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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

CUPRINS ½ TABLE OF CONTENTS ¾

Z0011. A.T. BOGDAN, I.M. POP - Biodiversity of the zootechnical


ecosystems on national, regional and worldwide levels ½
Biodiversitatea ecosistemelor zootehnice la nivel naţional, zonal şi
mondial......................................................................................................... 3

Z0022. V. POP, Cecilia POP - Lasting development – a contemporary world


imperative ½ Dezvoltarea durabilă - imperativ al lumii
contemporane............................................................................................. 16

Z0033. E. ŢICĂU, T. ROBU, I. GÎLCĂ, C-TIN DUBIT - Developing


expectations a rural area of European found for agriculture
and rural development ½ Perspective de dezvoltare a spaţiului rural
prin fondul european pentru agricultură şi dezvoltare rurală
...................................................................................................................... 28

Z0044. T. ROBU, E. ŢICĂU, I. GÎLCĂ - Perspective of rural area


development by European fonds for agriculture and rural
development ½ Perspectiva dezvoltarii zonei rurale prin utilizarea
fondurilor Europene................................................................................... 42

Z0055. L.E. POPOVICI - Kosarom Companies Group investments for products


security assurance ½ Investiţiile Grupului de Firme Kosarom pentru
securitatea produselor ............................................................................... 49

Z0066. GH. HRINCĂ, M. GROZA, Elena FECIORU, I. CHIORESCU -


Immunoserological methods for detecting the blood group factors in
sheep ½ Metode imunoserologice pentru detectarea factorilor de
grupă sanguine la ovine ............................................................................. 52

Z0077. P.C. BOIŞTEANU, Iolanda MĂRGĂRINT, Cristina G. RADU-


RUSU, Roxana LAZĂR - Aspects of the endocrino-metabolic
adaptation, related to the bovine meat yield ½ Aspecte ale adaptării
endocrino-metabolice legate de realizarea producţiei de carne la
taurine ........................................................................................................ 60

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z0088. Monica BODEA, D. PAMFIL, R. SESTRAŞ, Bianca PĂTRAŞCU,


Ioana PETRICELE, Rodica POP, Iulia Francesca POP - Use
molecular markers for revealing apple F1 hybrids monogenic
resistance to scab (Venturia inaequalis) ½ Utilizarea markerilor
moleculari pentru evidenţierea rezistenţei monogenice la rapăn
(Venturia inaequalis) a unor hibrizi F1 de măr ......................................... 71
Z0099. C. LEONTE, Doina LEONTE - Aspects concerning the
correspondence between concrete marc – concrete class-new
concrete class. New cement based products for constructions
(PORIMENT®L) ½ Aspecte privind corespondenţa marcă beton-
clasă beton - clasă nouă beton. Produse noi pe bază de ciment
utilizate în construcţii (PORIMENT® L) .................................................... 78
Z010
10. IL. BURDUJAN - Mathematical models in epidemiology ½
Modelarea matematică în epidemiologie ................................................... 83
11. V. TEUŞAN, Anca TEUŞAN, R.M. RADU-RUSU - Morphological
Z011
aspects of some organs in the locomotors apparatus of the brown
breed young livestock ½ Aspecte morfologice la nivelul unor organe
ale aparatului locomotor, la tineretul taurin din rasa Brună .................... 91
12. V. TEUŞAN, R.M. RADU-RUSU, Anca TEUŞAN - Researches
Z012
concerning the thickness, the density and the shape of the muscular
fibres from the ilio-spinalis muscles of the brown livestock young
males ½ Cercetări privind grosimea, densitatea şi profilul fibrelor
musculare din muşchiul ilio-spinal, la tineretul taurin de sex mascul,
din rasa Brună............................................................................................ 99
Z013
13. R.M. RADU-RUSU, V. TEUŞAN, I. VACARU-OPRIŞ -
Comparative researches concerning some histometric features of the
miocytes in somatic musculature of the domestic chicken and
waterfowl (II). Wing and thigh muscles ½ Cercetări comparative
privind unii indicatori histometrici ai miocitelor din musculatura
somatică a galinaceelor şi palmipedelor domestice (II). Muşchii
aripii şi ai coapsei.................................................................................... 107
14. R.M. RADU-RUSU, V. TEUŞAN, Anca TEUŞAN - Comparative
Z014
researches concerning some histometric features of the miocytes in
somatic musculature of the domestic chicken and waterfowl (I).
Pectoral muscles ½ Cercetări comparative privind unii indicatori
histometrici ai miocitelor din musculatura somatică a galinaceelor şi
palmipedelor domestice (I). Muşchii pectorali ........................................ 115

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Z015
15. Ioana PETRICELE, D. PAMFIL, Daniela DONESCU, GH.
OLTEANU, Maria IANOŞI, K. KOVÁCS - The vegetation
interruption for the seed potato in accordance with the maximal flight
of the aphids and the seed fraction accumulation ½ Întreruperea
vegetaţiei la cartoful pentru sămânţă în funcţie de zborul maxim al
afidelor şi acumularea fracţiei de sămânţă.............................................. 121
Z016
16. V. CRĂCIUN, O. BĂLAN - Strategies for use biomass, a necessity for
the Romanian economy ½ Strategii pentru utilizarea biomasei,
necesitate pentru dezvoltarea economică a României ............................ 127
Z017
17. Elena COSTĂCHESCU, Alexandrina DIAC - Research concerning
the use of chemotherapy (furazolidona) in the mink’s youth
alimentation ½ Observaţii privind utilizarea chimioterapicelor
(furazolidona) în alimentaţia tineretului de nurcă................................... 134
Z018
18. P. RAICA, D. PAMFIL, C. BOTEZ, Marina Ioana GABOREANU
- The assesment of grazing influence on genetic variability in two
gentiana species ½ Evaluarea influenţei pascutului asupra
variabilităţii genetice a două specii de gentiana .................................... 138
Z019
19. Valentina CEBOTARI, IU MOŞOI, V. DERJANSCHI, Maria
MĂGDICI - Evaluation of two organic varroa treatments at the
honey bee ½ Aprecierea a două tratamente organice de combatere a
varroozei albinei melifere ........................................................................ 143
Z020
20. Rodica CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CĂPRIŢĂ - The accuracy of refractometric
measurements of plasma total protein in different animal species ½
Precizia metodei refractometrice de determinare a proteinemiei
plasmatice la diferite specii de animale................................................... 148
21. Rodica CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CĂPRIŢĂ, H. SĂRĂNDAN - Comparison
Z021
between whole-blood and serum glucose concentrations in
monogastric animals ½ Studiu comparativ asupra glicemiei sanguine
şi serice la animale monogastrice ............................................................ 152
Z022
22. L. BLENDEA - Mutations and tendecies in the agriculture from the
mountain area of Brasov county ½ Mutaţii şi tendinţe în agricultura
zonei montane a judeţului Braşov ............................................................ 156

23. L. BLENDEA, ŞT. BREZULEANU - Animal production in the


Z023
context of Brasov county agriculture ½ Producţia animală în
contextul agriculturii din judeţul Braşov ................................................. 161

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Z024
24. Mihaela IVANCIA - The phenotypical correlations between somatic
cell count and principals characters of cow milk production for
Cîmpulung Moldovenesc area ½ Corelaţii fenotipice stabilite între
conţinutul în celule somatice şi principalele caractere ale producţiei
de lapte de vacă pentru zona Cîmpulung Moldovenesc ........................... 167
Z025
25. V.A. BALTEANU, A. VLAIC, Anda Raluca RUSU, S. CREANGĂ,
R.F. POP, V. CIGHI - Milk proteins polymorphism in Romanian
cattle breeds, identified by isoelectric focusing technique (IEF) ½
Polimorfismul proteinelor din lapte la rasele de taurine din
Romania, determinat prin tehnica de focalizare izoelectrica (IEF)......... 173
26. P. COROI, Katona TIMEA - The influence of the external and
Z026
internal factors on the results of the superovulatory treatment in
cattle ½ Influenţa factorilor externi şi interni asupra rezultatelor
tratamentului poliovulator la vaci............................................................ 182

Z027
27. P. COROI, L. SASCA - The ovarian response to the superovulatory
treatment in cattle from Bălţată Românească breed ½ Răspunsul
ovarului la tratamentul poliovulator la vacile din rasa Bălţată
Românească ............................................................................................. 188
28. ISTVÁN, FORGÓ, LÁSZLÓ, TÉCSY, ISTVÁN,, ISTVÁN,
Z028
GYÖRKÖS, GUSZTÁV, VATTAMÁNY - Improvement of
production level in an old Hungarian swine variety crossing by
recent boars .............................................................................................. 192
29. Viorica COŞIER, A. VLAIC, S. DĂRĂBAN, T. OROIAN, V.
Z029
CIGHI - Marker assisted selection (MAS) for traits concerning milk
quantity and quality in Romanian Simmental cattle ½ Selecţia
asistată de markeri moleculari (MAS) pentru cantitatea şi calitatea
producţiei de lapte la rasa Bălţată Românească ..................................... 199
Z030
30. Margareta Mihăilescu, I. NISTOR, V. UJICĂ, V. MACIUC, Rodica
DĂNĂILĂ - Parameters of the program for genetical amelioration
and managemnt of cows from Brown swiss breed, in Moldova region
2005-2010 ½ Parametrii programului de ameliorare genetică şi
managementul taurinelor de rasă Brună din zona Moldovei pentru
perioada 2005 – 2010 .............................................................................. 203

Z031
31. M. GROZA, GH. HRINCĂ, Elena FECIORU, I. CHIORESCU,
GH. BRĂDĂŢAN - Genetic management in small populations ½
Managementul genetic în populaţiile mici ............................................... 211

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Z032
32. N. BUCĂTARU, F. PRICOP, GH. BÎRLĂDEAN - Study of some
genetic parameters of various hens populations ½ Studierea unor
parametri genetici la diverse populaţii de găini ...................................... 217

33. Daniela LADOSI, I. LADOSI, S.N. POP, Z. MARCHIS - Histology


Z033
investigation on the photo stimulation influence on the oviduct
tissues in hens ½ Investigatii histologice privind modul de actiune a
fotostimularii asupra structurii histologice la nivelul oviductului de
gaina......................................................................................................... 221

34. G. NACU, D. TĂNASE, Mihaela IVANCIA - Researches regarding


Z034
cock semen quality ½ Cercetări privind calitatea materialului
seminal la cocoş ....................................................................................... 227

Z035
35. Elena RUGINOSU, G. TOBĂ, Mariana SOFRONIE, Adrieana
POP, A. POP, ŞT. CREANGĂ, M. PÎNTEA, I. MOROŞANU -
The results regarding the poliovulation response at different
hormonal products to steppe grey cows ½ Rezultate privind
răspunsul poliovulator cu diferite produse hormonale la vacile sură
de stepă..................................................................................................... 231

Z036
36. L. STĂNCESCU - The influence of age of genitors on gender
distribution at Merinos of Palas lambs ½ Influenţa vârstei
reproducătorilor asupra repartiţiei pe sexe la mieii din rasa Merinos
de Palas.................................................................................................... 235

Z037
37. Anca DASCĂL, V. CIORNEI - Aspects of sheep artificial
insemination and some hers influence factors ½ Aspecte ale
însămânţării artificiale la ovine şi ale anumitor factori de influenţă
ai acesteia................................................................................................. 242

Z038
38. M. PARASCHIVESCU, Ioana NICOLAE - Analysis schedule for
fertilizing ability of semen evaluation ½ Schemă de analiză pentru
aprecierea potenţialului de fecundare a materialului seminal ................ 249

Z039
39. M. PARASCHIVESCU - Biodiversity in farm animals: sources, using,
conservation ½ Biodiversitatea zootehnică: surse, utilizare,
conservare ................................................................................................ 257

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z040
40. D. DRONCA - Estimation of genetic variation and environmental
variation rates from phenotype variation in an Oryctolagus
cunicullus hybreed population regarding prolificacy ½ Estimarea
proporţiei varianţei genetice şi a varianţei de mediu general din
varianţa fenotipică la un efectiv de hibrizi de Oryctolagus cunicullus,
pentru prolificitate ................................................................................... 268

Z041
41. Simona GHIŢĂ, Stela ZAMFIRESCU, Elena SOGORESCU, Irina
TOPOLEANU, Andreea ANGHEL - Haematological and
biochemical parameters obtained subsequent to the passive
immunization of sheep with antiadipose serum ½ Parametrii
hematologici şi biochimici obţinuţi în urma imunizării pasive a
ovinelor cu ser antiadipos ........................................................................ 271

Z042
42. Dorina NADOLU, Andreea Hortanse ANGHEL - The influence of
the photo-periodic variations upon the rams’ sexual activity ½
Influenţa variaţiilor fotoperiodice asupra activităţii sexuale a
berbecilor ................................................................................................. 277

Z043
43. Elena SOGORESCU, Stela ZAMFIRESCU, Simona GHITA, Irina
TOPOLEANU, Dorina NADOLU, Andreea ANGHEL - The
biochemical and cytological characteristics of the production “in
vitro” of sheep embryos ½ Caracteristici biochimice şi citologice ale
producţei de embrioni de oaie „in vitro”................................................. 281

Z044
44. Irina TOPOLEANU, Stela ZAMFIRESCU, Elena ŞOGORESCU -
Recovery rate of oocytes using follicular puncture by different
techniques on goats ½ Rata recuperării oocitelor utilizând puncţia
foliculară prin diferite tehnici la capre.................................................... 286

Z045
45. D. DRONCA, N.PĂCALĂ, I. BENCSIK, T. VINTILĂ, I. PEŢ,
Marioara NICULA, Liliana COSMA - Analyisis of abbatoir
characteristics in a population of Transylvanian Naked Neck poultry
½ Analiza caracterelor de abatorizare la un efectiv de găini din rasa
Gât Golaş de Transilvania ....................................................................... 292

Z046
46. Angela STOICA, Paula POŞAN, P. TĂPĂLOAGĂ - Observations
regarding the microbial flora in boar sperm ½ Observaţii privind
încărcătura microbiană a spermei de vier ............................................... 295

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Z047
47. Elena FECIORU - Genetic progress spreading and inbreeding
decrease by artificial insemination utilization in the Botoşani Karakul
sheep ½ Difuzarea progresului genetic şi diminuarea
consanguinizării prin utilizarea însămânţărilor artificiale la ovinele
Karakul de Botoşani................................................................................. 300

Z048
48. I. BENCSIK, N. PACALĂ, Jana STANCULEŢ, Alena BENCSIK,
Ada TELEA - The assess of the genetic structure for β-lactoglobulin
gene (LGB) at h-f cows and the gene polymorphism impact on milk
quality and production ½ Stabilirea structurii genetice la o populaţie
de vaci h-f pentru gena b-lactoglobulina (LGB) si impactul
polimorfismului genei asupra producţiei şi a calităţii laptelui ................ 306

Z049
49. Ioana NICOLAE - C-banding studies in Capra hircus L. chromosomes
½ Studiul heterocromatinei constitutive la cromozomii de capră
(Capra hircus L.)...................................................................................... 310

50.
Z050 Elena Popescu-MICLOŞANU, L. IONIŢĂ, I. CUSTURĂ,
Minodora TUDORACHE, Cristina NEGRE - Study about the
possibility of phase feeding of the young quails from a egss-meat
mixt population ½ Studiu privind posibilitatea furajării faziale a
tineretului de prepeliţă dintr-o populaţie mixtă de ouă-carne................. 315

Z051
51. C.I. WEBER, GH. MUREŞAN, B. GEROGESCU - The cow milk as
bioaccumulation medium for organochlorine pesticides and the
impact on the human health ½ Laptele de vacă ca mediu de
bioacumulare pentru pesticidele organoclorurate şi impactul asupra
sănătăţii umane ........................................................................................ 321

Z052
52. Elena COSTĂCHESCU, G. HOHA, Alexandrina DIAC -
Consideration concerning the animals sleep ½ Consideraţii privind
somnul la animale .................................................................................... 329
Z053
53. I.M. POP, D. SIMEANU - Researches on the productive effect of a
lipid absorption improver, used in broilers feeding½ Cercetări
privind efectul productiv al unui ameliorator al absorbţie lipidelor la
puii broiler de găină................................................................................. 332
Z054
54. M. DOLIŞ - The efficiency of utilization of sustenance from mulberry
tree leaf by silken larva, depending on type ½ Eficienţa utilizării
substanţelor nutritive din frunza de dud de către larvele de mătase,
în funcţie de soi ........................................................................................ 338

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Z055
55. M. DOLIŞ, ST. LAZĂR, D. SIMEANU, Roxana STĂNESCU - The
efficiency of utilization of sustenance from mulberry tree leaf by
silken larva, depending on their hybrid ½ Eficienţa utilizării
substanţelor nutritive din frunza de dud de către larvele de mătase,
în funcţie de hibridul acestora ................................................................. 343

Z056
56. Maria CORDUNEANU, Maria UNGUREANU - Influence of
protean and power level of ration about production and reproduction
at sheep mother ½ Influenţa nivelului proteic şi energetic al raţiei
asupra producţiilor şi reproducţiei la oile mame .................................... 347

Z057
57. Cristina TABUC - Incidence of Fusarium species and of their toxins in
the compound feeds for poultry ½ Incidenta speciilor de Fusarium si
a fusariotoxinelor in nutreturile combinate pentru pãsãri....................... 353

58. IL. VOICU, Dorica VOICU - Efficiency of using dietary alfalfa


Z058
preserved by different methods in fattening steer feeding ½ Eficienţa
utilizării unor raţii pe bază de lucernă conservată prin diferite
metode la tăuraşii la îngrăşat .................................................................. 359

59. Cristina RADU-RUSU, I.M. POP - Effects of probiotic and prebiotic


Z059
supplementation on egg quality and laying hens performance ½
Efectele utilizării aditivilor furajeri de tip probiotic şi prebiotic
asupra calităţii ouălor şi a performanţelor găinilor ouătoare ................ 364

Z060
60. Irina ISAC, I.M. POP, A. GRUBER - Fodders’s pollution as a risk
factor for the animals and human’ health ½ Poluarea nutreţurilor ca
factor de risc asupra sănătăţii animalelor şi omului ............................... 371

Z061
61. Cristina IONESCU - Researches regarding the use of some ecological
combined fodders in the alimentation of broiler chickens ½ Cercetări
privind utilizarea unor nutreţuri combinate ecologizate în
alimentaţia puilor broiler de găină.......................................................... 377

Z062
62. Jana STĂNCULEŢ, D. DRINCEANU, H. SĂRĂNDAN, Rodica
CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CAPRIŢĂ, I. LUCA, I. BENCSIK - Ammonia
nitrogen and protein nitrogen dynamics from ruminal fluid under
influence of some complementary nutritional factors ½ Dinamica
azotului amoniacal şi a azotului proteic din lichidul ruminal sub
influenţa unor factori nutriţionali complementari ................................... 383

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Z063
63. D. DRĂGOTOIU, Monica MARIN, Elena POGURSCHI - The
influence of fats nature added in compound feeds upon ducklings
productive and slaughtering performances ½ Influenţa naturii
grăsimilor adăugate în nutreţuri combinate asupra performanţelor
productive şi a celor la sacrificare la bobocii de raţă ............................. 389
Z064
64. Daniela JITARIU, VIOLETA SIMIONESCU - Researches regarding
food valorification during lactation for sheep which are specialized
in milk production ½ Cercetări cu privire la valorificarea hranei în
perioada de lactaţie la ovinele specializate pentru producţia de lapte.... 395
Z065
65. Aida ALBU, Felicia ŢÂRCĂ, I.M. POP - Evaluation of heavy metals
(lead and cadmium) content in feeds from Moldavian area, using
atomic absorbtion spectrofotometry method ½ Evaluarea
conţinutului de metale grele (plumb, cadmiu) in nutreţurile din zona
Moldovei, prin metoda spectrofotometrică de absorbţie atomică ........... 402
Z066
66. Raluca RADU, Teona AVARVAREI, Aida ALBU, E.
TEODORESCU-SOARE - The nutritive value of alfalfa hay from
small dairy farms ½ Valoarea nutritivă a fânului de lucernă din
micile gospodării agricole ....................................................................... 408
67. Doina ARDELEANU, Marilena-Gabi NEACŞU, C. NEACŞU,
Z067
Carmen- Ana PIVODĂ - The implications of poly-parasitsm about
dairy sheep kept on pastures ½ Implicaţiile poliparazitismului
asupra oilor de lapte întreţinute pe păşuni .............................................. 413
Z068
68. C. NEACŞU, Gabi NEACŞU, Adriana VICOVAN, Doina
ARDELEANU, Alina NICOLESCU - Testing the various level of
foddering at female young sheep for early coupling ½ Testarea
diferitelor nivele de furajare la tineretul ovin femel in vederea
montei timpurii ......................................................................................... 419
Z069
69. C. NEACŞU, Gabi NEACŞU, Adriana VICOVAN, Doina
ARDELEANU, Alina NICOLESCU - The technology of goats’
foddering during milking the kids ½ Tehnologia de furajare a
caprelor în perioada de alăptare a iezilor .............................................. 423
70. S. BOCA - The production performances from SC. CRISANI&CO
Z070
SRL. farm from CLUJ county ½ Performanţele de producţie din
ferma SC.CRISANI&CO SRL. din judeţul CLUJ ..................................... 428
Z071
71. Gabriela CRIŞAN, GH. MUREŞAN, Daniela CRIŞAN - The impact
of the somatic cell count on the milk quality ½ Impactul numărului
de celule somatice asupra calităţii laptelui.............................................. 432

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Z072
72. Gabriela CRIŞAN, G. ONACIU, Daniela CRIŞAN - Research
regarding the morphoproductive parameters for the Romanian Friza
– Black Spotted cows from Transylvania ½ Cercetări privind
însuşirile morfoproductive la taurinele Friză – Bălţată cu Negru
românească din Transilvania................................................................... 440

Z073
73. G. ONACIU - The projecting and the organization of a farm of cow
milk to a capacity of 50 heads ½ Proiectarea şi organizarea unei
ferme de vaci cu o capacitate de 50 capete vaci lapte ............................ 445

Z074
74. G. ONACIU, E. C. JURCO - The projecting and the organization of a
farm specialized in fattening young cattle with an annual capacity of
360 tons of meat ½ Proiectarea şi organizarea unei ferme de
îngrăşare a tineretului taurin cu o capacitate anuală de 360 tone
carne ........................................................................................................ 450

Z075
75. M. BOTHA, I. BUD, HETTIG ANDREA, ŞT. RÉKA - Prevention
measurements and treatment of some chinchilla diseases ½ Măsuri
de prevenţie şi tratamentul unor stări patologice la chinchilla ............... 456

Z076
76. M. BOTHA, I. BUD, HETTIG ANDREA, Aurelia PECE -
Directions and tendencies for obtaining rabbit hybrids for meat in
Europe ½ Tendinţe şi orientări în producerea hibrizilor de iepuri de
carne în Europa........................................................................................ 460

Z077
77. ŞT. REKA, I. BUD, M. BOTHA - Contributions of size and
qualitative increase to the hunting witch is consumed by human ½
Contribuţii la creşterea numerică şi calitativă a vânatului ce intră în
alimentaţia omului ................................................................................... 466

Z078
78. Maria UNGUREANU, Maria CORDUNEANU - Research regarding
the body weight dynamics on a set of buffaloes from SCPCB Sercaia
½ Cercetari privind dinamica greutatii corporale pe un lot de
bubaline din cadrul SCPCB Sercaia ........................................................ 472

Z079
79. G. HOHA, B. PĂSĂRIN, Elena COSTĂCHESCU, Alexandrina
DIAC, Roxana STĂNESCU - Research concerning the
reproductive performances recorded at the Pic 1075 boars exploited
at SC SUINPROD ROMAN S.A ½ Cercetari privind performantele
reproductive inregistrate la vierii PIC 1075 exploatati in cadrul SC
SUINPROD ROMAN S.A. ........................................................................ 475

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80. M.G. USTUROI, I. VACARU-OPRIŞ, R.M. RADU-RUSU - Poultry


Z080
meat quality as influenced by fowl´s transportation conditions ½
Influenţa condiţiilor de transport a păsărilor asupra calităţii cărnii
obţinute..................................................................................................... 480
Z081
81. V. MACIUC, V. UJICĂ, Rodica DĂNĂILĂ - Observations on the
morpho-productive features of the Romanian Black Spotted
members of the bovidae family from the Jora farm, county Iasi ½
Observaţii privind însuşirile morfoprodructive la taurinele Bălţată
cu Negru românească din ferma Jora, judeţul Iasi.................................. 485
82. Roxana STĂNESCU, I.GILCA, G.HOHA-Present and perspectives
Z082
in Brown cattle breeding in Romania½Stadiul actual şi perspective
în cresterea taurinelor de rasă Brună în România.................................... 492
83. Roxana STĂNESCU, I. GÎLCĂ, G. HOHA, M. DOLIŞ - Researches
Z083
concerning the productive performances in some private
exploitations of Brown breed grown in Suceava county ½ Cercetări
privind performanţele productive ale taurinelor de rasă Brună
crescute în unele exploataţii private din judeţul Suceava ....................... 499
Z084
84. Aurelia PECE, Z. MARCHIŞ, M. BOTHA, Codruţa CETERAŞ -
Researches concerning the great qualitative components of buffalo,
cow and sheep milk ½ Cercetări privind indicii calitativi ai marilor
componenţi ai laptelui de bivoliţă, vacă şi oaie....................................... 504
Z085
85. Aurelia PECE, Z. MARCHIŞ, A. CÎMPEAN - Researches concerning
the main qualitative features of milk in a buffalo population from Sălaj
county ½ Cercetări privind principalele însuşiri calitative ale laptelui
la o populaţie de bivoliţe din judeţul Sălaj ................................................ 508
86. Rodica DĂNĂILĂ, V. UJICĂ, V. MACIUC - A study on the
Z086
growing of Romanian Black Spotted cows in some private
exploitations from county Botoşani ½ Studiul creşterii vacilor
Bălţată Românească, în unele exploataţii private din judeţul
Botoşani.................................................................................................... 512
Z087
87. S. CHILIMAR, T. BAJURA, N. DUMBRĂVEANU - Norms for
dairy farm from privat sector ½ Normative pentru ferme de lapte din
sectorul particular.................................................................................... 518
88. I.C. BOCIOAGĂ - Contributions on the improvement of the results in
Z088
the eggs artificial incubation ½ Contribuţii la îmbunătăţirea
rezultatelor în incubaţia artificială a ouălor ........................................... 528

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Z089
89. D. SIMEANU, M.V. BURLICĂ, M. DOLIŞ - Study on the Huţul
horse breed genealogical structure ½ Studiu asupra structurii
genealogice a rasei Huţul ........................................................................ 536
Z090
90. I. BENCSIK I., N. PACALĂ, D. DRONCA, Jana STANCULEŢ,
Alena BENCSIK, Ada TELEA - The viability asses of the light
chick breed eggs for incubation ½ Aprecierea viabilităţii embrionilor
din ouă destinate incubaţiei la rase uşoare.............................................. 545
Z091
91. ŞT. LAZĂR, O.C. VORNICU, M. DOLIŞ, B. IGNAT - The
expansion of Mellifera species ½ Expansibilitatea speciei Apis
mellifera ................................................................................................... 549
Z092
92. Doina LEONTE, C. LEONTE, Valerica MACOVEI - Efficiency of
veterinary prophylaxis on growing hen broiler in a small dimension
exploitation comparing the industrial avian shed ½ Eficienţa
acţiunilor profilactice sanitar-veterinare în creşterea broilerilor de
găină într-o exploataţie de mici dimensiuni comparativ cu o hală de
tip industrial ............................................................................................. 556
Z093
93. O.C. VORNICU, ŞT. LAZĂR, Aurelia VASILE - Multiple
monitoring of the beehive microclimate ½ Monitorizarea multiplă a
microclimatului din stupii cu albine......................................................... 561
Z094
94. C. PASCAL, F. DOROFTEI, V. STAN, I. PADEANU, T. DIMA -
The obtained perfoarmance after the colection applyed to improve
the colors at the sheep rased for their skin ½ Performanţe obţinute ca
urmare a selecţiei aplicate în vederea îmbunătăţirii culorii şi a
nuanţelor de culoare la ovinele crescute pentru pielicele ....................... 569
Z095
95. Gabriela MITREA, D. SIMEANU - Researches concerning the
assurance of the microclimate conditions for broiler chicken with
pultry equipments of different sources ½ Cercetări privind
asigurarea condiţiilor de microclimat pentru puii broiler de găină cu
echipamente avicole de diferite provenienţe ............................................ 576

96.
Z096 I. GÎLCĂ, MIHAELA Ivancia, D. BREBEANU, Roxana
STĂNESCU, E. ŢICĂU, C. DUBIŢ - The evaluation of milk’s
quality and the healt’s udder based on the somatic cell counts ½
Evaluarea calităţii laptelui şi a stării de sănătate a ugerului pe baza
numărului de celule din lapte................................................................... 584

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Z097
97. I. GÎLCĂ, D. BREBEANU, Roxana STĂNESCU, E. ŢICĂU, C.
DUBIŢ - Investigation of the effect of risk elements in bulls and
dairy cows breeding around of the industrial area of Bucharest ½
Investigaţii privind efectul elementelor de risc la taurinele la
îngrăşat şi vacile de lapte crescute in jurul zonei industriale a
municipiului Bucureşti ............................................................................. 588
98. Simona Margareta BADIU, Claudia MURESAN - Aspects of
Z098
implementing milk production and cosumption system ½ Aspecte
privind implemnetarea producţiei de lapte şi sistemul de consum........... 592
Z099
99. O. BĂLAN, V. CRĂCIUN - Automation of milking devices ½
Automatizarea instalaţiilor de muls ......................................................... 595
Z100
100. G. C. MURSA, ROXANA CIURCANU - Some economic
implications of the East enlargement of the European Union ½
Implicaţii economice ale extinderii Uniunii Europene către Est ............. 602

101. N. DUMBRĂVEANU - Rural development policies in Moldova


Z101
Republic, between europeanization and retrogression ½ Politica de
dezvoltare rurală în Republica Moldova între europenizare şi
retrogresiune ............................................................................................ 609
102. Mioara BOCANICI - Average values of economical indicators
Z102
achieved in bredding and using the milk cows in Vatra Dornei and
Câmpulung Moldovenesc basins ½ Valorile medii ale indicatorilor
economici realizati în cresterea si exploatarea vacilor de lapte în
bazinele Vatra Dornei si Câmpulung Moldovenesc................................. 615
Z103
103. A. CHIRAN, Florina POPOVICI, Elena GÎNDU - New aspects
regarding the milk production from the nearcity area of Iasi in the
context of European Union assessed quotes ½ Noi orientări privind
producţia de lapte din zona preorăşenească a municipiului Iaşi, în
contextul normelor impuse de Uniunea Europeană................................. 623
Z104
104. Elena GÎNDU, Liliana BIŢIC, A. CHIRAN - The develpment rural
in the microzone Ţibăneşti – the present and the prospects ½
Dezvoltarea rurală în microzona Ţibăneşti : prezent şi perspective ....... 631
105. Carmen-Mariana DIACONU - Practical aspects concerning the
Z105
solutions given by the local and central commissions of property land
restitution to the requests for property retrocession from Iasi county
½ Aspecte practice privind soluţionarea de către comisiile locale şi
centrale de fond funciar a cererilor de retrocedare a proprietăţii din
judeţul Iaşi................................................................................................ 639

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Z106
106. Carmen-Mariana DIACONU - Penal responsibility of the public
employee – introductive aspects ½ Raspunderea penală a
funcţionarului public aspecte introductive............................................... 642
107. ŞT. BREZULEANU, C-TIN IAŢCO - Methods of improving risk
Z107
management in the field of fiscal administration ½ Căi de
îmbunătăţire a managementului în domeniul administrării fiscale ......... 648
Z108
108. M. DĂSCĂLESCU - The analyse of human resources from
Miroslava commune, Iaşi district and the strategies to improuve them
½ Analiza resurselor umane din comuna Miroslava, judeţul Iaşi şi
strategiile de perfecţionare ale acestora.................................................. 653
109. Ramona AIRINEI - Human resources from the romanian rural space
Z109
½ Resursele umane din spaţiul rural românesc....................................... 659
Z110
110. Agatha POPESCU - Chicken meat market in the Central and Eastern
European countries ½ Piaţa cărnii de pui în ţările din Centrul şi
Estul Europei............................................................................................ 664
111. Agatha POPESCU - Considerations upon economic efficiency in
Z111
dairy farms by gross margin assessment ½ Consideratii asupra
eficientei economice in fermele de vaci prin evaluarea marjei brute ... 670
Z112
112. I. PÎRVUTOIU, Agatha POPESCU - Study concerning the
evaluation of financial results in combined fodder industry ½ Studiu
privind evaluarea rezultatelor financiare în industria nutreţurilor
combinate ................................................................................................. 673
Z113
113. I. PÎRVUTOIU, Agatha POPESCU - Study concerning risk
evaluation in combined fodder industry ½ Studiu privind evaluarea
riscului în industria nutreţurilor combinate............................................. 678
Z114
114. Maria RUGE, Ramona-Vasilica BACTER, C.-F. BACTER, Elena
GÎNDU, A. CHIRAN - Natural geographical characteristics of the
tourism and agrotourism of bihor county ½ Caracteristici natural –
geografice ale zonelor turistice şi agroturistice din judeţul Bihor .......... 681
Z115
115. D. DONOSĂ - Measuring instruments of the agricultural support ½
Instrumente de măsurare a sprijinului agricol......................................... 689
Z116
116. Ramona-Vasilica BACTER, C.-F. BACTER, Maria RUGE, Elena
GÎNDU, A. CHIRAN - Some aspects regarding the consumer and
product relationship on the market of Oradea city ½ Unele consideratii
privind relatia „consumator–produs” pe piata municipiului Oradea.......... 693

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Z117
117. ŞT. BREZULEANU, C-TIN IAŢCO - Caracteristics of internal
public financial control in public entities ½ Caracteristici ale
controlului financiar public intern la nivelul entităţii publice................. 701

Z118
118. C-TIN IAŢCO - The internal public financial control at governmental
level ½ Controlul financiar public intern la nivelul guvernului .............. 714

Z119
119. C-TIN IAŢCO, ŞT. BREZULEANU - Control management.
Performance audit studies ½ Managementul controlului. Studii de
audit al performanţei................................................................................ 719

Z120
120. I. MELINTE - Reseaches regarding the place of animal growing in
Zeletin basin, Bacau county ½ Cercetări privind locul creşterii
animalelor în bazinul Zeletin judeţul Bacău ............................................ 723

Z121
121. I.MELINTE, St.BREZULEANU-Social-demographic features of the rural
population from Zeletin basin, Bacau county½Caracteristici socio-
demografice ale populaţiei rurale din bazinul Zeletin, judeţul Bacău..... 729

Z122
122. Roxana MIRON, I.M. POP - Estimates of the evolution of milk
quota and milk price in the European Union ½ Estimări ale evoluţiei
cotei de lapte si a preţului laptelui in Uniunea Europeană ..................... 736

Z123
123. Aurica GRIGORE - The economic efficiency analises of S.C.
AVICOLA - MATCA S.A company ½ Analiza eficienţei economice
a societăţii S.C. AVICOLA - MATCA S.A ................................................ 741

124. Aurica GRIGORE - The economic efficiency aspects in meat


Z124
produced and capitalization in Tecuci region ½ aspecte ale eficienţei
economice în producerea şi valorificarea cărnii în zona Tecuci ............. 746

Z125
125. L. SASCA, P. COROI - The factors which influence the artificial
reproduction in the common carp ½ Factorii care influenţează
reproducţia artificială a crapului comun................................................. 753

Z126
126. Aurelia MIHALACHE, L. OPREA, V. CRISTEA - Aspects
regarding the rearing parameters on two lots of ornamental carp fed
with different rations into recirculating system conditions ½ Aspecte
privind parametrii creşterii la două loturi de crap ornamental
hrănite cu raţii diferite în condiţiile unui sistem recirculant ................... 757

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Z127
127. A. GRUBER, I.M. POP, B. PĂSĂRIN - The influence of ambiental
temperature about Lumbricus terrestris prolificity ½ Influenţa
temperaturii ambientale asupra prolificităţii la Lumbricus terrestris ..... 762

Z128
128. Alexandrina DIAC, G. HOHA - A study concerning the use of
experimental techniques in the research of fish nutrition and
alimentation ½ Studiu privind utilizarea tehnicilor experimentale în
cercetările de nutriţie şi alimentaţie la peşti............................................ 767

Z129
129. B. PĂSĂRIN, G. HOHA, A. GRUBER, Alexandrina DIAC,
Françoise PICARD-Aquaculture bio–a chance and challenge for
Romania in the 3rd millenium ½ Acvacultura biologică – o şansă
si o provocare pentru România mileniului 3............................................ 775

Z130
130. A. GRUBER, Roxana STĂNESCU, G. HOHA, B. PĂSĂRIN -
Speciality literature data concerning the growing of the species from
corydoras genus ½ Date din literatura de specialitate cu privire la
cresterea speciilor din genul corydoras................................................... 780

Z131
131. Gabriela VASILE, Elena CIORNEA - A comparative study of some
morphological and biochemical parameters of Carassius auratus
gibelio and Cyprinus carpio ½ Studiul comparativ al unor parametri
morfologici şi biochimici la Carassius auratus gibelio şi Cyprinus
carpio ....................................................................................................... 786

Z132
132. Valerica MACOVEI, I.M. POP, Doina LEONTE, Lenuţa FOTEA,
Maricica MICHICHIUC - Research as concerns some selection
index of Ctenopharingodon idella ½ Cercetări privind unii indici
corporali la Ctenopharyngodon idella..................................................... 794

133. Carmen NICOLAE, R. POPA, Laura URDEŞ, Nicoleta IŞTFAN -


Z133
The interdependence of some morphological traits in Frăsinet carp
breed one year and a summer aged ½ Interdependenţa unor
caractere morfologice la crapul de Frăsinet de un an şi o vară.............. 798

Z134
134. M. LAZĂR, Roxana LAZĂR, Cristina-Alice VULPE, V. VULPE,
P.C. BOIŞTEANU - The methodology of blood exams at the
cyprinides from fish farms ½ Metodologia unor examene ale
sângelui la ciprinidele din amenajările sistematice................................. 802

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BIODIVERSITY OF THE ZOOTECHNICAL


ECOSYSTEMS ON NATIONAL, REGIONAL
AND WORLDWIDE LEVELS
BIODIVERSITATEA ECOSISTEMELOR ZOOTEHNICE
LA NIVEL NAŢIONAL, ZONAL ŞI MONDIAL

A.T. BOGDAN, I.M. POP, Amalia STRĂTEANU

Creşterea gradului şi ritmului de ameliorare genetică a efectivelor de


animale din ecosisteme zootehnice este un obiectiv major în realizarea securităţii
alimentare a populaţiei umane. În acelaşi timp, dezvoltarea durabilă a
zootehniei este indisolubil legată de protecţia, conservarea şi dezvolarea
biodiversităţii speciilor de animale utile omului. Referatul abordează principiile,
obiectivele şi conexiunile conceptului de biodiversitate în cadrul ecosistemelor
zootehnice la nivel naţional (cu exemplificări de la Agenţia Naţională pentru
Reproducţie şi Ameliorare în Zootehnie – A.N.A.R.Z., prin rezultate ale
controlului performanţelor productive), la nivel zonal (cu exemplificări de la
Uniunea Europeană privind bunăstarea animalelor) şi la nivel mondial (cu
exemplificări de la F.A.O., prin Strategia globală de dezvoltare durabilă până în
anul 2015).
În concluzie, se prezintă secvenţa referitoare la zootehnie din
programul prioritar al Academiei Române privind studiul biodiversităţii în
relaţie cu dezvoltarea rurală durabilă, care reprezintă tematica noului Centru de
Studii şi Cercetări de Biodiversitate Agrosilvică „Acad. David Davidescu” al
Academiei Române.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

LASTING DEVELOPMENT – A CONTEMPORARY WORLD


IMPERATIVE
DEZVOLTAREA DURABILA - IMPERATIV AL LUMII
CONTEMPORANE

V. POP, Cecilia POP

Human society is passing through a very deep crisis of its own identity,
the economical development in these present conditions, based on the waste of
raw materials, fuel and energy, contributing well to this crisis, having at its base
the consequences of some wrong priorities.
In order to avoid an ecological catastrophe, many scientific
personalities, public personalities, mass-media, nongovernmental organizations
and of course ordinary people have criticized the pollution phenomenon and
have taken serious measures in order to stop the deterioration of our
environment. This way appeared the concept of “sustainable development”.
The development based on durability principles, represents now the
major imperative of contemporary world, its neglect from the economical politics
and strategies, surely leading to the compromising of the minimal life conditions
which Terra has to maintain for the future generations.

Dezvoltarea economicã şi mediul


Dezvoltarea fãrã oprelişti înregistratã de la intrarea lumii în “era
industrialã” acum mai bine de 200 de ani, a pornit de la imaginea dimensiunilor
„nelimitate” ale planetei noastre şi capacitatea ei de a ne asigura „la nesfârşit”
resurse minerale neregenerabile, condiţii nelimi-tate de trai şi bunãstare pentru o
populaţie în continuã expansiune, capacitatea de a prelua la nesfârşit poluanţii
rezultaţi din activitatea menajerã, din agriculturã şi zootehnie, cât şi din procesele
industriale - acestea din urmã pe cale de a cãpãta dimensiuni de neimaginat,
atunci la data intrãrii omenirii în era industrialã.
Acum 200 de ani, populaţia globului numãra de abia un singur miliard de
locuitori, iar activitatea industrialã era la proporţii neglijabile faţã de ceea ce este
în prezent. Cãrbunii şi petrolul nu erau încã în circuitul industrial. Producţia de
metale, ciment, industria chimicã etc. nu reprezentau nici 1 % din ceea ce se
produce astãzi.
A urmat defrişarea pãdurilor - pentru extinderea suprafeţelor necesare
hrãnirii unei populaţii în creştere explozivã, în baza unei agriculturi chimizate,
intensive pãşunatul necontrolat, pescuitul intensiv, poluarea apelor, aerului şi
solurilor, toate ducând la secãtuirea sau alterarea posibilitãţilor de suport ale Terrei.
Cantitatea de poluanţi evacuaţi în atmosferã, în ape şi pe sol a crescut în
ritm alarmant, depãşind capacitatea de autoepurare a factorilor naturali. Am atins
limitele de suportabilitate ale Planetei noastre!
Astfel, s-a constatat cu dezamãgire cã posibilitãţile Planetei, considerate
infinite, sunt de fapt limitate. Echilibrul natural, de milioane şi milioane de ani al

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planetei, este în pericol de a fi grav, dacã nu iremediabil perturbat, punând in


pericol însăşi existenţa vieţii pe Terra.
Prejudiciile pentru specia umanã, ale unei dezvoltãri greşit gestionate,
lãsatã pradã re-gulilor pieţei şi ale profitului, au început sã fie percepute din a
doua jumãtate a secolului XX.
Aşa cum spune o reuşitã butadã: „Planeta albastrã ne-a fost datã în
primire spre folosinţã - dar fãrã sã primim şi instrucţiunile de utilizare”. Drept
urmare suntem puşi, în ultima vreme chiar prea des - în situaţia de a greşi faţã de
mediul natural, poluându-l, agresându-l, provocându-i daune mult prea mari decât
ne-am fi aşteptat. Mai mult, prin cumulare - efectul poluãrii asupra factorilor de
mediu şi degradarea în unele cazuri ireversibilã a mediului - am ajuns în multe
situaţii sã compromitem definitiv calitatea mediului natural pe care-l vom lãsa
generaţiilor viitoare, în fapt tocmai urmaşilor noştri.
Convenţia-cadru adoptatã în 1992 la Rio precizeazã sarcina ţãrilor
dezvoltate de a-şi stabiliza emisiile de gaze cu efect de serã, astfel încât nivelul
acestora în 2002 sã nu depãşeascã nivelul din 1990, iar pânã în 2010, emisiile de
gaze sã scadã cu 8 %. În acelaşi timp, marile ţãri în curs de dezvoltare, în
particular China, India şi Brazilia nu sunt supuse deocamdatã constrângerilor.
Datoritã nerespectãrii de cãtre unele ţãri dezvoltate, în frunte cu Statele
Unite, a obiectivelor Conferinţei de la Rio, Grupul interguvernamental de experţi
asupra evoluţiei climatului, a elaborat în 1995 un mesaj alarmant, care s-a
finalizat cu:
P r o t o c o l u l de la K y o t o – 1997
cuprinzând douã aspecte. Pe de o parte, fixeazã pentru ţãrile OECD şi cele
ale Europei Centrale şi de Est, norme pentru reducerea emisiilor de gaze cu efect
de serã (în principal CO2) în perioada 1990-2008, iar pe de altã parte, stabileşte
mecanisme de flexibilitate care dau posibilitate statelor sã cumpere drepturi de
poluare (indulgenţe) !
Nivelele de reducere ale poluãrii variazã de la o ţarã la alta. Astfel, cele
„minus 8 procente” ale Uniunii Europene, corespund unor obiective naţionale
foarte diferite:
- 21 % pentru Germania, 0 % pentru Franţa şi + 27 % pentru
Portugalia.
Mecanismele „Protocolului de la Kyoto” permit de altfel unei ţãri sã-şi
respecte angajamentele, cumpãrând drepturi adiţionale de poluare dintr-o ţarã care
nu şi-a atins încã nivelul maxim permis, de exemplu Portugalia. Şi România va fi
interesatã sã vândã, probabil Japoniei, Olandei etc. din drepturile pozitive pe care
le are, noi situându-ne acum la 40 % sub angajamentul conform Protocolului.
Acordul de la Kyoto prevede punerea lui în aplicare dacã 55 de ţãri,
reprezentând 55% din emisiile de CO2 din ţãrile industrializate, l-au ratificat. Prin
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mondial a intrat în vigoare la 16 februarie 2005, fiind atins pragul de aplicare în


ciuda opoziţiei Statelor Unite - cel mai mare poluator cu gaze cu efect de serã.
Manifestând interes şi responsabilitate, Uniunea Europeanã a procedat la
ratificarea acordului, în schimb SUA - cea care evacueazã în atmosferã un sfert
din gazele cu efect de serã ale planetei, nu a semnat încã acest important
document, deşi acesta “avantajeazã” ţãrile deja puternic industrializate şi
poluatoare, prin aceea cã normele adoptate, diferite de la o ţarã la alta, au ca punct
de plecare emisiile de noxe din prezent, şi nu un nivel egal de emisii pe cap de
locuitor, indiferent de ţarã!
În aceste condiţii cetãţenii SUA vor putea polua în continuare de 19 ori
mai mult decât cei din India, sau de 11 ori mai mult decât cei din China!
Emisiile de gaze datorate activitãţilor industriale, transporturilor şi a celor
menajere (CO2 - metan - oxizi de azot ) vor fi responsabile dupã pãrerea
oamenilor de ştiinţã, de încãlzirea planetei cu consecinţele climatice deja
cunoscute: furtuni, inundaţii, în alte zone secetã - toate acestea fiind un semn al
dereglãrilor provocate de civilizaţia noastrã ajunsã la suprapopulare,
supraindustrializare şi excesivă poluare.

Biodiversitatea
Voinţa de a pãstra biodiversitatea pe planetã, face parte dintre obiectivele
dezvoltãrii durabile, fiind un punct prioritar pe lista Conferinţei de la Rio.
Din cele 1,7 milioane de specii cunoscute, 11.000 sunt deja ameninţate cu
extincţia iar în ritmul actual, jumãtate dintre aceste specii ameninţate, ar putea
dispãrea pânã la sfârşitul secolului XXI. Aceastã realitate este strict legatã de
compor-tamentele umane în legãturã cu mediul natural şi dezvoltarea economicã.
Despãdurirea, deşertificarea, agricultura, pãşunatul şi pescuitul intensive,
defrişãrile pentru obţinerea de noi suprafeţe arabile, extinderea activitãţilor
miniere, toate acestea având ca scop producţia industrialã şi alimentarã, participã
la distrugerea habitatelor şi astfel la eliminarea treptată dar tot mai rapidă a
speciilor vegetale şi animale.
Conferinţa de la Johannesburg
Conferinţa la nivel înalt de la Johannesburg - 2002, ar fi trebuit sã
impulsioneze procesul de abordare şi soluţionare a problemelor privind dezvoltarea
durabilã, dar şi de data aceasta aşteptãrile au fost mult mai mari decât realizãrile.
Astfel, pe planul reducerii emisiilor de gaze cu efect de serã, deşi s-au
reafirmat obiectivele de la Kyoto, nu s-au fixat nici un fel de elemente precise în
privinţa alternativei trecerii la utilizarea energiilor neconvenţionale.
S-a pus în discuţie şi obiectivul reducerii la jumãtate pânã în anul 2015 a
numãrului de persoane (cca. 1 miliard) care nu dispun la standarde corespunzãtoare
de apã potabilã, iar sugestia francezã de a crea un organism mondial al mediului,
care prin autoritatea sa în domeniul problemelor specifice, ar putea sã impunã
norme unor alte instituţii, precum OMC, a fost din pãcate total îndepãrtatã.

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Pentru pãstrarea fertilitãţii solurilor, Fondul mondial pentru mediu finanţeazã


programe pentru agriculturã; la Conferinţa de la Rio s-a lansat Convenţia în favoarea
luptei împotriva scãderii fertilitãţii solului, convenţie semnatã pânã la Conferinţa de
la Johannesburg de cãtre 114 ţãri. Cu toate intenţiile declarative lãudabile - pe planul
realizãrilor practice, acumulãrile sunt încã nesatisfãcãtoare.
Probleme globale
În literatura mondialã au apãrut în ultimele douã-trei decenii, numeroase
lucrãri referitoare la “problemele globale” cu care se confruntã civilizaţia umanã
acum la începutul secolului XXI. „Problemele” sunt cele care, la nivelul planetei
influenţeazã esenţial toate domeniile vieţii sociale, nerezolvarea lor fãcând imposibilã
abordarea celorlalte probleme care cer şi ele o soluţionare la nivel global-planetar.
Acest tip de probleme, necesitând o soluţionare planetarã au apãrut cu
stringenţã în a doua jumãtate a secolului XX, în strânsã legãturã cu dezvoltarea
economică generală. S-a ajuns la creşterea spectaculoasã a producţiei industriale şi
agricole, pe baza progreselor fãrã precedent din ştiinţã şi tehnologie, care au dus la
adâncirea diviziunii mondiale a muncii, extinderea relaţiilor şi a schimburilor
economice internaţionale, accentuând interdependenţa tuturor la scarã planetarã.
Ca o consecinţã a extinderii procesului de industrializare, a crescut în
egalã mãsurã necesarul de materii prime, energie şi hranã, s-a extins procesul de
urbanizare, atingându-se nivelul maxim de suportabilitate al planetei, datoritã
caracterului limitat al resurselor minerale şi datoritã fenomenului poluãrii, care
însoţeşte inerent dezvoltarea în condiţiile actuale a societãţii umane.

CREŞTEREA DEZVOLTAREA
POPULAŢIEI ECONOMICA NEdurabilă

Risipă de Incălzirea Extinderea Deşeuri solide


resurse globală deşerturilor tot mai toxice
Poluarea aerului Ploi acide Poluarea solului Poluarea apei
Epuizarea Defrişarea Exterminarea Riscurile
ozonului pădurilor speciilor nucleare
Creşterea / accentuarea decalajelor dintre bogaţi şi săraci

Guverne Societăţi comerciale Consumatori

Figura 1 - Principalele „probleme globale” actuale

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Dimensiunile consumurilor la care s-a ajuns în zilele noastre, au


determinat ritmuri îngrijorãtoare de epuizare a unor resurse neregenerabile. Au
apãrut tot mai evidente, feno-mene de deteriorare a echilibrului ecologic, de
poluare gravã a aerului, apelor şi solurilor, cu diminuarea fondului genetic vegetal
şi animal al planetei, procese negative, unele ireversibile, cu urmãri imprevizibile
într-o perspectivã mai mult sau mai puţin îndepãrtatã.
Pe de altă parte, subdezvoltarea, discrepanţele crescânde dintre lumea
dezvoltatã şi lumea sãracã, discrepanţe care nu se diminueazã ci se accentueazã ca
urmare a progresului tehnologic contemporan - în condiţiile actualelor relaţii
economice şi politice internaţionale - amplificã tensiunile şi sursele de conflict pe
plan mondial, ceea ce a făcut ca aceste probleme au devenit preocupãri constante
pe ordinea de zi a Organizaţiei Naţiunilor Unite şi a altor forumuri internaţionale.

Conceptul de dezvoltare durabilă


Fãrã îndoialã cã reputatul om de ştiinţã Lester R.Brown de la WorldWatch
Institute (Institutul pentru Veghea Mondialã - Washington, SUA - creat în 1976)
reprezintã una dintre cele mai prestigioase personalităţi, care împreună cu
colectivul său de colaboratori şi-a consacrat întreaga activitate urmãririi cu
perseverenţã a “problemelor globale” cu care se confruntã civilizaţia umanã în
prezent.
Este meritul lui Lester Brown de a fi lansat primul - în raportul
WorldWatch Institute din 1984 - termenul de “dezvoltare durabilã” care a intrat
apoi în literatura de specialitate ca un termen de referinţã şi a devenit obiectul
tuturor studiilor şi documentelor politice care abordeazã problemele dezvoltãrii
economico-sociale contemporane.
De altfel, la Conferinţa mondialã la nivel înalt de la Rio de Janiero din
1992, consacratã raportului dintre dezvoltarea economico-socialã şi echilibrul
factorilor de mediu, s-a decis constituirea unei Comisii ONU pentru Dezvoltarea
Durabilã, exprimând preocu-parea crescândã a comunitãţii mondiale asupra
faptului cã modelul actual al sistemului economic mondial nu poate fi susţinut din
punctul de vedere al utilizării „cu măsură” a resurselor planetei şi al echilibrului
factorilor de mediu.
În raportul din 1984, se definea “durabilitatea” (the sustainability) ca
fiind dezvoltarea posibilã în armonie cu natura - ca un concept ecologic cu
consecinţe economice, subliniind cã o societate “durabilã” este cea care îşi
modeleazã / adapteazã sistemul economic şi social, astfel încât sã asigure resursele
naturale şi sistemele de suport ale vieţii nu numai pentru noi cei de acum, ci şi
pentru generaţiile viitoare.
Aceastã temã a dominat toate studiile şi rapoartele institutului, rapoartele
anuale asu-pra stãrii planetei, subintitulându-se “rapoarte asupra progreselor
spre o societate durabilã”.
În seria următoare de studii, lansatã în 1992 de către acelaşi Institut
american pentru monitorizarea dezvoltării mondiale, sub titulatura “Semne vitale,
tendinţe care modeleazã viitorul nostru” - se face un pas înainte în ceea ce

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priveşte conceptul de “dezvoltare durabilã” vorbindu-se despre un “viitor


durabil”.
Preocupãrile ONU pentru aceastã problematicã, au continuat cu alte douã
studii remarcabile elaborate de comisiile prezidate de Willy Brandt şi Gro
Harlem Brundtland. Studiul întreprins de Willy Brandt - fost cancelar al
R.F.Germane, intitulat “Nord / Sud - un program pentru supravieţuire” constatã:
“Criza pe care o traverseazã astãzi relaţiile internaţionale şi economia
mondialã, prezintã mari pericole şi pare sã se agraveze (mărturie sunt atacurile
teroriste de la 11 septembrie 2001 - nota noastră).
Nu s-a înţeles suficient cã prãpastia care separã ţãrile bogate de cele
sãrace, reprezintã un element esenţial al acestei crize şi nici faptul cã, în cazuri
extreme, prãpastia este aşa de mare, încât popoarele par a trãi în lumi diferite.
Aceasta este una dintre marile contraicţii ale lumii contemporane tocmai în
momentul în care societatea noastrã începe sã perceapã în ce mãsurã
componentele sale sunt strâns legate între ele, Nordul şi Sudul depinzând unul de
altul, în cadrul unei singure economii mondiale”.
Gro Harlem Brundtland, primul ministru (femeie) al Norvegiei, a
prezentat raportul intitulat “Viitorul nostru al tuturor”.
Raportul subliniazã problema creatã de „expolzia demograficã” repartiţia
geograficã neechilibratã a populaţiei în raport cu resursele disponibile ale planetei
şi necesitatea eforturilor de eliminare a sãrãciei, ridicarea gradului de culturã şi
dezvoltarea capacitãţii colectivitãţilor umane de îmbunãtãţire a utilizãrii eficiente
a resurselor disponibile.
În privinţa speciilor şi a ecosistemelor, se subliniazã necesitatea
menţinerii diversitãţii genetice şi a introducerii în acest scop, în centrul
programelor politice, a problemei protecţiei speciilor şi ecosistemelor ameninţate,
propunându-se un program de potecţie a pãdurilor tropicale şi dezvoltarea unei
ample cooperãri internaţionale.
Dezvoltarea industriei, trebuie făcută prin promovarea noilor tehnologii
mai eficiente şi mai puţin poluante, subliniind necesitatea intensificãrii controlului
asupra agenţilor chimici toxici utilizaţi în industrie şi agriculturã, ca şi asupra
evacuãrilor de deşeuri periculoase pentru mediul ambiant.
În privinţa aşezãrilor umane, se subliniazã necesitatea asigurãrii unei
dezvoltãri echilibrate între mediul urban şi cel rural, controlul dezvoltãrii şi
evitarea supraaglomerãrilor urbane, cât şi sprijinirea eforturilor de eliminare a
subdezvoltãrii.
“Noi împrumutãm de la generaţiile care vor veni - se spune în raport - un
capital ecologic, ştiind précis cã nu-l vom putea nicicând restitui. Ele vor avea tot
dreptul sã ne reproşeze cã am fost atât de risipitori, dar nu vor putea niciodatã sã
recupereze ceea ce le datorãm. Risipim, pentru cã noi nu avem de dat socotealã
nimãnui: generaţiile viitoare nu pot acţiona acum împotriva deciziilor noastre”.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

În ceea ce priveşte crizele economice mondiale din ultimele decenii, şi


aici se considerã cã sursa acestora se aflã în consumurile enorme de combustibili,
energie şi materii prime, cu tendinţa de epuizare a acestora, datoritã tipului de
economie care s-a dezvoltat pe o cale de nesusţinut - din punctul de vedere al
resurselor planetei. În acest sens, se poate defini:
dezvoltarea durabilã = dezvoltarea care poate fi susţinutã (menţinutã) în
timp
cu resursele limitate de care dispunem.

Componentele esenţiale ale unei strategii pentru o dezvoltare durabilã,


includ:
.

- stabilizarea populaţiei şi asigurarea unui trai decent tuturor


- menţinerea fertilitãţii naturale a solurilor
- protejarea sistemelor biologice ale planetei, menţinerea biodiversităţii
- reducerea dependenţei de petrol şi în general de combustibilii fosili, a
economiei mondiale
- dezvoltarea alternativã a energiilor regenerabile
şi - reciclarea materialelor, cu diminuarea consumului de resurse minerale
şi a poluării.

Dezvoltarea durabilă în contextul dezvoltării economice.


Priorităţi greşite

Cel de-al patrulea raport al Clubului de la Roma, coordonat de către


Gabor Denis (Premiul Nobel 1971) a fost intitulat semnificativ “Sã ieşim din
epoca risipei” subliniind şi acesta cã modelul de dezvoltare economică al
societăţii noastre este greşit, având tendinţa de a risipi resursele naturale,
devastând mediul înconjurãtor.
Astfel, primele 10 ţãri industrializate ale lumii, cu cca. 10 % din populaţia
globului dar cu economii orientate exagerat spre consum, utilizeazã cca. 60 % din
resursele Terrei, producând şi 75 % din deşeurile solide ale lumii.
Ecologiştii şi nu numai ei, nu pot fi de acord cu acest tip de dezvoltare,
extrapolarea unui asemenea model de societate - care în goana nebună a unora
după tot mai mulţi bani, crează tuturor dorinţe de consum cu orice preţ şi de aici o
flagrantã risipã de resurse - este evident imposibil din punct de vedere material,
planeta nedispunând pentru toţi locuitorii sãi de resurse la o asemenea anvergură,
aceasta implicând şi un grad ridicat de poluare, de deteriorare a condiţiilor de
viaţă.

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Economiştii şi inginerii Ecologiştii


- observă că economia globală a - observă că această creştere repre-
crescut de 7 ori din 1950, iar venitul zintă „produsul de ardere” a unor
global a crescut de la 6 la 43 miliarde cantităţi enorme de combustibil fosil,
USD disponibil la preţuri foarte mici
- observă cotele apelor în scădere în
- observă cele mai scăzute preţuri la
ţările-cheie producătoare de hrană,
cereale din ultimele 2 decenii, iar
cca. 800 mil. locuitori fiind hrăniţi
sursele de hrană nu constituie o
acum cu grâu produs prin consumul
problemă a viitorului apropiat
„forţat” al apelor subterane
- observă o piaţă care nu spune
- consideră piaţa globalizată, ca un
adevărul. Ex: în preţul benzinei nu
ghid (aprobator) al deciziilor de
sunt costurile asistenţei medicale
dezvoltare neîncetată a economiei
pentru tratarea bolilor respiratorii
conform viziunii actuale în domeniu
generate de poluarea aerului etc.

Un exemplu edificator, este cel dat de preşedintele Franţei, Jack Chirac, la


Summit-ul de la Barcelona din martie 2002, în care arăta cã este complet
inechitabil ca primele 3 familii cele mai bogate de pe glob sã deţinã fiecare, averi
de peste 50 de miliarde de dolari (rezerva valutarã a României în acel moment era
de numai 3,6 miliarde dolari), iar primele 150 de familii ale lumii, sã aibã venitul
egal cu cel al jumãtãţii mai sãrace a populaţiei globului !!!
Tot mai mult societatea industrialã, prin prioritatea greşită a consumului
cu orice preţ a exploatat fãrã discernãmânt resursele minerale nereînnoibile. Ea a
distrus suprafeţe imense de terenuri cândva fertile. În numeroase locuri, noi am
pus în pericol şi chiar am distrus viaţa prin poluarea aerului, apelor şi a solurilor.
Aceastã situaţie nu poate dura, o societate echilibratã trebuie sã aibă alte
priorităţi să ofere un nivel de viaţã satisfãcãtor tuturor membrilor săi pe plan
material, în condiţiile diminuării consumurilor de resurse, păstrând calitatea
mediului şi a con-diţiilor menţinerii vieţii pentru generaţiile viitoare.
Bunãstarea şi dezvoltarea acestei societãţi vor putea fi garantate doar în
condiţiile în care economia va fi structurată pe valorificarea mai eficientă a
resurselor naturale şi în armonie cu natura. Tendinţa trebuie sã se orienteze cãtre o
economie bazatã pe surse de energie regenerabile, pe utilizarea de materii prime
larg disponibile şi de preferat regenerabile, pe reciclarea permanentã a
materialelor mai greu de gãsit, gestiunea mai bunã a resurselor alimentare,
tehnologii orientate spre reducerea consumurilor de materii prime şi energie, în
urma cãrora sã rezulte cantitãţi minime de deşeuri care „să nu afecteze” calitatea
mediului.

Oportunităţi şi limite ale dezvoltării durabile


Aşa cum am arătat, conceptul de dezvoltare durabilă a apărut şi s-a impus
ca o necesitate în condiţiile degradării sistematice a condiţiilor naturale la nivel

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global, ca rezultat al exploziei demografice şi al dezvoltării economice din


ultimele două secole.
Iminenta epuizare a unor resurse minerale importante, precum petrolul,
minereurile de cupru sau cele ale metalelor preţioase, defrişarea unor imense
suprafeţe de pădure, dispariţia a zeci şi sute de specii animale şi vegetale în
fiecare an, ploile acide, subţierea dramatică a stratului protector de ozon şi
schimbările climatice - sunt numai câteva dintre elementele care au făcut ca o
serie de personalităţi ştiinţifice să tragă tot mai dese semnale de alarmă în legătură
cu starea precară a mediului natural şi necesi-tatea unor schimbări promte şi
radicale în ceea ce priveşte atitudinea noastră faţă de mediu şi faţă de problema
dezvoltării pornind de la tehnologiile şi strategiile prezente.
Noul concept de „economie ecologică” porneşte de la o serie de principii
ale dezvoltării durabile dintre care putem aminti:
- ritmul de pierdere a fertilităţii solurilor şi de defrişare a pădurilor, să nu
depăşească capacitatea de regenerare şi refacere a acestora
- de asemenea, pescuitul să nu depăşească capacitatea de regenerare a
speciilor de peşti din mediul natural
- reducerea habitatelor să nu ajungă sub limita necesară păstrării speciilor
animale şi vegetale, păstrând biodiversitatea pe planetă
- emisiile de CO2 să nu depăşească capacitatea naturală de fixare a
carbonului
- necesitatea eliminării risipei de materii prime, combustibili şi energie
prin utilizarea de „tehnologii curate” performante, care să valorifice complex şi
„integral” resursele naturale neregenerabile, inclusiv producerea energiei
nepoluante utilizând forţa vântului, căldura Soarelui etc.
Devine stringentă dezvoltarea noilor forme de energie curată: energia
eoliană, energia solară, utilizarea hidrogenului, îmbunătăţirea siguranţei în
producerea energiei nucleare prin fisiune şi mult-aşteptata energie „nelimitată” a
fuziunii etc.

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FACTORI DE AGRESIUNE

Explozia Dezvoltarea Consum exage- Deşeuri şi Ed. materialist


demografică consumatoristă rat de resurse POLUARE individualistă

DEGRADAREA CONDIŢIILOR DE MEDIU

P L A N E T A (încă)
ALBASTRĂ

STOPAREA DEGRADĂRII CONDITIILOR DE MEDIU

D E Z V O L T A R E D U R A B I L A

Controlul Consum Resurse Tehno- Reciclare Educaţie


natalităţii fără regene- logii refolosire ecologică
risipă rabile ecologice

Organisme internaţionale Organisme


de mediu neguvernamentale

SPRIJINIREA PLANETEI ÎN RECĂPĂTAREA ECHILIBRULUI


ECOLOGIC
Figura 10 - Dezvoltarea durabilă a societăţii în sprijinul recăpătării
echilibrului ecologic al planetei

Conceptul de „tehnologii curate” se referă atât la aspecte ale activităţii


economice, cât şi în egală măsură la cele privind protecţia mediului. Vocaţia
acestei categorii de tehnologii, constă în asigurarea:
- reducerii consumurilor de materii prime, combustibili şi energie

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- diminuarea cantităţii şi a toxicităţii deşeurilor, cu efecte în reducerea


poluării
- îmbunătăţirea condiţiilor de muncă, prin creşterea agreabilităţii: aer
curat, culori relaxante, eliminarea repetitivităţii, a efortului fizic şi intelectual
epuizant, oferind în general condiţii mai puţin stresante, toate acestea cu efecte
favorabile asupra productivităţii personalului etc.
Dar mai presus de toate, dezvoltarea durabilă trebuie înţeleasă sub toate
dimensiunile sale: umană, economică, tehnologică şi ecologică. Tocmai pornind
de la aceste premize, cât şi de la faptul că provocările pe care le lansează noul
concept (necesar) de dezvoltare a societăţii umane, nu sunt simple concepte
teoretice, ele trebuind a fi puse în aplicare, în practică - este de înţeles că
procesul, chiar sub presiunea celor mai evidente şi grave efecte, unele catastrofice
(exp. subţierea stratului protector de ozon, schimbările climatice etc.) care
ameninţă existenţa noastră, va fi de lungă durată, fiind în acelaşi timp imposibil
de trecut peste nevoile celor săraci, care trebuie şi ei să ajungă la condiţii decente
de trai.

Limite în procesul dezvoltării durabile


Cu toată dorinţa noastră de a schimba starea de fapt actuală, trebuie să
înţelegem că pe acest drum al dezvoltării durabile există şi limite, implacabil
impuse în principal de:
- nivelul tehnologic la care ne aflăm (când încă nu tot ceea ce ar fi de
dorit se poate realiza) poluarea însoţind practic, activitatea economică
- de calculul strict al eficienţei economice, al tehnologiilor existente şi a
celor durabile (deocamdată mai scumpe decât cele clasice) precum şi
- de faptul că mai sunt încă semeni ai noştri care nu au condiţiile minime
decente de trai, şi care trebuie ajutaţi să se dezvolte pentru a atinge acel minim
decent, ceea ce va însemna consumuri suplimentare de resurse, posibile noi
dezechilibre naturale, poluare etc.
Nu există tehnologii total „curate” ci doar mai puţin poluante, ceea ce,
oricât de mare ar fi dorinţa noastră, va determina în continuare poluarea sub toate
formele şi deci afectarea în continuare a factorilor de mediu. Nu este posibilă
renunţarea totală la îngrăşămintele chimice şi la pesticide, având în vedere
necesarul în creştere de alimente pentru o polulaţie a planetei, pe an ce trece tot
mai mare.
Nu este posibil să renunţăm la transporturile rapide şi sigure pe uscat, pe
ape şi aeriene, care necesită combustibili, generând poluare. Transportul de
călători, în condiţiile libertăţii de călătorie, transportul de mărfuri în condiţiile
globalizării economice etc. nu mai poate fi redus la transportul cu pânze sau la cel
cu tracţiune animală, care caracterizau secolele XVII-XVIII.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

Interesele economice diferite ale statelor, vor face să avem în continuare


norme mai permisive de poluare, spre exemplu în cazul Israelului în ceea ce
priveşte industria chimică, India în domeniul poluării apelor curgătoare, Statele
Unite în cazul emisiilor de CO2 încălcând prevederile Protocolului de la Kyoto
ş.a.m.d.
Limitările în procesul dezvoltării durabile provin şi de la sprijinul
internaţional neonorat, din partea ţărilor dezvoltate către statele în curs de
dezvoltare, în domenii precum asigurarea aprovizionării populaţiei cu apă
potabilă, dezvoltarea producţiei agricole, asigurarea minimului de energie
electrică etc. iar poate cel mai grav aspect, este cel legat de transferul sistematic
de industrii şi tehnologii slab productive şi poluante către aceste ţări sărace din
partea statelor dezvoltate, în condiţiile practicării unor preţuri excesive, imorale.
Peste toate acestea, deşeurile radioactive pe care noi le-am depozitat pe
fundul oceanelor şi în spaţii forate în scoarţa terestră, vor reprezenta probleme de
soluţionat de către generaţiile viitoare, însemnând din partea lor preocupare, bani
şi muncă prestate în contul nostru, al celor care poluăm acum.

Bibliografie
1- BROWN R.L., Probleme globale ale omenirii, E.T., Bucureşti - 1996, pag.31
2- Viorel POP ş.a., Relaţii politice şi economice, Ed.Risoprint, Cluj N.- 2005, pag.363
3- FLAVIN C. ş.a., Starea lumii, E.T., Bucureşti - 2002, pag.183
4- PRODI R., O viziune asupra Europei, Ed.Polirom - 2001, pag.114
5- Viorel POP ş.a., Mediu, Resurse, Dezvoltare durabilă, Ed.Univ.Nord - 2006, p.205
6- Viorel POP ş.a., Waste Management, E.A., Bucureşti - 2003, pag.192
7- Alexandru T. BOGDAN (coordonator), Tratat de biotehnologii, Ed. Tehnică, 2004
8- Alexandru T. BOGDAN, Ecologie şi protecţia mediului, Ed. Bioterra, 2000

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

DEVELOPING EXPECTATIONS A RURAL AREA OF


EUROPEAN FOUND FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL
DEVELOPMENT

E. ŢICĂU, T. ROBU, I. GÎLCA, C-tin DUBIT

Since the accession of Romania to the EU, the funds intended for the
rural space and agriculture development will be numerous and substantial. Even
within 2000 and 2006, Romania was the beneficiary of various pre accession
funds. Out of them, the SAPARD Programme was the most important of those
intended for agriculture and rural development, the EU contribution amounting
over 1,1 billion Euros.
The FEADR together with European Found for Fiche ring represents
the found that continues the SAPARD Programme, but with much larger funds.
The paper aims to present the priority axes of FEADR and inform about
the investment areas accessible to public and private beneficiaries from
agriculture and rural areas, using the public co-financing of this fund.

MATERIAL AND METHODE


The paper used for information a large bibliography and follow post
accession European founds after 2007 who address to rural development and
agriculture of Romania.
Also used that analyses and studies material UE Regulation regarding to
post accession and National Plan for Rural Development. The main source of
information was Commission Regulation (EC) no. 1698/2006, Regulation (EC)
no. 1974/2006, (EC) No. 248/2007 and measures concerning the Multi-annual
Financing Agreements and the Annual Financing Agreements.

RESULTS AND DISSCUSION

MEASURE 111. TRAINING, INFORMATION AND DIFFUSION OF


KNOWLEDGE

The objective of the measure is:


- to facilitate the access to training, information and diffusion of knowledge
activities for all adult people engaged in the agricultural, forestry and food
sectors.
- to acquire information and skills which will enhance the sustainable
management of forests, the social conversions such as improving the life
conditions and reducing unemployment rate in rural areas.

Beneficiaries
The final beneficiaries are adult people engaged in the agricultural, forestry
(including forest holders) sectors and food industry.

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112. SETTING UP OF YOUNG FARMERS

Objectives of the measure


The support granted for the setting up of young farmers will facilitate the
structural adjustment and development of competitive farms which perform
sustainable agriculture by means of a better management and new workforce.

Beneficiaries
a) under 40, who are setting up for the first time on an agricultural holding
as head of the holding,
b) possessing or making a commitment to acquire relevant vocational skills,
c) who submit a development plan for the farming activities.

MEASURE 113. EARLY RETIREMENT OF FARMERS AND FARM


WORKERS

Objectives of the measure


The support granted by this measure contributes to a significant structural
change of agriculture by transferring the agricultural holdings and setting up of
young farmers as well as to an improvement of the management with the aim to
increase the size, thus becoming commercial holdings oriented towards
innovation and diversification.

Scope and actions


Early retirement aims to ensure incomes for farmers and/or farm workers,
to increase the size of the holdings and to engage young workforce in the
agricultural activity.

Beneficiaries: Farmers, Farm workers

MEASURE 1.1.4. USE OF ADVISORY AND CONSULTANCY SERVICES

Objectives of the measure


The general objective of the measure aims at improving the knowledge of
farmers and forest holders as well as the access to financing from the Community
funds.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

MEASURE 1.2.1. MODERNISATION OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

Objectives of the measure


Community support granted by this measure has the following objectives:
• Modernizing and restructuring the agricultural holdings aiming at
increasing their competitiveness through a better use of the
production factors;
• Introduction of new technologies and innovations, aiming to improve
the quality and the organic production;
• Production diversification with the use of renewable energy;
• Observance of the Community standards regarding cross-compliance.
The specific objectives of the measure refer to:
• Modernization of agricultural holdings;
• Support for restructuring semi-subsistence agricultural holdings.
Scope and actions
The scope of the support covered by this measure is to:
o Improve the overall performance of the agricultural holdings;
o Meet the Community standards applicable to the type of investments
stipulated in the Chapter “Types of investments”
o Improve the quality of obtained products and diversification of
assortments;
o Promote the generation and use of renewable energy;
o Promote the processing of traditional agricultural products at farm level
and their direct marketing.
Beneficiaries
Agricultural producers – authorised natural persons, authorised family
associations and legal entities, settled up according to the legislation in force.
Tangible investments :

o Construction, modernization and purchase of buildings and other estate


property used for the agricultural production at farm level, including the
those used for the environment protection;
o New buildings and/or modernization of agricultural road infrastructure
(internal roads or access roads), including utilities needed for the project;
o New buildings and/or modernization of diary cow farms which fit with
the milk quota European system;
o New buildings and/or modernization of greenhouses, including heating
systems and irrigation installations, utilities complying with environment
conditions;
o Purchase of new tractors, harvesting machines, machinery, installations,
equipments and accessories, specialized equipments and software;
o Purchase of new specialized transport vehicles needed for the project;

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o Purchase of high-genetic value animals only for the restoration of farms


affected by natural disasters;
o Purchase of land for administration and production purposes, for a value
which cannot exceed 10% of the eligible value of the project;
o Setting up vineyards on lands where planting is allowed (only on the
reserve land and the land where replanting is allowed);
o Setting up vineyard and fruit tree nurseries;
o Investments for the production and use of renewable energy;
o Investments for the processing the traditional agricultural products at
farm level, including equipment for direct selling of products as well as
storing and cooling rooms;
o In kind contribution for the setting up of fruit tree, shrub and vine
plantations, for a value of 20% of the eligible value of the project;
o General costs of the project consisting in: fees of architects, engineers
and consultants, feasibility studies, certification taxes, acquisition of
patent rights and licences;
o Investments related to the conversion and development of the organic
farming and agri-environment;
o Investments aiming at complying with the newly introduced Community
standards, as well as with the existing standards for investments
undertaken by young farmers receiving support under conditions
indicated in the business plan, according to the regulation.
Support intensities
Non-refundable public support consists in:
- 80 % Community contribution
- 20 % national contribution.
The public support covered by this measure shall amount between 50% -
100% of the eligible value of the project and may be differ, as follows:
a) 50 % of the eligible value of the investment for agricultural producers;
b) 55 % of the eligible value of the investment for young farmers;
c) 60 % of the eligible value of the investment for agricultural producers from
mountain areas and natural handicap areas other than mountain areas;
d) 65 % of investment costs approved for young farmers from mountain
areas and natural handicap areas other than mountain areas;
e) 75 % of the eligible value of the investment for the implementation of the
Council Directive 91/676/EEC for a period of 4 years after accession, in
compliance with the Regulation (EC) no. 1463/2006;
f) 75 % of the eligible value of the investment for the implementation of the
Council Directives 79/409/EEC and 92/43/EEC regarding Natura 2000;
g) 100 % for the restoration of the productive potential affected by natural
calamities.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Financing
o The maximum ceiling for non-refundable public support is 1 000 000
euro/project.
o The maximum ceiling for non-refundable public support for a project that
includes also investments for the generation of renewable energy is of 1
500 000 euro/project.

MEASURE 122 IMPROVING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF THE


FOREST

Objectives of the measure


• rational management of the forests and ensuring the continuity and
biodiversity of forests ecosystems;
• supporting the appliance of afforestation programs of low productive and
deteriorated forests by optimising the composition and promoting
indigenous valuable species as well;
• supporting the replacement of resinous stands outside their habitat by
native valuable species ;
• putting into practice the measures regarding conversion of wooded
grasslands and the tending of young forests as provided for in the
management plans.

Beneficiaries
a) forest owners/holders or their associations, communes, towns,
municipalities or their associations which own forests
b) State-owned forests are excluded from financing.

MEASUR 1.2.3. ADDING VALUE TO AGRICULTURAL AND


FORESTRY PRODUCTS

Objectives of the measure


The objectives target the following aspects :
1. Improvement of the overall performances of the processing and
marketing units for agricultural products;
2. Development of new products and technologies related to agriculture and
forestry products;
3. Improvement of use and observance of food safety standards by
approaching Community requirements and meeting Community standards
in processing and marketing units alongside the whole production cycle.

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Type and size of beneficiary enterprises


For Micro, medium and large-sized enterprises
agricultural Other enterprises which are not micro, medium and large-sized
products enterprises, defined in compliance, with less than 750 employees
and with a turnover of less than 200 million EUR

For forest Micro-enterprises -, with less than 10 employees and with a


products turnover of less than 2 million EUR,

For agricultural products


o the construction, modernization and purchase of buildings and other
activities connected to the internal road infrastructure and utilities needed
for the project;
o new buildings and/or modernization activities for product storage,
including wholesale low-temperature storehouses;
o the purchase of new machinery, installations, equipment and devices and
installation costs;
o the construction and modernization of laboratories;
o the purchase of new specialised transport means which are necessary for
the project;
o the purchase of land for administrative and production premises, of a
value which does not exceed 10% of the eligible value of the project.
For forestry products:
- New buildings and modernization of all types of premises, needed for the
project, including utilities and fittings which do not exceed 10% of the eligible
value of the project, including leasing or purchase of land;
- New investments for buildings, installations, machinery and equipment and/or
modernization and improvement of the technology, with the purpose to obtain
new products and therefore meet environment standards, and to generate
renewable energy;
- New investments to purchase specialised transport means for the processing
units, storehouses and marketing units, as identified in the feasibility study;
- New investments to purchase computer software, including its installation.

MEASURE 1.2.5. IMPROVING AND DEVELOPING THE


INFRASTRUCTURE RELATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT AND
ADAPTATION OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY
Objectives of the measure
The measure shall contribute to the improvement of the management of
agricultural and forest land by increasing accessibility through a better
management of the water resources and by insuring the facilities within
agricultural holdings, with the purpose of adjusting the agriculture and forestry
according to the measures for increasing competitiveness.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Beneficiaries :
a) private natural persons and legal entities and their associations,
agricultural and forest land owners/holders, established in accordance
with the legislation in force;
b) Local councils and their associations;
c) Administrators of the state forest fund.

Types of eligible investments:


a. Road infrastructure
™ agricultural - building and/or modernization of access roads, farm roads,
including marking, signalling and warning systems;
™ forest - building and/or modernization of access roads, forest roads,
including marking, signalling and warning systems.
b. Management of water resources:
™ water supply networks, including the water source – building and/or
modernization, including works for protecting pumping stations;
™ sewerage network - building and/or modernization;
™ irrigation systems – building and/or modernization including works for
protecting the pumping and metering stations;
c. Electricity supply - building and/or modernization
d. Torrential correction within forest area
e. Agricultural and forestry land consolidation:
™ technical and juridical actions regarding agricultural land consolidation
™ works related to the land improvement generating a better use of the
land.

MEASUIRE 1.4.1. SUPPORT FOR SEMI-SUBSISTENCE


AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

Objectives of the measure


™ Support for semi-subsistence agricultural holdings undergoing
restructuring process in order to overcome the transition problems in the
rural area, having in view the competition pressure of the single-market
to the agricultural sector and rural economy;
™ Facilitate and encourage the restructuring of economically unviable
farms.

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Scope and actions


The scope of the support granted by this measure is to facilitate the shift
from semi-subsistence agriculture to family commercial agriculture, through:
9 Restructuring semi-subsistence farms for a better use of production
factors;
9 Diversifying the agricultural production and introducing efficient
technologies.
Amount of support
The support granted by this measure is 1500 EUR/year/semi-subsistence farm.

MEASURE 1.4.2. SETTING UP PRODUCER GROUPS


Objectives of the measure
The measure objective is a quantitative and qualitative balanced
development of the primary production alongside the processing and marketing
sectors for agricultural and forest product.
Type of aid
Within the framework of this measure, 100% non-refundable public aid is
granted as stipulated in the Annex 1 to Council regulation (EC) no. 1698/2005.
The amount granted by this measure will be determined annually on the basis of
the annual marketed production of the recognized group.

MEASURE 2.1.1 SUPPORT FOR LESS FAVOURITE AREAS


Objectives
- ensuring the continuation of agricultural land use and thereby
contributing to the viability of rural communities;
- promoting the sustainable farming systems.

Beneficiaries
The beneficiaries are natural or legal persons or groups thereof,
irrespective of the legal status of their members, providing agricultural activities
on the plots of land located in ATUs that are considered less favoured areas.

MEASURE 2.1.3. NATURA 2000 PAYMENTS

Specific objectives of the measure:


9 To support sustainable farming activities and provide compensation for the
losses incurred by the farmers due to the management requirements imposed by
the implementation of the two directives.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

9 Support for traditional agricultural activities in order to maintain the


attractiveness and specific traits of the rural landscape.
9 Conservation of biological diversity – community interest wild species of flora
and fauna and priority habitats – by the maintenance of traditional farming
activities.
Beneficiaries
Farmers – natural or legal persons or groups of natural or legal persons,
irrespective of their legal status, practicing agriculture in the areas of Natura 2000
sites designated in Romania.

MEASURE 2.1.4. AGRI-ENVIRONMENT PAYMENTS


Specific objectives:
a) to develop organic farming as an environmentally-friendly method of
agricultural production;
b) to maintain the biodiversity and landscape value of grasslands, including
the significant areas of High Nature Value (HNV) grassland which are
under increasing threat from changing land use, agricultural
intensification and/or abandonment;
c) to improve water and soil management by farmers, including in those
areas affected by severe erosion and at risk of nutrient losses.
List of existing sub-measures:
Sub-measure 1 - Organic farming;
Sub-measure 2 Extensive management of grasslands;
Sub-measure 3 - Soil and water protection.

Beneficiaries
Natural or legal persons, or groups of natural or legal persons,
irrespective of the legal status of the group and/or its members, provided they
develop farming activities on the national territory.

MEASURE. 2.2.1. FIRST AFFORESTATION OF AGRICULTURAL


LAND
Objectives of the measure
Increasing the afforested non-agricultural land in order to:
a) improve the quality of the environment
b) provide wood for bio energy purposes;
c) increase the protective use of forests;
Types of investments
The applicants will receive support for the afforestation of agricultural
land. The support consists of compensation payments made to the beneficiaries
for:

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a) Establishment costs (including costs for plant material, actual planting


and direct costs for planting and the like)
b) Costs for after planting according to the technical norms in force (annual
premium per ha for up to 5 years, starting with the establishment year)
c) Compensation for loss of income due to afforestation (annual premium
per ha for up to 15 years, starting with the establishment year)

MEASURE 2.2.3. FIRST AFFORESTATION OF NON-AGRICULTURAL


LAND
Objectives of the measure
Increasing the afforested non-agricultural land in order to:
a) improve the quality of the environment
b) increase the recreational use of forests;
c) provide wood for bio energy purposes;

MEASURE 2.2.4. NATURA 2000 PAYMENTS


Objectives of the measure
This measure helps the forest owners affected by the specific restrictions
for Natura 2000 sites in the areas in which they perform their activity.
Beneficiaries
The private forest owners or their associations.
Types of investments
At present there are no management plans, and the restrictions imposed
by these plans in order to ensure the preservation of the biodiversity in the
NATURA 2000 sites cannot be quantified in order to balance out the costs for
income losses; it is estimated that the measure will be implemented starting with
2010.

MEASURE 3.1.1 (311 +312) SUPPORT FOR DIVERSIFICATION INTO


NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES; SUPPORT FOR BUSINESS
CREATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Objectives of the measure
Developing the multifunctional characteristic of the rural area by
sustaining the non-agricultural economic activities within the agricultural
household and, more generally, the economic activities in the rural area, with the
aim of :
a) Increasing the additional income of the subsistence and semi-
subsistence farms, coming from non agricultural activities
b) Creating employment in rural areas

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

c) Valorising the local potential


d) Limiting depopulation in rural space
e) Creating services for the rural population
f) Valorising the potential of producing renewable energy
g) Developing the rural tourism
h) Promoting the entrepreneurship.
Beneficiaries
™ members of rural households (i.e. natural authorized persons and their
associations or legal entities and their associations, which are registered
in the Agricultural Register and perform agricultural activities when they
apply for support);
™ micro-enterprises as defined by the legislation in force (enterprises
which employ fewer than 10 persons and whose total does note exceed 2
million EUR);
General requirements:
™ The investments must be located in rural area
™ The beneficiary must support the co-financing
™ The beneficiary must demonstrate the economic and financial viability of
his project and present the necessary clearances
™ The beneficiary must provide written evidence justifying his ownership
rights or his rights to lease his land for a period of at least 10 years
™ The micro-enterprise must be registered and/or must perform the
activities in the rural area
™ The beneficiaries must demonstrate professional relevant skills
™ The employees of a micro-enterprise must demonstrate professional skills
or experience in the relevant field or show evidence of their future
attending training courses in the relevant field
™ At least 50% of the employees of a micro-enterprise must have a
permanent address in the rural area
™ The agri-tourist units must observe the General and Regional Town
Planning, the architectural specificities of the area and the classification
criteria provided by the legislation in force
™ The interior design of the tourist units must preserve and highlight the
traditional style

Aid intensities
The public support (community and national) granted within this
measure will be up to 70% of the total of eligible expenditures.
The community co-financing rate: 80%
The national rate co-financing : 20%

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MEASURE 3.1.3 ENCOURAGEMENT OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES


Objectives of the measure
The objective of this measure is to increase the attractiveness of rural area
by creating, improving and diversifying the tourist infrastructure, the facilities and
the attractions.
Actions envisaged: The support under this measure shall cover:
a) investments for the infrastructure related to the marketing of the rural
tourist services;
b) investments for the recreational infrastructure;
c) investments for highlighting the natural sightseeing of tourist interest in
rural area;
d) writing out of studies and analyses regarding the needs and tourist
potential within clearly demarcated rural areas, with the purpose of
valorising and developing these areas
Description of the type of operations covered
Within this measure, several investments can be realised, for instance for:
a) the infrastructure related to the marketing of tourist services in rural
area, such as :
™ Construction, modernization and outfitting the information, promotion
and presentation centres and creation of visiting spaces.
™ Development of electronic systems for booking the tourist reception units
in rural area;
™ Signs posting.
Beneficiaries
1. The local councils and their associations (as defined in the legislation in
force)
2. Non governmental organisations (NGOs)
Types of support
The support will be granted as a non-refundable public aid which
cannot exceed 500.000 Euro/project for a period of maximum 5 years. The lower
limit of the non-refundable public aid will be 5000 Euro/project.

MEASURE 3.2.2 (321 + 322 +323) VILLAGE RENEWAL AND


DEVELOPMENT, CONSERVATION AND UPGRADING OF THE
RURAL HERITAGE
The objective of the measure
The objective of the measure is to increase the attractiveness of the rural
areas by means of an integrated renovation and development of the villages for
the sustainable development.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Beneficiaries
The Local Councils and their associations (according to the legislation in
force);
NGOs for the components;
Natural persons, legal entities, cultural institutions and churches for the
component.
Description of the type of intervention
™ Creation and modernization of the rural infrastructure
™ Design of the spaces of public interest within the village
™ Studies and investments for protecting the cultural patrimony of local
interest;
™ Investments for improving the basic services for the rural population
Types of support
The support will be granted as a non-refundable public aid which
cannot exceed 1.000.000 Euro for components a) and d) and 500.000 Euro for
components b) and c).
In case of integrated projects, the upper limit of the non-refundable aid will not
exceed 2,5 millions Euro.
Aid intensities
The public support (community and national) granted within this measure will be:
a) up to 100% of the total eligible expenditures for the local councils
and their associations;
b) up to 85 % of the total eligible expenditures for the NGOs, cultural
and religious institutions
c) up to 70% of the total eligible expenditures for natural persons and
legal entities.

MEASURE 3.4.1. ANIMATION AND SKILL ACQUISITION FOR THE


DRAFTING OF THE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
Objectives of the measure
The objective of the measure aims at increasing the local capacity with
the purpose of implementing local development strategies and public-private
partnerships (other than local action groups).
The measures which will be implemented by the public-private
partnerships are all the measures of Axis 3, namely:
Diversification into non agricultural activities and support for business
creation and development with the purpose to promote the entrepreneurship
and develop economic products )
Encouragement of tourism activities
Village renewal and development
A maximum percentage of 15% of the public expenditures of the local
development strategies will be allocated for the running costs of the partnerships.

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MEASURE 4.1. IMPLEMENTATION OF LOCAL DEVELOPMENT


STRATEGIES
411 – Improving the competitiveness of the agricultural and forestry sector
413 – The quality of life in rural areas and diversification of the rural
economy

Objectives

By improving the local govern ship and promoting the local potential is
expected to.
™ Improve the competitiveness of the agriculture and forestry sector
and also the quality of life and diversifying the rural economy
™ Encourage the innovative actions (new solutions for old problems,
introducing and development of new products, new market
systems, modernization of traditional activities by applying new
technologies, etc.)

Conclusions
1. By the measures of FEADR Romania is the beneficiary of important funds for
agriculture and rural development.
2. FEADR measures are in accordance with the four axes settled by the EC
Regulation 1968/96
3. FEADR and EFP come-next-after the investments made by Romania through
SAPARD Programme.
4. As compared to SAPARD funds these funds are more diverse, but the
accession conditions are other different
5. The number of FEADR measures is greater than the number of SAPARD
measures and their total value is substantially higher.

References
1. Reg. (EC) nr. 1698/2005
2. Ordin nr. 243 din 14 aprilie 2006
3. Legea nr. 1/2004
4. Ordonanţa de urgenţă a Guvernului nr. 13/2006
5. Hotărârea Guvernului nr. 155/2005
6. Reglementarea (EC) Nr 1782/2003
7. Reglementarea (EC) Nr 1257/1999
8. Regulamentul (ce) nr. 1290/2005 al consiliului din 21 iunie 2005
9. HG 13/2006, privind infiintarea APDRP
10. Reglementarea Consiliului (EC) Nr 1782/2003

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PERSPECTIVE OF RURAL AREA DEVELOPMENT BY


EUROPEAN FONDS FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL
DEVELOPMENT
T. ROBU, E. ŢICAU, I. GILCĂ

Since the accession of Romania to the EU, the founds intended for the
rural space and agriculture development will be numerous and substantial. Even
writhin 2000 and 2006, Romania was the beneficiosy of various pre accession
funds. Out of them, the SAPARD Programme was the most important.

MATHERIAL AND METHODS


The authors of this research papers used information from field and from
the ex BRIPS (Regional Office for Implementation of SAPARD Program) 1 Nord
Est Iasi, actually CRPDRP Iasi (Regional Center of Payment for Rural
Development and Fisheries. The data was analysed and processed in the aim of
study the role of SAPARD Program in the Region of Development 1 Nord Est in
generally and, in particulary the impact of Iasi County development, focused by
animal breeding field.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Throw SAPARD Program the agriculture and rural area of Romania beneficieted
of 11 measures in the folowing domains:
food industry;
infrastructure development;
agriculture and ecological agriculture;
another activities specified for rural area;
phyto and veterinary hygiene and food safety;
forestry;
human resuorces.
On these domains at the level of Development’s Region 1 North East in
the period of implementation of SAPARD Program (2000-2006) delivered and
declared as concordance 1264 projects (table 1 and figures).

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Table 1
The situation of concordace’s projects in the Region 1 North East
CRPDRP 1 IASI
MEASURES
No of Projects Value in EURO
M 1.1 132 179,278,477
M 1.2 3 5.999.944
M 2.1 293 242.445.701
M 3.1 514 123.209.836
M 3.4 296 41.780.388
M 3.5 26 18.227.186
TOTAL 1.264 610.941.533

PROIECTE CONFORME
CONCORDANCE’S PROJECTS - REGIUNEA
– REGIONE11
No of
Nr. Projects -–1.264
Proiecte 1.264

600
514

500

400 M 1.1
293 296 M 1.2
M 2.1
300
M 3.1
M 3.4
200 132
M 3.5

100 26
3

0
M 1.1 M 1.2 M 2.1 M 3.1 M 3.4 M 3.5

CONCORDANCE’S
PROIECTE CONFORME PROJECTS – REGIONE
- REGIUNEA 11
Value ofproiecte
Valoare Projects –- 610.941.533
610.941.533 EURO
EURO
242.445.701
250.000.000

200.000.000 179.278.477

M 1.1
150.000.000 123.209.836 M 1.2
M 2.1
M 3.1
100.000.000
M 3.4
41.780.388 M 3.5
50.000.000
18.227.186
5.999.944

0
M 1.1 M 1.2 M 2.1 M 3.1 M 3.4 M 3.5

From the data of table and figures we obseved that in the Region 1 North
East was declared as concordance 1264 projects. The most accessed was the
measure 3.1. „Investments in the agricultural exploitations” with 514

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

concordace’s projects. As value, the most part of founds was investment in rural
infrastructure, respectively 242.445.701 Euro. In this measure was realised over
1400 km of commune’s roads, over 800 km of water network and over 450 km of
sewerage network. Thus, much money was investment in the measure 1.1.
„Achievement of the processing and marketing of agricultral adn fisheries
products”. In this field was invested 179,278,477 Euro, on a number of 132
projects with an average value of 1 350 000 Euro pre project

The situation of yhe concordance’s projects from the Region 1 North


East, per every county are presented in the table 2 and figures.

Table 2
The situation of the concordance’s projects on the counties
(Region 1 North East)
MEASURE TOTAL
CRPDRP 1 IASI %
M 1.1 M 3.1 M 3.4 M 3.5 M 1.2 M 2.1 COUNTY
BACAU No projects 14,16% 23 52 50 2 1 51 179
BACAU Value EURO 16,11% 33.873.804 13.640.958 5.267.024 1.807.652 1.999.953 41.815.655 98.405.046
BOTOSAN
No projects 14,48% 15 107 15 1 0 45 183
I
BOTOSAN
Value EURO 14,75% 23.302.210 25.168.231 1.485.659 737.795 0 39.433.232 90.127.127
I
NEAMT No projects 15,03% 11 70 56 8 0 45 190
NEAMT Value EURO 12,34% 12.092.942 16.494.295 8.934.490 4.957.522 0 32.893.547 75.372.797
IASI No projects 18,67% 20 123 43 0 1 49 236
IASI Value EURO 19,05% 35.312.420 28.887.839 4.716.957 0 1.999.991 45.440.462 116.357.669
SUCEAVA No projects 24,92% 37 82 114 15 1 66 315
SUCEAVA Value EURO 24,40% 46.091.803 16.478.193 19.500.254 10.724.217 2.000.000 54.302.359 149.096.825
VASLUI No projects 12,74% 26 80 18 0 0 37 161
VASLUI Value EURO 13,35% 28.605.299 22.540.320 1.876.006 0 0 28.560.445 81.582.070
100,00
No projects 132 514 296 26 3 293 1.264
TOTAL %
REGION 100,00
Value EURO 179.278.477 123.209.836 41.780.388 18.227.186 5.999.944 242.445.701 610.941.533
%

CONCORDANCE’S PROJECTS – ON THE


PROIECTE CONFORME - PE JUDETE
COUNTIES
Nr. Proiecte
No of Projects-–1.264
1.264
179
161
183

315 190

236

BACAU BOTOSANI NEAMT


IASI SUCEAVA VASLUI

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CONCORDANCE’S
PROIECTE CONFORME PROJECTS
- PE –JUDETE
ON THE
COUNTIES
Valoare
Value - 610.941.533
of Projects EURO
– 610.941.533 EURO
98,405,046

81,582,070

90.127.127

149.096.825 75,372,797

116,357,669

BACAU BOTOSANI NEAMT


IASI SUCEAVA VASLUI

With the data from the table and figures presented above we observed that
the best situation is in the Suceava county (315 projects and 149096825 Euro)
folow of Iasi conty (236 projects and 116357669 Euro) and the worst situation is
in the Vaslui as a number of projects (161 projects) and Neamt county as a total
value (75372797 Euro). However, the Region 1 North East with 264 projects and
610941533 Euro are situated in the first three places in competition with all 8
Regional Development from Romania.
The situation of implementation of SAPARD Program in Iasi county are
presented in the table 3 and table 4, and the figures respectively.

Table 3
The implementation of SAPARD Program in Iasi county by the domain of
investments

IASI COUNTY
MEASURE
No of Projects Value in EURO
M 1.1 20 35,312,420
M 1.2 1 1,999,991
M 2.1 49 45,440,462
M 3.1 123 28,887,839
M 3.4 43 4,716,957
M 3.5 0 0
TOTAL 236 116,357,669

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

CONCORDANCE’S PROJECTS
PROIECTE CONFORME – IASI COUNTY
- JUDETUL IASI
No Proiecte
Nr. of Projects-–236
236

250 236

200
M 1.1
M 1.2
150 M 2.1
123
M 3.1
M 3.4
100
M 3.5
49 TOTAL
43
50
20
1 0
0
M 1.1 M 1.2 M 2.1 M 3.1 M 3.4 M 3.5 TOTAL

CONCORDANCE’S
PROIECTE CONFORMEPROJECTS – IASI COUNTY
- JUDETUL IASI
Value
Valoare of Projects
proiecte – 116.357.669
- 116.357.669 EURO

120,000,000 116,357,669

100,000,000
M 1.1
80,000,000 M 1.2
M 2.1
60,000,000 45,440,462 M 3.1
M 3.4
35,312,420
40,000,000 28,887,839 M 3.5
TOTAL
20,000,000
1,999,991 4,716,957
0
0
M 1.1 M 1.2 M 2.1 M 3.1 M 3.4 M 3.5 TOTAL

Table 4
Implementation of SAPARD Program in Iasi county in the Measure 3.1.
IASI COUNTY
MEASURE
Nr. Proiecte Valoare EURO
M 3.1 123 28,887,839
From which:
Field crops 65 10,947,861
Viticulture 2 432,941
Fruit tree growing 7 221,321
Hot houses 3 958,673
Dayri cattle 36 9,334,925
Sheeps and goats 1 85,764.38
Swine 7 4,797,219
Poultry 2 1,033,009

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7 2
1
field crops
culturi de camp
viticulture
viticultura
fruit tree growing
pomicultura
36 hot
sere houses
65
dayr cattle
animale pentru lapte
sheep
crestereandoi/capre
goats
swine
porcine
3 poultry
pasari:
7
2

4% culturi
field de camp
crops
17% viticulture
viticultura

39% fruit tree growing


pomicultura
0%
hot
serehouses
dayr cattle
animale pentru lapte
sheep and oi/capre
crestere goats

34% 2% swine
porcine
poultry
pasari:
1%

3%

In Iasi county was accessed 236 projects with a total value of 116357669
Euro from which the most number was in Meausre 3.1. (123 projects), but the
most value was registered in Measure 2.1. and 1.1. (45440462 Euro and
35312420 Euro respectively). Into the Measure 3.1. in Iasi county (total 123
projects) the most number was accessed in the domain of field crops (65 projects
with 10947861 Euro) and dayri cattle farms (36 projects with 9334925 Euro).

CONCLUSIONS
ƒ In the Region 1 North East was declared as concordnace a number of
1264 projects with a total value of 610.941.533 Euro
ƒ The most accessed was the Measure 3.1. with 514 projects but the the
biggest value was registered at the Measure 2.1., iar valorea cea mai mare
s-a inregistrat la masura 2.1
ƒ The mostnumber of projects was in Suceava county and the least number
in Vaslui county.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

ƒ In Iasi county the most accesssed measure war 3.1. but the mos value was
registered at the 2.1. and 1.1 measures
ƒ The most accessed domain of the Measure 3.1. in Iasi county was the
achievement of dayri cattle exploitations

REFERENCES
1. Planul National pentru Agricultura si Dezvoltare Rurala 2000-2006
2. Acordul Multianual de Finanţare februarie 2001
3. OUG 142/2000
4. Ordinul MAPDR 143/2005 privind definirea spatiului rural
5. Hotarârea Guvernului nr. 668/2005 pentru aprobarea fiselor tehnice ale masurilor 1.1, 1.2, 2.1,
3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 4.1 si 4.2.
6. Datele statistice ale CRPDRP 1 Iasi
7. Reglementarea 1268/1999 privind sprijinul pentru masurile de pre-aderare

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

KOSAROM COMPANIES GROUP INVESTMENTS


FOR PRODUCTS SECURITY ASSURANCE
INVESTIŢIILE GRUPULUI DE FIRME KOSAROM
PENTRU SECURITATEA PRODUSELOR
L.E. POPOVICI

Investiţiile grupului de firme Kosarom derulate pentru siguranţa


produselor s-au efectuat în cadrul legislativ european şi după regulile impuse de
organisme internaţionale certificate.
Kosarom a contrazis politica românească de a ascunde sub preş ce nu
trebuie arătat şi a apelat la verificări din partea unui organism străin, respectiv
TUW-THURINGEN acreditat de TUW.CERT Germania, care se află departe de
orice suspiciune privind corectitudinea. Astfel, S.C. Industrializarea Cărnii
Kosarom S.A., societate din cadrul grupului de firme Kosarom, a primit
certificarea ISO 22000. Acest standard stabileşte cerinţele pentru un sistem de
management al siguranţei alimentului, în care o organizaţie din lanţul alimentar
trebuie să demonstreze capacitatea sa de a controla pericolele, cu scopul de a
asigura că alimentul este sigur în momentul consumului uman.
Kosarom este prima firmă din România şi printre primele zece din Europa
care au certificat Sistemul de Management al Siguranţei Alimentare ISO 22000.

Principiul SAFE FEED – SAFE FOOD


Pentru a înţelege principiul SAFE FEED – SAFE FOOD este necesară o
scurtă prezentare a motivaţiei modernizării tehnologice şi a implementării unui
management adecvat în toate cele patru societăţi din cadrul grupului :
KOSAROM , AVI-TOP, SUINPROD şi Agricola Tîrgu Frumos.
Produsele alimentare ajung la consumatori prin intermediul lanţurilor
logistice care pot implica diferite tipuri de factori şi pot trece mai multe frontiere.
O verigă slabă poate afecta securitatea produselor alimentare ce pot deveni
periculoase pentru sănătate, generând riscuri pentru consumatori şi costuri
considerabile pentru furnizori. Întrucât riscurile cu privire la securitatea
alimentelor pot apărea în orice punct din lanţ, un control adecvat al ansamblului
este esenţial.
Pentru a controla riscurile contaminării, cele patru societăţi lucrează în
sistem integrat. Cerealele produse de către Agricola Tîrgu Frumos sunt materie
primă pentru cele două fabrici de nutreţuri combinate de la SUINPROD şi AVI-
TOP. Nutreţurile reprezintă hrana puilor de la AVI-TOP şi a porcilor de la
Suinprod Roman.
Astfel, procesatorul S.C. Industrializarea Cărnii Kosarom S.A. Paşcani
are asigurată materia primă din surse proprii, conform principiului SAFE FEED –

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

SAFE FOOD (De la furcă la furculiţă). Putem detalia trasabilitatea oricărui


produs.
Drumul a fost lung şi anevoios şi a început de la privatizarea firmelor, dar
confirmarea efectivă a capacităţii modernizării şi tenacităţii echipei manageriale, a
responsabilităţii şi maturităţii profesionale a devenit evidentă însă după anul 2002,
o dată cu auditările în vederea primelor certificări. Prima verigă a lanţului
alimentar am considerat-o a fi producerea controlată a cerealelor, care reprezintă
materia primă pentru fabricarea furajelor. În acest scop, la S.C. Agricola Tîrgu
Frumos S.A. am investit pentru achiziţionarea de maşini agricole şi crearea
condiţiilor de depozitare, conservare şi transport a cerealelor. Procesarea
cerealelor şi obţinerea nutreţurilor combinate, corespunzător necesităţilor fiecărei
specii şi categorii, o asigurăm în unităţile proprii. Cele două fabrici de nutreţuri
combinate (FNC) de la SUINPROD Roman şi AVI-TOP Iaşi asigură hrana
controlată a animalelor din fermele proprii. Pentru producerea furajelor
corespunzătoare, la Roman, investiţiile sunt de ordinul milioanelor de dolari. În
2003, s-au cifrat la 7 milioane dolari, la care s-au adăugat alte două milioane
dolari în următorii doi ani pentru ridicarea fabricilor de şrot soia şi full – fath soia.
În cursul anului 2006 am pus în funcţiune 5 silozuri, în sistem de control absolut
al calităţii. Peste 1 milion de euro s-au cheltuit pentru modernizarea FNC Iaşi.
Noutatea absolută o reprezintă importarea tehnologiilor de ultimă
generaţie din SUA şi U.E., bazate pe procedee de lucru principial noi. Astfel,
proteina din soia se obţine prin metode mecanice şi nu prin procedee chimice de
extracţie cu solvenţi, incompatibile cu normele de siguranţă a produsului
alimentar.
Baza de materii prime pentru abatorizare şi industrializare o realizăm în
fermele proprii, în care atât spaţiile de cazare şi dotările specifice cât şi
tehnologiile utilizate au fost subordonate nevoii de a răspunde cerinţelor impuse
de realizarea obiectivelor primordiale privind securitatea alimentară. Astfel, la
S.C. SUINPROD ROMAN, care prin performanţele realizate este lider în
România în domeniul creşterii porcului, ne-am propus producerea celui mai bun
porc destinat sacrificării. Utilizăm cele mai bune tehnologii, genetică performantă
şi un program de nutriţie excepţional. Capacitatea de cazare a complexului de
porci este de 40.000 capete, cu o producţie anuală de peste 5.800 tone carne viu.
Genetica utilizată este de la firma P.I.C., lider mondial în acest domeniu. SC
SUINPROD SA ROMAN a început colaborarea şi cu firma Hypor în anul 2005.
La această oră, societatea din Roman livrează tineret porcin pentru îngrăşat, porci
pentru sacrificare şi scrofiţe de prăsilă. După finalizarea proiectului de construcţie
a unei ferme de selecţie, în cursul acestui an, Suinprod Roman va reprezenta
genetica Hypor în România, devenind capabilă de a livra în ţară şi nu numai,
material genetic de mare valoare, cu un status de sănătate foarte înalt, datorită
sistemului închis de creştere promovat. Costurile pentru poziţia de lider s-au
ridicat în ultimii ani la aproximativ 90 miliarde lei, la care se adaugă alte 10
miliarde în 2006.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

La S.C. AVI-TOP S.A. în 2006, pentru siguranţa produsului am investit


în lucrări de modernizare şi extindere peste 10 milioane euro, sumă care se va
materializa într-un nou abator cu o capacitate de sacrificare de 4000 de capete/oră
şi două ferme ecologice pentru creşterea puilor de carne, cu peste 225.000 de
capete pe serie.
Carnea de porc şi o parte din carnea de pasăre sunt procesate la Kosarom
Paşcani, societate certificată ISO 22000. Celelalte firme din cadrul grupului sunt
în curs de certificare. Prin investiţii susţinute am realizat modernizarea
tehnologică, performarea angajaţilor şi crearea unei proprii reţele de distribuţie a
produselor şi preparatelor din carne Kosarom, în scopul asigurării siguranţei
alimentare.
Kosarom are în derulare investiţii de peste 12 milioane de euro pentru
modernizarea abatorului de porci, realizarea capacităţii de preambalare produse,
extinderea capacităţii de livrare, amenajarea unui depozit de salamuri fierte şi
uscate, extinderea reţelei de franciză.
Prin realizarea acestora au fost create condiţiile în baza cărora Kosarom a
obţinut certificarea ISO 22000, care reprezintă nu doar un titlu de nobleţe ci, mai
cu seamă, un argument cu valoare incontestabilă pentru creşterea încrederii
consumatorului în produsele Kosarom.
Prin finalizarea unui volum de aproximativ 28-30 milioane euro,
Kosarom va rămâne între principalii jucători de pe piaţă din domeniul său de
activitate.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

IMMUNOSEROLOGICAL METHODS FOR DETECTING


THE BLOOD GROUP FACTORS IN SHEEP

Gh. HRINCĂ, M. GROZA, Elena FECIORU, I. CHIORESCU

The methodological principle which lies at the basis of the blood group
determination is the immunoserological reaction between antigens and
antibodies. In sheep two methods can be applied to identify the blood group
factors: haemolysis and haemagglutination; in both methods the antigens are
represented by erythrocytes and the antibodies by isoimmune or heteroimmune
reagents; in the haemolysis reaction the rabbit complement is necessary too. The
haemolysis is the most frequent method to detect the erythrocyte factors, being
used in the blood group systems A, B, C, M, R-O and X-Z. The
haemagglutination technique is specific only to the system D.

The immunogenetic typification of sheep is achieved detecting some


immunobiochemical entities named blood group factors (5). The identification of
the blood group factors is made by different immunoserogical reactions between
antigens and antibodies. In sheep the haemolysis reaction is the most used
method. Seldom agglutination phenomena (for example, haemagglutination) are
possible. By combination between antigen and antibody a new structure is created
whose properties are different both of the ones of the antigen and of the ones of
the free antibody. The modalities in which these phenomena take place depend on
the nature of the antigen and antibody, presence or absence of different auxiliary
factors, as well as of the conditions in which the reaction is proceeded (1, 3, 5).
The paper describes two methods to identify the blood group factors in sheep for
parentage testing of their reproduction material, this aspect having an important
contribution to the selection and improvement of the farm animal populations.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


The elements of the immunoserological system are represented by antigen
and antibody. Both in the haemolytic method and in the haemagglutination
method the antigens are represented by sheep erythrocytes drawn by jugular vein
puncture in a solution of sodium citrate; also, the antibodies are represented by
isoimmune and heteroimmune antisera (reagents). In the haemolysis reaction the
rabbit complement is necessary.
The immunoserogical reactions take place in the Takátsy microtitration
case for haemolysis and on a glass plate (slide) for haemagglutination.
The preparation of standard erythrocyte suspensions is made in
haemolysis test-tubes.

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DESCRIPTION OF THE IMMUNOSEROLOGICAL METHODS


In sheep two methods are used to study the blood group serology:
haemolysis and haemagglutination.
Haemolysis reaction
The haemolysis is the most frequent serological method to determine
blood groups in sheep being met in the systems A, B, C, M, D, R-O and X-Z. The
immunological principle which lies at the basis of this reaction type is union of
antigens on the erythrocyte surface with specific antibodies from blood serum; in
this reaction the complement presence is compulsory (fig. 1). The complement is
linked with the antigen-antibody complex, producing the lysis of the erythrocyte
membrane.

a) Antibody Antigen Complement


(Immunogenetic complex)

b) Positive reaction (presence of specific antibody) Haemolysis

c) Negative reaction (absence of specific antibody) Erythrocyte sediment and supernatant

Fig. 1. – Haemolysis reaction in sheep

The haemolysis reaction is possible only if the three component elements


of this functional unit – haemolytic system – are present in optimal and enough
quantities. If one of the system components is absent the erythrocyte haemolysis
does not take place. The expulsion of haemoglobin from erythrocyte (haemolysis)
is a complex process with participation of the three components (fig. 1a):
1. The antigens – represented by erythrocytes washed with physiological
serum, being obtained a solution of 2% standard concentration.
The preparing of the standard erythrocyte suspensions is made in this
way: the erythrocytes of whole blood, mixed with anticoagulant, are submitted to
some successive washing operations with physiological serum. Then the blood
samples are centrifuged at 3000 rot/min. The supernatant is removed with the help
of a pipette with a rubber tube adapted to a vacuum tube (pump). This operation is
repeated 3-4 times till the supernatant becomes perfectly clear. By this proceeding

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

the whole quantity of plasma and anticoagulant from blood is removed, being
obtained an erythrocyte store (sediment). With the help of a graduated pipette, 10
ml of physiological serum is poured in a centrifuge test-tube in which is
suspended 0.25 ml blood from the store of washed erythrocytes. This test-tub is
closed with a rubber cork and is agitated till the solution becomes homogeneous.
This represents the standard suspension. The other erythrocytes of the working set
will be compared with this standard solution. In all test-tubes so much
physiological serum will be added till all solutions will have the same colour
intensity with the one of the standard suspension. All these standardized
suspensions (obtained by this colorimetric proceeding) will be immediately used
in the haemolytic test. If the suspensions are kept in the fridge they can be used
the next day too.
2. The antibodies – represented by specific antisera (reagents) for every
erythrocyte type. They can be isoimmune (isoantibodies) obtained by
isoimmunisation technique and heteroimmune (heteroantibodies) obtained by
heteroimmune technique. Their obtaining methodology was described in a
previous paper (2).
3. The complement – is an integrant part of the haemolytic system,
globulin and lipoprotein fractions going in its composition which form the two
structural groups: haptofor and toxofor. The haptofor group achieves the
connection between antibodies and antigens (situated on the erythrocyte surface)
and the toxofor accomplishes the so-called haemolysis processes. In the
haemolytic test for the blood group study the integral rabbit serum is exclusively
used because it does not create pseudoreactions in this process. The rabbit blood
is drawn (approximate 30-40 ml blood) either by section of auricular vein or by
heart puncture. After coagulation the serum is centrifuged at 3000 rot/min. Then
the supernatant is absorbed on sheep erythrocytes lest it should contain antibodies
against sheep erythrocytes. The complement purified in this way is poured in
glass phials and is stored in the freezer at -30oC. It will be used in haemolytic test
at the opportune moment.
The antigen-antibody reactions take place in the buckets of plexiglass
plates of the Takátsy microtitration case. The depth of a bucket is 1.5 cm and its
diameter is 8 mm.
The working set is constituted of plexiglass plates including buckets with
horizontal rows and vertical columns (fig. 2).
In each horizontal row two drops of the same reagent which must be
tested are dropped for each bucket. So, the row number is equal with the one of
reagent serums used for immunogenetic testing. (For example, for the 13 antisera
of our working set 13 rows of buckets were used).
In each vertical column a drop of the erythrocyte suspension of the same
individual is dropped for each bucket. So, the column number is equal with the
number of individuals (erythrocyte suspensions) which must be typified.
The plexiglass plates are strongly agitated to achieve the quantitative
mixture of antibodies with erythrocytes. After 10 minutes a complement drop is
dropped in each bucket.

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Another plexiglass plate is destined to the two serological tests. Two


horizontal rows will be used and the number of buckets from each row is equal
with number of erythrocyte suspensions:
1) the physiological serum test: in the first row, three drops of
physiological serum and a drop of each erythrocyte suspension are dropped in
each bucket;
2) the complement test: in the second row, two drops of physiological
serum, a drop of erythrocyte suspension and a drop of complement are dropped in
each bucket.
These two tests must indicate a negative reaction, so that the haemolysis
must not appear; otherwise, the physiological serum or complement could not be
used in the haemolytic test.

Erythrocyte
suspensions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10…..k…..n-1.....n

Antiserum AaOOOOOOOOOOOOO
Antiserum Ab O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum Bb O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum Bc O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum Bd O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum Be O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum Bf O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum Bh O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum Ca O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum Cb O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum Ma O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum R O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Antiserum O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

Fig. 2. – Bucket scheme on the plexiglass plates of the Takátsy microtitration case

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

After the three reactant elements are introduced in buckets the plexiglass
plates are again agitated and are incubated at 25-26oC in thermostat. The results of
the haemolytic reactions are read at ½ hour, 2½ hours and 5 hours. After each
reading the plexiglass plates are agitated in order that the reaction medium from
buckets be homogenized. The haemolysis process indicates the presence of a
certain blood group factor (fig 1b) and if the haemolysis reaction is negative it
means that no erythrocyte antigen was identified (fig. 1c).
Detection (identification) of the blood group factors (fig. 3). After
incubation the different haemolysis degrees are estimated beginning with its
absence till total haemolysis. The estimation is made by a scale between 0 and 4,
the following haemolysis degrees being distinguished:
0 – Absent haemolysis. The immunoserological reaction is negative. All
red cells are deposited in a button shape in the bottom of bucket. The supernatant
is completely clear (fig. 3a);
+ – Incipient haemolysis. The erythrocyte sediment is almost like in the
negative reaction. Though the liquid above has a lightly reddish shade caused by a
low haemoglobin quantity derived from haemolysis of very few red cells (fig. 3b);
1 – Light haemolysis. A lot of erythrocytes are deposited, but almost 25%
of red cells are lysed. The supernatant liquid is lightly coloured in red (fig. 3c);
2 – More emphasized haemolysis. About half of erythrocytes are lysed
and the other half is deposited. The supernatant liquid is more intensely coloured
in red (fig. 3d);
3 – Very advanced haemolysis. Very few erythrocytes are deposited on
the bottom of bucket. Approximately 75% of red cells are haemolysed. The
supernatant liquid has a strong red colour (fig. 3e);
4 – Complete haemolysis. No erythrocyte is deposited. The erythrocyte
lysis is 100%. The supernatant has a very intense red colour, colour that remains
stable by its agitation too (fig. 3f).

a b c d e f
Absent Incipient 25% haemolysis 50% haemolysis 75%haemolysis 100% haemolysis
haemolysis haemolysis

Fig. 3. – Haemolysis degrees of antigen-antibody reaction

The results of immunoserolgical reactions, suggested by the haemolysis


degree, are registered in “Haemolytic test files” (tab. 1). The haemolysis degree
resulted in immunoserological reaction is pointed out at the crossing between the
boxes which indicate the reagent antiserum and the erythrocyte suspension. The

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reactions with 0, + and 1 haemolysis degrees are considered negative reactions,


notifying the absence of the blood group factors. The reactions with 2, 3 and 4
haemolysis degrees are considered positive reactions, certifying the existence of
erythrocyte factors in manifest status.
Starting from the “Haemolytic test file”, a “Protocol file of the haemolytic
test” is drawn up (tab. 2); in this document, only in the box in which the
haemolysis degree indicates the presence of erythrocyte antigens (the 2, 3 and 4
degrees) there is registered the respective erythrocyte factor.
Table 1
Haemolytic test file
Reagents Erythrocyte suspensions (antigens)
(antibodies,
antisera) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 k n-1 n
Anti-Aa 0 1 4 1 + 1 0 3 + 1 4 3 +
Anti-Ab 3 1 1 1 4 2 0 1 + 1 3 1 4
Anti-Bb + 2 0 4 0 1 3 1 4 1 1 + 3
Anti-Bc + 4 4 1 1 3 1 0 3 + + + +
Anti-Bd 1 + 3 + 4 1 4 + 4 + 1 4 +
Anti-Be 2 0 + 3 1 4 3 + 0 3 + 4 +
Anti-Bf 4 1 + 4 3 + + + 1 4 2 3 0
Anti-Bh 0 3 1 + + 4 + 4 + 0 4 3 3
Anti-Ca 0 1 + 1 4 1 1 0 1 4 + 0 4
Anti-Cb 3 + 0 1 0 + 3 0 1 3 4 + 0
Anti-Ma 4 3 4 + 1 4 4 1 3 + 0 1 1
Anti-R + 0 3 0 0 4 3 + 3 + 1 + 4
Anti-O 1 0 1 3 4 1 + 3 + 4 1 + +

Table 2
Protocol file of the haemolytic test
Blood Erythrocyte suspensions (antigens)
group
factors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 k n-1 n
Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa
Ab Ab Ab Ab Ab Ab
Bb Bb Bb Bb Bb Bb
Bc Bc Bc Bc Bc
Bd Bd Bd Bd Bd Bd
Be Be Be Be Be Be Be
Bf Bf Bf Bf Bf Bf Bf
Bh Bh Bh Bh Bh Bh Bh
Ca Ca Ca Ca
Cb Cb Cb Cb Cb
Ma Ma Ma Ma Ma Ma Ma
R R 0 0 R R R R
O O O O O

The nomenclature used to designate the blood phenotypes was the one
adopted at the International Symposium of Blood Groups from Jouy-en-Josas (4).
In the immunogenetic typifying case with the isoimmune reagents with capital

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letter there is specified the affiliation of the erythrocyte factor to the blood group
system and with small letter is defined the antigenic specificity of respective
blood factor (for example, the notation Bc signifies the erythrocyte factor c which
belongs to the blood group system B). When the heteroimmune antibodies are
used in immunoserogical reaction with sheep erythrocytes, the nomenclature from
cattle is used to designate the blood group factor specificity (with capital letter:
for example, the notation R indicates the blood factor R of the R-O system).
As such, starting from the “Protocol files of the haemolytic test”, there
were established the blood formulae (blood groups) of the individuals which were
immunogenetically analysed. For example, the individual, which corresponds to
the erythrocyte suspension 3, will have the following blood group factors: Aa, Bc,
Bd, Ma, R (tab. 2).

Haemagglutination reaction
The haemolysis represents the most used type of immunoserogical
reaction for immunogenetic typification of individuals in most species of farm
animals. In a few cases the imunoserological reaction takes place according to the
haemagglutination principle. In sheep the haemagglutnation is present only in the
system D. The presence of complement can cause haemolysis, but the results are
not conclusive. The principle of the haemagglutination method consists in the
aggregation of erythrocytes by the antibodies that present complementary
structures to specific antigenic properties on the red cell surface. The
identification of blood factors in the system D in sheep is made on glass slides on
which are put some drops of more specific antisera. A drop of integral blood from
the analysed subject is added over each reagent drop (fig. 4). The agglutination
reaction will appear at the antiserum that contains specific antibodies to antigenic
determinants on the erythrocyte membrane of subject. The agglutination reaction
points out the presence of the respective blood factors (fig. 4a). The negative
agglutination reaction indicates absence of erythrocyte factors (fig. 4b). The
operation is repeated with the other blood samples of individuals submitted to
immunoserological test.

a) Antibody Antigen Positive reaction Agglutinated blood cells


(presence of specific antibody)

b) Antibody Antigen Negative reaction Blood cells in suspension


(absence of specific antibody)
Fig. 4. – Haemagglutination reaction in sheep

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*
The identification of blood group factors in sheep by these methods
represents an essential contribution to solve some theoretical and practical
breeding problems of this species as: valuation of genetic resources within the
species, breeds and varieties, estimation of immunogenetic polymorphism and of
homozigotness and heterozygotness degree in sheep populations, increase of
animal productivity by association or correlation of erythrocyte factors with the
production, reproduction and health parameters, accuracy increase of
reproduction, selection and improvement processes by parentage determination of
the reproduction material.

CONCLUSIONS
1. The methodological principle which lies at the basis of the blood group
determination is the immunoserological reaction between antigens and antibodies.
2. In sheep two methods can be applied to identify the blood group
factors: haemolysis and haemagglutination; in both methods the antigens are
represented by erythrocytes and the antibodies by isoimmune or heteroimmune
reagents; in the haemolysis reaction the rabbit complement is necessary too.
3. The haemolysis is the most frequent method to detect the erythrocyte
factors, being used in the blood group systems A, B, C, M, R-O and X-Z.
4. The haemagglutination technique is specific only to the system D.

REFERENCES
1. Granciu I., Duică S., Cureu I., 1973 - Grupele sanguine la animalele domestice. Edit. Ceres,
Bucureşti.
2. Hrincă Gh., Groza M., Fecioru Elena, Ursu S., 2006 – Immunization techniques for obtaining the
blood group antibodies in sheep to test the reproduction material origin. The 35-th
Internat. Sess. of sci. Communic. of Fac. of anim. Sci., Univ. of Agr. Sci. and Vet. Med.
Bucharest: 43-49.
3. Lauf P. K., 1975 - Antigen-antibody reaction and cation transport in biomembranes:
immunophysiological aspects. Biochim. biophys. Acta, vol. 415 : 173 - 229.
4. Nguyen T. C., 1973 - Report on the Sheep Blood Groups Workshop (Jouy-en-Josas, 1973).
International Comparaison Test and General Rules for Sheep Blood Groups
Nomenclature. Anim. Blood Groups and biochem. Genet., vol. 4: 241-243.
5. Spooner R. L., 1980 - Blood Groups in Animals. In: Sci. Found. of Vet. Med. Edit. Phillipson,
Hall and Pritchard, Haineman, London: 421-427.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

ASPECTS OF THE ENDOCRINO-METABOLIC


ADAPTATION, RELATED TO THE BOVINE MEAT YIELD

P.C. BOIŞTEANU, Iolanda MĂRGĂRINT,


Cristina RADU-RUSU, Roxana LAZĂR

The paper presents a synthesis of the peculiarities concerning the


endocrine-metabolic adaptations of the bovine organism to the qualitative and
quantitative meat yield (muscular mass accumulation and fattening degree). The
essential metabolic aspects, the muscular and adipose tissue characteristics were
analyzed, as related to bovine nutrition and digestion specific.

The quantitative and qualitative aspect of beef production (muscular mass


and fattening degree increasing) results as an interaction between genetic,
metabolic and physiological factors during the animals growing period. The
morphology, the physico-chemical and biochemical composition of the bovine
meat are limitative factors of the meat quality due to their action toward the
sensorial and dietetic meat features. The energetic metabolism particularities are
those characteristics of the muscular and adipose tissues, which give the
biochemical composition of the meat (protein deposition and especially the
intramuscular lipid content). The energetic metabolism of the muscle and adipose
tissues of the bovine is characterized through the usage of some specific
substrates (volatile fatty acids and ketone bodies, as good as glucose), the
contribution of the long-chain carbon fatty acids being restrained.
The energetic substrates used by the muscular tissue are provided by the
rumenal fermentative processes (volatile fatty acids, mainly acetate), or by the
hepatic metabolism (ketone bodies through ketogenesis and glucose through
gluconeogenesis). The muscular and adipose tissues are metabolic active tissues,
so the specific muscular proteins, the glycogen and different lipid species
biosyntheses are mainly influenced by the specific energy requirements (ATP
synthesis and utilization), by the adaptation dynamics of various biochemical
pathways, being under a straight neuro-endocrino-metabolic coordination and
influenced by the nutritional status of the animals.
Energetic metabolism of the skeletal muscle in cattle
Musculature of the animals designed for beef production counts 35-60%
of the muscular mass.
The energetic substrates of the skeletal muscular tissue contribute to the
free energy form synthesis (ATP), used for musculature development during
growing period, for contractile activity (posture-locomotion) as good as for
thermogenesis. They could be also stored as glycogen and triglycerides; the
muscle content in these substances mainly leads to the establishment of the beef
sensorial features.
Main energetic substrates of the ruminants present exogenous origin
(volatile fatty acids, ketone bodies) or even endogenous origin (glycogen issued

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from the energetic supplies of the myocites and triglycerides issued from the
lipids mobilization within the intramuscular adipocites). These metabolic
pathways are initiated according to the nutrients uptake by the muscles and to the
existing enzymatic equipment (Fig. 1). Increment of the energetic intake
facilitates the intramuscular protein, glycogen and lipids biosynthesis; an
excessive energetic intake leads to the adipose tissue development within the
carcass, due to the induction of the insulin-resistance status within the muscles.
Nutrients turnover and distribution between anabolic (glycogenesis, lipogenesis)
and catabolic (glycolysis, lipolysis, tricarboxylic acids cycle or TCA cycle)
pathways within the muscle are not fully clarified.

According to their metabolic and contractile features, the muscular fibers


are usually classified in 3 metabolic types (glycolytic, oxidative and oxidativ –
glycolytic) and 2 contractile categories (fast and slow).
Muscular fibers having preponderant glycolytic metabolism better use
glucose as energetic substrate, have high insulin sensibility (assure the caption,
the inner cell glucose utilization, leading to muscular glycogen content
increasing), have low level of the fatty acids turnover and a poor content of
intramuscular lipids.
The blood flow carries the glucose needed for the muscular tissue, so this
supply depends on the blood debit. The evaluation of the glucose uptake by the
muscle is measured in vivo by the assessment of the arterial-venous glycaemia
difference, on the animal posterior limb. The resting muscle metabolizes glucose
through several biochemical pathways, such as: complete oxidation within

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mitochondria, recycling as lactate, conversion in muscular glycogen or even lipids


(within the intramuscular adipocites) (Hocquette, 2000).
Glucose is used by the intramuscular adipocites as precursor for de novo
lipogenesis, comparing with other adipose placements, which mainly uses acetate
and lactate as precursors.
Oxidative muscular metabolism is an essential feature of the ruminants,
the volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate) being the main final
products of the microbial feed degradation in rumen. However, only acetate states
as a true substrate used within the oxidative muscular metabolism, while
propionate is the main precursor of the hepatic gluconeogenesis (85-90%) and the
butyrate is used during hepatic metabolism in 80% proportion (Hocquette, 2000).
Cattle have limited oxidative capacity onto the long carbon chain fatty
acids, especially within the muscular tissue, as compared to non-ruminant
mammals. Despite this situation, some studies concerning the tissual lipid
metabolism in calves (Bauchart, 1999) revealed the metabolisation process of
long carbon chain fatty acids. These are transported by blood flow, from the liver
to the muscular tissue, as lipoproteins (VDLD) or as unesterified fatty acids
(UEFA) issued from lipids mobilization in the adipose tissue (Fig. 2).
The uptake of the unesterified fatty acids by the muscular tissue is straight
proportional to their arterial concentration. Triglycerides which reach the muscles
as lipoproteins (VLDL) are hydrolyzed to fatty acids and glycerol, using the
lipoproteinlipase (LPL), an enzyme with restrictive purpose in the muscle cells
supplying with energetic substances having lipoproteic origin. Inside the muscle
cells, the fatty acids are transported by some specific binding proteins (Fatty Acid
Binding Protein) to the oxidation organelles (mitochondriae and peroxizomes) or
to esterification site (cytosol).
Peroxizomes are involved in partial oxidation of the fatty acids with long
carbon chain till it reaches the acetyl CoA stage and the mitochondriae are
involved into fatty acid oxidation during the TCA cycle, finally delivering energy
(ATP). The mitochondriae content is higher in oxidative muscles, as compared to
the glycolytic ones (Hocquette, 2000). A specific enzyme (carnitine-
palmitoiltransferase I or CPT-I) is required to facilitate the fatty acids penetration
into the mitochondria. This enzyme’s activity is considered as a limitative stage of
the fatty acids mitochondrial oxidation within the calves’ muscular tissue
(Hocquette, 2000).
Another energetic substrate used in energetic metabolism of the bovine
muscular tissue consist in the ketone bodies (KB) (acetoacetate and ß-
hidroxibutirate), issued from the ketogenesis produced within the rumen
epithelium or in the hepatocytes (Pethick, 1984, quoted by Cuvelier, 2005). The
ketone bodies are converted to acetyl CoA, which is then oxidized through the
TCA cycle, delivering energy (ATP).

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During the animals growing period, during the adaptation process to the
intense and long lasting muscular efforts or even during the adaptation to low
temperatures a competition between lipids and glucose oxidation occurs (Randle
cycle). Thus, from the fatty acids degradation issues the nicotinamidic NAD+
coenzyme, ATP and acetyl CoA, which inhibit the main glucose oxidative
enzyme - piruvatedehidrogenase. Par consequence, the in vivo acetate infusion
saves glucose as energy source. Conversely, the glucose catabolism stimulation
decreases the fatty acids oxidation by CPT I inhibition. During intense or long
lasting muscular effort, a metabolic adaptation occurs, characterized by the
increasing of the energetic requirements within muscle, through glucose (supplied
from hepatic synthesis) and lipids oxidation. When glucose usage prevails in
muscle, this is converted to lactate. At the cows reared within free stalling
systems, a decrease of the glycolytic activity was observed in the muscles most
frequently utilized in movements. Thus, an increasing of the muscular oxidative
potential and the decreasing of the deposed lipids quantity occurs. The carcass
adipose mass is reduced in the bovines reared in free stalling systems, as
compared to the sedentary ones, considering the same feeding level for both
categories. The grazing bovine muscles are more sensible to insulin action and
accumulate fewer lipids within the intramuscular adipocites. This example shows
differences in beef quality, as related to different husbandry systems used.
Feeding level induces important consequences on the muscular energetic
metabolism of the young growing animals and even of the adult specimens. The
acetate and the glucose are the main energetic substrates used by the muscles of
the bovine receiving feed (Hocquette, 2000). Generally, the increasing of the

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metabolisable energy quantity is accompanied by proteins and lipids


accumulation within animal carcass. During feeding restriction or even inanition,
the availability of these substances decreases, while the concentration of
circulating unesterified fatty acids and ketone bodies increases, as a consequence
of lipid provision mobilization or due to a high hepatic ketogenesis rate
(Faulconnier, 1999). In ruminants, as good as in non-ruminants, the unesterified
fatty acids could be used straight in the muscle or indirectly, after their hepatic
transformation in ketone bodies. The poor feeding of the bovine reared within
extensive systems, during winter period, associates with the decreasing of the
adipose deposits and of the intramuscular lipids content. Regaining a normal
feeding level during spring induces a compensatory increasing of protein and lipid
storage within tissues. (Micol, 1997, quoted by Hocquette, 2000).
The energetic metabolism of the muscular tissue is also influenced by the
endocrine system, which regulates the nutrients flow toward muscles, through
the straight effect of vessels dilatation, increasing thus the blood stream intensity.
Insulin stimulates the glucose metabolism within the muscular tissue,
intensifying the glucose uptake in cells and then its oxidation through the TCA
cycle or its conversion to lactate and the deposition as glycogen. Insulin is also
involved in acetate uptake and usage in muscular tissue, as well in the storage of
long carbon chain fatty acids, as triglycerides (Hocquette, 2000). During animal
growing period, a high muscle sensibility to the insulin could be observed,
directly influencing the cell metabolism. Par consequence, the growing period
supposes a better usage of the energetic substrates within the muscular tissue,
leading to the increasing of the muscular mass and of the intramuscular lipid
content.
Growth hormone (GTH) increases the weight gain of animals, decreases
the lipid deposits from the adipose tissue and also from intramuscular adipocites.
These metabolic changes have consequences upon same characteristics involved
in meat quality. Metabolic effects determined by GTH are in general weaker at
ruminants, comparing to monogastric animals (Hopchick, 1991).
Iodic tiroidian hormones stimulate the mitochondrial activity in the
muscular fibers, so orient the muscular metabolism to oxidative type, but also
stimulates the myosin synthesis.
Beta-2-agonistes increase the synthesis and deposit of the proteins
through the decrease of protein degradation and lipid deposits (Sillence, 1996,
quoted by Hocquette, 2000).
Energetic metabolism in the adipose tissue at cattle
Adipose tissue is specialized in order to synthesize and store the
triglycerides, main metabolic adaptation at ruminants, where the liver has no
activity or a small lipogenesis de novo (Chilliard, 1994). The metabolic activity of
the adipose tissues presents a lipogenesis dynamics (the synthesis of the
triglyceride reserves) and a lipolisis dynamics (mobilization of lipids from
provisions) varying in function of the feeding particularities of animals, age
physiological state. So, at growing animals the development of skeletal muscles is
mandatory, while the lipogenesis in the adipose tissue decreases. In adult animals,

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muscular mass development decreases while the lipogenesis increases within the
adipose tissue (Bergen, 1974).
At ruminants, de novo lipogenesis in the adipose tissue takes place mostly
in cytosol, starting from the acetate and less from the glucose1. The adipose tissue
is a dynamic energy deposit and its metabolic state is a result of the balance
between de novo synthesis of fatty acids, esterification of fatty acids, hydrolysis
of triglycerides (lipolysis) and reesterification of fatty acids resulted from
lipolysis (Fig. 3).

At ruminants, fatty acids necessary for triglyceride synthesis are obtained


either from lipolysis under the action of hormone sensible lipases, either from the
acetate or glucose as good as from lipoproteins (VLDL) which arrive on
bloodstream way to the adipose tissue and are submitted to the action of
lipoprotein-lipase (LPL); active biochemical way of TG synthesis in the adipose
tissue is the glycerol-phosphate way (Faulconnier, 1999).
The development of the molecular biology techniques allowed the
description of lipogenical enzymes: Acetyl – CoA carboxilasis (ACC) and the
synthetase of fatty acids (fatty acids – sinthetasis). Acetyl – CoA carboxilasis
represent a point of metabolic control that induces either the fatty acids synthesis
in the presence of precursors, either the fatty acids oxidation within the peripheral
adipose tissues, in conditions of poor alimentation (Vernon, 1999, Faulconnier,

1
In ruminants, the liver is designed to synthesize glucose through gluconeogenesis, starting from
propionate (Vernon, 1999)

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1999). This metabolic adaptation is very important for the distribution of


energetic substances in the adipose tissue, muscular tissue and liver; the abnormal
function of the mechanism disturbs the energetic equilibrium of animals,
producing their excessive fattening.
Next to the preferential use of the acetate as lipogenetic precursor in white
adipose tissue, ruminants use with predilection glucose and lactate in de novo
lipogenesis in the muscular adipocytes.
Insulin is the main hormone that stimulates lipogenesis in the ruminant
adipose tissue. However, the adipose tissue during lactation becomes resistant at
insulin and lipogenesis intensifies in mammary gland. This is an example of fine
homeoretic adaptation that assures the maintenance of some priority function.
Lipolysis (lipomobilisation) in the adipocites tissue consists upon
hydrolysis of the triglycerides in fatty acids and glycerol, under the action of
hormone sensible lipases, being realized under the straight neuro-endocrine-
metabolic control, in relation with the necessity of the organism. The lipokinetic
effect appears at the stimulation of posterior hypothalamus, were superior
vegetative sympathetic centers are located.
At ruminants, the growth hormone (GTH) directly acts and has
lipolythical and antilipogenetical effects in the adipose tissue that possesses GTH
receptors.
Catecolamines (adrenalin and noradrenalin) from the suprarenal
glands and/or sympathetic nervous system and beta-agonists intensify the
lipolysis2 through the activation of hormone sensible lipases at sheep and cow,
during lactation (Chilliard, 1987).
Excessive mobilization of lipids is prevented through a physiological
mechanism of inhibition of the hormone sensible lipases by adenosine
(antilipolythical effect) (Chilliard, 1993).
Antilipolythical effects were observed when insulin and E prostaglandins
were given to animals.
Adipose and muscular tissues as endocrine organs
Adipose tissue is able to store energy as triglycerides during the phases of
caloric excess and to use lipids when the energetic income is low (Tomas, 2004).
The dynamics between lipolysis and lipogenesis has an adaptive role in case of
physiological subnutrition (pregnancy, lactation etc.), starvation, termogenesis
and muscular effort.
Adipose tissue has a complex metabolism, with particularities depending
on nutrients type and quantity, age and sex; this metabolism is thoroughly
controlled by the CNS and VNS and by the endocrine system.
Recently, it was proved the role of the white adipose tissue in the self-
regulation of the triglyceride, through two main hormones: leptine and
adiponectine. These substances, resembling to citokines, play an important role
just as insulin, GTH, glucocorticoid hormones, estrogens and androgens, which
control animal body weight. The growth of the muscular masses is under the

2
Adypocites membrane contains beta-adrenergic receptors, with lipolythical effects

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influence of genetic, nutritional, hormonal and physiological factors witch must


be known and used in order to improve the quality of meat production.
Leptine is a proteic hormone constituted of 167 aminoacids, synthesized
and deployed especially in the adipose tissue, playing an important role in feed
intake regulation, in adiposity control and adipose tissue distribution, in the
growth and chemical composition of the muscular tissue, in the reproductive
system and in the immune mechanisms (Fig. 4).
Leptine was discovered by Friedman in 1994, quoted by Chilliard, (1999),
and the gene codifying leptine is localization within the 4th chromosome in cattle
(Pomp, 1997 quoted by Chilliard, 1999). Leptine is a lipostatic hormone that
informs the CNS on the energetic reserves, and that completes the lipostatic
theory of hunger (Kennedy, 1953). According to this theory, adipose tissue
generates a signal to the CNS, in order to limit feed intake, so the fattening and
the body chemical composition can be modified only up to a certain limit.

Leptin is receptive at the quantity of triglycerides stored in the adipocites


(adipocites dimension) and modulates animal energetic balance, having an
inhibitory action towards triglycerides synthesis, following an unclear mechanism
(Houseknecht, 2003) (Fig. 5).

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Leptin is deployed in blood and exerts his action on Ventral Medial


nucleus of the hypothalamus (known as the "satiety-center"), where are the
centers of alimentary behavior and a numbers of receptors for leptin (Ob-R). In
hypothalamus, leptin works by inhibiting the activity of neurons that contain
neuropeptide Y (NPY). The NPY neurons are a key element in the regulation of
feed intake, through appetite stimulation (Cassy, 2001). The mechanism of leptin
has an influence on the secretion of catecholamine, by stimulation of sympathetic
nervous system (Chilliard, 1999) (Fig. 6).
Besides the indirect action of leptin through NCS, it also has an autocrine
effect on adiposities by inhibiting the synthesis of fatty acids and of TG by
reducing the activities of acetyl CoA carboxylase (Vernoon, 1999).
The level of leptin straight proportionally related with the adiposity level,
causing TG hydrolyses and fatty acids oxidation in peripheral tissues (β-
pancreatic cells, T lymphocytes).

Adiponectin is another hormone secreted from adipose tissue, whose role


is to intensify the tissue metabolism and fatty acids oxidation, without modifying
the appetite. The action mechanism of adiponectin is exercised upon insulin, so
the increased level of adiponectin needs a lower concentration of insulin in order
to capture glucose and to use it within tissues. Adiponectin is more efficient in

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monogastric animals, due to the predominant use of glucose as energetic support


in comparison with ruminants.
The adipose tissue secrete other active proteins that action on endocrine
way, eg. adipsine, interleukine 6, resistine…, whose changes disturb the lipids
metabolism (obesity appears).
Recent studies showed that skeletal muscle could work as an endocrine
organ, synthesizing and delivering citokinine IL-6 into the bloodstream, hormone
having lipolythical role (Tomas, 2004).

CONCLUSIONS
1) The quantity and quality aspects of meat production at cattle are a
reflection of energetic metabolism particularities of muscular and adipose tissues.
2) The protein deposits in carcass and intramuscular lipids increment are
regulated through endocrine-metabolic mechanisms and permanently adapted to
the animal feeding and breeding conditions.
3) The muscular mass development and adiposity are improved by an
appropriate feed intake and by the normal functioning of the anabolic systems,
belonging to classical hormones (insulin, growth hormone, glucocorticoids) and
also to tissual hormones (growth factors, leptine, adiponectine, adipsine,
citokinine).
4) The deep knowledge of muscular and adipose tissues metabolism at cattle
presents a theoretical and practical special interest, in order to coordinate and
improve the meat production.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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1999 – Transport sanguin et métabolisme tissulaire des lipides chez le veau de boucherie,
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Cassy C., Dridi S.,Picard M., Taouis M.,2001 – La leptine chez le poulet, Productions
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vache, Reproduction, Nutrition et Développement, 27, p. 327-398
Chilliard Y., 1993 – Adaptations métaboliques et portage des nutriments chez l'animal en
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Cuvelier C., Cabaraux J. F., Dufrasne I., Istasse L., Hornick J. L., 2005 – Acides gras et
métabolisme énergétique des muscles squelettiques chez le bovin, Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire,
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1999 – Régulation du métabolisme lipidique des tissus adipeux et musculaire chez le ruminant.
Effets du niveaux alimentaire et de la photopériode , Productions animales, INRA, 12(4), 287-300
Friedman J. M., 2002 – The function of leptin in nutrition, weight, and physiology, Nutrition
Reviews 60, S1-S14
Hocquette J.F., Ortigues-Marty J., Damon M., Herpin P., Geay Y., 2000 – Métabolisme
énergétique des muscles squelettiques chez les animaux producteur de viande, Productions
animales, INRA, 13, 185-200
Hossner K.L., 1998 – Cellular, molecular and physiological aspects of leptin: potential
application in animal production, Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 78: 463-472
Houseknecht K.L., Baile C.A., Matteri R.L., Spurlock M. E., 1998 – The biology of leptin: a
review, Journal of Animal Science, vol. 76, 1405-1420
Houseknecht K.L., Spurlock M. E., 2003 – Leptin regulation of lipid homeostasis: dietary and
metabolic implications, Nutrition Research Reviews 16(1): 83-96
Lanna D.P.D., Houseknecht K.L., Harris D.M, Bauman D.E., 1995 – Effect of somatotropin
treatment on lipogenesis, lipolisys, and related cellular mechanisms in adipose tissue of lactating
cows, American Dairy Science Association v. 78(8), p. 1703-1712
Lents C.A., Wettemann R.P., White F.J., Rubio I., Ciccioli N.H., Spicer L.J., Keisler D. H.,
Payton M. E., 2005 – Influence of nutrient intake and body fat on concentration of insulin-like
growth factor-I, insulin, thyroxine, and leptin in plasma of gestating beef cows, Journal of Animal
Science, 83(3), 586-596
Mărgărint I., Boişteanu P.C., Halga P., 2001 – Bazele morfofiziologice ale producţiei de lapte,
Ed. Vasiliana '98 Iaşi
Moyes C.D., Schulte P.M., 2006 – Principles of animal Physiology, San Francisco-New-York-
London
Tomas E., Kelly M., Xiang X., Tsao T.S., Keller C., Keller P., Luo Z., Lodish H., Saha A.K.,
Unger R., Ruderman N.B., 2004 – Metabolic and hormonal interactions between muscle and
adipose tissue, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 63(2):381-385
Trayhurn P., Beattie J.H., 2001 – Physiological role of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue as
an endocrine and secretory organ, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 60(3):329-339
Vernon R.G., Barber M.C., Travers M.T., 1999 – Développements récents dans les étude de la
lipogenèse chez e'Homme et chez les animaux, Productions animales, INRA, 12(4), 319-327

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USE MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR REVEALING APPLE F1


HYBRIDS MONOGENIC RESISTANCE TO SCAB
(VENTURIA INAEQUALIS)
Monica BODEA, D. PAMFIL, R. SESTRAŞ, Bianca PĂTRAŞCU,
Ioana PETRICELE, Rodica POP, Iulia Francesca POP

Early selection of scab resistant apple hybrids can be enhanced by the


use of specific molecular markers tightly linked to the Vf resistance gene.
The aim of our study was to analyse four apple cultivars (Liberty,
Florina, Starkrimson, Golden Spur) used as genitors and their hybrid seedlings
for revealing monogenic resistance to scab.
In the experimental field, seedlings selection was done after presence
or absence of the scab infection symptoms in leaves and phenotipically selection
was completed by marker assisted selection.
In this study we used two specific molecular markers AL-07 (SCAR) and
AM-19 (SCAR) who detects the presence of the Vf gene introgressed from Malus
floribunda 821 in two of parental cultivars. Starkrimson and Golden Spur were
susceptible scab parents with genotype vfvf (recessive homozygous), while
Liberty and Florina were identified as heterozygous scab resistant parents with
genotype VfVf.
We analysed 40 apple seedlings, grouped in four combinations after their
genitors (in each combinations were selected ten hybrids, among them five resistant
and five susceptible to scab attack. Hybrids belonging to Starkrimson x Golden Spur
were only recessive homozygous genotype (vfvf) and in combination Liberty x
Florina were identified susceptible and resistant progenies only with heterozygous
genotype (Vfvf) and no one with dominant homozygous genotype (VfVf).

INTRODUCTION
Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is one of the major
diseases in Transylvania apple orchards, which together with the fungus
Podosphaera leucotricha can hamper apple production (SESTRAŞ, 1997).
CROSBY et al. (1992) describe a qualitative (monogenic) resistance and
a quantitative (poligenic) one. Monogenic resistance is typical for some Malus
species and the segregation of the susceptible/resistant genotypes is guided by
Mendel’s laws.
Most of the genetic markers identified so far are linked to the Vf gene that
was transferred from Malus floribunda clone 821 using conventional methods.
Prima was the first resistant commercial cultivar carrying Vf gene (DAYTON et
al. 1970).
Availability of large number of genetic markers for Vf gene allowed the
optimization of MAS and the detailed evaluation of the advantages comparing to
classical selection methods based on phenotypic observations. MAS is a more

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

precise method, less time consuming and can also make it possible to distinguish
heterozygous and homozygous genotypes since two flanking codominant markers
are available for Vf gene.
Another MAS advantage is the possibility of performing an efficient
negative selection against the donor chromosomal regions in the vicinity of the
introgressed gene and this type of selection cannot be performed by using a
standard phenotypic selection. It has already been demonstrated that most of the
advanced apple Vf selections chosen only on phenotypic basis are still carrying a
large portion of the Malus floribunda genome in the Vf chromosome even after 5-
6 generations.
Availability of molecular markers linked to different resistance genes
against the same pathogen and their map position can also be used to estimate the
possible relationship among various apparently unrelated resistance sources.
Researchers demonstrated already that markers linked to a specific gene (i.e. Vf or
Vm) are not present in selection carrying other resistance genes.
Most of the genetic markers for scab resistance are based on PCR
(Polymerase Chain Reaction). In 1995 GARDINER et al. obtained genetic
markers for scab resistance in Malus floribunda using RAPD analysis. This
marker is located at 28 cM distance from the Vf gene. Two other genetic markers
for Vf gene were discovered in 1996 by GIANFRANCESCHI et al. and
HEMMAT et al. in 1998. In 1999 TARTARINI et al. identified specific PCR
markers for dominant homozygous, heterozygous and recessive homozygous.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


Biological material used for molecular analysis was represented by F1
hybrids (seedlings) originated from four genitors (apple cultivars) with a different
response at Venturia inaequalis attack: susceptible (Starkrimson and Golden
Spur) and resistant (Liberty and Florina).
Seedlings were obtained at Fruit Research and Development Station Cluj
Napoca, Romania and we analysed four combinations noted with the following
codes: 9811- Liberty x Florina; 9812 Starkrimson x Golden Spur; 9814-
Starkrimson x Liberty and 9817 Golden Spur x Florina. From each combination,
with more than 100 seedlings, were selected ten hybrids: five resistant at scab
attack on leaves and five susceptible.
We analysed 44 samples: four represented by genitors and the others 40
apple seedlings, grouped in four combination (Table 1).

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Table 1

Biological material represented by four apple cultivars and their F1 hybrids


obtained by a diallel cross

No./ Cultivar/ Number of Number of


comb. Hybrid Combinations susceptible hybrids at resistant hybrids at
scab attack on leaves scab attack on leaves
1 Liberty - -
2 Florina - -
3 Starkrimson - -
4 Golden Spur - -
9811 Liberty x Florina 5 5
9812 Starkrimson x Golden Spur 5 5
9814 Starkrimson x Liberty 5 5
9817 Golden Spur x Florina 5 5

Leaves from each hybrid plant were collected in zipp plastic bags, transported
immediately to laboratory and stored at – 80 ºC.
Genomic DNA was extracted using a modified version (RODICA POP et
al., 2003) of the protocol published by LODHI et al. (1994).
PCR reactions were carried out in 25 µl volumes containing Master Mix
with the following reagents: 5 x Green Go Taq Flexi Reaction Buffer (Promega),
1,5 mM Mg Cl2, 200 µM of each dNTP, 0,2 µM of each primer and 0,6U of Go
Taq Polymerase (Promega). The amplification was performed in a Mastercycler
Gradient (Eppendorf) programmable thermal cycle.
Cycling parameters for the AL 07 and AM 19 primers were set as
described by TARTARINI et al. (1999) as follows: 1 cycle of denaturation at
94ºC for 2 min and 30 s, annealing at 60 ºC for 1 min, extension at 72 ºC for 2
min and 35 cycles of 30 s denaturation at 94 ºC, 1 min annealing at 60 ºC and 2
min extension at 72 ºC finalised by a final extension step 10 min at 72 ºC.
The sequences of used primers were :
AL 07 Forward 5’TGGAAGAGAGATCCAGAAAGTG-3’and
AL 07 Reverse 5’ CATCCCTCCACAAATGCC-3’;
AM 19 Forward 5’ CGTAGAACGGAATTTGACAGTG-3’ and
AM 19 Reverse 5’ GACAAAGGGCTTAAGTGCTCC-3’.
PCR products were run in 2 % agarose gel, 1 hour at 90 V in TAE
(SAMBROOK et al., 1989) buffer and visualised by ethidium bromide (0,5 µg/
ml) staining. We used as a size marker 100 bp step Ladder. Gels images were
aquired using an ALPHA IMAGE 2200 system under UV light.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


DNA concentration was measured through the spectrofotometric method
with the Eppendorf Biophotometer. The average of DNA concentration for
genitors and hybrids were comprised between 410, 2 ng/µl and 826,8 ng/µl,
respectivelly. The values of DNA samples purity for genitors and seedlings were
comprised between 1.82 to 1.95.
Codominant specific primer AL07 produced a clear length polymorphism
in different genotypes with two products of 823 and 570 bp and dominant AM19
primer produced one product of 526 bp.
In each agarose gel were separated PCR products proceeding from both
genitors and all the seedlings of the same combination.
For example, the results of the molecular analysis with the primers AL07
and AM19 for the combination 9811 Liberty x Florina are presented in Figure 1
and Figure 2.

Fig. 1 Electrophoresis profile of the genotypes identified at Vf locus


in Liberty x Florina cultivars and their F1 hybrids with AL07 codominant primer

In column 1 and 2 are represented the electrophoresis profile of Liberty


and Florina heterozygous scab resistant parents with genotypes Vf vf. Columns 3,
4, 5 are represented by the seedlings of this combination with homozygous
genotype (vf vf). Columns 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 represented seedlings of the same
combination with heterozygous genotype (Vf vf). L is the 100 bp Ladder
molecular weight marker and C is negative control.
Figure 2 describes the 526 bp fragment of AM 19 (Vf allele) in coupling
with the resistant allele of the Vf gene for scab resistance. In column 1 and 2 are
represented the electrophoresis profile of Liberty and Florina heterozygous scab
resistant parents with genotypes Vf vf. Columns 3, 4, 5 represented seedlings of
this combination (9811 Liberty x Florina), with recessive homozygous genotype
(vf vf). Columns 6, 7, 8 9, 10, 11 are represented by the seedlings of the same
combination with heterozygous genotype (Vf vf). L represented the 100 bp Ladder
molecular weight marker and C is negative control.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

Fig. 2 Electrophoresis profile of the genotypes identified at Vf locus


in Liberty x Florina cultivars and their F1 hybrids with AM 19 dominant primer

The results of the molecular analysis of apple cultivars and hybrids using
AL07 and AM19 primers are presented in Table 2.
Table 2
The different detected genotypes of the four apple cultivars used as genitors and
forty seedlings for Vf gene, obtained with the primers AL 07 and AM 19

No Cultivar/ Primers Detected


Phenotype
sample Hybrid Combinations AL07 AM19 genotype*
1 Liberty Resistant ++ + Vf vf
2 Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
3 Starkrimson Susceptible + - vf vf
4 Golden Spur Susceptible + - vf vf
5 Liberty x Florina Susceptible + - vf vf
6 Liberty x Florina Susceptible + - vf vf
7 Liberty x Florina Susceptible + - vf vf
8 Liberty x Florina Susceptible ++ + Vf vf
9 Liberty x Florina Susceptible ++ + Vf vf
10 Liberty x Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
11 Liberty x Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
12 Liberty x Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
13 Liberty x Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
14 Liberty x Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
15 Starkrimson x Golden Spur Susceptible + - vf vf
16 Starkrimson x Golden Spur Susceptible + - vf vf
17 Starkrimson x Golden Spur Susceptible + - vf vf
18 Starkrimson x Golden Spur Susceptible + - vf vf
19 Starkrimson x Golden Spur Susceptible + - vf vf
20 Starkrimson x Golden Spur Resistant + - vf vf
21 Starkrimson x Golden Spur Resistant + - vf vf
22 Starkrimson x Golden Spur Resistant + - vf vf
23 Starkrimson x Golden Spur Resistant + - vf vf
24 Starkrimson x Golden Spur Resistant + - vf vf

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

25 Starkrimson x Liberty Susceptible + - vf vf


26 Starkrimson x Liberty Susceptible ++ + Vf vf
27 Starkrimson x Liberty Susceptible ++ + Vf vf
28 Starkrimson x Liberty Susceptible + - vf vf
29 Starkrimson x Liberty Susceptible ++ + Vf vf
30 Starkrimson x Liberty Resistant ++ + Vf vf
31 Starkrimson x Liberty Resistant + - vf vf
32 Starkrimson x Liberty Resistant ++ + Vf vf
33 Starkrimson x Liberty Resistant + - vf vf
34 Starkrimson x Liberty Resistant ++ + Vf vf
35 Golden Spur x Florina Susceptible + - vf vf
36 Golden Spur x Florina Susceptible + - vf vf
37 Golden Spur x Florina Susceptible + - vf vf
38 Golden Spur x Florina Susceptible + - vf vf
39 Golden Spur x Florina Susceptible + - vf vf
40 Golden Spur x Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
41 Golden Spur x Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
42 Golden Spur x Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
43 Golden Spur x Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
44 Golden Spur x Florina Resistant ++ + Vf vf
Legend * + − genotype vf vf
+ + + genotype Vf vf

CONCLUSIONS
1. The results obtained with co-dominant primer AL 07 and dominant
primer AM 19 confirmed the presence/absence of Vf gene at apple cultivars and
hybrids analysed.
2. The codominant specific molecular marker AL 07 was very useful to
distinguish homozygous from heterozygous plants for Vf gene.
3. The results obtained at the genetic level using specific primers for Vf
gene confirmed the resistance or the sensibility of the hybrids phenotypically
selected by presence/ absence of infection symptoms.
4. Hybrids belonging to Starkrimson x Golden Spur were only recessive
homozygous genotype (vf vf) and in combination Liberty x Florina were identified
susceptible and resistant progenies only with heterozygous genotype (Vf vf) and
no one with dominant homozygous genotype (Vf Vf).
5. Marker assisted selection of juvenile plants can facilitate the breeding
programes for apple scab resistance.
6. Monogenic resistance is typical for some Malus species and the
segregation of the susceptible/resistant genotypes is guided by Mendel’s laws.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I thank Prof. dr. Sestras Radu for his accord to use for molecular analysis
the biological material obtained at Fruit Researh Station and phD student Bianca
Patrascu for technical advices in molecular analysis.

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This research was funded by the Romanian Ministry Research and


supported by a Research of Excellence grant (CEEX/ModulII/1537).

REFERENCES
1. Crosby, J.A., J. Janik, P.C. Pecknold, S.S. Korban, P.A. O’Connor, S.M. Ries, J. Goffreda,
A. Voordeckers, 1992, Breeding Apples for Scab Resistance: 1945-1990, Fruit Varietes
Journal, 46 (3) 145-166.
2. Dayton, D.F., E.B. Williams, 1968, Independent genes in Malus for resistance to Venturia
inaequalis. Proceedings of the American Society of Horticultural Science 92: 89-94.
3. Fisher M., Christa Fisher, W. Dierend, 2005, Evaluation of the stability of scab resistance in
apple: a co-operation between gene bank curator, breeder and fruit grower, Plant genetic
resources newsletter.
4. Garnier, S.E., H.C.M., Bassett, D.A.M., Noiton, V.G., Bus, M.E., Hofstee, A.G. White.,
R.D. Ball, R.L.S., Forster, E.H.A., Rikkerink, 1996, A detailed linkage map around an apple
scab resistance gene demonstrates that two diseases resistance classes both carry the Vf gene,
Theor. Appl. Genet.93, 485-493.
5. Lodhi, M.A., Weeden, N.F., Reisch, B.I. (1994). Characterization of RAPD markers in Vitis,
Vitis 36: 133-140.
6. Pop Rodica, M. Ardelean, D. Pamfil, Ioana Marina Gaboreanu (2003). The Efficiency of
Different DNA Isolation and Purification in Ten Cultivars of Vitis vinifera., Bul. Nr. 59
USAMV, seria ZB, 259-261.
7. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual,
2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press, New York.
8. Sestras R., 2003, Response of several apple varietes to apple scab( Venturia inaequalis)
attack in central Transylvania conditions, Journal Central European Agriculture.
9. Sestras R., 1997, Ameliorarea mărului, Ed. Quo Vadis, Cluj Napoca
10. Tartarini S., 1996: RAPD markers linked to the Vf gene for scab resistance in apple. Theor.
Appl. Genet.92, 803-810.
11. Tartarini S., 2003, Marker-assisted selection in pome fruit breeding.
12. Tartarini S., L. Gianfranceschi, S. Sansavini, G. Gessler,1999, Development of reliable PCR
markers for the selection of the Vf gene conferring scab resistance, Plant Breeding, 118, 183-
186.

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ASPECTS CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE


BETWEEN CONCRETE MARC – CONCRETE CLASS-
NEW CONCRETE CLASS. NEW CEMENT BASED
PRODUCTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONS (PORIMENT®L)

C. LEONTE, Doina LEONTE

Concrete- homogeny mixture obtained with binder, unit (sand, rock,


etc.) and water. To comply with the project, it can be used additives.
The designer as has the oblige to mention in the project the cement type
to be used in the concrete composition to comply with the standard SR EN 197-
1:2002 witch represents the European standard.
The unit must have an adequate granulation curve, do not contain
foreign bodies and substances.
The water for concrete must be potable.
Additives are chemical substances which improves and modifies the
concrete. The proportion of additives in concrete must be below 5%.

PORIMENT®L it is an economic system which combines production,


transport and concrete usage in to one solitaire technologic process.
Concrete marc – represents the concrete resistance to compression in
daN/cm2 determinate on concrete cubes stored for 28 days. The concrete marc
indicates the number which follows the B symbol. Table 1

Table 1
Concrete marc SR EN -206-1:2002; concrete clas c140/1986
Concrete Concrete Compresion Caracteristic Caracteristic
marc clas EN 206- minimal minimal
C140/86 1:2002 resistance Ø resistance on
150/300(N/mm2) cubes 150 mm
(N/mm2)
- Bc 2,5 - - -
B50 Bc 3,5 - - -
B75 Bc 5 - - -
B100 Bc 7,5 - - -
B150 Bc 10 C8/10 8 10
B200 Bc 15 C12/15 12 15
B250 Bc 20 C16/20 16 20
B300 Bc 22,5 - - -
B350 Bc 25 C20/25 20 25
B400 Bc 30 C25/30 25 30
B450 Bc 35 - - -

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- - C30/37 30 37
B500 Bc 40 - - -
- - C35/45 35 45
B600 Bc 50 C40/50 40 50
- - C45/55 45 55
- - C50/60 50 60
- - C55/67 55 67
- - C60/75 60 75
- - C70/85 70 85
- - C80/95 80 95
- - C90/105 90 105
- - C100/115 100 115
Source: CARPAT BETON Heidelberg Cement Group

PORIMENT®L it is cement based product, obtained through foaming


additives.

UTILIZATION DOMAINS
PORIMENT®L belongs to light class materials, which have very good
thermal properties. Due to low specifically weight it’s recommended as a
insulated layer above unequal surfaces, cables, pipes etc. it may be used above
traditional covering. It is a very good thermal and acoustic insulating material,
and it may be circulated. On outside it’s ideal as an insulating material.
• Felling and equalize on pipes, cables, tube etc. (fig.1);

Fig.1 Felling and equalize on pipes, cables, tube etc.

• Equalize of irregular or inclined floors


• Rehabilitation of old houses floors

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

• Equalize of terrace and plane roof. Thermo-insulating(fig. 2)

Fig. 2 Terraces thermo-izolation or plane roofs

• Floor levelling executed in easy structures , wood beams attics , metallic


beams (fig. 3)

Fig.3 floors levelling executed in easy structures

• Thermic izolation under houses planeking or of industrial areas fig.4

Fig. 4 Thermic izolation under houses planeking or of industrial areas

• Levelling ledge under nivelment level under the form to be fill (fig.5)

Fig. 5 Levelling ledge under to be fill

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

• Thermic izolation of cellars,wine cellars, halls

The advantage of utilisation and placing in work


• High lucrativing and handling – the product being delivered in fresh
conditions to the yard
• pumpible – may be placed in work in the most difficult locations, with
the possibility to be founded at a 20 floors level or for a 200 m length
• autolevelling – filling all the shapest in which it is fonded and its covering
complete all the underlevel denivelations (covering the cables, pipes,
beams)
• not necessitate vibration / compactation - with direct anvantages over the
simplicity of procces placed in work, and also over the reduction of the
times and execution costs
• fittable specific weight – depending by the specific requirements of the
project, the client may choose the weight of the product which will be
placed in work, in a scale from 400 to 1000 kg/mc
• ajustable resistance – in concordance with the level suport requests, by
the density adjustments can fitt the product resistance
• without segregations

PORIMENT® L has the next physical properties:


• small specific weight;
• volumic stability;
• frost resistance;
• thermic izolation;
• phonic izolation;
• reduced wather absorbtion;
• anticorrosive;
• uninflammable product;
• durable and unperishable;
• minimal fisurable tendences;
• circurable.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Table 2
The products characteristics PORIMENT® L

Nr. Specification Concordant values


crt.
1. Compresion resistance 0,5-1,0 N/mm2
2. Inflection resistance 0,4-0,5 N/mm2
3. Consistence Fittalbe (for ramps)
4. Fire behavior Uninflammable
5. Circulable After 1-2 days
6. Bear tasks After 4-5 days
7. Drying behavior Equilibrium humidity reached
after one week at 5 cm thickness
8. Limit temperatures of application 5ºC – 35º C
9. Brute density in dry condition Fittable (400-1000kg/m3)
10. Thermic conductivity for density of cca. 0,11 W/m· K
400kg/m3
11. Thermic conductivity for density of cca. 0,14 W/m· K
500kg/m3
12 Thermic conductivity for density of cca. 0,17 W/m· K
600kg/m3

CONCLUSION
The product PORIMENT® L being delivered in fresh conditions to the
yard has a heigh lucrativing and handling .
Can be placed in work in the most difficult locations, founded at a 20
floors level or for a 200 m length.
On acount of autolevelling fills all the shapes where can be founded and
covers completly all underlevels denivelations.
Depending by the specific requerements of the project, the client can
choose the weight of the product which will be placed in work, in a scale from
400 to 1000kg/m3.
In the time of placing in work there are no segregations.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Peştişanu, C., 1979 – Buildings, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică,Bucureşti.
2. Şerban Al., şi colab., 1981 – Livestock buildings, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică,Bucureşti.
3. WWW. Carpatbeton. Ro
4. CAMEX., - 2007

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MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN EPIDEMIOLOGY


Il. BURDUJAN

A survey on certain mathematical models in epidemiology is yielded. A


particular interest is proved in the study of the dynamics of infectious disease
dues to the West Nile virus. We shall consider the mathematical model for West
Nile virus due to Wonham&deCamino-Beck&Lewis, which can be viewed as an
quadratic dynamical system and apply some specific algebraic techniques to
analyze this model.

A BRIEF HISTORY
At least since the beginning of recorded history there have been epidemics. One
of the plagues that Moses brought down upon Egypt described in the Book of
Exodus was murrain, an infectious cattle disease. There are many other biblical
descriptions of epidemic outbreaks. An epidemic which was analyzed for a long
time is the Plague of Athens (430-428 BC); it was described in great detail by
Thucidides, including the symptoms and disease progression. The most famous
epidemic historically is the Black Death (thought to be the bubonic plague). It
spreads from Asia through Europe in several waves beginning in 1346; in Europe,
which had a population of around 85 million at the time, about a third of the
population died. Moreover, it recurred regularly in Europe for more than 300
years, notably as the Great Plague in London of 1665-1666. The first major
epidemic recorded in the U.S.A. was the Yellow Fever epidemic in Philadelphia
in 1793 in which about 5000 people died out of a population of around 50.000,
although estimates suggest that about 20.000 fled the city. Recurring invasion of
cholera killed millions in India in the 19th century. The influenza epidemic of
1918-1919 killed 20 million people overall and more than a million in the United
States. More recently, the SARS epidemic of 2002-2003 caused worldwide
concern and even more recently several strains of avian flu have forced the killing
of millions of birds and worries about its spread to human.
The West Nile virus was first identified in Uganda in 1937 and it is well
established in its native Africa where it lives primarily in birds and is transmitted
among them by mosquitoes. From time to time, West Nile virus outbreak occurs
in Europe, Asia and Africa; for example, we recall that it occurs in Israel in 1950,
in South Africa in 1974, and more recently in Romania, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy,
France, and Russia. In the summer of 1999, West Nile virus made its first known
North American appearance (in New York City); by the end of 2003, the virus
had been identified in 7 Canadian provinces and 46 U.S. states. Although it is
considered that, only occasionally, a mosquito does transmit the infection to a
mammal, in 2003 were registered over 11.000 human cases in Canada and U.S..

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

THE SIR TYPE MODELS


The first epidemic examined from the modeling point of view was the Great
Plague in London. It killed about one-sixth of the population of London. The
village Eyam, near Sheffield, suffered an outbreak of bubonic plague in 1665-
1666; the Eyam plague was survived by only 83 of an initial population of 350
persons. In fact, there were two epidemics in Eyam and the first was survived by
261 persons. As detailed records, concerning the second phase of the epidemic,
were preserved and as the community was persuaded to quarantine itself to try to
prevent the spread of disease to other communities, the recorded data have been
used as a case study for modeling.
Mathematical models serve a variety of purposes, which range from
illustrating an idea to parameterising a complex real-world situation, to make
general predictions, to guide management practices, and to provide a basis for the
development of statistical tools and testable hypothesis.
For example, mathematical models can be used to understand what
factors govern infectious disease outbreak West Nile virus (including HIV/AIDS,
and even bubonic plague). As it is usual, the purpose of the model is to take facts
about the disease as inputs and to make predictions about the numbers of infected
and uninfected individuals (people) over time as outputs. Moreover, the models
could be used to predict the fraction of the population that would survive a major
disease outbreak. Being able to make predictions about disease dynamics, it is
really helpful for public heath. Obviously, if we know there will be an outbreak
we can prepare for it. Alternatively, if we have a reliable model, we can study
how to prevent an outbreak and save lives by changing the factors, we can control
using public health means. These factors include education, immunization, qua-
rantine regulations, and health treatment strategies. Factors that can go into the
models include the length of time one is till, the length of time one can infect
others (often different than total length of time one is ill), the level of
contagiousness of the disease (i.e., the likelihood of infecting another individual if
one comes into close contact), the number of uninfected (susceptible) individuals,
and so forth.
The modeling of emerging disease is the current challenge for mathe-
matical epidemiologists.
The SIR model, proposed by Kernmack and McKendrick is a determi-
nistic compartmental model which is based on ordinary differential equations. It
incorporates some general aspects of epidemiological modeling of disease
transmission and time development of epidemics. Firstly, we consider the case of
infectious diseases which are not necessarily fatal and which confer immunity
upon recovery (e.g., measles). In fact, such a model works for many types of
epidemics; what makes the difference between two epidemics is just the flow of
members of the population between the compartments.

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Actually, in an SIR model the host population is divided into three


groups:
1°. S = Susceptible, i.e., the individual susceptible to the disease, that is, not yet
infected,
2°. I = Infectious (or, infective), i.e., the infected individual, assumed infective
and able to spread the disease by contact with susceptible,
3°. R = Removed, i.e., the individual who have been infected and then removed
from the possibility of being reinfected, or unable to spreads infection.
Removal is carried out through isolation from the rest of the population, im-
munization against infection, recovery from the disease with immunity against
reinfection, or through death caused by disease. Despite the fact that the charac-
terizations of removed members are quite different from an epidemiological
perspective, they are equivalent from a modeling point of view that takes into
account only the state of an individual with respect to the disease.
This compartmental approach is represented by means of the following directed
graph
S → I → R.
The Kernmack-McKendrick model is formulated in terms of the rates of flow of
numbers of the population between compartments. The specific assumptions
about the flow rates are the follows:
(i) an average infective member makes contact sufficient to transmit
infection with βN others per unit time, where N represents total
population size,
(ii) a fraction γ of infectives leave the infective class per unit time,
(iii) there is no entry or departure from the population, except possibly
through death from the disease.
This means:
(a) the gain in the infective class is a rate proportional to the number of
infectives and susceptibles (that is, βIS, where β>0 is a constant),
(b) the rate of removal of infectives, that is γI where γ >0 is a constant,
(c) the incubation period is short enough to be negligible, i.e., a susceptible
who contacts an infective becomes an infective right away.
Under these assumptions, the compartmental model becomes
S →
βIS
I 
γI
→ R
By translating these assumptions into mathematical statements of the transition
rates between the classes, the result is the following differential system

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 dS
 dt = -βSI

 dI
(1)  = (βS - γ)I
 dt
 dR
 = γI.
 dt
By adding these equations we find N=S+I+R=constant. Consequently, the last
equation in (1) is superfluous and we consider the subsystem consisting of the
first two equations. The quantity βN/γ is a threshold quantity, called the basic
reproduction number and it is denoted by R0. R0 determine, by comparing it with
1, whether there is an epidemic (R0 > 1) or not (R0 < 1). It is the number of
secondary infections caused by a single infective introduced into a wholly
susceptible population of size N over the course of the infection of this single
infective. In this situation, an infective makes βN contacts in unit time, all of
which are with susceptibles and thus produce new infections, and the mean
infective period is 1/γ; this explains the expression βN/γ for the basic reproduc-
tion number. This formula can be sustained taking into account that near the
moment t = 0 when the one single infective was introduced in the population
under consideration, the second equation in (1) has the form
dI
= (βN - γ)I .
dt
The first two equations in (1) give
γ γ
I = -S + ln S + N - ln S(0) .
β β
F. Brauer [1] used the Eyam plague data and found
β = 0.0178, γ = 2.73, S(0) = 254, I(0) = 7, N= 261
and it has been accordingly established that the actual data are remarkably close
to the prediction from the simple model before proposed in (1). Unfortunately,
this model cannot explain the recurrent epidemics; no parameter values or initial
conditions lead to recurrent epidemics in this model. A solution consists in
expanding the SIR model to include B births per unit time and a natural mortality
rate µ (per capita). Then, the equations connecting S and I, become
 dS
 dt = B - βSI - µS

 dI = βSI - γI - µI.
 dt
This time, we are getting recurrent epidemics, but the oscillations in the numbers
of cases over time damp out, eventually reaching equilibrium.
These two examples give the idea on the ways to be followed in modeling of
other real-world situations. First step is certainly to define the biological and geographic

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scope of the research. In what follows, we consider a more complex mathematical model
for West Nile virus due to Wonham & de Camino-Beck & Lewis.

THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL


First remark was that the virus persisted in transmission cycles between mosquitoes
(vectors) and birds (reservoir hosts). Although it occasionally spread to other
vertebrates (including humans), it seemed that not return to mosquitoes. That is why
the model is limited to only the vector and the reservoir host. Since the disease
outbreak showed a marked seasonality, appearing in summer and disappearing in
winter, the model is confined to a single season from spring through winter fall.
Further, we shall suppose that the number NB of birds is constant, i.e., we suppose that
the number of births is almostly equal with that of deceases. We define the three
groups (S, I or R) for both of the mosquitoes and birds, although there exist some
differences. There exist recovery and mortality rates for birds, but not for mosquitoes
since they didn’t seem to be affected by the disease. On the other hand, it must take
care of the fact that mosquitoes under consideration could spend quite a long time, up
to 14 days, as aquatic larvae that don’t bite birds and therefore don’t transmit the
disease. It can also take quite a long time, perhaps 10-12 days, for an infected
mosquito to develop a viral load high enough to transmit the disease back to a bird.
Consequently, two new groups are added to the population: one for larval L and one
for exposed E mosquitoes. The directed graph describing the epidemic situation under
consideration is given in Fig. 1.
Birds Mosquitoes
µL

RB LM
R µA
βM
g
µV SM
βM
ac µA
IB
k
EM

ab
µA βM

SB IM

Figure 1: SIR model for West Nile virus cross-infection


between birds and mosquitoes

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In Fig. 1, the letters with subscript B denotes entities connected with birds and
those with subscript M denotes entities connected with mosquitoes. More exactly
we denoted:
SB = susceptibles, IB = infectives, RB = removed (for birds)
SM = susceptibles, IB = infectives, EM = exposed, LM = larval (for mosquitoes)
g = recovery rate, µV = death rate from virus, a = biting rate (i.e., the number of
bites per day per mosquito), b, c= transmission probabilities, m = maturation rate,
k = viral incubation rate, βM = birth rate, µM = adult death rate.
By translating these connections in mathematical statements, the following sys-
tem is obtained:

"Bird" equations

  dS B = -αbI S
  dt M B

  dI
  B = αbI M S B - µV I B - gI B
  dt
  dR
  B = (g + µV )I B
  dt

"Mosquito" equations
(2) 
  dLM
  dt = βM (S M + EM + I M ) - mLM - µL LM

  dS M
  dt = -αcS M I B + mLM - µ A S M

  dEM = αcS I - kE - µ E
  dt M B M A M


  dI M = kE - µ I ,
  dt M A M

a
where α = . By adding the bird equations we find a prime integral for the
NB
system, namely NB=SB+IB+RB=constant. The critical points of this system are
obtained by solving the system
 I M SB = 0
 αbI S - µ I - gI = 0
 M B V B B
(g + µV )I B = 0

 βM (S M + EM + I M ) - mLM - µL LM = 0
 -αcS I + mL - µ S = 0
 M B M A M

 αcS M I B - kEM - µ A EM = 0

 kEM - µ A I M = 0.

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The critical points of this system are O(0,0,0,0,0,0,0) and, respectively, A(λ, 0, µ,
µAη, mη,0,0) if (m+µL)µA -mβM=0, for any λ, µ, η ∈Ρ.
In order to analyze the stability of O we consider the Jacobian matrix in
this point, namely
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 
0 -g - µ 0 0 0 0 0 
 V
0 g + µV 0 0 0 0 0 
 
J O = 0 0 0 -m - µL βM βM βM 
0 0 0 m -µ A 0 0 
 
0 0 0 0 0 -k - µ A 0 
0 0 0 0 0 k -µ A 

The characteristic polynomial for JO is
PO (s) = -s 2 (s + g + µV )(s + k + µ A )(s + µ A )[s 2 +(m+ µL + µ A )s + µ A (m+ µL ) - mβM ]
If (m+µL)µA -mβM<0, then O is an unstable critical point; when (m+µL)µA -
mβM>0, then O is a stable critical point (see [1], p. 130).
In order to analyze the critical point A, we move the origin of the coordinate
system in A, i.e., we perform the transformation:
S%B = S B - λ, I%B = I B , R% B = RB - µ, L%M = LM - µ A η, S%M = S M - mη, E% M = EM , I%M = I M .
Then, the system (2) becomes
"Bird" equations
 %
  dS B = -αb(I% S% + λI% )
  dt M B M

 %
  dI B % % % % %
  dt = αb(I M S B + λI M ) - µV I B - gI B
 
  dR% B %
  dt = (g + µV )I B
 

"Mosquito" equations
(3) 
 dL%M
 = βM (S%M + E% M + I%M ) - mL%M - µL L% M
 dt
 dS%M
 = -αc(S%M + mη )I%B + mL%M - µ A S%M
  dt
  dE% M
 = αcS M I%B - kE% M - µ A E% M
 dt
  dI%M
 = kE% M - µ A I%M
  dt
Then, the Jacobian matrix JA is

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

0 0 0 0 0 0 -αbλ 
0 -g - µ 0 0 0 0 αbλ 
 V
0 g + µV 0 0 0 0 0 
 .
J A = 0 0 0 -m - µL βM βM βM 
0 -αcmη 0 m -µ A 0 0 
 
0 0 0 0 0 -k - µ A 0 
0 0 0 0 0 k -µ A 

JA has the following characteristic polynomial:
PA (s) = -s 2 (s + µ A )2 (s + g + µV )(s + m+ µL )(s + k + µ A ) .
Consequently, A is a stable critical point.

CONCLUSIONS
In our study we remark two important entities:
1°. the reproduction number, (determined in [7])
ab ac SM k
R0 = ⋅ ⋅ 0 ⋅ ,
µ A µV + g N B0 k + µ A
2°. ∆=(m+µL)µA - mβM.
Indeed, if Ρ0 > 1, there is an epidemic with the number of infectives first
increasing to a maximum Imax , while if Ρ0 < 1 the infection dies out without
speading, i.e., Ρ0 help us to predict a disease outbreack after the estimation of
parameters. On the other hand, ∆ gives information about the stability of the
critical points. More exactly, we have obtained:
1°. if ∆<0, then O is an unstable critical point,
2°. if ∆>0, then O is a stable critical point,
3°. if ∆=0, then A is a stable critical point.
Obviously, it is nonrealistic to accept that O could be a stable critical point.

REFERENCES
1. Barbu V. (1985), Differential Equations (Romanian), Ed. Junimea, Iaşi.
2. Brauer F., Castillo-Chavez C. (2001), Mathematical Models in Population Biology and
Epidemiology, Texts in Applied Mathematics, 40, Springer-Verlag, New-York.
3. Burdujan I. (2005), On a Criss-cross Model for the Dynamics of Infectious Diseases, Ann. of
USAMV Iaşi, Hort., tom 48, v.2, seria Hortic. Proc. Ann. Symposium “Mathematics applied in
Biology &Biophysics”, U:A.S.V.M.-Iaşi, p.85-94.
4. Burdujan I. (2003), Dynamical systems as epidemic models, Ann. USAMV Iaşi, T. XLVI,
Hortic., Proc. Ann. Symposium “Mathematics applied in Biology &Biophysics”, U:S.A.M.V.-Iaşi,
p.63-86.
5. Kernmack W. O., McKendrick A. G., 1927, A contribution to the mathematical theory of
epidemics, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 115, 700-721.
6. Keshet L. (2004), Mathematical Models in Population Biology, SIAM Classics in Applied
Mathematics, 46, SIAM.
7. Wonham M.T., de Camino-Beck, Lewis M., (2004), An epidemiological model for West Nile
virus: Invasion analysis and control applications, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London,
Series B, 271, 501-507.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SOME ORGANS IN THE


LOCOMOTOR APPARATUS OF THE BROWN BREED
YOUNG LIVESTOCK

V. TEUŞAN, Anca TEUŞAN, R.M. RADU-RUSU

Four groups of eight animals each, belonging to Bos taurus species,


Brown breed, male gender, six months old, were used in our researches. The
feeding was different for each group, using variable ratios of alfalfa hay, corn
silage and concentrates. The energy concentration of the fees varied between
0.751-0.849 UFC/kg DM, and the energy:protein ratio was situated between
99.23 g PDIE/UFC-117.17g PDIE/UFC. Three individuals were slaughtered
from each lot, at the end of the experiments, proceeding then to some quantitative
assessments on the carcasses (weights of the carcass, bones and muscle masses,
meat:bones ratio, slaughtering efficiency), as good as to necropsy and
individualization (weighting and measuring) of some muscles and bones in the
locomotor apparatus.
The results shown several differences between studied groups,
concerning live weights of the animals, weights of the carcasses, of various
bones and muscles. Those differences were found to be not statistically
significant, except for a single difference, observed in ilio-spinalis muscle
(Longissimus dorsi).

Bos taurus species, through its numerous more or less specialized breeds
for beef production, assures in our country at least a half of this aliment and raw
material. Increasing of beef production is estimated in Romania or across Europe
and worldwide. Par consequence, the specialists’ orientation toward research and
knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative beef production in Bos taurus
species is considered to be actual and with a high significant importance.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


The biological material used in our researches consisted in 32 specimens
of male gender, belonging to Brown breed, within the Bos taurus species. At the
beginning of the experiments, the specimens were 6 months old, being divided in
four groups of eight animals each (Table 1). Identical husbandry conditions
(temperature, humidity, watering and gaseous levels in shelters) were assured
within the semiintensive breeding system. The rations used in groups feeding
were different, as it follows: the control group received feed with 38% alfalfa hay
in its dry matter (DM) content, while the concentrates (mixture of corn, barley
and sunflower meal) counted 28% of the DM (table 1). This feed ration had an
energetic concentration of 0.751 UFC/kg DM and an energy:protein ratio of
113.24-115.59 g PDI/UFC (Table 1). The animals in the 1st experimental group
received a feed ration with 65% corn silage and 35% concentrates, being
energetically excessive (0.849 UFC/kg SU) and deficient in proteins (99.23-

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112.66 g PDI/UFC ). The 2nd experimental group received a ration with 49%
alfalfa hay, 21% corn silage and 30% concentrates, being well balanced for
energy (0.752 UFC/kg SU) and protein (113.05-117.17g PDI/UFC) (Table 1).
The animals in the 3rd experimental group received feed prepared of 43%
alfalfa hay; 17% corn silage and 40% concentrates, having an energetic
concentration of 0.823 UFC/kg SU and 103.33-112.60 g PDI/UFC (Table 1).

Table 1
Experimental design
Studied Animals Feed
groups breed, Feed structure Protein content Energy-protein
and gender E.C.
(% of DM) (g/kg DM) ratio (g/UFC)
specimens & initial UFC**/
Alfalfa Soaked Con- kg DM
within age PDIN PDIE PDIN PDIE
hay corn centrate*
Brown,
Control
male, 38.0 36.0 26.0 86.81 85.04 115.59 113.24 0.751
(8 spec.)
6 months
Brown,
Exp. 1
male, - 65.0 35.0 95.65 84.25 112.66 99.23 0.849
(8 spec.)
6 months
Brown,
Exp. 2
male 49.0 21.0 30.0 85.01 88.11 113.05 117.17 0.752
(8 spec.)
6 months
Brown,
Exp. 3
male, 43.0 17.0 40.0 85.04 92.67 103.33 112.60 0.823
(8 spec.)
6 months
*The concentrates consisted in a mixture of: corn, barley and sunflower meal
**UFC=Fodder Meat Unit, in INRA and IBNA systems.

The experiment passed during 12 months, the animals in four groups


having 380-410 kg live weights at the slaughtering moment.
Three specimens were slaughtered from each group and several
production parameters were measured: live weight, carcass weight (fresh and
cold); skeleton bones weight; carcass’ muscular mass weight; psoas muscles
(major and minor) and ilio-spinal (Longissimus dorsi) (LD) muscle weights;
humeral and femoral bones length and weight, meat:bones ratio; slaughtering
efficiency and meat lean surface (LD) at the 8th and 9th ribs level.
Weight assessments were done through weighting after the measured
elements (bones, muscles) were sampled from their anatomic situ. The lengths
were assessed through direct measuring with ruler and sliding calipers. The meat
lean surface (LD) was measured using planimetry on color photo prints and on
tracing paper. The transversal cross section pictures were taken 1/1 from the
median area of the studied muscle (LD), being then copied on tracing paper and
measured using the Reiss-3005 planimeter.
Other auxiliary materials were used: devices, apparatus and instruments
commonly used in laboratory and other materials such scalpels, tweezers,

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scissors, cotton wool, lint, jars and Berzelius glasses, knives, scales, sliding
calipers and marked rulers.
All the experimental data were statistically processed and debated,
computing for each character: average, standard mean error, standard deviation,
variability coefficient. Fisher and Tukey (analysis of variance) tests were used to
establish the statistical significance of the mean differences.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The live weight was different for each studied group, at the final of the
experiment. Thus, the closest to the control group (LM) was situated the EG2
experimental group, with an average live weight of 390 ± 24.83 kg (v=11.02%)
(Table 2), the performance being 5.49% lower than that obtained by the LM
group (Tables 2 and 3).
Experimental groups 1 and 3 (EG1; EG3) gave poorer results as compared
to LM group (7.43-8.64%), concerning the body weight at slaughtering (Tables 2
and 3). A similar situation was observed for the carcass weight (measured ad low
temperature) (Table 3). The slaughtering efficiency varied between 51.44% (EG3)
and 54.57% (EG2) (Table 3). The muscular masses weight varied between 150.41-
161.58 kg limits in all groups, representing 39.15-41.89 % of live weight and
75.44-76.77% of carcass weight (Table 2 and 3). Negative differences (-6.78 %
…-6.91 %) and also positive difference (1.11%) were found in the four studied
groups (Table 3). Concerning the overall bones weight of the skeleton, this
character values varied between 40.80 kg (EG3) and 43.07 kg (la EG2),
representing 9.5%-11.2% of the live weight and 19.18-21.77% of the carcasses
weight (Table 3).
All three experimental groups pass over the control group performances
for these characters (0.68-1.47%; 0.30-2.59%) (Table 3). The meat:bone ratio
was found between 3.51/1, at EG1 group and 3,94/1, at control and 2nd
experimental groups (Table 3).
The humeral bones had average lengths of 29.67 ± 0.33cm, at EG1
group and of 30.67 ± 0.33cm, at EG3 group (Table 2). Humeral bones weight
(both sides’ bones) had values of 3.13 ± 0.13 kg at EG3 group and of 3.33 ±
0.07 kg, at LM group (Table 2), and represented 0.81-0.87% of the living
weight; 1.50-1.65% of the carcass weight and 7.59-8.11% of the skeleton
weight (Table 3). There are minor differences, concerning the humeral bones
length and weight, between the four studied groups (Table 3). The weight and
the length of the femoral bones (both sides’ bones) had values of 5.13 ± 0.18 kg,
at EG3 and EG2 groups and of 5.33 ± 0.18 kg at EG1 group, for their weight and
of 40.33 ± 0.67 - 41 ± 0.58 cm, for their length (Table 2). Femoral bones weight
represented 1.26-1.41% of the live weight; 2.41-2.69% of the carcass weight
and 12.37-12.66% of the total skeleton bones weight (Table 3). There are only
minor differences between groups (Table 3).

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Table 2 - Main statistical indexes concerning the morphological characteristics of the carcasses
and of some organs of the locomotor apparatus from the Brown young male stock breed
Control group 1st experimental group (EG1)
Main statistical indexes Main statistical indexes
Notice
Variation limits Variation limits
x ± sx s v% x ± sx s v%
min. max. min. max.
Body weight (kg) 3 412.67±8.88 15.37 3.72 395 423 377±13.75 23.81 6.32 350 395
Cool carcass weight (kg) 3 214.17±6.5 11.25 5.25 201.5 223 197.83±10.46 18.11 9.16 181 217
Total meat weight (kg) 3 161.58±5.85 10.13 6.27 150.1 169.29 150.63±9.93 17.20 11.42 135.47 169.33
Total bone weight (kg) 3 41.07±1.60 2.77 6.75 38.0 43.4 43.07±1.23 2.14 4.96 37.0 44.0
Meat/Bone ratio (x/1) 3 3.94±0.07 0.12 3.06 3.81 4.05 3.51±0.30 0.52 14.83 3.18 4.11
Length (cm) 3 30.27±0.37 0.643 2.12 29.8 31.0 29.67±0.33 0.577 1.95 29 30
Humerus
Weight* (kg) 3 3.33±0.07 0.115 3.47 3.2 3.4 3.27±0.18 0.305 9.34 3.0 3.6
Length (cm) 3 40.83±0.44 0.764 1.87 40 41.5 41±0.58 1.00 2.44 40 42
Femur
Weight* (kg) 3 5.2±0 0 0 5.2 5.2 5.33±0.18 0.305 5.73 5.0 5.6
Psoas muscles weight** (M+m) 3 2.53±0.18 0.305 12.07 2.2 2.8 2.20±0.23 0.400 18.18 1.8 2.6
Longissimus Dorsi** weight 3 4.0±0.30 0.529 13.23 3.6 4.6 3.47±0.18 0.305 8.80 3.2 3.8
MLS Meat lean surface (LD) *** 15 65.52±1.64 6.350 9.69 58.6 73.9 69.45±1.85 7.153 10.3 59.4 76.0
2nd experimental group (EG2) 3rd experimental group (EG3)
Notice Variation limits Variation limits
x ± sx s v% x ± sx s v%
min. max. min. max.
Body weight (kg) 3 390±24.83 43.01 11.02 341 420 382±5.69 9.85 2.58 371 390
Cool carcass weight (kg) 3 212.83±13.1 22.68 10.66 187 229.5 196.5±3.88 6.73 3.42 189 202
Total meat weight (kg) 3 163.38±10.1 17.49 10.7 143.19 173.6 150.4±1.68 2.91 1.93 147.06 152.35
Total bone weight (kg) 3 41.47±2.24 3.88 9.36 37 44.0 40.80±1.47 2.55 6.26 38 43
Meat/Bone ratio (x/1) 3 3.94±0.04 0.065 1.65 3.87 4.0 3.69±0.10 0.170 4.62 3.53 3.87
Length (cm) 3 30.33±0.67 1.155 3.81 29 31 30.67±0.33 0.577 1.88 30 31
Humerus
Weight* (kg) 3 3.20±0.2 0.346 10.83 2.8 3.4 3.13±0.13 0.231 7.38 3.0 3.4
Length (cm) 3 40.33±0.67 1.155 2.86 39 41 40.67±0.33 0.577 1.42 40 41
Femur
Weight* (kg) 3 5.13±0.18 0.305 5.96 4.8 5.4 5.13±0.18 0.305 5.96 4.8 5.4
Psoas muscles weight** (M+m) 3 2.07±0.07 0.115 5.58 2.0 2.2 2.0±0.30 0.529 26.46 1.6 2.6
Longissimus Dorsi** weight 3 4.67±0.13 0.231 4.95 4.4 4.8 3.73±0.29 0.503 13.49 3.2 4.2
MLS Meat lean surface (LD) *** 15 64.9±1.38 5.340 8.23 58.2 71.9 63.93±1.07 4.134 6.47 58.6 69.3
*Both sides bones; **The large and small psoas muscle, but one side only; ***MLS LD=Surface of the Longissimus Dorsi cross section, measured between the 8th and the 9th
ribs; min.=minimum; max.=maximum.

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Table 3 – Comparisons between the four studied groups,


concerning some morphological studied characters of the carcasses and of the locomotor apparatus
Control group EG*1 EG2 EG3
Notice MU
a.v. r.v. a.v. r.v. ±pp a.v. r.v. ±pp a.v. r.v. ±pp
Body weight (GV) kg 412.67 100 377.0 91.36 -8.64 390.0 94.51 -5.49 382.0 92.57 -7.43
Cool carcass weight (GC) kg 214.17 100 197.83 92.37 -7.63 212.83 99.37 -0.63 196.5 91.75 -8.25
% from GV - 51.90 - 52.47 +0.57 - 54.57 +2.67 - 51.44 -0.46
Total meat weight kg 161.58 100 150.63 93.22 -6.78 163.38 101.11 +1.11 150.41 93.09 -.91
(GMM) % from GV - 39.15 - 39.95 +0.80 - 41.89 +2.47 - 39.37 +0.22
% from GC - 75.44 - 76.14 +0.70 - 76.77 +1.33 - 76.54 +1.10
kg 41.07 100 43.07 104.87 +4.87 41.47 100.97 +0.97 40.80 99.34 -0.66
Total bone weight (GTO) % from GV - 9.95 - 11.42 +1.47 - 10.63 +0.68 - 10.68 +0.73
% from GC - 19.18 - 21.77 +2.59 - 19.48 +0.30 - 20.76 +1.58
Meat/Bone ratio x/1 3.94 100 3.51 89.09 -10.91 3.94 100.0 - 3.69 93.65 -6.35
kg 3.33 100 3.27 98.20 -1.80 3.20 96.10 -3.90 3.13 93.99 -6.01
The weight of humeral % from GV - 0.81 - 0.87 +0.06 - 0.82 +0.01 - 0.82 +0.01
bones (GOH) % from GC - 1.55 - 1.65 +0.10 - 1.50 -0.05 - 1.59 +0.04
% fromGTO - 8.11 - 7.59 -0.52 - 7.72 -0.39 - 7.67 -0.44
kg 5.20 100 5.33 102.5 +2.5 5.13 98.65 -1.35 5.13 98.65 -1.35
The weight of femoral % from GV - 1.26 - 1.41 +0.15 - 1.32 +0.06 - 1.34 +0.08
bones (GOF) % from GC - 2.43 - 2.69 +0.26 - 2.41 -0.02 - 2.61 +0.18
% fromGTO - 12.66 - 12.38 -0.28 - 12.37 -0.27 - 12.57 -0.09
kg 2.53 100 2.20 86.96 -13.04 2.07 81.82 -18.18 2.00 79.05 -
20.95
Psoas muscles weight
(Great and small) % from GV - 0.61 - 0.58 -0.03 - 0.53 -0.08 - 0.52 -0.09
% from GC - 1.18 - 1.11 -0.07 - 0.97 -0.21 - 1.02 -0.16
%fromGMM - 1.57 - 1.46 -0.11 - 1.27 -0.30 - 1.33 -0.24
kg 4.00 100 3.47 86.75 -13.25 4.67 116.75 +16.75 3.73 93.25 -6.75
Longissimus Dorsi
weight % from GV - 0.97 - 0.92 -0.05 - 1.20 +0.23 - 0.98 +0.01
(LD) % from GC - 1.87 - 1.75 -0.12 - 2.19 +0.32 - 1.90 +0.03
%fromGMM - 2.48 - 2.30 -0.18 - 2.86 +0.38 - 2.48 0
Meat lean surface (LD) cm2 65.52 100 69.45 106.0 +6.0 64.90 99.05 -0.95 63.93 97.57 -2.43
Note: a.v. = absolute values; r.v.= relative values; pp = percentage point; *experimental group

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Concerning the psoas muscles (major and minor) weight (a single


muscle per side), it was found as 2.0 ± 0.3 kg, at EG3 group and of 2.53 ± 0.18,
at LM group (Table 2) and represented 0.52-0.61% of the live weight; 0.97-
1.18% of the carcass weight and 1.27-1.57% of the overall muscular mass
weight (Table 3). The animals belonged to experimental groups yielded psoas
muscles weights 13.04% (EG1)-20.95% (EG3) lower than that obtained by
control group, (LM) (Table 3).
The ilio-spinal muscle (LD) weight was found between 3.47 ± 0.18 kg,
at EG1 group and 4.67 ± 0.13 kg, at EG2 group (Table 2), representing 0.92-
1.20% of live weight; 1.75-2.19% of carcass weight and 2.30-2.86% of the
muscular mass weight (Table 3). There are some notable differences between
studied groups: LD muscle weight is 13.25% (EG1) and 6.25% (EG3) lower than
that obtained by the control group, while the EG2 gave muscle weight 16.75%
higher, as compared to reference group (Table 3). When the lean meat surface
(LD at the 8th-9th ribs level) was measured, it was found that the values varied
from 63.93 ± 1.07cm2 (EG3) to 69.45 ± 1.85 cm2 (EG1) (Table 2). Concerning
this character, the EG1 group values passed 6% over those obtained by the LM
group, while the values observed in EG2 and EG3 treatments were 0.95%,
respectively 2.43% lower as compared to control groups (Table 3).
The differences between the four studied groups, for all ten characters,
were tested in order to evaluate their statistic significance. Most of them were
found as statistically not significant, except one comparison, between EG1 and
EG2 groups, for the Longissimus dorsi muscle weight (Table 4).
Table 4 - Statistical significance of the differences between the 4 groups concerning
some carcass morphological characters and some organs of the locomotor apparatus
Means of Mean’s Tukey test Stat.
Notice Groups n1/n2 F̂ at 1;4 GL
the groups differences w=0,01 signif.
CG 3/3 412.67 CG-EG1 35.67 4.751 69.955 n.s.*
EG1 3/3 377.0 CG-EG2 22.67 0.717 106.298 n.s.
Body weight EG2 3/3 390.0 CG-EG3 30.67 8.464 42.485 n.s.
(kg)(GV) EG3 3/3 382.0 CG-EG2 13.00 0.221 114.411 n.s.
CG-EG3 5.00 0.113 59.963 n.s.
CG-EG3 8.00 0.107 102.688 n.s.
CG 3/3 214.17 CG-EG1 16.34 1.760 49.619 n.s.
EG1 3/3 197.83 CG-EG2 1.34 0.008 58.923 n.s.
Cool carcass EG2 3/3 212.83 CG-EG3 17.67 5.449 30.504 n.s.
weight (kg) (GC) EG3 3/3 196.50 CG-EG2 15.00 0.801 67.550 n.s.
CG-EG3 1.33 0.014 44.962 n.s.
CG-EG3 16.33 1.430 55.059 n.s.
CG 3/3 161.58 CG-EG1 10.95 0.902 46.465 n.s.
EG1 3/3 150.63 CG-EG2 1.8 0.024 47.036 n.s.
Total meat
EG2 3/3 163.38 CG-EG3 11.17 3.373 24.535 n.s.
weight (kg)
EG3 3/3 150.41 CG-EG2 12.75 0.810 57.087 n.s.
(GMM)
CG-EG3 0.22 0.001 40.602 n.s.
CG-EG3 12.97 1.609 41.254 n.s.
CG 3/3 41.07 CG-EG1 2.0 0.976 8.151 n.s.
EG1 3/3 43.07 CG-EG2 0.4 0.021 11.099 n.s.
Total bone
EG2 3/3 41.47 CG-EG3 0.27 0.015 8.773 n.s.
weight (kg)
EG3 3/3 40.80 CG-EG2 1.60 0.390 10.307 n.s.
(GTO)
CG-EG3 2.27 1.388 7.751 n.s.
CG-EG3 0.67 0.061 10.808 n.s.

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CG 3/3 3.33 CG-EG1 0.06 0.112 0.761 n.s.


The weight of EG1 3/3 3.27 CG-EG2 0.13 0.389 0.850 n.s.
humeral bones EG2 3/3 3.20 CG-EG3 0.20 1.791 0.602 n.s.
(kg) EG3 3/3 3.13 CG-EG2 0.07 0.066 1.075 n.s.
(GOH) CG-EG3 0.14 0.354 0.892 n.s.
CG-EG3 0.07 0.081 0.969 n.s.
CG 3/3 3.94/1 CG-EG1 0.43 1.912 1.243 n.s.
EG1 3/3 3.51/1 CG-EG2 0 0 0.316 n.s.
Meat/Bone ratio EG2 3/3 3.94/1 CG-EG3 0.25 4.108 0.484 n.s.
(R C/0)(x/1) EG3 3/3 3.69/1 CG-EG2 0.43 1.984 1.221 n.s.
CG-EG3 0.18 0.335 1.274 n.s.
CG-EG3 0.25 5.337 0.425 n.s.
CG 3/3 5.20 CG-EG1 0.13 0.450 0.806 n.s.
EG1 3/3 5.33 CG-EG2 0.07 0.140 0.736 n.s.
The weight of
EG2 3/3 5.13 CG-EG3 0.07 0.140 0.736 n.s.
femural bones
EG3 3/3 5.13 CG-EG2 0.20 0.649 1.001 n.s.
(GOF) (kg)
CG-EG3 0.20 0.649 1.001 n.s.
CG-EG3 0 0 1.005 n.s.
CG 3/3 2.53 CG-EG1 0.33 1.316 1.171 n.s.
Psoas muscle EG1 3/3 2.20 CG-EG2 0.46 6.122 0.760 n.s.
weight (Great EG2 3/3 2.07 CG-EG3 0.53 2.287 1.421 n.s.
and small)(kg) EG3 3/3 2.00 CG-EG2 0.13 0.308 0.968 n.s.
CG-EG3 0.20 0.237 1.544 n.s.
CG-EG3 0.07 0.045 1.260 n.s.
CG 3/3 4.00 CG-EG1 0.53 2.282 1.422 n.s.
Longissimus EG1 3/3 3.47 CG-EG2 0.67 4.000 1.344 n.s.
Dorsi weight EG2 3/3 4.67 CG-EG3 0.27 0.401 1.699 n.s.
(LD)(kg) EG3 3/3 3.73 CG-EG2 1.20 29.421 0.892 **
CG-EG3 0.26 0.611 1.371 n.s.
CG-EG3 0.94 8.508 1.289 n.s.
Notice Groups Notice Groups Mean’s differences F̂ at 1;28 GL w=0,01 St. signf.
CG 15/15 65.52 CG-EG1 3.93 2.537 6.834 n.s.
EG1 15/15 69.45 CG-EG2 0.62 0.084 5.928 n.s.
Meat lean
EG2 15/15 64.90 CG-EG3 1.59 0.663 5.414 n.s.
surface (LD)
EG3 15/15 63.93 CG-EG2 4.55 3.902 6.378 n.s.
(cm2)
CG-EG3 5.52 6.712 5.903 n.s.
CG-EG3 0.97 0.311 4.825 n.s.
n.s. – statistically insignificant; ** - distinguished significant

CONCLUSIONS

1) Modification of the feed structure given into youth Brown male stock feeding,
through the increasing of the concentrate fodders ratio, from 26% to 40%,
negatively influenced the live weight at slaughtering (-5.49…-8.64%) and
also the carcass weight (-0.63…8.25%) (Table 3).
2) Muscular mass weight counts, for the youth Brown male stock, 39.15-41.89%
of the live weight and 75.44-76.77% of the carcass weight (Table 3).
3) The overall bones weight counts 9.95-11.42% of the live weight and 19.18-
21.77% of the carcass weight.
4) Humeral and femoral bones count together 2.07-2.28% of the live weight;
3.91-4.34% of the carcass weight and 19.96-20.77% of the skeleton weight.
5) The psoas muscles (major and minor) counts together approximately 2.88-
3.62% of the living body weight; 5.44-6.74% of the carcass weight and 7.14-
8.86% of the total muscular mass weight (table 3).

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) PICARD, B.; MICOL, D.; DOZIAS, D.; GEAY, Y.-1995-„Effects of compensatory growth on
muscle characteristics in 2 year-old beef steers”, Annales de Zootechnie, 44 (suppl.), 287.
2) PÂNTEA, I.-1998-„Efectul încrucişării raselor autohtone, cu tauri de rasa Blanc-Belgian Blue şi
aptitudinile pentru producţia de carne ale metişilor rezultaţi”, Teza de doctorat, U.S.A.M.V., Iaşi
3) POPOVICI, E. L.-2002-„Contribuţii la studiul creşterii şi îngrăşării în sistem semiintensiv, cu
diferite tipuri de raţii, a tineretului taurin de rasă Brună”, Teză de doctorat, U.S.A.M.V., Iaşi.
4) TEUŞAN, V.; UJICĂ, V; MACIUC, V.; PÂNTEA, M.-2003-„Influenţa metisării taurinelor de
rasă Brună şi Bălţată Românească, cu rasa Blanc Belgian Blue, asupra dezvoltării unor organe
interne din corpul animal” Lucr. Ştiinţ. Seria Zootehnie, vol. 46, pag 332-339, ISSN 1454-7368.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE THICKNESS, THE


DENSITY AND THE SHAPE OF THE MUSCULAR FIBRES
FROM THE ILIO-SPINALISIS MUSCLES OF THE BROWN
LIVESTOCK YOUNG MALES

V. TEUŞAN, R.M. RADU-RUSU, Anca TEUŞAN

The biological material used in our studies (histological samples) issued


from 4 youth cattle groups – male gender, belonging to Brown breed, 18 months
old with live weights of 377-413kg. Samples from the Ilio-spinalis (Longissimus
dorsi) (L.D.) muscle, 8th-9th ribs level, were taken when the 12 animals (3×4)
were slaughtered. The samples were processed though paraffin sectioning
technique, issuing 30 histological smears, which were studied using the MC3
binocular photonic microscope. The small and the large diameters of the
muscular fibres were measured on cross sections, within the microscopic field.
The average diameter, the miocyte shape and density were obtained through
counting and computations. Thus, within the L.D. muscle, the muscular fibres
had a cylindrical shape (DM/Dm ratio=1.37-1.47/1), the large diameter between
48.98-52.86µ, the small diameter between 34.35-37.50µ and the average
diameter of 41.60-44.81µ. The density of the miocytes varied between 426.9-
180.88 m.f./mm2 of muscular tissue.

Quality of the meat issued from various animal species and categories is a
problem equally concerning producers, processors and especially consumers. The
agro-alimentary products quality and especially of the meat as food is a complex
notion which could be defined and controlled through a lot of parameters, such as:
physical, chemical, sensorial and histological parameters. The latter ones –
thickness and density of muscular fibres, their shape and surface on cross-section
should be better known because they define and influence a series of physical and
technological meat features, as good as the products resulted from its processing.
Because the ilio-spinalis or Longissimus dorsi (L.D.) muscle, as it is
named in anatomical and zootechnical nomenclatures, is both well known as a
general indicator of carcasses quality status and has an significant participation
within the animal skeletal musculature, it was taken into research, in order to
assess some histological features of its inner muscular fibres.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


Several histological samples (2×3×4=24 pieces) were used as biological
material for the researches. They were sampled from ilio-spinalis (Longissimus
dorsi) (LD) muscles, from three specimens in each group of young male stock,
belonging to Brown bovine breed. Four groups of animals were allocated in our
studies, each of them containing eight specimens, maintained and reared 12

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months (from 6 months old to 18 moths old) in semi-intensive husbandry


condition. Three specimens were slaughtered from each group at the end of the
experiment, the 24 histological samples being taken and then processed.
Different values were found at slaughtering moment, for the body weights
of the animals within the four studied groups, due to the different nutritional
parameters of the used feed rations.
The paraffin sectioning technique was used to process the histological
samples issued from the ilio-spinalis muscles, finally obtaining 30 smears. They
were studied using a MC3 photonic binocular microscope, previously well tuned
and calibrated. Two ocular-objective associations were used: OC10×OB20,
having a micrometric value of 4.441µ/division and OC10×OB40, with a value of
2,372µ/micrometric division.
The large diameter (DM) and the small diameter of the muscular fibres
from the L.D. muscle were measured within microscopic field, using and ocular
micrometer. There were assessed 480 measurements (240 for D.M. and 240 for
D.m.). The measured values were then multiplied by 4.441 or 2.372, according to
the used OC×OB association.
DM + Dm
The average diameter was calculated using the relation Dx =
2
whereas: Dx = average diameter (µ) and DM and Dm = large and small diameters
of the muscular fibres. In order to assess the muscle fibres density, a micrometric
grid was introduced into the microscope oculars and was used to count the fibres
found within a certain surface of the grid. Then, using computations, the density
of the rhabdocites/1mm2 of muscular tissue was established. A total amount of
60×4=240 assessments were done for the muscular fibres density. The ratio
between large and small diameter of the fibres were also calculated (DM/dm), the
values serving then to the establishment of their profile and shape on cross-
section. Digital captures of the microscopic fields from the best histological
smears were also taken.
Al the data obtained through measurements or computations were
statistically processed and debated, resulting: average, standard mean error,
standard deviation, variance and variability coefficient. In order to test the statistic
significance of the differences between average values of the four studied groups,
the analysis of variance was also used, through the computations of the F̂ (Fisher)
and W (Tukey) tests.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Differences were found between the four young livestock groups,
concerning the muscular fibres thickness within the L.D. muscle, expressed by the
large, small and average diameters. Thus, at the animals belonging to control
group, the fibres had a large diameter of 52.86 ± 0.95µ, all the 60 measured

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values being found within the 40.50µ – 76.50µ limits. Their variability was of
13.95% (Table 1). The values of the small diameter varied between 27µ and 54µ,
having a mean of 36.76±0.84µ (v=17.72%) (Table 1). The average diameter was
found between the limits of 35.10-63.0µ, and the computed mean had a value of
44.81±0.77µ (v=13.30%) (Table 1).
The animals in the 1st experimental group (EG1) shown values of:
48.98±0.59µ = large diameter; 34.35±0.76 = small diameter; 41.60±0.48µ =
average diameter of the fibres within the Longissimus dorsi muscle. The 60 values
had their variability within the 8.93% - 17.17% interval (Table 1).
Other values were found when the animals from the 2nd experimental
group (EG2) were studied. Thus, the fibers within the LD muscle had an average
thickness of 44.23±0.48µ, while the large diameter was of 51.19±0.67µ, and the
small one was found of 37.26±0.61µ (Table 1).
The muscular fibers from the animals belonging to the EG3 group had a
mean value for the large diameter of 50.32±0.53µ; a small diameter of
37.50±0.74µ and an average one of 43.92±0.50µ (Table 1).
The cross-section shape of the muscular fibres within the Longissimus
dorsi muscle was observed as slightly ellipsoidal, while their morphological
aspect was cylindrical (the DM/Dm ratio varied between 1.37-1.47/1 limits). Most
of the fibres observed within the microscopic field had a polygonal aspect, mainly
due to some pressure exerted by various external mechanical factors (Fig. 1).
Comparing the muscular fibres thickness of the Longissimus dorsi (L.D.)
from the studied animals and considering the control group (CG) as reference, it
could be stated: the large diameter decreased with 3.16-7.34% in all experimental
groups; the small diameter decreased with 6.56% in EG1 and increased 1.36-
2.01% in EG2, respectively EG3 groups (Table 2). The average diameter
decreased with 1.29-7.16% at the animals within the experimental groups, as
compared to those belonging to control group (Table 2).

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Table 1
Statistical parameters of some histological parameters of the muscular fibres from the ilio-spinalis muscle
(Longissimus dorsi), at young male livestock belonging to Brown breed
Statistics computed from the experimental data Variation limits
Slaught.
Mean Std. Variability
Groups live Parameters MU n Statistical
std. error deviation coefficient Min. Max.
weight mean ( x )
(s x ) (s) (v%)
Large diameter (DM) µ 60 52.86 ± 0.95 7.373 13.95 40.50 76.50
Small diameter (Dm) µ 60 36.76 ± 0.84 6.515 17.72 27.00 54.00
CG 412,67 kg Average diameter (D x ) µ 60 44.81 ± 0.77 5.960 13.30 35.10 63.00
DM/Dm ratio µ 60 1.47 ± 0.03 0.245 16.70 1.00/1 2.10/1
Muscular fibres density (m.f./mm2) 60 429.43 ± 5.13 39.721 9.25 329 512
Large diameter (DM) µ 60 48.98 ± 0.59 4.550 9.29 45.00 61.20
Small diameter (Dm) µ 60 34.35 ± 0.76 5.899 17.17 25.20 50.40
EG1 377,0 kg Average diameter (D x ) µ 60 41.60 ± 0.48 3.715 8.93 36.00 52.20
DM/Dm ratio µ 60 1.47 ± 0.04 0.276 18.79 1.00/1 2.14/1
Muscular fibres density (m.f./mm2) 60 480.88 ± 3.35 25.958 5.40 422 563
Large diameter (DM) µ 60 51.19 ± 0.67 5.164 10.09 45.0 67.50
Small diameter (Dm) µ 60 37.26 ± 0.61 4.725 12.68 27.0 45.00
EG2 390,0 kg Average diameter (D x ) µ 60 44.23 ± 0.48 3.749 8.48 37.80 56.25
DM/Dm ratio µ 60 1.39 ± 0.03 0.229 16.48 1.10/1 2.00/1
Muscular fibres density (m.f./mm2) 60 443.52 ± 4.04 31.330 7.06 375 493
Large diameter (DM) µ 60 50.32 ± 0.53 4.148 8.24 45.0 61.20
Small diameter (Dm) µ 60 37.50 ± 0.74 5.749 15.33 27.0 54.00
EG3 382,0 kg Average diameter (D x ) µ 60 43.92 ± 0.50 3.881 8.84 36.0 51.75
DM/Dm ratio µ 60 1.37 ± 0.03 0.230 16.79 1.00/1 2.00/1
Muscular fibres density (m.f./mm2) 60 426.90 ± 3.26 25.255 5.91 375 493

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a b

c d

e
Fig. 1 - Aspects concerning the morphology of the muscular fibres and fascicles from the
Longissimus dorsi muscles of the Brown breed young livestock
(magnification = 10X6:a-d; 10x10:e)

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The decrease of the muscular fibres thickness within the Longissimus


dorsi muscles of the animals from the three experimental groups, compared to the
reference group, could be related to the different and lower body weight of the
animals, character mainly influenced by the consumed feed quality.

Table 2
Comparisons between the four examined groups concerning the thickness and the
density of the muscular fibers into the ilio-spinalis muscle (Longissimus dorsi).
Statistical indexes
The thickness of muscular fibres
Groups MU Large Small Average DM/Dm Density
diameter diameter diameter ratio (m.f./mm2)
(DM) (Dm) (D x ) (x/1)
Control group µ 52.86 36.76 44.81 1.47/1 429.43
(CG) % 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Experimental µ 48.98 34.35 41.60 1.47/1 480.88
group 1 % from 92.66 93.44 92.84 100.0 111.98
(EG1) CG -7.34 -6.56 -7.16 +11.98
Experimental µ 51.19 37.26 44.23 1.39/1 443.52
group 2 % from 96.84 101.36 98.71 94.56 103.28
(EG2) CG -3.16 +1.36 -1.29 -5.44 +3.28
Experimental µ 50.32 37.50 43.92 1.37/1 426.90
group 3 % from 95.19 102.01 98.01 93.20 99.41
(EG3) CG -4.81 +2.01 -1.99 -6.80 -0.59

Muscular fibres density within the Longissimus dorsi had low values
(427-481 m.f./mm2), as compared to other muscles, eg. large and small psoas
muscles (700-800 m.f./mm2). Otherwise, there is a conversely proportional ratio
between the density and thickens of the muscular fibres, also found in our present
studies. Thus, for the animals in the control group, the studied muscle (LD)
presented a muscular fibres density of 429.43±5.13 m.f./mm2 (v=9.25%). The
same muscle, assessed at the animals in the EG1 group, had values of 480.88±3.35
m.f./mm2 (v=5.40%) (Table 1), meaning 12% more fibres, but also 7.16% thinner
than those measured at the animals in the control group (Table 2). The 2nd
experimental group (EG2) gave other results: 443.90±4.04 m.f./mm2 (v=7.06%),
meaning 3.28% more fibres than in the CG group, but thicker than those (-1,29%)
(Table 2). An average value of 426.90±3.26 m.f./mm2 was found for the 3rd
experimental group (EG3), being 1.99% thinner and 0.59% less than the fibres
measured in the control group (TabEG2).
Differences found between the 4 groups of young livestock, concerning
the thickness and the density of the fibres within the Longissimus dorsi, were
tested for statistical significance (Table 3). Therefore, most of the differences
were found as not significant, while a few were found as distinguished or very
significant (Table 3).

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Table 3
Statistical significance of the differences between the four examined young male
stock breed concerning the thickness and density of the muscular fibres from the
ilio-spinalis muscle (Longissimus dorsi).
The means
Tukey
of the Means F̂ , at 1;118 Stat.
Notice Groups n1/n2 test
compared differences GL signif.
w=0,01
groups
CG 60/60 52.86 CG-EG1=3.88 12.034 2.928 ***
EG1 60/60 48.98 CG-EG2=1.67 2.053 3.042 n.s.
M.f. large
EG2 60/60 51.19 CG-EG3=2.54 5.395 2.859 n.s.
diameter
EG3 60/60 50.32 LE-EG2=2.21 6.215 2.326 n.s.
(DM)(µ)
LE-EG3=1.34 2.856 2.080 n.s.
LE-EG3=0.87 1.039 2.238 n.s.
CG 60/60 36.76 CG-EG1=2.41 4.530 2.970 n.s.
EG1 60/60 34.35 CG-EG2=0.50 0.227 2.720 n.s.
M.f. small
EG2 60/60 37.26 CG-EG3=0.74 0.429 2.936 n.s.
diameter
EG3 60/60 37.50 LE-EG2=2.91 8.895 2.554 **
(Dm)(µ)
LE-EG3=3.15 8.775 2.783 **
LE-EG3=0.24 0.062 2.515 n.s.
CG 60/60 44.81 CG-EG1=3.21 12.534 2.373 ***
EG1 60/60 41.60 CG-EG2=0.58 0.415 2.379 n.s.
M.f. average
EG2 60/60 44.23 CG-EG3=0.89 0.875 2.404 n.s.
diameter
EG3 60/60 43.92 LE-EG2=2.63 14.840 1.783 ***
(D x )(µ)
LE-EG3=2.32 11.162 1.816 **
LE-EG3=0.31 0.165 1.823 n.s.
CG 60/60 1.47/1 CG-EG1=0 0.147 0.125 n.s.
EG1 60/60 1.47/1 CG-EG2=0.08 2.662 0.113 n.s.
DM and Dm EG2 60/60 1.39/1 CG-EG3=0.10 4.777 0.114 n.s.
ratio(x/1) EG3 60/60 1.37/1 LE-EG2=0.08 2.513 0.121 n.s.
LE-EG3=0.10 4.456 0.122 n.s.
LE-EG3=0.02 0.342 0.195 n.s.
CG 60/60 429.43 CG-EG1=51.45 70.539 16.036 ***
EG1 60/60 480.88 CG-EG2=14.09 4.649 17.098 n.s.
M.f. density EG2 60/60 443.52 CG-EG3=2.53 0.174 15.907 n.s.
(m.f./mm2) EG3 60/60 426.90 LE-EG2=37.36 50.597 13.751 ***
LE-EG3=53.98 133.306 12.239 ***
LE-EG3=16.62 10.228 13.601 **
µ = microns Fά at 1;118 GL for p≤0,05=3,9226; p≤0,01=6,858; p≤0,001=11,400
* statistically significant; ** statistically distinguished significant; *** statistically very significant.

CONCLUSIONS
1. Conversely proportion ratio relationship was found between the thickness
and the density values of the muscular fibres within the Longissimus dorsi
muscles from the Brown breed young livestock.
2. The muscular fibres thickness from the LD muscle, expressed through their
average diameter, varied between 41.60µ and 44.81µ, being related to live
weight of the studied animals.
3. Values of the muscular fibres density within the ilio-spinalis muscle ere
between 427-481 m.f./mm2 of muscular tissue.

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4. Approximately 67% of the differences found between the four groups,


concerning the muscular cell thickness and density from the LD muscle, were
established as statistically not significant.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.POPOVICI, E. L.-2002-„Contribuţii la studiul creşterii şi îngrăşării în sistem semiintensiv, cu
diferite tipuri de raţii, a tineretului taurin de rasă Brună”, Teză de doctorat, U.S.A.M.V., Iaşi.
2.TEUŞAN, V.; RADU-RUSU, R. M.; G. LEHACI – 2005 –„Cercetări privind grosimea şi
densitatea fibrelor musculare din unii muşchi ai spetei şi ai episomei, la taurinele din rasa Pinzgau
de Dorna”, Lucr. Ştiinţ. Seria Zootehnie, vol. 48, pg. 261-267, ISSN 1454-7368.
3. TEUŞAN, V.; RADU-RUSU, R. M. – 2006 –„Researches on the histological structure of some
episoma and thigh muscles issued from the Pinzgau de Dorna breed young stock”, Lucr. Ştiinţ. Seria
Zootehnie, vol. 49, pg. 55-63, ISSN 1454-7368

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

COMPARATIVE RESEARCHES CONCERNING SOME


HISTOMETRIC FEATURES OF THE MIOCYTES IN
SOMATIC MUSCULATURE OF THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN
AND WATERFOWL (II). WING AND THIGH MUSCLES
R. M. RADU-RUSU, V. TEUŞAN, I. VACARU-OPRIŞ

The paper presents the results issued from some histometric researches,
applied on adult individuals belonging to the Gallus domesticus L. and Anser
anser L. species. Within the microscopic field, the large (DM) and the small
diameters (dm) of the myocites in the Biceps brachialis (BB) and Biceps femoris
(BF) muscles of both species were measured. The average diameter and the ratio
between the small and the large diameters, the cross-section area of the myocites
were calculated. The data were proportionally and statistically analyzed, the
differences being found as very significant for the large and average diameters
and distinguished significant for DM/dm ratio and for cross section area of the
myocites within the Biceps brachialis muscles. The differences found for the
other studied muscular category (BF), were not significant (DM/dm ratio) or
very significant (for others histometric indexes).
Par consequence, it could be stated that the fibers from the Biceps
femoris muscles of the Anser anser L. species were thinner than those measured
in the Gallus domesticus L. species., while for the wing muscles (BB), the
situation was reversed.

The paper brings some new data concerning the histological features of
the miocytes within the muscles included in two anatomical and commercial
regions of the poultry carcasses. The data reveals relationships between the
physiological purposes of each muscular group, as depending on the species
predominant type of locomotion as good as on the metabolic muscle typology.
The results also improve the amount of information concerning the histological
quality of the meat, as a sum of factors influencing the customers’ choice between
multiple sorts of meat or of its products.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


Two skeletal muscles, Biceps brachialis and Biceps femoris, were used as
election anatomical area to provide the biological material. The samples had been
taken from common breed adult females, belonging to the Anser anser L. and
Gallus domesticus L. species (domestic goose and domestic chicken). The average
live weight before slaughtering was about 2700 g in the Anser anser L. species
and about 2500 g in the Gallus domesticus L. species.
Some specific instruments and apparatus have been used: anatomical
necropsy kit, laboratory glassware, histological techniques instruments, reagents,
MC3 type binocular photonic microscope, micrometry and microphotography kits,
digital photo camera.
Various experimental methods have been used in our researches: necropsy,
for tissue sampling; paraffin sectioning technique, for histological samples
preparation; histometry technique, in order to measure the large and the small

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diameters of the muscular fibers within the microscopic field. The measurement of
the myocites’ diameters has been done on a well calibrated microscope, for the OB20
X OC10 association. The micrometric values were multiplied with 4.441 (calibration
coefficient corresponding to the OB20 X OC10 association). A number of 360
measurements have been assessed within the microscopic field.
A specific formula was used to calculate the average diameter of the
muscular fibers: Dx = ( DM + dm) / 2 , whereas: D x = average diameter (µ); DM =
large diameter (µ); dm = small diameter (µ). The cross-section area of the myocites
was also calculated according to the mathematical relation: S(µ 2 ) = DM × dm / 4 × π ,
whereas: S = the cross-section area of the fibers (µ2); π= 3,1416.
The statistics were calculated using PC: mean ( x ), variance (S2), standard
deviation (s), mean standard error (± s x ) and variability coefficient (CV%). The
ANOVA – single factor algorithm was used in order to assess the significance of the
differences found within and between species.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


In the Anser anser L. (goose) species, within the Biceps brachii (BB) (fig.
1) muscle, the muscular fibers had shown a cylindrical toward poligonal shape, with
a large diameter (DM) of 37.95±0.64 µ; a small diameter (dm) of 27.44±0.39 µ and
an average diameter of 31.10±0.45 µ (table 1). The variability of the character was
about 13.08% (table 1). The ratio between the large and the small diameter
(DM/Dm) of the myocites had an average value of 1.56±0.03/1, which confirmed
the shape presented below.
Into the Biceps femoris (BF) muscle of the same species (fig. 2) the
muscular fibers had a DM of 32.23±0.51 µ, while the small diameter of these cells
had a average value of 23.69±0.50µ and their average diameter was about 27.96 ±
0.42 µ (v=13.96%) (table 1).

Fig. 1 – Muscular fibers in the Fig. 2 – Muscular fibers in the


Biceps brachii muscle, Biceps femoris muscle,
Anser anser L. species Anser anser L. species
(OC10 X OB 20) (OC10 X OB 6)

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The cylindrical aspect and the ellipsoidal shape of the myocites on their
cross section remain the same in this muscle. These characteristics have been
proved by the value of the DM/Dm ratio (1.4±0.03/1) (table 1).
Table 1
Main statistical indexes concerning the histometric features of the muscular fibers in
the wing and thigh muscles, issued from Anser anser L. species
Statistical indexes Limits
Mus

Features n
cles

X± sX s S2 CV % Min. Max.
Large diameter (DM) (µ) 30 37.95 0.64 5.74 32.97 15.21 26.65 53.29
Brachi

biceps

Small diameter (Dm) (µ) 30 24.44 0.39 3.5 12.28 14.34 17.76 35.53
al

Average diameter (D X ) (µ) 30 31.1 0.45 4.07 16.55 13.08 23.32 44.41
DM/Dm ratio 30 1.56 0.03 0.26 0.07 16.57 1.17 2.5
Large diameter (DM) (µ) 30 32.23 0.51 4.54 20.61 14.09 22.65 39.97
Femora

biceps

Small diameter (Dm) (µ) 30 23.69 0.50 4.45 19.82 18.80 14.21 33.31
l

Average diameter (D X ) (µ) 30 27.96 0.42 3.73 13.92 13.34 18.43 35.53
DM/Dm ratio 30 1.40 0.03 0.27 0.07 19.50 1.00 2.13

In the Gallus domesticus L. species, within the Biceps brachialis (BB)


muscle (fig. 3), the muscular fibers had a large diameter of 30.37±0.71 µ, and a
variability of this character of 20.93% (table 2). The myocites’ small diameter in the
same muscle had an average value of 22.58±0.50 µ, and the calculated average
diameter was about 26.47±0.45µ. The variability of the values was situated between
the 18.71 – 20.26% limits (table 2). The ratio between the large and the small
diameter of these muscular fibers had an average value of 1.36±0.03/1, the
variability being of 17.53% (table 2).
Within the Biceps femoris (BF) muscle (fig. 4), the myocites had a more
pronounced cylindrical aspect, with a large diameter of 40.53±0.91 µ, a small
diameter of 31.42±0.81 µ and an average diameter of 35.97±0.81 µ. The variability of
the data was found within the 20.00% - 23.01% interval (table 2).
Table 2
Main statistical indexes concerning the histometric features of the muscular fibers
within the wing and thigh muscles, issued from Gallus domesticus L. species
Statistical indexes Limits
Mus

Analyzed characters n
cles

X± sX s S2
CV % Min. Max.
Large diameter (DM) (µ) 30 30.37 0.71 6.36 40.41 20.93 19.98 48.84
Brahial
biceps

Small diameters (Dm) (µ) 30 22.58 0.50 4.51 20.33 19.97 16.87 35.52
Average diameter (D X ) (µ) 30 26.47 0.55 4.95 24.54 18.71 18.43 42.18
DM/Dm ratio 30 1.36 0.03 0.24 0.06 17.53 1.09 2.00
Large diameter (DM) (µ) 30 40.53 0.91 8.11 65.70 20.00 28.86 57.72
Femoral
biceps

Small diameters (Dm) (µ) 30 31.42 0.81 7.23 52.28 23.01 22.20 53.28
Average diameter (D X ) (µ) 30 35.97 0.81 7.22 52.16 20.08 25.53 53.78
DM/Dm ratio 30 1.31 0.02 0.19 0.04 14.68 1.02 1.71

The DM/Dm ratio of the myocites within the BF muscle had an average value
of 1.31±0.02/1, showing the cylindrical aspect of the muscular cells and their ellipsoidal
cross-section shape.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Fig. 3 – Muscular fibers in the Fig. 4 – Muscular fibers in the


Biceps brachii muscle, Biceps femoris muscle,
Gallus domesticus L. species Gallus domesticus L. species
(OC10 X OB 10) (OC10 X OB 10)

The values concerning the muscular fibers’ thickness in both skeletal


muscles we’ve studied in the domestic fowl species were compared. Some
comparisons between both muscles, within the same species were effectuated, as
well as the values of the homologues muscles from both species were also
compared. First of all, the wings’ and thighs’ from the Anser anser L. species
were compared, considering the Brachial biceps muscle as etalon.
According to the data existing in table 3, it could be observed that the
myocites within the Brachial biceps muscle had higher thickness than those into
the Femoral biceps muscle.

Table 3
Comparisons between the studied muscles of Anser anser L. species, concerning the
histological features of the miocytes within the wing and thigh
(percentage and statistic differences)
Muscular fiber’s thickness (µ)
Species

Studied muscles Large Small Average DM/Dm


diameter(DM) diameter(Dm) diameter(D X ) ratio
Brachial Abs. val. 37.75 a 24.44 a 31.10 a 1.56 a
Anser anser

biceps Rel. val. (%) 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


Abs. val. 32.23 d 23.69 a 27.96 c 1.40 b
Femoral
85.37 96.93 89.90 89.74
biceps Rel. val. (%)
(-14.63%) (-3.07%) (-10.1%) (-10.26%)
a, b, c, d
– within the same column - insignificant statistical differences between means with identical
exponents, significant (ab; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.05 at 1,58 LD), distinguish significant (ac; F̂ > F crit.
for α = 0.01 at 1,58 LD) high significant (ad; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.001 at 1,58 LD) differences
between means with different exponents.

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Thus, we found that the average diameter of the myocites in the BF


muscle of the Anser anser L. species, represented just 89.90% from the diameter
of the miocytes measured in the BB muscle. The differences were found as very
significant (DM), distinguished significant (D X ) or just significant (DM/Dm ratio).
Conversely, the situation from the Gallus domesticus species, shown that
the fibers in the Femoral biceps are thicker than those measured within the wing’s
muscle (+35.89% for the average diameter). Very significant differences were
found for all three values of the miocytes diameter (table 4).
Table 4
Comparisons between the studied muscles of Gallus domesticus L. species, concerning
the histological features of the miocytes within the wing and thigh
(percentage and statistic differences)
Muscular fiber’s thickness (µ)
Spec

Studied muscles
ies

Large Small Average DM/Dm


diameter(DM) diameter(Dm) diameter(D X ) ratio
Brachial Abs. val. 30.37 a 22.58 a 26.47 a 1.36 a
biceps
domesticus

Rel. val. (%) 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


Gallus

Abs. val. 40.53 d 31.42 d 35.97 d 1.31 a


Femoral
biceps Rel. val. (%)
133.45 139.15 135.89 96.32
(+33.45%) (+39.15%) (+35.89%) (-3.68%)
a, b, c, d
– within the same column - insignificant statistical differences between means with identical
exponents, significant (ab; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.05 at 1,58 LD), distinguish significant (ac; F̂ > F crit.
for α = 0.01 at 1,58 LD) high significant (ad; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.001 at 1,58 LD) differences
between means with different exponents.

When the thickness of the myocites from the homologous muscles of both
studied species were compared, we established that Biceps brachii muscle of the
Anser anser species had thicker fibers than those measured into the domestic
chicken muscles. Thus, the formers average diameter was 7.49% higher than the
latter one. The shape per cross-section was more polygonal in domestic duck
muscle and closer to ellipsoidal in domestic chicken muscles (Table 5).
Table 5
Comparisons between the homologues muscles of both studied species, concerning
the dimensions of the myocites in the wing musculature
(percentage and statistic differences)
Muscular fiber’s thickness (µ)
Studied
Waterfowl species Large Small Average DM/Dm
muscles
diameter(DM) diameter(Dm) diameter(D X ) ratio
Gallus Abs. val. 30.37 a 22.58 a 26.47 a 1.36 a
domesticus
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Brachial

Rel. val.(%)
biceps

Anser
Abs. val. 37.75 d 24.44 a 31.10 d 1.56 c
anser Rel. val.(%)
124.30 108.24 117.49 114.70
(+24.30%) (+8.24%) (+7.49%) (+4.70%)
a, b, c, d
– within the same column - insignificant statistical differences between means with identical
exponents, significant (ab; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.05 at 1,58 LD), distinguish significant (ac; F̂ > F crit.
for α = 0.01 at 1,58 LD) high significant (ad; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.001 at 1,58 LD) differences
between means with different exponents.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Differences between thickness values of Brachial biceps in both fowl


were found as very (DM and D X ) and distinguished significant (DM/dm ratio)
(table 5).
Comparison done between the fowl species, concerning the histological
features of Biceps femoris muscles, shown that Anser anser presented lower
values for the diameters. Thus, the large one was 20.48% lower, the small one
was 24.60% lower, while the average value was 22.27% lower than the value
observed in Gallus domesticus muscle. Despite this, it was shown that the
miocytes within the Femoral biceps of the domestic duck were closer to
polygonal shape (table 6).

Table 6
Comparisons between the homologues muscles of both studied species, concerning
the dimensions of the miocytes in the thigh musculature
(percentage and statistic differences)
Muscular fiber’s thickness (µ)
Studied
Waterfowl species Large Small Average DM/Dm
muscles
diameter(DM) diameter(Dm) diameter(D X ) ratio
Gallus Abs. val. 40.53 a 31.42 a 35.97 a 1.31 a
domesticus Rel. val.(%) 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Femoral
biceps

Abs. val. 32.23 d 23.69 d 27.96 d 1.40 c


Anser anser 79.52 75.40 77.73 106.781
Rel. val.(%)
(-20.48%) (-24.6%) (-22.27%) (+6.78%)
a, b, c, d
– within the same column - insignificant statistical differences between means with identical
exponents, significant (ab; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.05 at 1,58 LD), distinguish significant (ac; F̂ > F crit.
for α = 0.01 at 1,58 LD) high significant (ad; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.001 at 1,58 LD) differences
between means with different exponents.

Concerning the existing differences, table 6 reveals very significant ones


for the diameter values and distinguished significant difference for ratio between
diameters.
Another histological feature was calculated, considering it better
expresses the thickess/thinnes of the miocytes, straightly influencing the meat
texture. Thus, the cross-section area of the fibers, was found of 732.66±22.49 µ2
into the domestic duck Brachial biceps (BB) duck and of 552.75±24.98 µ2 into the
same muscle from the domestic chicken. Variability was higher in the Gallus
domesticus species (40.43%). The thigh’s biceps cross sections area of the
myocites shown an average value of 1034.49±50.21 µ2 for the domestic chicken,
respectively of 605.38±18.11 µ2 for the Anser anser species, while the variability
was also higher in G. domesticus samples (43.41%) (table 7).

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Table 7
Main statistical indexes concerning the cross-section area of the myocites in some of
the wing and thigh muscles, from both fowl species
Statistical indexes (µ2) Limits (µ2)
Species Muscles n
X± sX s S2 CV % Min. Max.
Brachial
30 732.66 22.49 201.17 40471.20 27.46 418.20 1487.07
Anser biceps
anser Femoral
30 605.38 18.11 161.94 26224.25 26.75 252.79 987.60
biceps
Brachial
30 552.75 24.98 223.46 49933.12 40.43 264.73 1362.51
Gallus biceps
domesticus Femoral
30 1034.49 50.21 449.07 201664.08 43.41 503.20 2271.40
biceps

Analyzing the percentage differences between the cross-section areas of


the muscular fibers in the studied muscles within the same species, it could be
observed that for the domestic duck species, the myocites in the BF muscle had a
17.37% smaller area than those in the BB muscle (difference found as
distinguished significant). The differences between the muscles of the domestic
chicken were more pronounced, so the cross-section area of the fibers in the BB
muscle was 87.15% higher of that found for the BF muscle fibers (very significant
statistically difference) (table 8).

Table 8
Comparison between the studied muscles in each studied species, concerning the
cross-section area of the muscular fibers
Muscular fibers’ cross-section area
Studied muscle SPECIES Difference
(G. domesticus. vs.
Gallus domesticus Anser anser
A. anser) ±%
Biceps Abs. val. (µ2) 552.75 a; a 732.66 c; a -24.56%
brachii Rel. val. (%) 100.00 100.00 -
Biceps Abs. val. (µ2) 1034.49 a; d 605.38 c; c +70.88%
femoris Rel. val. (%) 187.15 (+87.15%) 82.63 (-17.37%) -
a, b, c, d
– within the same row and column - insignificant statistical differences between means with
identical exponents, significant (ab; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.05 at 1,58 LD), distinguish significant (ac;
F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.01 at 1,58 LD) high significant (ad; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.001 at 1,58 LD)
differences between means with different exponents.

Following the interspecies comparison, in both studied muscles, the


muscular fibers from the Gallus domesticus L. species had inferior values of the
cross-section areas in the Biceps brachii muscle (-24,56%) than those found in other
species. Conversely, for the Femoral biceps, the values were 70.88 higher in domestic
chicken, as compared to the value of the domestic Anser anser L. species (table 8).
Both differences were found as statistically distinguished significant.

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CONCLUSIONS
1. Gallus domesticus individuals presented thicker muscular fibers within the
Biceps femoris muscles, while the other species representatives shown a higher
miocytes thickness into the Biceps brachii muscle.
2. The researches showed a correlation between muscle fibers development and
muscle activity of the anatomic election area.
3. The domestic chicken presented a hypertrophy of the thigh muscle cells, due to
their locomotion type, realized almost exclusively through the inferior limbs
movements. Conversely, the alternate locomotion of the duck (flight and
stepping), gave a slightly better development of the wings muscles.
4. Interspecific comparisons gave distinguished significant differences (muscular
fibers cross-section) or even very significant differentiation (especially for
miocytes large diameters).
5. Muscular contractile cells shape, as observed in cross-section caption, seemed
to be ellipsoidal in chicken samples and closer to polygonal, in domestic duck
muscles.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. LYON C.E., ROBACH M.C., PAPA C.M., WILSON R.L. – 1992 – Effect of wing restraint
on the objective texture of commercially processed broiler breast meat. Poultry Science
71:1020-1025.
2. RADU-RUSU R.M., RADU-RUSU Cristina – 2006 – Metode noi de apreciere a calităţii cărnii
de pasare, Simpozion ştiinţific studenţesc, Ed. a II-a, Facultatea de Zootehnie, U.S.A.M.V. Iaşi.
3. RADU-RUSU R.M., TEUŞAN V., VOICU P. – 2006 – Researches concerning the thickness
and the cross-section area of the myocites in the domestic waterfowl’s pectoral muscles, Lucr.
Ştiinţ. U.S.A.M.V. Iaşi, Seria Zootehnie, vol. 49, pg. 156-164, ISSN 1454-7368.
4. RISTIC M. – 2004 – Meat quality of organically produced broilers, Rev. World Poultry, Vol.
20, No. 8, 2004.
5. WATTANACHANT S., BENJAKUL S., LEDWARD D.A. – 2005 – Microstructure and
Thermal Characteristics of Thai indigenous and broiler chicken muscles, Poult. Sci., 84:328-
336.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

COMPARATIVE RESEARCHES CONCERNING SOME


HISTOMETRIC FEATURES OF THE MIOCYTES IN
SOMATIC MUSCULATURE OF THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN
AND WATERFOWL (I). PECTORAL MUSCLES

R. M. RADU-RUSU, V. TEUŞAN, Anca TEUŞAN

The paper presents the results issued from some histometric researches,
applied on adult individuals belonging to the Gallus domesticus L. and Anser
anser L. species. Within the microscopic field, the large (DM) and the small (dm)
diameters of the myocites in the superficial pectoral muscles of both studied
species were measured. The average diameter and the report between the small
and the large diameters, the cross-section area of the myocites were calculated.
The data were proportionally and statistically compared, resulting some
differences found as not significant (dm, DM/dm), distinguished significant
(average diameter and cross-section area), or even very significant (DM).
The main conclusion of the researches affirms that the muscular fibers
in the pectoral muscles of the Anser anser L. species are thicker and with a
higher cross-section surface than those measured in the Gallus domesticus L.
pectoral muscles.

It is well known that the histological features of the meat influence its
technological, sensorial and nutritional properties. Moreover, the modern
customer began to choose high quality sorts of meat and meat products. Some of
the criteria used in consumers’ decision are the texture and the morphological
elements thinness of these animal origin aliments. Par consequence, it imposes to
know better the meat microstructure and to lead the husbandry and processing
activity toward the customers’ preferences. The present study began a series of
researches concerning the poultry meat quality and deals with some muscular
histometric features: myocites’ thickness, shape and cross section area.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


The biological material consisted in the histological samples issued from
the Pectoralis superficialis muscles, provided by the common breed adult
females, from the Gallus domesticus L. and Anser anser L. species (domestic
chicken and domestic goose). The average live weight before slaughtering was
about 2700 g in the Anser anser L. species and about 2500 g in the Gallus
domesticus L. species.
In order to proceed to our investigations, some specific instruments and
apparatus have been used: anatomical necropsy kit, laboratory glassware,
histological techniques instruments, reagents, MC3 type binocular photonic
microscope, micrometry and microphotography kits, digital photo camera.

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Several experimental methods have been used in our researches: necropsy, in


order to draw the muscular tissues; paraffin sectioning technique, in order to process
the histological samples; histometry technique, in order to measure the large and the
small diameters of the muscular fibers within the microscopic field. The measurement
of the myocites’ diameters has been done on a MC3 type photonic microscope, well
calibrated for the OB20 X OC10 association. The micrometric values were multiplied
with 4,441 (calibration coefficient corresponding to the OB20 X OC10 association).
A number of 120 measurements have been effectuated within the microscopic field.
In order to calculate the average diameter of the muscular fibers, a specific
formula was used: Dx = ( DM + Dm) / 2 , whereas: D x = average diameter (µ); DM =
large diameter (µ); Dm = small diameter (µ). The cross-section area of the myocytes
was also calculated according to the formula: S(µ 2 ) = DM × Dm / 4 × π , whereas: S
represents the cross-section area of the fibers (µ2); π= 3,1416; DM and Dm meet the
same signification as in the previous formula.
The primary data were statistically processed, some indexes being calculated:
statistical mean ( x ), variance (S2), standard deviation (s), mean standard error (± s x )
and variability coefficient (CV%). These parameters were computed using PC. In order
to test the statistical significance of the differences between averages, the ANOVA –
single factor algorithm was used, as a plugin integrated within the Ms EXCEL main
application.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


In the Gallus domesticus L. (chicken) species, within the Pectoralis
superficialis (PS) (fig. 1) muscle, the muscular fibers presented a cylindrical shape,
with a large diameter (DM) of 32.53±0.61 µ; a small diameter (Dm) of 25.41±0.52
µ and a mean value for the average diameter of 28.47±0.49 µ. The variability of all
the 30 measurements was comprised between 15.24% and 18.15%. An average
value of 1.30/1 ± 0.02 was found for the DM/Dm ratio, indicating an ellipsoidal
shape on the myocites cross-section (table 1).
Table 1
The main statistical indexes concerning the dimensions of the muscular fibers in the
Pectoralis superficialis muscles, issued from Gallus domesticus L. species
Statistical indexes Limits
Character n
X± s X s S 2
CV % Min. Max.
Large diameter
30 32.53 0.61 5.42 29.33 16.64 19.98 44.40
(DM) (µ)
Small diameter
30 25.41 0.52 4.61 21.27 18.15 17.76 35.52
(Dm) (µ)
Average diameter
30 28.97 0.49 4.41 19.27 15.24 18.87 36.63
(D X ) (µ)
DM/Dm report 30 1.30 0.02 0.22 0.05 16.86 1.00 1.80

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Fig. 1 – Muscular fibers in the


Pectoralis superficialis muscle,
Gallus domesticus L. species
(OC10 X OB 10; OC10 X OB 6)

In the Anser anser L. species, within the Pectoralis superficialis (PS)


muscle (fig. 2), the muscular fibers had a large diameter of 37.90±0.67 µ, and a
variability of this character of 15.83% (table 2). The myocites’ small diameter in the
same muscle had an average value of 27.42±0.60 µ, and the calculated average
diameter was about 32.66±0.53 µ. The variability of the thirty measured and
calculated values within the microscopic field was situated between the 14.64 –
19.55% limits (table 2). The report between the large and the small diameter of
these muscular fibers had an average value of 1.42±0.03/1, the variability being also
higher (v=19.67%) (table 2).
The values concerning the muscular fibers’ thickness (DM, Dm, D X ) in the
Pectoralis superficialis muscles we’ve studied in both fowl species, were compared.
The statistical significance between differences was tested.

Table 2
The main statistical indexes concerning the dimensions of the muscular fibers in the
Pectoralis superficialis muscles, issued from Anser anser L. species
Statistical indexes Limits
Character n
X± sX s S2 CV % Min. Max.
Large diameter
30 37.90 0.67 6.00 36.01 15.83 26.65 48.85
(DM) (µ)
Small diameter
30 27.42 0.60 5.36 28.74 19.55 17.76 35.53
(Dm) (µ)
Average diameter
30 32.66 0.53 4.78 22.84 14.64 24.43 41.08
(D X ) (µ)
DM/Dm ratio 30 1.42 0.03 0.28 0.08 19.67 1.00 2.00

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Fig. 2 – Muscular fibers in the Pectoralis


superficialis muscle, Anser anser L. species
(OC10 X OB 10)

According to the data presented in table 3, it could be observed that the


myocites within the superficial pectoral muscles of the Anser anser L. species had
superior thickness values than those found for the fibers within the homologue
muscles of the Gallus domesticus L. species.
Thus, the chickens’ superficial pectorals had muscular fibers 7.91% …
16.51% thinner (12.73% less for the average diameter) than those measured
within the samples drawn from the domestic duck individuals. Moreover, the
myocites shape was closer to ellipsoidal in Gallus muscles and, conversely, closer
to polygonal in Anser anser L. muscles. These differences were found as very
significant ( F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.001 at 1.58 LD) for the large diameter values and
also distinguish significant ( F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.01 at 1.58 LD) for the average
diameter. No significant differences were found between other characters.
Table 3
Comparisons between both studied species, concerning the dimensions of the
myocites in the Pectoralis superficialis muscles
(percentage and statistical differences)
Muscular fiber’s thickness (µ)
Fowl species Large Small Average DM/Dm
diameter diameter diameter Report
(DM) (µ) (Dm) (µ) (D ) (µ) X
Gallus Abs. val. 32.53 a
25.41 a
28.97 a 1.30 a
domesticus L. Rel. val.(%) 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Anser Abs. val. 37.90 d 27.42 a 32.66 c 1.42 a
anser L. Rel. val.(%) 116.51 107.91 112.73 109.23
a, b, c, d
– within the same column - insignificant statistical differences between means with identical
exponents, significant (ab; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.05 at 1,58 LD), distinguish significant (ac; F̂ > F crit.
for α = 0.01 at 1,58 LD) high significant (ad; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.001 at 1,58 LD) differences
between means with different exponents.

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The other feature, respectively the cross-section area of the fibers in the
pectoral muscles, was also analyzed, considering it better expresses the muscular
tissue texture and it could be used as starting data when the density of the
myocites within the muscular fascicles has to be assessed. Thus, an average value
of 659.11±22.23 µ2 was found within the superficial pectoral (PS) muscle of the
Gallus domesticus L. species. The values varied within the 278.69 µ2 - 1006.40 µ2
interval, showing a with a variability coefficient of 30.14 % (table 4). Into the
Pectoralis superficialis muscles of the other studied species (domestic duck), the
average value of the myocites cross-section area was found of 826.71±27.52 µ2,
and the variation limits were of 453.04 µ2 and of 1277.90 µ2, reaching a
variability of 29.79 % (table 4).

Table 4
Main statistical indexes concerning the cross-section area of the myocites in the
Pectoralis superficialis muscles, issued from both fowl species
(also presentation of the percentage and statistical differences between means)
Statistical indexes (µ2) Limits (µ2)
Fowl species n 2
X± s X s S CV % Min. Max.
Gallus Abs. val. 30 659.72 a 22.23 198.87 39549.15 30.14 278.69 1006.40
domesticus L. ±% - 100.00 - - - - - -
Abs. val. 30 826.21 c 27.52 246.12 60574.90 29.79 453.04 1277.99
Anser anser L.
±% - 125.24 - - - - - -
a, b, c, d
– within the same column - insignificant statistical differences between means with identical
exponents, significant (ab; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.05 at 1,58 LD), distinguish significant (ac; F̂ > F crit.
for α = 0.01 at 1.58 LD) high significant (ad; F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.001 at 1.58 LD) differences
between means with different exponents.

Following the interspecies comparison, the muscular fibers from the


Gallus domesticus L. species had lower values of the cross-section areas (-25.24%)
than the pectoral myocites studied in Anser anser L. species (table 4).
The average values of the muscular fibers cross-section area in the superficial
pectorals of both species were not so close. Par consequence, differences between
them were found as statistically distinguish significant ( F̂ > F crit. for α = 0.01 at
1.58 LD).

CONCLUSIONS
1. The average diameter of the myocytes was found of 28.47±0.49 µ into the
Gallus domesticus L.. species’ Pectoralis superficialis muscle.
2. Within the superficial pectoral muscle of the waterfowl species (Anser
anser L.), different value was found, concerning the average diameter of
the muscular fibers: 32.66±0.53µ, being thus 16.51% thicker than that
calculated for the domestic chicken fibers.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

3. The cross section area of the myocites from the Pectoralis superficialis
muscles was found of 659.72±44.93µ2 in the Gallus domesticus L. species,
respectively of 826.21±29.79µ2 in the Anser anser L. species (+25.24%
higher).
4. Most of the differences between myocites histometric features of both
species were found as not statistically significant, except their large and
average diameter of the fibers (very significant and distinguished
significant) as good as their cross section area (distinguished significant
differences).

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BERRI Cecille – 2000 – Variability of sensory and processing qualities of poultry meat,
World’s Poultry Science Journal, Vol. 56, September, pg. 209-224.
RADU-RUSU R.M., TEUŞAN V., VOICU P. – 2006 – Researches concerning the
thickness and the cross-section area of the myocytes in the domestic waterfowl’s pectoral muscles,
Lucr. Ştiinţ. U.S.A.M.V. Iaşi, Seria Zootehnie, vol. 49.
RISTIC M. – 2004 – Meat quality of organically produced broilers, Rev. World Poultry,
Vol. 20, No. 8, 2004.
TEUŞAN, V. – 2000 – Cercetări privind suprafaţa pe secţiune transversală a fibrelor
musculare, precum şi proporţia de ţesut muscular şi conjunctiv din câţiva muşchi somatici la specia
Gallus domesticus, Lucr. Ştiinţ. U.S.A.M.V. Iaşi, Seria Zootehnie, vol. 43-44.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

THE VEGETATION INTERRUPTION FOR THE SEED


POTATO IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE MAXIMAL
FLIGHT OF THE APHIDS AND THE SEED FRACTION
ACCUMULATION
Ioana PETRICELE, D. PAMFIL, Daniela DONESCU,
Gh. OLTEANU, Maria IANOŞI, K. KOVÁCS

Considering that producing a planting material with high phytosanitary


valence takes a lot of effort, after two years of researches that took place in the
experimental field from Brasov, tubers with a minimum of virotic infections and
corresponding yield have been obtained. This was based upon estimating the
optimal period for the vegetation interruption, considering the maximal flight of
the aphids and obtaining the highest percent of seed tubers, correlated with the
sum of thermic degrees during the vegetation period, as two principal criteria
which had to be met.
Until now, the moment of vegetation interruption of the seed potato
cultures was established taking into account the maximal flight of the aphids; in
our case, for the semi-early potato varieties (e.g. Ostara), the second evaluation
criteria for the vegetation interruption, based upon obtaining the highest percent
of seed tubers, was used. For the medium late Desireé potato variety and the late
Eba variety, the criteria used to estimate the optimal moment for the vegetation
interruption was the maximal flight of the aphids, which took place before
obtaining a satisfactory quantity of seed tubers (30-55 mm).

INTRODUCTION

Regarding the technology to produce potato for seed, a highly important


role for a increased production capacity, have the integrity and the size of the
tubers, and also their phytosanitary features and biological quality, which are
given by virotic infections.
Due to the fact that, on average in each potato seed culture area, the
pressure of the vectors is generally high, to be able to produce a high qualitative
planting material in concordance with the phytosanitary legislations and also
according to the STAS, it is necessary, that in a complex system of
agrofitotechique, organization and phytosanitary integrated measurements to take
into account the vegetation interruption stage.
It is known the fact that tuber infection with viruses is higher if the period
since the infection caused by aphids or by contact until the vegetation intreruption
is longer.
Because of this, the vegetation inreruptin is considered one of the most
efficient measurement, in preventing the viruses transmition from the foliar
system to the tubers, but also in limiting the tubers growing in order to obtain an
increased percentage of tubers for seeds, from the fraction of 30-55 mm diameter
(IANOSI şi colab., 2002).

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

MATERIAL AND RESEARCH METHOD


To achieve this goal, there were made determinations regarding the
aphids fly monitorising in the experimental field from Brasov, by collecting them
in yellow vessels, and as potato cultivar, there were taken into study the following
cultivars :Ostara (middle early cultivar), Desireé (middle late cultivar) and Eba
(late cultivar), cultivars with a high phenotypical and genetic variability.
The experience was organized in randomisated blocks, with three variants
in four repetitions each, each variant was planted on a surface of 5m2, at two
different planting densities: high density (DM): 63.500 plants/ha, with tubers of
30-45 mm fraction; low density (Dm): 53.000 plants/ha, with tubers of 45-55 mm
fraction. The biologic category of tubers for seeds was represented by base
category, practically free of viruses.
To determine the seed tubers percentage with a diameter between 30-55
mm (diameter mentioned by STAS), it was necessary to find out the weight limits
of tubers. In order to do that, WINIGER, LUDWIG, (1974) and BROUWER
(1976) documentation were consulted; so that at 100 tubers in each cultivar
studied there were made biometric measurements concerning the shape, lengh,
thikness and tubers weight. These determinations began after about 2-3 weeks
from the plants began to grow and continued on the entire vegetation period, from
10 in 10 days, resulting 8-10 harvest stages, depending on the vegetation period of
the cultivars taken into study.
The dates obtained show us that the limits of the seed tubers weight
variations of 30-55 mm fraction, for Ostara cultivar, are between 17,5 and 102,2
grams, for Desireé cultivar between 38,9 grams and 120,2 grams, and for Eba
cultivar between 27,3 and 139,4 grams. The program which was used to calculate
the dates is: SigmaPlot by SPSS.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Our research, which took place on a period of three years in the
experimental field in Braşov, is based on the estimation of the optimal vegetation
interruption period depending on the achievement of the two main criteria and
that is the maximal aphids fly period and a increased percentage of seeds tubers,
depending on the degrees of thermal sum accumulated from the moment of tuber
plantation up to the last harvest stage.
Concerning the fact that the main criteria to establish, presently the
moment for vegetation inreruption of seeds potato culture, is the maximal aphids
fly period, in our case, for the middle late cultivar (Ostara), characterised by a
relativly short vegetation period, 75-85 days, is available the second criteria to
apreciate the vegetation inreruption, based on the maximum seed tubers percent
achievement.
This recommendation is justified due to the dates obtained, at the level of
the culture with the planting densities (63500 plants/ha and 53000 plants/ha) (fig.
1). It is shown that, to achieve the maximum seed cuantum, on 30-55 mm, it is

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obtained before the mmaximal aphids fly period, which takes place at a cumulated
value of the temperatures degrees of 1200ºC. For a superior quantitative and
qualitative production of seed tubers, the optimal perios for vegetation inreruption
can be estimated when the sum of temperature degrees cumulated reaches a value
between 950-1250°C, depending on the climatic conditions of the certain years.
Calendaristically speaking, these values are according to the date 10-20 July,
respectively after 50-65 days from the plant appearance. The aspect noticed
determines us to consider that vegetation intreruption is justified to be achieved
after the criteria of maximal seed production achieved, which can be done before
the maximal aphids fly period, in this way the virotic infections of the planting
material being , significally, decreased,.

Tip soi - Ostara (an I) Tip soi - Ostara (an I)


100 1450 100 1450

90 90
1400 1400
80 80

70 1350 70 1350
Procent samanta (%)

Procent samanta (%)


Numar total afide

Numar total afide


60 60
1300 1300
50 50
1250 1250
40 40

30 1200 30 1200
20
20
1150
1150
10
10

0 1100
0 1100
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
Sum a °C
DM Afide cum ulate Sum a °C Dm Afide cumulate

Tip soi - Ostara (an II) Tip soi - Ostara (an II)
100 1450 100 1450

90 90
1400 1400
80 80

70 1350 70 1350
Procent samanta (%)
Procent samanta (%)

Numar total afide


Numar total afide

60 60
1300 1300

50 50
1250 1250
40 40

30 1200 30 1200

20 20
1150 1150
10 10

0 1100 0 1100
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
Sum a °C Sum a °C
Dm Afide cumulate Dm Afide cumulate

Fig. 1. Relaţia dintre zborul maxim al afidelor şi procentul maxim de tuberculi


pentru sămânţă, realizat de soiul Ostara

For Desireé, middle late cultivar, due to its longer vegetation period,
achieving a superior qualitative production of seed tubers, was possible only after

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

reaching a level of temperature degrees of over 1300°C, in all the three years
studied (fig. 2). Due to this fact, the criteria used to estimate the optimal moment
to interrupt the vegetation is the moment of the maximal aphids fly, which takes
place before obtaining a satisfying seed tuber quantity (30-55 mm). To obtain a
qualitative production, from the phytosanitary point of view, the optimal moment
for vegetation interruption based on the maximal aphids fly period, can be
estimated as being the last decade of July, when the sum of the thermal degrees
reaches 1150-1200°C.
Tip soi - Desireé (an I) Tip soi - Desireé (an I)
100 1450 100 1450

90 90
1400 1400
80 80

1350 70 1350
70

Procent samanta (%)


Procent samanta (%)

Numar total afide


Numar total afide

60 60
1300 1300

50 50

1250 1250
40 40

30 30 1200
1200

20 20
1150 1150
10 10

0 1100 0 1100
800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
Sum a °C Sum a °C
DM Af ide cumulate Dm Afide cumulate

Tip soi - Desireé (an II) Tip soi - Desireé (an II)
100 1450
100 1450
90
90 1400
1400
80
80

70 1350
70 1350
Procent samanta (%)
Procent samanta (%)

Numar total afide


Numar total afide

60
60 1300
1300
50 50
1250
1250 40
40

30 30 1200
1200

20 20
1150 1150
10 10

0 1100 0 1100
800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
Sum a °C Sum a °C
DM Afide cumulate Dm Afide cumulate

Fig. 2. Relaţia dintre zborul maxim al afidelor şi procentul maxim de tuberculi


pentru sămânţă, realizat de soiul Desireé

The criteria used to estimate the vegetation interruption for late cultivar
Eba, is in this case the maximal aphids fly period, due to its vegetation period of
over 120 days, the accumulation of an appropriate quantitative of tuber
production, achieved on temperatures over 1700°C, in the first but also in the
second year of study for both of the planting densities.

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So, the optimal period for vegetation interruption depending on the


maximal aphids fly period, is estimated to be the last decade of July in the case of
the first year, and the end of the second decade of July in the case of the second
year of study (fig. 3). Practically, in this case it can be recommended as optimal
period to destroy the stalks, when the sum of accumulated thermal degrees
reaches the value of 1100 - 1300°C.

Tip soi - Eba (an I) Tip soi - Eba (an I)


100 1450 100 1450

90 90
1400 1400
80 80

70 1350 1350
70
Procent samanta (%)

Procent samanta (%)


Numar total afide

Numar total afide


60 60
1300 1300
50 50
1250 1250
40 40

30 1200 30 1200

20 20
1150 1150
10 10

0 1100 0 1100
800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
Sum a °C Sum a °C
DM Afide cumulate Dm Afide cumulate

Tip soi - Eba (an II) Tip soi - Eba (an II)
100 1450 100 1450

90 90
1400 1400
80 80

1350 70 1350
70
Procent samanta (%)
Procent samanta (%)

Numar total afide


Numar total afide

60 60
1300 1300

50 50

1250 1250
40 40

30 30 1200
1200

20 20
1150
1150 10
10

0 1100
0 1100
800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
Sum a °C
Sum a °C
DM Afide cumulate Dm Af ide cumulate

Fig. 3. Relaţia dintre zborul maxim al afidelor şi procentul maxim de tuberculi


pentru sămânţă, realizat de soiul Eba

CONCLUSIONS
- The aspect noticed in the case of Ostara cultivar determine us to consider
that vegetation intreruption is justified to be achieved after the criteria of maximal
seed production obtained, achieved before the maximal aphids fly period,
decreasing in this way, significally,the virotic infections of the planting material.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

- In the case of the two cultivars, middle late Desireé and late Eba, the
optimal vegetation interruption is established after the criteria of the maximal
aphids fly period, due to the high susceptibility of plants to infection and
obtaining superior qualitative production, but not quantitative, because the
vegetation periods are more extended.
- The possibility to obtain satisfactory production under this aspect is low,
because the tubers aren’t mature from physiological point of view. That is why
the planting period has an important role; it has to be made as early as possible for
seed culture, measure which contributes to a satisfactory seed production
accumulation up to the optimal moment for vegetation interruption.
- Not at last, it has to be taken into account, at the repartition on area of
the cultivars and links within the seed potato production system, the infection
potential of the culture area, production potential and virus’s resistance of the
particular cultivars.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. ARDELEAN, M., SESTRAŞ, R., MIRELA CORDEA, 2002, Tehnică experimentală şi
horticolă. Ed. Academic Pres, Cluj-Napoca.
2. BEDÖ, E., 1990, Cercetări privind îmbunătăţirea producerii cartofului pentru sămânţă în
judeţul Harghita. Teza de doctorat, ASAS, Bucureşti.
3. BEEMSTER, A.B.R., 1984, Some notes on viruses of potatoes and seed potato production.
IAC, Wageningen.
4. BENEA, I., 2004, Apelul cultivatorilor de cartof, adresat factorilor de decizie. Rev. Agricultura
României;
5. BERINDEI, M., 2004, Priorităţi la cultura cartofului în România. Rev. Cartoful în România, 14
(4);
6. BIANU, T., 1995. Cercetări privind influenţa caracterelor morfologice asupra producţiei la
cartof. Teză de doctorat, USAMV Cluj-Napoca
7. BOZEŞAN, I., BERINDEI M., 2005, Conştientizarea cultivatorilor de cartof pentru reînnoirea
cartofilor pentru sămânţă. Rev. Cereale şi plante tehnice. 2: 10-11;
8. CHIRU, S.C., OLTEANU G., 2004, Priorităţi de cercetare-dezvoltare la cultura cartofului în
perspectiva dezvoltării durabile a agriculturii. Rev. Agricultura României, 44;
9. DONESCU, DANIELA, 2001, Biologia şi ecologia comunităţilor de afide dăunătoare din
culturile de cartof pentru sămânţă în contextul protecţiei integrate. Teza de doctorat. USAMV
Cluj – Napoca.
10. IANOŞI, I.S., IANOŞI MARIA ELENA, PLĂMĂDEALĂ B., POPESCU A., 2002, Cultura
cartofului pentru consum. Ed. Phoenix, Braşov:112-123.
11. MORAR, G., VÂTCĂ S., IOANA OLTEAN (PETRICELE), OLTEAN M. I., 2003, A new
microzone for seed potato productions in Romania – Huedin area – in Cluj country, Journal of
Central European Agriculture, 4
12. OLTEANU, G., OLTEAN I. M., OLTEAN IOANA, 2002, Priorităţi ale cercetării ştiinţifice în
domeniul culturilor de câmp. Ed. Ceres, ASAS Bucureşti: 99-109
13. OLTEANU, G., PLĂMĂDEALĂ B., OLTEAN I. M, MARIA IANOŞI, IOANA OLTEAN,
2003, Particularităţile de creştere şi acumularea producţiei de cartof în condiţiile anului 2000.
III. Calitatea tuberculilor, Analele ICDCSZ, 30
14. ZAAG, D.E.,VAN DER, 1992, Cartoful şi cultivarea lui în Olanda, NIVAA Holland, FAO
Production Yearbook, vol. 51

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

STRATEGIES FOR USE BIOMASS, A NECESSITY FOR THE


ROMANIAN ECONOMY

V. CRĂCIUN, O. BĂLAN

Amongst the available alternatives of regenerative energy sources, biomass


will play an important role. Beside the objective of protection of resources and
environment, biomass could contribute to preserving and strengthening agriculture
and improve the standard of life for villages inhabitants. Livestock residues, as a
part of biomass, can constitute aas a source of energy, fertilizers and other by-
products. In the paper are presented necessary processing steps for the
conversion of biomass in by- products useful for economical development of
Romania.

INTRODUCTION
Amongst the available alternatives of regenerative energy sources, biomass
will play an important role in the future for the following reasons: firstly, a large
potential of biomass is available today, but has been used only little until now;
secondly, biomass represents stored solar energy in a form that meets our
demands and is accessible at any time; and thirdly, the existing technology for the
conversion of fossil fuels into energy can serve as a basis when developing the
technique required for producing energy from biomass.
Beside the objective "protection of resources and the environment" there is
a further motivation for the energetic use of biomass: its contribution to
preserving and strengthening the domestic agriculture, and the entailed care of the
land developed and cultivated by man - essential factors for the flourishing tourist
industry in Romania. This is why the Romanian Government aims at increasing
the share of biomass in primary energy coverage, in concordance with European
Union strategy.
Whenever new technologies are developed and introduced in the market
there is a broad range of concepts and variants in the beginning. It is therefore of
decisive importance to come up with strategies which help to determine the
promising concepts, which allow to make optimum use of the available
development potential and capital. For a new technology to be successful it is
absolutely necessary that the entire system and all the different stages of the
process are clearly defined, developed and tested in practice, that is: from the
growing of biomass, via its pretreatment and conversion into energy, to the
energy distribution and use of residual material.
Since the occurrence of biomass is area-related, i.e. differs depending on
region and season, and because of its low energy density and thus reduced
transportability, biomass is particularly suited for the de-centralized provision of
useful energy, i.e. for the generation of heat and power in the small power range.
Possible areas of use are systems for district heating, as well as combined heat
and power systems. Today the biogenic energy carriers used most are definitely

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the solid fuels. Fig. 1 [1] shows an overview of biogenic energy sources and
various conversion technologies.

To be able to evaluate conversion systems - with regard to the technical


deficiencies they might still show and the efficiency they can achieve - it is
required that the total system needed for the provision of useful energy is
developed. Systems for the conversion of biogenic fuels into heat and power have
three areas which are particularly important in view of an evaluation of individual
concepts:
- the treatment and possible transformation of the energy carrier with regard
to its application in a suitable power engine and;
- the power engine itself, i.e. the conversion of the carrier's energy content
to useful heat and electricity.
Fig. 2 [1], shows an overview of the main concepts, indicating where there
is still a need for further research and development .
The classification demonstrates that the need for further investigation and
development refers to combustion and gasification procedures and their associate
feeding systems, to procedures for gas cleaning and especially to power engines
used in the small and medium range, which is particularly interesting with regard
to energetic use of biomass.

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Fig.2. Concepts for the energetic use of biomass [1]

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Each of the possible plant concepts has certain advantages, but also
limitations, which influence the successful and efficient plant operation
considerably. Thus, for example, a small heating system can be equipped with a
mono-fuel and its firing designed for this fuel only. In this way, investment costs
can be kept low, but, in return, the annual operating hours of the system will be
low in many cases. On the other hand, the firing of a combined heat and power

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system in the medium and upper power range must be suited for a wide variety of
fuels to be able to process the different bio-fuels obtained in each season.
This simple example shows that certain specifications on the fuel side (e.g.
use of different biogenic fuels) lead to certain demands placed on the technology
used (firing, feeding system); via the investment costs (relatively high) they also
influence the plant operation (operating hours per year).
We do think that for Romania the following objectives for projects to be
subsidized are pursued:
- support of technically field- tested systems to accelerate their market
introduction. This mainly includes systems with district- heating grids with an
improved technology ;
- support of systems employing technically/economically interesting
concepts, so-called pilot concepts, e.g. fluidized bed combustion for the high
power range and power generation or gasification plants.
- support of the development of new concepts and components, as well as
the testing of these laboratory technologies in practice. An example for this is the
concept of gasification.

RESULTS AND DISCUTIONS


Technologies can be successful only if they are economical. However, in
the beginning, both the development stage and the market introduction stage will
require a “push” from outside, i.e. from the state, meaning support of research,
investment subsidies and guaranteed proceeds for the product power and heat.
As a criterion for an economical operation the payable price for the fuel
biomass can be calculated taking into consideration the corresponding basic
conditions which currently apply, the predefined system costs and the operating
hours at full load per year.
In European Union, mainly in Germany, are in research, construction and
development, projects for conversion the biomass into energy.
The most important directions are:
a. thermal power systems
- A heating plant must have low specific investment costs, since its
operating period is normally below 3000 hours on full capacity basis.
- The thermal power system should not be designed in order to meet heat
requirements expected in the future; it is essential to achieve a high number of full
load operating hours from the beginning;
- Because of the high costs for district hearing grids (often up to 50 % of
the total costs), efficiency can be achieved only if there is a high demand for heat
in the proximity of the plant.
b. Combined heat and power systems
Here, the higher revenues of the product ,,electricity” considerably increase
the economic efficiency compared to heating systems.
- Since the product “electricity” is needed throughout the year, the
operating period can be expanded by leaving a heat- oriented mode of operation.

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Instead, systems in the medium to high power range should be operated flexibly
with a variable power-to-heat ratio, whereas systems in the small power range
should have a high power- to- heat ratio.
In fig.3 is presented a technological sketch for a combined heat and power
system which use straw.
In fig.4 is presented a technological sketch for a gasification plant for
biomass which produce heat and power.
Both solutions demands a wide variety of fuels to be able to process
different bio- fuels obtained in each season.

Fig.3. Simplified principle diagram for a plant which use straw for a combined heat and
power system.

In fig.4 is presented technological sketch for a small biogas plant. Such


un its are useful for countries with a small budget solutions, which enable to skim
off the available energy from waste, especially from husbandry. It is the case for
Romania, which will develop a lot of projects for small enterprises for husbandry
in rural areas, where are strongly needed measures for environment protection and
alternative sources of energy.
On a single ton of biowaste with an average content of 22% organic dry
matter includes an energy potential of about 660 kWhthermal . Changed into
electrical energy it results 200 kWelectrical . To produce this amount of electrical
energy by so called “German power station mix”, 62 kg CO2 would be produced.
So such plants are fully contributing to reduce emissions of CO2 and preserve the
environment.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Fig.4. Technological sketch of a gasification plant from biomass

Fig.5. Biowaste digestion plant Erkheim (District of Unterallgaeu- Germany)

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CONCLUSIONS

The political interest in promoting renewable energy sources is very strong


and increasing the use of biomass may be one of the major ways in which to reach
this objective. Many possibilities are available to make biomass contribute to the
energy services requested by the modern society.
The different combustion technologies will play a major role in the
development towards improvements of the economy and environmental impact.

REFERENCES
1. E.Otmaier, D. Hein. 1999. Strategies for Energetic Use of Biomass in Bavaria- Ilustrated
by Projects in Operation, Under Construction and Development. In the proceedings of
C.A.R.M.E.N.; Biomass for Energy and Industry.
2. Ottocarl Muck.1999. Small biogas Plants. In the proceedings of C.A.R.M.E.N. ;Biomass
for Energy and Industry.
3. Vasile Crăciun, Esmeralda Chiorăscu, Ovidiu Balan. 2004. Reciclarea deşeurilor şi
reziduurilor din agricultură şi industria alimentară. Editura CERMI, IASI, ROMANIA; ISBN 973-
667-100- 3.

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RESEARCH CONCERNING THE USE OF


CHEMOTHERAPY (FURAZOLIDON) IN THE MINK’S
YOUTH ALIMENTATION

Elena COSTĂCHESCU, Alexandrina DIAC

The research was concerned with the use of furazolidon in the standard
dark coloured mink’s youth alimentation for the stimulation of the growing
process, the reduction of mortality and morbidity, because of the clinical and
sub-clinical infections.
Observations were made on a number of 40 individuals to which it was
adminstrated in their ration 1% furazolidon. The results showed that the meal
was well tolerated by animals. The body weight at the experimental plots has
grown, but it was insignificant.
Obviously, the health state of the studied animals has improved, the
wastage percent being with 10,5% smaller than the wastage canned on the whole
study group.

The alimentation of minks is more expensive that at other fur species such
as the herbivorous ones. The fodder used in their meal has higher costs, their
quality must be superior, and the alimentation must be done in a rational way.
In the feeding of these animals it is recommended, for the higher
efficency of the fodder as well as for a preventive way, the use of synthesis
chemical substances.
The use of these substances influences the development process of the
youth, mainly because of the inhibation of the micro-organisms that invade the
host animal.
The youth, in their first weeks of life, are more vulnerable to the action of
these micro-organisms.
The use of chemotherapy at this stage determines a positive answer from
the animals.

MATHERIAL AND METHOD


The investigations were made at the farm for growing fur animals from
S.C AGROIND BACAU.
The minks studied were brought in 2005 from Finnland.
The biological material used was 40 weaned standard colour mink youth.
For the observations there were used two plots: witness and experimental. The
last has been given in the meal recipe 1% furazolidon.
The period of the experiment was 4 months (june-octomber).
The individuals for the experiment were equable in age and body weight.
The feeding of the weaned youth had the following recipe (tab.1):

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Table nr. 1
Diet formulation use of mink’s feed
Dietary ingrdients % from total diet
Bovin (softly) 19%
Slaughtering by-products with osseiuse 16%
Bird chiefs and feet 35%
Bovin blood 12,5%
Foraje combine 7%
Vegetables 7%
Animal fat 1,2%
Premix 0,8%
Furozalidon 1%

The food was administrated into two sizings under the form of paste.
The fodder consumption was determined by daily weighting of the
administrated food as well as of the rests.
Throughtout the experiment it was also studied the health state of the
animals.

RESULTS
The evolution of the mink’s youth body weight from weaning until the
end of the control period (the 30 of Octomber) is prezented in table nr. 2.

Table nr. 2
The evolution of body weight at the mink’s youth
Specification Experimental plot Witness plot Average
Male Female Male Female weight/farm
X ± Sx X ± Sx X ± Sx X ± Sx X ± Sx
Weight at 334,4 ± 8,1 265,6±7,1 316,6±7,8 238,1±5 290,8±7,3
weaning
Weight at 30 862,6±36,9 609,3±16,3 832,1±42,2 629,9±15,3 -
days from
weaning
Weight at 60 1236,1±32,7 814,1±22,1 1192,2±41 846,1±17,3 -
days from
weaning
Weight at 90 1466,2±31,5 869,3±15,1 1405,5±45,5 953,5±16,4 -
days from
weaning
Weight at 120 1616,1±39,1 959,3±65,5 1502,2±43,4 1043,3±16,7 1307,3±16,9
days from
weaning

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Analysing the data from the table one may say that the experimental plot
registres higher body weight than the witness plot.
Comparing the average body weight of the studied material with the
acquired average weight of the youth on the unit we may say that this is superior
on all control periods.
Differences in weight were observed also between sexes, a predictable
aspect, because at minks, the sexual dimorphism is obvious in the weight.
The differences obtained from the males of the experimental plot aren’t
statistically sure, the value of t^=1,69 i.s. (insignificant). The same thing has been
observed at females, the value of t^=1,1 i.s.
The evolution of the fodder consumption for the males is represented in
the following graphic:

350
300
250
200
control
150
experim ental
100
50
0
w eanig 30 days 60 days 90 days 120 days

Grafic.nr. 1. The evolution of fodder consumption at the standard young male mink

Concerning the fodder consumption, this has vaccilated berween


249g/head/day with small differences between the two plots. In two months from
weaning it was registered the lowest consumption, fact explained by the presence
of high temperatures in August, which determined the low food consumption.
The consumption of fodder registered at females is presented in the 2nd
graphic:

270
260
250
240
230 control
220 experimental
210
200
190
weaning 30 days 60 days 90 days 120 days

Grafic.nr. 2. The evolution of fodder consumption at the standard


female young mink

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The fodder consumption at females hasn’t registered differences on plots.


This has vacillated between 220 g/day/head and 262 g/day/head at 4 months from
weaning.
It was observed that the females haven’t changed their food consumption
volume under the influence of high temperatures.
The average daily ration for the analyzed period was of 4,49-6,70
g/head/day at females and 5,92-9,98 g/day/head at males, the results being
comparable with the ones from literature.
The experimental plot registered two wastages (10%) and an accident,
while the witness plot registered 5 wastages (25%). The conclusion is that the
health state of the minks from the experimental plot has improved with the
administration of furazolidon.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


The body weight of the studied material has registered differences on the
plots , but also between sexes, but these were insignificant.
The fodder consumption was different between the two plots and between
sexes, both cases have registered a relative ascensional description.
Furazolidonul was well tolerated by the youth mink, favorable
influencing their health state.
Furazolidonul can be administrated as a fodder additive in the food of the
weaned youth mink, having a favorable effect on the health state, and being
unharmuful for the quality of the furs.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Burlacu G., 1985 – Metabolismul energetic la animalele de blană , Editura Ceres,
Bucureşti.
2. Dinescu S. şi col., 2002 – Creşterea animalelor de fermă, Editura Agris, Bucureşti.
3. Halga P., Pop I.M., Viorica Popa, 2000 – Nutriţie animală, Editura Dosoftei, Cluj-
Napoca;
4. Halga P., Teona Avarvarei, Pop I.M., Viorica Popa, 2005 – Nutriţieşi alimentaţie
animală, Editura Alfa Iaşi;
5. Păstârnac N. şi col., 1989 – Nutriţia animalelor de blană, Editura Ceres, Bucureşti.
6. Pop I. M., 2002-Aditivi furajeri. Editura Pim, Iaşi;
7. Stoica I., Liliana Stoica, 2001, - Bazele nutriţiei şi alimentaţiei animalelor, Editura Coral
Sanivet, Bucureşti;

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THE ASSESMENT OF GRAZING INFLUENCE ON GENETIC


VARIABILITY IN TWO GENTIANA SPECIES

P. RAICA, D. PAMFIL, C. BOTEZ, Marina Ioana GABOREANU

The amount of genetic variation in the rare herbs Gentiana nivalis L


and G. cruciata was determined to explore its relation to population size. We
surveyed two populations of G. nivalis found in Oriental Carpathians, and two
populations of G. cruciata by RAPD markers. Four decamer primers of arbitrary
sequence were used in order to asses genetic variability within and between the
studied populations. Our studies revealed different levels of genetic variability
within populations corelated with the grazing policies. The mean genetic
distances within the populations found in overgrazed grassland decreased
significantly in comparison with those growing in ungrazed grassland.
Therefore, this method can by successfully used to asses genetic variability
within and between Gentiana populations.

INTRODUCTION
The RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA), a very cost
effective and fast method, is suitable for the investigation of the genetic
variability. We have used this method to investigate the genetic variability within
and between two populations of alpine gentian G. nivalis, a rare montane annual
growing plant in alpine grasslands, and within and between two populations of G.
cruciata a rare perennial herb, growing in sub alpine and hilly regions. The small
size populations have a negative effect over the genetic variability and
reproductive capacity of the Gentiana species (MARC K 2000).

MATERIAL AND METHOD


Biological material was represented by leaves, collected from 20
individuals randomly selected from two populations, (ten individuals for each
population) of G. nivalis, situated at about 110Km apart in Oriental Carpathians.
Samples 106 to 115 were collected from Corongiş Peak – Rodnei Mountains
population and samples 162 to 171 from Ceahlău Mountain plateau population.
Both populations are situated at around 1800 m altitude, and 10 individuals
randomly selected from two populations, (five individuals for each population) of
G. cruciata, collected from grasslands of the Sălicea village (Cluj County) –
samples 1-5 – and Scăriţa-Belioara reservation (Alba County) – samples 6-10. As
an out group (O), a mixture of the DNA isolated from ten individuals of Gentiana
asclepiadea, randomly selected from different populations, was used.
The DNA was isolated, using a Lodhi et al. 1994, protocol modified by
Pop Rodica 2003. Prior to DNA isolation, the leaves were grinded in liquid
nitrogen. DNA concentration and purity (absorbance ratios at A260/A280 and
A260/A230) were estimated in a BioPhotometer Eppendorf.

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The PCR amplification was performed in 25µl reaction volumes


containing 5x reaction buffer (GoTaq Green Master Mix, Promega), 0.2 mM
dNTPs, 2.5 mM MgCl2, 0.5 µM primer, 2% PVP (Polyvinylpirolodone, Sigma),
1.0 unit of Taq DNA polymerase (GoTaq DNA Polymerase, Promega) and ~ 50
ng genomic DNA. Four decamer primers of arbitrary sequence (OP series, of the
Operon Technologies Inc, CA, USA) were tested for PCR amplification (Table
1). PCR amplification was carried out in a Eppendorf Gradient termocycler
programmed as follows: initial denaturation at 95°C for 1 min., followed by 45
cycles of 1 min. at 93°C, 1 min. at 34 °C, and 1.5 min at 72°C and final extension
at 72°C for 10 min.

Table 1: Primers sequences


Primer Sequence
OPA 01 5’- CAG GCC CTT C -3’
OPA 03 5’- AGT CAG CCA C -3’
OPB 10 5’- CTG CTG GGA C -3’
OPAB 11 5’- CTG CGC AAT G -3’

Amplification products were subjected to electrophoresis in a 1.4% (w/v)


agarose gel TAE buffer (Sambrook et al., 1989) at 60v for 2h. A 100bp ladder
(Promega) was used in all cases as the size marker. Gels were stained with
0.5µg/ml-1 ethidium bromide, visualized under UV light and photographed using
a AlphaInnotech imager.
Polymorphic bands were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for each of
the primer –sample combination. Based on these data, genetic distances were
calculated by Jaccard coefficient and UPGMA trees were generated using
FreeTree 0.9.1.50 software.

RESULTS AND DISCUSIONS


PCR amplifications of G. nivalis DNA revealed 26 polymorphic bands
from a total number of 32 bands (81,25%). The bands were distributed as follows:
primer OPA 01 - 10 bands (10 polymorphic) (Fig 1), OPA 03 - 8 bands (6
polymorphic), OPB 10 - 7 bands (7 polymorphic) and OPAB 11 - 7 bands (3
polymorphic).
The cladogram generated based on distance matrix revealed two main
clusters clearly separated. The distribution of the samples in each cluster
corresponded with the distribution of the samples in the populations (Fig. 2).
Furthermore, a high distance coefficient was found between the two populations
of G. nivalis. This can be the result of the geographical isolation of the two
populations.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

A
106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 O C

B
L 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 O C

Figure 1: The amplification products obtained with primer OPA 01. (L = ladder, O = out
group, C = negative control)
108
110
111
114
106
107
109
112
113
115
166
167
168
162
165
170
169
164
171
163

O
0.1

Figure 2: The graphic representation of the genetic


distances and relations (cladogram) within G. nivalis
accessions

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The mean distance in population 1 was 0.209 with a standard deviation of


6.260¯10-2, for the population 2 the mean distance was 0.275 with a standard
deviation of 9.941¯10-2. We assume that the higher mean distance in population 2
compared with population 1, was due to the genetic variability in population 2
which was significantly (ÄÄÄ) higher than in population 1 (t=3,76; df=88). A
possible explanation for these results can be found in the sizes and density of the
populations: population 1 is constituted by a number of approximately 30
individuals and the population 2 is constituted by several hundreds of individuals.
The difference in population sizes can be explained by differences in the grazing
policy of the populations areas. Ceahlău Mountain plateau is situated in a protected
area where the grazing is forbidden. In contrast with this situation, Corongiş peak
and surrounding areas are intensively grazed, and so, although the favorable
environmental conditions are extended over the whole area, the G. nivalis plants
can only be found in few small areas protected from grazing by natural barriers.
Our study is in contradiction with a study conducted by Miller G. et al. -
1999. The authors of that study observed that the gentians on ungrazed plots grew
taller and survived better than did plants in adjacent grazed plots. The density of
plants on ungrazed plots was unaffected for the first years but thereafter declined.
Perennial vegetation responded to protection from sheep grazing by growing taller
and denser and progressively reduced the amount of bare soil in the ungrazed
plots. They concluded that the loss of potential gaps for seedling establishment
was probably the main cause of the decline in alpine gentian density on the
ungrazed plots and so the presence of sheep helps to maintain alpine gentian
colonies in grassland.
A similar situation with that previously presented was found in studied G.
cruciata populations. The genetic variability found in Sălicea village grasslands
population, an intensely grazed area, was significantly lower than the one found in
Scăriţa-Belioara reservation (p<0.014).
1
55
4
78

46 5

72 3

10
100 97
8
44
6
62
100 63
9

0.1
O

Figure 2: The graphic representation of the genetic distances and


relations (cladogram) within G. cruciata accessions

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CONCLUSIONS
According to our results the RAPD technique can be successfully used for
the survey of the genetic variability within and between populations of G. nivalis
and G. cruciata. We found that the genetic variability within the Corongiş Peak
(G. nivalis) and also within the Sălicea (G. cruciata) populations is very low and
therefore populations can be considered endangered. The grazing of the alpine
and subalpine grasslands has a negative effect on the genetic variability and
stability of the G. nivalis and G. cruciata populations. Due to the results obtained,
the method can be also extended to study the genetic variability in other
population of G. nivalis and G. cruciata or even other Gentiana species.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Lodhi , M., A., Guang-Ning Y., N. F.Weeden, B.I. Reisch, 1994, A simple and efficient
method for DNA extraction from grapevine cultivars, Vitis species and Ampelopsis, Plant
Molecular Biology Reporter 12 (1): 6-13
2. MARC K, D MATTHIES and H.H.SPILLMANN, 2000, Reduced fecundity and offspring
performance in small populations of the declining grassland plants Primula veris and Gentiana
lutea. Journal of Ecology, 88, 17-30
3. Millera G. R., C. Geddesb and D. K. Mardon, 1999, Response of the alpine gentian Gentiana
nivalis L. to protection from grazing by sheep, Biological Conservation, 87(3), 311-318.
4. Pop Rodica., M. Ardelean, D. Pamfil, Ioana Marina Gaboreanu, 2003, The Efficiency of
Different DNA Isolation and Purification in Ten Cultivars of Vitis vinifera., Bul. Nr. 59
USAMV, seria ZB, 259-26
5. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 2nd
ed. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
6. Williams J., Kubelik A., Livak K., Rafalski J., Tingey S., 1990, Dna Polymorphisms Amplified
by Arbitrary Primers are Useful as Genetic Markers, Nucleic Acids Research, 18 (22) 6531-
6535.

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EVALUATION OF TWO ORGANIC TREATMENTS


TO COMBAT VARROA IN MELLIFEROUS BEES
Valentina CEBOTARI, Iu. MOŞOI,
V. DERJANSCHI, Maria MĂGDICI

The experiment has been held at an ecological (certificated) apiary SRL


“Acafag” from RM with the purpose to prove the efficacy of two natural
treatments against Varroa, disease produced by acarians. Two products
Apiguard and Beevital were used; both of them contain organic acids and are
volatile products with a high acaricid effect. The treatment begun in August until
September: twenty bee colonies were treated with Apiguard and another twenty
with Beevital, being kept in vertical hives (multiple storey, two corps) and
horizontal (for every product 10 hives), in all 40 colonies. The products were
used in accordance with the producer instructions. Before use and after finishing
it, the infestation level of the bee colonies was calculated by taking samples of the
mature bees. The efficacy of products was determined by the reduced infestation
level. After Beevital and Apiguard administration was observed a high decrease
of Varroa at the bee colonies. Therefore Beevital has an efficacy of 86,5% in
multiple storey hive and 91,3% in horizontal hives and Apiguard – 76,8% in
multiple storey hive and 87,7% in horizontal hives.

INTRODUCTION
The melliferous bee (apis mellifera) is affected by numerous diseases, and
nowadays the one generated by mites especially is important. Among these
diseases there is the one caused by the Varroa Jacobsony destructor (an
ectoparasite), extremely dangerous because of its characteristics and of the
damages that it brings into bee colonies. A multitude of methods to combat it
have been put to practice: chemical, zootehnical, biological and not least the ones
included in the concept of integrated combat. The chemical methods have so far
proved to be the most powerful instrument but they have the disadvantages of
leaving residues in bee products, as well as allowing mites to become resistant to
them.. For these reasons, the use of organic products constitutes a viable option
due to their normal presence in the hive, they are not dangerous for human health,
and, also, they do not leave significant residues, being capable to integrate
harmoniously with the other combat means. Essential oils are organic compounds
whose importance has increased in the fight against parasites. In our country,
many beekeepers have adopted the use of organic products, but even more of
them still use chemical products based on amitraz and fluvinate. The present
material intends to prove the effectiveness of organic products against varroa in
bees under field conditions.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS


The experiment was achieved in an (certified) ecological apiary, SRL
“ACAFAG” of the Republic of Moldova, with the purpose of proving the
efficiency of two natural treatments against varroa in bees, caused by mites. The
products used were Apiguard (a British product based on Tymol) and BeeVital
(an Austrian product, having in its composition: 2 acids - citric and oxalic,
propolis extract, sugar beet, water), both volatile products based on essential oils
highly effective in varroa combat. The treatment was performed in August –
September. Thus, 20 bee colonies were treated with Apiguard and BeeVital - 20,
kept in vertical hives (ME, 2 pieces) and horizontal ones (10 each), all in all 40
colonies. The selection of these data was achieved based on food reserves
(achieved based on similar characteristics, similar in terms of food reserves (the
average being of 3.6kg), based on their strength in the nest (the average being of
2.7 kg bee) and so on. Both products were used according to manufacturer’s
indication. The average temperature was 23°C during the period of the
experiment. In order to determine the degree of infestation initial and final
samples of mature bees were collected (before and after use of treatment). The
diagnostic of the presence of the Varroa on mature bees was established by
introducing 100 bees into a glass container and their narcotization with
chloroform and counting the mites on the glass wall. In order to evaluate the
infestation degree, the number of mites was divided to the number of bees and
multiplied by 100, thus it is considered: weak infestation– 10%; average– 20%
and strong infestation - over 20%.
The following index was studied: the infestation degree (G.I.) and the
reduction in the infestation degree (R.G.I), for parasites, by use of the following
formula:
Reduction in infestation degree (R.G.I.), % = (initial infestation degree –
final infestation degree) / initial infestation degree x 100.
Reduction in infestation degree (R.G.I.) represented the efficiency of the
product. The results obtained were compared between the administered products
and the systems of colony maintenance.

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RESULTS
Table 1

Evaluation of infestation degree and its reduction as result of treatment in multi-


layered hives
No. BEEVITAL APIGUARD
d/o No. Strength Infestation Reduction B No. Strength Infestation Reduction
f/a of degree, % in f/a of degree, % in
colony, infestation colony, infestation
kg/bee initial final degree, % kg/bee initial final degree, %
1 16 2,5 18 2 88,8 B 2 2,5 17 5 70,6
2 14 2,7 17 2 88,2 27 2,8 16 3 81,3
3 13 2,6 15 3 80,0 10 2,6 13 4 69,2
4 12 2,5 21 2 90,5 9 2,6 15 6 60,0
5 31 2,7 17 1 85,2 5 2,9 19 4 78,9
6 f/nr 2,8 18 2 88,8 16 2,8 17 3 82,4
7 26 2,6 18 3 83,3 19 2,8 20 4 80,0
8 33 2,6 19 2 89,5 24 2,5 16 6 62,5
9 30 2,9 22 3 86,4 23 2,5 18 3 83,3
10 32 2,8 13 2 84,6 22 2,8 15 4 73,3
On 2,67 17,8 2,2 86,52 2,68 16,7 4,2 74,85
average

Table 2
Evaluation of infestation degree and its reduction as result of treatment in horizontal
hives

BEEVITAL APIGUARD
Infestation Infestation
No. Strength degree, % Reduction Strength degree, % Reduction
d/o No. of in No. of in
R
f/a colony, infestation f/a colony, infestation
kg/bee initial final degree, % kg/bee initial final degree, %

1 38 2,8 15 1 93,3 54 2,5 18 2 88,8


2 41 2,5 16 2 87,5 11 2,8 19 3 84,2
3 7 2,5 15 2 86,6 15 2,6 15 2 86,6
4 52 2,7 20 1 95,0 39 2,6 19 2 89,5
5 20 2,6 20 1 95,5 58 2,9 18 1 94,4
R
6 6 2,5 17 1 94,1 45 2,8 17 2 88,2
7 8 2,7 19 2 89,5 43 2,8 21 2 90,5
8 1 2,8 18 1 94,4 53 2,5 19 3 84,2
9 4 2,6 20 2 90,0 57 2,5 19 3 84,2
10 3 2,6 15 2 86,7 29 2,8 15 2 86,6

On
2,63 17,5 1,5 91,26 2,94 18,0 2,2 87,72
average

Following the evaluation of the results of the degree of initial infestation


with varroa in bee colonies kept in vertical and horizontal hives (tab.1,2)
significant differences were not noticed, they had an average infestation under

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

20%. At the end of the experiment, the infestation degree reduced as result of the
administration of Beevital of up to 2.2% in vertical hives and 1.5% on average in
horizontal, and in the treatment with Apiguard, respectively – 2.2% in horizontal
hives and 4.2% in multi-layered hives. The results thus obtained after
administration of Beevital and Apiguard demonstrate on Varroa a high reduction
per colony in both products. The reduction in the infestation degree represents the
efficiency of the product.
Results in table 1 represents the reduction in the infestation degree with
varroa for BeeVital of 86.52% and lower for Apiguard – 74.85% in multi-layered
hives.
Comparison of results obtained in the colonies kept in horizontal hives
treated with BeeVital and Apiguard did not indicate significant differences
between them with respect to the reduction in the infestation degree (Beevital –
91.26% and Apiguard – 87.72%).

18

16

14

12

10

0
ME hive Horizontal hive ME hive Horizontal hive

Infestation degree, % 17.8 17.5 16.7 18


Infestation degree 2.2 1.5 4.2 2.2

BEEVITAL / APIGUARD

Graphic I. Evaluation of infestation with varroa before and after the


treatment with Beevital and Apiguard

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Graphic I illustrates the degree of infestation with varroa of the colonies


kept in varius types of hives at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of
the experiment, following the administration of BeeVital and Apiguard products.

100
90
Gradul de reducere a

80
70
infestării, %

60 APIGUARD
50 BEEVITAL
40
30
20
10
0
MR Hive Horizontal
hive

Graphic II. Efficiency of BeeVital and Apiguard products is represented by


the reduction of infestation

In graphic II we may notice the effects of the products used in the


treatment of varroa disease in each system of hive tested.
Thus the Beevital was evaluated to have an efficiency of 86.5% in multi-layered
hives and 91.3% in the horizontal ones, and the Apiguard was evaluated to have
an efficiency of 76.8% in multi-layered hives and 87.7% in horizontal hives.

CONCLUSIONS
- The organic product BeeVital proved to be very efficient against Varroa
disease with values of 91.3% in horizontal hives and 86.5% in the multi-layered
ones.
- The organic product Apiguard proved to be less efficient (76.8%
efficiency) in the multi-layered hive system, but efficient in the horizontal hives
(87.7%).
- BeeVital is easier to administer than the Apiguard, proving to be a more
recommendable option for the treatment of varroa disease in our country.

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THE ACCURACY OF REFRACTOMETRIC


MEASUREMENTS OF PLASMA TOTAL PROTEIN IN
DIFFERENT ANIMAL SPECIES

Rodica CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CĂPRIŢĂ

The goal of the study was to determine the accuracy of refractometric


measurements of plasma protein by comparing protein concentration results
obtained by refractometry and by the biuret method. Total protein concentration
results from different animal species obtained by the two methods were compared
by linear regression analysis. The results of this study are further confirmation of
the correlation between refractometry and the biuret method for determination of
total protein content in animal plasma. We obtained the highest correlation in
cow’s plasma (r = 0.9902) and the lowest in chicken’s plasma (r = 0.8727). The
refractometric method can be accomplished with good results in horses, pigs and
cows, but it is not recommended in chickens.

INTRODUCTION
The most used assay methods for total protein analysis are the
refractometric and the colorimetric ones.
Refractometry has the advantage to be performed in a very short time and
does not need any reagents, while the biuret method is more laborious and
expensive. The physical characteristic measured by a refractometer is the degree
to which light bends as it passes through the interface between two substances of
different densities. The angle of refraction is converted to clinically useful units
by conversion tables.
The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of refractometric
protein measurements of plasma by comparing protein concentration results
obtained by refractometry and by colorimetry.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Blood samples were obtained from horses (n = 10), chickens (n = 21),
pigs (n = 40), cows (n = 30). Plasma was obtained by centrifugation at 6000 rpm
for 10 minutes. Supernatants were stored at -20°C. Samples were thawed and
analyzed on the same day. Protein was determined by the biuret method and by
refractometry. The index of refraction was determined with an Abbé
refractometer. The biuret method is based on the formation of a colored complex
between proteins and cupric ions in an alkaline medium (Ghergariu, 2000,
Căpriţă, 2001). The optic density at λ = 546 nm was measured using a
spectrophotometer Spekol 100.

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Total protein concentration results obtained by the two methods were


compared by linear regression analysis. No icteric or lipemic samples were
included in the study. However, there were a few slightly hemolyzed samples.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Linear regression analysis of plasma protein concentrations of different
animal species, obtained by the biuret technique and by refractometry, is
presented in Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4. All plasma protein values are in accordance
with the reference ones.
The correlation coefficient is the highest in cows (r = 0.9902) and the
lowest in chickens (r = 0.8727). The differences are greater in chickens in
comparison with the other animal species, due to the smaller plasma protein
content.

Figure 1. Linear regression analysis of horse’s plasma protein concentrations


obtained by the biuret method and by refractometry.

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Figure 2. Linear regression analysis of cow’s plasma protein concentrations


obtained by the biuret method and by refractometry.

Figure 3. Linear regression analysis of pig’s plasma protein concentrations


obtained by the biuret method and by refractometry.

Glucose is a compound that also modifies the index of refraction. The


protein: glucose ratio is only 15 in chickens, while in horses it’s about 50, in pigs
it’s about 100, and in cows up to 150. We didn’t observe any enhance of the
refraction index in chickens due to this small ratio.

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Figure 4. Linear regression analysis of chicken’s plasma protein concentrations


obtained by the biuret method and by refractometry.

CONCLUSIONS
The results of this study are further confirmation of the correlation between
refractometry and the biuret method for determination of total protein content in
animal plasma.
We obtained the highest correlation in cow’s plasma (r = 0.9902) and the
lowest in chicken’s plasma (r = 0.8727).
The refractometric method can be accomplished with good results in
horses, pigs and cows, but it is not recommended in chickens.

REFERENCES
1. Caprita, R. (2001): Principii si tehnici in biochimie, Ed. Mirton, Timisoara
2. Caprita, R. Caprita, A., Ursulescu, M., Ursulescu, G., 2003, Comparison of serum total
protein measurement by refractometry and colorimetry, Ann. West Univ. Tim., ser.
Chem., 12 (3), 1097-1102
3. Ghergariu S, Pop A., Kadar L., Spinu M. - Manual de laborator clinic veterinar, All
Educational, Bucuresti, 2000, p. 202.

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COMPARISON BETWEEN WHOLE-BLOOD


AND SERUM GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN
MONOGASTRIC ANIMALS

Rodica CĂPRIŢĂ, A. CĂPRIŢĂ, H. SĂRĂNDAN

Glucose determination in blood or serum is based on a colorimetric


method using commercially available assay kits. Human blood glucose is equally
distributed between the erythrocytes and plasma. Therefore, most methods
indicate that both whole blood and serum may be used for analysis. Since fowl
erythrocytes contain very little or no glucose when compared with the plasma,
there appear differences between the glycemia measured in blood and in serum.
The aim of our study was to investigate these differences in two monogastric
animals, chicken and pig.

INTRODUCTION
Glucose, a simple monosaccharide, one of the most important
carbohydrates used as a source of energy in animals, exists in a pool in the
extracellular space. Glucose enters into the pool through several pathways, from
diet, through hepatic and kidney sources, and it's used by peripheral tissues.
It is well known that glucose is not found in equal concentration in the
water phase of the red cells and plasma from some species of animals. In the
clinical medicine it is convenient to cite values for the glucose concentration in
the whole blood instead of serum glucose. In studies confined to man this practice
is generally satisfactory. This convention has less justification, because it is the
plasma glucose concentration which has a more direct influence on the tissue-
fluid glucose concentration and sugar-regulating mechanisms. The difference
between whole-blood and plasma glucose concentration is frequently
considerable, for when the red cell is seemingly devoid of glucose, the plasma
glucose concentration is, on the average, about 1.5 times the blood glucose
concentration. Whole blood glucose is around 5-10% lower than serum glucose.
This is because glucose passes freely in and out of the red blood cells, which have
a lower content of water than plasma does.
Human blood glucose is equally distributed between the erythrocytes and
plasma. Therefore, most methods indicate that both whole blood and serum may
be used for analysis. Since fowl erythrocytes contain very little or no glucose
when compared with the plasma (Sturkie et al 1976), there appear differences
between the glycemia measured in blood and in serum (Căpriţă et al, 2000).
The aim of our study was to investigate these differences in two
monogastric animals, chickens and pigs.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS


The blood samples were collected from 6 weeks old broiler chickens and
from fattening pigs. From each animal were collected two blood samples, one
with anticoagulant (heparin) and one without anticoagulant, for obtaining the
serum. The blood for serum collection was allowed to clot within few
hours at room temperature. The serum was separated the following day,
overnight the tubes were held in the refrigerator.
The glucose concentration was determined with the colorimetric method
with o-toluidine.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The blood and serum glucose concentrations in pigs are close, with higher
values in serum (Figure 1). The avarege value in blood is 74,03±17,43 mg/dL and
in serum is 80,65±17,21 mg/dL. The correlation coefficient between the two
ranges of values is r = 0.9921 (Figure 2).

120 120
mg/dL

mg/dL
100 100

80 80

60 60

40 40

20 20

0 0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

Blood Serum

Figure 1. The blood and serum glucose in pigs

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi
mgGlucose/dL serum

120

100

80

60

40
y = 0.9798x - 2.4522
2
20 R = 0.9843

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
mg Glucose/dL blood

Figure 2. The correlation between the blood and serum glucose in pigs

The average glucose concentration in chicken blood is 162.61±22.13


mg/dL and in chicken serum is 243.55±39.04 mg/dL. As presented in Figure 3
there are big differences almost in all samples. We didn’t observe any correlation
(Figure 4) between the two ranges of values (r = 0.045).

250 350
mg/dL

mgdL

300
200
250

150
200

150
100

100
50
50

0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Blood Serum

Figure 3. The blood and serum glucose in chickens

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mg Glucose/dL serum

350

300

250

200

150

100 y = 0.0827x + 231.63


2
50 R = 0.0021

0
0 50 100 150 200 250
mg Glucose/dL blood

Figure 4. The correlation between the blood and serum glucose in chickens

Avian blood glucose concentration averages about twice that in


mammalian blood (Welty, 1975). Avian insulin is very similar to that of most
mammalian insulin, but the level of insulin found in the avian pancreas is about
one-tenth of normal mammalian levels. Fowl erythrocytes contain very little or no
glucose when compared with the plasma. Therefore, fluctuations in the relative
portions of cells and blood plasma can cause apparent changes in the circulating
glucose even when the plasma level is unaltered.

CONCLUSIONS
The serum and blood glucose values in pig are close and high correlated.
Serum glycemia in chickens is higher and not correlated with the blood
glycemia. Therefore glycemia in chickens must be determined only in the whole
blood.

REFERENCES
1. Caprita R., Sarandan, H., Caprita A., Ursulescu M., A comparison of blood glucose and serum
glucose in broiler chickens, Conferinţa Ştiinţ. Internaţionala “Cresterea pasarilor si a
animalelor mici de casa in mileniul 3”, 2002, Nitra, Slovacia, p. 77-81
2. Sturkie PD, Hazelwood RL: Secretion of Gastric and Pancreatic Juice, pH of Tract, Digestion
in Alimentary Canal, Liver and Bile, and Absorbtion; Carbohydrate Metabolism; Kidneys,
Extrarenal, Salt Excretion, and Urine; Pancreas, in Sturkie PD (ed):Avian Physiology, 3rd ed,
New York, NY, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc, 1976, pp196-285, 383-388
3. Welty JC: The Life of Birds, 2nd ed, Philadelphia, PA, WB Saunders Co, 1975, pp 89-93, 114-
115, 134-142

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MUTATIONS AND TENDENCES IN THE AGRICULTURE


FROM THE MOUNTAIN AREA OF BRAŞOV COUNTY
L. BLENDEA

In the conditions in which the mountain area covers almost half of the
zone surface, a distinct section, is destinated to analyze the problems of mountain
rural from the social-economic point of wiew of villages and agricultural yields
of environment and sustainable development-leading to the necessity of having a
programme with specific measures for this defavourable area from agricultural
point of view.

The transformations produced after 1989 in legislation, economic and


social outline acted as an attraction-rejection mechanism of the population from
the rural mountain environment. While young population prefered migration to
other areas more developed from economic and social pont of view, older
population which became unemployed or retired presented tendencies of returning
to the origin places. The attraction process of the unemplyed population from
towns to rural environment was favoured by the agrar reform started in 1991
which drives to the reconstruction of the owner rights upon the lands. The
measures for supporting the agriculture in the mountains area could contribute at
keeping the young population into the rural space and even could determine the
return back of some who already left the area. Without supporting these
defavourable areas exist the risk of losing more population from this space and
abandonment of the agricultural lands.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


The informative material which was at the base of the present study was
based on questionaires and statistic dates provided by DADR Braşov. To put in
light the main transformations produced in the Braşov county mountain area
agriculture we used the methos of diagnosis analyze and a series of self
observations after discussions whith the leaders of the county.

RESULTS AND DISCUTIONS


The mountain areas are characterized by a strong limitation of the
possibilities of land using and by a remarcable increase of the exploitation costs
of the agricultural lands due to: existence, because high altitudes, of some very
hard climatic conditions, which make a shorter period of the cultivation season;
presence, at a low altitude, on the great part of the area, of hard slopes which will
not allowed the usage of the existent units or can be worked witth very expensive
agricultural aggregates; presence of a mixture of these two factors in thase places

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where the damages produces by each factor is less serious, but by their
combination appers a very serious damage.
Gven in mountain area large areas of meadows and hay fields are
favourable for anial growing, and the colder climate and specific rainfall regime
made that here the effect of droughty period from a year to be less significant.
Without making a strict limit between the favourables areas for different
agricultural activities we observe a certain distribution of them function of relief,
clime and soil. In the east and south of Braşov ccounty mountain area the main
crop is potato and in the part with small heights are favourable conditions for fruit
trees.
Private sector have a great ratio – 97,9 % from the total agricultural
production of the area, being superior to the national average (95,8 %).
Animal growing is quite well developed in all comunes, in the mountain
area being the main agricultural activity. Sheep growing, a traditional activity of
the population from Bran area, is in a small decrease in the last ten years due to
the diffficulties in production capitalization.
Taking in account that 36,4 % of the region is covered with forests,
important is beech, spruce fir and firtree wood from the mountains forests. In this
way the mountain area have a great forest potential and the area is one of the main
areas from our country in supplying with wood.
The natural conditions permit, from the point of view of agricultural land
usage, the development of meadow and hay fields which occupied 77,93 % from
agricultural surface. Due to the relief conditions and even more due to the pedo-
climatic conditions, arable lands had a limited spreading, beaing on only 20,12 %
from agricultural surface. Only in the intra-mountain depressions and at low
mountains hems it is possible cereals cropping, technical plants (especially poto)
and the development of fruit tree growing.
Moountain area have, in its greated part, a low easy to acces from tractors
and agricultural machines in making agricultural works, only in intra-mountain
depressions and at mountain hem is recorded a medium easy to access, with great
energy of relief, fragmentation and values of the mechanized slopes between 80
and 150. The way and the conditions of fields usage from these areas request great
power tractors, with different functions, special equiped to work on slopes up to
170; ploughs for making ploghings works on great slopes, on a direction as closer
to level curves to avoid erosion along slope.
In according with Braşov county monography edited in 2000, as
regarding the global agricultural production, Braşov county occupied 26-th place
amoung the others counties from which 32-nd place at vegetal production and 14-
th place at animal production. From crops, potato is placed 3-rd on counties being
the most representative yield from Braşov county.
National Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development (PNADR)
elaborated by Ministry of Agriculture, Foodstuff and Forests, assess to counties
after their potential (high, medium, low) for vegetal crops and animal species.

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In the case of Braşov county, in according with this classification at the


higher potential are situated potato crop and animal growing, at a medium potentil
is situated sugar beet crop, cattler, pigs and birds growing.
The limiting of the Braşov county mountain area was based on complex
and long studies. The main criterias were: altitudine over 700 m; the structure of
the funciar fund and the way of its usage (the ration of arable surfaces; meadows
ratio; forest ratio); population density (usually under the cpuntry average); the
ratio over 70 % incomes from animal growing; the ratio of agricultural population
(80 % or more); a higher degree of isolated localities, for away from the main
roads and big urban localities. The soils in the mountain area are poor in nutritive
elements, some are acids and the climate is a wet one, with great rainfalls and
almost uniform spreaded on year months, yearly average temperatures under
country average, also sunny degree is smaller than the yearly country average.
In such natural and social conditions must be realized productions from
plants crops. Also in the present time plants are cultivated in mountain area. The
efficiency placed the mountain area in the category of defavourable areas, with a
great ratio of poor population. For the future will raise the problem that the
agricultural fields to have a high degree of productivity, to be able to assure
substantial incomes of the population from the area and a standard of civilization
closer with the one from the countries with almost some conditions. By analyzing
the mountain area of Braşov county from the agriculture point of view, must be
take in account the specifice climatic conditions of Braşov county which are
restrictive on many agricultural crops.
The main characteristic of Braşov county relief is the great ratio of
mountains, almost 40 %, the difference of 60 % being occupied by depressions
and hills. Hypsometric amplitude is maximum – 2114 meters – in the south –west
part of the county (2544 m in Moldoveanu peak and 400 m at Olt depression, at
the leaving of county, small down, Ucea de Jos).
Mountains units are placed, great of therm, at the south limit of the
county, on a general west line up, held between the limit with Sibiu county (at
west) and the limit with Buzău and Covasna counties (at east). Olt valley, Bran-
Rucar passage, Predeal, Bratocea and Tabla Butii passages introduce great
transversal denivelations in the mountain line up, decreasing its partly and
individualising certain massives with distinqueshed particularities from west to
east as follows: Făgăraş Mountains, Piatra-Craiului Mountains, Leasta Bucegi
Mountains, Bârsei Mountains, Maicului Mountains, Ciucaşului Mountains,
Întorsura Buzăului Mountains.
From this mountain chain a mountain branch is detached up to north
being setteled by Codlei and Perşani Mountains.
The mountain area is characterized by a small diversity of agricultural
crops, because of the defavourable climatic conditions.
The arable surface is reduce and is cultivated with potato and vegetables
for own consumption, cultivated plants to complete the volume foddersfrom

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natural hay fields and fodder cereals (rye and oat). We must observe the high ratio
of uncultivated fields, much superior of county average (table 1).

Table 1
Cereals structure and their ratio from total total arable (2006)

Specifica- Arableha, Cereals Maize Sugar beet Potato Vegetables Fodder plants Other crops
tion f.w. ha % ha % ha % ha % ha % ha % ha %
Depression
79546 28374 35,7 5560 7,0 2001 2,5 15858 19,9 1167 1,5 31325 26,8 5261 6,6
area
Hilly area 36425 8993 24,7 4337 11,9 558 1,5 1166 3,2 293 0,8 16093 94,2 4975 13,7
Mountain
2114 230 10,9 15 0,7 - - 809 38,3 66 3,1 629 29,4 365 17,3
area
Total
118085 37957 31,8 9922 2,4 2559 2,2 17883 15,1 1526 1,3 38047 32,2 10601 9,0
county

More inferior of county average are the average yields realised in


mountain area as a direct result of the poor climatic conditions from plants’ crop.
In these area the obtained yield are non-profitable from economic point of view,
being cultivated exclusive for own consumption also due to the fact that the
transport in other areas of the products is quite expensive (table 2).

Table 2
Average yields realized in vegetal sector on natural areas
Specifica- Sugar
Wheat Barley Oat Maize Potato
tion beet
Depressio
3120 3080 1815 2580 20025 24875
n area
Hilly area 2910 2750 1805 2790 16820 19400
Mountain
2120 - 1580 - 13516 -
area
Average
2990 2870 1730 2680 18451 23200
county

In pre-mountain, but especialy in mountain area, due to the climatic


conditions, crops yield is small and unsure. Strach production per one hectare of
potato is bigger than the one from a hectare with cereals.
For this reason, especially for these areas, potato is a valuable foder for
animals, but also for growing and fatting the to the nutritive values of potato. On
other hand small potato tubers which are not used for human consumption are an
important nutritive source for feeding animals.
The small dimensions of the arable field fulfilled a very important and
complex economic-social function, which is to assure an important range of
vegetal products specific to the high areas of country-potato, vegetables,
Kohlrabi, pod beans.

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Qualitative study of the soil is a very important thing because to know the
natural fertility on usage categories and crops offers us the possibility to show the
minimum yield and to estblish from region to region the resources that each field
already have, under the productivity aspect.
As alternative to the common tourism started to develop agro-tourism, by
using the potential represented by populations’ households from rural area (eg.
Bran area, Mărginimea Sibiului etnographic area, Apuseni Mountains area).
These forms of rural tourism offers to the foreigner tourists the possibily to know
at first hand the traditions of Romanian people, its hospitality and the reale
cuisine from each area.

CONCLUSIONS
Having in view the fact that the bigger ratio of the rural economic
activities is formed by agricultural exploitations, a hance for sustainable
development is represented by stimulating and supporting of the investments in
agricultural exploitations which will lead to: rational capitalization of rural
resources; increase the life of agricultural exploitations; increase of farmars
incomes and improvement of life and work conditions; diversification of
agricultural production and rural services; increase of the products’ quality so that
ones to became competitive both on local markets and also on regional and
international ones; decreasing the producttion costs; improvement of hygiene
conditions and also of the conditions for animal growing; improvement of life
quaality; preservation of environment.
Unfavourable factors of development of the rural space from research
area are: continous depopulation; a small degree of diversification of economic
activities; unperformed agriculture; small incomes of population; poor quality of
roads – the great majority of communal roads are not modern and over 61 % of
rural population do not have a direct access to the main roads and to the railway
network; water supply is not sufficient and is not adequate; the numbers of
doctors is small – the number of people per one doctor is three times higher than
in cities; education network have a reduce spreading; school buildings do not
offers adequate conditions and have a poor with specialized equipments; forest
degradation, main due to an uncontrolling cutting of the trees.

REFERENCES
1. Alecu I., Cozac V., 2002 – Managementul agricol în România. Ed. Ceres, Bucureşti.
2. Bold I. şi colab., 1995 – Exploataţia agricolă. Ed. Mirton, Timişoara.
3. Brezuleanu S., 2004 – Management agricol – teorie şi practică. Ed. Performantica, Iaşi.
4. Ciurea I., Brezuleanu S., Ungureanu G., 2005 – Management. Ed. “Ion Ionescu de la Brad”,
Iaşi.
5. ***, 2000 – Economic Manual ASE. Ediţia a VI-a. Ed. Economică, Bucureşti.
6. Date statistice DADR Braşov.

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ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN THE CONTEXT OF BRAŞOV


COUNTY AGRICULTURE
L. BLENDEA, St. BREZULEANU

The aims of the study is to analyze the animal production under the aspect
of the structure of main animal species on natural areas, average number of
animals grown in private households on natural areas, number of animals grown
in association exploitations and their ratio in the total number of animals, from
Braşov county.

Braşov County is situated in the geographical centre of Romania crossed by


parallel of 46 ° north latitudine and meridian of 25 ° east longitudine, the
geographic coordinates are: Ioneşti village 46 ° 11’ N latitudine; Fundata
commune, Fundăţica village 45 ° 27’ N latitudine; Vama Buzăului commune,
Buzăiel village 26 ° 05’ E longitudine, Ucea de Jos commune 24 ° 42’ E
longitudine. Braşov County neighbored with Prahova , Buzău, Covasna, Harghita,
Mureş, Sibiu, Argeş and Dâmboviţa counties. The area of Braşov county is 5363
km2 representing 2.2% from the square area of the country, having a great variety
of relief forms, starting with Bârsei depression and Făgăraş plain to the mountain
massifs of Carpathians. For the total of square area 55.4% is arable land and
34.6% is covered with forests.
The total population of the county is 558,336 inhabitants, divided in 9
towns (from which 4 cities) and 43 communes with 150 villages.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


The informative material which was at the base of the present study was
based on questionnaires and statistic dates provided by DADR Braşov. For our
study we will use the diagnosis analyze to present the evolution of the main
animal species on natural areas, average number of animals grown in private
households on natural areas, number of animals grown in association
exploitations and their ratio in the total number of animals from Braşov county.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The development of husbandry production in Braşov County is influenced
in a great way by the area character of its placement. In general, in mountain
areas, hilly and depression areas, in each of them could be reached good results,
but generally, it is observed as a tendency a severe differentiation from point of
view of animal species structure, production levels and used methods.
The number of the main animal species existed at the end of 2006 in
Braşov County was: 634,442 cattle’s, 275,517 sheep and 82,496 pigs.

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The three natural areas (depression, hilly and mountain) are very different
each to other, both function of natural conditions, specific productions and also by
social and economic development. In general, these areas have some common
particularities which gave them a certain characterization and a tendency of
development.
From table 1 result that the depression areas have the main ratio regarding
the number of animals in comparison with the hilly and mountain area.
If in absolute values the depression areas have the main ratio, by dividing
the number of animals to the agricultural surface and to the number of households
from each area, the situation is totally changed (table 2).
Table 1
The number of main animal species on natural areas and their ratio per county
(2006)
Area Cattle’s Sheep Pigs
Heads % Heads % Heads %
Depression 52 62101
39710 62 143576 75
area
Hilly area 12328 20 80116 29 15034 19
Mountain area 11404 18 51825 19 5361 6
Total county 63442 100 275517 100 82496 100

Table 2
Average number of animals grown in private households on natural areas
Area Cattle’s Sheep Pigs

Depression area 1,3 6,7 1,6


Hilly area 1,6 9,0 1,7
Mountain area 2,7 16,3 2,1
Total county 1,4 7,8 1,7

In the hilly area, but most in the mountain area, the number of animals
gown in households, is superior to the county average. Thus due to the existence
in the hilly area of large square area occupied with meadows and good quality hay
fields, on one hand and on another hand, due to the existence in the mountain area
of a long term tradition in animals growth this job being the basic one in mountain
area.
The number of animals per square unit varies in the depression between 60
UVM/100 ha in Făgăraş depression and 80 UVM/100 ha in Braşov depression, is
around 75-80 UVM/100 ha in the hilly area and 90-100 UVM/100 ha in the
mountain area. On species the depression area have a leading ratio at pigs, due to
the cereals cultivated and also due to the potato which is used, traditionally, in
feeding this specie.
Cattle’s are well represented in the hilly and mountain area and sheep, by
tradition, are characteristic to mountain area.

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In the 2004-2006 period the evolution of the numbers of animals known


important modifications.
A very high decrease of the animal numbers in the association forms
determines a small decrease of the animal numbers at country level. So if at
country level in 2004-2006 period the number of animals decreases with 5577
UVM, at the level of association forms the number of animals decrease with 8427
UMV. Results from here that the number of animals in the private households
increased in the same period with 2850 UMV.
The severe decrease of the numbers of animals in association forms is
mainly due to the ‘crash’ of limited companies (farmers IAS), because their
surfaces decrease a lot so it was necessary to correlate the surface with the
number of animals. A part of the animals from the limited companies could be
found in the private household which bought the animals.
As regarding the UMV loading per square unit, if at country level in 2004-
2006 period had a small decrease from 0.49 UMV/ha in 2004 to o.48 UMV/ha in
2006, it is interesting that in the same period in association exploitations this
loading had an important increase from 0.84 UMV/ha in 2004 to 0.97 UMV/ha in
2006 in the conditions in which the number of animals decreased. This aspect is
explained due to the fact that in this period the agricultural surfaces from
association units (and especially from limited companies) decease in a more alert
rhythm than number of animals (table 3).
Table 3

The number of animals from the association units and their ratio in total
country (UMV)
Specification 2004 2005 2006
Total f. w. Total f. w. Total f. w.
UMV assoc. UMV assoc. UMV assoc.
units units units
Braşov 18485 16312 18320 12280 18314 11105
Bod 2147 28 2138 32 2144 32
Codlea 11095 9191 11081 7150 11090 6144
Cristian 975 292 970 302 982 306
Feldioara 2466 2383 2380
Ghimbav 1438 662 1710 642 1422 650
Hălchiu 3119 230 3180 242 3172 244
Harman 1623 1610 1602
Prejmer 3750 425 3681 405 3590 392
Sânpetru 1101 1082 1088
Vulcan 2163 229 2172 248 2180 252
Budila 880 862 858
Râşnov 3656 1570 3520 1520 3492 1488
Săcele 1862 1815 1780
Târlungeni 2724 2729 2683
Teliu 1425 1415 1408
Zărneşti 2469 2330 2285

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Specification 2004 2005 2006


Total f. w. Total f. w. Total f. w.
UMV assoc. UMV assoc. UMV assoc.
units units units
Apata 920 870 895
Dumbrăviţa 2116 2118 2110
Măeruş 1538 124 1522 128 1515 126
Ormeniş 829 835 846
Făgăraş 1183 163 1162 150 1140 141
Beclean 1362 1375 1384
Hăseni 1468 1443 1395
Lisa 1847 1831 1785
Mândra 2341 2281 2253
Recea 2457 2468 2525
Şercaia 5321 4202 5208 4100 5043 3952
Şinca 1953 1928 1904
Ucea 5415 5243 5168
Voila 2640 1096 2684 1168 2743 1307
Vistea 354 348 350
Total depression area 96135 34592 94905 28179 92211 26188
Cincu 1446 1408 1352
Pârău 2283 56 2164 52 2118 52
Soars 2324 2416 2424
Rupea 2324 110 2281 94 2260 85
Buneşti 2063 13 2054 16 2030 16
Cata 3927 237 3818 245 3805 241
Comana 2167 18 2058 21 2054 20
Homorod 2607 355 2700 350 2714 352
Hoghiz 3076 2984 2885
Jibert 3551 3628 3608
Racoş 903 879 870
Ticus 1392 1408 1456
Ungra 2652 2584 2622
Total zona colinară 30714 789 30382 778 29198 766
Bran 6009 9054 6080
Fundata 1645 1583 1504
Moeciu 4367 4206 4218
Vama Buzăului 3566 3550 3558
Predeal 108 104 104
Poiana Mărului 4000 4114 4124
Total mountain area 19695 19611 19558
TOTAL COUNTY 146544 35381 144898 28957 140967 26954

On geographical areas, in association units, depression area has a ratio of


over 97% in UMV.
On species, in 2006 at cattle’s from a country total of 64520 heads in the
association units were 8080 heads representing 12.5% from total:

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ƒ At sheep from a country total of 213400 heads in the association units


were 6900 heads representing 3.2% from total;
ƒ At pigs from a country total of 90400 heads in the association units were
41200 representing 46% from total;
ƒ At birds, the great majority of the animals are found in the association
units and the number is 1405000 heads from the country total (1818000
heads) representing 77% from total.
Family association do not grow animals, their profile being exclusive
focused on plant crops.
The future in association units is to keep the number of animals. On
species at cattle’s and pigs the tendency is stationary, at sheep is decreasing and at
birds is increasing.
Even if the number of animals has a stationary tendency the increase
performance in husbandry is realized by animal breeding and by improvement of
the feeding ration, thus especially by increasing oh the surfaces with fodder
plants.
At the same time association units are and will be at country level the
main supplier of animal with a high genetic value for private households.

CONCLUSIONS
The agricultural societies with mixed profile own also surfaces with
natural hay fields and meadows. It is recommended where it is possible (in
according with the equipments, economic-financial situation but also in according
with natural restrictions: relief, slope, etc.) that the natural hay fields to be
transformed in arable and to be cultivated with volume fodders, much productive
and with a superior nutritive value face to natural hay fields.
Practice shows that agricultural societies with mixed profile (vegetal and
husbandry) are more stabile in time and presents a series of advantages:
- Capitalization for own consumption of a part of vegetal
production;
- Superior capitalization of some secondary products from vegetal
production which do not have a selling market or are capitalized
at a lower cost (straws, maize, plants, sugar beet heads, potato
tuber under STAS, etc.);
- The incomes are obtained all over the year and depend in a
smaller way of the environment factors.
The territory of the country have facilities for processing the agricultural
products, the problems are related with the increase of the usage degree of them,
their rehabilitation and modernization, improvement of fodder ration, usage of the
animals with great productivity for realizing products with good quality.
In this sector we propose:

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- Development of husbandry in the localities which have important


areas with meadows and hay fields;
- Increasing the degree of occupy and capitalization of the
husbandry value potential in farms for pigs growing and fattening
and in farms for birds growing.
- Supporting of population households from hilly and mountain
area where cattle and sheep growing is done and where the
natural conditions are benefic.
The affects of these measures will appear, especially in the private sector
of animal growing, by increasing the number of animals on a husbandry
exploitation and by improving the conditions in which animal are grow and
exploited.
Technical measures have in view the increase of production and
productivity by:
- Improving the technical state of production facilities from
husbandry, of the husbandry equipments;
- Development of IT and technical consultancy networks.

REFERENCES
1. Alecu, I, Cozac, V, Managementul agricol în România, Ed. Ceres, Bucureşti, 2002.
2. Bold, I şi colab., Exploataţia agricolă, Ed. Mirton, Timişoara, 1995.
3. Brezuleanu S. Management agricol – teorie şi practică. Editura Performantica, Iaşi, 2004
4. Ciurea I. Brezuleanu S., Ungureanu G. Management . Editura Ion Ionescu de la Brad Iaşi,
2005
5. *** Economie, Manual ASE, Ediţia a VI-a, Editura Economică, Bucureşti, 2000.
6. *** Date statistice DADR Braşov.

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THE PHENOTYPICAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN


SOMATIC CELL COUNT AND PRINCIPALS CHARACTERS
OF COW MILK PRODUCTION FOR CÎMPULUNG
MOLDOVENESC AREA

Mihaela IVANCIA

Researches were making on cow milk samples from Cîmpulung


Moldovenesc area.
Studied characters were mill production, fat percent, protein percent,
and somatic cell count.
There were analyzed the milk samples with SOMACOUNT to “Dorna
Lactate” and dates have been discussed with MATLAB program.
The phenotypical correlation values have been varied between +0,234 ÷
+0,757 for fat percent and protein percent; -0,293 ÷ +0,295 for fat percent and
somatic cell count, -0,441 ÷ +0,052 for protein percent and somatic cell count; -
0,346 ÷ +0,228 for milk production and fat percent; -0,290 ÷ +0,057 for milk
production and protein percent and -0,282 ÷ +0,484 for milk production and
somatic cell count.

INTRODUCTION
There is well known that „the milk cells belong the hygienic quality
indexes category of milk for human consumption” (Kurzhalas, 1983, quote by
Rotaru, 1998). That is why the importance and signification of milk somatic cells
is an agreed univocal desideratum for the consumer integrity.
There is used frequently the somatic cell count like early indicator for
mastitis presence and it use less like quality indicator. That is why the research
aim was to colligate between elements of milk quantity and quality: somatic cell
count, fat content, protein content and milk production.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The analyzed samples were from cow milk from Cîmpulung
Moldovenesc area. The milk has been gathered to Botus, Breaza, Cîmpulung
Moldovenesc, Fundu Moldovei, Izvoarele Sucevei, Moldova Sulita, Moldovita,
Pojorita and Vatra Moldovei centers and samples have been draw from purchase
milk.
52,25 thousand hl milk have been gathered from 12780 dairy cows belong
area. There were 7071 cows Bruna breed, 293 cows Baltata romaneasca breed,
151 cows Baltata cu negru romaneasca breed and 5785 cows Pinzgau de
Transilvania.

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20511 samples have been gathered from that milk and the fat content,
protein content, somatic cell count have been determined with Somacount
apparatus in Dorna Lactate laboratory.
The obtained results have been statistical discussed and have been found
the phenotypical correlation values between milk production, fat content, protein
content, somatic cell count (the studied characters). MATLAB program was use
for discussed results.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The milk samples analysis and results processing show us the fat content
and protein content are positive correlated (tab. 1). These characters are medium
positive correlated with values between +0,2 ÷ +0,4 to Vatra Moldovei, Fundu
Moldovei and Moldovita centers and they are high positive correlated to Breaza,
Cîmpulung Moldovenesc, Izvoarele Sucevei, Moldova Sulita and Pojorita centers
(with values between +0,4 ÷ +1) (fig. 1a).

Table 1
Correlations between studied characters, in Cîmpulung Moldovenesc
area

Correlation values between:


Centrul
F–P F – SCC P – SCC MP– SCC MP – F MP – P
Botuş 0,733 -0,148 -0,232 -0,181 -0,041 -0,182
Breaza 0,657 -0,051 -0,024 0,241 0,228 -0,149
Cîmpulung
0,629 -0,293 -0,439 0,194 -0,196 -0,070
Moldovenesc
Fundu Moldovei 0,407 -0,024 -0,441 0,309 -0,182 -0,145
Izvoarele Sucevei 0,757 0,028 -0,056 0,176 -0,249 -0,010
Moldova Suliţa 0,526 0,089 -0,178 -0,282 -0,143 -0,290
Moldoviţa 0,399 0,295 -0,021 0,217 -0,166 0,057
Pojorîta 0,445 -0,011 -0,180 0,172 -0,346 -0,134
Vatra Moldovei 0,234 0,028 0,052 0,484 -0,125 -0,027
Total zonă 0,862 -0,250 -0,310 +0,304 -0,387 -0,204
F= Fat content;
P = Protein content;
SCC = Somatic cell count;
MP = Milk production;

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0.800 0.733 0.757 0.400 0.100


0.052
0.700 0.657 0.295
0.629
0.300
0.600 0.526 0.000

0.500 0.445 0.200


0.407 0.399
0.400 0.089 -0.100 -0.024
0.100
0.300 0.234 0.028 0.028
-0.021
0.200 0.000 -0.200
-0.178 -0.180
0.100 -0.056
-0.232
-0.100
0.000 -0.300
-0.051
-0.148 -0.011
-0.200

-0.400
-0.300 -0.024
-0.293 Centrul Centrul
-0.439 -0.441
Centrul -0.400 -0.500

a) Fat– Protein b) Fat – Somatic cell coun c) Protein – Somatic Cell Count
0.300 0.100 0.600
0.057
0.228
0.484
0.050 0.500
0.200

0.000 0.400
0.100 0.309
0.282
-0.050 0.300
0.241
0.217
0.194
0.000 -0.100 0.200 0.176 0.172
-0.070
-0.100 -0.150 -0.134 0.100
-0.149 -0.027
-0.041 -0.010
-0.145
-0.200 0.000
-0.182
-0.200 -0.166
-0.196
-0.143 -0.125 -0.250 -0.100
-0.182
-0.300 -0.249
-0.300 -0.200 -0.181
-0.290
Centrul Centrul Centrul
-0.346
-0.400 -0.350 -0.300

d) Milk production – Fat e) Milk production – Protein f) Milk production – Somatic cell count
Fig. 1 Correlations between studied characters, in Cîmpulung Moldovenesc area

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The milk fat content and milk somatic cell count were low and medium
correlated both positive and negative. These characters are low positive correlated
to Izvoarele Sucevei, Moldova Sulita, and Vatra Moldovei centers with values
between 0 and +0,2. They are low negative correlated to Botus, Breaza, Fundu
Moldovei and Pojorita centers (between –0,2÷0) and they are medium positive
correlated to the Moldovita center (+0,295) and medium negative correlated
(–0,293) to the Cîmpulung Moldovenesc center. (tab. 1 and fig. 1b)
The milk protein content and somatic cell count are two characters low
positive correlated to only Vatra Moldovei center. They are low negative
correlated to 5 centers (Breaza: –0,024, Izvoarele Sucevei: –0,056, Moldova
Sulita: –0,178, Moldovita: –0,021 and Pojorita:–0,180), they are medium negative
correlated to Botus center (–0,232) and high negative correlated to Cîmpulung
Moldovenesc center (–0,439) and to Fundu Moldovei center (–0,441) (tab. 1 and
fig. 1c)
In this area, milk production and milk fat content are medium positive
correlated to the Breaza centre (+0,228). They are medium negative correlated to
the Izvoarele Sucevei centre (–0,249) and to the Pojorita center (–0,346) and these
characters are low negative correlated to all of the other centers (Fundu Moldovei:
–0,182, Cîmpulung Moldovenesc: –0,196,: Botus –0,041, Moldova Sulita:
–0,143, Moldovita: –0,166, Vatra Moldovei: –0,125). (tab. 1 and fig. 1d)
A single positive value was found between milk production and milk
protein content correlation and that was to the Moldovita center (+0,057). These
two characters are low negative correlated to 7 centers (Botus: –0,182, Breaza:
–0,149, Cîmpulung Moldovenesc: –0,070, Fundu Moldovei: –0,145, Izvoarele
Sucevei: –0,010, Pojorita: –0,134, Vatra Moldovei:–0,027) and they are medium
negative correlated to the Moldova Sulita center (–0,290). (tab. 1 and fig. 1e)
The milk production and the milk somatic cell count are medium to high
positive correlated only to the Vatra Moldovei center (+0,484), medium positive
correlated to 3 centers (Breaza: +0,241, Fundu Moldovei: +0,309, Moldovita:
+0,217) and low positive correlated to others 3 centers (Cîmpulung Moldovenesc:
+0,194, Izvoarele Sucevei: +0,176, Pojorita: +0,172). They are low negative
correlated to the Botus center (–0,181) and medium negative correlated to
Moldova Sulita (–0,282). (tab. 1 and fig. 1f)
The dates from entire area was used to calculate correlation and we found
0,862 value between milk fat content and milk protein content. The results shows
us this value is higher than the specialty literature values (+0,3÷+0,6) (Robertson,
1856 and Kronsing,1959, quoted by Georgescu, 1988, quoted by Ivancia, 2004).
The correlation value found between milk production and milk fat content
is –0,387 and is higher than the values from specialty literature what are between
–0,08 and –0,25 (Johansson, 1950, quoted by Georgescu, 1988, quoted by
Ivancia, 2004).

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These results regarding on milk production and milk protein content


correlation are mostly between values from specialty literature (–0,18÷–0,24)
(Johansson, 1950, quoted by Georgescu, 1988, quoted by Ivancia, 2004, Velea,
1999).
In accordance with information from studied bibliography, the milk
somatic cell count and milk production are low to medium positive correlated
(+0,12÷+0,17). The milk somatic cell count and the milk fat content are very low
negative correlated (–0,04÷–0,14) as well as milk somatic cell count and milk
protein content (–0,02÷–0,14) (Milles, 1993, Reents, 1995, quoted by Ivancia
2004 and Samoré, 2003).
Those 20511 analyzed samples have been use to calculate the correlation
between milk production and milk somatic cell count. The correlation value is
+0,304 for entire area (higher than specialty literature values).
Between milk somatic cell count and milk fat content is a high negative
correlation (–0,250), higher than literature values for entire area, but correlation
values for 4 centers are low positive.
Milk somatic cell count and milk protein content are medium negative
correlated (–0,310) for entire area, higher than specialty literature. Just for three
centers, the correlation values are between literature limits.

CONCLUSIONS
In Cîmpulung Moldovenesc area, the phenotypical correlation values are:
− +0,234÷+0,757 to center and +0,862 to entire area between milk fat content and
milk protein content;
− –0,293÷+0,295 to center and –0,250 to entire area between milk fat content and
milk somatic cell count;
− –0,441÷+0,052 to center and –0,310 to entire area between milk protein content
and milk somatic cell count;
− –0,346÷+0,228 to center and –0,387 to entire area between milk production and
milk fat content;
− –0,290÷+0,057 to center and –0,204 to entire area between milk production and
milk protein content;
− –0,282÷+0,484 to center and +0,304 to entire area between milk production and
milk somatic cell count.
Though the limits values are higher than specialty literature, the most
results are between known correlations for studied characters.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Georgescu, Gh., Velea, C., Stanciu, G., Ujică, V., Georgescu, D., Rămneanţu, N. (1990) – Tehnologia
creşterii bovinelor, Ed. Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Georgescu, Gh., Burlacu, Gh., Georgescu, D., Paraschivescu, M., Fişteag, I., Jurubescu, V.,
Petre, A. (1988–1989) – Tratat de creştere a bovinelor, vol. I, vol. II, vol. IV, Ed. Ceres,
Bucureşti
Ivancia, M. (2004) – Celulele somatice – indicator de calitate a laptelui, Ed. Alfa, Iaşi
Reents, R., Dekkers, J., Shaeffer, L.R. (1995) – Genetic evaluation for somatic cell score with a
Test Day Model for multiple lactations, Journal of Dairy Science, vol.78, nr.12, 2858–2870,
Guelph
Rotaru, O., Ognean, L. (1998) – Morfologia şi fiziologia populaţiei celulare din lapte, Ed. Casa
Cărţii de Ştiinţă, Cluj
Samoré, A.B. (2003) – Correlazioni genetiche tra cellule somatiche e gli altri caratteri, Bianco
Nero, 7: 14–17
Samoré, A.B. (2003) – Correlazioni genetiche tra cellule somatiche e produzione, Bianco Nero, 2:
15–18
Velea, C. (1999) – Producţia, reproducţia şi ameliorarea taurinelor, vol.I, Ed. Tehnică Agricolă,
Bucureşti

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MILK PROTEINS POLYMORPHISM IN ROMANIAN


CATTLE BREEDS, IDENTIFIED BY ISOELECTRIC
FOCUSING TECHNIQUE (IEF)

V.A. BALTEANU, A. VLAIC, Anda Raluca RUSU,


S. CREANGA, R.F. POP, V. CIGHI

There are six major proteins in cattle milk: αs1-casein, β-casein, αs2-
casein, k-casein, α-lactoalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Each of these have many
genetic variants (spread in different cattle breeds), with a positive or negative
influence on milk protein content, manufacturing properties and efficiency of
cheese making. In the present study we describe the isoelctric focusing technique
(IEF), as a rapid and low cost method for all milk proteins allele identification
directly from milk samples. The study was carried out on 236 Romanian
Simmental and 27 Romanian Black and White cattle breeds. The genes and
genotypes frequencies in the six loci were calculated.

INTRODUCTION
In cattle milk there are six major proteins, four of them belonging to
casein fraction: αs1 casein, β-casein, αs2 casein, k-casein, the other two α-
lactoalbumin and β-lactoglobulin belonging to whey fraction. These genes are
specifically expressed in epithelial cells of mammary gland during lactation.The
mendelian segregation analysis in Bos genus of the four caseins genes (αs1 casein,
β-casein, αs2 casein, K- casein), revealed that they are located in linkage and
transmited in the same way (Larsen et al. 1966; Grosclaude, 1964,1965, 1978)
beeing located on cattle cromosome six (Threadgill and Womack, 1989). In Bos
genus α-lactoalbumin locus is located on the cromosome 5 (Soulier and Mercier,
1989; Vilotte et al. 1987, 1991) and β-lactoglobulin locus is located on the
cromosome 11 (Hayes and Petit, 1993). β-lactogobulin was the first milk protein
in which a polymorphism was identified (A and B allele), on paper
electrophoresis by Aschaffenburg and Drewry (1955). Since then many genetic
variants have been identified in different cattle breeds (Farrell, 2004).
Table 1
Table summarising the genetic variants of milk protein genes in Bos genus
discovered so far, in different cattle breeds
αs1-casein Genetic variants: A, B , C , D, Eyak, Ebali, F, G, H
β-casein Genetic variants: A, A1, A2, A3, B, C, D, E, A’, A3m, B2, A4, H,
F,A5, G
αs2-casein Genetic variants: A, B, C, D
k-casein Genetic variants: A, B, C, B2 , E, F, G, Az, H, I, J
α-lactoalbumin Genetic variants: A, B, C
β-lactoglobulin Genetic variants: A, B, C, D, Dr, Dyak, E, F, G, W, H, I , J

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Each of these genetic variants may have a positive or negative influence


on milk protein content, manufacturing properties and efficiency of cheese
making (Scharr, 1984; Ng-Kwai Hang, 1984, 1986; Grosclaude, 1988; Aleandri,
1990). Among these major genes, k-casein, β-casein and β-lactoglobulin, B
alelele was found to have a positive influence in milk quality and its
manufacturing properties. In French cattle breed Tarentaise, β-casein C allele
(which has a 17% frequency), was associated with a spicy taste and hard
consistence of Beaufort cheese produced from milk of this breed (Delacroix and
Marie C, 1994). Considering this the knowledge of genes and genotypes
frequencies at the six loci in different breeds is very important, in order to take
decisions concerning the use or the exclusion of an animal from reproduction, if
increasing of protein content and milk manufacturing properties is desired.
Since the first discovery of β-lactoglobulin A and B allele (Aschaffenburg
and Drewry, 1955), many methods were used to study the milk proteins
polymorphisms in differend cattle breeds, such as: paper electrophoresis (PE),
Starch Gel Electrophoresis (SGE), Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (native,
acide and alcaline PAGE), RP-HPLC and MS, PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP, PCR-
ARMS. Neither of these methods is capable to identify all allele in the six loci.
In 1985 Seibert et al. developed a method of isoelectric focalisation (IEF),
which allows the identification of all allele (in the 6 loci), in a single run and at
low costs, directly from small amounts of milk samples. The method was well
improved by Mahe and Grosclaude (1987). This electrophoresis method allows
the separation of proteins according to their electric charge. A protein mixture is
loaded in an ultrathin polyacrilamide gel (0,5mm), with carrier ampholytes
(pH=2,5-7). In a high voltage electric field (up to 2300V), the proteins from a
mixture will migrate towards their isoelectric point, where their charge is zero.
Any changes in aminoacids composition of proteins, will change their electric
charge. This way the 6 major milk proteins and their allele can be easily identified
after staining with Commassie blue. The high resolution of IEF makes it very
useful in milk proteins polymorphisms studies, in any breed or specie. Therefore
this was the technique chosen by use to carry out the present study.

MATERIAL AND METHODS


a) Indentification of cattle individuals for this study
Two cattle breeds were taken in study in this experiment: Romanian
Siemmental (BR) and Romanian Black and White (BNR). There were chosen
236 individuals of Romanian Siemmental breed, belonging to four representative
farms from Transylvania and 27 to Romanian Black and White breed (Tabel 2).
The genotyping experiments were carried out between 2004 - 2005.

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Tabelul 2
Table summarising informations concerning the genotyped cattle populations
Farms taken in this study Number of genotyped Breed
cattles/farm
Corojan, 14 Romanian Simmental (BR)
Floresti, Cluj County
SC Crisan SNC, 32 BR
Gherla, Cluj County
SCDB Jucu, 113 BR
Cluj County
SC ADA SRL, 77 BR
Viisoara, Cluj County

SC ADA SRL, 27 Romanian Black and White


Viisoara, Cluj County (BNR)

Total number of 236 BR


genotyped 27 BNR
individuals/breed

b) Milk samples collection, gel electrophoresis and results interpretation


Milk sample collection was done individually directly from udder, in 15
ml Falcon tubes. No preservatives were added. Samples were stored during
transportation at 40C and then frozen at -200C.
Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of milk samples was performed according to
Seibert et al. (1985), modified by Mahe and Grosclaude (1987). IEF was carried
out in 4 % ultrathin (0,5mm) polyacrliamide gels containing 8M urea and a
mixture three ampholytes (Pharmacia): pH=2.5-5, pH=4.2-4.9, pH=5.0-7.0. Ten
microliters of each skim milk sample (obtained by centrifugation 15 minutes at
5000 rcf.), were diluted 1/5 with a solution containing 8M urea and three
micoliters of β-mercapoethanol. The samples were vortexed and incubated at 40C
for 24 hours. After the incubation period they were applied close to the anodic
end of the gel, on small filter papers (5x6mm). Electrofocusing was carried out
with a Multiphor II Electrophoresis System (Pharmacia LKB, Sweden), in 0,5
mm thick gels and 124x258 mm in size. After prefocusing at 140C and constant
power (9W) for 10 minutes, focusing was carried out at 20W for 1h and 40
minutes. During the run, the voltage rose from 350V to 2500v.
After the run, the proteins were fixed in gel by immersing it in 10% triclor
acetic acid for 30 minutes, then stained for 10 minutes in a solution containing
0,2% (v/v) Commassie blue G-250, 50% methanol and 10% acetic acid in water.
Destaining was carried out in an aqueous solution of 30% methanol, 8% acetic
acid and 10% glycerol, until the background was clear (Figure 1).

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RESULTS AND DICUTIONS


Figure 1. Electrophoretic profile obtained by running milk samples in the above
conditions. Some allele of the 6 loci, evidenced in this study, are marked on gel picture.

Following gels interpretation were indentified the genotypes at the six


loci, in all analysed individuals. The genes and genotypes frequencies in both
breeds were calculated.

1. Results obtained after analysing 236 cattle belonging to Romanian Simmental


breed.

Tabelul 3
The genetic structure at αS1-casein locus in Romanian Simmental breed, in analysed
populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes Allele frequency
individuals frequency
BB 211 0,894 pB=0,9405
BC 22 0,093
CC 3 0,0127 qC=0,063

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Tabelul 4
The genetic structure at ß-casein locus in Romanian Simmental breed, in analysed
populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
A1A1 30 0,127 pA1= 0,3355
A1A2 83 0,351
A2A2 81 0,343 qA2= 0,569
A1A3 1 0,004
A1B 4 0,016 rA3= 0,002
A1C 11 0,046
A2B 15 0,063 mB = 0,0435
A2C 9 0,038
BC 2 0,008 nC = 0,046

Tabelul 5
The genetic structure at αS2-casein locus in Romanian Simmental breed, in analysed
populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
AA 236 1 p A= 1

Tabelul 6
The genetic structure at k-casein locus in Romanian Simmental breed, in analysed
populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
AA 109 0,461 pA=0,6785
AB 101 0,427
BB 23 0,097 qB=0,3105
AC 2 0,008
CC 1 0,004 rC=0,008

Tabelul 7
The genetic structure at α-lactoalbumin locus in Romanian Simmental breed, in
analysed populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
BB 236 1 pB= 1

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Tabelul 8
The genetic structure at β-lactoglobulinei locus in Romanian Simmental breed, in
analysed populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
AA 64 0,271 pA=0,5145
AB 114 0,483
BB 56 0,237 qB=0,4805
AC 1 0,004
BC 1 0,004 rC=0,004

2. Results obtained after analysing 27 cattle belonging to Romanian Black and


White breed.

Tabelul 9
The genetic structure at αS1-casein locus in Romanian Black and White breed, in
analysed populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
BB 27 1 pB=1
BC 0 0
CC 0 0 qC=0

Tabelul 10
The genetic structure at β-casein locus in Romanian Black and White breed, in
analysed populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
A1A1 4 0,148 pA1= 0,444
A1A2 15 0,555
A2A2 6 0,222 qA2= 0,518
A1B 1 0,037
A2B 1 0,037 rB= 0,037

Tabelul 11
The genetic structure at αS2-casein locus in Romanian Black and White breed, in
analysed populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
AA 27 1 p A= 1

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Tabelul 12
The genetic structure at k-casein locus in Romanian Black and White breed, in
analysed populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
AA 20 0,740 pA=0,870
AB 7 0,259
BB 0 0 qB=0,129

Tabelul 13
The genetic structure at α-lactoalbumin locus in Romanian Black and White breed,
in analysed populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
BB 27 1 pB= 1

Tabelul 14
The genetic structure at β-lactoglobulin locus in Romanian Black and White breed,
in analysed populations
Genotypes Number of Genotypes frequency Allele frequency
individuals
AA 7 0,259 pA=0,555
AB 16 0,592
BB 4 0,148 qB=0,444

At the k-casein locus, in Romanian Simmental breed, we observed a


relatively low frequency of B allele in comparison with A allele (see Table 6). We
observed even a lower frequency in Romanian Black and White breed (see Table
12). Taking in consideration a better expresion of B allele (Medrano et al, 1991),
it can be assumed that its low frequency has a negative influence on milk protein
content and milk manufacturing properties. K-casein C allele was observed with a
very low frequency in Romanian Simmental breed (see Table 6). At the β-
lactoglobulin locus (in both breeds) B allele has a low frequency, beeing also
identified C allele. At the ß-casein locus the B allele has also a low frequency (in
both breeds) beeing predominates A1 and A2 allele (see Table 4 and Table 10). In
Romanian Simmental population from Corojan Farm (Cluj county), we observed
an unespected high frequency (17%) of ß-casein C allele, in comparison with the
other three populations (0,046%). The same frequency was observed in French
cattle breed Tarentaise (Delacroix and Marie C, 1994), associated with a spicy
taste and hard consistence of Beaufort cheese, produced from milk of this breed
(Delacroix and Marie C, 1994). We identified in the population from SCDP Jucu,
in one cattle, a very rare allele: ß-casein A3 (Figure 1). Concerning the αS1-casein
locus we found a predominace of B allele in comparison with C allele, in both

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breeds. In αS2-casein and α-lactoalbumin loci, we observed monomorphic pattern


in both breeds (see Tables 5, 11 and Tables 7, 13 respectively).

CONCLUSIONS
The present study was carried out on four cattle populations belonging to
Romanian Simmental breed (236 individals) and one Romanian Black and White
(27 individuals), representative for Transylvania. An IEF method was succesfully
tested, which allows a correct identification, directly from small amounts of milk
samples, of all genotypes in the six loci codifying the six major milk proteins
(αs1-casein, β-casein, αs2-casein, k-casein, α-lactoalbumin and β-lactoglobulin)
and in a single run and at low costs. The identification of all allele based on PCR
based technique is imposible and the costs involved are very high and the
protocols are available just for the most commun allele.
The results obtained are representing the first informations of the genes
and genotypes frequency in all six loci in both breeds studied. This will allow to
test the associations between the haplotypes and quantity and quality of milk,
knowing that all have a certain influence in lactation performances. All genotyped
cattles are taken in control by the UARZ Cluj and the possibles association will
be tested in a following study. Observing the lower frequency of B allele, we can
presume that we should observe a lower protein content in both breeds. This
method can be succesfully used for genotyping other cattle breeds and species
such as buffalo and goats, experiments already started in our lab.

BIBLIGRAPHY
1.Aschaffenburg R., Drewry J. (1957). Genetics of the β-lactoglobulins of cow's milk. "Nature",
180, 376-378.
2.Aleandri, R., L. G. Buttazzoni, J. C. Schneider, A.Caroli, and R. Davoli.(1990). The effects of
milk protein polymorphisms on milk components and cheese-producing ability. J. Dairy Sci.
73:241.
3.Bâlteanu V. A., A.Vlaic (2005). Rezultate privind asocierea genotipurilor stabilite la locii K-
cazeinei şi β-lactoglobulinei şi însuşirile economice ale taurinelor. USAMV Cluj-Napoca. Referat
III doctorat.
4.Balteanu V.A., A. Vlaic, Anda Raluca Rusu (2005 ). The use of genetic markers in improving the
quantity and quality of the milk in Romanian Simmental dairy cattle breed. DocJ Symposium,
INRA, France, 8.
5.Bâlteanu V. A., A.Vlaic, Anda Raluca Rusu , Coşier Viorica (2004). Genetic polymorphisms at
the K-casein locus in Romanian Simmental cattle. Buletin USAMV- CN, 60/2004, 357-362.
6.Bâlteanu V. A., A.Vlaic, Anda Raluca Rusu, Viorica Coşier, C. Botez. (2004). Preliminary
estimations of genetic polymorphisms at the β-lactoglobulin locus in Romanian Siemmental cattle.
Buletin USAMV- CN, 60/2004, 391.
7.Bâlteanu V. A., A.Vlaic (2004). Stadiul actual al cercetărilor privind utilizarea markerilor genetici
în ameliorarea taurinelor. USAMV Cluj-Napoca. Referat bibliografic doctorat
8.Delacroix-Buchet A., Marie C. (1994).Comparaison des variants A et C de la caséine k des laits de
vaches Tarentaises en modèle fromagerde type beaufort. 1- Aptitudes fromagères et rendements en
frais. Lait, 74, 343-360.

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9.M. Farrell, Jr., R. Jimenez-Flores, G. T. Bleck, E. M. Brown, J. E. Butler, L. K. Creamer, C. L.


Hicks, C. M. Hollar, K. F. Ng-Kwai-Hang, and H. E. Swaisgood (2004). Nomenclature of the
Proteins of Cows’ Milk—Sixth Revision. J Dairy Sci 87: 1641-1674.
10.Grosclaude F. (1988). Le polymorphisme génétique des principales lactoprotéines bovines.
Relation avec la qualité, la composition et les aptitudes fromagères du lait.INRAProd. Anim.,1,5-17.
11.Hayes H.C., Petit E.J. (1993). Mapping of the β-lactoglobulin gene and immunoglobulin M
heavy chain-like sequence to the homologous cattle, sheep and goat chromosomes. "Mammalian
Genome", 4, 207-210. Journal of Protein Chemistry", 15, 743-750.
12.Ng-Kwai-Hang, K. F., J. F. Hayes, J. E. Moxley, and H. G.Monardes (1984). Association of
genetic variants of casein and milk serum proteins with milk, fat, and protein production by dairy
cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 67:835–840.
13.Schaar J., B. Hansson, and H.-E. Pettersson (1985). Effects of genetic variants of K-casein and β-
lactoglobulin on cheesemaking. J. Dairy Res. 52:429.
14.Seibert B., Erhardt G., Senft B. (1987). Detection of a new k-casein variant in cow's milk.
"Animal Genetics", 18, 269-272.
15.Soulier S., Mercier J.C., Vilotte J.L., Anderson J., Clark A.J., Provot C. (1989). The bovine and
ovine genomes contain multiple sequences homologous to the a-lactalbumin-encoding gene.
"Gene", 83, 331-338.
16.Threadgill D.W., Womack J.E. (1990). Genomic analysis of the major bovine milk protein genes.
"Nucleic Acids Research", 18, 6935-6942.
17.Van Eenennaam, A. L., and J. F. Medrano (1991). Differences in allelic protein expression in the
milk of heterozygous K-casein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 74:1496.
18. Vlaic, A., D.C. Ciobanu, T. Oroian, Elena Handoca (2002). Variantele genetice ale k-cazeinei
determinate prin tehnica PCR – RFLP şi asocierea acestora cu însuşirile producţiei de lapte la rasa
Brună. „Cercetări de genetică vegetală şi animală”, ASAS Bucureşti şi ICCPT Fundulea, vol. VII.

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THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL


FACTORS ON THE RESULTS OF THE SUPEROVULATORY
TREATMENT IN CATTLE

P. COROI, TIMEA KATONA

Superovulation represents the most important stage of an embryo-


transfer programme and consists in the production of a much larger number of
ovulations for sexual cycle and, after the artificial insemination, of a much larger
number of transferable embryos. The present paper is proposing to point out the
main applications of the superovulatory treatment in cattle and the influencing
factors of the ovarian response to this treatment.

The objective of superovulatory treatments in cattle is to obtain a large


number of fertile transferable embryos with a high probability of gestation
installation. The superovulation applications, as in fact, of the whole embryo-
transfer programme are of economical nature and also of scientific nature. The
economical applications refers to the improvement of the concepts’ number from
the cattle with high production value, facilitating the animals importation and
exportation, the speed-up of amelioration progress, the introduction of new genes
in reproductive restrained populations, concepts number increasing in obsolescent
species.
Concerning the experimental nature of the superovulatory treatment, there
a few applications such as the induction of multiple gestations in cattle, female
test by descendents, in vitro embryo production and embryonary sex
determination, spermatozoa selection by chromosomes, cloning etc.
The ovarian response to the superovulatory treatment is extremely
unforeseable, depending by a large number of factors which can be divided in two
big categories: internal and external factors. The great variability degree of the
superovulatory response creates problems which are affecting the efficiency, and
nevertheless the profitability of the embryo-transfer programmes.
Internal factors are represented by: species, breed, individual, age, the
genital tract’s morpho-functional integrity and health, follicular population at the
moment of treatment performing, the stage of the ovarian follicles at the start of
the treatment etc.
Species, breed, individual, age
There were reported some differences in responsiveness to
gonadotrophins among various breeds of cattle. Anyway, it should be noticed that
in these studies other factors that potentially could affect the superovulatory
response were not well controlled. The worldwide information does not
demonstrate that breed itself is an important source of variation in embryo
production. However, animals with a genetic tendency toward high ovulation
rates have a greater superovulatory response (Kelly P. et al., 1997; Selk G., 1986).

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The breeds which are less ameliorated and specialized for one trait
present a more consistent, constant and predictable reaction. High specialized
breeds respond frequently random and inefficiently no matter which protocol or
hormone are used.
Inside the same breed, age and housing conditions the individual react
different to the same hormonal treatment.
Age is not considered to be a determinant factor in the superovulatory
response of cattle. Overall, there are signaled only small differences in the mean
responses of cows aged two and fourteen years. Mapletoft et al., (2003) also
observed that there was no age effect on the total number of embryos recovered,
but a cut-off point, beyond nine years of age was suggested after which there was
a decline in the response in terms of the percentage of transferable embryos
recovered. The decline in superovulatory response may be due to a reduction in
the numbers of follicles capable to respond to gonadotrophin treatment in older
cattle (unpublished results).
Genital tract health and morpho-functionality
General state of health represents an important influence factor, because
we cannot expect a normal, predicable ovarian response from an animal of which
homeostasis is ruffled by affection. The morpho-functionality of the genital tract
is also an important factor of modulation of the ovarian response to the exogenous
hormones addition.
Follicular population at the moment of treatment
The response to the superovulatory treatment is characterized by a large
variability. Many researchers have reported that the presence of the dominant
folicle affect negatively the response to the treatment. There was also observed
that the existence of a large number of follicles potentially recrutable is associated
with a better superovulator response. Kafi et al. have shown that the number of
small follicles of 3-6 cm in size on both ovaries was semnificatively correlated
with the corpus lutea number after the treatment, with the number of oocytes and
the transferable embryos retrieved. Selk et al. have reported that the number of
corpus lutea are correlated with the number of primary, secondary and tertiary
follicles on the ovary.
Stage of follicles at the moment of treatment
Represents the most important source of variability of the superovulatory
treatment with gonadotropins in cattle. The present protocols allow the
superstimulation of the donor animals at intervals of 25-30 days without knowing
the sexual cycle stage and without affecting the embryo production.
Factorii externi are represented by: housing, alimentation, photoperiod,
male presence, clime and meteorological conditions, the hormonal product, its
administration protocol, type of its administration etc.
Season
Studies of the effect of season on the superovulatory response of cattle
have yielded conflicting results. While some researchers (Kafi, M., Mc Gowan,

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1997) have reported an influence of season on superovulatory response, others


(Kelly P., Duffy P., 1997) did not find a consistent effect of season on ovarian
response. To interpret the results of these experiments, it should be borne in mind
that the weather pattern of each season may not be similar year to year and region
to region. Moreover, as it has already been mentioned, many variables are
involved in the superovulatory response and the ability to control all of these
factors is not high. Therefore an accurate evaluation of the effect of seasons is
difficult.
The season can induce paradoxal reactions to the superovulatory treatment,
most through the thermic factor. Because of the high temperatures over the
summer that induce an attenuation of the reproductive function, it is
recommended that the hormonal treatments should not be performed at the time.
The response to the superovulatory treatment can be influenced also by the
atmospheric pressure, in fact there are enough proves that the females are very
much affected by the pressure.
Environment
In a study (Putney et al., 1988) of the effects of elevated ambient
temperature on embryonic development, it was shown that thermal stress in
superovulated heifers between days 1 to 7 after insemination resulted in the
recovery of a higher number of abnormal and retarded embryos as compared to
the number of abnormal embryos recovered from heifers maintained in a thermo
neutral environment. Results reported from a recent study (Kafi, M., Mc Gowan,
M.R., 1997) indicated that heat stress may also alter follicular development and
dominance in cyclic lactating Holstein cows.
The direct adverse effects of heat stress on steroidogenesis and follicular
development implies that the process of oocyte maturation could also be affected.
This may partly explain the recovery of higher numbers of low quality embryos
from superovulated cattle exposed to conditions of high environmental
temperature and humidity. A study of the superovulatory response of Holstein
cattle demonstrated that effective cooling of cows during the hot summer months
resulted in only a slightly lower proportion of cows with multiple corpora lutea at
the time of embryo collection compared with the proportion found in the winter
months. Transportation stress during the period of gonadotrophin treatment may
also adversely affect the superovulatory response of cattle.
Nutrition
Specific research on the impact of nutrition on the superovulatory response
of cattle is limited. Much of the available information regarding the role of
nutrition on reproductive function is the result of research on the impact of
nutrition on the fertility of normal cyclic females. However, it seems reasonable
to assume that the relationship between the effects of nutrition on fertility of
single ovulating cattle is applicable to superovulated cattle. Inadequate nutrition
impairs reproductive function in most mammals. The adverse effects of
underfeeding on the reproductive performance of cattle may be due to hormonal

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disturbance at the level of the ovary, anterior pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus
(Şara, A., 2001). Collectively, it can be concluded that under nutrition can disturb
pulsatile LH secretion and this may disturb follicular development to the pre-
ovulatory stage. Murphy et al. (1991) demonstrated that low dietary energy intake
reduces the maximum diameter of the dominant follicle and shortens its
persistence on the ovary.
Şara (2001) gave some indications concerning the optimally ration for
preparation of the heifers for superovulation. For this purpose the succulent
forages with high acidity must be eliminated. There have to be introduced hay of
good quality (4-5 kg for a day), roots (between 5 and 10 kg a day), concentrate
forage (roaring corn, 1-1,5 kg a day), protein-vitamino-mineral supplement (0,5-
0,7 kg a day), minerals.
Subclinical infections
Very little information is available regarding the possible adverse effects of
sub clinical infectious disease on the superovulatory response of cattle. Diseases
of concern include bovine pest virus infection and infectious bovine
rhinotracheitis virus infection. Pest virus infection is common in cattle
populations around the world. Over 90% of pest virus infections are unapparent.
The impact of pest virus infection on the early reproductive performance of cattle
was reviewed by McGowan and Kirkland (1995). The inadvertent introduction of
an animal persistently infected with pest virus, around the time of AI, could result
in a significant reduction in herd productivity (McGowan et al., 1993; Kirkland et
al., 1990). Recently, in a series of experimental studies (Kafi et al., 1994), it was
observed that the superovulatory response of Friesian heifers infected with bovine
pest virus around the time of AI was significantly poorer than the response of
non-infected heifers. The number of palpable corpora lutea and ova/embryo
recovered was significantly lower in the pest virus infected heifers.
Ultrasonographic monitoring around the time of AI demonstrated a significantly
lower rate of ovulation in the pest virus infected heifers (Kafi et al., 1996). As we
shown at the beginning of this paper we cannot expect a good hormonal response
from an animal which have health problems.
Lactation
During early lactation, disparity between dietary energy intake and the
energy requirements for milk production results in a negative energy balance.
This condition is metabolically similar to under nutrition and seems to cause a
disturbance in pulsatile secretion of LH. This may result from a suppression of the
increase in LH pulse frequency which is necessary for growth of ovarian follicles
to the preovulatory stage. Ovarian follicles initiate growth and differentiation 40-
60 d before they reach mature size and ovulate. Therefore, it has been speculated
that the quality of follicles destined to ovulate may depend on the nutritional or
environmental conditions under which those follicles have developed many weeks
before ovulation.

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Repeated superovulation
The traditional view amongst some embryo transfer practitioners is that
there is a reduction in superovulatory response if successive treatments are
attempted. However, there is increasing evidence indicating a non significant
reduction in ovarian responsiveness following repeated superovulation with FSH-
P preparations. Kanitz, W. et al. (2003) reported that the repeatability of
superovulation results was low and concluded that accurate selection of
satisfactory responding donors was not possible even after repeated flushings.
Research to estimate repeatabilities and heritabilities of superovulatory response
are scarce.
Variation caused by impurity of gonadotrophin preparations
There is considerable variability in the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
and LH activity of available gonadotrophin preparations (Kanitz, W. et al., 2003).
They suggested that embryo quality may be detrimentally affected by using
gonadotrophin products with high LH contamination. Selk G. (2002) using an in-
vitro biological response assay, showed that the FSH:LH ratio in one FSH-P
product varied over a 20-fold range among different batches. Interestingly, they
found no differences in superovulatory response and embryo production among
five different batches of FSH-P products when they were used in the field. It was
proposed that individual animals and their environment had more influence on
superovulatory response than variation in the FSH:LH ratio.
A series of studies showed that LH contamination of gonadotrophin
products had a deleterious effect on the superovulatory response of cattle
(primarily a reduction in fertilization rate). They also observed that removal of
LH from FSH products enhanced the number of transferable quality embryos
recovered. Resumption of meiosis in the oocyte at an inappropriate time,
premature luteinization of follicles and down-regulation of LH receptors on theta
and/or granulosa cells are thought to be responsible for the poor quality of
recovered embryos from animals treated with gonadotrophin preparations
contaminated with LH. When immature rats underwent superovulation with a
FSH-P preparation containing a low level of LH, a superior superovulatory
response in terms of normal oocytes or embryos was achieved.
There are also other factors like the abnormalities of follicular
development and oocyte maturation, male presence etc. which are less important
but not to forget.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Colleau, J.J. et al. (1998) – Les biotechnologies de la reproduction chez les bovines et leurs
applications reelles ou potentielles en selection INRA Prod. Anim., 11 (1), 41-56;
2. Dalton J.C., Saacke R.G. (2000) – The effect of time of artificial insemination on fertilization
status and embryo quality in superovulated cows, J. Anim. Sci. 78, 2081–2085;
3. Grimes, J. F. (2000) – Utilization of Embryo Transfer in Beef Cattle, Agriculture and Natural
Resources, Highland County Extension Agent;

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4. Kafi, M., Mc Gowan, M.R. (1997) – Factors associated with variation in the superovulatory
response of cattle Science elsevier animal reproduction science 48: 137- 157;
5. Kanitz, W. et al. (2003) – Superovulation in cattle: practical aspects of gonadotropin treatment
and insemination, Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 42. 587–599 587 INRA, EDP Sciences;
6. Kelly P., Duffy P. (1997) – Superovulation in cattle, Anim. Reprod. Sci. 46 (1997) 1–14;
7. Ladoşi, I. (1999) – Embriotehnologie animală, Editura Victor Melenti, Cluj-Napoca;
8. Mapletoft, R. et al. (2003) – Recent advances in the superovulation in cattle, Reprod. Nutr. Dev.
42, 601–611;
9. Selk G. (2002) – Embryo Transfer In Cattle, Cooperative Extension Service, Division of
Agriculture, Oklahoma State University, OSU Extension Animal Reproduction Specialist;
10. Şara, A. (2001) – Alimentaţia animalelor de reproducţie, Editura Risoprint, Cluj-Napoca;

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THE OVARIAN RESPONSE TO THE SUPEROVULATORY


TREATMENT IN CATTLE FROM BĂLŢATĂ
ROMÂNEASCĂ BREED

P. COROI, L. SASCA

The embryo-transfer represents a topical reproduction biotechnic which


follow the obtaining of more concepts from the animals with high value from the
genetic and economical point of view. In cattle is considered that the number of
gestations on every individual can rise up to 10 times through embryo-transfer.
The most important stage of embryo-transfer is represented by the
superovulatory treatment which determines the main morpho-functional
alterations on the ovary. The present paper has followed the different factors
which affect the ovary response to the superovulatory treatment. The study was
performed on 5 cattle group from Bălţată Românească breed. Consecutively to
the treatment there was obtained an average number of 21,6 corpus lutea.

Variability in the superovulatory response of cattle is still one of the


major limiting factors in extensive usage of embryo transfer technology. The
development of techniques such as transrectal ultrasonography, have enabled a re-
evaluation of ovarian dynamics during superovulation of cattle and a better
understanding of the ovarian phisiology. This paper wants to describe the ovary
response of the cows from Bălţată Românească breed, raised in the conditions of
S.C.D.P. Jucu farm, Cluj County, to the superovulatory treatment performed on
the base of PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin).

MATERIAL AND METHODS


Animals
As an experimental group there were used five cows from the Bălţată
Românească breed derived from the S.C.D.P. Jucu farm, Cluj County. The
animals have an age average of 5 years, 500 ± 20 kg in weight and 2,2 calvings.
All cows had healthy body and reproductive trait conditions. They were kept in tie
stalls on short bedding and the estrus examination was performed once a day
through transrectal analyze.
Hormones
There were used: Folligon (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin –
PMSG), Chorulon (human chorionic gonadotrophin – HCG) and Prosolvin
(prostaglandin F2α – PGF2α) from Intervet International BV (Boxmeer –
Holland). There were also used injections with xilin 2% to avoid to much
contractions and for a easy use of the ultrasonographic device and catheter at the
embryo retrieving.

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Superovulatory treatment
The superovulatory treatment was performed on known estrus cycle and
consisted of the injection of Folligon (5 UI / kg body weight) (it is well known
that PMSG has a long period of metabolism of about 5 to 7 days; that’s why the
injection of Folligon was performed once), followed after 48 hours by the
injection of Prosolvin. At the time of the first artificial insemination was
performed an injection of 2500 UI Chorulon (5 UI / kg body weight). The
treatment is presented in the following table:

The scheme of the superovulatory treatment


Table 1
The moment of the treatment Treatment
Day 0, 8 o’clock Estrus
Day 10, 8 o’clock 5UI Folligon (Intervet – Canada)/ kg body
weight (intramuscular injected)
Day 12, 8 o’clock 30 mg PGF2α (intramuscular injected)
st
Day 12, 20 o’clock 1 artificial insemination (A.I.) + 2500 UI
Chorulon (and the 2nd A.I. after 12 hours)
(intramuscular injected)
Day 19, 8 o’clock Ovary analysis and embryo retrieving

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Following the hormonal treatment performed, there was found a perfect
uniformity concerning the estrus display at the all animals taken in this study.
Thus, at 48 hours after the injection with prostaglandin F2α, we’ve noticed the
estrus display and we have performed the first artificial insemination. The second
artificial insemination was made 12 hours later, and after that, at day 7 after the
estrus there were retrieved the embryos using a Foley catheter with 2 ways.
Unfortunately, because of some procedure problems, the number of embryos
retrieved was too low; therefore we could not interpret the correct percent of
transferable embryos from the total.
Following the superovulatory treatment the animals have presented a
relative constant response with an average of the corpus lutea number of 21.6.
After the statistical analysis, based on “t” test (Student), there were observed very
significantly differences by comparing to the normal number of ovulations in
cattle and insignificant differences by comparing to the average number of corpus
lutea observed on the ovaries from the all five animals studied.

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Figure 1. Variation of the corpus lutea number related to the average

There are many factors which influence the response of the ovaries to the
superovulatory treatment. They can be divided in two categories: internal and
external factors. From the internal factors, the age of animals has shown that
animals with almost the same age, physiologic status and health condition react
very much the same to the superovulatory treatment.
The environment factors were, for the whole period of preparation and
treatment, the same for all the animals with temperatures varying from 14 to 22°C
inside the shelter with an average of 17.5°C. The relative humidity was in average
of 65%. The alimentation was performed with a ration of 15% fiber forage, 84%
succulent forage and 1% concentrates.
Concerning the hormonal treatment, the hormone type and hormonal
combination used can have a major impact on the ovary. We’ve used Folligon
(PMSG) because of its slow metabolism which allows a single injection to induce
the superovulatory response. The cost is also lower than that of other hormonal
products used for superovulation. Of course, there are some advantages like that
presented above but the major problem of the PMSG is the low quality of the
embryos retrieved and the low percent of transferable embryos from the total.
The animals showed a good response of the ovaries from all animals to
the PMSG treatment. The embryos retrieved were of good quality but like we said
above there were too few.
One of the external factors was the presence of a bull near the animals
studied. It can have a positive influence on the ovarian response to the hormonal
treatment because there are some works related which shows the influence of the
pheromones between the two sexes, but the evaluation of this factor remains still
in shadow.

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CONCLUSIONS
The stage of the ovarian follicles at the begining of the treatment
represent the most important source of variability of the response of the ovary to
the superovulatory treatment in cattle. We recommend the injection of PMSG
(Folligon) in the 10th day of the estrus cycle for an optimal response.
The animals with almost the same age, physiologic status and health
condition react very much the same to the superovulatory treatment. The results
obtained shown a relative constant response.
There are many advantages of using PMSG for superovulatory treatments
but concerning the whole embryo-transfer programme we have to understand that
it has a negative effect on the quality of the retrieved embryos; thus may affect the
percent of transferable embryos.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Kanitz, W. et al. (2003) – Superovulation in cattle: practical aspects of gonadotropin treatment
and insemination, Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 42. 587–599 587 INRA, EDP Sciences;
2. Mapletoft, R. et al. (2003) – Recent advances in the superovulation in cattle, Reprod. Nutr. Dev.
42, 601–611;
3. Selk G. (2002) – Embryo Transfer In Cattle, Cooperative Extension Service, Division of
Agriculture, Oklahoma State University, OSU Extension Animal Reproduction Specialist;
4. Ushinohama K., et al. (1998) – Ultrasonographic Observation of Individual Follicular
Development in Japanese Black cows Superovulated with FSH, Journal of Reproduction and
Development, vol. 44, No. 3.

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IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION LEVEL IN AN OLD


HUNGARIAN SWINE VARIETY CROSSING BY PIETRAIN
BOAR

ISTVÁN, FORGÓ, LÁSZLÓ, TÉCSY, ISTVÁN, BESSENYEI, MIHÁLY,


SZABÓ, ISTVÁN, GYÖRKÖS, GUSZTÁV, VATTAMÁNY

The old Hungarian Mangalica breed does not meet the today’s
requirements totally therefore our pig stock improvement was intended by
crossings. Using Pietrain boars the meat performance and quality increased in
the filial generation. The lard proportion decreased with 12.59 % and the
proportion of valuable meat parts increased with 8.36 % due to the crossing.
According to our experiences vitality of piglets and piglets number are also
increased. The meat of the crossed individuals is suitable for manufacturing high
quality cured meat product against the higher meat performance and lower fat
production.

INTRODUCTION
Mangalica is an ancient Hungarian lard-type pig having low fecundity and meat
performance. However, its favourable characteristics such as fat quality,
marbelized meat and excellent flavour and taste account for its utilization in wider
range. Our purpose was to improve the mentioned characteristics by crossing and
to present a suggestion for practical utilization of crossings based on our results
comparing them with that of purebred stock. Mangalica meat is suitable for
making cured meat products and other hungaricums. As a result of the crossings
increasing in meat amount and small decreasing in fat production (including
intramuscular fat) not influencing the meat processing were expected.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


Experiments were carried out in pig-farm of College of Nyíregyháza and in
Fattening Examining Station, Keszthely on mangalica, Hungarian Large White
and Pietrain varieties. We aimed to improve the daily weight gain, carcass quality
and feed conversion rate, and to decrease the lard ratio in order to facilitate the
sales of Mangalica porkers.
Our investigations bear on the following parameters: market day, net weight gain,
feed consumption, lard ratio, proportion of valuable meat parts. Piglets were
raised in pig-farm of the Training Farm of the College of Nyíregyháza for 80
days. The further fattening (from 80 day to 105 kg weight), slaughtering and
carcass classification were executed in the Fattening Examining Station,
Keszthely.

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Swine’s were fed from self feeder ad libitum by granulated complete feed
containing 12,33 MJ/kg ME and 18,61% crude protein. Pig houses were
climatized. Tipped self waterer was applied and the animals were kept in
individual boxes on self-slatted floor. Feed consumption and body weight were
measured in every ten days (Deák, 2003).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Introduction of the examined pig varieties

Mangalica (picture 1): Development of Hungarian Mangalica breed started in


1833 when Sumadia hogs were imported from Serbia. Mangalica was developed
through substitutional crossing of the domestic ’Bakonyi’ and ’Szalonati’ breeds
with Sumadia hogs, breeding selection and reasonable feeding. This new breed
overpass the ’Balkan’ breeds in conformation and endogenous characteristics.
The dense and long fur is curly in winter, more tender, shorter and straight in
summer, and its colour is vary from grey to yellowish red depending on the soil
conditions. The skin of Mangalica is covered by thin grey layer which could be
totally removed after dehairing. The rim of nose, eyelids, hoofs and openings of
the body have black colour. The head is medium long and slightly curved in
profile. The ears are medium large and leaning forward. The back is medium long
and slightly curved.
The croup is firm and inclined towards hindquarters. Abdomen is firm having 5
tits on it both side. The trunk is medium long, the skeleton is strong. Toughness,
plainness and high fat production belongs to Its favourable characteristics.
It also has undisireable characteristics need to be improved to maintain this breed
for example low fertility of 5-8 piglets, slowly development and smaller body.
One day old Mangalica piglets weigh 0.8-1 kg per each, litter weight at partus is
6-10 kg.
Fast fattening results 130-150 kg individual slaughtering weight by the end of the
10th-12th month. It means 500-550 average daily weight gain and 55-60% lard
proportion. (Horn, 2000; www.mangalica.com).

Pietrain (picture 2): It is a hog of Belgian origin which was developed in 1919-
1920. However, it was registered as an individual breed in 1953.
Its colour is grey or white with pigmented spots on it. Colour of the fur is white.
The head is short, small, the forehead is wide. Ears are short, erected, leaning
forward. The back, foreleg and hindquarters are extremely muscled.
Due to breeding work of Danish and German experts its stress and environment
tolerance improved, remarkable. Reproductive performance is medium or weak,
fattening performance is medium. Slaughtering value in respect of meat
proportion is extraordinary but its quality is bad showing PSE properties.

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In crossings and in hybridization the petrain always paternal partner, often


paternal grandfather, in some hybrids maternal grandmother or terminal boar
(Kovács, 1984; Magyar Állattenyésztési Adatbázis).

Crossing results
Since Hungarian Landrace x Mangalica and Hungarian Large White x Mangalica
crossings did not yield a result, other crossing partner was applied. The initiated
Pietrain x Mangalica individuals were born in February 2000 (see in picture 3).

Source: self-made picture Source: www.ulg.ac.be/fmv/rehal/pietrain.jpg


Picture 1. Blond mangalica gilt Picture 2. Pietrain boar

Source: self-made picture


Picture 3. Pietrain x Blond Mangalica piglets

Pietrain x Blond Mangalica porkers (see in picture 4) outwardly reflect the


Mangalica influence while effect of Pietrain on slaughtering parameters was
meaningful.

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Source: self-made picture


Picture 4. Pietrain x Blond Mangalica porker

Results of the post mortem carcass classification are shown in Table 1. To


compare the crossing results average data of the breeds are considered as a
reference.
Table 1
The data of the investigated varieties and crossings
Age Net weight Feed Lard Valuable Lean SEUROP
(days) gain conversion proportion meat meat
(g/day) ratio (g/kg) (%) parts (%)
(%)
Mangalica* 291 274 4020 52.2 30.1 - -
Pietrain** 183 457 2790 22.8 54 58.8 E
Pietrain x 171 498 3197 40.2 35.8 45.1 R
Blond 180 464 3212 39 38.4 46.9 R
Mangalica
178 461 3146 43.5 37.1 46.4 R
199 431 3121 35.7 41 49.9 R
196 417 3013 38.3 41.9 45.8 R
189 436 3101 42.6 35.6 44.9 O
187 459 3579 42.1 35.7 44.2 O
194 434 3304 36.6 41.1 48.8 R
178 475 3136 43.5 36.9 46.5 R
199 430 3088 34.6 41.1 49.7 R
average 187.1 450.5 3189.7 39.61 38.46 46,82 R
* results of small group examination, 1986
** results of central performance testing, OMMI, 2000

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According to Table 1 important fattening and meat performance figures improved


remarkable. As a result of the crossing the net weight gain increased with 64.4 %
and the feed conversion ratio decreased from 4 kg to 3.2 kg. Lard proportion
important for marketing and meat processing view was decreased with 12.59 %,
and proportion of valuable meat parts was increased with 8.36 % in the crossed
stock. Seeing that Mangalica is a fat-type pig it could not classable into the
SEUROP meat qualification system. The individuals of the filial generation are
qualifyable and they divide into the R category (46.82% lean meat proportion).
The results show that the meat performance figures of the crossing stock are
greatly improved, and the produced meat is suitable for meat processing (ham,
sausages) due to its higher intramuscular fat contant than in case of Hungarian
Large White and Pietrain. Fat content of the meat increased lard proportion and
back fat thickness decreased. Carcass is shown in Picture 5. Dressing proportion
was increased by using Pietrain in crossings and meat quality remained suitable
for preparing traditional Hungarian meat products to meat the domestic market
demands. Slaughtering piglets from the crossed stock show notably better meat
forms comparing with pure-bred Mangalica. Investigations were made in Hungary
with crossing duroc x mangalica by making ham (Horn, 2000).
It could be concluded that utility of Mangalica improved through the
aforementioned crossing. The fertility and nursing ability increased with 1-1.5
piglets/sow oppose purebred stock. Piglets’ vitality became better and they need
less medicine. Gene conservation of Mangalica is parallel with the requirement in
Hungary. However, in gene reserves stocks the purebred sows should not be
mated by Mangalica if more purebred individuals are not needed. In this case
mates could ham be executed by Pietrain boars resulting more marketable
slaughtering pig. By this way, maintenance costs of nucleus stock would decrease
due to the larger scale porker selling. We took suitable crossing mangalica with
other species, because of examining the combination ability. As crossings with
Hunagrian Large White, Hungarian Landrace and Hungahib 39 boars did not
show such a combining ability like Pietrain x Mangalica other characteristics of
those were not examined.

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Source: self-made picture


Picture 5. Pietrain x Blond Mangalica carcass

CONCLUSIONS
We took the next findings under the survey:
− as a result of Pietrain x Blond Mangalica crossing net weight gain increased
with 64.4 % in compare to the standard mangalica
− feed conversion ratio was decreased with 20.6 %
− lard ratio important for trade and meat processing was lower with 12.59 %,
and proportion of valuable meat parts was higher with 8.36 % in the
crossing stock
− the meat suitable for manufacture meat products of excellent quality as
hungaricum – ham, sausages – due to the higher intramuscular fat content
− practical suitability of the Pietrain x Blond Mangalica increased through the
improved fertility and nursering ability, piglets vitality.

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REFERENCES
DEÁK, T., 2003. Különböző fajtájú hízósertések növekedési ritmus jellemzőinek elemzése. Doktori
(Ph.D.) értekezés tézisei. Keszthely. pp. 21.
HORN, P., (Ed.) 2000. Állattenyésztés 3. Sertés, nyúl, prémes állatok, hal. Mezőgazda Kiadó,
Budapest. pp. 54-88. (Book in Hungarian)
KOVÁCS, F., (Ed.) 1984. Sertéstenyésztők kézikönyve. Mezőgazdasági Kiadó, Budapest. pp. 623.
(Book in Hungarian)
MAGYAR ÁLLATTENYÉSZTÉSI ADATBÁZIS
http://www.agr.unideb.hu/animaldb/sertes/index.htm
OMMI, 2000. A sertéstenyésztés 1999. évi eredményei. OMMI, Budapest. pp. 135.
www.mangalica.com

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MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION (MAS) FOR TRAITS


CONCERNING MILK QUANTITY AND QUALITY IN
ROMANIAN SIMMENTAL CATTLE

Viorica COŞIER, A. VLAIC, S. DĂRĂBAN, T. OROIAN, V. CIGHI

Pit-1 has been identified as a pituitary-specific transcription factor that


regulated the expression of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) genes in
the anterior pituitary gland (Tuggle and Trenkle, 1996). Using molecular
markers, number and position of valuable alleles for some quantitative loci can
be identified. Pit 1 gene have been shown to be involved in milk yield/quality
(protein, fat content) in cattle. The polymorphism at Pit-1 locus was studied
according to Moody & al., 1995, using PCR/RFLP for amplification of a 1355 pb
fragment, corresponding to an intron of 1.1 kb flanked by exons 5 and 6.

INTRODUCTION
The pituitary transcription factor (Pit-1) is the cellular specific
transcription factor for activating expression of the prolactin, thyrotropin, and GH
genes in the anterior pituitary gland (Tuggle & Trenkle, 1996). Bovine Pit-1 is a
291 amino acid protein with DNA-binding POU domain. This gene is another
candidate for milk production marker because of its role in regulating expression
of bGH and the prolactin genes. The bovine Pit1 gene was located in centromeric
region of chromosome 1 in bovine, between TGLA57 and RM95 loci. This
location creates a chain transmission of the following group of genes: TGLA49-
RM95-PIT1-TGLA57 (Moody et al., 1995). The primers used for localization of
gene on bovine chromosome 1 were made up according to structure of human
Pit1 gene, located on chromosome 4. The region between exones 5 and 6 of Pit1
gene was used for design of primers flanking an intron of about 1.1 kb.
Milk protein polymorphism have been studied intensively because of their
effect on the yield and processing properties of milk and its products. k-casein
constitutes about 25% of the casein fraction of milk. The B variant of k-casein is
associated with an increase in milk protein and fat contents as well as cheese
production (Van Eenennaam and Medrano, 1991).
The polymorphism at Pit1 locus was studied in several cattle breeds, where
gene frequency was calculate, and associations of milk yield and composition and
with some conformation traits were performed (Renaville et al., 1997). The allele A
was associated to a superior milk production and a higher protein quantity in milk.
The effects of substitution within Pit1 and k-casein, alone or in combination, were
studied by Arysta Life Science Society, in Belgium, in collaboration to Semex –
Alliance from Canada (2000) on several breeds:
- bulls of breeds/number of individuals: Holstein (Italy)/89, Simmental
(Italy)/148, Holstein (Canada)/1100; Blanc – Bleu – Belge/(Belgium)350

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- cows: Holstein (USA)/255, Holstein (France)/202, Holstein (Italy)/230.


It has been demonstrated that allele B of k-casein is associated to a higher
protein, casein and k-casein content, which advantages cheese, and allele A of
Pit1 gene with a higher protein content and a higher milk production.
The frequencies of allele A and B and frequency of the three genotypes at
Pit1 locus were:
- Holstein bulls (Italy) - A=17.9; B=82.1 (AA=2.2; AB=31.5 and
BB=66.3)
- Simmental bulls (Italy): A=11.7 and B=88.3 (AA=2.3; AB=18.8 and
BB= 78.9)
- Holstein bulls (Canada): A=31.4 and B=68.4 (AA=9.8; AB=43.5 and
BB=46.7)
- Blanc-Bleu-Belge bulls: A= 42.2 and B=57.8 (AA=20; AB=44.5 and
BB=35.5)
- Holstein cows (USA): A= 16.3 and B=83.7 (AA=2.4; AB=27.8 and
BB=69.8)
- Holstein cows (France): A=17.8 and B=82.2 (AA=2; AB=31.7 and
BB=66.3)
- Holstein cows (Italy): A=17.8 and B=82.2 (AA=3.5; AB= 28.7 and BB
= 67.8)

MATERIAL AND METHODS


The polymorphism at Pit-1 locus was studied according to Moody & al.,
1995, using PCR/RFLP for amplification of a 1355 pb fragment, corresponding to
an intron of 1.1 kb flanked by exons 5 and 6. The 18 base (forward and reverse)
primers were used, and PCR products were submitted to restriction reaction using
HinfI enzyme. The sites for restriction enzyme are shown in Figure 2.
Genomic DNA of 76 registered Romanian Spotted cattle from two local
farms from Transylvania (SCDP Jucu & Basto srl) was extracted from blood
using Wizard®DNA Purification kit (Promega).
The PCR was optimized for 25 µl final volume using 50 ng genomic
DNA, 200µM each dNTP, 25 mM MgCl2; 10 pmol of each primer (forward and
reverse), 5x Green Go Taq Reaction buffer, 0.5 U of GoTaq DNA Polymerase
(Promega). Primer sequences (Microsynth) were: 5’ primer 5’-CAA TGA GAA
AGT TGG TGC-3’; and 3’ primer – 5’-TCT GCA TTC GAG ATG CTC-3’.
Thermal cycling began with an initial cycle of 95oC for 2 minutes, 55oC for 1 min
and 72oC for 2 minutes followed by 29 cycles of 1 minute at 94,55 and 72oC, and
concluded with a final extension for 12 minutes. The amplification reaction
resulted in a single product of 1.35 kb (Fig.1). Polymerase chain reaction products
were digested with HinfI (37oC for 2 hours) and electrophoresed on 3% agarose
gels in TBE buffer, stained with etidium bromide. The molecular weight marker
used was 100 pb DNA ladder (Promega).

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The digestion products of Pit-1 gene correspond to the following


genotypes: AA (660, 425 and 270 pb), AB (660, 425, 385 and 270 pb) and BB
(660, 385 and 270 pb) (Fig.1)

Figure 1 HinfI polymorphism between exon 5 and 6 of Pit-1 gene in Romanian spotted
cattle. The genotypes of the different animals are shown at the top of each lane (BB, AB
and BB). Sizes are indicated in pb on the right site. The small 40 pb fragment of allele B
is not visible in the gel.

Description of polymorphism

Digestion of PCR products with HinfI revealed two alleles corresponding


to the following genotypes: AA (660, 425 and 270 pb), AB (660, 425, 385 and
270 pb) and BB (660, 385 and 270 pb). Allele frequencies: The frequency of
allele A was 0,22 and 0,78 for allele B respectively. These alleles generated three
patterns, and frequencies were: 0,118 for AA,; 0,197 for AB and 0,685 for BB
genotype.The A allele was found to be superior for milk and protein yields,
inferior for fat percentage, and superior for body depth, angularity and rear leg set
(Renaville et al., 1997; Zwierzckowski et. al, 2002; Zhao, Q. et al, 2004;).

CONCLUSION
The existence of associations between detected polymorphism and traits
concerning quantity and quality of milk production could have as consequence the
development of a new molecular marker for genuine breeds, which I intend to
develop in further studies.
The techniques based on obtaining molecular markers have limits and
constraints connected to relevant polymorphism, rapidity, reproductibility, and
also huge costs for some of them. PCR-RFLP is a more rapid and simple
technique compared to others. Because RFLP markers are codominat transmitted,
not environmental sensitive, and PCR-RFLP is a technique with high
reproductibility, are advantages which recommend this technique to be used for

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

genotypisation. The costs need to implement this technique are lower compared to
those need for majority of molecular biology techniques which emphasize a single
nucleotide polymorphism in majority of cases.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Moody, D.E., Pomp, D., Barendse, W., 1995, Restriction fragment length
polymorphism in amplification products of the bovine Pit-1 gene and assigment of Pit-1 to bovine
chromosome 1, Animal Genetics, 26, 45-47.
2. Renaville, R., Gengler, N., Vrech, E., Prandi, A., Massart, S., Corradini, C., Bertozzi
C., Mortiaux, F., Burny, A., Portetelle, D.(1997): Pit-1gene polymorphism, milk yield, and
conformation traits for Italian Holstein Friesian bulls. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 3431-3438.
3. Tuglle, C.K., Trenkle, A. (1996). Control of growth hormone synthesis. Domestic
Animal Endocrinology,13,11-33.
4 Zhao,Q., Davis, M.E., Hines. H.C. (2004): Asociation of Polymorphism in the Pit-1
Gene with Growth and Carcass Traits in Angus Beef Cattle. J. Anim. Science,82, 2229-22336.
5. Zwierzckowski, L., Krzyzewski, J., Nina, Strzalkowska, Eulalia Siadkowska, Zofia
Rywiewicz, 2002, Effect of Polymorphism of growth hormone (GH), Pit-1, and Leptine (LEP) genes
cow’s age, lactation stage and somatic cell count on milk yield and composition of Polish Black and
White cows., Anim Sci Pap and Report, vol 20, no. 4, 217-227

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

PARAMETERS OF THE PROGRAM FOR GENETICAL


AMELIORATION AND MANAGEMNT OF CAWS FROM
BROWN SWISS BREED, IN MOLDOVA REGION
2005-2010
Margareta MIHĂILESCU, I. NISTOR,V. UJICĂ
V. MACIUC, Rodica DĂNĂILĂ

Knowing the genetical structure of the brown Swiss caw population in


Moldova region, as well as the phenotipical and genetical parameters of the main
selection characteristics, the amelioration value of the breeders and of the main
factors which determine the amelioration of a caw population, the authors
developed a draft for a program regarding the zonal amelioration of the breed by
combining the management of the amelioration factors with the plan of selection
via macthing management, and the technological factors of the cattle husbandry.
For the cattle population from Moldova region, research has been
carried out by our group of specialists and the data needed for elaborating a
draft of a program for long term amelioration of the cattles from the small as
well as big farmers, individually or associated with this purpose.
The utilized mothod was based on the identification of the sources for
genetical progress, and the measurement of the genetical progress indiced by
these methods.
¾ Genetical progress determined by the bulls udes for reproduction. 82 bulls
(15 local and 67 imported) were used; their geneticalcontribution,per generation,
was estimated to be 427,77 kg of milk for the local ones, and 562,22 kg for the
imported ones. The genetical gain would be 494,94 kg of milk.
¾ Genetical progress determined by the selection of the first-birth-caws.
Starting from a natality percentage of 85 %, a reform percentage of 15 % for
the young femmels and 20-25 % for the adult caws, and considering the
selection intesity and the difference in selection.agenetical progress of 98,00
kg of milk was reached.
¾ Genetical progress determined by selective reform.Progresul genetic
indus în populaţie prin reforma selectivă. The analyzedparameters were: the
percentage of selective reform (12%), the repeatability coeficient (0,546) and
the average milk production for the selected caws, thus reaching a genetical
progress of 124,48 kg of milk.
Thhe sum of the three sources gives a totalprogress of 717,42 kgmilk.
The authors estimate that this performance could be reached by
2010, if the rpogram for the zonal management had been implemented and
followedfor the brown Swiss caws.

1. The parameters for the technical program of brown Swiss breed


amelioration in Moldova region during 2005-2010 period, refer to:
9 Determining the morpho-productive, reproduction and genetical
parameters of active population in the elite groups, for first-birth-caws and
for the retired caws;

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9 Amelioration value of the bulls used for reproduction;


9 Needed reproductors and selected effectives of reproductors;
9 Determining the sources for genetical progress and the size of the progress
induced into the population;
9 Determining the genetical potential of the potential in the year progreamed
for the reaching of the desired type.
Reaching the increment in the number of animals and of the
productivity will be possible through the management of the genetical
amelioration towards the following objectives:
9 The amelioration of the genetical potential, both for the milk production, as
well as for meat production, until reaching the preset mixed type (see table 1);
9 The progressive replacement of the existing caw population (14-20%
reform of the young caws) regarding the genetical background, towards the
production of milk and meat, simultanous with the improvement of the
vitality,longevity, strenght and resistance, as well as the reproduction
factors (85% natality);
9 Improvement of the breast caracteristics for mechanical milking, stressing the
volume, functional simetry, milking speed and uniformity of the mammelons;
9 Improvement of the physical caracteristics and the precocity towards milk and
meat production (the first-birth age to be 29-30 months, combined with a milk
production of at least 70% of the maximal production; as well, towards the
meat production (semi-intensive fattening for obtaining a medium-unit, with
the harvest at 15-16 months and a minimum weight of 400 kg;
9 Optimizing the feeding for the net growth of 1 kg in weight (5,8 – 6,2
U.N.C./kg increment), as well as for 1 kg of milk (1 – 1,1 U.N.L./kg milk).
Table 1
Main technical parameters of the program for the amelioration of the brown
Swiss breed at national and Moldova area level
Technical parameters at
level:
National

Specification UM
Zonal

1. Objectives of the selection


Milk % 70,00 70,00
Rate of the caracters in global value Meat % 25,00 25,00
Fittness % 5,00 5,00
Milk kg 4800 4500
% 3,95 4,20
Fat
Average production per lactation kg 190 189
% 3,35 3,40
Proteins
kg 160 153

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Boby weight kg 550-600 580


Withers cm 134-136 135
Height
Rump cm - -
cap 180 000 71 724
Adult and young caws artificially inseminated( IA1 min.)
% 39,00 36,00
cap 6000 5803
Caws under the Official Control of Production (COP)
% 13,00 13,00
Young bulls from nominated selected breedings,
40
introduced in the testing program according with own no 12
(1 din 6 MT)
performances (TPP)
Total no 30 8
Bulls introduced in the testing program
Local no 25 8
according with their offsprings (TD)
Import no 5 -
no 24 000 6400
Capacity ofmilk testing (at 800 IA1 / bull)
% 40,00 60,00
no 30 8
min. 15
Bulls for meat production, introduced in
young / adult no 450 120
the testing program according with their
bull
offsprings (TDC)
eliminated no 5 2
bulls % 16,00 25,00
Bulls for milk production, outlook and fitness, analyzed no 25 6
according to their offsprings for milk (TDL) % 75 75
Bulls succesful at the tests-accepted at artificial no 6(1 out of 5) 2
insemination (IA) % 20,00 25,00
Number of needed caws, mothers of bulls (MT) no 260 72
Caws, candidates to be mothers of bulls (CMT) no Min. 520 144
Bulls, fathers of bulls used for designated breedings
no 8-10 8-10
(local and from import M.S.C.)
Total m.s.c. needed (2 doses / IA1 / pregnancy) out of
doses 360 000 150 752
which:
doses 120 000 50 200
From young bulls under testing, total
% 33.30 33.30
doze 48 000 20 050
In active population (800 x IA1 x 2 doses x no young bulls)
% 13.30 13.30
In the rest of the population (1200 x IA1 x 2 doses x no doses 72 000 30 150
young bulls) % 20.00 20.00
doses 222 000 93 014
From bulls used for insemination
% 61.70 61.70
doses 18 000 7538
Import m.s.c.
% 5.00 5.00
Bulls tested in insemination no 18 8
Annual rate of replacement
% 33.30 33.30
(3 years average utilization period)
Average M.S.C. per year and per utilized bull doses 12 300 12 300

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2. Planned parameters of the amelioration program regarding the


number of needed breeders and the selected animals
For the period 2005-2010, in Moldova region, the following
parameters ought tobe reached for the needed breeders and selected animals
from the brown Swiss caw population:
¾ Number of total core population = 66 677 animals;
¾ Number ofcore population at IA (36%) total = 24 004 animals;
¾ Number of core population at natural breeding (64%) = 42 673 animals;
¾ Number of core population at IA with ameliorating tested bulls
(74%) = 17 763 animals;
¾ Number of core population at IA with m.s.c. from bulls waiting (26%) =
6241 animals;
¾ Number of needed bulls ameliorating tested (10.000 caws/bull)=2 animals;
¾ Number of annual needed young bulls from designated breedings (1/2) =
24 animals;
¾ Number of needed bulls, candidates for descendancy test (1/2) = 12
animals;
¾ Number of annual needed bulls for naturalbreeding (70 caws/bull) =
610 animals;
¾ Number of annual needed caws, mothers of bulls (1/6 MT) total = 72
animals;
¾ Number of annual needed caws for the elite group (mothers x 2) total=144
animals.
3. Setting upof the sources for genetical progress, and the size of the
progress induced through these sources.
The first and the most important source of genetical progress in
cattles amelioration is the stressing the selection via aneliorating bulls.
3.1. The genetical progress induced through the bulls used for
breeding
For the genetical progress induced through the bulls used for
breeding in Moldova region, 82 bulls were used, as follows: 15 local ones and
67 imported ones, from the breeds Brown Swiss, Schwyz şand Brown Austrian.
The analysis of the value of ascendancy of the bulls (local and imported) shows
that:
For the local bulls, the average production of the mothers (M) was
5490,67 kg milk, 3,94% fat and 216,33 kg fat, and that of the grandmothers
after father, (MT) 7229,95 kg milk, 4,1% fat and 296,86 kg fat. The genetical
value of the grandmothers after father was superior to that of the mothers,by
1739,28 kg milk and 80,53 kg fat.

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The imported bulls had an ascendancy with a superior genetical value


compared to that of the local ones. Thus, the mothers (M) of the imported bulls
had an average production of 7042,52 kg milk, 4,05% fat and 282,22 kg fat,
and the grandmathers after father (MT) 7721 kg milk, 3,97% fat and 306,52 kg
fat. The amelioration value (VA) for the imported bulls was 107,79% for TDC
and 112,59% for TDL.
Considering the amelioration value of the breeding bulls inside the
analyzed area, we estimate a genetical increment per generation, cosisting of
427,77 kg milk for local bulls and 562,22 kg milk for imported bulls, or of
494,94 kg milk as a totalgeneticalgain.
Our calculation shows that in the next generation, it is possible to
obtain an average production of 4731 kg milk, as it follows:
9 Value of the mothers (M) used for breeding = 3500 kg milk
9 Value of grandmothers after father (MT) = 11198 kg milk
9 h2 for the milk production in the analyzed population = 0,32
3.2. The genetical progress induced in the cattle population
through the selection of the first-birth-caws
In this case, the steps of the work were:
¾ determining the dynamics of the core population for the period 2005-2010;
¾ determining the dynalics of the natality and reform rpercentage for young
and adult caws;
• 85% natality every year;
• 15% reform from total number of young caws;
• 20-23% annual reform for adult caws;
determining the statistical parameters for the first-birth-caws, for the decision
caracters;
¾ determing the selection intensity and the selection differention in the
standard deviation (s) and in absolute values for the decision caracters;
¾ determining the average selection difference for the first-birth-caws for the
entire period at s = 251 kg milk;
¾ determining the genetical progress induces into the population through the
selction of the firsts-birth-caws:
• ∆g firsts-birth-caws = 0,5 x h2 x s
• ∆g firsts-birth-caws = 0,5 x 0,323 x 608,63 = 98 kg milk (98,29 kg milk)
For accelerating the selection process inside the population, the
choosing of the first-birth-caws will be made after the first 120 days of
lactation. In this respect, the thredshold for the firsts-birth-caws selection was
set up, considering the normal percentual evolution of the milk production for
the brown Swiss breed.

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Table 2
Percentual evolution of the milk production during the lactation at the
brown Swiss breed

VII
VII
III

IV

VI

IX
Months of lactation

II

X
I

I
% from production per
12,6

13,4

12,4

11,5

10,8

10,1

9,3

8,4

6,7

4,2
normal lactation

According to these data, during the first 120 days of lactation,


50,08% of the production is obtained, this is: 3156,42 x 50,08% = 1580,73 kg.
This means that the firsts-birth-caws from brown Swiss breed
fromMoldova region must reach during the first 120 days of lacttaion,an
average production of 1580,73 kg milk or an average daily production of about
13,17 kg (1580,73 : 120 = 13,17 kg milk).
For ensuring the number of programed animals, the selection
thredshold for the firsts-birth-caws, after 120 days of lactastion, willbe
diminished by 10 %; this means that there willbe kept all the firsts-birth-caws
which give 12 kg milk per day or 1440 kg milk in total during the first 120
days of lactation.
3.3. The geneticalprogress induced into the studied population,
though the selective method
For the estimation of the geneticalprogress via the current method in
the brown Swiss population in Moldova region, the following parameters were
considered:
9 percent of selective reform = 12%
9 repeatability coeficient (CR) = 0,546
9 average production of selected caws (Ps) = 3570 kg milk (3342,34 + 0,274
x 830,89 = 3570 kg milk)
Considering these parameters, the geneticalprogress induced into the
population thruogh the selective method will be:
9 ∆g = CR ( Ps – Xp) = 0,546 (3570 – 3342) = 124,48 kg milk.
Finally, considering all the previously mentioned methods, the total
genetical progress induced into the population was calculated by summing
upthe three values of the sources:
¾ ∆g total = ∆g bulls + ∆g firsts-birth-caws + ∆g selective reform;
¾ ∆g total = 494.94 +98 + 124.48 kg = 717.42 kg milk.
In comclusion,for the brown Swiss population of caws in Moldova
region (eight counties),it is possibleto obtain a genetical progress of 717,42 kg
milk per genration, or 130,44 kg milk as annual genetical progress.

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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


A great number of researchers studied the behaviour and the
productive performances of the brown Swiss breed along the extra-Carpatical
area (Moldova, Muntenia, Oltenia) for more than 50 years. Their conclusions
point out on the great capacity of adaptation, organic resistance, superior
capacity to efficiently process the food into milk and meat, as well as on the
combinative capacity with the Schwyz stem (especially brown Swiss, brown
Austrian and German), with Jersey breed and with breeds from the Friza stem;
also with modern meat breeds Belgin Blue, Charolaise, Piemontese and so on.
Considering the conditions for caws husbandry in Moldova region,
the amelioration level reached so far, as well as the trend in amelioration, the
amelioration system in this area must be based on the following principals:
9 the inducement of the genetical progress into the population by stressing
the selection pressure with ameliorating bulls, the firsts-birth-caws
selection, and by selective reform;
9 the usage of the amelioration system so-called “pure breed”, by practicing
the homozygotical cross-breeding within the same breed (moderate
consangvinization),thus seeking for the strengthening the valuabe
characters, but also the contribution of the breeds from the Schwyz stem,
especially brown Swiss, brună Austrian, brună German and Italian.
By applying the Management program based on real data of the
brown Swiss caws in Moldova,it is possible to reach a total genetical progress
of 717,42 kg milk per generation (by 2010) or 130,44 kg milk annual genetical
progress.
If one considers the average interval between two generation as of 5,5
years, it results that there are needed 0,64 generations, or 3,56 years for the
genetical amelioration of the existing population up to the level of 4500 kg
milk.
This performance can be reached by 2010 if the proposed parameters
will be operated accordingly for the brown Swiss caw population.
For the future development within this sector, the path to be followed
is that of increasing the animal production in relation to the genetical
amelioration and with the general technical progress in the animal husbandry.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Bologa, Zinaida, „Contribuţii la studiul longevităţii productive a taurinelor de rasă Brună
din zona de est a ţării”, Teză de doctorat, U.S.A.M., 2004, Iaşi.
2. Constantinescu, G., K., „Tatrat de zootehnie generală”, vol.II, Editura Librăria Academiei,
1938, Bucureşti.
3. Creangă, Şteofil, „Elemente fundamentale ale eredităţii animale”, Editura „Ion Ionescu de
la Brad”, 1999, Iaşi.
4. Dinescu, S., „Ameliorarea genetică a efectivelor de animale”, Revista de Zootehnie şi de
Medicină Veterinară, nr.1/1978, Bucureşti.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

5. Drăgănescu, C., „Ameliorarea animalelor”, Editura Ceres, 1979, Bucureşti.


6. Georgescu, Gh. şi col., „Programe de ameliorare pentru fermele de elită de vaci de lapte”,
1984 –1990, Bucureşti.
7. Pipernea, N., Ujică, V. şi col., „Studiul parametrilor genetici la unele populaţii de taurine
din Moldova”, Lucrări ştiinţifice, vol. 33-34, 1991, USAMV, Iaşi.
8. Pipernea, N., Ujică, V. şi col., „Cercetări fenotipice şi genetice pentru principalele însuşiri
morfoproductive ale populaţiilor de taurine Brună din fermele de elită din Moldova”,
Lucrări ştiinţifice, 1976, I.A. Iaşi.
9. Silistru, V., „Contribuţii privind influienţa rasei Brown Swyss asupra însuşirilor
morfoproductive şi de reproducţie a taurinelor Brună din zona de est a ţării (Moldova)”,
Teză de doctorat, U.S.A.M.V., 1997, Iaşi.
10. Ujică, V., Panfilie, D., Stan, V., „Contribuţii privind studiul caracteristicilor ugerului
pentru mulsul mecanic la vacile din rasa Brună de Maramureş din ferma Dumbrava,
judeţul Neamţ ”, Lucrări ştiinţifice, Seria zootehnie şi medicină – veterinară, nr. 2 / 1972,
I.A. Iaşi.
11. Ujică V., „Rezultate privind creşterea taurinelor Brună de Maramureş în zona Podişului
Central al Moldovei ”, Simpozionul „Creşterea animalelor în zonele de deal şi de munte”,
1974, Universitatea Braşov.
12. Ujică, V. şi col., „Aspecte actuale ale ameliorării taurinelor din zona de est a ţării”,
Simpozin ştiinţific naţional, U.S.A.M.V., 7-8 DECEMBRIE 1995, Iaşi.
13. Ujică, V., Chelmu, S., Nistor, I., Mioara, Marc, Şonea, C., „Evoluţia şi ameliorarea
genetică a taurinelor de rasă Brună din România”, Simpozion „Relansarea zootehniei
româneşti, o certitudine a mileniului III”, U.S.A.M.V., 10-12 decembrie 1998, Iaşi.
14. Velea, C., „Programul Naţional de ameliorare a taurinelor”, Simpozion U.S.A.M.V., 1998,
Cluj Napoca.

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GENETIC MANAGEMENT IN SMALL POPULATIONS

M. GROZA, Gh. HRINCĂ, Elena FECIORU,


I. CHIORESCU, Gh. BRĂDĂŢAN

The paper undertakes the problem of preserving in situ small populations


as answer to the extinction process that more and more species and populations
are undergoing, thus leading to loss of genetic resources, most of them
irretrievable. The solution for preservation proposed in the paper, the method of
mean kinship coefficient, is a new solution. The method offers the great advantage
of selecting the most valuable individuals within the population (from the point of
view of genetic resources preservation): the least related individuals in the
population. Moreover, the paper takes on a method that represents in graphs the
lineage of a population, a method through which one may assess the variance of
family size and the relationships among these families.

There are three major methods used in conservation of farm animal


genetic resources. The first involves conservation of living ova, embryo, semen or
somatic cell stored cryogenically in liquid nitrogen. The second encompasses
preservation of genetic information in form of DNA, stored in frozen samples of
blood or other animal tissue or as DNA segments. The third involves conservation
of living population, i.e. in situ conservation.
There is no single method of preservation which is optimal for all
situations. However, in situ conservation has a number of advantages, and may be
the only option available in some instances. In situ conservation is very flexible in
its application and allows for the development and utilization of breeds (Weiner,
1989). However, because of limited facilities and budget constraints, in situ
conservation may be restricted to a small population. The genetic properties in a
small population change rapidly as generations advance causing two problems
namely, loss of genetic peculiarities and a reduction in genetic variability.
Therefore, it is imperative to use a sustainable conservation program like in situ
that maintain genetic peculiarities and genetic variability of a population.
Genetic peculiarities of a breed usually do not change if the population is
kept as a pure breed. This problem becomes a matter of concern when
crossbreeding is used in order to restore genetic variability. Therefore, the most
important problem in considering in situ conservation is how to keep genetic
variability within the population while maintaining genetic peculiarities without
reducing allelic or genotype frequencies.
Gene diversity or average heterozygosity. The first step in preserving the
genetic diversity is to assess and establish the level of genetic variability. The
genetic diversity or the mean heterozygosis is the best sign of genetic variability
of a population. In randomly-mating populations if the frequency of gene i on
locus xi, the heterozygosity of the locus is calculated using the sum of square
allelic frequencies.
Equation 1

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

1
h= n
(Nei 1987)
∑x
i =1
i

The mean heterozygosity of a population is defined as the average of all


loci heterozygosity. As we don’t know the genotype of each individual, the
method is just a concept of the ideal value of genetic diversity which has to be
estimated.
Without knowing the genotype of every individual, one of the
possibilities to preserve the genetic diversity would be to preserve the derivate
alleles from the founders’ genes. According to this concept, it is possible to
calculate 2 markers useful in population preservation.
The genetic retention index. The ideal animal will receive equal
contribution from the founders. From this point of view, the value of an animal
will be established by calculating the number of founders in the pedigree,
according to the genetic retention index CGI.
Equation 2
1
CGI = N 2

∑ Pi
i =1

where Pi is the proportion of founder genes i in the pedigree. The CGI may be
used in the selection. Still, it has a serious limitation: it does not take into account
the animals that are not founders but are part of the pedigree.
Genetic contribution variance coefficient. Pi in the previous formula is
the contribution of animal i in the previous generation. A similar idea may be also
applied at population level. The idea is genetic structure retention within the
population. In an ideal genetic structure, each founder will maintain its same
contribution in the population. To emphasize the difference between present
genetic contribution and ideal genetic contribution the CGCV index was
suggested.

Equation 3
h
k
CGCV = 2 x Nm x ∑P
i =1
2
mi + 2 x Nf x ∑P
j =1
2
fj

where Nm and Nf are the number of male or female founders, Pmi and Pfj are
genetic contributions of male founder i or female founder j. CGCV is used to
preserve the structure of the population.
This genetic strategy based on balancing the founders’ alleles has big
disadvantages. The animals that are not representative for the founders’ structure
have many genes from the latter, while the representative animals may have a

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much smaller number of founders’ genes. Moreover, it is almost impossible to


balance the genetic contribution of founders. A much better genetic strategy is
based on the concept of mean kinship coefficient. One of the many definitions of
the mean kinship coefficient between two individuals is the following: the mean
kinship coefficient is equal to the inbreeding coefficient of the virtual descendant.
In this definition of the mean kinship coefficient of an individual are included the
kinship coefficients between an individual and the rest of live individuals
irrespective of age and sex (mean means the kinship coefficient between an
individual and itself).
Equation 4
N Fij
mki = ∑N
j =1
(Ballou and Lacy, 1995),

where, N is the number of individuals in a population. The individuals with low


mean kinship coefficient are the most valuable ones in the population (from the
point of view of population retention). The mean kinship coefficient of an
individual is expected to be the inbreeding coefficient of its progeny, if the
individual mated within the population. If we widen this concept, the mean
kinship coefficient of the population is the average of kinship coefficient of all the
possible progeny, if mating is done randomly.
Equation 5
N
mk = ∑ mk
i =1
i

With this equation we may determine the genetic diversity of a population


and we may evaluate the different mating schemes.
Equation 6
GD = 1- mk

A strategy that minimizes the average kinship of a population (the


average of mean kinship coefficient) will maximize the genetic diversity with
favourable consequences over population retention. A basic parameter in
population biology is the number of individuals in a population. But only the
mating individuals are relevant. Whereas not all the individuals are part of the
mating process, the population effective size differs from the number of
individuals. One of the formulas to calculate the population effective size is:
Equation 7
1
Ne =
∆ mk

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where Ne is the population effective size and ∆ mk is the average increase on a


generation of the average mean kinship coefficient.
Mating schemes. A feature of modern mating schemes is leaving out the
family in favour of the individual (this is a normal thing since we know the mean
kinship coefficient of the individual in the population).
Graphic representation of population structure. Ubbink (1999) uses
Cluster analysis for the kinship coefficients to obtain the structure of the
population. Using Cluster analysis, the population is separated into family groups
that are more or less related to one another.
Cluster analysis begins by calculating the kinship coefficient of all the
individuals of a population. Then the individuals of a population are grouped
together (and treated as a new individual) until all the individuals are included in
the population structure. The families make up clusters based on kinship
coefficient. The population structure gives information about a mating possibility
that would lead to a decrease of the average mean kinship coefficients and
therefore to an increase in genetic diversity (fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Example of Cluster Analysis method for population structure

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Group mating. In the in situ conservation program, since the number of


animals kept in one place is usually limited, the population is sometimes
maintained with divided subpopulations. In this case, it is difficult to carry out
random mating over all subpopulations and it is effective to change males among
the subpopulations instead of overall random mating. Maintenance of animals in
different locations has the additional merit of reducing the risk of accidental loss
of the population
Uniformity of the family size. One of the most efficient techniques to
keep genetic variability is to make the family size as equal as possible. It may
be easy to imagine that the extinction probability of a certain allele is less in the
case that every reproductive animal produces two progenies for the next
generation than in the other case that one reproductive animal produce ten
progenies and the others produce none. It is usual in a population of domestic
animals that males are extremely less than females, but the difference in the
number of males and females is not desirable for the small population of the
genetic resources, since it means the extreme difference in the number of
progenies. When the number of population is fixed, we can minimize the
reduction of genetic diversity by equalizing the number of progeny from each
individual.
Use of information from genetic markers. The degree of inbreeding is
estimated from pedigree information based on the probability that the alleles of
parents are transmitted to the next generation with the probability of 1/2, since we
cannot know which of the pair have been transmitted. Recent developments in
genome analysis provide linkage maps of a lot of genetic markers like
microsatellite for many livestock species. When the genotypes of parents and
their progenies are distinct, we can know which allele of the parents has been
transmitted to the progenies. By using this information combined with the
pedigree information, we can estimate the degree of inbreeding in progenies more
exactly.
The correlation between the average heterozygosity of genetic markers
and the realized genetic diversity is expected to be constant over generations. If
we can use a lot of genetic markers to calculate the average heterozygosity this
aspect is useful as the index of the genetic diversity. And this information would
assist to select suitable mating pairs to retain the genetic diversity in the
population.
In order to maintain genetic diversity using in situ conservation program,
it is better to maintain a large number of animals. However, maintaining a large
number of animals is costly, in view of this, maintaining a relatively smaller
number under a well managed in situ conservation program would be more
economically efficient. The most effective way of conserving genetic resources is
through economical utilization of the animals in the production system. However,
improved breeds from Western countries tend to outperform native breeds in
developing countries in terms of productivity; this makes difficultly promotion of

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utilization of pure native breeds. This problem may be overcome by


crossbreeding native breeds with improved breeds.

CONCLUSIONS
1. In situ conservation is the easiest way from methodological viewpoint
and can be applied to any species of livestock. On the other hand, ex situ
preservation is a technique that allows keeping genetic diversity of the population
permanently. However, ex situ preservation of germplasm can be adapted and
used to supplement in situ conservation program of animal genetic resources.
2. Cryopreservation of males in the base population could help recovering
of the genetic diversity of animal genetic resources. Therefore, in conclusion, it is
suggested that the efficient combination of in situ and ex situ conservation
programs should be considered.

REFERENCES
1. Falconer D. S., Mackay T. F. C., 1996 - Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. 4th Ed., Longman,
Essex, U. K.
2. Hill W. G., 1982 - Estimation of genetic change. I. General theory and design of control
populations. Anim. Breed. Abst., 40: 1-15.
3. Nei M., 1987 - Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, Columbia Univ. Press, New York, U.S.A.
4. Nomura T., Yonezawa K., 1996 - A comparison of four systems of group mating for avoiding
inbreeding. Genet. Sel. Evol., 28: 141-159.
5. Robertson A., 1964 - The effect of non-random mating within inbred lines on the rate of
inbreeding. Genet. Res., 5: 164-167.
6. Wang J., 1995 - Exact inbreeding coefficient and effective size of finite populations under partial
sib mating. Genetics, 140: 357-363.
7. Weiner G., 1989 - Animal Genetic Resources ¡V A global programme for sustainable
development. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper, 80.
8. Wright S., 1921 - Systems of mating. Genetics, 6: 111-178.

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STUDY OF SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS OF VARIOUS


HENS POPULATIONS

N. BUCATARU, Fl. PRICOP, Gh. BARLADEAN

Within the crosses “ROSO-SL-2000”, “ROSO-SL-93” and “ALBO-70”


there have been determined the coefficient values of heritability and correlation.
The values of h2 were approximate equal for all the crosses including such
characteristics as the number of eggs (0,03…0,06) and the age of the first laid
egg (0,17..0,19); some distinctions of h2 have been observed in egg weight, at 34
weeks age accordingly – 0,25 at “ROSO-SL-2000”; 0,20 – “ROSSO-SL-93” and
0,14 – “ALBO-70”; the same thing could be mentioned on how varied was h2 of
the body weight: 0,18 and 0,17 at the first crosses and 0,56 at “ALBO-70”. The
phenotypical and environmental genotypical, correlations differ frequently in
concordance with the respective coefficients values in different populations, as
well according to direction – a fact that imposes their calculation in each
concrete population.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

In these studies there have been taken three populations of laying chickens. The lots of
chickens contributed to: inside ROSO-SL-2000 – n=3019 descendents obtained from 470
mothers and 70 fathers; inside ROSO-SL-93 – n=2869, n=471, n=70; and inside ALBO-
70 – 2536, n=468, n=70. So, the number of descendents in the crosses’ limits has varied
from 2536 to 3019, being obtained from 70 fathers (in each cross) and 468 – 471 mothers.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Some genetic base parameters, used in the amelioration systems in animal husbandry, are
heritability and correlations coefficients.
The heritability coefficient is used in selection planning. It is characteristic for the given
population in strict conditions, because for other groups which have a different genetic
structure, or genotypes from different environmental conditions, h2 can take other values.
For the studied hybrids, there have been calculated the values for the heritability coefficient for
the most important characters, and the results are being shown in the next Table.

Table no.1
Heritability coefficient values for some characters for different crosses of chickens
Crosses
Character „ROSO-SL-2000” „ROSO-SL-93” „ALBO-70”
Number of eggs by exploit
0.03 0.06 0,04
period
Egg's weight at the age of
0,25 0,20 0,14
34
Body weight 0,18 0,17 0,56
The age at the first egg 0,17 0,17 0,19

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So, h2 for the number of eggs is very small (0, 03…0, 06) in all studied populations,
which proves a weak heritability of this character.
Egg’s weight had an intermediary heritability (0,2), with some variations – the biggest for
ROSO-SL-2000 cross (0,25) and the smallest for ALBO-70 (0,14).
Referring to the third studied character – body weight, if h2’ s values inside ROSO-SL
2000 and ROSO-SL-93 are almost equal (0,17 – 0,18), which shows the same origin for
these lots. At ALBO-70 cross, this coefficient is the biggest of all calculated (0,56) and is
being part of the most heritably characters category.
The knowledge of the correlation links – their direction, also their manifestation grade,
makes selection planning and results prevision possible. The existence of some strong and
positive correlations between some characters, guarantee us the growing (or shortening)
for both characters, and the discovery of some negative correlations proves that the
growing of one character is being linked with the shortening of the other, and in the other
way too.
In dependency of the nature of the used dates, there have been determined the next types
of correlations: genotypic, phenotypic and environmental.
In Table no.2 we show the calculated values for the coefficients of genotypic correlations:

Table no.2

Genotypic correlation coefficients for different crosses of chickens


Couples of characters Crosses
„ROSO-SL-2000” „ROSO-SL-93” „ALBO-70”

Number of eggs x body weight at the age of 34 weeks


+0,018±0,043 -0,388±0,040 -0,495±0,038
Number of eggs x body weight -0,107±0,043 -0,437±0,039 +0,018±0,043
Number of eggs x the age of the first egg +0,942±0,014 +0,487±0,038 +0,420±0,039
Body weight x body weigh +0,382±0,040 +0,049±0,043 +0,646±0,033
Egg's weight x the age of the first egg -0,232±0,042 -0,282±0,041 -0,249±0,042
Body weight x the age of the first egg -0,233±0,042 -0,263±0,042 -0,141±0,043

From the ones mentioned above, is being shown that in different populations, the
genotypic links between same characters are very different by the values of the settled
coefficients, and also are very different by direction too.
For example, between the number of eggs and egg’s weight the limits for the correlation
coefficient rG are situated between +0,018 +/- 0,043, for the chickens inside ROSO-SL-
2000 cross and -0,0495+/-0,039 for ROSO-SL-93 cross and 0,018+/-0,043 for ALBO-70.
Intermediary correlative genotypic links and very strong ones, have been settled between
the number of eggs and first egg’s age (rG=+0,942+/-0,014). Between the weight of the
egg and body’s weight there are positive correlations, but very different by size – from
+0,049+/0,043 for the chickens from ROSO-SL-93 cross, to +0,064+/-0,033 for those in
ALBO-70 CROSS.
In this type of characters like the egg’s weight and the age of the first egg, body weight
and the first egg’s age, the correlations have been strong and negative.
The phenotypic correlations between the characters are such correlations, when the
correlation coefficient (rF) is calculated by the ratio between the phenotypic co variants

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and variations, and so it represents the link between the phenotypes of the individuals by x
an y characters.
In table no.3 we show the values of the phenotypic correlation coefficients, between some
studied characters for the three crosses taken into study.
Table no.3
Phenotypic correlation coefficients, between some studied characters for the three
crosses taken into study.
Crosses
Couples of characters „ROSO-SL- „ROSO-SL- „ALBO-70”
2000” 93”
Number of eggs x body weight at
+0,045±0,043 +0,068±0,042 +0,204±0,042
the age of 34 weeks
Number of eggs x body weight +0,161±0,042 +0,054±0,043 +0,013±0,043
Number of eggs x the age of the
+0,351±0,040 +0,265±0,041 +0,242±0,042
first egg
Body weight x body weigh +0,251±0,042 +0,234±0,042 +0,255±0,042
Egg's weight x the age of the
-0,053±0,043 -0,071±0,043 -0,092±0,043
first egg
Body weight x the age of the first
+0,016±0,043 -0,011±0,043 -0,023±0,043
egg

So, in all populations between the number of eggs at the age of 34 weeks x egg’s weight
and the number of eggs and body weight, there are weak positive correlations, beside
ALBO-70 cross, where between the first analyzed characters, rF’ s value = +0,204+/-0,042
is being situated inside medium correlations. In the same category of correlations, we find
the values for the correlation coefficients for all groups (+0,234+/-0,042 – +0,351 +/-
0,040) between the number of eggs X the age of the first egg, egg’s weight and body
weight. From the analyzed values, more or less bigger (+0,35+/-0,040) is the correlation
coefficient between the number of laid eggs and the age of the first egg for ROSO-SL-
2000 cross, and the rest are almost equal.
Negative correlative links are being observed between the weight of the egg and the age
of the first egg. In almost every group these links were negative and non-essential
(-0,011+/-0,043 – 0,029+/- 0,043) with the exception of rF for body weight and the age of
the first egg for ROSO-SL-2000 cross.
For calculating environmental correlations, there have been used the values for the
observing components for the variants and co variants by variant and co variant analysis.
In table no.4 we show the values for the environmental correlation coefficients for the
couple of characters in the studied crosses.
Analyzing of these dates also shows non uniformity for both the size of the correlation
links, and also their directions.
Between the number of eggs and the egg’s weight there are medium positive correlations
and between crosses the values for the correlation coefficients are very varied, being held
between rM=+0,062+/-0,043 for ROSO-SL-2000 and rM=+0,262+/-0,042 for ALBO-70.
Referring to the number of eggs and the body weight, we find negative correlations (rM= -
0,0003+/-0,043) for ALBO-70 cross, and also positive ones (rM= +0,075+/-0,043) for
ROSO-SL-93 cross, and rM= +0,240+/-0,042 for ROSO-SL-2000 cross.

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Table no.4

Environmental correlation coefficients for the couple of characters in the studied


crosses.
Crosses
Couples of characters
„ROSO-SL-2000” „ROSO-SL-93” „ALBO-70”
Number of eggs x body
+0,062±0,043 +0,100±0,043 +0,262±0,042
weight at the age of 34 weeks
Number of eggs x body
+0,204±0,042 +0,075±0,043 +0,003±0,043
weight
Number of eggs x the age of
+0,307±0,041 +0,231±0,042 +0,236±0,042
the first egg
Body weight x body weigh +0,238±0,042 +0,246±0,042 +0,164±0,043
Egg's weight x the age of
-0,014±0,043 -0,044±0,043 -0,056±0,043
the first egg
Body weight x the age of the
+0,039±0,043 -0,002±0,043 -0,001±0,043
first egg

Tight positive correlations we find in the case of the number of eggs and the age of the
first egg, egg’s weight and body weight.
Between the egg’s weight and the age of the first egg, the environmental correlations are
very weak and negative (rM= -0,014+/-0,043 – rM= -0,56+/-0,043). Also there have been
settled some weak correlations (somewhere around 0) between body weight x the age of
the first egg, fact that proves that practically such links are really absent.
From the facts shown, we can see that for each concrete population, it is necessary to be
known the genetic structure and the environmental conditions, where it’s growing is being
planned, because in different maintenance and nutrition conditions, the manifestation of
the genetic potential will be different.

CONCLUSIONS

1. The values for the heritability coefficient were almost equal for all crosses at such
characters as the number of eggs (003…006) and the age of the first egg
(0,17…0,19); some differences of h2 we can see in the egg’s weight at the age of 34
weeks – 0,25 for ROSO-SL-2000’ 0,20 – for ROSO-SL-93 and 0,14 – for ALBO-70;
very varying was h2 for body weight: 0,18 and 0,17 for the first two crosses and 0,56
for ALBO-70.
2. The genotypic, phenotypic and environmental correlations are frequently different
both for the values of the respective coefficients in different populations, and also by
directions – fact that impose for calculation of these correlation for each concrete
population.

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HISTOLOGY INVESTIGATION ON THE PHOTO


STIMULATION INFLUENCE ON THE OVIDUCT
TISSUES IN HENS
Daniela LADOSI, I. LADOSI, S.N. POP, Z. MARCHIS

Age of sexual maturity in Gallus domesticus speciae was constantly


decreased both in female and males. It is well known that within this process
several factors are involved: genetics (Jerome, 1956), body weight (Lister, 1966;
Brody, 1980; Saler, 1984), age (Brody, 1988; Leeson and Summer, 1983; Zelenka,
1984), environment and feed (Eitanm 1991; Robinson, 1956) and chemical
composition of the body (Summer and Lesson 1983; Zelenka, 1984). Trial was set
up on 40 Rhode Island young hens, divided in two lots. Lot 1 was kept on the floor
at a density of 7 heads / sqm, lighting program of 8 h/day and fed with rearing diet.
Lot 2 was kept in cages under a 14 h/day light but fed with layer diet.
Every two weeks birds were slaughtered and oviduct samples of 1-3 cm
were taken. Samples were then processed and stained with the PAS- hematoxilin-
picro-indigocarmin method.
Development of various oviductal segments mucosa reveals a positive
evolution as a result of photostimulation. This pattern can be explained by the
fact that extra light has a dramatic effect on the hormonal balance, mainly on
melatonine. Inducing melatonine functional activity probably triggers the start-
up of the sexual hormones, which are the main influencers of the hystology
modifications revealed at the oviductal mucosa level.

MATERIAL AND METHODS


Trial was set up on 40 Rhode Island young hens, divided in two lots. Lot 1 was
kept on the floor at a density of 7 heads / sqm, lighting program of 8 h/day and
fed with rearing diet. Lot 2 was kept in cages under a 14 h/day light but fed with
layer diet.
Every two weeks birds were slaughtered and oviduct samples of 1-3 cm were
taken. Samples were then processed and stained with the PAS- hematoxilin-picro-
indigocarmin method.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


a) Histology analysis on infundibulum In Figure 1. reprezenting a section of
infundibulum it can be observed the presence of spyral like folds of the mucosa,
however simple as structure as approacing the abdominal end of it. Same folds ale
longer, with extra secondary and terciary villae as getting closer to magnum end
of this segment.Complexity and size of the folds and villae gets higher as the
young hens grow older, and obviously as the hormonal status changes. At the age
of 16 weeks villae are still simple without secondary and tertiary ramifications
while the infundibulum glands are difficult to observe. We suppose that this is
due to slow activity in infundibulum which gets more complex as the time of

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ovulation is approaching. The second observation is that reduced thiknes of the


villae, typical for this oviductal segment irrespectiv if in activity or not.
At 18 weeks of age, probably due to increased hormonal activity induced
partially by photostimulation, the glandular tissue become more obvious. Mean
time, a multiplication of the cylider like epithelial cells and their growth from
micrometers to 25 – 30 micrometers is quite obvious. These cells according to the
work of Makita şi Kiwaki (1998) belongs to two different cathegories: ciliated
and secretory. Close to the abdominal end cells infundibulum mucosa is mainly
formed put of ciliated cells. As we get closed to the caudal end of the
infundibulum secretory cells are multiplying, forming glandular like systems.
Despite of our attempt to investigate the proportion between these two cell types
it seems that the variation is induced by the modification of the hormonal balance
during the laying cycle.
However, what was obvious was that only towards the magnum end of the
infundibulum genuine glandular tissue develops. As general comment is that the
size of these glands is smaller in infundibulum when compared with magnum.
At the age of 20 and 22 weeks respectively the development of the villae
and glandular tissue is even more obvious, reflecting reproductive maturation and
ovulation iminence. Mucosa covering ephitelial cells size is growing as well
showing an augmentation of secretory activity and chage of hormonal balance.
b) Hystology analysis of the magnum Analysing the oviduct at the magnum
level at the age of 16 weeks, the start-up of activity at the mucosa villae is
revealed. This confirms still the fact that the magnum is not fully active yet.
Although the villae are present and grow in volume and length it is obvious that
the functional capacity is far from being the same as in an adult bird.
At the age of 18 weeks the villae grows further. Mucosa covering ephitelial
cells change colour into a darker pink, confirming the deep hormonal induced
transformation, just before laying start-up.( Fig.2).
At the age of 20 (fig.3.) and 22 weeks (Fig.4) respectively, magnum villae
further modifies and the glandular tissue becomes functional, with clear excretion
activity. This is the clear proof that the female reached the right level of sexual
maturity and that the glandular tissue in the magnum is fully functional.
c) Hystology analysis of the isthm The specific staining procedures on the
samples revealed an intense colour of the secretory granules within the isthmic
tissue. This phenomenon seems to be corelated to the keratine like substance,
typical to the inner layers of the egg shell. This intense coloration is even more
obvious as it gets closer to the uterine end of the oviduct, fact suggesting that
these granules are involved in the formation of the egg shell.
At 16 weeks of age (Fig. 5) the isthmic villae just start to develop,
mucosa covering cells being elongated. Glandular tissue – the secretory cells – are
difficult to find.
At 18 weeks of age (Fig.6.), differences are quite obvious as
demonstrated by masive multiplication of the ephitelial cells and increase of the
size and volume of the villae. The hight of the epithelial cell is not that evident

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but the glandular tissue becomes evident. However, the excretion chanells are
difficult to be revealed.
At 20 (Fig.7) and 22 weeks of age (Fig.8) the general appearance of the
isthmic mucosa changes fundamentally. Thus the villae grow longer and become
tortuouse but without relevant secondary or tertiary ramifications. In the same
time the granular volume is increased producing the raw substance for inner egg
shell membranes.
d) Hystology analysis of the uterus Analysis of the uterine tissue in 16 week
old hens reveals that the mucosa folds are not evident but it looks more
complexe than in the other oviductal segments. (Fig 9).
These mucaosa folds are much longer and more developed, while the
glandular tissue just beggins to be visible in 18 week old hens (Fig.10).
Furthermore the intense colour of the ephitelial cells reveals the start-up of the
secretion.

Fig.1 Fig.2

Fig.3 Fig.4

Fig.5 Fig.6

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Fig.7 Fig.8

Fig.1. Section of infundibulum;


Fig.2;3;4. Hystology analysis of the magnum, at 18; 20; 22 weeks;
Fig.5;6;7;8. Hystology analysis of the isthm, at 16;18; 20; 22 weeks;

At 20 weeks (Fig. 11) the length of the villae is even higher while the
excretion chanells seems open now. At 22 weeks of age ( Fig. 12) villae
complexity is further developed and the colour of the glandular tissue even more
intense, aspect linked to higher fluir secretion.

Fig.9 Fig.10

Fig.11 Fig.12
Fig.9;10;11;12. Hystology analysis of the uterus, at 16;18; 20; 22 weeks;

d) Hystology analysis of the vagina Similar hystology paterns are


revealed at different ages within the vagina mucosa. At 16 weeks ( Fig. 13) there
are no clear signs of activity within the existing cells. The only visible sign is the
ellongation of the mucosa folds while the secretory cells are pale.

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At 18 weeks of age (Fig 14) mucosa folds ellongation is more evident and
more intense coloured.

Fig.13 Fig.14

Fig.15 Fig.16

Fig.13;14;15;16. Hystology analysis of the vagina, at 16;18; 20; 22 weeks;

Finally at 20 (Fig 15) and 22 weeks of age (Fig. 16) vaginal mucosa
structures are fully functional. Villae complexity growes while their appex
become convex due to intensity of the secretory activity within the epithelial cells.

CONCLUSIONS

Development of various oviductal segments mucosa reveals a positive evolution


as a result of photostimulation. This pattern can be explained by the fact that extra
light has a dramatic effect on the hormonal balance, mainly on melatonine.
Inducing melatonine functional activity probably triggers the start-up of the
sexual hormones, which are the main influencers of the hystology modifications
revealed at the oviductal mucosa level.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Bakst, M.R. and Howarth, B. Jr. (1979-Biol.Reprod.,17:351-369);
2. Balasescu M., Baltan Gh., Dascalu, Al., Vancea I. (1980)-Avicultura. Ed. Did. Si Padeag.
Bucuresti;
3. Bar, A., E. Vax S., Striem (1998)-Effects of age at onset of production, light regime and
dietary calcium on performance, eggshell traits, duodenal calbindin and cholecalciferol
metabolism) British Poultry science , volume 39, nr.2, pages 282-290.
4. Bellairs, R., Harkeness, M. and Harkeness, r. (1963)- J. Ultrastruct.Res., 8:339-359;

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

5. Brillard J.P.(1990)-Stokage des spermatoides dans l´oviducte des oiseaux: approche


morphologique ,histologique et fonctionnelle, reprod. Nutr.dev., 30:161-174;Furr, B.J.,
Bonney, R.C. and Cunnigham, F.J., (1973)-J. Endocrinologi. 57,159;
6. Gous, m, G.D.Bradford, S.A. Jonston , T.R.Moris (200)- Effect of age release from light or
food restriction on age at sexual maturity and egg production of laying pulletes, British Poultry
science , volume 41, nr. 3, pg 263-271.
7. Lewis, P. d., I.C. Dunn, G.C. Perry, T.R.Morris, P.J.Sharp (2001)-Effect of exogenous
oestradiol and lighting regime on age at first egg in domestic pullets;
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9. Ladosi Daniela (2002)-Cercetari privind posibilitatile de optimizare a reproductiei la gaini.
Teza de doctorat.
10. Miclea ,V., Ladosi I., (1997)-Biologia reproductiei la animalele de ferma. Ed. Baha´i , Cluj-
Napoca
11. Prescott, N.B., C.M. Wathes (2002)Preference and motivation of laying hens to eat under
different iluminances and the effect of iluminance on eating behaviour; British Poultry
Sciences, volume 43, Nr.2, pages 190-195
12. Wishart G.H. and M.G. Steele, (1990)- The influence of sperm surface characteristics on sperm
function in the female reproductive tract. Pp.101-112, in : Control of fertility in Domestics
Birds. Procedings 2nd International Poultry Conference on Reproduction.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

RESEARCHES REGARDING COCK SEMEN QUALITY

G. NACU, D. TĂNASE, Mihaela IVANCIA

The studied biological material was fathers-cocks breeder with 26-58


weeks age used for ROSS 308 hybrid obtained.
The studied spermatic indexes were the volume, the concentration and
the mobility. The them dynamic have been analyses depending on age and
alimentation which are the influence principals’ factors.

The results of artificial insemination using to mammifers and poultry


depend on spermatic production beside other factors [1, 4, 5, 6]. The qualytative
and quantitative parameters of ejaculate condition the inseminate birds number
and the incubation indexes [2, 5].
The spermatic indexes level is influenced by many factors, the most
importance are age, alimentation, breed and microclimate. The first and the
second factors are the our observations object [2, 3, 4].

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The biological material was ROSS 308 cocks, adults’ parents from
intensive system exploitation, kept on the ground.
For the study of spermatic parameters dynamic in comparison with age, the
observations have been done between 26 weeks and 58 weeks of age on witnees
lot (LW) with 7 cocks.
The alimentation effect on reproduction function has been watch on experimental
lot (LE) with 7 ROSS 308 cocks, for 8 weeks, starting to 45 weeks of age. For this, we
have been introducing the Forty plus supplement in 2 kg/ton fodder dose, for 3 weeks
before determinations’ start. The energetic and protein values have not been modified,
integrated themselves between the recommendations from the hybrid guide (14% PB and
2859 Kcal EM/kg).
The semen preservation has been made about abdominal massage, at
intervals of 4 weeks. The cocks have been isolated for 3 days before preservation.
The studied spermogram indexes were the volume, the mobility after
preservation, the mobility after dilution, the mobility after 4 or 6 hours from
preservation, the concentration and the proportion of improper ejaculates.
The volume was directly appreciated in the preservation vial (minitube).
The dilution was 1/1 ratio with a synthetic diluents.
The mobility was appreciated based on the spermatozoa advance movies
in microscopically land, into a semen drop placed between blade and lamella.
The concentration was determined with the hemocitometer.
The ejaculates with blood or excrements have been considered the improper
ejaculates.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The obtained ejaculates


Two ejaculates have been preservation from the 7 cocks from LW, to 26 weeks
of age. One of two ejaculates was improper. The cocks have been accustomed to harvest,
so it was obtained between 4 ejaculates (to 30 weeks of age) and 7 ejaculates (to 46 weeks
of age) (tab. 1). In 44,4% from attempts, it has been obtained 6 ejaculates, means 85,7%
successful.
The operator changing have been determined just 42,8% successful.

Table 1
The spermatic indexes to the cocks from LW

Obtained
Mobility (%)
Nr. Age ejaculates Volume Concentration
crt. (weeks) After After (ml) (mld./ml)
Total Improper To the After
4 6
(nr.) (nr.) preservation dilution
hours hours
1 26 2 1 76,5 84,6 74,8 57,1 0,20 2,1
2 30 4 2 77,0 85,2 72,6 62,2 0,20 3,2
3 34 6 - 79,8 81,6 76,0 63,7 0,32 3,5
4 38 6 1 81,3 83,1 75,9 58,1 0,22 3,3
5 42 5 1 77,4 81,7 76,2 49,9 0,26 4,8
6 46 7 - 80,1 82,8 69,7 58,7 0,23 5,2
7 50 6 - 78,4 80,9 74,6 61,6 0,28 5,6
8 54 3 - 80,0 86,2 77,1 67,2 0,27 5,1
9 58 6 1 81,0 84,3 78,3 50,2 0,22 4,7
Total 45 6 79,1 83,4 75,0 58,7 0,24 4,1

For entire analyzed period, the 45 ejaculates have been obtained from 63
attempts, means 71,4% efficiency. Comparing with medium level, the worst
results have been obtained to the start of exploitation period, when the genital
apparatus does not function at optimum parameters and because the stress of team
changing.
From all obtained ejaculates, 13.3% have been with excrements what was
determined their compromising because of the necrosperm (tab. 1).
The start of the observations for the cocks from experimental lot has been
done to 45 weeks of age, when the genital apparatus is all functional. Thanks to
this fact and because the preservation was been made by the same team all period,
the success ratio was 90,0%. The proper ejaculates proportion was just 10,5%
(tab. 2).

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Table 2
The spermatic indexes to the cocks from LE

Obtained Concen
Mobility (%)
Nr Age ejaculates Volum tration
crt (weeks) Impro After (ml) (mld./
Total To the After After 4
per 6 ml)
(nr.) preservation dilution hours
(nr ) hours
1 45 6 1 80,1 82,4 76,4 61,7 0,28 6,8
2 49 6 - 82,0 83,7 73,5 59,4 0,25 7,4
3 53 7 1 79,6 82,9 71,2 56,3 0,35 7,1
Total 19 2 80,6 83,0 73,7 59,1 0,27 7,1

The ejaculate volume


The cocks from LW had 0,24 ml the ejaculates medium volume, with
variations between 0,20 ml and 0,32 ml (tab. 1), what are under the values from
specialty literature [2, 3, 4]. The lowest level have been registered to young cocks,
under 30 weeks of age, when it was about 16,6% less than medium value. The
ejaculate volume did not register important variations depending on the cocks’
age (tab. 1)
The ejaculate medium volume of cocks from experimental lot was 0.27
ml, insignificant more than ejaculate volume of cocks from LW, what prove the
effect absence of minerals and vitamins supplement about this indicator.

The spermatozoa mobility


The spermatozoa medium mobility after preservation was 79,1% to cocks
from LW, with extreme values 77,0% and 81,3%, uncorrelated with cocks’ age
(tab. 1).
For 46-54 weeks interval, the medium mobility was 79,5% to the cocks
from LW and 80,6% to the cocks from LE.
After dilution, the mobility has been increased with 4,3% to cocks from
LW and with 2,5% to cocks from LE.
4 hours after dilution, the mobility of spermatozoa kept to 20 º C
temperatures has been decreased with about 4-6% comparing with the mobility
from preservation moment. 6 hours after preservation, the mobility was at more
60%, for samples from both lots (tab. 1 and tab. 2).

The spermatozoa concentration to semen


There was observed a minimum spermatozoa concentration to cocks
semen from LW to 26 weeks of age (2,1 mld/ml) and a ascending curve until the
50 weeks of age, when the concentration was for 2,6 more. The obtained results in
our investigations conditions are to inferior limit comparing with specialty
literature values for meat breeds [2, 3, 4, 5].

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

The fodder with minerals and vitamins supplement has been determined
spermatogenesis intensifying and concentration increase with 33,9% for same
cocks’ age (tab. 2).

CONCLUSIONS
1. We have been using the cocks with preservation and with team preservation
because if they were not used there is an important negative effect. For know how
many cocks are necessary for artificial insemination we must know the failed
preservation proportion and the improper ejaculates proportion and take them into
account.
2. The ejaculate volume was under medium values quoted in specialty literature,
uncorrelated with the cocks’ age or feed.
3. The spermatozoa medium mobility after preservation was 79,8, with
insignificant differences depending on cocks’ age or feed.
4. The semen dilution have been determined the mobility increase with 2.5% to
cocks from LE and with 4,3% to cocks from LW. In next 6 hours, the mobility
decreased with about 20%, without differences depending on cocks’ age or feed.
5. The spermatozoa concentration to semen was correlated with cocks’ age. The
value was minimum to the start of reproduction activity (2,1 mld/ml) and it was
between 5,1 mld/ml and 5,6 mld/ml for 46-54 weeks of age. The food with
minerals and vitamins supplement have been determined the concentration
increase from 5,3 mld/ml to 7,1 mld/ml.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Senger P.L., 2000 – Patways to pregnancy and parturition second edition. Washington State
University Research & Technology Park
2. Sauveur B., Reviers M., 1988 - Reproduction des volailles et production d'oeufs. INRA. Station
de Recherches Avicoles, Paris
3. Tănase D., Manole I., Nacu Gh., 2000 – Biotehnici şi biotehnologii de reproducţie. Ed. Ion
Ionescu de la Brad, Iaşi
4. Tănase D., Nacu Gh., 2005 – Biologia reproducerii animalelor. Edit. PIM Iaşi
5. Vacaru - Opriş I. şi colab., 2002 - Tratat de Avicultură. Editura “Ceres” Bucureşti.
6. Vaissaire J.P., 1977 – Sexualite et reproduction des mamiferes domestiques et de laboratoire. Ed.
Maloine, Paris

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

THE RESULTS REGARDING THE POLIOVULATION


RESPONSE AT DIFFERENT HORMONAL PRODUCTS TO
STEPPE GREY COWS

Elena RUGINOSU, G. TOBĂ, Mariana SOFRONIE,


Adrieana POP, A. POP, Şt. CREANGĂ,
M. PÎNTEA, I. MOROŞANU

Steppe grey is considered a vulnerable race in the danger to be lossed


and which because of the fact that she doesn’ resist in the productive competition
with the graded up races, it continuous record the numerical decreases, puting
into danger it`s existence. For this reason, in present she makes the objective of
the genetic reserve conservation, the action having place into the national
programmes for the preservation and management of animals genetic reserves,
taking into account by special features regarding the diseases resistant,
adaptability and the capitalization of the brutish fodders.The embryos freezing
method would can to have a distinct contribution to achievement of genes reserve
from this rustic race,but with a special adaptableness and immunity potential.
For this goal it is imperative to effected the poliovulation treatments of
donors cows for to obtain a further number of able embrios to be freeze.
The study was effected to Dancu Iassy S.C.D.B. into dairy farm on
nucleous of 15 cows Steppe grey breed, who were used as embryo donors in 2006
period. They were treated with different hormonales products, type FSH
(Pluset-Serono-Italia, FSH-Rigaux, FSH-Ovogest, Folltropin V- USA, FSH-
Sioux) and PMSG (Folligon-Intervet) in different doses and intervals
postestrous( 9-13 days), induced with PGF 2α. The recovery of embryos was
made at 7 days after artificial insemination, using unsurgical method.
The results of donors superovulation treatments were materialized in
average of 9,1 luteal bodies / cow, with the variatios between 6 luteal bodies /
cow, after treatment FSH- Rigaux and 11 luteal bodies / cow, after Folltropin-V
treatment.

The Steppe Grey breed is an rustic breed which has breeded in the
Romanian teritory in the 2nd half of the 19th century, on an enlarged geographic
area. This breed has contributed to the local breeds improvement. The Steppe
Grey has a great adaptability on the weather conditions, a good use of brutish
fodder, disease-proof and a good quality of productions (1, 2, 4).
Now, there is the risk of disappearance for Steppe Grey, puting into
danger the existence of the genetic backround for this breed which has
exceptional qualities that could be used in the improvement programs of the
present breeds (4).
Taking into consideration the improvement of the productive qualities for
cattle breeds to disease-proof and adaptability detriment, the preservation of the
genetic fund for Steppe Grey has become a national priority.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

In this context, the Steppe Grey was included in the objectives of some
national programs of biopreservation for the breeds with disappearance risk. The
methods used in this biopreservation process are: living animals, m.s.c. deposit,
deep-frozen embryos.
The cryopreservation of the embryos gathered from animals is a modern
biotechnique which involves the poliovulatory treatments to increase the number
of the follicles and implicit of the able embryos from donors for to be freezed or
for to be transfered. Whether the improved breeds there are a lot of informations
concerning this biotechnique of the embryo transfer, (3,5,6) for the primitive
breeds there are only a few informations.
The purpose of this work is to effectuate a study of the Steppe Grey
response to some poliovulatory treatments with different hormonal products for
to obtain further number of able embryos for to be preservation or to be transfer
to receiver cows.

MATERIAL AND METHOD


The study was effectuated during 2006 at SCDCB Dancu dairy farm, on a
Steppe Grey nucleus. By clinical and gynecological control, 15 healthy cows were
selected, without genital infections or ovarian perturbances (ovarian cysts),
diagnosed with a cyclical luteal body in 55-80 days after birth, with a good
maintenance.
The cows selected to be embryo donors were injected with a dose of
PG F2α to induce the oestrus. The day of the oestrus was considered „Day 0”,
being a reference day for the poliovulatory treatment beginning.
At 9-13 days after the induced oestrus with PG F2α it was applyed the
poliovulatory treatment with different hormonal products like FSH (Pluset-
SERONO-Italia-500 UI FSH+500UI LH, FSH-Ovogest-50mg, Folltropin
Vetrapharm, USA–50mg, FSH-Rigaux 50mg, FSH – Sioux Biochemical – 50mg)
and PMSG (Folligon Intervet-2000 UI) to stimulate the growth of further
follicles. The products like FSH were administrated for 5 days, in 2 rounds/day
and in decreased doses. In the 4th day of treatment with FSH it was administrated
one dose and a half of PG F2α. The treatment with PMSG-Folligon was applyed in
one round, at 10 days after the induced oestrus, and PGF2α was given at 48 hours
after the follicle stimulating treatment.
Concomitantly with the donors preparation were selected the receivers
(15 heifers of Steppe Grey), by gynecological control, and those with a cyclical
luteal body were treated with a dose of PG F2α (at 12 hours after the second
administration of PG F2α to donors) to accomplish the synchronization of oestrus.
The manifestation of oestrus was in the same period at donors and receivers.
The donors of embryos were inseminated in 48-56 hours after the
luteolytic treatment (two or three artificial insemination/cow, at intervals of 8-10
hours), and the receivers were observed for oestrus, but they weren`t inseminated.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

The gather was made in the 7th day after the artificial insemination, by a
non surgical method, using a Folley catheter and a PBS (Phosphate Buffered
Saline) washing medium.
Some observations, concerning the females response to the poliovulatory
treatments, materialized into the number of luteal bodies, were made. Some
quantitative and qualitative appreciations of the embryos gathered from the
donors, were also made for to preservation through freezing or for to be transfer
to receivers.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The results of the poliovulatory treatment applyed to the donors are
highlighted by the number of luteal bodies, formed on the ovaries.
Consecutive to the treatments applyed to cows, some variations of the
ovulatory response were observed. These variations were in report to the
hormonal products that were used. It was registered an ovulatory response of 9,1
luteal bodies/cow, on the average, with variations between 6 luteal bodies/cow
after the treatment with FSH-Rigaux and 11 luteal bodies/cow, after the treatment
with FSH-Folltropin-USA. In some cases were also observed ovarian cystes with
an average of 1,2/cow, with variations between 0% after the treatment with FSH-
Sioux and 3/cow after the treatment with FSH-Ovogest, (1st table).
Analysing the results obtained, we can estimate that the Steppe Grey cows
had a good ovulatory response, in report to the hormonal products that were used.
The best ovarian responses (10-11 luteal bodies/cow) were observed after
the treatment with Pluset, Folltropin and FSH-Sioux.
The ovulatory response after the use of other hormonal products, like
FSH-Rigaux, Folligon or Ovogest were on a medium level (6-8 luteal
bodies/ovary) (1st figure).
The variability of the poliovulatory was observed in other studies. It was
noticed that many factors are involved. Of this factors, the most important are: the
donors health, some metabolic deficiencies (energo-proteic deficiencies,
deficiencies in minerals and vitamins), hormonal perturbation, parasitical
diseases, the quality of the hormonal products used in the poliovulatory treatment.
The embryos gathered from the donors were recovered on an average of
6,7 embryos/cow. The recovery was of 65%, with variations in report with the
hormonal products: 57,2% in cows, treated with Folligon and 90% in cows treated
with FSH-Sioux ( 2nd table)
The observations concerning the development phases of the gathered
embryos have highlighted that 22,5% were in the latish morula phase, 52,5%
early blastocystes and in 25% of cases they were degenerated. This thing
highlights the implication of the embryonic death rate, due to some hormonal
deficiencies or to an inadequacy uterine medium.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

The recovered embryos were selected and the high quality ones
(1-2 degrees) were frozen (21,3%) or inseminated to receivers.

CONCLUSIONS
1. The poliovulatory response at Steppe Grey was in an average of 9,1 luteal
bodies/cow, with variations between 6 luteal bodies/cow after the treatment
with FSH-Folltropin-USA, highlighting a very good ovulatory response,
2.The recovery of the embryos was 65%, with an average of 6,7 embryos/cow,
3.From all the recovered embryos, 22,5% were in the lately morula phase, 52,5%
early blastocystes and in 25% of cases they were degenerated, highlighting
the implication of the embryonic death rate.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Draganescu C. – 1994- Some idea on conservation and preservation breeding plans. Practice in
romanian studies;
2. Draganescu C.- 1995 – Animal genetic resources conservation in Romanian- FEZ, Praga ;
3. Dumitru I., Bogdan A., Nafornita M., Turliuc O., 1982- Reproductie animala, Edit. did. si
pedag., Bucuresti ;
4. Pop Adrieana, Pop A., Pintea M. – 2003- La conservation de la Grise de steppe, race en cours
de disparition. Lucr.st. Zootehnie si Biotehnologii, vol. xxxvi, Timisoara ;
5. Sofronie Mariana, Drugociu D., Elena Ruginosu – 1990- Cercetări privind superovulaţia la
taurinele de fermă - Rev. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova, vol 2 (90)/ Iaşi ;
6. Drugociu D., Mariana Sofronie , Elena Ruginosu, Olimpia Iacob – Studii privind
superovulaţia la vacile donatoare de embrioni în S.C.P.C.B. Dancu Iaşi, Rev. Cercetări
Agronomice în Moldova, vol 1-2/1993, Iasi., p. 161-165.

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THE INFLUENCE OF AGE OF GENITORS ON GENDER


DISTRIBUTION AT MERINOS OF PALAS LAMBS

L. STĂNCESCU

Research carried out have shown that in certain circumstances the ratio
between genders is obviously modified and when it comes to causes the
hypothesis of different ages of parental pairs was promoted. By mating young
female sheep (1.5 years) with old males (7.5 years) a larger number of males is
obtained (132 % males compared with females). By mating old females (5.5
years and 7.5 years) with young males (1.5 years) a larger number of females is
obtained (130 %, respectively 132 % females if compared with males). The
larger the difference between females and males, the greater is the probability of
a future male product. By mating individuals of the same age, males and females
in equal proportions resulted.

The age as an internal environment factor has an influence on phaenotype


of characters, fluctuation of age structure being translated (resulting in) by a
fluctuation of production. In this situation, the age may have an influence, at
sheep, on wool production, quantitative and qualitative production of milk and
potential of upbringing and growing (growth). The age of reproductors influences
the quality of fur (skin) at descendents belonging to Karakul species (Malos et al.,
2005).
The age may have an influence on frequency of occurrence of heat,
frequency of repeating the heat, as well as other certain indicators of reproduction
at sheep (Pascal et al., 1995).
In what concerns the natural ratio between genders at sheep, existing data
show that, as a rule, males and females are born in approximately equal
proportions. Chapman and Lush (quoted by Curen I., 1999) after studying 91,640
deliveries at sheep in a 10 years period showed that 49.5% males and 50.5%
females resulted (were born).
Other research have shown that in certain circumstances the ratio between
genders is obviously modified and, among other causes, the hypothesis of the
influence of different age of parental pairs was promoted (Stefanescu C., et al.,
1965, Pascal C. et al., 1995).

MATERIALS AND METHOD


Researches have been carried out within the experimental device in
RDCSEC Perieni, Vaslui County. The biological material was represented by
sheep belonging to Merinos of Palas of different categories of age.
The distribution by genders of lambs obtained in the period between 1975
– 2005 was established in order to have a comparison basis. The ratio between

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

genders was monitored in order to highlight (illustrate) the influence of age and
the difference of age of parents on gender of descendents between 1996 – 2005.
For this purpose, the records of mating and births from the mentioned
period were analysed. Data was available from U.A.R.Z. Vaslui.
In those records mother sheep are ordered depending on their
identification number.
Before 2005 the first figure of the identification number was the last
number of the year of the year in which the animal was born. In these
circumstances, mother sheep are aranged in the register of mating and births
depending on age. Generally, the ages of mother sheep ar as follows: sheep of 1.5
years, 2.5 years, 3.5 years, 4.5 years, 5.5 years, 6.5 years, 7.5 years and more. The
ratio between gender of resulted descendents from mating of sheep in the
mentioned categories with rams in the same cathegory, was calculated.
A special note can be made, that in the mentioned period, the nourishment
conditions and sheep maintenance did not have significant annual variations, as
being rationally provided (supplied) depending on normal physiological and
growing period needs, by reserves almost permanent of forage of the best quality.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Distribution of lambs by gender in the period 1975 – 2005
In the period 1975 – 2005, 32,252 lambs were obtainedand among them
16,046 males and 16,206 females, which means 49.75% males and 50.25%
females.
Table no. 1
Distribution of lambs by gender in the period 1975 – 2005

Females
Year Males (heads) Females (heads) Total heads Males (%)
(%)
0 1 2 3 4 5
1975 471 411 882 53.4 46.6
1976 580 612 1192 48.7 51.3
1977 608 688 1296 46.9 53.1
1978 832 714 1546 53.8 46.2
1979 792 814 1606 49.3 50.7
1980 400 410 810 49.4 50.6
1981 337 397 734 45.9 54.1
1982 461 481 942 48.9 51.1
1983 635 628 1263 50.3 49.7
1984 610 598 1208 50.5 49.5
1985 604 664 1268 47.6 52.4
1986 586 604 1190 49.2 50.8
1987 580 565 1145 50.7 49.3

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0 1 2 3 4 5
1988 552 530 1082 51.0 49.0
1989 640 650 1290 49.6 50.4
1990 608 628 1236 49.2 50.8
1991 664 604 1268 52.4 47.6
1992 590 545 1135 52.0 48.0
1993 682 642 1324 51.5 48.5
1994 638 682 1320 48.3 51.7
1995 1081 1000 2081 51.9 48.1
1996 616 652 1268 48.6 51.4
1997 449 504 953 47.1 52.9
1998 326 353 679 48.0 52.0
1999 307 350 657 46.7 53.3
2000 251 270 521 48.2 51.8
2001 214 234 448 47.8 52.2
2002 220 263 483 45.5 54.5
2003 249 251 500 49.8 50.2
2004 242 241 483 50.1 49.9
2005 221 221 442 50.0 50.0
Total 16046 16206 32252 49.8 50.2

1200

1000 Males (heads)


Females (heads)
800
Heads

600

400

200

0
1975
1976

1977

1978
1979

1980

1981
1982

1983

1984

1985
1986
1987

1988
1989

1990

1991

1992
1993
1994

1995
1996

1997

1998
1999

2000

2001
2002
2003

2004

2005

Years
Figure 1 Distribution by gender of lambs born between 1975 – 2005 (heads)

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

Analyzing the data in table 1 and figures 1 and 2 one can notice that
eventhough per total the ratio between genders is approximately equal, during the
years this ratio can be modified.
One can notice that the years 1975 (53.4% males and 46.6% females),
1978 (53.8% males and 46.2% females), butalso the years 1981 (46% males with
54% females), 1999 (46.7% males with 53.3% females) and 2002 (45.5% males
and 54.5% females).

60

58

56 Males (% )
Females (% )
54

52
(%)

50

48

46

44

42

40
1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005
Years

Figure 2 Distribution by gender of lambs born between 1975 – 2005 (%)

The influence of age of reproductors on distribution by gender of lambs

During 1996 – 2005 5770 gave birth and 6434 lambs resulted, among
which 3095 were males and 3339 were females, which means 48.1% males and
51.9% females. During the entire period the ratio between genders is
apporximately equal, meaning a slight difference favourable to females.

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Table 2
The influence of age of reproductors on distribution by gender of resulted youngsters
(% males versus females)

Ram age
Sheep age
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5
1.5 109 95 99 105 106 119 132
2.5 88 88 89 91 85 92 90
3.5 95 91 97 75 91 92 95
4.5 86 86 86 92 114 81 84
5.5 77 91 94 84 95 92 79
6.5 83 84 93 109 89 84 96
7.5 76 86 76 94 90 100 89

Table 3
The influence of age of reproductors on distribution by gender of resulted youngsters
(în % femele faţă de masculi)

1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5


1.5 91 106 101 95 95 84 76
2.5 114 114 112 110 117 109 111
3.5 105 110 103 133 110 109 105
4.5 116 116 117 109 88 123 119
5.5 130 110 107 119 105 108 127
6.5 120 119 108 92 113 119 104
7.5 132 117 131 106 111 100 113

Analysing the distribution of genders on descendents resulted from


mating reproductors of different ages (tables 1 and 2 and figure 3) one can notice
deviations which show that between age of parents (genitors) and gender of
descendents there is a certain relationship.
We assume that this relationship is rather relative and in order to draw an
accurate conclusion it has to be analysed a much larger number of births.

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

180

3,5
5,5
160

140 5,5
4,5
5,5
120 4,5
3,5 3,5 6,5 4,5
3,5 4,5 6,5
100
5,5 6,5 2,5
2,5
7,5
5,5
80 2,5 3,5
1,5
7,5 4,5
7,5 1,5
60 1,5 2,5 2,5 1,5 3,5
6,5
1,5 1,5 4,5
6,5 5,5 1,5
40 7,5 2,5
7,5 6,5
7,5
2,5 5,5
20 3,5 4,5 6,5 7,5

0
1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5

Figure 3 The Influence of age of reproductors on distribution by gender of


resulted younglings (heads)

If looking at age categories, it was established the percentage of males versus


females. One can notice that by mating young females (1.5 years) with older rams
(older males, 6.5 years and 7.5 years) a larger number of males is obtained (119%,
respectively 132% males versus females). By mating younger rams (1.5 years and
3.5 years) with older female sheep (5.5 years and 7.5 years) a larger number of
females is obtained. A larger number of males is obtained also by mating female
sheep of 4.5 years old with rams of 5.5 years old. A larger number of females is
obtained also by mating females of 3.5 years old with males of 4.5 years old, of
females of 5.5 years old with males of 7.5 years old and of females of 4.5 years
old with males of 6.5 years old. The largest number of males is obtained by
mating females of 1.5 years old with rams of 7.5 years old, therefore, the greater
the difference of age between female and male, the larger the probability of
occurrence of male younglings. Tha largest number of females is obtained by
mating old ewes (5.5 years and 7.5 years) with young rams (1.5 years), therefore,
the larger the difference of age between ram and ewe, the greater the probability
for the product to be a female. Generally speaking, by mating individuals of the
same age, the result was of males and females in equal proportions.

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CONCLUSIONS
In thencase of Merinos of Palas variety (species, ecotype) the age of
genitors may influence, within certain limits, the gender of descendents.
By matching of pairs depending of age a larger number of males or
females can be obtained depending on purpose.
Generally speaking, in breeding farms the goal is to obtain a larger
number of females, because the breeding of a larger number of males is
inefficient. The main source of income in order to cover the costs is first the lamb
production and second, production of milk, wool and meat; the rams have the
only chance of choosing between the last two options.

REFERENCES
1. Cureu I. - Compendiu de genetică animală, Ed. Fundaţiei “România de mâine”, Bucureşti,
1999;
2. Maloş G., Maloş G.I., Ianiţchi D. – Influenţa vârstei reproducătorilor Karakul negru asupra
greutăţii la naştere şi calităţii pielicelelor mieilor, Lucrări ştiinţifice, U.S.A.M.V. Iaşi, 2005;
3. Pascal C. – Creşterea ovinelor şi caprinelor, Ed. Pim Iaşi, 2007;
4. Pascal C., Gîlcă I., Creangă Şt, Burlacu S. – Cercetări privind influenţa vârstei asupra unor
indicatori de reproducţie la ovinele din rasa Merinos de Palas, Lucrări ştiinţifice, U.S.A.M.V.
Iaşi, 1995;
5. Sandu Gh. – Inginerie în exploatarea ovinelor, Ed. Alutus – D, Bucureşti, 1993.

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ASPECTS OF SHEEP ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION


AND SOME HERS INFLUENCE FACTORS

Anca DASCĂL, V. CIORNEI

Artificial insemination in sheep is scarcely widespread comparing with


other domestic species. This has been due not only to fertility results being
irregular and low but also because of the difficulty in the application of
enhancements such as the use of frozen-thawed sperm. Although there is a lot of
information on the use of different options to improve these artificial
insemination results (such as transcervical application, the use of thawed sperm)
commercial programmes can be classified on two general categories: those
using fresh and refrigerated semen by intracervical deposition and more
restricted, those using thawed sperm by intrauterine deposition.In artificial
insemination practice is used a big number of extenders with a variable
composition in accordance with the semen characteristics of this species and
with the semen preservation method.

Thanks to substantial increase in efficiency used of semen, through


application of artificial insemination of sheep it is possible to use the best of the
reproductive rams who are testing by progeny and who have remarkable
characteristics morpho-productive.
The essential objective in the genetic improvement is to produce the
changing youth. In this way it is possible to achieve the crossing over so as to
benefit by immediate results and by heterosis and to profit from the additional
value of the commercial product.
So, artificial insemination permits the multiplication of genotypes,
without need to multiply the number of reproductive male in the flock.
By widespread use, artificial insemination permits efficiency
improvement of progeny testing, by a better taking into account breeding’s effect.
Each of originator is used in a big number of flocks. It is very important the used
of frozen semen in the first years of life for the selection scheme because it can
obtains a big number of offsprings from the males, in their reproductive life.
Artificial insemination in sheep do not find a good place in complex
activity demand by sheep breeding and improvement.
The lesser interest for the artificial insemination is because sheep have
some breeding and exploitation characteristic features: the ram is only male who
provide directly a product which is mutable in merchandise (the wool). The last
years abnegation at sheep artificial insemination explain slow genetic
improvement rate and the decrease of reproduction parameters, behind the use of
rams just for the mounting. Artificial insemination is the method which can
eliminate these deficiences.
Also, it is necessary to associate the artificial insemination biotechnique
with semen cryopreservation to create new semen banks.

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Semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination offer many advantages


to the livestock industry, particularly in conjunction with genetic evaluation and
selection programs (Maxwell and Watson, 1996). However, the biggest obstacle
to exploiting cryopreserved semen of many species is that cooling, freezing, and
thawing generally damage sperm membrane structures, leading to fewer viable
and motile cells postthaw (Hammerstedt et al, 1990). Consequently, fertility
following artificial insemination is poorer than with fresh semen in most species
(Salamon and Maxwell, 2000; Watson, 2000).
Semen quality and its relationship to fertility are of major concern in
animal production. Quality tests are routinely used to determine acceptability of
processed semen for breeding purposes. Thus accurate measurement is of major
importance. Conventionally, the principal laboratory tests for standard semen
analysis at most artificial insemination centers use light microscopy to estimate
sperm survival and the percentage of motile (and progressively motile)
spermatozoa (Rowe et al, 1993).
Artificial insemination spread to central Europe and also was widely
applied commercially in France and Brazil (Foot, 1999). The techniques for
semen collection and artificial insemination of sheep have been described in detail
(Evans and Maxwell, 1987).
Artificial insemination plays an important role in sheep breeding but is
limited by the relatively poor fertility achieved with stored semen. The success of
this procedure in sheep is limited by the short length of time that ram sperm can
be stored as a liquid. Intrauterine insemination has improved fertility rates.
Intrauterine insemination techniques used with low sperm concentrations have
been used with cow (Seidel et al, 1997), horse (Buchanan et al, 1999), sheep (Ham
et al, 2000), and pig (Krueger et al, 1999; Krueger and Rath, 2000; Martinez et al,
2002; Roca et al, 2003) with acceptable fertility results. In any case, a prerequisite
for a successful artificial insemination system in sheep is a diluent that maintains
sperm motility and viability during cooling. Sperm diluents also are crucial in
avoiding loss of viability from the dilution and washing of sperm cells, commonly
done to remove seminal plasma or to achieve a high sperm concentration.
Much of the early research on extenders for sperm, freezing of semen and
artificial insemination techniques was done by Emmens and Blackshaw, followed
by Salamon and Maxwell in Australia, and Dauzier, Colas and Cortell in France
(Corteel, 1981; Salamon and Maxwell, 1995; Maxwell et al., 1999).
The success of long-term storage of spermatozoa depends on the dilution
of semen with a medium containing cryoprotectants to protect the cells from the
stresses associated with freezing and thawing (M. S.Nmez and E. Demurcu,
2004).The establish of diluting recipe composition must begin with semen
biochemical composition and specially with the seminal plasma biochemical
composition.
Fresh extended ram semen has a short fertile lifespan whereas acceptable
fertility with cryopreserved semen is achieved only by laparoscopy. Laparoscopy
has evolved as one of the least invasive techniques depositing frozen-thawed
semen in the uterus of sheep.

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The techniques and media for freezing semen such as with egg yolk-
trisglycerol were modified (Salamon and Maxwell,1995;Maxwell and Watson,
1996; Amoah and Gelaye, 1997) from procedures developed for bull sperm .
One of the most important cryoprotectant agent for the ram semen is
glycerol. Although glycerol is considered essential for freezing spermatozoa, it is
often included in extenders for short-term storage at above-freezing temperatures.
The cryoprotective benefits of glycerol on spermatozoa were discovered
by Polge et al. (1949) and are attributed mostly to its water-binding properties
(reviewed by Salomon and Maxwell, 1995). Since then, the use of glycerol to
preserve spermatozoa during freezing is widespread (Hammerstedt et al., 1990;
Bailey et al., 2000).
Many studies have demonstrated that glycerol remains the most effective
cryoprotective compound for freezing mammalian semen and no enhancement
was showed by the addition of other compounds (Molinia et al., 1994).
Therefore, for cryopreservation, glycerol is the most commonly used
cryoprotectant for ram semen (Salomon and Maxwell, 2000).
In a recent study (2002), A.Morrier, F.Castonguay and J.L.Bailey
effectuated two series experiments about the glycerol influence of fresh and
cryopreservated ram semen. To test the hypothesis that glycerol reduces the
function of fresh sperm, ram semen was divided into two aliquots and diluted
with commercial extenders that were identical, except that one contained glycerol.
In the first experiment it was study the glycerol influence on fresh semen. In the
second experiment, glycerol was added to fresh ram semen immediately after
collection or after cooling to 5°C.
The semen was then frozen to assess whether the timing of cryoprotectant
addition during cryopreservation affects sperm quality. For both experiments,
semen was diluted in a solution that mimicked the genital tract of the ewes (SOF-
m) and motility, physiological status assessed by chlortetracycline (CTC)
fluorescence) and viability, were used as indicators of sperm quality.
In the first experiment, the initial concentrations of the ejaculates and
motility were 3.67 x 109 ±0.58 spermatozoa/ ml and 84 ± 3.3%, respectively, with
less then 25% abnormal spermatozoa for each ejaculate. For Experiment 1, the
presence or absence of 7% glycerol in the extender did not affect motility. The
duration of storage in the treatment extender and the time of incubation in SOF-m
affected total motility (P < 0.0001).
Progressive motility decreased with incubation time in SOF-m (P <
0.0001) and was influenced by the duration of storage in the extender (± glycerol)
only after 6 h of incubation in SOF-m (P < 0.0001). Sperm viability was reduced
with duration in the extender and incubation in SOF- m (P < 0.0002 and P <
0.0001).
However, the presence of glycerol did not significantly affect sperm
viability. Chlortetracycline fluorescence patterns were influenced by the duration
of conservation at 5°C in the extender and by the time of incubation in SOF-m but
not by the addition of glycerol to the extender.

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The percentages of spermatozoa showing non-capacitated decreased with


time in the extender at 5°C and incubation in SOF-m (P = 0.0001), while the
percentages of sperm with acrosome-reaction increased (P = 0.0001). Overall,
the percentage of sperm capacitated was lower after 8 h of conservation in the
extender (± glycerol; P = 0.05), followed by an additional decrease after 24 h (P =
0.05).
During incubation in SOF-m, the percentage of capacited sperm increased
after 6 h (t6; P = 0.05) followed by a decrease at 24 h (t24; P = 0.05), regardless
of the duration of storage at 5°C. In the second experiment , the method of
cryoprotectant addition did not significantly affect thawed sperm quality.
However, as in the first experiment , the total and progressive motilities were
reduced during incubation in SOF-m at 39°C (P = 0.0001) .
The viability of thawed ram spermatozoa was also decreased during
incubation in SOF-m (P = 0.0001). For the CTC fluorescence, the percentages of
sperm non-capacitated and capacitated decreased with time in SOF-m, as the
proportion of sperm with acrosome-reaction increased the (P = 0.05).
Chlortetracycline is a fluorescent antibiotic that binds membrane calcium
(Saling and Storey, 1979). The distribution of membrane calcium (bound to
proteins and/or lipids) is thought to change during capacitation and may be
associated with an influx of calcium leading to the acrosome reaction (Gillan et
al., 1997). Abdelhakeam et al. (1991) found that the addition of glycerol (3%)
decreased lambing rates from 83 to 41%.
The damaging effect of glycerol on sperm is considered to be mostly
related to its osmotic impact. Upon glycerol addition, the cells rapidly shrink,
which is associated with the release of intracellular water. A slower return to the
original volume follows, as the glycerol penetrates into the sperm (Hammerstedt
et al., 1990).
However, in vitro tests done on semen are not always related to the
fertility of semen in vivo (Tardif et al., 1999). It is possible that the impact of
glycerol is within the female genital tract. Many proteins of the female
reproductive tract interact with sperm (Abe et al., 1995) and the reproductive tract
secretions of the ewes can capacitate ram sperm in vitro (Chavarria and Reys,
1996).
It is also possible that glycerol reduces the fertility of fresh ram semen
due to the effects on the ewe. Previous reports have suggested that glycerol
irritates the female genital tissues (Tajima et al., 1989; Abdelhakeam et al., 1991;
Hammerstedt and Graham, 1992), which could reduce fertility.
Bailey et al. (2000) hypothesised that cryopreservation actually induces
capacitation (cryo-capacitation).
In vitro studies (Molinia et al.,1994; Sanchez-Partida et al.,1997)
suggested that the addition of some antioxidants to diluted semen could improve
the motility and survival of spermatozoa, and it might allow the use of lower
glycerol concentrations. Ascorbic acid may play a role in protecting sperm from
reactive oxygen species (Buetter, 1992) and in maintaining the genetic integrity of
sperm cells by preventing oxidative damage to sperm DNA (Fraga et al.,1991).

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The objective of a study made by Sonmez and Demirci in 2003 was to


investigate the effects of ascorbic acid on the freezability and spermatological
characteristics of ram semen diluted with extenders containing different
proportions of glycerol. In this study, the addition of more than 2 mg/ml of
ascorbic acid in diluted semen groups reduced the motility of spermatozoa during
the liquid storage of diluted semen at +4°C.
It might be related to the decrease in pH caused by ascorbic acid since the
ascorbic acid was strongly acidic (10% solution: pH 2), and a low pH may induce
reversible or irreversible reductions in motility (Acott and Carr, 1984).
One of the major causes of reduced motility and acrosomal integrity after
equilibration is the negative effect of glycerol. The addition of glycerol to diluted
ram semen could cause changes in the permeability of sperm cell membranes
(Maxwell and Watson, 1996).
Pontbriand et al. (1989) reported that the addition of glycerol to diluted
semen had detrimental effects on acrosomal integrity and motility. An increase in
the glycerol level in diluted ram semen significantly reduced motility and raised
the damaged acrosome rate
after equilibration. When the glycerol level added to the diluted ram
semen was considered, the highest percentage of motile spermatozoa was
determined in the presence of 5% glycerol immediately after thawing.
The addition of different proportions of ascorbic acid to the diluent
groups containing the same glycerol levels did not affect the motility of
spermatozoa, acrosomal integrity, total abnormal spermatozoa rate or dead
spermatozoa rate of frozen-thawed ram semen. However, some researchers
(Molinia et al.,1994; Sanchez-Partida et al.,1997) suggested that the inclusion of
antioxidants with a cryoprotective effect in the diluent might also allow the use of
low glycerol concentration (3% or 1%).
Proline- and glycine betaine- containing Tris-based diluents and
zwitterionic diluents have been reported to improve the postthaw motility
characteristics of ram spermatozoa, as assessed by objective and subjective
methods (Sanchez-Partida et al., 1992, 1998; Molinia et al., 1994).
The reduced motility of cryopreserved sperm has been attributed to the
toxicity of the cryoprotective agents used in the freezing diluent (Fiser et
al.,1981), to membrane changes during the freezing-thawing process (Fiser et
al.,1989) and to the presence of free radicals, which may induce lipid peroxidation
(Aitken et al.,1989). The experiments examined the freezability and
spermatological characteristics of ram semen diluted with Tris-based diluents
containing different concentrations of ascorbic acid and glycerol.
Sanchez-Partida et al. (1997) reported that the inclusion of ascorbic acid
at concentrations of 50 mM or 100 mM in diluted ram semen reduced the
percentage of motile spermatozoa compared to the control diluent.
In a study made in 1999, Seremak et al. determinated Selenium effects
behind its addition at cryopreservated ram semen.
The authors mentioned above proved that the additive of selenium of up
to 1 g/ml had a positive impact on the motility of fresh and frozen semen. In case

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of doses exceeding 2 g/ml the authors noted a drop in spermatozoon motility, and
at doses of over 5 g/ml the negative influence of this microelement proved
statistically significant. The additive of selenium in the quantity of 0.65 g/ml
proved most optimal.
The test sampling of selenium concentration carried out additionally in
applied diluents demonstrated that the concentration varied from 55 to 62 ng/ml,
and in the semen plasma assigned for tests it amounted to: from 40 to 115.5
ng/ml. The research of Saaranen et al. (1989) shows that the concentration of the
discussed microelement in the semen plasma is approx. 100 ng/ml.
Regardless of extenders or of extender ingredients used and regardless of
the method of semen preservation, it is necessary to maintain the sperm viability
and fecundation capacity, to obtain the best results in the artificial insemination.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Abdelhakeam, A. A., Graham, E. F. and Vazquez, I. A. (1991). Studies on the presence
and absence of glycerol in unfrozen and frozen ram semen: fertility trials and the effects of dilution
methods on freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Cryobiology 28: 36-42.
2. Amoah, E. A., Gelaye, S. (1997). Biotechnological advances in goat reproduction. J.
Anim. Sci. 75:578–585.
3. Bailey, J. L., Bilodeau J.-F. and Cormier, N. (2000). Semen cryopreservation in
domestic animals; a damaging and capaciting phenomenon. J. Androl. 21: 1-7.
4. Corteel, J. M. (1981). Collection, processing and artificial insemination of goat semen.
In: C. Gall (ed.) Goat Production. pp 171–191. Academic Press, London.
5. Evans, G. and Maxwell, W. M. C. (1987). Frozen storage of semen In: Salomon’s 424
Artificial Insemination of Sheep and Goats. Butterworths (ed), Sydney: 122-141p.
6. Fiser, P.S., Fairfull, R.W.(1989).The effect of glycerol-related osmotic changes on post-
thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of ram spermatozoa. Cryobiology., 26: 64-69.
7. Foote, R. H. (1999). Artificial insemination from its origins up to today.In: V. Russo, S.
Dall ’Olio, and L. Fontanesi (ed.) Proc. of the Spallanzani Int. Symp., Reggio Emilia, Italy. pp 23–
67.
8. Gillan, L., Evans, G. and Maxwell, W. M. C. (1997). Capacitation status and fertility of
frozen–thawed ram spermatozoa. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 9: 481-487.
9. Hammerstedt RH, Graham JK, Nolan JP.( 1990), Cryopreservation of mammalian
sperm: what we ask them to survive. J Androl.;11:73–88.
10. Maxwell, W. M. C. and Watson, P. F. (1996). Recent progress in the preservation of
ram semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 42: 55-65.
11. Maxwell, W. M. C., G. Evans, S. T. Mortimer, L. Tillan, E. S. Gellatly and C.
A.McPhie. (1999). Normal fertility after cervical insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa
supplemented with seminal plasma. Reprod. Fertil. Devel. 11:123–126.
12. Molinia, F. C., Evans, G. and Maxwell, W. M. C. (1994). Incorporation of penetrating
cryoprotectants in diluents for pellet-freezing ram spermatozoa. Theriogenology 42: 849- 858.
13. Morrier, A., Castonguay, F., Bailey, J. L. (2002). Glycerol addition and conservation
of fresh and cryopreserved ram spermatozoa, Quebec, Canada.
14. Mustafa, S.Nmez and Demurcu, E. (2004) The Effect of Ascorbic Acid on the
Freezability of Ram Semen Diluted with Extenders Containing Different Proportions of Glycerol
Turk J Vet Anim Sci 28 893-899.
15. Rowe PJ, Comhaire FH, Hargreave TB, Mellows HJ., (1993 ) WHO Manual for the
Standard Investigation and the Diagnosis of the Infertile Couple. Cambridge, United Kingdom:
Cambridge University Press.

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16. Salomon, S. and Maxwell, W. M. C. (1995). Frozen storage of ram semen.


Processing, freezing, thawing and fertility after cervical insemination. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 37: 185-
249.
17. Salomon, S. and Maxwell, W. M. C. (2000). Storage of ram semen. Anim Reprod. Sci.
62:
77-111.
18. Sanchez-Partida, L.G., Setchell, B.P., Maxwell, W.M.C.(1997). Epididymal
compounds and antioxidants in diluents for the frozen storage of ram spermatozoa. Reprod. Fertil.
Dev., 9: 689-696.
19. Seremak, B., Udala, J., Lasota, B. (1999). Influence of Selenium additive on ram
semen freezing quality, Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, Animal Husbandry,
Volume 2,
Issue 1.
20. Soliman I. Peris and al. (2004). Cryopreservation of Ram Semen Facilitates Sperm
DNA Damage: Relationship Between Sperm Andrological Parameters and the Sperm Chromatin
Structure Assay J. of Androl., Vol. 25, No. 2
21. Watson, P.F.(2000). The causes of reduced fertility with cryopreserved semen. Anim.
Reprod. Sci., 60-61: 481-492.

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ANALYSIS SCHEDULE FOR FERTILIZING ABILITY OF


SEMEN EVALUATION
SCHEMĂ DE ANALIZĂ PENTRU APRECIEREA
POTENŢIALULUI DE FECUNDARE A MATERIALULUI
SEMINAL
M. PARASCHIVESCU, Ioana NICOLAE

In order to have a good evaluation of semen used for artificial


insemination a working schedule is proposed. The schedule follows three stages:
the gametic stage, the zygote stage and the embryonic stage. For sperms the
gametic stage considers as physiological acts the insemination, the capacitation,
the migration, the zona reaction and the vitelin block. In the zygote stage
formation of the two pronuclei and the telophaze of the second meiotic division
are considered. As embryos the ovular, the blastocyte and the chessonic phase
must be respected. Parturition and abortion are certain signs of fertilization of
ova.. So is palpation of the fetus trough the abdominal wall or trough the rectum
as well. As an earlier diagnosis the echographic control could be promoted. The
paper proposes to be used a complete set of methods to distingue between live
and dead spermatozoa and to show blunt spermatozoa and perlated
spermatozoa.

Practicarea însămânţărilor artificiale este rezonabilă atunci când


fertilitatea efectivului matcă în care se aplică nu prezintă diferenţe semnificative
faţă de practicarea montei naturale. Fertilitatea care se măsoară prin numărul de
descendenţi obţinut de la un reproducător (femel sau mascul) pe unitatea de timp
este dependentă întotdeauna de potenţialul de fecundare al partenerului de
reproducţie.
Fecundarea este un proces biologic complex care se finalizează prin
unirea garnituri cromozomale haploide a unui ovocit cu garnitura cromozomală
haploidă a unui spermatozoid în faza de zigot prealabilă ontogeniei unui individ
iniţiată de embrionul blastomeric primar de 2 celule.
Schema de analiză pentru stabilirea indicatorilor după care se poate stabili
modalitatea de apreciere a viabilităţii (capacităţii de a se angaja în procesul de
fecundare) a spermatozoizilor din produsul seminal recoltat sau a celor din
materialul seminal după decongelare şi capacitatea lor fecundantă (participarea la
formarea unui embrion apt pentru creştere şi dezvoltare) va urmări cele trei stadii
ale fecundării: a) stadiul de gameţi = 2 celule, b) stadiul de zigot = 1 celulă cu 2
pronuclei şi c) stadiul de embrion primar = 1 embrion cu 2 celule totipotente.
În stadiul de gameţi al procesului fecundării, cu referire la spermii au loc
următoarele acte fiziologice:
- însămânţarea, depunerea spermiilor în tractul genital femel realizată în
mod natural prin actul sexual care are loc între mascul şi o femelă în

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călduri (estrus), act prin care produsul seminal ejaculat de mascul ajunge
în fundul de sac al vaginului unde se află deschiderea (ostium) a gâtului
uterin (cervix);
- capacitarea, dobândirea de către spermatozoizi a abilităţii de a participa
la fecundare ( se impune precizarea că spermatozoizii epidimari sunt
imobili şi că ei dobândesc mobilitate numai după ce intră în contact cu
lichidul spermatic secretat de glandele sexuale anexe – vezicula seminală,
prostata şi glandele bulbo-uretrale- fără însă a putea participa la
fecundare înainte de a avea un contact de câteva ore cu secreţiile
mucoasei tractului genital femel, contact prin care se realizează
capacitarea lor);
- migrarea, deplasarea spermiilor din vagin până în treimea superioară a
istmului oviductului (salpinx) unde întâlneşte ovocitul (timp în care se
produce capacitarea) deplasare pusă până cândva pe seama mobilităţii
spermatozoizilor, dar care s-a dovedit că este promovată mai ales de
peristaltismul tractului genital indus de ocitocină (hormon secretat de
hipofiza posterioară în urma excitaţiei cauzate de actul sexual);
- denudarea ovocitului, care constă în dispersarea celulelor granuloase care
îmbracă zona pellucida încă de la expulzarea acestuia din folicul, (se
impune precizarea că dispersarea celulelor granuloase se produce ca
urmare a acţiunii hialuronidazei,enzimă ce se eliberează de
spermatozoizii care mor şi care lichefiază gelul format de săruri ale
acidului hialuronic prin care realizează aderarea celulelor între ele – de
aici nevoia de un minimum necesar de spermatozoizi la contactul cu
ovocitul înconjurat de celulele din cumulus ooforus);
- reacţia zonei, implicarea zonei pellucida în procesul de fecundare,
implicare care are ca primă acţiune ataşarea (binding) unuia sau a câţiva
spermatozoizi perpendicular pe tangenta la ovocit la nivelul punctului de
contact un urma atragerii specifice dintre o glicoproteină din compoziţia
zonei pellucida şi proacrosina conţinută de mica veziculă din acrozomul
spermatozoizilor, urmată de reacţia acrozomală care constă în pierderea
de către acrozom a pliului de membrană cunoscut cu denumirea de gallea
capitis, dezvelirea perforatoriului (un mic spin din structura acrozomului)
şi activarea veziculei acrozomale care îşi măreşte volumul şi secretă
acrosină,,enzimă care depolimerizează unele moleculele din zona
pellucida şi dă spermatozoidului cu acrozom activat posibilitatea de a
perfora zona pellucida şi de a ajunge în spaţiul perivitelin de unde
provoacă exocitoza în acest spaţiu a granulelor prezente sub membrana
vitelină. Aceste granule intrate în contact cu moleculele zonei pellucida
provoacă modificare arhitecturii spaţiale a moleculelor de binding ale
acesteia şi suprimarea posibilităţii de aderarea a altor spermatozoizi la
zona pellucida (prin aceasta se blochează posibilitatea ca mai mulţi
spermatozoizi să pătrundă în spaţiul perivitelin = polispermie);

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- blocul vitelin, o ultimă componentă a acestui stadiu al fecundării, este


componenta în care un spermatozoid ajuns în spaţiul perivitelin aderă,
specific, cu zona lui ecuatorială la membrana vitelină, se realizează o
mică liză de membrane şi conţinutul capului spermatozoidului este
deversat în citoplasma ovocitului (aşa se explică de ce în citoplasma
ovociţilor nu s-au găsit nici o dată cozi de spermatozoizi), cea ce
împiedică poliploidia.
Cu parcurgerea blocului vitelin se încheie stadiul în care gameţii acţionează ca
entităţi distincte şi se trece în stadiul de zygot. Reacţia zonei şi blocul vitelin sunt
două importante mecanisme moleculare de izolare reproductivă a speciilor
genetice.

Zygotul este un stadiu cu durată de existenţă scurtă, câteva ore. În prima


fază a sa se formează cei doi pronuclei ai zygotului . Pronucleul mascul se
constituie din nucleul fostului spermatozoid care se completează proteine histone
sintetizate din substanţa citoplasmei ovocitului şi se înconjoară de o membrană
proprie. Pronucleul femel se formează consecutiv celei de a doua diviziuni din
meioză când se elimină cel de al doilea globul polar. Această diviziune are loc la
ovocitul speciei taurine cu foarte puţin timp înainte de iniţierea fecundării (la
ovocitul de iapă şi la cel de căţea a doua diviziune a ovocitului este indusă de
pătrunderea spermiilor în spaţiul perivitelin). Pronucleul mascul capătă
dimensiuni mai mari decât cel femel. Ambii pronuclei au o structură veziculară cu
filamentul suport al cromatinei relaşat, ceea ce dă posibilitatea ca DNA să se
replice, să se realizeze fenomenele de crosing-over şi de transducţie de DNA.
Transgeneza nu se poate realiza decât în această fază din existenţa zygotului.
În faza următoare cei doi pronuclei intră sincron în diviziune. Membrana
pronucleilor dispare. După profază şi metafază fiecare nucleu are o placă
ecuatorială cu două rânduri de cromozomi. Între timp între cei doi centrioli ai
ovocitului se formează un fus cromatic. În anafază câte o garnitură din
cromozomii fiecare pronucleu se dirijează pe fusul cromatic al ovocitului către
unul din polii fusului cromatic. Telofaza acestei diviziuni se încheie cu formarea a
două celule diploide (blastomere) care constituie embrionul primar. Amfimixia
cromozomilor celor doi pronuclei se produce în timpul telofazei pronucleilor şi
poate avea loc numai dacă numărul, forma şi dimensiunile autozomilor din cei doi
pronuclei este asemănătoare. Tot acum se constituie perechile de gene alele la
nivelul locilor din autozomi după regula că o genă poate avea ca alelă numai o
copie a ei sau o mutaţie a ei. Amfimixia cromozomilor şi complementaritatea
alelică sunt alte două importante mecanisme moleculare de izolare reproductivă a
speciilor genetice. Heterozomii nu formează alele.

Embrionul primar, de două celule, are sex genetic. Cel rezultat din
spermatozoid purtător de cromozom Y va avea perechea de heterozomi XY şi va
avea sexul genetic mascul, cel rezultat din spermatozoid purtător de cromozom X

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va avea perechea de heterozomi XX şi va avea sexul genetic femel. Cele două


blastomere ale embrionului primar sunt înconjurate de zona pellucida, fapt care dă
unitatea de dezvoltare a noului organism.
Până la a deveni organism apt de existenţă autonomă, în mediu extern
organismului matern, embrionul parcurge mai multe faze de dezvoltare.
Dezvoltarea are loc prin diferenţiere celulară şi structurarea celulelor în ţesuturi, a
ţesuturilor în organe, a organelor în aparate şi a aparatelor în sisteme însoţite de
diversificarea funcţiilor vitale. Fiecare din stadiile de dezvoltare parcurge un
proces propriu de creştere care constă în sporirea masei embrionului prin mărirea
numărului celulelor de acelaşi fel şi mărirea dimensiunilor celulelor componente
ale ţesuturilor. Sunt acceptate ca faze ale dezvoltării embrionare: faza de embrion
ovular, faza de embrion blastocistic şi faza de embrion chesonic.
Embrionul ovular (ou fecundat) este numit astfel pentru că este format în
interiorul zonei pellucida, care ar fi coaja oului. În această fază creşterea se
realizează prin diviziune mitotică, în progresie geometrică, a blastomerilor.
Energia şi proteinele necesare acestui proces (nutriţia celulelor) se face în
principal pe seama nutrienţilor din vitelus-ul ovulului şi din substanţe din
exteriorul zonei pellucida care traversează membrana prin osmoză. Embrionii
genetic masculi au celule cu heterozomi XY pe toată durata fazei şi în fazele
următoare. Embrionii genetic femeli, până când numărul de blastomere al
acestora este de 4 sau de 8, sau mai mare de 8 are heterozomi XX. După acest
număr unul din cromozomii X se inactivează şi se condensează rămânând în
nucleu ca o mică formaţiune ce se colorează intens şi care are forma unui bastonaş
(drum stick sau cromatină sexuală). Evidenţierea cromatinei sexuale într-un
blastomer extras prin biopsie dintr-un cu mai mult de 8 celule permite a
diagnostica embrionul de la care provine celula ca având sex genetic mascul.
Când numărul blastomerilor este suficient de mare embrionul ia aspectul unei
mure, fază cunoscută sub numele de morulă. Apoi urmează faza de morulă târzie.
Între celulele morulei se produce lichid care se acumulează central formând un
antrum (blastocel). Presiunea interioară creşte, zona pellucida se întinde, grosimea
ei scade şi în final cedează. Se produce ecloziunea embrionului. Faza de embrion
ovular se încheie cu acest eveniment. Dacă pe parcursul acestei faze survine
moartea embrionul efectul amfimixiei se pierde şi este ca şi cum fecundarea nu ar
fi avut loc. Moartea embrionilor în această fază este cunoscută ca „mortalitate
ovulară”.
Embrionul blastocistic este cel ce succede ecloziunii. Blastocistul timpuriu
se prezintă ca o băşică plină cu lichid, mărginită de un strat de celule ce formează
trofoblastul (ţesutul prin care are loc hrănirea). Pe trofoblast există o mică zonă în
care se aglomerează mai multe celule, pe mai multe straturi. Acesta este discul
proliger sau germinativ. Aceasta este prima diferenţiere celulară evidentă. Celulele
trofoblastului au rol în hrănirea embrionului şi vor forma corionul viitorului
embrion chesonic iar celulele discului germinativ au rol în organogeneză şi vor
forma corpul embrionului şi învelitorile fetale (amniosul şi alantoida).

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Organogeneza începe cu înmulţirea celulelor din discul proliger şi


aşezarea lor în trei straturi ectoderm, spre exterior, endoderm, spre interior şi
mezoderm, între acestea. Aceasta este a doua diferenţiere celulară majoră.
Celulele endodermului primitiv se înmulţesc, căptuşesc trofoblastul şi limitează
un sac vitelin care rămâne în legătură cu endodermul care între timp, întregit cu
celule din ectodermul primitiv al discului embrionar, la nivelul discului
germinativ, se îngroaşă, se alungeşte şi apoi se curbează formând un tub ce
comunică direct cu sacul vitelin asigurând hrănirea embrionului. În această fază
embrionul este denumit gastrulă. Din celulele care căptuşesc tubul gastrulei se va
forma intestinul, ficatul şi pulmonii. Din aceleaşi celule se formează alantoida,
care este o învelitoare fetală mare ce înconjoară embrionul şi împreună cu
corionul participă la formarea placentei. Alantoida comunică în embrion cu vezica
urinară. Mezodermul proliferează formând un extracelom care înconjoară
celelalte structuri diferenţiate izolând embrionul de trofoblast, ceea ce duce la
formarea amniosului, o a doua învelitoare fetală. Amniosul are comunicare cu
tubul gastrulei şi viitorul intestin aşa că va colecta dejecţiile fătului (meconiu) iar
alantoida are comunicare cu vezica urinară şi va colecta urina. Din mezoderm se
mai formează pielea glandele genitale şi, împreună cu ectodermul, sistemul
nervos.
Dacă embrionul moare în această fază blastocistul este eliminat. Se
produce aşa numita mortalitate embrionară. Din cauza dimensiunilor mici ale
embrionului şi a consistenţei sale foarte puţin solide eliminarea blastocitului trece,
de regulă, neobservată.
Embrionul chesonic este cel în care domină fenomenele de dezvoltare
deoarece acum are loc organogeneza. Faza de făt este cea în care domină
procesele de creştere a masei organelor nou formate. Moartea embrionului sau a
fătului este urmată de eliminarea lui din uter. Evenimentul fiind observabil avem
a face cu un avort. Spre deosebire de mortalitatea ovulară sa cea embrionară,
avortul confirmă faptul că fecundarea a avut loc.

Având ca fundament schema de analiză de mai sus estimarea viabilităţii şi


a capacităţii fecundante a produsului seminal destinat însămânţărilor artificiale
sau a materialului seminal prelucrat poate folosi indicatorii ce se prezintă în
continuare.
Viabilitatea, definită ca abilitatea spermatozoizilor de a supravieţui până
la exprimarea capacităţii fecundante a acestora, are ca indicator mobilitatea (mai
exact, nota pentru mobilitate). Mobilitatea se apreciază prin note cu valoare
zecimală de la 0.1 până la 1.0 în funcţie de procentul de spermatozoizi cu mişcări
de înaintare. Dacă spermatozoizii mobili lipsesc cu desăvârşire atunci nu se mai
acordă nici o notă şi se consemnează situaţia de necrospermie (N) ceea ce
înseamnă spermatozoizi morţi.
Există însă şi cazuri de spermatozoizi care sunt imobili fără a fi morţi
(akinezie) cazuri semnalate la bivol şi la materialul seminal conservat prin

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carboxidare. Pentru a distinge între aceste două stări ale spermatozoizilor se pot
prepara frotiuri care se colorează cu coloranţi speciali. Cel mai frecvent se
foloseşte metoda Blom în care colorantul este eozin-nigrosina sau nigrozina şi
roşu de Congo. În cazul bivolului ejaculatele cu spermatozoizi imobili sunt destul
de frecvente de aceea este important a se face distincţie între cazurile de
necrospermie şi cazurile de akinezie. Întrucât literatura de specialitate nu
precizează dacă ejaculatele cu akinezie spermatică au sau nu au capacitate
fecundantă este necesar ca pe măsura identificării unor turmaci (tauri de bivol) cu
asemenea ejaculate să se efectueze cercetări pentru a răspunde la următoarele
întrebări: a) spermatozoizii imobili sunt morţi sau vii ? b) care este cauza
akineziei ? Plasma seminală nu a provocat activarea motilităţii spermiilor sau
spermatozoizii nu pot dobândi mobilitate ? Prin ce mijloace se pot activa
spermatozoizii ? (se va încerca efectul plasmei spermatice a unor ejaculate
normale şi oxigenarea mediului plasmatic al spermatozoizilor prin adaosul de
citrat de sodiu sau prin contact cu aerul atmosferic pe lamă microscopică sub
protecţie ce peliculă de polietilen) c) activarea spermatozoizilor akinetici la
ejaculare este urmată sau nu de o capacitate fecundantă satisfăcătoare a acestora ?.
Încă mai sunt aspecte de clarificat cu privire la practicarea IA la unele specii de
animale domestice.

Capacitatea fecundantă are ca indicator proporţia în care tentativele de


fecundare a unor ovule se încheie prin formarea de embrioni. Tentativă de
fecundare este însămânţarea unei femele în călduri. Formarea unui embrion este
confirmată de: fătarea la termen , avort (dacă vârsta avortonului corespunde
intervalului de la însămânţare), instalarea gestaţiei (confirmată prin examen clinic
de palpare a peretelui abdominal, sau prin examen transrectal (ETR) sau prin
ecografie), instalarea corpului galben de gestaţie (confirmată de ne întoarcerea in
călduri după 60 – 90 zile de la însămânţare sau de o progestreronemie mai mare
4 ng/ml la 21 - 27 zile de la însămânţare). Pentru lucrările de cercetare este
plauzibilă şi fecundarea in vitro.
Din punct de vedere practic fătarea este un indicator cert al fecundării dar el
este foarte tardiv (el poate fi indicat numai pentru cazurile în care nu există altă
soluţie). Avortul este un indicator la fel de cert dar este păgubos. Diagnosticul
transrectal este cert şi relativ timpuriu, dar are ceva costuri. Examenul ecografic este
la fel de cert, ceva mai timpuriu dar oarecum mal costisitor decât ETR (cere însă şi
un investigator bine format şi cu multă experienţă). Ne întoarcerile ( non return
rate) oferă un indicator destul de cert (se poate însă confunda cu formarea unui corp
galben persistent sau a unui chist de corp galben) şi în plus nu cere nici o cheltuială
în afara evidenţei curente de fermă. Fecundarea în vitro este o operaţie tehnică
însoţită deseori de insucces şi în plus are costuri foarte mari. Din aceste
considerente vom folosi în prezentul proiect: ne întoarcerile, ETR la începutul celei
de a patra luni de gestaţie şi examenul ecografic la un interval de cca. 42 zile de la
însămânţare, dar care se va preciza în decursul execuţiei proiectului.

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Indicatorii de viabilitate şi cei de capacitate fecundantă se estimează atât


pentru produsul seminal, imediat după recoltare, cât şi pentru materialul seminal
după decongelare. Pentru aprecierea capacităţii fecundante a spermatozoizilor din
produsul seminal ca indicator special va fi prezenţa şi frecvenţa formelor
anormale primare şi secundare de spermatozoizi. Formele anormale sunt cele cu
care spermiile ajung în ejaculat, formele secundare sunt cele care apar consecutiv
prelucrării ejaculatului sau preparării testului.

Ca forme anormale primare sunt considerate defectele de dimensiuni şi


conformaţie ale capului spermatozoizilor, defecte ale piesei intermediare şi
defectele de dimensiuni sau structură ale flagelului. Tot în această categorie intră
şi spermatozoizii imaturi. Sunt consideraţi imaturi spermatozoizii care poartă o
picătură de protoplasmă alăturată piese intermediare sau cozii spermatozoidului.
Deformaţii ale capului sunt: capul mic (microcefalia) considerată ca formă de
imaturitate, capul piriform sau cel globulos precum şi capul mare (macrocefalia).
Aceste forme anormale sunt consecinţă ale unor erori de spermiogeneză. Când
frecvenţa lor într-un ejaculat este mai mare de 10 % acesta se respinge de la
utilizare. Dacă frecvenţa ejaculatelor în această situaţie este mare atunci se
elimină de la reproducţie masculul cu asemenea defect. La masculii tineri este
bine ca testul să se repete după 1- 2 luni pentru a se afla dacă defectul de
spermiogeneză nu a dispărut.
O atenţie aparte este necesar să se acorde pentru trei feluri de
spermatozoizi anormali care sunt inapţi să fecundeze (infertili): spermatozoizi
decapitaţi, descrişi de J. Hancock , care au defecte de prindere a cozii şi care apar
frecvent ca fiind lipsiţi de flagel, spermatozoizi cu acrozom bont, descrişi de
Hancock, de Maden şi de Bane, care au vezicula acrozimaloarte mare şi sunt
lipsiţi de galea capitis şi spermatozoizii perlaţi, descrişi de Bane, care prezintă un
şirag de mici vezicule pe zona ecuatorială a capului spermatozoidului. Toate
aceste forma au indicat infertilitate. Metodele de colorare recomandate pentru
punerea în evidenţă a acestor anomalii ale cromozomilor sunt: metoda Hancock
cu colorant Giemsa pentru spermatozoizii decapitaţi, metodele Hacket şi Pherson
(tuş indian) sau Hanckok (Giemsa) sau Posalak şi Tőrők (cristal violet) sau Karras
– Wels varianta II (roşu de Congo şi fuxină) sau Wels (roşu de Congo şi fuxină
bazică) pentru acrozom bont şi metoda Karras şi Kordel (galben metacromatic,
spălare în zeamă de coajă de stejar şi apoi colorare de contrast cu albastru de
Victoria) pentru segmentul ecuatorial şi evidenţierea spermatozoizilor perlaţi.
Cu actualele cunoştinţe înţelegem ca incapacitatea fecundantă a
spermatozoizilor bonţi se leagă de chistizarea acrozomului şi secreţia de acrosină
înainte ca aceştia să se fi ataşat, prin acţiunea proacrosinei la zona pellucida.
Reacţia zonei face ca spermatozoizii bonţi, care secretă acrosină, să fie
respinşi şi ca ei să nu mai poată fecunda. Spermatozoizii decapitaţi, cu capul
desprins de flagel, nu se mai pot roti normal în jurul axei lor longitudinale pentru
a avea mişcări de înaintare şi deci nu mai pot „sfredeli” zona pellucida pentru a

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Universitatea de Ştiinţe Agricole şi Medicină Veterinară Iaşi

pătrunde în spaţiul perivitelin pentru a ajunge la membrana vitelină.


Spermatozoizii perlaţi, probabil, prin şiragul de vezicule din zona ecuatorială, au
ajuns să secrete enzima care determină blocul vitelin şi care împiedică apariţia
poliploidiei la mamifere. Ei nu pot intra în reacţie cu membrana vitelină şi ca
atare nu pot fecunda. Este drept că literatura de specialitate semnalează existenţa
acestor cazuri de incapacitate fecundantă pentru produsul seminal de la unii tauri
şi unii vieri. Acestea sunt speciile genetice la care însămânţarea artificială este
practicată pe scară largă ceea ce a condus la condus la descoperirea unor masculi
infertili şi la investigaţii pentru cunoaşterea cauzelor care au generat infertilitatea
lor. Nu este exclus ca asemenea cazuri să existe şi la bivol. Din acest motiv
proiectul îşi propune să pună la punct un set complet de tehnici de colorare a
spermiilor care să permită examinarea atentă a celulelor în ansamblul lor şi în
detaliu a acrozomului şi a zonei ecuatoriale. Examenul morfologic al spermiilor
va fi unul din testele la care se vor supune masculii de bivol înainte de acceptarea
lor de a fi admişi candidaţi în lucrări de selecţie sau la însămânţări artificiale.
Această schemă de analiză a fost elaborată pentru a servi lucrărilor de
însămânţări artificiale la specii genetice la care această biotehnică este mai puţin
studiată dar are şanse de a fi aplicată pe scară mai largă.

BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. M. Cîrlan, Şt. Creangă (2001) « Evoluia Determinismului Genetic al sexelor » - Editura Sedeom
Libris - Iaşi
2. I. Dumitrescu (coordonator) (1978) « Însămânţările artificiale la animale »
Editura Ceres – Bucureşti
3 F. E. Eldrige (1985) « Cytogenetics of Livestock » - Avipublishing Company, inc.Westport,
Conecticut
4. E. S. E. Hafez (editor) (1962) “ Reproduction in Farm Animals” – Lea and Febiger - Philadelfia
5. D. L. Hartl, D. Fleifelder, L. A. Snyder (1988) “Basic Genetics” Jones and Bartlett Publishers –
Boston – Portola Valley
6. R. C. Manea (2005) “ Cercetări privind intergarea unor procedee biotehnice în organizarea
reproducţiei vacilor de lapte în zona de munte a judeţului Dâmboviţa” Teză de doctorat USAMV -
Bucureşti
7. Şt. Mantea (2000) “ Biotehnici şi Biotehnologii de Reproducţie la porcine » - Editura Biotera –
Bucureşti
8. V. Oţel, M. Paraschivescu, C. Mihăilescu (1967) « Fertilitatrea şi Infertilitatea la Animalele de
Fermă – Editura Agro – Silvică - Bucureşti
8. M. Paraschivescu (1969) “Reproducţia la Ovine” – Editura Agro – Silvică - Bucureşti
9. M. H. Pineda, M. P. Dooley (1980) McDonald’s VETRINARY ENDOCRINILOGY AND
REPRODUCTION – Iowa State Press
10. C. Thibault, Marie-Claire Levasseur (1991) “La Reproduction chez les mamiferes et l’hommme
– INRA – Ellipses
11. C. I. Velea, I. Bud, A. Tăpălagă (1983) “ Creşterea Bivolilor” – Editura Ceres – Bucureşti.

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Lucrări ştiinţifice - vol. 50 seria Zootehnie

BIODIVERSITY IN FARM ANIMALS: SOURCES, USING,


CONSERVATION
BIODIVERSITATEA ZOOTEHNICĂ: SURSE, UTILIZARE,
CONSERVARE

M. PARASCHIVESCU

Sources of farm animal biodiversity, how to use it in animal production


and how to save it for the future are discussed. Biodiversity of farm animals is of
a peculiar type being artificially created by humans through artificial selection
and artificial insulation of breeds and strains. Ancient breeds, which currently
are called local breeds, have been formed more or less from instinct.
Understanding of artificial selection became much later in the 19th century when
the first mouton breeds of sheep and beef breeds of cattle have been created.
Artificial insulation of reproduction in farm animal populations started with the
“stud book” of the English Thorough Blood Horse. There are now “stud books”
for horses and donkeys, “herd books” for cattle and pigs, “flock books” for
sheep and birds. Since within domestic genetic species of animals the natural
mechanisms, molecular and behavioral, of reproductive insulation don’t act,
there is a permanent danger loosing the reproductive insulation of breeds or
strains by “cross” reproduction. Genetic variability and biodiversity are
different things. In order to conserve biodiversity inside farm animal genetic
species closed reproduction of breeds and strains has to be respected.
Biodiversity of farm animal populations may be saved ‘in situ” conserving active
breeds and “ex situ” preserving anabiotic genetic material from in critical state
populations. Legal regulations, adequate institutions and a clever management
are the only ones guaranties for keeping on biodiversity in animal production.