an electric motor %it& t%o
'ermanent magnets at t&e stator and
t%o electromagnets at t&e rotor. &e
commutator is s%itc&ing t&e electromagnets eac& A?@0 b$ %&at t&e tor3ue is altered in bet%een D!.
+s a conclusion %e can see t&at t&e tor3ue of an electric motor is increasing t&e more
electromagnets t&e rotor &as0 because t&e range of values for D! is getting closer to t&e ma1imum
value.
Bn 'ra1is t&e magnetic field of t&e stator isn4t &omogeneous as %e assumed to sim'lif$ t&e
mat&ematics. *rom t&ere t&e force acting on an electromagnet of t&e rotor increases t&e closer it gets to
a magnetic 'ole of t&e stator. Hence t&e tor3ue is increasing %it& t&e number of magnetic 'oles of t&e stator0 too.
S(itcin' time
/esides t&e angle of rotation t&e tor3ue of an electric motor is de'endent from t&e strengt& of t&e acting magnetic fields. Entil no% %e assumed t&at t&e ma1imal
'ossible magnetic field of an electromagnet is reac&ed as soon as it is enabled b$ t&e commutator. +s %e sa% at t&e c&a'ter s%itc&ing o'eration0 t&e correlation
given b$ F3.36G s&o%s t&e 'rogression of t&e current %&en an inductor is connected to t&e in'ut voltage)
:urrent t&roug& an electromagnetic coil after s%itc&ing on.
Bf t&e electromagnetic coil is enabled b$ t&e commutator for t&e time s'an t30 t&e -almost. ma1imal
current is running t&roug& it4s loo's and t&e -almost. ma1imal magnetic field strengt& is created.
&e -almost. ma1imal tor3ue is acting on t&e rotor. Bf t&e time s'an is s&ortened to t2 b$ increasing
rotation s'eeds0 a <ust slig&tl$ lo%er tor3ue is acting0 because t&e current t&roug& t&e coil is
decreasing slig&tl$. >&en
reducing t&e time s'an to t10
t&e coil gets disconnected
from t&e in'ut voltage even
t&oug& <ust 3C4 of t&e ma1imal
current is reac&ed.
+ccordingl$ t&e tor3ue
decreases significantl$)
or3ue in relation to t&e
revolution s'eed.
&e number of s%itc&ing
o'erations is increasing %it&
t&e revolution s'eed and t&e
number of electromagnets at t&e rotor. &e current running t&roug& t&e loo's of t&e rotor and
t&erefore t&e tor3ue is decreasing.
:orrelation F3.36G s&o%s t&at t&e current t&roug& an inductor is increasing faster0 t&e lo%er its
inductance becomes. "o% inductance means a lo%er magnetic field strengt& %it& t&e same value
for t&e ma1imal current. +s %e %ill see some later0 t&at 'rovo2es a %orse efficienc$.
Motoare de curent continuu

Motorul electric de curent continuu (cu perii) este un motor electric cu comutaie intern care este alimentat de la o surs de curent
continuu.

Motor de curent continuu bipolar - Reprezentare de principiu al motorului



Cnd nfurarea rotorului este alimentat, n jurul lui se genereaz un cmp magnetic (poziie relativ a polilor magnetici, de la stnga
spre dreapta !"!#"#). $olul nord al rotorului e respins de polul nord al statorului spre dreapta i e atras de polul sud al statorului (din
dreapta), producnd un cuplu mecanic motor care ntreine micarea de rotaie.













%otorul continu rotaia.















Cnd rotorul este (ajunge) n poziie orizontal (poziie relativ a polilor !"#!"#), colectorul electric de comutare al sensului curentului
continuu inverseaz sensul curentului prin nfurarea rotorului, inversnd polii cmpului magnetic produs de rotor, se ajunge astfel la
poziia relativ a polilor magnetici &!"!#"#& i procesul continu conform figurii (i e'plicaiei de su( figur) din stnga paginii.










$rocesul se reia.











Colectoarele cu lamelele deformate, sparte sau cu perii de contact necorespunztoare pot provoca vi(raii e'cesive la motoarele de curent
continuu cu comutaie intern. )recvena de defect va fi frecvena natural a lamelei, care este egal cu numrul de lamele nmulite cu
turaia de lucru, %$M.

*ac vrful de la de +,- .z din spectrul de vi(raie se ridic n mod semnificativ, cauzele cele mai pro(a(ile sunt un circuit desc/is la
nfurri, precum i eventuale cone'iuni electrice sl(ite.

*efectele motoarelor continue se pot recunoate ca fiind vi(raii de mare amplitudine aprute la , FL i armonici ale acesteia. 0ceste
defecte includ nfurri i cone'iuni ntrerupte. 0lte defecte cum ar fi siguranele arse pot determina vrfuri de mare amplitudine n
intervalul 12 " 32)4.
Stepper Motors (rotary) Information
Image Credit: Digi-Key Corporation | ElectroCraft | Numatics, Inc.

Stepper motors are "1 &direct current' electric motors desined for precise motion control. 2+eI consist of multiple sets of coils and manets J+ic+ are
desined to alloJ rotor movement in anular increments called steps. Steppin can be done in full step, +alf step or ot+er fractional steps in bot+
forJard and reverse. Stepper motors are rued, reliable, c+eap, and easI to control devices t+at produce +i+ torLue at sloJ speeds. 2+eI are used in
a varietI of applications and eLuipment, includin mac+ine tools, process control sIstems, and tape and disQ drive sIstems.

Stepper motor sIstems consist of tJo basic components$ an electric motor and a controller sIstem. "urin operation, a controller supplies pulses to a
driver, J+ic+ interprets t+ese sinals to send proportional voltae to t+e motor. 2+is voltae is applied to poles around t+e rotor J+ic+ enerizes t+e
coils or c+anes t+eir polaritI. 2+e resultin manetic interaction betJeen t+e poles and t+e rotor causes t+e rotor to move and produce t+e torLue
reLuired for t+e application. 2+is movement is done in eLual anular increments called PstepsP.

Stepper Motor vs. Servomotor
Servomotors and stepper motors are bot+ tIpes of motors used for precise motion control applications. 4nliQe servomotors +oJever, stepper motors do
not reLuire t+e use of encoders or ot+er position feedbacQ devices in order to function. Since a J+ole step is a uniform and repeatable distance &tIpicallI
1.6?', t+e controller assumes t+e position of t+e rotor based on t+e speci(ed number of steps. 2+is reduces control comple#itI and cost, but can be an
issue if t+e motor misses a step due to overloadin, since all subseLuent movements Jill be oN bI one step. Decause of t+is step mec+anism, stepper
motors are less suitable t+an servomotors for +i+ speed applications.

Types of Stepper Motors
2+e (rst step to selectin a stepper motor is understandin t+e diNerent tIpes. Stepper motors can be distinuis+ed based on construction and polaritI.

Construction
Stepper motors can be distinuis+ed bI construction and desin. Motor construction, alon Jit+ driver con(uration, dictates t+e motorMs step anle,
J+ic+ is t+e anle of rotation of t+e s+aft for eac+ step, measured in derees. 2+e t+ree main tIpes of stepper motor tec+noloI are permanent manet,
variable reluctance, and +Ibrids.

.ermanent agnet -ariable Reluctance 85brid
*ost <oJ Moderate Si+
Design ModeratelI comple# Simple 1omple#
Step angle 9degrees) 1.= , 39 7.= ,39 9.= , 1=
Step modes Full, +alf, micro 2IpicallI full step onlI Full, +alf, micro
(oise Tuiet 3oisI Tuiet
+vervie: of t3e stepper motor t5pes. Table Credit: icroC!ip Tec!nology Inc.
.ermanent magnet 9.) stepper motors use permanent manets on t+e rotor. 2+e rotor is manetized Jit+ alternatin nort+ and sout+
poles situated in a strai+t line parallel to t+e rotor s+aft. 2+ese poles provide increased manetic 0u# intensitI, attributin to t+e -M motorMs +i+er
torLue ratins compared to variable reluctance motors. 2+e number of teet+ on t+e rotor and stator determine t+e step anle t+at Jill occur eac+
time t+e polaritI of t+e Jindin is reversed. 2+e reater t+e number of teet+, t+e smaller t+e step anle. Step anles in -M motors rane betJeen
1.= to 39 derees, most commonlI from 7.=? to 1=?. -ermanent manet motors are t+e most common stepper motor, c+aracterized bI bot+ loJ cost
and loJ resolution.
*omponents of a . stepper motor. Image Credit: National Instruments Corporation
-ariable reluctance 9-R) stepper motors +ave a free,movin, multi,toot+ed rotor composed of soft,iron alon Jit+ a Jound stator. G+en
t+e stator Jindins are enerized, t+e poles in t+e stator become manetized. 2+is manetic force attracts t+e rotor teet+, resultin in rotation. 3o
residual torLue is produced in >/ motors due to t+e lacQ of a permanent manet. Step anles in t+ese motors rane from 7.= to 39 derees. >ariable
reluctance motors are t+e simplest stepper motors from a structural standpoint.
Simplifed -R motor operation. Image Credit: Tera"olt - #i$ipedia user
85brid motors consist of +eavilI toot+ed permanent manet rotors and toot+ed stators, plus prominent rotor poles liQe a >/ rotor. 2+e rotor
teet+ provide a better pat+ to uide and utilize manetic 0u#. 2+ese motors +ave verI (ne step anles$ 9.= to 1= derees, most commonlI betJeen
9.:? and 3.8?. SIbrid stepper motors are more e#pensive t+an ot+er tIpes of stepper motors, but provide t+e best performance in respect to step
resolution, available torLue, and speed. 2+eir +i+er speed capabilitI also means t+eI are less liQelI to stall.
Polarity
All stepper motors are con(ured as eit+er unipolar or bipolar.
$nipolar motors +ave unidirectional current and reLuire onlI one poJer source. Decause t+e electronics are simpler, t+eI are tIpicallI
c+eaper and easier to operate. 2+eI are tIpicallI used in loJ performance applications and are t+e ideal c+oice for +obbIists seeQin loJ cost
precision motion control. >/ motors are more commonlI unipolar.
2ipolar motors +ave bidirectional current, reLuirin tJo poJer sources and a sJitc+able polaritI poJer source. Decause t+e Jindins are
better utilized, bipolar motors are more poJerful and produce +i+er torLue t+an unipolar motors of t+e same Jei+t. SoJever, t+e electronics are
more comple# &reLuirin a bipolar sJitc+', contributin to +i+er cost. Most stepper motors used in industrI are bipolar motors.
2+is video bI Micro1+ip 2ec+noloI provides furt+er e#planation of unipolar and bipolar stepper motor con(urations.

%ideo Credit: icroC!ip Tec!nology Inc.

Step Mode
Stepper motors maI function in full step, +alf step, microstep, or ot+er Pstep modesP. 2+e tIpe of step mode output of anI stepper motor is dependent
on t+e desin of t+e driver. For more information on stepper motor drivers, visit t+eStepper Motor "rives information pae on GlobalSpec.
,ull step mode enerizes bot+ p+ases constantlI to ac+ieve t+e full rated torLue at eac+ motor position. !n t+is mode, one pulse eLuals one
step. 2+us, a stepper motor Jit+ 299 steps per revolution Jill rotate a complete 389? Jit+ 299 pulses. A unipolar driver in t+is mode enerizes a
sinle p+ase, J+ile a bipolar driver enerizes bot+ coils for a full step.
8alf step mode alternates betJeen enerizin one coil and tJo coils. Motors operatin in +alf step run at +i+er resolution &tJice as manI
positions'. SoJever, torLue also 0uctuates in t+is mode, droppin J+en onlI a sinle coil is enerized and risin J+en bot+ are enerized. 2orLue
0uctuation is comprised in more advanced drivers bI ad)ustin t+e applied current.
icrostep mode moves t+e rotor in fractions of a step bI applIin current to t+e Jindins in proportion to a mat+ematical function.
1ommon step fractions are 154, 156, and 1519. Some advanced drivers maI be able to provide up to 152=8 of a full step. Micro,steppin provides
reater resolution and smoot+er motor operation, J+ic+ can reduce t+e need for mec+anical earin. 2+is step mode can, +oJever, aNect
t+e motorMs repeatabilitI.

Specifications

Performance
2+e QeI performance speci(cations for sourcin a stepper motor are voltae, speed, torLue, rotor inertia and step anle.
)erminal voltage refers to t+e desin voltae of t+e "1 motor. EssentiallI t+e voltae determines t+e speed of a "1 motor, and speed is
controlled bI raisin or loJerin t+e voltae supplied to t+e motor.
Speed or s3aft speed is t+e rotational speed of t+e rotor s+aft, e#pressed in rpm &revolutions per minute', rps &revolutions per second',
or pps &pulses per second'. <iQe all "1 motors, stepper motor s+aft speed is directlI proportional to t+e supplied voltae. 2IpicallI, t+e speed
provided bI t+e manufacturer is t+e no,load speed of t+e output s+aft, or t+e speed at J+ic+ t+e motorMs output torLue is zero. 2+e complete s+aft
speed rane can be found on a motorMs speed5torLue curve.
)or7ue is a measure of rotational force produced bI t+e motor, e#pressed in pound,feet &lbUft', ounce,inc+es &ozUin', or 3eJton,meters &3Um'.
!t is proportional to t+e amount of current 0oJin t+rou+ t+e motor Jindins, and varies also based on t+e drive desin and step rate. 2+ere are
often a number of torLue speci(cations iven bI a manufacturer. 2+e most important are +oldin torLue, detent torLue, and pull,out torLue.
8olding tor7ue is t+e ma#imum torLue t+e motor can produce at its rated current J+ile at rest. !t is a measure of t+e stepper motorMs
Pstrent+P to remain in a (#ed position under load.
Detent tor7ue or residual torLue is t+e torLue reLuired to rotate t+e motorMs s+aft J+ile t+e Jindins are not enerized. !t is based on
t+e manetic force developed betJeen t+e rotor and stator durin s+utoN, and t+us is onlI present in stepper motors Jit+ permanent manets &-M
and +Ibrid tIpes'. "etent torLue is tIpicallI about one,tent+ t+e strent+ of t+e +oldin torLue, and can be realized bI turnin t+e motor manuallI.
.ull-out tor7ue is t+e ma#imum torLue t+at can be put on a motor runnin at continuous speed Jit+out causin sInc+ronization
problems &causin t+e motor to miss steps'.
Image Credit: &d"anced icro Controls, Inc.

3earlI all electric motors +ave speed5torLue curves associated Jit+ t+em, supplied bI t+e manufacturer. 2+ese curves indicate t+e torLue output of t+e
motor at diNerent rated speeds. !t is important to understand t+ese curves in order to source a motor Jit+ performance capabilities t+at matc+ t+e
reLuirements of t+e application. !t is also important to note t+at eac+ speed5torLue curve is uniLue to a iven motor and iven driver. !n ot+er Jords, t+e
same motor maI +ave a verI diNerent speed5torLue curve J+en used Jit+ a diNerent driver. .utput poJer over t+e motorMs operational rane maI also
be indicated in t+e speed5torLue performance curve &as in t+e e#ample above'.
Rotor inertia de(nes t+e tendencI of t+e rotor to continue its motion once movin. 2+is speci(cation is e#pressed in ounce,inc+es,seconds
sLuared &oz,in,s
2
', and is larelI dependent on motor Jei+t. Stepper motors are desined Jit+ c+aracteristicallI loJ rotor inertia to alloJ for
precise speed control.
Step angle is t+e anle of rotation of t+e s+aft for eac+ step, measured in derees. Step anle is based on t+e construction &tIpe' of t+e
motor, as Jell as t+e motor drive con(uration.
.t+er speci(cations t+at are important to consider include t+e current per p+ase, operatin temperature, and output poJer.
*urrent4p3ase, e#pressed in amps per p+ase, refers to t+e ma#imum rated current per p+ase or Jindin for a stepper motor.
+perating temperature is t+e ma#imum ambient temperature or ambient temperature rane for safe and reliable motor operation.
.peratin above t+is rane could decrease performance and eKciencI or cause over+eatin and failure.
+utput po:er, e#pressed in +orsepoJer &+p' or Jatts &G', is t+e product of t+e motor torLue and speed. !t is used as a relative aue of t+e
motorMs output capabilities.
.o:er consumption, tIpicallI e#pressed in Jatts &G', is t+e product of t+e voltae and current supplied to t+e motor. 2+is speci(cation
describes t+e poJer used bI t+e motor. 2+e poJer dissipation and t+ermal limits of t+e motor are not usuallI clearlI de(ned bI t+e manufacturer.
Sizing
-+Isical size is also important to consider J+en sourcin a stepper motor for a speci(c sIstem or application.
Diameter4:idt3 , "iameter &cIlindrical motors or Jidt+ &sLuare motors' is used to describe t+e size of t+e motor bodI, not includin 0anes.
%engt3 , 2+e lent+ of t+e motor bodI or +ousin, not includin t+e s+aft.
("& frame size , 3EMA frame sizes conform to a standard size and mountin con(uration identi(ed bI t+e 3ational Electrical
Manufacturers Association &3EMA'. Frame size numbers correspond to t+e diameter5Jidt+ of t+e motor bodI. For instance a size 11 stepper motor
+as a bodI diameter of appro#imatelI 1.1 inc+es.
Selection )ip; As a rule of t+umb, t+e torLue,inertia ratio in a motor is doubled Jit+ eac+ decrease in frame size, reardless of ot+er factors. For
instance, an unloaded 34,size motor can accelerate tJice as fast as a 42,size motor.
S3ape , Stepper motors can be +oused in a cIlindrical or sLuare s+aped bodI.
Gearing
Stepper motors can incorporate earin to ad)ust speed and torLue output and reduce desin comple#itI. Gearin is also used in stepper motors to
increase resolution. 2+ere are a number of diNerent ear assemblies t+at can be used$
Spur
.lanetar5
<orm
8armonic
For more information on t+ese diNerent tIpes of earbo#es, visit t+e Gearmotors Selection Guide on GlobalSpec.

Standards
Stepper motors maI need to possess certain tIpes of sealin or enclosure ratins, or maI reLuire compliance Jit+ certain standards.
Dust proof motors are rated for protection aainst dust in(ltration Jit+ features suc+ as total enclosure and labIrint+ seals for s+afts.
Drip-proof motors contain ventilation openins t+at are desined so t+at drops of liLuid or solid particles fallin from anI anle Jit+in 1=
derees of vertical cannot enter t+e motor.
R+8S compliant devices complI Jit+ t+e /estriction of Sazardous Substances &/.SS' "irective to restrict certain danerous substances
commonlI used in electronic and electronic eLuipment. 2+e /oSS directive tests for t+e presence of lead &-b', cadmium &1d', mercurI &S',
+e#avalent c+romium &Se#,1r', polIbrominated bip+enIls &-DD', and polIbrominated dip+enIl et+ers &-D"E'. All compliant stepper sIstems must
+ave none or acceptablI loJ levels of t+ese substances.
Sealing and :aterproofng standards indicate various levels of protection from Jater, based on !- &!nress -rotection /atin' 1ode.
References

Guide to Stepper Motor Selection &pdf' , AstosIn

!ntroduction to Stepper Motors and "rives , .mea Enineerin

Stepper Motor Dasics , Solarbotics.net

2Ipes of Stepper Motors , 3ational !nstruments
/ead user !nsi+ts about Stepper Motors &rotarI'
Related Products Services
A1 Motors
A1 motors include sinle, multip+ase, universal, induction, sInc+ronous, and ear motors. 2+eI also include servomotors.
A1 Servomotors
A1 servomotors are responsive, +i+,acceleration motors tIpicallI constructed as permanent manet sInc+ronous motors.
"1 Motors
"1 motors are most commonlI used in variable speed and torLue applications. 2+eI include brus+less and ear motors, as Jell as servomotors.
"1 Servomotors
"1 servomotors are enerallI small and poJerful for t+eir size, and easI to control. 1ommon tIpes of "1 servomotors include brus+less or ear
motors.
Gearmotors
Gearmotors consist of an A1 or "1 motor Jit+ an interal earbo# or ear +ead tIpicallI used to ad)ust t+e motorMs output speed and torLue.
Supplier "atas+eets
Pornirea motoarelor trifazate la tensiunea monofazat de 220V/50Hz
Hn 'rinci'iu0 douI faze sJnt Jnseriate Ki alimentate direct la 22?L c.a.0 iar cea deVa treia fazI se alimenteazI 'rintrVun condensator de defazare teoreticI de A?@. :f 7
condensator de func ionare :' 7 condensator de 'ornire 67buton de start :ondensatorul :' nu este necesar la sarcini scIzute.
/utonul de start se men ine a'Isat doar 'entru scurt tim'0 'JnI cJnd motorul intrI Jn tura ie. (acI nu montIm :'0 nu avem nevoie nici de 6.:ondensatoarele trebuie
sI aibI tensiunea de strI'ungere de 4??Lc.a.
(acI 'uterea motorului este cunoscutI0 curentul Bn se 'oate afla cu formulaBn 7 MC1073NEnNONcos Jn care) M 7 'uterea motorului En 7 tensiunea re elei Jn vol i O 7
randamentul motorului cos 7 factorul de 'utere. oate aceste date se gIsesc de obicei Jnscrise 'e 'lIcu a cu datele motorulu.
Simbolizarea , marcarea ,clasificarea si modul de conectare al condensatoarelor
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utoriale Plectronica

*ondensatorul este o componenta de circuit care alaturi de rezistor este utilizata frecvent in circuitele electronice.
"aca unui condensator ii este aplicata o tensiune continua 4 acesta se va incarca cu o sarcina T ,raportul dintre cele doua
marimi sarcina T si tensiunea 4 este o marime constanta caracteristica pentru condensatorului *acest raport se numeste
capacitatea condensatorului.
C=Q/U

Unitatea de masura pentru capacitate este faradul F utilizandu-se in mod frecvent submultiplii sai:
uf=!"-# $nF=!"-%$ pf=!"-&F
Un condensator este alcatuit din doua armaturi metalice intre care se afla un dielectric.
Parametrii condensatoarelor

'rincipalii parametrii ai condensatoare sunt :
, capacitatea nominala 1n@FA reprezinta valoare capacitatii condensatorului care trebuie realizata prin procesul de
fabricatiesi care este inscrisa pe corpul acestuia .
, toleranta t este e#primata in procente si reprezinta abaterea ma#ima a valorii reale a capacitatii fata de valoarea
nominala .
, tensiunea nominala 4n@>Aeste tensiunea continua ma#ima sau tensiunea alternativa e(cace ma#ima care poate (
aplicata continuu la terminalele condensatorului in ama temperaturilor de lucru
, rezistenta de izolatie /iz este raportul dintre tensiunea continua aplicata unui condensator si curentul care,l strabate la
un minut dupa aplicare tensiunii
, riiditatea dielectrica reprezinta tensiunea ma#ima continua pe care trebuie sa o suporte condensatorul un timp minim
&de obicei un minut ' fara sa apara strapuneri
, intervalul temperaturilor de lucru &2min,2ma#'reprezinta limitele de temperatura intre care condensatorul functioneaza
un timp indelunat.
Clasificarea condensatoarelor
Condensatoarele se pot clasifica dupa mai multe criterii :natura dielectricului(domeniul de frecventa(tipul constructiv(domeniul de utilizare.
)in punct de vedere constructiv e*ista:
- condensatoare fi*e care isi mentin constanta valoarea capacitatii pe intrea+a perioada de functionare
- re+labile sunt mai numite semire+labile (a,ustabile sau trimere sae caracterizeaza prin faptul ca capacitatea lor poate fi modificata in limite reduse
- variabile sunt condensatore ca caror capacitate poate si trebuie sa fie modificata frecvent intre anumite limite relativ lar+i -de e*. condensatoarele de acord
pentru radio.
/n functie de natura dielectricului condensatoarele pot fi :
- dielectric +azos -aer(vid.
- dielectric lic0id -ulei mineral sau de transformator(rar fabricate si utilizate.
- dielectric solid or+anic sau anor+anic au ca material dielectric sticla (mica( materiale ceramice iar cu dielectric solid or+anic 0artie (pelicule sinrtetice
nepolare -polistiren (teflon( polipropilena(politetraflouretilena. si pelicule sintetice polare -poliepolieftlentereftalat( policarbonat(rasinapoliamidica.
- dielectric pelicula de o*izi metalici au dielectricul dintr-o pelicula de o*id -1l&23( 4a&25( 4i2& . cei mai utilizati fiind o*izii de aluminiu si tantal
Simbolizarea si marcarea condensatoarelor
a) condensator in general
b) condensator in general simbol tolerat
c) condensator de trecere
d) condensator de trecere simbol tolerat
e) condensator de trecere simbol nestandardizat
f) condensator electrolitic
g) condensator electrolitic simbol tolerat
&) condensator electrolitic simbol nestandardizat
i) condensator variabil
<) condensator variabil simbol tolerat
2) condensator semireglabil
l) condensator semireglabil simbol tolerat
1ondensatoarele sunt marcate in clar sau prin culori&inele ,benzi ,puncte'prin simboluri alfanumerice sau cod literal.
!ndiferent care este sistemul de marcare carcacteristicile ce se inscriu pe corpul con sunt$
!n mod obliatoriu pe orice tip de condensator$
1apacitatea nominala
toleranta valrii nominale
!n mod obliatoriu pe unele tipuri de cond $
polaritatea bornelor
terminalul conectal la armatura e#t
tensiunea nominala
coe(cient de temperatura al capacitatii
1odul numeric pentru marcarea capacitatii nominale este format din trei cifre. -rimele doua reprezinta cifrele semni(cative a
capacitatii, iar a treia este factorul de multiplicare, conform tabelului de mai )os, in care sunt prezentate si citeva e#emple.
*actor de
multi'licare
1 1? 1?Q2 1?Q3 1?Q4
:od A5 1 2 3 4
!arcare 1?A 221 1?2 223 474
:n 1?'* 22?'* 1 n* 22 n* 47?
:uloare :ifra semn *actor de multi'licare olerante
:oef de
tem'
ensiune nominala
:uloare :ond cer : cu &art : R 1?'* : S 1?'* : cu tant : cu stirof
Tegru ? 1 1 U2 U2? ? 1? 63?
!aro 1 1? 1? U?.1 U1 ;33 1.6
5osu 2 1?Q2 1?Q2 U?.25 U2 ;75 4 16?
,range 3 1?Q3 1?Q3 ; U2.5 ;15? 4? ;
Galben 4 1?Q4 1?Q4 ; U1?? ;22? 6.3 63
Lerde 5 1?Q5 ; U?.5 U5 ;33? 16 25?
+lbastru 6 ; ; ; ; ;47? ; 25
+uriu
"xemple de condensatori

:onectarea condensatoarelor intr;un circuit se 'oate face in seria 0 'aralel si mi1t .
Mentru fiecare ti' de cone1iune a condensatorilor va rezulta un condensator ce va avea o ca'acitate ec&ivalenta .
"a conectarea in serie a mai multi condensatori condensatorul ec&ivalent va avea o ca'acitate ec&ivalenta data de formula )
151e H 1511 W1512 WX..151n

Bn cazul in care condensatorii sunt conectati in 'arallel 0 ca'acitatea condensatorului ec&ivalent va fi calculata utilizand formula)
:e7:1V:2V:3VWWV:n
:alculul ca'acitatii condensatorilor conectati in cone1iune mi1ta se face 'rin gru'area condensatoarelor in functie de cum sunt conectati - serie 0
'arallel . si calcularea ca'acitatii acestora 'ana la reducerea la un singur condensator cu o ca'acitate ec&ivalenta .
11 , 11 , 13 , 1n reprezinta condensatoarele valoarea capacitati condensatoarelor iar 1e reprezinta valoarea capacitatii
ec+ivalente .
Comments
1F=1*10^6 uF
6at0 ?3C?AC2?13 ; 23)42 X Pltec&
1FH1Y19Z8 uF
Y
re'l$
1F= ?uF
6at0 ?3C?AC2?13 ; 2?)5? X :atalin -not verified.
1FH [uF
Y
re'l$
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Figura 1

Figura 2
, sc&emI sim'lI de 'ornire a unui motor trifazat la 22?L c.a. folosind doar un condensator de func ionare. 6ensul de rotaZie 'oate fi sc&imbat cu comutatorul
basculant 6. 6c&imbarea sensului TE se va face Jn tim'ul func ionIrii motorului ci doar du'I deconectarea de la reZea Ki du'I ce rotorul s;a o'rit. :f se alege din
tabelul 1 Jn funcZie de 'uterea motorului.

Figura 3
Tabelul 1

Maini electrice
Domeniu
5ncepnd din anul 1677 atelierul de ntreinere i reparare maini electrice e'istente n 8zinele de )ier i *omeniile %eia "
8*% " (denumirea din aceea perioad a uzinelor din %eia) a nceput s produc i maini electrice noi pentru teri. 9tapa
marc/eaz apariia celei dinti fa(rici de maini electrice din %omania.
0ici s"au produs diferite motoare trifazate de curent alternativ, motoare i dinamuri de curent continuu, generatoare trifazate
pentru centrale electrice, motoare de curent continuu pentru tramvaie, motoare trifazate pentru laminoare, grupuri
convertizoare, transformatoare, etc.
5n anii 16+-"16+7 la 8CM %eia se realizau primele maini electrice n construcie sudat, pionierat n te/nic, iar ncepnd cu
1637 respectiv 16,- producea i generatoare electrice pentru tur(ine cu a(ur, respectiv generatoare electrice pentru tur(ine
/idraulice.
8CM %eia a pstrat n profil mainile electrice de putere mare i speciale, n general cu caracter de unicat sau cel mult de
serie mic.
*escrcai listele de referin cu mainile electrice rotati!e produse la 8CM %eia n format pdf .
5n prezent 8CM %eia proiecteaz i produce
motoare asincrone cu rotorul n scurtcircuit i cu rotor (o(inat, verticale sau orizontale n domeniul puteri 3--:1-.--- ;<= turaii +--:+.--- rpm=
motoare sincrone i generatoare sincrone verticale sau orizontale n domeniul puteri 3--:17.3-- ;<= turaii 1--:1.3-- rpm=
motoare i generatoare de curent continuu n domeniul puteri 3--:,.--- ;<= turaii >-:1.--- rpm.
*ate semnificative
1677 " intr n funciune la 8zinele din %eia, fa(rica de motoare electrice, prima de acest fel din %omania=
167> " fa(ricarea primului generator electric de 1.?-- ;@0.
8CM %eia a livrat peste 1,3 mil. ;< motoare electrice.
Maini electrice a"incrone
*omenii de utilizare

*omeniul parametrilor

*escrcai li"ta de re#erin$% cu cele mai reprezentative motoare asincrone fa(ricate la 8CM %eia, n format .pdf
Maini electrice "incrone

*omeniul parametrilor
*escrcai li"ta de re#erin$% cu cele mai reprezentative motoare sincrone fa(ricate la 8CM %eia, n format .pdf
Maini electrice de curent continuu

*omeniul parametrilor
*escrcai li"ta de re#erin$% cu cele mai reprezentative motoare de curent continuu fa(ricate la 8CM %eia, n format .pdf
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